Ray, J. R.
1982-01-01
Two theories of matter in general relativity, the fluid theory and the kinetic theory, were studied. Results include: (1) a discussion of various methods of completing the fluid equations; (2) a method of constructing charged general relativistic solutions in kinetic theory; and (3) a proof and discussion of the incompatibility of perfect fluid solutions in anisotropic cosmologies. Interpretations of NASA gravitational experiments using the above mentioned results were started. Two papers were prepared for publications based on this work.
Structure Formation with Generalized Dark Matter
Hu, W
1998-01-01
The next generation of cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments, galaxy surveys, and high-redshift observations can potentially determine the nature of the dark matter observationally. With this in mind, we introduce a phenomenological model for a generalized dark matter (GDM) component and discuss its effect on large-scale structure and CMB anisotropies. Specifying the gravitational influence of the otherwise non-interacting GDM requires not merely a model for its equation of state but one for its full stress tensor. From consideration of symmetries, conservation laws, and gauge invariance, we construct a simple but powerful 3 component parameterization of these stresses that exposes the new phenomena produced by GDM. Limiting cases include: a particle component (e.g. WIMPS, radiation or massive neutrinos), a cosmological constant, and a scalar field component. Intermediate cases illustrate how the clustering properties of the dark matter can be specified independently of its equation of state. This fre...
Structure Formation with Generalized Dark Matter
Hu, Wayne
1998-10-01
The next generation of cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments, galaxy surveys, and high-redshift observations can potentially determine the nature of the dark matter observationally. With this in mind, we introduce a phenomenological model for a generalized dark matter (GDM) component and discuss its effect on large-scale structure and CMB anisotropies. Specifying the gravitational influence of the otherwise noninteracting GDM requires not merely a model for its equation of state but one for its full stress tensor. From consideration of symmetries, conservation laws, and gauge invariance, we construct a simple but powerful three-component parameterization of these stresses that exposes the new phenomena produced by GDM. Limiting cases include: a particle component (e.g., weakly interacting massive particles, radiation, or massive neutrinos), a cosmological constant, and a scalar field component. Intermediate cases illustrate how the clustering properties of the dark matter can be specified independently of its equation of state. This freedom allows one to alter the amplitude and features in the matter-power spectrum relative to those of the CMB anisotropies while leaving the background cosmology fixed. Conversely, observational constraints on such phenomena can help determine the nature of the dark matter.
The action principle for generalized fluid motion including gyroviscosity
Lingam, M
2014-01-01
A general set of fluid equations that allow for energy-conserving momentum transport by gyroscopic motion of fluid elements is obtained. The equations are produced by a class of action principles that yield a large subset of the known fluid and magnetofluid models, including gyroviscosity. Analysis of the action principle yields broad, model-independent results regarding the conservation laws of energy and linear and angular momenta. The formalism is illustrated by studying fluid models with intrinsic angular momentum that may appear in the contexts of condensed matter, biological, and other areas of physics.
The action principle for generalized fluid motion including gyroviscosity
Lingam, M., E-mail: manasvi@physics.utexas.edu; Morrison, P.J., E-mail: morrison@physics.utexas.edu
2014-11-07
Highlights: • Method for constructing action principles for a diverse class of fluids with gyroscopic momentum transport is described. • General criteria for the conservation of momentum and angular momentum via Noether's theorem are obtained. • Fluids with intrinsic angular momentum are built as an illustration of the method. - Abstract: A general set of fluid equations that allow for energy-conserving momentum transport by gyroscopic motion of fluid elements is obtained. The equations are produced by a class of action principles that yield a large subset of the known fluid and magnetofluid models, including gyroviscosity. Analysis of the action principle yields broad, model-independent results regarding the conservation laws of energy and linear and angular momenta. The formalism is illustrated by studying fluid models with intrinsic angular momentum that may appear in the contexts of condensed matter, biological, and other areas of physics.
Generalized calculus with applications to matter and forces
Campos, L M B C
2014-01-01
Combining mathematical theory, physical principles, and engineering problems, Generalized Calculus with Applications to Matter and Forces examines generalized functions, including the Heaviside unit jump and the Dirac unit impulse and its derivatives of all orders, in one and several dimensions. The text introduces the two main approaches to generalized functions: (1) as a nonuniform limit of a family of ordinary functions, and (2) as a functional over a set of test functions from which properties are inherited. The second approach is developed more extensively to encompass multidimensional generalized functions whose arguments are ordinary functions of several variables. As part of a series of books for engineers and scientists exploring advanced mathematics, Generalized Calculus with Applications to Matter and Forces presents generalized functions from an applied point of view, tackling problem classes such as: •Gauss and Stokes’ theorems in the differential geometry, tensor calculus, and theory of ...
Generalized fluid theory including non-Maxwellian kinetic effects
Izacard, Olivier
2017-04-01
The results obtained by the plasma physics community for the validation and the prediction of turbulence and transport in magnetized plasmas come mainly from the use of very central processing unit (CPU)-consuming particle-in-cell or (gyro)kinetic codes which naturally include non-Maxwellian kinetic effects. To date, fluid codes are not considered to be relevant for the description of these kinetic effects. Here, after revisiting the limitations of the current fluid theory developed in the 19th century, we generalize the fluid theory including kinetic effects such as non-Maxwellian super-thermal tails with as few fluid equations as possible. The collisionless and collisional fluid closures from the nonlinear Landau Fokker-Planck collision operator are shown for an arbitrary collisionality. Indeed, the first fluid models associated with two examples of collisionless fluid closures are obtained by assuming an analytic non-Maxwellian distribution function (e.g. the INMDF (Izacard, O. 2016b Kinetic corrections from analytic non-Maxwellian distribution functions in magnetized plasmas. Phys. Plasmas 23, 082504) that stands for interpreted non-Maxwellian distribution function). One of the main differences with the literature is our analytic representation of the distribution function in the velocity phase space with as few hidden variables as possible thanks to the use of non-orthogonal basis sets. These new non-Maxwellian fluid equations could initiate the next generation of fluid codes including kinetic effects and can be expanded to other scientific disciplines such as astrophysics, condensed matter or hydrodynamics. As a validation test, we perform a numerical simulation based on a minimal reduced INMDF fluid model. The result of this test is the discovery of the origin of particle and heat diffusion. The diffusion is due to the competition between a growing INMDF on short time scales due to spatial gradients and the thermalization on longer time scales. The results
Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon
Z. Klimont
2017-07-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990–2010 global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10, as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC and organic carbon (OC. The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping, presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5° × 0.5° longitude–latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global
Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon
Klimont, Zbigniew; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Heyes, Chris; Purohit, Pallav; Cofala, Janusz; Rafaj, Peter; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Schöpp, Wolfgang
2017-07-01
This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990-2010) global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM) emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10), as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC). The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping), presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5° × 0.5° longitude-latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global anthropogenic total, and residential combustion
Generalized fluid theory including non-Maxwellian kinetic effects
Izacard, Olivier
2017-03-29
The results obtained by the plasma physics community for the validation and the prediction of turbulence and transport in magnetized plasmas come mainly from the use of very central processing unit (CPU)-consuming particle-in-cell or (gyro)kinetic codes which naturally include non-Maxwellian kinetic effects. To date, fluid codes are not considered to be relevant for the description of these kinetic effects. Here, after revisiting the limitations of the current fluid theory developed in the 19th century, we generalize the fluid theory including kinetic effects such as non-Maxwellian super-thermal tails with as few fluid equations as possible. The collisionless and collisional fluid closures from the nonlinear Landau Fokker–Planck collision operator are shown for an arbitrary collisionality. Indeed, the first fluid models associated with two examples of collisionless fluid closures are obtained by assuming an analytic non-Maxwellian distribution function (e.g. the INMDF (Izacard, O. 2016b Kinetic corrections from analytic non-Maxwellian distribution functions in magnetized plasmas.
Commutative deformations of general relativity: nonlocality, causality, and dark matter
de Vegvar, P G N
2016-01-01
Hopf algebra methods are applied to study Drinfeld twists of (3+1)-diffeomorphisms and deformed general relativity on \\emph{commutative} manifolds. A classical nonlocality length scale is produced above which standard light cone causality emerges. We introduce a sector of matter fields to generate selfconsistent Abelian Drinfeld twists in a background independent manner and study their discrete and gauge symmetries. They naturally give rise to dark matter candidates, possibly including ground state condensates. First order deformed Maxwell equations are derived and yield negligible cosmological dispersion and produce a propagation horizon only for photons approaching Planck energies. This model incorporates dark matter without any appeal to extra dimensions, supersymmetry, strings, branes, mirror worlds, or modifications of Newtonian dynamics.
General Information about Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)
... Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma ... the throat can make it hard to swallow. Multiple myeloma In multiple myeloma , abnormal plasma cells ( myeloma cells ) ...
Ionization of Atoms by Slow Heavy Particles, Including Dark Matter.
Roberts, B M; Flambaum, V V; Gribakin, G F
2016-01-15
Atoms and molecules can become ionized during the scattering of a slow, heavy particle off a bound electron. Such an interaction involving leptophilic weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) is a promising possible explanation for the anomalous 9σ annual modulation in the DAMA dark matter direct detection experiment [R. Bernabei et al., Eur. Phys. J. C 73, 2648 (2013)]. We demonstrate the applicability of the Born approximation for such an interaction by showing its equivalence to the semiclassical adiabatic treatment of atomic ionization by slow-moving WIMPs. Conventional wisdom has it that the ionization probability for such a process should be exponentially small. We show, however, that due to nonanalytic, cusplike behavior of Coulomb functions close to the nucleus this suppression is removed, leading to an effective atomic structure enhancement. We also show that electron relativistic effects actually give the dominant contribution to such a process, enhancing the differential cross section by up to 1000 times.
Search for BSM physics including dark matter at ATLAS
Ju, Xiangyang; The ATLAS collaboration
2016-01-01
The increased centre-of-mass energy of the proton-proton collisions of the LHC run 2 gives a unique opportunity to extend the sensitivity to the production of particles not foreseen by the Standard Model. This talk summarises recent ATLAS results on BSM searches. Although the focus is on searches for production of DM particles, results include searches for heavy resonances in many final states and for production of supersymmetric particles.
Generalized fluid theory including non-Maxwellian kinetic effects
Izacard, Olivier
2016-01-01
The results obtained by the plasma physics community for the validation and the prediction of turbulence and transport in magnetized plasma come mainly from the use of very CPU-consuming particle-in-cell or (gyro)kinetic codes which naturally include non-Maxwellian kinetic effects. To date, fluid codes are not considered to be relevant for the description of these kinetic effects. Here, after revisiting the limitations of the current fluid theory developed in the 19th century, we generalize t...
Generalized Gravitational Entropy from Various Matter Fields
Huang, Wung-Hong
2016-01-01
The generalized gravitational entropy proposed in recent by Lewkowycz and Maldacena [1] is extended to the systems of Boson fields, Fermion fields and Maxwell fields which have arbitrary frequency and mode numbers on the BTZ spacetime. We find the associated regular wave solution in each case and use it to calculate the exact gravitational entropy. The results show that there is a threshold frequency below which the Fermion fields could not contribute the generalized gravitational entropy. Al...
Including chemical-related impact categories in LCA on printed matter does it matter?
Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Morten Søes; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky
2004-01-01
on the report ¡§Life Cycle Assessment of generic printed matter from a fictitious sheet fed printing industry¡¨ [1] which is going to be published by the Danish EPA as part of the project ¡§Ecolabelling of printed matter¡¨. Goal and scope The goal of the study is to identify the distribution of potential......% and the importance of printing increased from 10% to 41%. „Ï On the basis of sensitivity analysis it is concluded that the results of this LCA study is valuable for ecolabelling of offset printed matter (especially sheet fed) at both a Nordic scale (Swan labelling) and a European scale (Flower labelling....... Part of the project ¡§Ecolabelling of printed matter¡¨ which is going to be published by the Danish EPA in summer 2004. [2] Wenzel,H., Hauschild, M., & Alting, L. (1997) Environmental Assessment of Products, Vol. 1. First edn. Chapman & Hall [3] Stranddorf, H.K., Hoffmann, L., Schmidt, A. (2004). LCA...
Prescribing behavior of general practitioners : Competition matters!
Schaumans, C.B.C.
Background General Practitioners (GP) have limited means to compete. As quality is hard to observe by patients, GPs have incentives to signal quality by using instruments patients perceive as quality. Objectives I investigate whether GPs prescribe more units when confronted with more competition. As
Matter Equation of State in General Relativity
Kim, Hyeong-Chan
2016-01-01
We study how a strong gravity affects the equation of state of matters. For this purpose, we employ a canonical ensemble of classical monoatomic ideal gas inside a box in a Rindler spacetime. The total energy decreases monotonically with the increase of the external gravity representing its attractiveness. It is however bounded below, which is different from that of the Newtonian gravity case. As for the entropy, it decreases with the external gravity in the Newtonian regime. However, in the presence of strong gravity or ultra-relativistic high temperature, the entropy increases with the gravity. This result can be a resolution of the negative entropy problem of the ideal gas in the Newtonian gravity. In the presence of strong gravity, the bottom of the box is very close to the event horizon of the Rindler spacetime mimiking a blackhole and the gas behaves as if it is on an effective two dimensional surface located at the bottom of the box. Investigating the equation of state in the strong gravity regime, the...
Including chemical-related impact categories in LCA on printed matter does it matter?
Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Morten Søes; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky
2004-01-01
on the report ¡§Life Cycle Assessment of generic printed matter from a fictitious sheet fed printing industry¡¨ [1] which is going to be published by the Danish EPA as part of the project ¡§Ecolabelling of printed matter¡¨. Goal and scope The goal of the study is to identify the distribution of potential...... al. 1997) are used in the reference scenario and European/global ones [3] are used for sensitivity analysis. The weighting factors for the impact categories are based on political reduction targets. Conlusion „Ï The distribution of potential environmental impacts along the life cycle of a generic......Introduction Existing product Life Cycle Assessments (LCA¡¦s) on offset printed matter all point at paper as the overall dominating contributor to the impacts from the life-cycle of this category of products. This dominating role of paper is primarily founded in the energy-related impact categories...
2011-06-21
... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Equipment for Communications Networks, Including Switches, Routers... United States after importation of certain equipment for communications networks, including switches... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain equipment for...
Generalized fluid theory including non-Maxwellian kinetic effects
Izacard, Olivier
2016-01-01
The results obtained by the plasma physics community for the validation and the prediction of turbulence and transport in magnetized plasma come mainly from the use of very CPU-consuming particle-in-cell or (gyro)kinetic codes which naturally include non-Maxwellian kinetic effects. To date, fluid codes are not considered to be relevant for the description of these kinetic effects. Here, after revisiting the limitations of the current fluid theory developed in the 19th century, we generalize the fluid theory including kinetic effects such as non-Maxwellian super-thermal tails with as few fluid equations as possible. The collisionless and collisional fluid closures from the nonlinear Landau Fokker-Planck collision operator are shown for an arbitrary collisionality. Indeed, the first fluid models associated with two examples of collisionless fluid closures are obtained by assuming an analytic non-Maxwellian distribution function (e.g., the INMDF [O. Izacard, Phys. Plasmas 23, 082504 (2016)]). One of the main dif...
2010-12-13
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration General Motors Company, Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation, Technical Center, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek, Bartech Group, CDI Professional Services, EDS/HP Enterprise Services, Engineering...
2011-01-26
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration General Motors Company Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation Technical Center Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek, Bartech Group, CDI Professional Services, EDS/HP Enterprise Services, Engineering Labs...
2010-01-05
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Authentication Systems, Including Software and Handheld Electronic Devices; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution...
Commutative deformations of general relativity: nonlocality, causality, and dark matter
De Vegvar, P.G.N. [SWK Research, Bellingham, WA (United States)
2017-01-15
Hopf algebra methods are applied to study Drinfeld twists of (3+1)-diffeomorphisms and deformed general relativity on commutative manifolds. A classical nonlocality length scale is produced above which microcausality emerges. Matter fields are utilized to generate self-consistent Abelian Drinfeld twists in a background independent manner and their continuous and discrete symmetries are examined. There is negligible experimental effect on the standard model of particles. While baryonic twist producing matter would begin to behave acausally for rest masses above ∝1-10 TeV, other possibilities are viable dark matter candidates or a right-handed neutrino. First order deformed Maxwell equations are derived and yield immeasurably small cosmological dispersion and produce a propagation horizon only for photons at or above Planck energies. This model incorporates dark matter without any appeal to extra dimensions, supersymmetry, strings, grand unified theories, mirror worlds, or modifications of Newtonian dynamics. (orig.)
Generalized Thermodynamics of Phase Equilibria in Scalar Active Matter
Solon, Alexandre P.; Stenhammar, Joakim; Cates, Michael E.; Kafri, Yariv; Tailleur, Julien
2016-01-01
Motility-induced phase separation (MIPS) arises generically in fluids of self-propelled particles when interactions lead to a kinetic slowdown at high density. Starting from a continuum description of diffusive scalar active matter, we give a general prescription for phase equilibria that amounts, at a hydrodynamics scale, to extremalizing a generalized free energy. We illustrate our approach on two well known models: self-propelled particles interacting either through a density-dependent pro...
Extensive investigation of the generalized dark matter model
Kopp, Michael; Skordis, Constantinos; Thomas, Dan B.
2016-08-01
The cold dark matter (CDM) model, wherein the dark matter is treated as a pressureless perfect fluid, provides a good fit to galactic and cosmological data. With the advent of precision cosmology, it should be asked whether this simplest model needs to be extended, and whether doing so could improve our understanding of the properties of dark matter. One established parametrization for generalizing the CDM fluid is the generalized dark matter (GDM) model, in which dark matter is an imperfect fluid with pressure and shear viscosity that fulfill certain postulated closure equations. We investigate these closure equations and the three new parametric functions they contain: the background equation of state w , the speed of sound cs2 and the viscosity cvis2. Taking these functions to be constant parameters, we analyze an exact solution of the perturbed Einstein equations in a flat GDM-dominated universe and discuss the main effects of the three parameters on the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Our analysis suggests that the CMB alone is not able to distinguish between the GDM sound speed and viscosity parameters, but that other observables, such as the matter power spectrum, are required to break this degeneracy. In order to elucidate further the meaning of the GDM closure equations, we also consider other descriptions of imperfect fluids that have a nonperturbative definition and relate these to the GDM model. In particular, we consider scalar fields, an effective field theory (EFT) of fluids, an EFT of large-scale structure, nonequilibrium thermodynamics and tightly coupled fluids. These descriptions could be used to extend the GDM model into the nonlinear regime of structure formation, which is necessary if the wealth of data available on those scales is to be employed in constraining the model. We also derive the initial conditions for adiabatic and isocurvature perturbations in the presence of GDM and standard cosmological fluids and provide the result in a
Generalized Curvature-Matter Couplings in Modified Gravity
Tiberiu Harko
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In this work, we review a plethora of modified theories of gravity with generalized curvature-matter couplings. The explicit nonminimal couplings, for instance, between an arbitrary function of the scalar curvature R and the Lagrangian density of matter, induces a non-vanishing covariant derivative of the energy-momentum tensor, implying non-geodesic motion and, consequently, leads to the appearance of an extra force. Applied to the cosmological context, these curvature-matter couplings lead to interesting phenomenology, where one can obtain a unified description of the cosmological epochs. We also consider the possibility that the behavior of the galactic flat rotation curves can be explained in the framework of the curvature-matter coupling models, where the extra terms in the gravitational field equations modify the equations of motion of test particles and induce a supplementary gravitational interaction. In addition to this, these models are extremely useful for describing dark energy-dark matter interactions and for explaining the late-time cosmic acceleration.
Relativistic thermodynamics, a Lagrangian field theory for general flows including rotation
Frønsdal, Christian
Any theory that is based on an action principle has a much greater predictive power than one that does not have such a formulation. The formulation of a dynamical theory of General Relativity, including matter, is here viewed as a problem of coupling Einstein’s theory of pure gravity to an independently chosen and well-defined field theory of matter. It is well known that this is accomplished in a most natural way when both theories are formulated as relativistic, Lagrangian field theories, as is the case with Einstein-Maxwell theory. Special matter models of this type have been available; here a more general thermodynamical model that allows for vortex flows is presented. In a wider context, the problem of subjecting hydrodynamics and thermodynamics to an action principle is one that has been pursued for at least 150 years. A solution to this problem has been known for some time, but only under the strong restriction to potential flows. A variational principle for general flows has become available. It represents a development of the Navier-Stokes-Fourier approach to fluid dynamics. The principal innovation is the recognition that two kinds of flow velocity fields are needed, one the gradient of a scalar field and the other the time derivative of a vector field, the latter closely associated with vorticity. In the relativistic theory that is presented here, the latter is the Hodge dual of an exact 3-form, well known as the notoph field of Ogievetskij and Palubarinov, the B-field of Kalb and Ramond and the vorticity field of Lund and Regge. The total number of degrees of freedom of a unary system, including the density and the two velocity fields is 4, as expected — as in classical hydrodynamics. In this paper, we do not reduce Einstein’s dynamical equation for the metric to phenomenology, which would have denied the relevance of any intrinsic dynamics for the matter sector, nor do we abandon the equation of continuity - the very soul of hydrodynamics.
Towards a general framework for including noise impacts in LCA.
Cucurachi, Stefano; Heijungs, Reinout; Ohlau, Katrin
Several damages have been associated with the exposure of human beings to noise. These include auditory effects, i.e., hearing impairment, but also non-auditory physiological ones such as hypertension and ischemic heart disease, or psychological ones such as annoyance, depression, sleep disturbance, limited performance of cognitive tasks or inadequate cognitive development. Noise can also interfere with intended activities, both in daytime and nighttime. ISO 14'040 also indicated the necessity of introducing noise, together with other less developed impact categories, in a complete LCA study, possibly changing the results of many LCA studies already available. The attempts available in the literature focused on the integration of transportation noise in LCA. Although being considered the most frequent source of intrusive impact, transportation noise is not the only type of noise that can have a malign impact on public health. Several other sources of noise such as industrial or occupational need to be taken into account to have a complete consideration of noise into LCA. Major life cycle inventories (LCI) typically do not contain data on noise emissions yet and characterisation factors are not yet clearly defined. The aim of the present paper is to briefly review what is already available in the field and propose a new framework for the consideration of human health impacts of any type of noise that could be of interest in the LCA practice, providing indications for the introduction of noise in LCI and analysing what data is already available and, in the form of a research agenda, what other resources would be needed to reach a complete coverage of the problem. The literature production related to the impacts of noise on human health has been analysed, with considerations of impacts caused by transportation noise as well as occupational and industrial noise. The analysis of the specialist medical literature allowed for a better understanding of how to deal with the
A mass-dependent density profile for dark matter haloes including the influence of galaxy formation
Di Cintio, Arianna; Dutton, Aaron A; Macciò, Andrea V; Stinson, Greg S; Knebe, Alexander
2014-01-01
We introduce a mass dependent density profile to describe the distribution of dark matter within galaxies, which takes into account the stellar-to-halo mass dependence of the response of dark matter to baryonic processes. The study is based on the analysis of hydrodynamically simulated galaxies from dwarf to Milky Way mass, drawn from the MaGICC project, which have been shown to match a wide range of disk scaling relationships. We find that the best fit parameters of a generic double power-law density profile vary in a systematic manner that depends on the stellar-to-halo mass ratio of each galaxy. Thus, the quantity Mstar/Mhalo constrains the inner ($\\gamma$) and outer ($\\beta$) slopes of dark matter density, and the sharpness of transition between the slopes($\\alpha$), reducing the number of free parameters of the model to two. Due to the tight relation between stellar mass and halo mass, either of these quantities is sufficient to describe the dark matter halo profile including the effects of baryons. The ...
Nucleon-nucleon effective potential in dense matter including rho-meson exchange
Mornas, L; Pérez, A
2002-01-01
We obtain the RPA summed one-meson exchange potential between nucleons in symmetric nuclear matter at zero temperature, from a model which includes rho, sigma, omega and pi mesons. The behavior of rho mesons inside the medium is first discussed using different schemes to extract a finite contribution from the vacuum polarization. These schemes give qualitatively different results for the in-medium rho mass. The results are discussed in connection with the nonrenormalizability of the model. We next study the modified potential as density increases. In the intermediate-distance range, it is qualitatively modified by matter and vacuum effects. In the long-distance range (r>2 fm), one observes the presence of oscillations, which are not present in free space. Features on this distance range are insensitive to the renormalization scheme.
Indirect detection of gravitino dark matter including its three-body decays
Choi, Ki-Young; Yaguna, Carlos E; Zapata, Oscar
2010-01-01
It was recently pointed out that in supersymmetric scenarios with gravitino dark matter and bilinear R-parity violation, gravitinos with masses below Mw typically decay with a sizable branching ratio into the 3-body final states W^*+lepton and Z^*+neutrino. In this paper we study the indirect detection signatures of gravitino dark matter including such final states. First, we obtain the gamma ray spectrum from gravitino decays, which features a monochromatic contribution from the decay into photon+neutrino and a continuum contribution from the three-body decays. After studying its dependence on supersymmetric parameters, we compute the expected gamma ray fluxes and derive new constraints, from recent FERMI data, on the R-parity breaking parameter and on the gravitino lifetime. Indirect detection via antimatter searches, a new possibility brought about by the three-body final states, is also analyzed. For models compatible with the gamma ray observations, the positron signal is found to be negligible whereas t...
2010-09-13
... Employment and Training Administration General Motors Corporation, Renaissance Center, Including On-Site... of General Motors Corporation, Renaissance Center, including on-site leased workers from Accretive... location of General Motors Corporation, Renaissance Center. The Department has determined that on-site...
Pairing in high-density neutron matter including short- and long-range correlations
Ding, D; Dickhoff, W H; Dussan, H; Polls, A; Witte, S J
2015-01-01
The influence of short-range correlations (SRC) on the spectral distribution of neutrons is incorporated in the solution of the gap equation for the ${}^3P_2-{}^3F_2$ coupled channel in pure neutron matter at high density. This effect is studied for three different realistic interactions. The gap in this channel is strongly suppressed by these correlations but does not vanish. For a consistent treatment we also include for the first time the effect of long-range correlations (LRC) by incorporating polarization terms in addition to the bare interaction. This allows the neutrons to exchange density and spin fluctuations governed by the strength of Landau parameters with values that are consistent with the available literature. While these LRC have an antiscreening tendency, they only slightly increase the gap in the ${}^3P_2-{}^3F_2$ coupled channel for all three realistic interactions as long as SRC are included. All three interactions generate maximum gaps around 0.1 to 0.2 MeV at most with a small dependence...
General calculation of the cross section for dark matter annihilations into two photons
Garcia-Cely, Camilo
2016-01-01
Assuming that the underlying model satisfies some general requirements such as renormalizability and CP conservation, we calculate the non-relativistic one-loop cross section for any self-conjugate dark matter particle annihilating into two photons. We accomplish this by carefully classifying all possible one-loop diagrams and, from them, reading off the dark matter interactions with the particles running in the loop. Our approach is general and leads to the same results found in the literature for popular dark matter candidates such as the neutralinos of the MSSM, minimal dark matter, inert Higgs and Kaluza-Klein dark matter.
Generalized Geology of Europe including Turkey (geo4_2l)
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels that describe the generalized geologic age of surface outcrops of bedrock of Europe including Turkey...
Conformal Gravity with the most general ELKO Matter
Fabbri, Luca
2011-01-01
Recently we have constructed the conformal gravity with metric and torsion, finding the gravitational field equations that give the conservation laws and trace condition; in the present paper we apply this theory to the case of ELKO matter field, proving that their spin and energy densities once the matter field equations are considered imply the validity of the conservation laws and trace condition mentioned above.
Carme García
2010-01-01
Full Text Available En aquest article es discuteixen les aportacions que es fan des del projecte INCLUD-ED: Strategies for inclusion and social cohesion from education in Europe sobre la relació que es pot establir entre l’exclusió/inclusió educativa i l’exclusió/inclusió en quatre àrees de la societat: ocupació, habitatge, salut i participació social i política. En particular, es reflexiona sobre els efectes que té tant l’exclusió, com formes de superar-la i promoure la inclusió, en les situacions que han d’afrontar les persones que pertanyen a algun dels cinc grups vulnerables que es defineixen en el projecte INCLUD-ED. Es presenta una visió general de l’estat de la qüestió sobre les investigacions i anàlisis de les àrees d’exclusió. Conclou amb unes breus reflexions sobre com superar les situacions d’exclusió i quines alternatives d’actuació s’obren des de l’àmbit educatiu. ____________________________________________ Dans cet article, nous discutons les contributions que fait le projet INCLUD-ED sur la relation que l’on peut établir entre l’exclusion/inclusion éducative et l’exclusion/inclusion dans quatre domaines de la société : emploi, logement, santé et participation sociale et politique. En particulier, nous réfléchissons sur les effets de l’exclusion ainsi que sur les manières de la dépasser et de promouvoir l’inclusion dans les situations que doivent affronter les individus appartenant à l’un des cinq groupes vulnérables qui sont définis dans le projet INCLUD-ED. Nous présentons une vision générale de l’état de la question sur les recherches et les analyses des domaines d’exclusion. L'article conclut avec de brèves réflexions sur la manière de dépasser les situations d’exclusion et sur les alternatives d’intervention qui s’ouvrent dans le domaine éducatif.In this paper, we discuss the contributions of the INCLUD-ED project to the relationship that can be established
2011-03-11
... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Display Devices, Including Digital Televisions and Monitors II; Notice of... United States after importation of certain display devices, including digital televisions and monitors by... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain display devices, including...
Sierra, C. A.; Mueller, M.
2013-12-01
Recent work have highlighted the importance of nonlinear interactions in representing the decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM). It is unclear however how to integrate these concepts into larger biogeochemical models or into a more general mathematical description of the decomposition process. Here we present a mathematical framework that generalizes both previous decomposition models and recent ideas about nonlinear microbial interactions. The framework is based on a set of four basic principles: 1) mass balance, 2) heterogeneity in the decomposability of SOM, 3) transformations in the decomposability of SOM over time, 4) energy limitation of decomposers. This framework generalizes a large majority of SOM decomposition models proposed to date. We illustrate the application of this framework to the development of a continuous model that includes the ideas in the Dual Arrhenius Michaelis-Menten Model (DAMM) for explicitly representing temperature-moisture limitations of enzyme activity in the decomposition of heterogenous substrates.
Cappellari, Michele
2015-01-01
Cappellari (2008) presented a flexible and efficient method to model the stellar kinematics of anisotropic axisymmetric and spherical stellar systems. The spherical formalism could be used to model the line-of-sight velocity second moments allowing for essentially arbitrary radial variation in the anisotropy and general luminous and total density profiles. Here we generalize the spherical formalism by providing the expressions for all three components of the projected second moments, including the two proper motion components. A reference implementation is now included in the public JAM package available at http://purl.org/cappellari/software
Chirality as an inherent general property of matter.
Davankov, Vadim
2006-08-01
A statement has been formulated that chirality is an indispensable inherent property of all material objects, at one level of organization of matter or another. The translation of chirality from one level of material objects to another deserves our attention. The parity violation of weak interactions can be discussed in terms of the homochirality of the pool of fundamental particles, as it translates into optical activity of metal vapors. Individual photons and energy quanta are considered to be chiral entities, too, since they can be separated into beams of circularly polarized radiation. The chiral structure of the universe has been proposed and a method of determining the orientation of the axis of rotation of the universe suggested.
On Wave Dark Matter, Shells in Elliptical Galaxies, and the Axioms of General Relativity
Bray, Hubert L
2012-01-01
This paper is a sequel to the author's paper entitled "On Dark Matter, Spiral Galaxies, and the Axioms of General Relativity" [arXiv:1004.4016] which explored a geometrically natural axiomatic definition for dark matter modeled by a scalar field satisfying the Einstein-Klein-Gordon wave equations which, after much calculation, was shown to be consistent with the observed spiral and barred spiral patterns in disk galaxies. We give an update on where things stand on this "wave dark matter" model of dark matter (aka scalar field dark matter and boson stars), an interesting alternative to the WIMP model of dark matter, and discuss how it has the potential to help explain the long-observed interleaved shell patterns, also known as ripples, in the images of elliptical galaxies.
2012-10-01
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration General Motors Vehicle Manufacturing Including On-Site Leased Workers from Aerotek, Kelly Services, Voith Industrial Services, Shreveport Ramp Services, Dana Holding Corporation, The Landing of GM, Filtration Services...
2012-10-15
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration General Motors Vehicle Manufacturing Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek, Kelly Services, Voith Industrial Services, Shreveport Ramp Services, Dana Holding Corporation, the Landing Of GM, Filtration Services...
A Kantorovich-Stancu Type Generalization of Szasz Operators including Brenke Type Polynomials
Rabia Aktaş
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce a Kantorovich-Stancu type modification of a generalization of Szasz operators defined by means of the Brenke type polynomials and obtain approximation properties of these operators. Also, we give a Voronovskaya type theorem for Kantorovich-Stancu type operators including Gould-Hopper polynomials.
White matter hyperintensities and imaging patterns of brain ageing in the general population.
Habes, Mohamad; Erus, Guray; Toledo, Jon B; Zhang, Tianhao; Bryan, Nick; Launer, Lenore J; Rosseel, Yves; Janowitz, Deborah; Doshi, Jimit; Van der Auwera, Sandra; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Hosten, Norbert; Homuth, Georg; Völzke, Henry; Schminke, Ulf; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Grabe, Hans J; Davatzikos, Christos
2016-04-01
White matter hyperintensities are associated with increased risk of dementia and cognitive decline. The current study investigates the relationship between white matter hyperintensities burden and patterns of brain atrophy associated with brain ageing and Alzheimer's disease in a large populatison-based sample (n = 2367) encompassing a wide age range (20-90 years), from the Study of Health in Pomerania. We quantified white matter hyperintensities using automated segmentation and summarized atrophy patterns using machine learning methods resulting in two indices: the SPARE-BA index (capturing age-related brain atrophy), and the SPARE-AD index (previously developed to capture patterns of atrophy found in patients with Alzheimer's disease). A characteristic pattern of age-related accumulation of white matter hyperintensities in both periventricular and deep white matter areas was found. Individuals with high white matter hyperintensities burden showed significantly (P brain regions typically affected by ageing and Alzheimer's disease dementia. To investigate a possibly causal role of white matter hyperintensities, structural equation modelling was used to quantify the effect of Framingham cardiovascular disease risk score and white matter hyperintensities burden on SPARE-BA, revealing a statistically significant (P brain atrophy found in beyond-normal brain ageing in the general population. White matter hyperintensities also contribute to brain atrophy patterns in regions related to Alzheimer's disease dementia, in agreement with their known additive role to the likelihood of dementia. Preventive strategies reducing the odds to develop cardiovascular disease and white matter hyperintensities could decrease the incidence or delay the onset of dementia.
Dark matter, a new proof of the predictive power of general relativity
Corre, Stéphane Le
2015-01-01
Without observational or theoretical modifications, Newtonian and general relativity seem to be unable to explain gravitational behavior of large structure of the universe. The assumption of dark matter solves this problem without modifying theories. But it implies that most of the matter in the universe must be unobserved matter. Another solution is to modify gravitation laws. In this article, we study a third way that does not modify gravitation of general relativity and not modify the matter's distribution, by using gravitomagnetism in a new physical context. Compare with Newtonian gravitation, it leads to add a new component without changing the gravity field. As already known, we retrieve that this new component is generally small enough to be undetectable. But we will see that the galaxies clusters can generate a significant component and embed large structure of universe. We show that the magnitude of this embedding component is once again small enough to be in agreement with current experimental resul...
On the unitarity of linearized General Relativity coupled to matter
Atkins, Michael
2010-01-01
We consider the unitarity of the S-matrix for linearized General Relativity coupled to particle physics models. Taking renormalization group effects of the Planck mass into account, we find that the scale at which unitarity is violated is strongly dependent on the particle content of the theory. We find that the requirement that the S-matrix be unitary up to the scale at which quantum gravitational effects become strong implies a bound on the particle content of the model.
Rajchakit, G; Saravanakumar, R; Ahn, Choon Ki; Karimi, Hamid Reza
2017-02-01
This article examines the exponential stability analysis problem of generalized neural networks (GNNs) including interval time-varying delayed states. A new improved exponential stability criterion is presented by establishing a proper Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) and employing new analysis theory. The improved reciprocally convex combination (RCC) and weighted integral inequality (WII) techniques are utilized to obtain new sufficient conditions to ascertain the exponential stability result of such delayed GNNs. The superiority of the obtained results is clearly demonstrated by numerical examples.
无
2006-01-01
The polarizations of dielectronic recombination satellite lines for hydrogenlike F to U ions are calculated including the generalized Breit interaction(GBI). The calculated values of the asymmetry parameter are compared with other theoretical results and good agreements are obtained for all lines except for those from the level 2s2p3P1. The GBI effects on the polarization become much stronger as the atomic number increases. However, for different lines, the GBI effects on the polarization are different.
Hincapié, Doracelly; Ospina, Juan
2014-06-01
Recently, a mathematical model of pandemic influenza was proposed including typical control strategies such as antivirals, vaccination and school closure; and considering explicitly the effects of immunity acquired from the early outbreaks on the ulterior outbreaks of the disease. In such model the algebraic expression for the basic reproduction number (without control strategies) and the effective reproduction number (with control strategies) were derived and numerically estimated. A drawback of this model of pandemic influenza is that it ignores the effects of the differential susceptibility due to immunosuppression and the effects of the complexity of the actual contact networks between individuals. We have developed a generalized model which includes such effects of heterogeneity. Specifically we consider the influence of the air network connectivity in the spread of pandemic influenza and the influence of the immunosuppresion when the population is divided in two immune classes. We use an algebraic expression, namely the Tutte polynomial, to characterize the complexity of the contact network. Until now, The influence of the air network connectivity in the spread of pandemic influenza has been studied numerically, but not algebraic expressions have been used to summarize the level of network complexity. The generalized model proposed here includes the typical control strategies previously mentioned (antivirals, vaccination and school closure) combined with restrictions on travel. For the generalized model the corresponding reproduction numbers will be algebraically computed and the effect of the contact network will be established in terms of the Tutte polynomial of the network.
Ion binding to natural organic matter : General considerations and the NICA-Donnan model
Koopal, L.K.; Saito, T.; Pinheiro, J.P.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.
2005-01-01
The general principles of cation binding to humic matter and the various aspects of modeling used in general-purpose speciation programs are discussed. The discussion will focus on (1) the discrimination between chemical and electrostatic interactions, (2) the binding site heterogeneity, (3) the mod
Lockhart, Samuel N.; Roach, Alexandra E.; Luck, Steven J.; Geng, Joy; Beckett, Laurel; Carmichael, Owen; DeCarli, Charles
2014-01-01
A fundamental controversy is whether cognitive decline with advancing age can be entirely explained by decreased processing speed, or whether specific neural changes can elicit cognitive decline, independent of slowing. These hypotheses are anchored by studies of healthy older individuals where age is presumed the sole influence. Unfortunately, advancing age is also associated with asymptomatic brain white matter injury. We hypothesized that differences in white matter injury extent, manifest by MRI white matter hyperintensities (WMH), mediate differences in visual attentional control in healthy aging, beyond processing speed differences. We tested young and cognitively healthy older adults on search tasks indexing speed and attentional control. Increasing age was associated with generally slowed performance. WMH was also associated with slowed search times independent of processing speed differences. Consistent with evidence attributing reduced network connectivity to WMH, these results conclusively demonstrate that clinically silent white matter injury contributes to slower search performance indicative of compromised cognitive control, independent of generalized slowing of processing speed. PMID:24183716
Huang, Y C; Zhang, N
2004-01-01
Classical statistical average values are generally generalized to average values of quantum mechanics, it is discovered that quantum mechanics is direct generalization of classical statistical mechanics, and we generally deduce both a general new continuous eigenvalue equation and a general discrete eigenvalue equation in quantum mechanics, and discover that a eigenvalue of quantum mechanics is just an extreme value of an operator in possibility distribution, the eigenvalue f is just classical observable quantity. A general classical statistical uncertain relation is further given, the general classical statistical uncertain relation is generally generalized to quantum uncertainty principle, the two lost conditions in classical uncertain relation and quantum uncertainty principle, respectively, are found. We generally expound the relations among uncertainty principle, singularity and condensed matter stability, discover that quantum uncertainty principle prevents from the appearance of singularity of the elec...
2010-03-08
... investigation named various respondents, including Nokia Corporation of Espoo, Finland and Nokia Inc. of Irving, Texas (collectively ``Nokia''); High Tech Computer Corp. of Taoyuan, Taiwan and HTC America, Inc. of..., 2009, the Commission determined not to review an ID granting a joint motion filed by Saxon and Nokia...
Alloza, Clara; Cox, Simon R; Duff, Barbara; Semple, Scott I; Bastin, Mark E; Whalley, Heather C; Lawrie, Stephen M
2016-08-30
Several authors have proposed that schizophrenia is the result of impaired connectivity between specific brain regions rather than differences in local brain activity. White matter abnormalities have been suggested as the anatomical substrate for this dysconnectivity hypothesis. Information processing speed may act as a key cognitive resource facilitating higher order cognition by allowing multiple cognitive processes to be simultaneously available. However, there is a lack of established associations between these variables in schizophrenia. We hypothesised that the relationship between white matter and general intelligence would be mediated by processing speed. White matter water diffusion parameters were studied using Tract-based Spatial Statistics and computed within 46 regions-of-interest (ROI). Principal component analysis was conducted on these white matter ROI for fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity, and on neurocognitive subtests to extract general factors of white mater structure (gFA, gMD), general intelligence (g) and processing speed (gspeed). There was a positive correlation between g and gFA (r= 0.67, p =0.001) that was partially and significantly mediated by gspeed (56.22% CI: 0.10-0.62). These findings suggest a plausible model of structure-function relations in schizophrenia, whereby white matter structure may provide a neuroanatomical substrate for general intelligence, which is partly supported by speed of information processing.
Quantum corrections to the generalized Proca theory via a matter field
Amado, André; Haghani, Zahra; Mohammadi, Azadeh; Shahidi, Shahab
2017-09-01
We study the quantum corrections to the generalized Proca theory via matter loops. We consider two types of interactions, linear and nonlinear in the vector field. Calculating the one-loop correction to the vector field propagator, three- and four-point functions, we show that the non-linear interactions are harmless, although they renormalize the theory. The linear matter-vector field interactions introduce ghost degrees of freedom to the generalized Proca theory. Treating the theory as an effective theory, we calculate the energy scale up to which the theory remains healthy.
Mughini-Gras, Lapo; van Pelt, Wilfrid
2014-11-17
Source attribution based on microbial subtyping is being performed in many countries to ascertain the main reservoirs of human salmonellosis and to assess the impact of food safety interventions. To account for differences in exposure, the amount of food available for consumption within a country is often included in Salmonella source attribution models along with the level of contamination. However, not all foods have an equal probability of serving as vehicles for salmonellas, as some foods are more likely to be consumed raw/undercooked than others, posing a relatively higher risk. Using Salmonella data from the Netherlands in 2001-2004, this study aims at elucidating whether and how the incorporation of food consumption data in two source attribution models - the (modified) Dutch and Hald models - affects their attributions. We also propose the incorporation of an additional parameter to weight the amount of food consumed by its likelihood to be consumed raw/undercooked by the population. Incorporating the amount of food consumed caused a drastic change in the ranking of the top reservoirs in the Dutch model, but not in the Hald model, which proved to be insensitive to additional weightings given that its source-dependent factor can account for both food consumption and the ability for foods to serve as vehicles for salmonellas. Compared to attributions without food consumption, the Dutch model including the amount of food consumed showed an increase in the percentage of cases attributable to pigs and a decrease in that of layers/eggs, which became the second reservoir, after pigs. This was not consistent with established knowledge indicating that layers/eggs, rather than pigs, were the main reservoir of human salmonellosis in that period. By incorporating the additional weight reflecting the likelihood for different foods to be consumed raw/undercooked, the attributions of the Dutch model were effectively adjusted, both in terms of ranking and percent
Negoita, V.; Gheorghe, A.
1995-08-01
The customary technique used to know the organic matter quantity per rock volume it as well as the organic matter maturation stage is based on geochemical analyses accomplished on a preselected number of samples and cuttings drawn from boreholes during the drilling period. But the same objectives can be approached without any extra cost using the continuous measurements of well logs recorded in each well from the ground surface to the total depth. During the diagenetic stage, the identification of potential source rocks out of which no hydrocarbon have been generated may be carried out using a well logging suite including Gamma Ray Spectrometry, the Compensated Neutron/Litho Density combination and a Dual Induction/Sonic Log. During the catagenetic stage the onset of oil generation brings some important changes in the organic matter structure as well as in the fluid distribution throughout the pore space of source rocks. The replacement of electric conductive water by electric non-conductive hydrocarbons, together with water and oil being expelled from source rocks represent a process of different intensities dependent of time/temperature geohistory and kerogen type. The different generation and expulsion scenarios of hydrocarbons taking place during the catagenetic and metagenetic stages of source rocks are very well revealed by Induction and Laterolog investigations. Several crossplots relating vitrinite reflectance, total organic carbon and log-derived physical parameters are illustrated and discussed. The field applications are coming from Murzuk Basin, where Rompetrol of Libya is operating.
José Marcelo Soriano Viana
2003-12-01
Full Text Available Estimation of general and specific combining ability effects in a diallel analysis of cross-pollinating populations, including the selfed parents, is presented in this work. The restrictions considered satisfy the parametric values of the GCA and SCA effects. The method is extended to self-pollinating populations (suitable for other species, without the selfed parents. The analysis of changes in population means due to inbreeding (sensitivity to inbreeding also permits to assess the predominant direction of dominance deviations and the relative genetic variability in each parent population. The methodology was used to select popcorn populations for intra- and inter-population breeding programs and for hybrid production, developed at the Federal University of Viçosa, MG, Brazil. Two yellow pearl grain popcorn populations were selected.
Liao, Mei; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Yan; He, Zhong; Song, Ming; Jiang, Tianzi; Li, Zexuan; Lu, Shaojia; Wu, Weiwei; Su, Linyan; Li, Lingjiang
2013-01-01
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common anxiety disorder that usually begins in adolescence. Childhood maltreatment is highly prevalent and increases the possibility for developing a variety of mental disorders including anxiety disorders. An earlier age at onset of GAD is significantly related to maltreatment in childhood. Exploring the underpinnings of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adolescent onset GAD would be helpful in identifying the potential risk markers of this condition. Twenty-six adolescents with GAD and 25 healthy controls participated in this study. A childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) was introduced to assess childhood maltreatment. All subjects underwent high-resolution structural magnetic resonance scans. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate gray matter alterations. Significantly larger gray matter volumes of the right putamen were observed in GAD patients compared to healthy controls. In addition, a significant diagnosis-by-maltreatment interaction effect for the left thalamic gray matter volume was revealed, as shown by larger volumes of the left thalamic gray matter in GAD patients with childhood maltreatment compared with GAD patients without childhood maltreatment as well as with healthy controls with/without childhood maltreatment. A significant positive association between childhood maltreatment and left thalamic gray matter volume was only seen in GAD patients. These findings revealed an increased volume in the subcortical regions in adolescent GAD, and the alterations in the left thalamus might be involved in the association between childhood maltreatment and the occurrence of GAD.
A discussion on the most general torsion-gravity with electrodynamics for Dirac spinor matter fields
Fabbri, Luca
2014-01-01
We consider the most general torsional completion of gravity and electrodynamics with Dirac spinorial matter fields, showing that continuity and consistency constrain torsion to be completely antisymmetric and the model to be parity-invariant and described by either the least-order derivative model or the renormalizable model.
Diffuse Cerebral White Matter T2-Weighted Hyperintensity: A New Finding of General Paresis
Alam, F.; Yasutomi, H.; Fukuda, H.; Horiguchi, J.; Murakami, Y.; Ohshita, T.; Inoue, K.; Ito, K. [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Depts. of Radiology, and Clinical Neurosciences and Therapeutics
2006-07-15
General paresis (parenchymatous neurosyphilis) is a rare disease, and in recent years the number of papers published on the magnetic resonance imaging findings has been limited. The findings are as follows: cerebral atrophy; mesiotemporal T2 hyperintensity; ventriculomegaly; pathological T2 hypointensity of the globus pallidus, putamen, the head of the caudate nucleus and thalamus. We present a new finding, diffuse cerebral white matter T2 hyperintensity, observed in a patient with general paresis with a 5-year history of progressive dementia.
A generalized model for optimal transport of images including dissipation and density modulation
Maas, Jan
2015-11-01
© EDP Sciences, SMAI 2015. In this paper the optimal transport and the metamorphosis perspectives are combined. For a pair of given input images geodesic paths in the space of images are defined as minimizers of a resulting path energy. To this end, the underlying Riemannian metric measures the rate of transport cost and the rate of viscous dissipation. Furthermore, the model is capable to deal with strongly varying image contrast and explicitly allows for sources and sinks in the transport equations which are incorporated in the metric related to the metamorphosis approach by Trouvé and Younes. In the non-viscous case with source term existence of geodesic paths is proven in the space of measures. The proposed model is explored on the range from merely optimal transport to strongly dissipative dynamics. For this model a robust and effective variational time discretization of geodesic paths is proposed. This requires to minimize a discrete path energy consisting of a sum of consecutive image matching functionals. These functionals are defined on corresponding pairs of intensity functions and on associated pairwise matching deformations. Existence of time discrete geodesics is demonstrated. Furthermore, a finite element implementation is proposed and applied to instructive test cases and to real images. In the non-viscous case this is compared to the algorithm proposed by Benamou and Brenier including a discretization of the source term. Finally, the model is generalized to define discrete weighted barycentres with applications to textures and objects.
Generalized Virial Theorem for Mixed State When Hamiltonians Include Coordinate-Momentum Couplings
YUAN Hao; WANG Min; HE Qin; HU Xiao-Yuan; HOU Kui; HAN Lian-Fang; SHI Shou-Hua
2008-01-01
The generalized Virial theorem for mixed state, derived from the generalized Hellmann-Feynman theorem, only applies to Hamiltonians in which potential of coordinates is separate from momentum energy term. In this paper we discuss Virial theorem for mixed state for some Hamiltonians with coordinate-momentum couplings in order to know their contributions to internal energy.
Including a Programming Course in General Education: Are We Doing Enough?
Ferguson, Roger C.; Leidig, Paul M.; Reynolds, John H.
2015-01-01
General education is more than a list of required courses a student must take to complete their degree. For most universities, general education is the groundwork for the student's university experience. These courses span multiple disciplines and allow students to experience a wide range of topics on their path to graduation. Programming classes,…
Mohammad, S. Noor
2010-09-01
Semiconductor nanotubes, including carbon nanotubes, have vast potential for new technology development. The fundamental physics and growth kinetics of these nanotubes are still obscured. Various models developed to elucidate the growth suffer from limited applicability. An in-depth investigation of the fundamentals of nanotube growth has, therefore, been carried out. For this investigation, various features of nanotube growth, and the role of the foreign element catalytic agent (FECA) in this growth, have been considered. Observed growth anomalies have been analyzed. Based on this analysis, a new shell model and a general hypothesis have been proposed for the growth. The essential element of the shell model is the seed generated from segregation during growth. The seed structure has been defined, and the formation of droplet from this seed has been described. A modified definition of the droplet exhibiting adhesive properties has also been presented. Various characteristics of the droplet, required for alignment and organization of atoms into tubular forms, have been discussed. Employing the shell model, plausible scenarios for the formation of carbon nanotubes, and the variation in the characteristics of these carbon nanotubes have been articulated. The experimental evidences, for example, for the formation of shell around a core, dipole characteristics of the seed, and the existence of nanopores in the seed, have been presented. They appear to justify the validity of the proposed model. The diversities of nanotube characteristics, fundamentals underlying the creation of bamboo-shaped carbon nanotubes, and the impurity generation on the surface of carbon nanotubes have been elucidated. The catalytic action of FECA on growth has been quantified. The applicability of the proposed model to the nanotube growth by a variety of mechanisms has been elaborated. These mechanisms include the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism, the oxide-assisted growth mechanism, the self
Deflected anomaly mediated SUSY breaking scenario with general messenger–matter interactions
Fei Wang
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We propose to introduce general messenger–matter interactions in the deflected anomaly mediated SUSY breaking scenario. The most general form for the resulting soft parameters is derived. New interference terms between the GMSB type and AMSB type contributions are the unique feature of this scenario. Messenger–matter interactions involving sleptons can be used to solve the tachyonic slepton problem and naturally lead to positive slepton masses regardless of the sign of deflection parameter. Besides, due to the new contributions, large |At| that will not trigger color-breaking stop VEV are also possible in this scenario, thus can easily give the 125 GeV higgs which was discovered by LHC. This type of deflected AMSB scenario need very few messenger species, thus can avoid possible non-perturbative gauge couplings below the GUT scale (or Landau pole below the Planck scale.
Strange quark matter attached to string cloud in general scalar tensor theory of gravitation
V U M Rao
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Bianchi type-VI0 space time with strange quark matter attached to string cloud in Nordtvedt [1] general scalar tensor theory of gravitation with the help of a special case proposed by Schwinger [2] is obtained. The field equations have been solved by using the anisotropy feature of the universe in the Bianchi type-VI0 space time. Some important features of the model, thus obtained, have been discussed
A nonlinear generalized continuum approach for electro-elasticity including scale effects
Skatulla, S.; Arockiarajan, A.; Sansour, C.
2009-01-01
Materials characterized by an electro-mechanically coupled behaviour fall into the category of so-called smart materials. In particular, electro-active polymers (EAP) recently attracted much interest, because, upon electrical loading, EAP exhibit a large amount of deformation while sustaining large forces. This property can be utilized for actuators in electro-mechanical systems, artificial muscles and so forth. When it comes to smaller structures, it is a well-known fact that the mechanical response deviates from the prediction of classical mechanics theory. These scale effects are due to the fact that the size of the microscopic material constituents of such structures cannot be considered to be negligible small anymore compared to the structure's overall dimensions. In this context so-called generalized continuum formulations have been proven to account for the micro-structural influence to the macroscopic material response. Here, we want to adopt a strain gradient approach based on a generalized continuum framework [Sansour, C., 1998. A unified concept of elastic-viscoplastic Cosserat and micromorphic continua. J. Phys. IV Proc. 8, 341-348; Sansour, C., Skatulla, S., 2007. A higher gradient formulation and meshfree-based computation for elastic rock. Geomech. Geoeng. 2, 3-15] and extend it to also encompass the electro-mechanically coupled behaviour of EAP. The approach introduces new strain and stress measures which lead to the formulation of a corresponding generalized variational principle. The theory is completed by Dirichlet boundary conditions for the displacement field and its derivatives normal to the boundary as well as the electric potential. The basic idea behind this generalized continuum theory is the consideration of a micro- and a macro-space which together span the generalized space. As all quantities are defined in this generalized space, also the constitutive law, which is in this work conventional electro-mechanically coupled nonlinear
Bianchi Type V Matter Filled Universe with Varying Lambda Term in General Relativity
Yadav, Anil Kumar
2009-01-01
Bianchi type V matter filled universe with varying lambda in general relativity are investigated by using the law of variation for the generalized mean Hubble parameter. This yields the constant value of deceleration parameter and generates two types of solutions for the average scale factor one is of power law type and other is of exponential type. The cosmological constant is found to be a decreasing function of time, which is supported by results from recent type Ia supernovae observations. Also it has been found that cosmological constant affects entropy. Some physical and geometric behaviour of the models are discussed.
Marko, H.
1978-01-01
A general spectral transformation is proposed and described. Its spectrum can be interpreted as a Fourier spectrum or a Laplace spectrum. The laws and functions of the method are discussed in comparison with the known transformations, and a sample application is shown.
2010-03-12
... notice was published in the Federal Register on February 16, 2010 (75 FR 7034). At the request of the... Employment and Training Administration General Electric Kentucky Glass Plant, Lighting, LLC, Including On..., 2009, applicable to workers of General Electric Kentucky Glass Plant, Lighting, LLC, including...
Yeates, J.W.; Röcklinsberg, H.; Gjerris, Mickey
2011-01-01
assessments of ethically relevant concerns for animals. This has provided a scientific rigour that has helped to overcome controversies and allowed debates to move forward according to generally agreed methodologies. However, this focus can lead to policies leaving out other important issues relevant......Policy-making concerned with animals often includes human interests, such as economy, trade, environmental protection, disease control, species conservation etc. When it comes to the interests of the animals, such policy-making often makes use of the results of animal welfare science to provide...... to animals. This can be considered as a problem of what is included in welfare science, or of what is included in policy. This suggests two possible solutions: expanding animal welfare science to address all ethical concerns about animals’ interests or widening the perspective considered in policy...
Wolpert, Gloria
2001-01-01
Investigated classroom management techniques of K-12 teachers whose classrooms included children with Down Syndrome. Teachers, all selected by parents as successful, reported that praise was the best motivator for the Down Syndrome children, and the most effective learning methods were individual and small-group instruction, hands-on activities,…
Nogawa, Tomoaki; Hasegawa, Takehisa; Nemoto, Koji
2012-06-22
We propose a generic scaling theory for critical phenomena that includes power-law and essential singularities in finite and infinite dimensional systems. In addition, we clarify its validity by analyzing the Potts model in a simple hierarchical network, where a saddle-node bifurcation of the renormalization-group fixed point governs the essential singularity.
An Improved Heat Budget Estimation Including Bottom Effects for General Ocean Circulation Models
Carder, Kendall; Warrior, Hari; Otis, Daniel; Chen, R. F.
2001-01-01
This paper studies the effects of the underwater light field on heat-budget calculations of general ocean circulation models for shallow waters. The presence of a bottom significantly alters the estimated heat budget in shallow waters, which affects the corresponding thermal stratification and hence modifies the circulation. Based on the data collected during the COBOP field experiment near the Bahamas, we have used a one-dimensional turbulence closure model to show the influence of the bottom reflection and absorption on the sea surface temperature field. The water depth has an almost one-to-one correlation with the temperature rise. Effects of varying the bottom albedo by replacing the sea grass bed with a coral sand bottom, also has an appreciable effect on the heat budget of the shallow regions. We believe that the differences in the heat budget for the shallow areas will have an influence on the local circulation processes and especially on the evaporative and long-wave heat losses for these areas. The ultimate effects on humidity and cloudiness of the region are expected to be significant as well.
Reheating via a generalized non-minimal coupling of curvature to matter
Bertolami, Orfeu; Páramos, Jorge
2010-01-01
In this work one shows that a generalized non-minimal coupling between geometry and matter is compatible with Starobinsky inflation and leads to a successful process of preheating, a reheating scenario based on the production of massive particles via parametric resonance. The model naturally extends the usual preheating mechanism, which resorts to an {\\it ad-hoc} scalar curvature-dependent mass term for a scalar field $\\chi$, and also encompasses a previously studied preheating channel based upon a non-standard kinetic term.
Berz, Martin
2016-01-01
A new numerically and experimentally tested measurement method for the local electrical light field including its phase is presented. The method is based on Self Referencing Interferograms (SRI) such as shearing interferograms. The complex electric field is the solution vector of a linear equation with the pixel resolved interference term E_2* E_1 as a parameter. Linearization of the non linear equations is achieved by using preknowledge in the intensity as obtained by a conventional image detetctor. The resulting linear equations are not based on any approximation, iterative perturbation expansion etc. but are exact. The method is non iterative and stable against noise for arbitrarily chosen test fields. Allowed fields can exhibit highly fluctuating amplitudes/phases on the pixel scale, areas of vanishing amplitude and Pi phase jumps. The spatial resolution is of pixel size. No reference beam and no diaphragms are used. The new method can be implemented as a fast, one shot per frame video system. An outlook ...
Braghin, F L
2004-01-01
Symmetry energy terms from macroscopic mass formulae are investigated as generalized polarizabilities of nuclear matter. Besides the neutron-proton (n-p) symmetry energy the spin dependent symmetry energies and a scalar one are also defined. They depend on the nuclear densities ($\\rho$), neutron-proton asymmetry ($b$), temperature ($T$) and exchanged energy and momentum ($q$). Based on a standard expression for the generalized polarizabilities, a differential equation is proposed to constrain the dependence of the symmetry energy on the n-p asymmetry and on the density. Some solutions are discussed. The q-dependence (zero frequence) of the symmetry energy coefficients with Skyrme-type forces is investigated in the four channels of the particle-hole interaction. Spin dependent symmetry energies are also investigated indicating much stronger differences in behavior with $q$ for each Skyrme force than the results for the neutron-proton one.
Quartet-metric general relativity: scalar graviton, dark matter, and dark energy
Pirogov, Yury F. [SRC Institute for High Energy Physics of NRC Kurchatov Institute, Protvino (Russian Federation)
2016-04-15
General relativity extended through a dynamical scalar quartet is proposed as a theory of the scalar-vector-tensor gravity, generically describing the unified gravitational dark matter (DM) and dark energy (DE). The implementation in the weak-field limit of the Higgs mechanism for the extended gravity, with a redefinition of metric field, is exposed in a generally covariant form. Under a natural restriction on the parameters, the redefined theory possesses in the linearized approximation a residual transverse-diffeomorphism invariance, and consistently comprises the massless tensor graviton and a massive scalar one as a DM particle. The number of adjustable parameters in the full nonlinear theory and a partial decoupling of the latter from its weak-field limit noticeably extend the perspectives for the unified description of the gravity DM and DE in the various phenomena at the different scales. (orig.)
General aspects of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and nuclear matter properties
Plohl, Oliver
2008-07-25
The subject of the present thesis is at first the investigation of model independent properties of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction in the vacuum concerning the relativistic structure and the implications for nuclear matter properties. Relativistic and non-relativistic meson-exchange potentials, phenomenological potentials s well as potentials based on effective field theory (EFT) are therefore mapped on a relativistic operator basis given by the Clifford Algebra. This allows to compare the various approaches at the level of covariant amplitudes where a remarkable agreement is found. Furthermore, the relativistic self-energy is determined in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation. The appearance of a scalar and vector field of several hundred MeV magnitude is a general feature of relativistic descriptions of nuclear matter. Within QCD sum rules these fields arise due to the density dependence of chiral condensates. We find that independent of the applied NN interaction large scalar and vector fields are generated when the symmetries of the Lorentz group are restored. In the framework of chiral EFT (chEFT) it is shown, that these fields are generated by short-range next-to-leading order (NLO) contact terms, which are connected to the spin-orbit interaction. To estimate the effect arising from NN correlations the equation of state of nuclear and neutron matter is calculated in the Brueckner-HF (BHF) approximation applying chEFT. Although, as expected, a clear over-binding is found (at NLO a saturating behavior is observed), the symmetry energy shows realistic properties when compared to phenomenological potentials (within the same approximation) and other approaches. The investigation of the pion mass dependence within chEFT at NLO shows that the magnitude of the scalar and vector fields persists in the chiral limit - nuclear matter is still bound. In contrast to the case of a pion mass larger than the physical one the binding energy and saturation density are
Liu, Ke; Nissinen, Jaakko; Slager, Robert-Jan; Wu, Kai; Zaanen, Jan
2016-10-01
The physics of nematic liquid crystals has been the subject of intensive research since the late 19th century. However, the focus of this pursuit has been centered around uniaxial and biaxial nematics associated with constituents bearing a D∞ h or D2 h symmetry, respectively. In view of general symmetries, however, these are singularly special since nematic order can in principle involve any point-group symmetry. Given the progress in tailoring nanoparticles with particular shapes and interactions, this vast family of "generalized nematics" might become accessible in the laboratory. Little is known because the order parameter theories associated with the highly symmetric point groups are remarkably complicated, involving tensor order parameters of high rank. Here, we show that the generic features of the statistical physics of such systems can be studied in a highly flexible and efficient fashion using a mathematical tool borrowed from high-energy physics: discrete non-Abelian gauge theory. Explicitly, we construct a family of lattice gauge models encapsulating nematic ordering of general three-dimensional point-group symmetries. We find that the most symmetrical generalized nematics are subjected to thermal fluctuations of unprecedented severity. As a result, novel forms of fluctuation phenomena become possible. In particular, we demonstrate that a vestigial phase carrying no more than chiral order becomes ubiquitous departing from high point-group symmetry chiral building blocks, such as I , O , and T symmetric matter.
Rodríguez-Roca, G C; Segura-Fragoso, A; Villarín-Castro, A; Alonso-Moreno, F J; Rodríguez-Padial, L; Rodríguez-García, M L; Fernández-Conde, J A; Rojas-Martelo, G A; Menchén-Herreros, A; Escobar-Cervantes, C; Fernández-Martín, J; Artigao-Rodenas, L M; Carbayo-Herencia, J A; Hernández-Moreno, J
2017-08-28
The aim of this study was to assess cardiovascular risk (CVR) by investigating the prevalence of CVR factors (CVRF), target organ damage (TOD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in general population of the health area of Toledo, Spain. Epidemiological and observational study that analysed a sample from the general population aged 18years or older, randomly selected from a database of health cards stratified by age and gender. Clinical history, physical examination, and complementary tests were performed. Total blood and serum samples were frozen at -85°C to evaluate genetic studies in the future. Standard statistical analysis was performed. CVR was assessed by the SCORE scale calibrated for the Spanish population, and the Framingham Heart Study scale. A total of 1,500 individuals (mean age 49.1±15.8years, 55.6% women) were included. Prevalences: dyslipidaemia 56.9% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 54.3-59.4), hypertension 33.0% (95%CI: 30.6-35.4), diabetes mellitus 8.6% (95%CI: 7.17-10.1), smoking 24.2% (95%CI; 122.0-26.4), obesity 25.3% (95%CI; 23.1-27.5), and sedentary life-style 39.4% (95%CI; 36.9-41.8). No CVRF was reported in 21.1% of cases, and 18.6% had 3-5 CVRF. TOD: electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy, 4.3%, peripheral artery disease, 10.1% (Doppler ultrasound), and 15.3% (oscillometric device), microalbuminuria, 4.3%, sub-clinical renal disease, 3.2%, and nephropathy in 3.8% (CKD-EPI). At least one CVD was reported in 9.2% of cases. A low CVR (SCORE) was present in 44.6% of individuals. Dyslipidaemia was found in 60% of individuals, 40% had a sedentary life-style, 30% with hypertension, 20% smoked, 20% obesity, and almost 10% with diabetes. More than a half of individuals have a moderate-high-very high risk. The prevalence of TOD and CVD are significant. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
General neutralino NLSP with gravitino dark matter vs. big bang nucleosynthesis
Hasenkamp, Jasper
2009-08-15
We study the scenario of gravitino dark matter with a general neutralino being the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP). Therefore, we compute analytically all 2- and 3-body decays of the neutralino NLSP to determine the lifetime and the electromagnetic and hadronic branching ratio of the neutralino decaying into the gravitino and Standard Model particles. We constrain the gravitino and neutralino NLSP mass via big bang nucleosynthesis and see how those bounds are relaxed for a Higgsino or a wino NLSP in comparison to the bino neutralino case. At neutralino masses >or similar 1 TeV, a wino NLSP is favoured, since it decays rapidly via a newly found 4-vertex. The Higgsino component becomes important, when resonant annihilation via heavy Higgses can occur. We provide the full analytic results for the decay widths and the complete set of Feynman rules necessary for these computations. This thesis closes any gap in the study of gravitino dark matter scenarios with neutralino NLSP coming from approximations in the calculation of the neutralino decay rates and its hadronic branching ratio. (orig.)
2010-12-07
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration General Motors Corporation, Powertrain Flint North, Including On- Site Leased Workers From Allegis Group Services, Securitas and Knight Management, Flint, MI; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for...
2010-12-07
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration General Motors Corporation Grand Rapids Metal Center Metal Fabricating Division Including On-Site Leased Workers From Securitas, Premier, EDS and Quaker Chemical Grand Rapids, MI; Amended Certification Regarding...
2011-03-14
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration General Motors Corporation; Powertrain Flint North; Including On- Site Leased Workers From Allegis Group Services, Securitas, Knight Management and URS Corporation, Flint, MI; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibilit...
Cheng Jian-zheng; Zhang De-jun; Lan Cong-qing; Ye Chao-hui
2000-01-01
Based on the cell model, the general formula for the free energy of solids is derived analytically with the lowest order anharmonic modification and correlation effect taken into account. Combining a method of summing over lattice sites, the analytic equation of state for generalized Lennard-Jones solid is derived. The calculations show that the agreement between theory and computer simulation is quite good and is significantly improved as compared with the numerical results in literature. The comparison of different effects shows the theory including all neighbors but only considering the lowest anharmonic and correlation effects may be a good and convenient approximation for practical solids. The approximation can be easily extended to the quantum case and other generalized potentials.
Dark Matter Particle Spectroscopy at the LHC: Generalizing M(T2) to Asymmetric Event Topologies
Konar, Partha; /Florida U.; Kong, Kyoungchul; /SLAC; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Park, Myeonghun; /Florida U.
2012-04-03
We consider SUSY-like missing energy events at hadron colliders and critically examine the common assumption that the missing energy is the result of two identical missing particles. In order to experimentally test this hypothesis, we generalize the subsystem M{sub T2} variable to the case of asymmetric event topologies, where the two SUSY decay chains terminate in different 'children' particles. In this more general approach, the endpoint M{sub T2(max)} of the M{sub T2} distribution now gives the mass {tilde M}p({tilde M}{sub c}{sup (a)}, {tilde M}{sub c}{sup (b)}) of the parent particles as a function of two input children masses {tilde M}{sub c}{sup (a)} and {tilde M}{sub c}{sup (b)}. We propose two methods for an independent determination of the individual children masses M{sub c}{sup (a)} and M{sub c}{sup (b)}. First, in the presence of upstream transverse momentum PUTM the corresponding function {tilde M}p({tilde M}{sub c}{sup (a)}, {tilde M}{sub c}{sup (b)}, P{sub UTM}) is independent of P{sub UTM} at precisely the right values of the children masses. Second, the previously discussed MT2 'kink' is now generalized to a 'ridge' on the 2-dimensional surface {tilde M}p({tilde M}{sub c}{sup (a)}, {tilde M}{sub c}{sup (b)}). As we show in several examples, quite often there is a special point along that ridge which marks the true values of the children masses. Our results allow collider experiments to probe a multi-component dark matter sector directly and without any theoretical prejudice.
Does Access Matter? Time in General Education and Achievement for Students with Disabilities
Cosier, Meghan; Causton-Theoharis, Julie; Theoharis, George
2013-01-01
This study examined the relationship between hours in general education and achievement in reading and mathematics for students with disabilities. The study population included more than 1,300 students between the ages of 6 and 9 years old within 180 school districts. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was utilized with the Pre-Elementary…
Yeates, J.W.; Röcklinsberg, H.; Gjerris, Mickey
2011-01-01
assessments of ethically relevant concerns for animals. This has provided a scientific rigour that has helped to overcome controversies and allowed debates to move forward according to generally agreed methodologies. However, this focus can lead to policies leaving out other important issues relevant...
Mohammad Akram Alzu'bi
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The study aimed at analyzing English questions of the Jordanian Secondary Certificate Examinations via Blooms' cognitive levels. An analysis sheet was prepared by the researcher for the purpose of the study, which was ensured to be valid and reliable. The whole questions of the general secondary examinations for English course in both levels (level three and level four during 2010-2013 composed the sample of the study. Frequencies and percentages were tabulated to facilitate the analysis of the results. The result of the study revealed that the total percentage of the first three levels (comprehension, knowledge, and analysis is (69.6 but the total percentage of the last three levels (application, synthesis, and evaluation is (30.4 so it indicated that the English questions included in general secondary examinations emphasize low order thinking levels. The researcher recommended that the questions designers should improve their questioning techniques in writing questions of exams.
General Constraints on Dark Matter Decay from the Cosmic Microwave Background
Slatyer, Tracy R
2016-01-01
Precise measurements of the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background can be used to constrain the annihilation and decay of dark matter. In this work, we demonstrate via principal component analysis that the imprint of dark matter decay on the cosmic microwave background can be approximately parameterized by a single number for any given dark matter model. We develop a simple prescription for computing this model-dependent detectability factor, and demonstrate how this approach can be used to set model-independent bounds on a large class of decaying dark matter scenarios. We repeat our analysis for decay lifetimes shorter than the age of the universe, allowing us to set constraints on metastable species other than the dark matter decaying at early times, and decays that only liberate a tiny fraction of the dark matter mass energy. We set precise bounds and validate our principal component analysis using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach and Planck 2015 data.
Phan, K. Luan; Orlichenko, Anton; Boyd, Erin; Angstadt, Mike; Coccaro, Emil F.; Liberzon, Israel; Arfanakis, Konstantinos
2009-01-01
Background Individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) exhibit exaggerated amygdala reactivity to aversive social stimuli. These findings could be explained by microstructural abnormalities in white matter (WM) tracts that connect the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, which is known to modulate the amygdala’s response to threat. The goal of this study was to investigate brain frontal WM abnormalities by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in patients with social anxiety disorder. Method A Turboprop DTI sequence was used to acquire diffusion tensor images in thirty patients with GSAD and thirty matched healthy controls. Fractional anisotropy, an index of axonal organization, within WM was quantified in individual subjects and an automated voxel-based, whole-brain method was used to analyze group differences. Results Compared to healthy controls, patients had significantly lower fractional anisotropy localized to the right uncinate fasciculus WM near the orbitofrontal cortex. There were no areas of higher fractional anisotropy in patients than controls. Conclusions These findings point to an abnormality in the uncinate fasciculus, the major WM tract connecting the frontal cortex to the amygdala and other limbic temporal regions, in GSAD which could underlie the aberrant amygdala-prefrontal interactions resulting in dysfunctional social threat processing in this illness. PMID:19362707
Hilbert, Kevin; Pine, Daniel S; Muehlhan, Markus; Lueken, Ulrike; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Beesdo-Baum, Katja
2015-12-30
Increasing efforts have been made to investigate the underlying pathophysiology of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), but only limited consistent information is available on gray (GM) and white matter (WM) volume changes in affected adults. Additionally, few studies employed dimensional approaches to GAD pathology. This study compares structural brain imaging data from n=19 GAD subjects and n=24 healthy comparison (HC) subjects, all medication-free and matched on age, sex and education. Separate categorical and dimensional models were employed using voxel-based morphometry for GM and WM. Significantly higher GM volumes were found in GAD subjects mainly in basal ganglia structures and less consistently in the superior temporal pole. For WM, GAD subjects showed significantly lower volumes in the dlPFC. Largely consistent findings in dimensional and categorical models point toward these structural alterations being reliable and of importance for GAD. While lower volume in the dlPFC could reflect impaired emotional processing and control over worry in GAD, basal ganglia alterations may be linked to disturbed gain and loss anticipation as implicated in previous functional GAD studies. As perturbations in anticipation processes are central to GAD, these areas may warrant greater attention in future studies.
2010-10-07
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Energy Drink Products; Notice of Issuance of a Corrected General Exclusion Order AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby...
Yan Peng
2017-02-01
Full Text Available We investigate holographic phase transitions with dark matter sector in the AdS soliton background away from the probe limit. In cases of weak backreaction, we find that the larger coupling parameter α makes the gap of condensation shallower and the critical chemical potential keeps as a constant. In contrast, for very heavy backreaction, the dark matter sector could affect the critical chemical potential and the order of phase transitions. We also find the jump of the holographic topological entanglement entropy corresponds to a first order transition between superconducting states in this model with dark matter sector. More importantly, for certain sets of parameters, we observe novel phenomenon of retrograde condensation. In a word, the dark matter sector provides richer physics in the phase structure and the holographic superconductor properties are helpful in understanding dark matter.
Peng, Yan, E-mail: yanpengphy@163.com [School of Mathematical Sciences, Qufu Normal University, Qufu, Shandong 273165 (China); School of Mathematics and Computer Science, Shaanxi Sci-Tech University, Hanzhong, Shaanxi 723000 (China); Pan, Qiyuan, E-mail: panqiyuan@126.com [Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Liu, Yunqi, E-mail: liuyunqi@hust.edu.cn [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)
2017-02-15
We investigate holographic phase transitions with dark matter sector in the AdS soliton background away from the probe limit. In cases of weak backreaction, we find that the larger coupling parameter α makes the gap of condensation shallower and the critical chemical potential keeps as a constant. In contrast, for very heavy backreaction, the dark matter sector could affect the critical chemical potential and the order of phase transitions. We also find the jump of the holographic topological entanglement entropy corresponds to a first order transition between superconducting states in this model with dark matter sector. More importantly, for certain sets of parameters, we observe novel phenomenon of retrograde condensation. In a word, the dark matter sector provides richer physics in the phase structure and the holographic superconductor properties are helpful in understanding dark matter.
Peng, Yan; Pan, Qiyuan; Liu, Yunqi
2017-02-01
We investigate holographic phase transitions with dark matter sector in the AdS soliton background away from the probe limit. In cases of weak backreaction, we find that the larger coupling parameter α makes the gap of condensation shallower and the critical chemical potential keeps as a constant. In contrast, for very heavy backreaction, the dark matter sector could affect the critical chemical potential and the order of phase transitions. We also find the jump of the holographic topological entanglement entropy corresponds to a first order transition between superconducting states in this model with dark matter sector. More importantly, for certain sets of parameters, we observe novel phenomenon of retrograde condensation. In a word, the dark matter sector provides richer physics in the phase structure and the holographic superconductor properties are helpful in understanding dark matter.
Jason D Hipp
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Historically, effective clinical utilization of image analysis and pattern recognition algorithms in pathology has been hampered by two critical limitations: 1 the availability of digital whole slide imagery data sets and 2 a relative domain knowledge deficit in terms of application of such algorithms, on the part of practicing pathologists. With the advent of the recent and rapid adoption of whole slide imaging solutions, the former limitation has been largely resolved. However, with the expectation that it is unlikely for the general cohort of contemporary pathologists to gain advanced image analysis skills in the short term, the latter problem remains, thus underscoring the need for a class of algorithm that has the concurrent properties of image domain (or organ system independence and extreme ease of use, without the need for specialized training or expertise. Results: In this report, we present a novel, general case pattern recognition algorithm, Spatially Invariant Vector Quantization (SIVQ, that overcomes the aforementioned knowledge deficit. Fundamentally based on conventional Vector Quantization (VQ pattern recognition approaches, SIVQ gains its superior performance and essentially zero-training workflow model from its use of ring vectors, which exhibit continuous symmetry, as opposed to square or rectangular vectors, which do not. By use of the stochastic matching properties inherent in continuous symmetry, a single ring vector can exhibit as much as a millionfold improvement in matching possibilities, as opposed to conventional VQ vectors. SIVQ was utilized to demonstrate rapid and highly precise pattern recognition capability in a broad range of gross and microscopic use-case settings. Conclusion: With the performance of SIVQ observed thus far, we find evidence that indeed there exist classes of image analysis/pattern recognition algorithms suitable for deployment in settings where pathologists alone can effectively
High blood pressure and cerebral white matter lesion progression in the general population.
Verhaaren, Benjamin F J; Vernooij, Meike W; de Boer, Renske; Hofman, Albert; Niessen, Wiro J; van der Lugt, Aad; Ikram, M Arfan
2013-06-01
High blood pressure is considered an important risk factor for cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) in the aging population. In a longitudinal population-based study of 665 nondemented persons, we investigated the longitudinal relationship of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse pressure with annual progression of WMLs. Means of blood pressure were calculated over a 5-year period before longitudinal MRI scanning. WML progression was subsequently measured on 2 scans 3.5 years apart. We performed analyses with linear regression models and evaluated adjustments for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, and baseline WML volume. In addition, we evaluated whether treatment of hypertension is related to less WML progression. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly associated with annual WML progression (regression coefficient [95% confidence interval], 0.08 [0.03; 0.14] mL/y and 0.09 [0.03; 0.15] mL/y per SD increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively). Pulse pressure was also significantly associated with WML progression, but not independent from hypertension. After adjustment for baseline WML volume, only systolic blood pressure remained significantly associated: 0.05 (0.00; 0.09) mL/y per SD increase. People with uncontrolled untreated hypertension had significantly more WML progression than people with uncontrolled treated hypertension (difference [95% confidence interval], 0.12 [0.00; 0.23] mL/y). The present study further establishes high blood pressure to precede WMLs and implies that hypertension treatment could reduce WML progression in the general population.
Luo, J; He, X; Yablonskiy, D A
2014-03-01
The nature of the remarkable phase contrast in high-field gradient echo MRI studies of human brain is a subject of intense debates. The generalized Lorentzian approach (He and Yablonskiy, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2009;106:13558-13563) provides an explanation for the anisotropy of phase contrast, the near absence of phase contrast between white matter and cerebrospinal fluid, and changes of phase contrast in multiple sclerosis. In this study, we experimentally validate the generalized Lorentzian approach. The Generalized Lorentzian Approach suggests that the local contribution to frequency shifts in white matter does not depend on the average tissue magnetic susceptibility (as suggested by Lorentzian sphere approximation), but on the distribution and symmetry of magnetic susceptibility inclusions at the cellular level. We use ex vivo rat optic nerve as a model system of highly organized cellular structure containing longitudinally arranged myelin and neurofilaments. The nerve's cylindrical shape allowed accurate measurement of its magnetic susceptibility and local frequency shifts. We found that the volume magnetic susceptibility difference between nerve and water is -0.116 ppm, and the magnetic susceptibilities of longitudinal components are -0.043 ppm in fresh nerve, and -0.020 ppm in fixed nerve. The frequency shift observed in the optic nerve as a representative of white matter is consistent with generalized Lorentzian approach but inconsistent with Lorentzian sphere approximation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Anderson, Benjamin
2013-01-01
All observations of photodegradation and self healing follow the predictions of the correlated chromophore domain model. [Ramini et.al. Polym. Chem., 2013, 4, 4948.] In the present work, we generalize the domain model to describe the effects of an electric field by including induced dipole interactions between molecules in a domain by means of a self-consistent field approach. This electric field correction is added to the statistical mechanical model to calculate the distribution of domains that are central to healing. Also included in the model are the dynamics due to the formation of an irreversibly damaged species. As in previous studies, the model with a one-dimensional domain best explains all experimental data of the population as a function of time, temperature, intensity, concentration, and now applied electric field. Though the nature of a domain is yet to be determined, the fact that only one-dimensional domain models are consistent with observations suggests that they might be made of correlated d...
Centelles Chuliá, Salvador; Srivastava, Rahul; Valle, José W. F.
2017-10-01
We propose an A4 extension of the Standard Model with a Lepton Quarticity symmetry correlating dark matter stability with the Dirac nature of neutrinos. The flavor symmetry predicts (i) a generalized bottom-tau mass relation involving all families, (ii) small neutrino masses are induced a la seesaw, (iii) CP must be significantly violated in neutrino oscillations, (iv) the atmospheric angle θ23 lies in the second octant, and (v) only the normal neutrino mass ordering is realized.
Rozgacheva, I K
2016-01-01
A precise solution of the general relativity equations for centrally symmetric distribution of a pseudoscalar field with U(1) symmetry is presented. It is found that energy density of the field is restricted in the symmetry center and falls with radial distance at a much slower rate than in numerical simulations of dark matter haloes. This result can solve the cusp problem for galaxies and the problem of rotation curves for galaxy exteriors.
Dossett, Jason N; Parkinson, David; Davis, Tamara
2015-01-01
We present constraints on testing general relativity (GR) at cosmological scales using recent data sets and the impact of galaxy intrinsic alignment (IA) in the CFHTLenS lensing data on those constraints. We consider CMB temperature data from Planck, the galaxy power spectrum from WiggleZ, weak lensing tomography from the CFHTLenS, ISW-galaxy cross correlations, and BAO data from 6dF, SDSS DR7, and BOSS DR9. We use a parameterization of the modified gravity (MG) that is binned in redshift and scale, a parameterization that evolves monotonically in scale but is binned in redshift, and a functional parameterization that evolves only in redshift. We present the results in terms of the MG parameters $Q$ and $\\Sigma$. We employ an IA model with an amplitude $A_{CFHTLenS}$ that is included in the parameter analysis. We find an improvement in the constraints on the MG parameters corresponding to $40-53\\%$ increase on the figure of merit compared to previous studies, and GR is found consistent with the data at the $9...
2011-03-29
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Penske Logistics LLC a Subsidiary of General Electric/Penske... former workers of Penske Logistics LLC, a subsidiary of General Electric/Penske Corporation, El Paso...
Wang, Wei; Qian, Shaowen; Liu, Kai; Li, Bo; Li, Min; Xin, Kuolin; Sun, Gang
2016-11-01
The purpose of this study was to explore white matter microstructural alterations in the patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) technique, and to assess neural associations with the symptom severity. Twenty-eight first-episode, treatment-naive GAD patients without co-morbidities and 28 matched healthy controls underwent DTI acquisition and clinical symptom assessments. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to analyze white matter microstructural abnormalities in patients with GAD, as well as their associations with clinical symptom scores in a voxel-wise manner. Compared to controls, patients showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values in 7 clusters of white matter in bilateral uncinate fasciculus, body of corpus callosum, left middle cingulum (cingulate gyrus), bilateral anterior thalamic radiation and corona radiate, right anterior limb of internal capsule, bilateral inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus, bilateral superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and increased mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity in widespread white matter regions. Reduced FA values in right uncinate fasciculus, left cingulum bundle showed significantly negative correlations with clinical symptom severity for Hamilton anxiety Rating Scale scores. Our findings suggest microstructural abnormalities in uncinate fasciculus and cingulum bundle play key roles in the underlying neural basis of GAD.
Gomez-Valent, Adria; Sola, Joan
2015-01-01
We determine the Hubble expansion and the general cosmic perturbations equations for a general system consisting of self-conserved matter and self-conserved dark energy (DE). While at the background level the two components are non-interacting, they do interact at the perturbations level. We show that the coupled system of matter and DE perturbations can be transformed into a single, third order, matter perturbation equation, which reduces to the (derivative of the) standard one in the case that the DE is just a cosmological constant. As a nontrivial application we analyze a class of dynamical models whose DE density $\\rho_D$ consists of a constant term, $C_0$, and a series of powers of the Hubble rate. These models were previously analyzed from the point of view of dynamical vacuum models, but here we treat them as self-conserved DE models with a dynamical equation of state. We fit them to the wealth of expansion history and linear structure formation data and compare the obtained fit quality with that of th...
Frost, Amy R; Böhm, Sabrina V; Sewduth, Raj N; Josifova, Dragana; Ogilvie, Caroline Mackie; Izatt, Louise; Roberts, Roland G
2010-07-01
Dystroglycan is a protein which binds directly to two proteins defective in muscular dystrophies (dystrophin and laminin alpha2) and whose own aberrant post-translational modification is the common aetiological route of neuromuscular diseases associated with mutations in genes encoding at least six other proteins (POMT1, POMT2, POMGnT1, LARGE, FKTN and FKRP). It is surprising, therefore, that to our knowledge no mutations of the human dystroglycan gene itself have yet been reported. In this study, we describe a patient with a heterozygous de novo deletion of a approximately 2-Mb region of chromosome 3, which includes the dystroglycan gene (DAG1). The patient is a 16-year-old female with learning difficulties, white matter abnormalities, elevated serum creatine kinase, oral-motor dyspraxia and facial hypotonia but minimal clinically significant involvement of other muscles. As these symptoms are a subset of those observed in disorders of dystroglycan glycosylation (muscle-eye-brain disease and Warker-Warburg syndrome), we assess the likely contribution to her phenotype of her heterogosity for a null mutation of DAG1. We also show that the transcriptional compensation observed in the Dag1(+/-) mouse is not observed in the patient. Although we cannot show that haploinsufficiency of DAG1 is the sole cause of this patient's myopathy and white matter changes, this case serves to constrain our ideas of the severity of the phenotypic consequences of heterozygosity for null DAG1 mutations.
Effects of a general set of interactions on neutrino propagation in matter
Nardi, E
2000-01-01
This talk is based on the article hep-ph/9903517 written in collaborationwith Sven Bergmann and Yuval Grossman. An analysis of the effective potentialfor neutrino propagation in matter, assuming a generic set of Lorentz invariantnon-derivative interactions is presented. In addition to vector and axialvector couplings, also tensor interactions can give coherent effects if themedium is polarized, and the components of a tensor potential transverse to thedirection of neutrino propagation can induce a neutrino spin-flip.
Tachyonic models of dark matter
Nikitin, Igor
2016-01-01
We consider a spherically symmetric stationary problem in General Relativity, including a black hole, inflow of normal and tachyonic matter and outflow of tachyonic matter. Computations in a weak field limit show that the resulting concentration of matter around the black hole leads to gravitational effects equivalent to those associated with dark matter halo. In particular, the model reproduces asymptotically constant galactic rotation curves, if the tachyonic flows of the central supermassive black hole in the galaxy are considered as a main contribution.
keV sterile neutrino dark matter from singlet scalar decays: the most general case
König, Johannes; Merle, Alexander; Totzauer, Maximilian [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)
2016-11-21
We investigate the early Universe production of sterile neutrino Dark Matter by the decays of singlet scalars. All previous studies applied simplifying assumptions and/or studied the process only on the level of number densities, which makes it impossible to give statements about cosmic structure formation. We overcome these issues by dropping all simplifying assumptions (except for one we showed earlier to work perfectly) and by computing the full course of Dark Matter production on the level of non-thermal momentum distribution functions. We are thus in the position to study a broad range of aspects of the resulting settings and apply a broad set of bounds in a reliable manner. We have a particular focus on how to incorporate bounds from structure formation on the level of the linear power spectrum, since the simplistic estimate using the free-streaming horizon clearly fails for highly non-thermal distributions. Our work comprises the most detailed and comprehensive study of sterile neutrino Dark Matter production by scalar decays presented so far.
The General Antiparticle Spectrometer (GAPS) - Hunt for dark matter using low-energy antideuterons
von Doetinchem, Ph; Boggs, St; Craig, W; Fuke, H; Gahbauer, F; Hailey, Ch; Koglin, J; Madden, N; Mognet, I; Mori, K; Ong, R; Yoshida, T; Zhang, T; Zweerink, J
2010-01-01
The GAPS experiment is foreseen to carry out a dark matter search using a novel detection approach to detect low-energy cosmic-ray antideuterons. The theoretically predicted antideuteron flux resulting from secondary interactions of primary cosmic rays with the interstellar medium is very low. So far not a single cosmic antideuteron has been detected by any experiment, but well-motivated theories beyond the standard model of particle physics, e.g., supersymmetry or universal extra dimensions, contain viable dark matter candidates, which could led to a significant enhancement of the antideuteron flux due to self-annihilation of the dark matter particles.This flux contribution is believed to be especially large at small energies, which leads to a high discovery potential for GAPS. GAPS is designed to achieve its goals via a series of ultra-long duration balloon flights at high altitude in Antarctica, starting in 2014. The detector itself will consist of 13 planes of Si(Li) solid state detectors and a time of fl...
Zeng, Hongwu; He, Xiaoming; Li, Feng; Zhang, Jian; Huang, Bingsheng
2017-01-01
Objective We aimed to identify the consistent regions of gray matter volume (GMV) abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), and to study the difference of GMV abnormalities among IGE subsyndromes by applying activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis. Methods A systematic review of VBM studies on GMV of patients with absence epilepsy (AE), juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), IGE and controls indexed in PubMed and ScienceDirect from January 1999 to June 2016 was conducted. A total of 12 IGE studies, including 7 JME and 3 AE studies, were selected. Meta-analysis was performed on these studies by using the pooled and within-subtypes analysis (www.brainmap.org). Based on the above results, between-subtypes contrast analysis was carried out to detect the abnormal GMV regions common in and unique to each subtype as well. Results IGE demonstrated significant GMV increase in right ventral lateral nucleus (VL) and right medial frontal gyrus, and significant GMV decrease in bilateral pulvinar. For JME, significant GMV increase was seen in right medial frontal gyrus, right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), while significant GMV decrease was found in right pulvinar. In AE, the most significant GMV increase was found in right VL, and slight GMV reduction was seen in right medial dorsal nucleus, right subcallosal gyrus, left caudate and left precuneus. No overlapped and unique regions with significant GMV abnormalities were found between JME and AE. Significance This meta-analysis demonstrated that thalamo-frontal network was a structure with significant GMV abnormality in IGE, and the IGE subsyndromes showed different GMV abnormal regions. These observations may provide instructions on the clinical diagnosis of IGE. PMID:28060866
2011-05-12
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Penske Logistics LLC, a Subsidiary of General Electric/Penske... Regarding Application for Reconsideration applicable to workers and former workers of Penske Logistics LLC...
Thomas S Scerri
Full Text Available Independent studies have shown that candidate genes for dyslexia and specific language impairment (SLI impact upon reading/language-specific traits in the general population. To further explore the effect of disorder-associated genes on cognitive functions, we investigated whether they play a role in broader cognitive traits. We tested a panel of dyslexia and SLI genetic risk factors for association with two measures of general cognitive abilities, or IQ, (verbal and non-verbal in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC cohort (N>5,000. Only the MRPL19/C2ORF3 locus showed statistically significant association (minimum P = 0.00009 which was further supported by independent replications following analysis in four other cohorts. In addition, a fifth independent sample showed association between the MRPL19/C2ORF3 locus and white matter structure in the posterior part of the corpus callosum and cingulum, connecting large parts of the cortex in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes. These findings suggest that this locus, originally identified as being associated with dyslexia, is likely to harbour genetic variants associated with general cognitive abilities by influencing white matter structure in localised neuronal regions.
Effects of particulate matter on inflammatory markers in the general adult population
Tsai Dai-Hua
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Although the precise mechanisms underlying this association are still unclear, the induction of systemic inflammation following particle inhalation represents a plausible mechanistic pathway. Methods We used baseline data from the CoLaus Study including 6183 adult participants residing in Lausanne, Switzerland. We analyzed the association of short-term exposure to PM10 (on the day of examination visit with continuous circulating serum levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β, interleukin 6 (IL-6, and tumor-necrosis-factor alpha (TNF-α by robust linear regressions, controlling for potential confounding factors and assessing effect modification. Results In adjusted analyses, for every 10 μg/m3 elevation in PM10, IL-1ß increased by 0.034 (95 % confidence interval, 0.007-0.060 pg/mL, IL-6 by 0.036 (0.015-0.057 pg/mL, and TNF-α by 0.024 (0.013-0.035 pg/mL, whereas no significant association was found with hs-CRP levels. Conclusions Short-term exposure to PM10 was positively associated with higher levels of circulating IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α in the adult general population. This positive association suggests a link between air pollution and cardiovascular risk, although further studies are needed to clarify the mechanistic pathway linking PM10 to cardiovascular risk.
Christensen, Bent Jesper; van der Wel, Michel
of the risk premium is associated with the slope factor, and individual risk prices depend on own past values, factor realizations, and past values of other risk prices, and are significantly related to the output gap, consumption, and the equity risk price. The absence of arbitrage opportunities is strongly...... is tested, but in addition to the standard bilinear term in factor loadings and market prices of risk, the relevant mean restriction in the term structure case involves an additional nonlinear (quadratic) term in factor loadings. We estimate our general model using likelihood-based dynamic factor model...... techniques for a variety of volatility factors, and implement the relevant likelihood ratio tests. Our factor model estimates are similar across a general state space implementation and an alternative robust two-step principal components approach. The evidence favors time-varying market prices of risk. Most...
Bringmann, Torsten; Calore, Francesca; Galea, Ahmad; Garny, Mathias
2017-09-01
It is well known that the annihilation of Majorana dark matter into fermions is helicity suppressed. Here, we point out that the underlying mechanism is a subtle combination of two distinct effects, and we present a comprehensive analysis of how the suppression can be partially or fully lifted by the internal bremsstrahlung of an additional boson in the final state. As a concrete illustration, we compute analytically the full amplitudes and annihilation rates of supersymmetric neutralinos to final states that contain any combination of two standard model fermions, plus one electroweak gauge boson or one of the five physical Higgs bosons that appear in the minimal supersymmetric standard model. We classify the various ways in which these three-body rates can be large compared to the two-body rates, identifying cases that have not been pointed out before. In our analysis, we put special emphasis on how to avoid the double counting of identical kinematic situations that appear for two-body and three-body final states, in particular on how to correctly treat differential rates and the spectrum of the resulting stable particles that is relevant for indirect dark matter searches. We find that both the total annihilation rates and the yields can be significantly enhanced when taking into account the corrections computed here, in particular for models with somewhat small annihilation rates at tree-level which otherwise would not be testable with indirect dark matter searches. Even more importantly, however, we find that the resulting annihilation spectra of positrons, neutrinos, gamma-rays and antiprotons differ in general substantially from the model-independent spectra that are commonly adopted, for these final states, when constraining particle dark matter with indirect detection experiments.
Rizzi, Anthony
2001-01-01
I show that the definition of angular momentum at null infinity given by A. Rizzi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1150 (1998), reduces to the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner definition at spatial infinity in the appropriate limit. This identification reinforces the gauge condition of the null definition as well as the null definition itself. Insight into the place of the null and spatial definitions is also gained. The methods used in this paper are very useful for understanding far-field problems in general rel...
Groppa, Sergiu; Moeller, Friederike; Siebner, Hartwig
2012-01-01
Photosensitivity or photoparoxysmal response (PPR) is an electroencephalography trait that is highly associated with idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs) and characterized by changes in cortical excitability in response to photic stimulation. Studying functional and structural changes of PPR ...
Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others
This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…
Preparation for College General Chemistry: More than Just a Matter of Content Knowledge Acquisition
Cracolice, Mark S.; Busby, Brittany D.
2015-01-01
This study investigates the potential of five factors that may be predictive of success in college general chemistry courses: prior knowledge of common alternate conceptions, intelligence, scientific reasoning ability, proportional reasoning ability, and attitude toward chemistry. We found that both prior knowledge and scientific reasoning ability…
Preparation for College General Chemistry: More than Just a Matter of Content Knowledge Acquisition
Cracolice, Mark S.; Busby, Brittany D.
2015-01-01
This study investigates the potential of five factors that may be predictive of success in college general chemistry courses: prior knowledge of common alternate conceptions, intelligence, scientific reasoning ability, proportional reasoning ability, and attitude toward chemistry. We found that both prior knowledge and scientific reasoning ability…
Dark-Matter Halo Profiles of a General Cusp/Core with Analytic Velocity and Potential
Dekel, Avishai; Dutton, Aaron A; Maccio, Andrea V
2016-01-01
We present useful functions for the profiles of dark-matter (DM) haloes with a free inner slope, from cusps to cores, where the profiles of density, mass-velocity and potential are simple analytic expressions. Analytic velocity is obtained by expressing the mean density as a simple functional form, and deriving the local density by differentiation. The function involves four shape parameters, with only two or three free: a concentration parameter $c$, inner and outer asymptotic slopes $\\alpha$ and $\\bar{\\gamma}$, and a middle shape parameter $\\beta$. Analytic expressions for the potential and velocity dispersion exist for $\\bar{\\gamma}=3$ and $\\beta$ a natural number. We match the models to the DM haloes in cosmological simulations, with and without baryons, ranging from steep cusps to flat cores. Excellent fits are obtained with three free parameters ($c$, $\\alpha$, $\\bar{\\gamma}$) and $\\beta=2$. For an analytic potential, similar fits are obtained for $\\bar{\\gamma}=3$ and $\\beta=2$ with only two free parame...
Sabine Gless
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The right to a fair trial has grown in importance over the past few decades as criminal procedures and human rights law have aligned themselves more and more closely. A core aspect of our current European understanding of a ‘fair criminal trial’ is the so-called ‘equality of arms’, which requires that each party be given a reasonable opportunity to present his case under conditions that do not place him at a substantial disadvantage vis-à-vis his opponent. In cases which affect more than one jurisdiction – either because an alleged crime causes damage in different countries, evidence is located abroad or for some other reason – the accused and his defence lawyer may be left without any such a guarantee in the legal ‘black hole’ between the protections that are normally offered by each of the jurisdictions involved, albeit separately.The situation is not one of a dramatic alteration of legal frameworks; instead, it is the small encroachments caused by transnational cooperation that matter and which can be summed up on the basis that domestic and foreign prosecution authorities have, effectively, closed the circuit between them. These authorities are now embedded in formal networks which would have, for instance, the possibility to forum shop (i.e. to choose the ‘best place’ to prosecute. The emerging EU legal framework that has been built on mutual recognition and installing new central agencies has added to the problems faced by the defence. Moreover, the existing legal regimes designed to protect do not grant ‘equality of arms’ in the space between jurisdictions: national law usually provides few answers and international law, including the likes of the ECHR or the EU Charter on Fundamental Rights, do not offer many solutions, either.This article therefore argues that an aspiring ‘right to a fair trial’ or, rather, an entitlement to equality of arms as a general principle of transnational criminal justice that would
Sabine Gless
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The right to a fair trial has grown in importance over the past few decades as criminal procedures and human rights law have aligned themselves more and more closely. A core aspect of our current European understanding of a ‘fair criminal trial’ is the so-called ‘equality of arms’, which requires that each party be given a reasonable opportunity to present his case under conditions that do not place him at a substantial disadvantage vis-à-vis his opponent. In cases which affect more than one jurisdiction – either because an alleged crime causes damage in different countries, evidence is located abroad or for some other reason – the accused and his defence lawyer may be left without any such a guarantee in the legal ‘black hole’ between the protections that are normally offered by each of the jurisdictions involved, albeit separately.The situation is not one of a dramatic alteration of legal frameworks; instead, it is the small encroachments caused by transnational cooperation that matter and which can be summed up on the basis that domestic and foreign prosecution authorities have, effectively, closed the circuit between them. These authorities are now embedded in formal networks which would have, for instance, the possibility to forum shop (i.e. to choose the ‘best place’ to prosecute. The emerging EU legal framework that has been built on mutual recognition and installing new central agencies has added to the problems faced by the defence. Moreover, the existing legal regimes designed to protect do not grant ‘equality of arms’ in the space between jurisdictions: national law usually provides few answers and international law, including the likes of the ECHR or the EU Charter on Fundamental Rights, do not offer many solutions, either.This article therefore argues that an aspiring ‘right to a fair trial’ or, rather, an entitlement to equality of arms as a general principle of transnational criminal justice that would
Reemtsma, T.; These, A.; Linscheid, M.; Leenheer, J.; Spitzy, A.
2008-01-01
Dissolved organic matter isolated from the deep Atlantic Ocean and fractionated into a so-called hydrophobic (HPO) fraction and a very hydrophilic (HPI) fraction was analyzed for the first time by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) to resolve the molecular species, to determine their exact masses, and to calculate their molecular formulas. The elemental composition of about 300 molecules was identified. Those in the HPO fraction (14C age of 5100 year) are very similar to much younger freshwater fulvic acids, but less aromatic and more oxygenated molecules are more frequent. This trend continues toward the HPI fraction and may indicate biotic and abiotic aging processes that this material experienced since its primary production thousands of years ago. In the HPI fraction series of nitrogenous molecules containing one, two, or three nitrogens were identified by FTICR-MS. Product ion spectra of the nitrogenous molecules suggest that the nitrogen atoms in these molecules are included in the (alicyclic) backbone of these molecules, possibly in reduced form. These mass spectrometric data suggest that a large set of stable fulvic acids is ubiquitous in all aquatic compartments. Although sources may differ, their actual composition and structure appears to be quite similar and largely independent from their source, because they are the remainder of intensive oxidative degradation processes. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.
Weber, Ulrike; Base, Eva; Ristl, Robin; Mora, Bruno
2015-08-01
Frequently used parameters for evaluation of left ventricular systolic function are load-sensitive. However, the impact of preload alterations on speckle-tracking echocardiographic parameters during anesthesia has not been validated. Therefore, two-dimensional (2D) speckle-tracking echocardiography radial strain (RS) was assessed during general anesthesia, simulating 3 different preload conditions. Single-center prospective observational study. University hospital. Thirty-three patients with normal left ventricular systolic function undergoing major surgery. Transgastric views of the midpapillary level of the left ventricle were acquired at 3 different positions. Fractional shortening (FS), fractional area change (FAC), and 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography RS were analyzed in the transgastric midpapillary view. Considerable correlation above 0.5 was found for FAC and FS in the zero and Trendelenburg positions (r = 0.629, r = 0.587), and for RS and FAC in the anti-Trendelenburg position (r = 0.518). In the repeated-measures analysis, significant differences among the values measured at the 3 positions were found for FAC and FS. For FAC, there were differences up to 2.8 percentage points between the anti-Trendelenburg position and the other 2 positions. For FS, only the difference between position zero and anti-Trendelenburg was significant, with an observed change of 1.66. Two-dimensional RS was not significantly different at all positions, with observed changes below 1 percentage point. Alterations in preload did not result in clinically relevant changes of RS, FS, or FAC. Observed changes for RS were smallest; however, the variation of RS was larger than that of FS or FAC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shabani, Hamid; Ziaie, Amir Hadi
2017-08-01
In this work, we study the late-time cosmological solutions of f(R,T)=g(R)+h(-T) models assuming that the conservation of the energy-momentum tensor ( EMT) is violated. We perform our analysis through constructing an autonomous dynamical system for the equations of motion. We study the stability properties of solutions via considering linear perturbations about the related equilibrium points. Moreover, we parameterize the Lagrangian by introducing the parameters m( r) and n( s). These parameters which are constructed out of the functions g(R) and h(-T) play the main role in finding the late-time behavior of the solutions. We find that there exist, in general, three classes of solutions; all models with n>0 include a proper transition from a prolonged matter era to a de Sitter solution. Models with -0.51, for at least a root of equation n(s)=s-1, include an unphysical dark energy solution preceding an improper matter era. Finally, for nlaw dependency i.e., f(R,T)=R^{β }+(-T)^{α } can be observationally motivating for m→ 0+ and -0.024<α <0.02 and therefore could provide a suitable setting for later investigations.
Mendy, J E B; Mendy, Jean El Bachir; Govaerts, Jan
2002-01-01
Given the most general Lorentz invariant four-fermion effective interaction possible for two neutrinos and two charged fermions, whether quarks or leptons, all possible 2-to-2 processes involving two neutrinos, whether Dirac or Majorana ones, and two charged fermions are considered. Explicit and convenient expressions are given for the associated differential cross-sections. Such a parametrization should help assess the sensitivity to physics beyond the Standard Model of neutrino beam experiments which are in the design stage at neutrino factories.
Does obesity’s beliefs matters? Analysis of general practitioners’ speech
Teixeira, Filipa Valente; Ribeiro, José Luis Pais; Maia,Ângela
2011-01-01
Background: The health physicians’ beliefs about obesity have been considered one of the reasons compromising the success of obese people’s treatment. Quantitative research has been criticized for not being able to clarify how health physicians’ practices in the management of obesity are affected by the way they perceived obesity and obese people. Method: Semi-structured interviews about beliefs, attitudes and practices about obesity have been done to Portuguese general practitioners. Dat...
Dark Matter Particle Spectroscopy at the LHC: Generalizing MT2 to Asymmetric Event Topologies
Konar, Partha; Matchev, Konstantin T; Park, Myeonghun
2009-01-01
We consider SUSY-like missing energy events at hadron colliders and critically examine the common assumption that the missing energy is the result of two identical missing particles. In order to experimentally test this hypothesis, we generalize the subsystem MT2 variable to the case of asymmetric event topologies, where the two SUSY decay chains terminate in different "children" particles. In this more general approach, the endpoint MT2max of the MT2 distribution now gives the mass Mp(Mc(a),Mc(b)) of the parent particle as a function of two input children masses Mc(a) and Mc(b). We propose two methods for an independent determination of the individual children masses Mc(a) and Mc(b). First, in the presence of upstream transverse momentum P(UTM) the corresponding function Mp(Mc(a),Mc(b),P(UTM)) is independent of P(UTM) at precisely the right values of the children masses. Second, the previously discussed MT2 "kink" is now generalized to a "ridge" on the 2-dimensional surface Mp(Mc(a),Mc(b)). As we show in sev...
Thiemann, T
2009-01-01
The method of solution of the initial value constraints for pure canonical gravity in terms of Ashtekar's new canonical variables due to CDJ is further developed in the present paper. There are 2 new main results : 1) We extend the method of CDJ to arbitrary matter-coupling again for non-degenerate metrics : the new feature is that the 'CDJ-matrix' adopts a nontrivial antisymmetric part when solving the vector constraint and that the Klein-Gordon-field is used, instead of the symmetric part of the CDJ-matrix, in order to satisfy the scalar constraint. 2) The 2nd result is that one can solve the general initial value constraints for arbitrary matter coupling by a method which is completely independent of that of CDJ. It is shown how the Yang-Mills and gravitational Gauss constraints can be solved explicitely for the corresponding electric fields. The rest of the constraints can then be satisfied by using either scalar or spinor field momenta. This new trick might be of interest also for Yang-Mills theories on ...
Belobo Belobo, D; Ben-Bolie, G H; Kofane, T C
2015-04-01
By using the F-expansion method associated with four auxiliary equations, i.e., the Bernoulli equation, the Riccati equation, the Lenard equation, and the hyperbolic equation, we present exact explicit solutions describing the dynamics of matter-wave condensates with time-varying two- and three-body nonlinearities. Condensates are trapped in a harmonic potential and they exchange atoms with the thermal cloud. These solutions include the generalized Jacobi elliptic function solutions, hyperbolic function solutions, and trigonometric function solutions. In addition, we have also found rational function solutions. Solutions constructed here have many free parameters that can be used to manipulate and control some important features of the condensate, such as the position, width, velocity, acceleration, and homogeneous phase. The stability of the solutions is confirmed by their long-time numerical behavior.
Cosmological isotropic matter-energy generalizations of Schwarzschild and Kerr metrics
Arik, Metin
2016-01-01
We present a time dependent isotropic fluid solution around a Schwarzschild black hole. We offer the solutions and discuss the effects on the field equations and the horizon. We derive the energy density, pressure and the equation of state parameter. In the second part, we generalize the rotating black hole solution to an expanding universe. We derive from the proposed metric the special solutions of the field equations for the dust approximation and the dark energy solution. We show that the presence of a rotating black hole does not modify the scale factor $b(t)=t^{2/3}$ law for dust, nor $b(t)=e^{\\lambda\\hspace{1mm}t}$ and $p=-\\rho$ for dark energy.
General presentation including new structure
Soons, A.
2002-12-01
Electrical, electronic and electro-mechanical components play an essential role in the functional performance, quality, life cycle and costs of space systems. Their standardisation, product specification, development, evaluation, qualification and procurement must be based on a coherent and efficient approach, paying due attention to present and prospective European space policies and must be commensurate with user needs, market developments and technology trends. The European Space Components Coordination (ESCC) is established with the objective of harmonising the efforts concerning the various aspects of EEE space components by ESA. European national and international public space organisations, the component manufacturers and the user industries. The goal of the ESCC is to improve the availability of strategic EEE space components with the required performance and at affordable costs for institutional and commercial space programmes. It is the objective of ESCC to achieve this goal by harmonising the resources and development efforts for space components in the ESA Member States and by providing a single and unified system for the standardisation, product specification, evaluation, qualification and procurement of European EEE space components and for the certification of components and component manufacturers.
North Carolina General Assembly, Raleigh.
CHAPTER 115A OF THE GENERAL STATUTES OF NORTH CAROLINA PROVIDES FOR THE STATE'S COMMUNITY COLLEGES, TECHNICAL INSTITUTES, AND INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION CENTERS. IT INCLUDES THE FOLLOWING ARTICLES--(1) GENERAL PROVISIONS FOR STATE ADMINISTRATION, (2) LOCAL ADMINISTRATION, (3) FINANCIAL SUPPORT, (4) BUDGETING, ACCOUNTING, AND FISCAL MANAGEMENT, (5)…
D'Eramo, Francesco; Profumo, Stefano; Stefaniak, Tim
2016-01-01
We explore the phenomenology of a class of models where the dark matter particle can inelastically up-scatter to a heavier excited state via off-diagonal dipolar interactions with the interstellar plasma (gas or free electrons). The heavier particle then rapidly decays back to the dark matter particle plus a quasi-monochromatic photon. For the process to occur at appreciable rates, the mass splitting between the heavier state and the dark matter must be comparable to, or smaller than, the kinetic energy of particles in the plasma. As a result, the predicted photon line falls in the soft X-ray range, or, potentially, at arbitrarily lower energies. We explore experimental constraints from cosmology and particle physics, and present accurate calculations of the dark matter thermal relic density and of the flux of monochromatic X-rays from thermal plasma excitation. We find that the model provides a natural explanation for the observed 3.5 keV line from clusters of galaxies and from the Galactic center, and is co...
Moon, Chung-Man; Kim, Gwang-Won; Jeong, Gwang-Woo
2014-02-12
Patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) experience psychological distress because of excessive and uncontrollable anxiety in everyday life. Only a few morphological studies have so far focused on specific brain regions of interest as well as the gray matter volume changes in GAD patients. This study evaluated gray matter volume alterations in whole-brain areas between GAD patients and healthy controls, and sex differences between the specific brain areas with significant volume changes in GAD patients using voxel-based morphometry. Twenty-two patients with GAD (13 men and nine women), who were diagnosed using the DSM-IV-TR, and 22 age-matched healthy controls (13 men and nine women) participated in this study. The high-resolution MRI data were processed using voxel-based morphometry analysis on the basis of diffeomorphic anatomical registration through an exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm in Statistical Parametric Mapping 8. There was no significant difference in the total intracranial volume between GAD patients and controls, but a significant difference was observed between sexes (Psuperior temporal gyrus compared with the controls. As for the sex comparison, female patients showed a significant increase in the volume of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex relative to male patients. Also, the volume of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in female patients was correlated positively with the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale score (γ=0.68, P=0.04). The specific morphological variations in patient with GAD will be helpful to understand the neural mechanism associated with a symptom of GAD. Furthermore, the findings would be valuable for the diagnostic accuracy of GAD using morphometric MRI analysis.
Moon, Chung-Man; Jeong, Gwang-Woo
2017-03-01
Background The neuroanatomical abnormalities associated with behavioral dysfunction on explicit memory in patients generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have not yet been clearly identified. Purpose To investigate the regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations over the whole brain in patients with GAD, as well as the correlation between the brain structural abnormality and explicit memory dysfunction. Material and Methods Twenty patients with GAD and 20 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and education level underwent high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The participants performed the explicit memory tasks with the neutral and anxiety-inducing words. Results Patients with GAD showed significantly reduced GM volumes in the midbrain (MB), thalamus, hippocampus (Hip), insula, and superior temporal gyrus (STG); and reduced WM volumes in the MB, anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and precentral gyrus (PrG). It is important to note that the GM volume of the Hip and the WM volume of the DLPFC were positively correlated with the recognition accuracy (%) in the explicit memory tasks with neutral and anxiety-inducing words, respectively. On the other hand, the WM volume of the PrG was negatively correlated with the reaction time in the same memory tasks. Conclusion This study demonstrated the regional volume changes on whole-brain GM and WM and the correlation between the brain structural alteration and explicit memory dysfunction in GAD patients. These findings would be helpful to understand the association between the brain structure abnormality and the functional deficit in the explicit memory in GAD.
Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; Bless, Gérard
2013-03-01
This study aimed at assessing the impact of including children with intellectual disability (ID) in general education classrooms with support on the academic achievement of their low-, average-, and high-achieving peers without disability. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with an experimental group of 202 pupils from classrooms with an included child with mild or moderate ID, and a control group of 202 pupils from classrooms with no included children with special educational needs (matched pairs sample). The progress of these 2 groups in their academic achievement was compared over a period of 1 school year. No significant difference was found in the progress of the low-, average-, or high-achieving pupils from classrooms with or without inclusion. The results suggest that including children with ID in primary general education classrooms with support does not have a negative impact on the progress of pupils without disability.
Angelo, Joseph A
2011-01-01
Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S
Kendall, C.; Silva, S. R.; Young, M. B.
2013-12-01
While nutrient isotopes are a well-established tool for quantifying nutrients inputs from agricultural vs wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) sources, we have found that combining nutrient isotopes with the C, N, and S isotopic compositions of dissolved and particulate organic matter, as part of a comprehensive multi-isotope and multi-tracer approach, is a much more diagnostic approach. The main reasons why organic matter C-N-S isotopes are a useful adjunct to studies of nutrient sources and biogeochemical processes are that the dissolved and particulate organic matter associated with (1) different kinds of animals (e.g., humans vs cows) often have distinctive isotopic compositions reflecting the different diets of the animals, and (2) the different processes associated with the different land uses (e.g., in the WWTP or associated with different crop types) often result in significant differences in the isotopic compositions of the organics. The analysis of the δ34S of particulate organic matter (POM) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) has been found to be especially useful for distinguishing and quantifying water, nutrient, and organic contributions from different land uses in aquatic systems where much of the organic matter is aquatic in origin. In such environments, the bacteria and algae incorporate S from sulfate and sulfide that is isotopically labeled by the different processes associated with different land uses. We have found that there is ~35 permil range in δ34S of POM along the river-estuary continuum in the San Joaquin/Sacramento River basin, with low values associated with sulfate reduction in the upstream wetlands and high values associated with tidal inputs of marine water into the estuary. Furthermore, rice agriculture results in relatively low δ34S values whereas WWTP effluent in the Sacramento River produces distinctly higher values than upstream of the WWTP, presumably because SO2 is used to treat chlorinated effluent. The fish living
Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Fuentes, Jorge; Ospina, Maria; Saltaji, Humam; Hartling, Lisa
2013-09-17
Assessing the risk of bias of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is crucial to understand how biases affect treatment effect estimates. A number of tools have been developed to evaluate risk of bias of RCTs; however, it is unknown how these tools compare to each other in the items included. The main objective of this study was to describe which individual items are included in RCT quality tools used in general health and physical therapy (PT) research, and how these items compare to those of the Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool. We used comprehensive literature searches and a systematic approach to identify tools that evaluated the methodological quality or risk of bias of RCTs in general health and PT research. We extracted individual items from all quality tools. We calculated the frequency of quality items used across tools and compared them to those in the RoB tool. Comparisons were made between general health and PT quality tools using Chi-squared tests. In addition to the RoB tool, 26 quality tools were identified, with 19 being used in general health and seven in PT research. The total number of quality items included in general health research tools was 130, compared with 48 items across PT tools and seven items in the RoB tool. The most frequently included items in general health research tools (14/19, 74%) were inclusion and exclusion criteria, and appropriate statistical analysis. In contrast, the most frequent items included in PT tools (86%, 6/7) were: baseline comparability, blinding of investigator/assessor, and use of intention-to-treat analysis. Key items of the RoB tool (sequence generation and allocation concealment) were included in 71% (5/7) of PT tools, and 63% (12/19) and 37% (7/19) of general health research tools, respectively. There is extensive item variation across tools that evaluate the risk of bias of RCTs in health research. Results call for an in-depth analysis of items that should be used to assess risk of bias of RCTs. Further
2013-01-01
Background Assessing the risk of bias of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is crucial to understand how biases affect treatment effect estimates. A number of tools have been developed to evaluate risk of bias of RCTs; however, it is unknown how these tools compare to each other in the items included. The main objective of this study was to describe which individual items are included in RCT quality tools used in general health and physical therapy (PT) research, and how these items compare to those of the Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool. Methods We used comprehensive literature searches and a systematic approach to identify tools that evaluated the methodological quality or risk of bias of RCTs in general health and PT research. We extracted individual items from all quality tools. We calculated the frequency of quality items used across tools and compared them to those in the RoB tool. Comparisons were made between general health and PT quality tools using Chi-squared tests. Results In addition to the RoB tool, 26 quality tools were identified, with 19 being used in general health and seven in PT research. The total number of quality items included in general health research tools was 130, compared with 48 items across PT tools and seven items in the RoB tool. The most frequently included items in general health research tools (14/19, 74%) were inclusion and exclusion criteria, and appropriate statistical analysis. In contrast, the most frequent items included in PT tools (86%, 6/7) were: baseline comparability, blinding of investigator/assessor, and use of intention-to-treat analysis. Key items of the RoB tool (sequence generation and allocation concealment) were included in 71% (5/7) of PT tools, and 63% (12/19) and 37% (7/19) of general health research tools, respectively. Conclusions There is extensive item variation across tools that evaluate the risk of bias of RCTs in health research. Results call for an in-depth analysis of items that should be used to
Wyke Sally
2006-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Personal continuity is a core value for family practice, but policy and performance targets emphasise other aspects of care, particularly waiting times for consultation. This study examined patient and general practitioner (GP perceptions of the value of personal continuity and rapid access, and the relationship between them. Methods Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 16 GPs and 32 patients in the Lothian region of Scotland, to identify whether, how, why and in which circumstances personal continuity and rapid access were valued. Results From the patients' perspective, what mattered was 'access to appropriate care' depending on the problem to be dealt with. For a few patients, rapid access was the only priority. For most, rapid access was balanced against greater involvement in the consultation when seeing 'their' trusted doctor, which was particularly valued for chronic, complex and emotional problems. GPs focused on the value of personal continuity in the consultation for improving the diagnosis and management of the same kinds of problem. GPs did not perceive enabling access to be a core part of their work. There was little evidence that GPs routinely discussed with patients when or how personal continuity and access should be balanced. Conclusion 'Access to appropriate care' from the patients' perspective is not fully addressed by GPs' focus on personal continuity, nor by performance targets focused only on speed of access. GPs need to make enabling access as much a part of their core values as personal continuity, and access targets need to be based on less simplistic measures that account for the appropriateness of care as well as speed of access.
Moon, Chung-Man [Chonnam National University Hospital, Research Institute for Medical Imaging, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Gwang-Woo [Chonnam National University Hospital, Research Institute for Medical Imaging, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)
2015-11-15
Only a few morphological studies have focused on changes in white matter (WM) volume in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). We evaluated alterations in WM volume and its correlation with symptom severity and duration of illness in adults with GAD. The 44 subjects were comprised of 22 patients with GAD (13 males and nine females) diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and 22 age-matched healthy controls (13 males and nine females). High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were processed by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis based on diffeomorphic anatomical registration using the exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm in SPM8. Patients with GAD showed significantly reduced WM volume, particularly in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC), and midbrain. In addition, DLPFC volume was negatively correlated with GAD-7 score and illness duration. ALIC volume was negatively correlated with GAD-7 score. Female patients had significantly less orbitofrontal cortex volume compared to that in male patients. The findings demonstrate localized changes in WM volume associated with cognitive and emotional dysfunction in patients with GAD. The finding will be helpful for understanding the neuropathology in patients with GAD. (orig.)
Tala-Tebue, E.; Tsobgni-Fozap, D. C.; Kenfack-Jiotsa, A.; Kofane, T. C.
2014-06-01
Using the Jacobi elliptic functions and the alternative ( G'/ G-expansion method including the generalized Riccati equation, we derive exact soliton solutions for a discrete nonlinear electrical transmission line in (2+1) dimension. More precisely, these methods are general as they lead us to diverse solutions that have not been previously obtained for the nonlinear electrical transmission lines. This study seeks to show that it is not often necessary to transform the equation of the network into a well-known differential equation before finding its solutions. The solutions obtained by the current methods are generalized periodic solutions of nonlinear equations. The shape of solutions can be well controlled by adjusting the parameters of the network. These exact solutions may have significant applications in telecommunication systems where solitons are used to codify or for the transmission of data.
2010-04-30
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of CAN USA, Inc., Harvey, Louisiana; General License Pursuant to 10 CFR 150.20; Confirmatory Order (Effective Immediately) I CAN USA, Inc. (CAN USA or Licensee) is the holder of State...
Minazzoli, Olivier; Chauvineau, Bertrand
2009-04-01
The Solar System metric recommended by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) resolution B1.3, during its 24th general assembly, allows light propagation calculations until order c-3 only. However, an increasing number of forthcoming spatial experiments will require a modelization of the gravitational field including all the c-4 terms in the metric to describe light propagation at the required precision. This will be the case for missions planned or in project, like TIPO, ASTROD, LATOR. Hence, it is necessary to extend the IAU framework to include all the relevant contributing terms. This paper proposes such an extension.
Valeeva, Rania F.
2016-01-01
In this paper, I examine whether generalized trust and education, as well as social security policies of welfare state institutions matter for cross-national differences in subjective well-being (SWB), because knowledge on this issue is still lacking. For this purpose I integrated the insights of two sociological theories: Social Function…
Bel, Lluís
2017-01-01
I show that a very simple model in the context of Newtonian physics promoted to a first approximation of general relativity can mimic Dark matter and explain most of its intriguing properties. Namely: i) Dark matter is a halo associated to ordinary matter; ii) Dark matter does not interact with ordinary matter nor with itself; iii) Its influence grows with the size of the aggregate of ordinary matter that is considered, and iv) Dark matter influences the propagation of light.
Tarita Murray-Thomas
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Objective. Antipsychotics have been associated with increased cardiac events including mortality. This study assessed cardiac events including mortality among antipsychotic users relative to nonusers. Methods. The General Practice Research Database (GPRD was used to identify antipsychotic users, matched general population controls, and psychiatric diseased nonusers. Outcomes included cardiac mortality, sudden cardiac death (SCD, all-cause mortality (excluding suicide, coronary heart disease (CHD, and ventricular arrhythmias (VA. Sensitivity analyses were conducted for age, dose, duration, antipsychotic type, and psychiatric disease. Results. 183,392 antipsychotic users (115,491 typical and 67,901 atypical, 544,726 general population controls, and 193,920 psychiatric nonusers were identified. Nonusers with schizophrenia, dementia, or bipolar disorder had increased risks of all-cause mortality compared to general population controls, while nonusers with major depression had comparable risks. Relative to psychiatric nonusers, the adjusted relative ratios (aRR of all-cause mortality in antipsychotic users was 1.75 (95% CI: 1.64–1.87; cardiac mortality 1.72 (95% CI: 1.42–2.07; SCD primary definition 5.76 (95% CI: 2.90–11.45; SCD secondary definition 2.15 (95% CI: 1.64–2.81; CHD 1.16 (95% CI: 0.94–1.44; and VA 1.16 (95% CI: 1.02–1.31. aRRs of the various outcomes were lower for atypical versus typical antipsychotics (all-cause mortality 0.83 (95% CI: 0.80–0.85; cardiac mortality 0.89 (95% CI: 0.82–0.97; and SCD secondary definition 0.76 (95% CI: 0.55–1.04. Conclusions. Antipsychotic users had an increased risk of cardiac mortality, all-cause mortality, and SCD compared to a psychiatric nonuser cohort.
Petterson, Stephen; Burke, Matthew; Phillips, Robert; Teevan, Bridget
2011-05-01
Legislation proposed in 2009 to expand GME set institutional primary care and general surgery production eligibility thresholds at 25% at entry into training. The authors measured institutions' production of primary care physicians and general surgeons on completion of first residency versus two to four years after graduation to inform debate and explore residency expansion and physician workforce implications. Production of primary care physicians and general surgeons was assessed by retrospective analysis of the 2009 American Medical Association Masterfile, which includes physicians' training institution, residency specialty, and year of completion for up to six training experiences. The authors measured production rates for each institution based on physicians completing their first residency during 2005-2007 in family or internal medicine, pediatrics, or general surgery. They then reassessed rates to account for those who completed additional training. They compared these rates with proposed expansion eligibility thresholds and current workforce needs. Of 116,004 physicians completing their first residency, 54,245 (46.8%) were in primary care and general surgery. Of 683 training institutions, 586 met the 25% threshold for expansion eligibility. At two to four years out, only 29,963 physicians (25.8%) remained in primary care or general surgery, and 135 institutions lost eligibility. A 35% threshold eliminated 314 institutions collectively training 93,774 residents (80.8%). Residency expansion thresholds that do not account for production at least two to four years after completion of first residency overestimate eligibility. The overall primary care production rate from GME will not sustain the current physician workforce composition. Copyright © by the Association of American medical Colleges.
Chen, Xiao-Cui; Jahn, Heiko J.; Engling, Guenter; Ward, Tony J.; Kraemer, Alexander; Ho, Kin-Fai; Hung-Lam Yim, Steve; Chan, Chuen-Yu
2017-04-01
Fine particulate matter pollution severely deteriorates the environmental conditions and negatively impacts human health in the Chinese megacity Guangzhou. Concurrent ambient and personal measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were conducted in Guangzhou, China. Personal-to-ambient (P-C) relationships of PM2.5 chemical components were determined and sources of personal PM2.5 exposure were evaluated using principal component analysis along with a mixed-effects model. Water-soluble inorganic ions (mainly secondary inorganic ions) and anhydrosugars exhibited median personal-to-ambient (P/C) ratios personal PM2.5 were significantly affected by ambient sources. Conversely, elemental carbon (EC) and calcium (Ca2+) showed median P/C ratios greater than unity, which indicated that among subjects who spent a great amount of time indoors, aside from particles of ambient origin, individual's total exposure to PM2.5 includes contributions of non-ambient exposure while indoors and outdoors (e.g., local traffic, indoor sources, personal activities). SO42- displayed very low coefficient of divergence (COD) values coupled with strong P-C correlations, implying a uniform distribution of SO42- in the urban area of Guangzhou. EC, Ca2+, and levoglucosan were otherwise heterogeneously distributed across individuals in different districts. Regional air pollution (50.4 ± 0.9%), traffic-related particles (8.6 ± 0.7%), dust-related particles (5.8 ± 0.7%), and biomass burning emissions (2.0 ± 0.2%) were moderate to high positive sources of personal PM2.5 exposure in Guangzhou. The observed positive and significant contribution of Ca2+ to personal PM2.5 exposure, highlighting indoor sources and/or personal activities, were driving factors determining personal exposure to dust-related particles. Considerable discrepancies (COD values ranging from 0.42 to 0.50) were shown between ambient concentrations and personal exposure, indicating caution should be taken when using ambient
Kuhls-Gilcrist, Andrew T.; Gupta, Sandesh K.; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen
2010-01-01
The MTF, NNPS, and DQE are standard linear system metrics used to characterize intrinsic detector performance. To evaluate total system performance for actual clinical conditions, generalized linear system metrics (GMTF, GNNPS and GDQE) that include the effect of the focal spot distribution, scattered radiation, and geometric unsharpness are more meaningful and appropriate. In this study, a two-dimensional (2D) generalized linear system analysis was carried out for a standard flat panel detector (FPD) (194-micron pixel pitch and 600-micron thick CsI) and a newly-developed, high-resolution, micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF) (35-micron pixel pitch and 300-micron thick CsI). Realistic clinical parameters and x-ray spectra were used. The 2D detector MTFs were calculated using the new Noise Response method and slanted edge method and 2D focal spot distribution measurements were done using a pin-hole assembly. The scatter fraction, generated for a uniform head equivalent phantom, was measured and the scatter MTF was simulated with a theoretical model. Different magnifications and scatter fractions were used to estimate the 2D GMTF, GNNPS and GDQE for both detectors. Results show spatial non-isotropy for the 2D generalized metrics which provide a quantitative description of the performance of the complete imaging system for both detectors. This generalized analysis demonstrated that the MAF and FPD have similar capabilities at lower spatial frequencies, but that the MAF has superior performance over the FPD at higher frequencies even when considering focal spot blurring and scatter. This 2D generalized performance analysis is a valuable tool to evaluate total system capabilities and to enable optimized design for specific imaging tasks. PMID:21243038
Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D
2016-01-22
We describe a general scenario, dubbed "inflatable dark matter," in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early Universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many, otherwise, well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context. Thermal relics that would, otherwise, be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the nonthermal abundance of grand unified theory or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levels without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. A period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ∼MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the standard model.
Penserga, Ester G; Natividad, Therese Aileen L; Salido, Evelyn S
2015-05-01
To describe Filipino patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) entered in the Rheumatoid arthritis database and registry (RADAR) of the Philippine General Hospital. Cases entered to RADAR from 2010-2012 were included. All fulfilled the 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria for classification of RA. Included cases gave written infomed consent. Data extracted were demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory tests, treatment and disease course. Means and proportions were used for population characteristics. Two hundred and sixty-six cases were included. Mean age was 44 years, with 9 : 1 female preponderance and mean diagnosis time of 5 years. There was symmetrical polyarthritis with high tender and swollen joint count and mean Disease Activity Score of 28 joints, erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 5.27 (3.39, 8.13). Rheumatoid factor was positive in 2/3 of cases. Hypertension, tuberculosis and diabetes were important co-morbidities. Treatment included prednisone, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and methotrexate. At 12 months of treatment, evaluable cases (arthritis unit whose disease characteristics are similar to what is reported worldwide. This cohort differs from most studies in having a high female to male ratio, a long delay in diagnosis, and high attrition rate. Mean methotrexate dose was low and there was less access to biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Bahcall, Neta A
2015-10-06
Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter--a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations--from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is "cold" (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology--a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)--fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle.
Topuria, T; Gogebashvili, N; Korsantia, B
2005-11-01
During transformation from inanimate to living, change of the space position of the matter causes the change of the field, as the space does not exist without the field, therefore the time-space as the properties of material substances, should undergo certain changes. The outside inanimate system, in this case a matrix, has its own time. The living system, in this case a cell, where the matter undergoes space conformation with the change of field and space-time, has its own time and it has begun to flow more rapidly than in matrix. From the surface of the body, from different energetic reservoirs oppositely charged matter substances following from special transport systems from the life system transmitted into lifeless one and change their matter space conformation, create transmission gradient that is the gradient border of time from lifeless system into live. In the case of a human, hypothetically, the gradient system of time must be of a complex scheme counting the inter-transformation and interaction gradients of outer and inner abdominal systems. Subconscious and consciousness by means of special links and messages, information selection interact and form unique connection between the systems. Subconscious serves for accelerated time system. Conscious by means of permanent contact with the environment collects and reacts in matrix time system By interconnection of these two systems ideal adaptation with the environment takes place. Time difference gradient system is an additional energy factor, by means of which respective ordered geometrical structures special for the given types are formed. The living organism is an inter-regulated interconnection global system resulting from the changes of matter and material substances space configuration.
Fukushima, Kenji
2014-01-01
We summarize recent developments in identifying the ground state of dense baryonic matter and beyond. The topics include deconfinement from baryonic matter to quark matter, a diquark mixture, topological effect coupled with chirality and density, and inhomogeneous chiral condensates.
Dark matter directional detection in non-relativistic effective theories
Catena, Riccardo
2015-01-01
We extend the formalism of dark matter directional detection to arbitrary one-body dark matter-nucleon interactions. The new theoretical framework generalizes the one currently used, which is based on 2 types of dark matter-nucleon interaction only. It includes 14 dark matter-nucleon interaction operators, 8 isotope-dependent nuclear response functions, and the Radon transform of the first 2 moments of the dark matter velocity distribution. We calculate the recoil energy spectra at dark matter directional detectors made of CF$_4$, CS$_2$ and $^{3}$He for the 14 dark matter-nucleon interactions, using nuclear response functions recently obtained through numerical nuclear structure calculations. We highlight the new features of the proposed theoretical framework, and present our results for a spherical dark matter halo and for a stream of dark matter particles. This study lays the foundations for model independent analyses of dark matter directional detection experiments.
Angelo, Joseph A
2011-01-01
aseous Matter focuses on the many important discoveries that led to the scientific interpretation of matter in the gaseous state. This new, full-color resource describes the basic characteristics and properties of several important gases, including air, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nature and scope of the science of fluids is discussed in great detail, highlighting the most important scientific principles upon which the field is based. Chapters include:. Gaseous Matter An Initial Perspective. Physical Characteristics of Gases. The Rise of the Science of Gases. Kinetic Theory of
2010-09-16
... Trading''); Avalon International General Trading, LLC of Dubai, United Arab Emirates (``Avalon''); and... respondents remaining in the investigation. On December 2, 2009, Red Bull moved for summary determination...
Brice, Maximilien
2015-01-01
23 March 2015 - Tree planting ceremony Chemin Auguer, by His Holiness the XIIth Gyalwang Drukpa and CERN Director-General, on the occasion of the event Connecting Worlds: Science Meets Buddhism Great Minds, Great Matters.
Haro, Jaume; Amorós, Jaume, E-mail: jaime.haro@upc.edu, E-mail: jaume.amoros@upc.edu [Departament de Matemàtica Aplicada I, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)
2014-12-01
We consider the matter bounce scenario in F(T) gravity and Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) for phenomenological potentials that at early times provide a nearly matter dominated Universe in the contracting phase, having a reheating mechanism in the expanding or contracting phase, i.e., being able to release the energy of the scalar field creating particles that thermalize in order to match with the hot Friedmann Universe, and finally at late times leading to the current cosmic acceleration. For these potentials, numerically solving the dynamical perturbation equations we have seen that, for the particular F(T) model that we will name teleparallel version of LQC, and whose modified Friedmann equation coincides with the corresponding one in holonomy corrected LQC when one deals with the flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) geometry, the corresponding equations obtained from the well-know perturbed equations in F(T) gravity lead to theoretical results that fit well with current observational data. More precisely, in this teleparallel version of LQC there is a set of solutions which leads to theoretical results that match correctly with last BICEP2 data, and there is another set whose theoretical results fit well with Planck's experimental data. On the other hand, in the standard holonomy corrected LQC, using the perturbed equations obtained replacing the Ashtekar connection by a suitable sinus function and inserting some counter-terms in order to preserve the algebra of constrains, the theoretical value of the tensor/scalar ratio is smaller than in the teleparallel version, which means that there is always a set of solutions that matches with Planck's data, but for some potentials BICEP2 experimental results disfavours holonomy corrected LQC.
Norheim Ole
2005-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The general practitioner in Norway is expected to ensure equity and effectiveness through fair rationing. At the same time, due to recent reforms of the Norwegian health care sector, both the role of economic incentives and patient autonomy have been strengthened. Studies indicate that modern general practitioners, both in Norway and in other countries are uncomfortable with the gatekeeper role, but there is little knowledge about how general practitioners experience rationing in practice. Methods Through focus group interviews with Norwegian general practitioners, we explore physicians' attitudes toward factors of influence on medical decision making and how rationing dilemmas are experienced in everyday practice. Results Four major concerns appeared in the group discussions: The obligation to ration health care, professional autonomy, patient autonomy, and competition. A central finding was that the physicians find rationing difficult because saying no in face to face relations often is felt uncomfortable and in conflict with other important objectives for the general practitioner. Conclusion It is important to understand the association between using economic incentives in the management of health care, increasing patient autonomy, and the willingness among physicians to contribute to efficient, fair and legitimate resource allocation.
Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel
2017-01-01
This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...
Brewka, Lukasz Jerzy; Gavler, Anders; Wessing, Henrik
2012-01-01
End-to-end quality of service provisioning is still a challenging task despite many years of research and development in this area. Considering a generalized multi-protocol label switching based core/metro network and resource reservation protocol capable home gateways, it is the access part...... of the network where quality of service signaling is bridged. This article proposes strategies for generalized multi-protocol label switching control over next emerging passive optical network standard, i.e., the 10-gigabit-capable passive optical network. Node management and resource allocation approaches...... are discussed, and possible issues are raised. The analysis shows that consideration of a 10-gigabit-capable passive optical network as a generalized multi-protocol label switching controlled domain is valid and may advance end-to-end quality of service provisioning for passive optical network based customers....
无
2004-01-01
@@ In order to meet the needs of the current milk powder market and to lead enterprises to abide by the 3 national compulsory standards, i.e., the General Technical Regulations for Infant Blended Milk Powder and Infant Completed Grain Flour,GB10767-1997, the Infant Blended Milk Powder I(Blended Power Ⅰ), GB10765-1997 and the Infant Blended Milk Powder Ⅱ and Ⅲ (Blended Power Ⅱ and Ⅲ), GB10766-1997, General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of China (AQSIQ) and Standardization Administration of China (SAC) issued the following notice, explaining requirements in detail.
Dawson, John R
1938-01-01
The results of a general tank test of a 1/6 full-size model of the hull of the Pem-1 flying boat (N.A.C.A. model 18) are given in non-dimensional form. In addition to the usual curves, the results are presented in a new form that makes it possible to apply them more conveniently than in the forms previously used. The resistance was compared with that of N.A.C.A. models 11-C and 26(Sikorsky S-40) and was found to be generally less than the resistance of either.
Nanomedicine a soft matter perspective
Pan, Dipanjan
2014-01-01
This book provides a broad introduction to soft matters for nanomedicinal applications, with a deeper discussion of the individual modalities for molecular imaging. It includes a general introduction to the opportunities provided by this technology in chemistry, materials, biology and nanomedicine. It is designed and written with the perspective that anyone, with or without previous knowledge of nanotechnology, would benefit.
De Bothezat, George
1920-01-01
Report presents a theory which gives a complete picture and an exact quantitative analysis of the whole phenomenon of the working of blade screws, but also unites in a continuous whole the entire scale of states of work conceivable for a blade screw. Chapter 1 is devoted to the establishment of the system of fundamental equations relating to the blade screw. Chapter 2 contains the general discussion of the 16 states of work which may establish themselves for a blade screw. The existence of the vortex ring state and the whirling phenomenon are established. All the fundamental functions which enter the blade-screw theory are submitted to a general analytical discussion. The general outline of the curve of the specific function is examined. Two limited cases of the work of the screw, the screw with a zero constructive pitch and the screw with an infinite constructive pitch, are pointed out. Chapter 3 is devoted to the study of the propulsive screw or propeller. (author)
Ivan Curjuric
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress related genes modify the effects of ambient air pollution or tobacco smoking on lung function decline. The impact of interactions might be substantial, but previous studies mostly focused on main effects of single genes. OBJECTIVES: We studied the interaction of both exposures with a broad set of oxidative-stress related candidate genes and pathways on lung function decline and contrasted interactions between exposures. METHODS: For 12679 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, change in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1, FEV(1 over forced vital capacity (FEV(1/FVC, and mean forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of the FVC (FEF(25-75 was regressed on interval exposure to particulate matter 10% in 3320 SAPALDIA participants without GWAS. RESULTS: On the SNP-level, rs2035268 in gene SNCA accelerated FEV(1/FVC decline by 3.8% (p(interaction = 2.5×10(-6, and rs12190800 in PARK2 attenuated FEV1 decline by 95.1 ml p(interaction = 9.7×10(-8 over 11 years, while interacting with PM10. Genes and pathways nominally interacting with PM10 and packyears exposure differed substantially. Gene CRISP2 presented a significant interaction with PM10 (p(interaction = 3.0×10(-4 on FEV(1/FVC decline. Pathway interactions were weak. Replications for the strongest SNPs in PARK2 and CRISP2 were not successful. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with a stratified response to increasing oxidative stress, different genes and pathways potentially mediate PM10 and tobacco smoke effects on lung function decline. Ignoring environmental exposures would miss these patterns, but achieving sufficient sample size and comparability across study samples is challenging.
Dark matter and global symmetries
Mambrini, Yann; Profumo, Stefano; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.
2016-09-01
General considerations in general relativity and quantum mechanics are known to potentially rule out continuous global symmetries in the context of any consistent theory of quantum gravity. Assuming the validity of such considerations, we derive stringent bounds from gamma-ray, X-ray, cosmic-ray, neutrino, and CMB data on models that invoke global symmetries to stabilize the dark matter particle. We compute up-to-date, robust model-independent limits on the dark matter lifetime for a variety of Planck-scale suppressed dimension-five effective operators. We then specialize our analysis and apply our bounds to specific models including the Two-Higgs-Doublet, Left-Right, Singlet Fermionic, Zee-Babu, 3-3-1 and Radiative See-Saw models. Assuming that (i) global symmetries are broken at the Planck scale, that (ii) the non-renormalizable operators mediating dark matter decay have O (1) couplings, that (iii) the dark matter is a singlet field, and that (iv) the dark matter density distribution is well described by a NFW profile, we are able to rule out fermionic, vector, and scalar dark matter candidates across a broad mass range (keV-TeV), including the WIMP regime.
Agrawal, Ankit; Ganai, Nirmalendu; Sengupta, Surajit; Menon, Gautam I.
2017-01-01
Active matter models describe a number of biophysical phenomena at the cell and tissue scale. Such models explore the macroscopic consequences of driving specific soft condensed matter systems of biological relevance out of equilibrium through ‘active’ processes. Here, we describe how active matter models can be used to study the large-scale properties of chromosomes contained within the nuclei of human cells in interphase. We show that polymer models for chromosomes that incorporate inhomogeneous activity reproduce many general, yet little understood, features of large-scale nuclear architecture. These include: (i) the spatial separation of gene-rich, low-density euchromatin, predominantly found towards the centre of the nucleus, vis a vis. gene-poor, denser heterochromatin, typically enriched in proximity to the nuclear periphery, (ii) the differential positioning of individual gene-rich and gene-poor chromosomes, (iii) the formation of chromosome territories, as well as (iv), the weak size-dependence of the positions of individual chromosome centres-of-mass relative to the nuclear centre that is seen in some cell types. Such structuring is induced purely by the combination of activity and confinement and is absent in thermal equilibrium. We systematically explore active matter models for chromosomes, discussing how our model can be generalized to study variations in chromosome positioning across different cell types. The approach and model we outline here represent a preliminary attempt towards a quantitative, first-principles description of the large-scale architecture of the cell nucleus.
Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others
This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…
Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others
This is Part of a series of 41 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 Pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized courses in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…
Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others
This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…
Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others
This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…
Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others
This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…
Del Nobile, Eugenio; Sannino, Francesco
2012-01-01
We organize the effective (self)interaction terms for complex scalar dark matter candidates which are either an isosinglet, isodoublet or an isotriplet with respect to the weak interactions. The classification has been performed ordering the operators in inverse powers of the dark matter cutoff...... scale. We assume Lorentz invariance, color and charge neutrality. We also introduce potentially interesting dark matter induced flavor-changing operators. Our general framework allows for model independent investigations of dark matter properties....
Günter, Anastasia; Balsaa, Peter; Werres, Friedrich; Schmidt, Torsten C
2016-06-10
In this study, 21 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined based on sample preparation using solid-phase extraction disks (SPE disks) coupled with programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV)-large-volume injection gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS). The work includes a comprehensive testing scheme on the suitability of the method for routine analysis of surface and drinking water including suspended particulate matter (SPM) with regard to requirements derived from the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, Directive 2000/60/EC). SPM is an important reservoir for OCPs, which contributes to the transport of these compounds in the aquatic environment. To achieve the detection limits required by the WFD, a high pre-concentration factor during sample preparation is necessary, which was achieved by disk SPE in this study. The performance of disk SPE is strongly influenced by the drying step, which could be significantly improved by effective elimination of the residual water by combination of a high vacuum pump and a low humidity atmosphere. Detection limits of the WFD in the ng/L range were achieved by large volume injection of 100μL sample extract. The recoveries ranged from 82% to 117% with an RSD smaller than 13%. The applicability of this method to natural samples was tested for instrumental qualification and system suitability evaluation. Successful participation in an interlaboratory comparison proved the suitability of the method for routine analysis.
Vera, R.
Non-local relativity NLR is a general theory based on optical physics and the equivalence principle according to which particles and standing waves obey the same inertial and gravitational G laws 1 2 3 The theoretical inertial and G properties of a particle model PM made up of standing waves correspond with all of them the Einstein s equivalence principle EEP special relativity quantum mechanics the conventional G tests and more critical ones presented here From NLR gravitation is a refraction phenomenon produced by a gradient of the relative refraction index of the space with respect to any observer at rest in the field During a free fall the relative mass-energy of a PM with respect to an observer at rest in the field is conserved After a stop the proportional changes of its basic relative properties are just equal to the proportional energy released i e to the change of GP Thus the relative changes occurring to bodies and observers after changes of velocity or of GP and universe expansion cannot be locally detected because they occur in common proportions To the contrary of current physics the cosmological red-shifts don t increase with the time The G energy comes not from the G field but from a fraction of the mass-energy of the body This is opposed to a the hypothesis in that the relative rest-mass of a body with respect to the observer is independent on the difference of GP between them b The Einstein s G field energy hypothesis In the conventional tests of GR such errors of opposite signs are compensated
Dark Matter and Global Symmetries
Mambrini, Yann; Queiroz, Farinaldo S
2015-01-01
General considerations in general relativity and quantum mechanics rule out global symmetries in the context of any consistent theory of quantum gravity. Motivated by this, we derive stringent and robust bounds from gamma-ray, X-ray, cosmic ray, neutrino and CMB data on models that invoke global symmetries to stabilize the dark matter particle. Under realistic assumptions we are able to rule out fermionic, vector, and scalar dark matter candidates across a broad mass range (keV-TeV), including the WIMP regime. We then specialize our analysis and apply our bounds to specific models such as the Two-Higgs-Doublet, Left-Right, Singlet Fermionic, Zee-Babu, 3-3-1 and Radiative See-Saw models. In the supplemental material we derive robust, updated model-independent limits on the dark matter lifetime.
Calleecharan, Yogeshwarsing; Jauregui, Ricardo; Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
2013-08-01
Electromagnetic (EM) analysis of hydropower generators is common practice but rotor whirling is little studied. This paper suggests a novel semi-analytical method for estimating the steady state unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP) when the rotor centre is undergoing mixed eccentricities motion. The ability to estimate the UMP for mixed eccentricities motion in finite element method (FEM)-based modelling software packages is rare. The proposed methodology in its formulation takes advantage of the fact that a purely dynamic eccentricity motion including non-synchronous whirling and a purely static eccentricity motion can be more amenable to implement in existing FEM-based EM modelling software products for UMP estimation. After these initial separate UMP results are obtained, the proposed method can be applied for virtually any mixed eccentricities motion cases up to sufficiently large eccentricities for quick analysis instead of running the mixed eccentricities simulations directly in a FEM-based software package. Good agreement between the UMP from the actual EM mixed eccentricities motion simulations in a commercial FEM-based software package and the UMP estimations by the novel method is made for a wide range of eccentricities that may commonly occur in practice. A modified feature selective validation (FSV) method, the FSV-UPC, is applied to assess the similarities and the differences in the UMP computations.
Scopel, Stefano; Yoon, Jong-Hyun
2015-01-01
We show that compatibility between the DAMA modulation result (as well as less statistically significant excesses such as the CDMS Silicon effect and the excess claimed by CRESST) with constraints from other experiments can be achieved by extending the analysis of direct detection data beyond the standard elastic scattering of a WIMP off nuclei with a spin--dependent or a spin--independent cross section and with a velocity distribution as predicted by the Isothermal Sphere model. To do so we discuss several new approaches for the analysis of Dark Matter direct detection data, with the goal to remove or reduce its dependence on specific theoretical assumptions, and to extend its scope: the factorization approach of astrophysics uncertainties, the classification and study of WIMP-nucleon interactions within non--relativistic field theory, inelastic scattering and isovector-coupling cancellations including subdominant two-nucleon NLO effects. Typically, combining two or more of these ingredients can lead to conc...
Davoudiasl, Hooman; McDermott, Samuel D
2016-01-01
We describe a general scenario, dubbed "Inflatable Dark Matter", in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many otherwise well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context, without the need to tune underlying parameters or to appeal to anthropic considerations. Thermal relics that would otherwise be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the non-thermal abundance of GUT or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levels, without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. A period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ~ MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the...
Ordinary matter in nonlinear affine gauge theories of gravitation
Tiemblo, A; Tiemblo, A; Tresguerres, R
1994-01-01
We present a general framework to include ordinary fermionic matter in the metric--affine gauge theories of gravity. It is based on a nonlinear gauge realization of the affine group, with the Lorentz group as the classification subgroup of the matter and gravitational fields.
Curved non-relativistic spacetimes, Newtonian gravitation and massive matter
Geracie, Michael; Roberts, Matthew M
2015-01-01
There is significant recent work on coupling matter to Newton-Cartan spacetimes with the aim of investigating certain condensed matter phenomena. To this end, one needs to have a completely general spacetime consistent with local non-relativisitic symmetries which supports massive matter fields. In particular, one can not impose a priori restrictions on the geometric data if one wants to analyze matter response to a perturbed geometry. In this paper we construct such a Bargmann spacetime in complete generality without any prior restrictions on the fields specifying the geometry. The resulting spacetime structure includes the familiar Newton-Cartan structure with an additional gauge field which couples to mass. We illustrate the matter coupling with a few examples. The general spacetime we construct also includes as a special case the covariant description of Newtonian gravity, which has been thoroughly investigated in previous works. We also show how our Bargmann spacetimes arise from a suitable non-relativis...
General aspects of immunotoxicology including validation issues
Frieke Kuper, C.
2006-01-01
Histologic examination of lymphoid organs has revealed immunotoxic effects of a broad range of substances. The thymus has proven especially sensitive. The relative lack of sensitivity of mucosa-associated lymphoid cells and tissues may be due to shortcomings in the way they are examined. Validation
An Optimized Clustering Approach for Automated Detection of White Matter Lesions in MRI Brain Images
Anitha, M.; P. Tamije Selvy
2012-01-01
Settings White Matter lesions (WMLs) are small areas of dead cells found in parts of the brain. In general, it is difficult for medical experts to accurately quantify the WMLs due to decreased contrast between White Matter (WM) and Grey Matter (GM). The aim of this paper is to
automatically detect the White Matter Lesions which is present in the brains of elderly people. WML detection process includes the following stages: 1. Image preprocessing, 2. Clustering (Fuzzy c-means cluste...
Pappadopulo, Duccio; Trevisan, Gabriele
2016-01-01
A thermally decoupled hidden sector of particles, with a mass gap, generically enters a phase of cannibalism in the early Universe. The Standard Model sector becomes exponentially colder than the hidden sector. We propose the Cannibal Dark Matter framework, where dark matter resides in a cannibalizing sector with a relic density set by 2-to-2 annihilations. Observable signals of Cannibal Dark Matter include a boosted rate for indirect detection, new relativistic degrees of freedom, and warm dark matter.
Einasto, Jaan
2013-01-01
I give a review of the development of the concept of dark matter. The dark matter story passed through several stages from a minor observational puzzle to a major challenge for theory of elementary particles. Modern data suggest that dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, and that it consists of some unknown non-baryonic particles. Dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, thus properties of dark matter particles determine the structure of the cosmic...
Rossi, A
1996-01-01
We present a generalization of the resonant neutrino conversion in matter, including a random component in the matter density profile. The study is focused on the effect of such matter perturbations upon both large and small mixing angle MSW solutions to the solar neutrino problem. This is carried out both for the active-active \
Combustion of nuclear matter into strange matter
Lugones, G. (Departamento di Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, (1900) La Plata (Argentina)); Benvenuto, O.G.; Vucetich, H. (Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N, (1900) La Plata (Argentina))
1994-11-15
We study the properties of the combustion of pure neutron matter into strange matter in the framework of relativistic hydrodynamical theory of combustion. Because of the uncertainties in the actual properties of neutron matter, we employ the free neutron, Bethe-Johnson, Lattimer-Ravenhall, and Walecka equations of state and for strange matter we adopt the MIT bag model approximation. We find that combustion is possible for free neutron, Bethe-Johnson, and Lattimer-Ravenhall neutron matter but not for Walecka neutron matter. We interpret these results using a simple polytropic approximation showing that there exists a general flammability condition. We also study the burning of neutron matter into strange matter in a pipe showing that hydrodynamics demands flames faster than predicted by kinetics by several orders of magnitude, implying that the flame must be turbulent. Also the conditions for the deflagration to detonation transition are addressed, showing that in a pipe some of them are satisfied, strongly suggesting that the actual combustion mode should be detonation.
Alternatives to Dark Matter (?)
Aguirre, Anthony
2003-01-01
It has long been known that Newtonian dynamics applied to the visible matter in galaxies and clusters does not correctly describe the dynamics of those systems. While this is generally taken as evidence for dark matter it is in principle possible that instead Newtonian dynamics (and with it General Relativity) breaks down in these systems. Indeed there have been a number of proposals as to how standard gravitational dynamics might be modified so as to correctly explain galactic dynamics witho...
2017-02-01
Vera Rubin gave an evening lecture during the 19th General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union, in 1985 at New Delhi, on dark matter. It was a lucid introduction to the issues regarding dark matter, as well as a comprehensive review of the evidences for dark matter. This extraordinary lecture, aimed towards non-specialists, is reprinted below.
In today’s globalized world, halal (meaning ‘permissible’ or ‘lawful’) is about more than food. Politics, power and ethics all play a role in the halal industry in setting new standards for production, trade, consumption and regulation. The question of how modern halal markets are constituted...... is illustrated by rich ethnographic case studies from a range of contexts, and consideration is given to both Muslim majority and minority societies. Halal Matters will be of interest to students and scholars working across the humanities and social sciences, including anthropology, sociology and religious...
Ramaswamy, Sriram
2017-05-01
The study of systems with sustained energy uptake and dissipation at the scale of the constituent particles is an area of central interest in nonequilibrium statistical physics. Identifying such systems as a distinct category—Active matter—unifies our understanding of autonomous collective movement in the living world and in some surprising inanimate imitations. In this article I present the active matter framework, briefly recall some early work, review our recent results on single-particle and collective behaviour, including experiments on active granular monolayers, and discuss new directions for the future.
Einasto, J.
2011-01-01
I give a review of the development of the concept of dark matter. The dark matter story passed through several stages from a minor observational puzzle to a major challenge for theory of elementary particles. Modern data suggest that dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, and that it consists of some unknown non-baryonic particles. Properties of dark matter particles determine the structure of the cosmic web.
Slinger, Geertruida; Sinke, Michel R T; Braun, Kees P J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/207237239; Otte, Willem M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/168455706
2016-01-01
Objective Since the introduction of diffusion tensor imaging, white matter abnormalities in epilepsy have been studied extensively. However, the affected areas reported, the extent of abnormalities and the association with relevant clinical parameters are highly variable. We aimed to obtain a more
Single top quarks and dark matter
Pinna, Deborah; Zucchetta, Alberto; Buckley, Matthew R.; Canelli, Florencia
2017-08-01
Processes with dark matter interacting with the standard model fermions through new scalars or pseudoscalars with flavor-diagonal couplings proportional to fermion mass are well motivated theoretically, and provide a useful phenomenological model with which to interpret experimental results. Two modes of dark matter production from these models have been considered in the existing literature: pairs of dark matter produced through top quark loops with an associated monojet in the event, and pair production of dark matter with pairs of heavy flavored quarks (tops or bottoms). In this paper, we demonstrate that a third, previously overlooked channel yields a non-negligible contribution to LHC dark matter searches in these models. In spite of a generally lower production cross section at LHC when compared to the associated top-pair channel, non-flavor violating single top quark processes are kinematically favored and can significantly increase the sensitivity to these models. Including dark matter production in association with a single top quark through scalar or pseudoscalar mediators, the exclusion limit set by the LHC searches for dark matter can be improved by 30% up to a factor of two, depending on the mass assumed for the mediator particle.
Office of the Inspector General. Annual report
Wright, J.K.
1981-03-01
A summary of the progress and problems encountered by the Office of the Inspector General during 1980 is presented. Information on such administrative matters as the IG office organization, staffing, affirmative action, and training is reported. Planning and policy matters and expectations for the future are discussed. Important work done by the audit, inspection, and investigative staffs is summarized. Summaries of significant findings, recommendations, and actions taken in response are included. (MCW)
Hasse Jørgensen, Stina
2011-01-01
About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....
... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Memory Matters KidsHealth > For Kids > Memory Matters A A ... of your complex and multitalented brain. What Is Memory? When an event happens, when you learn something, ...
Traversing Cosmological Singularities, Complete Journeys Through Spacetime Including Antigravity
Bars, Itzhak
2012-01-01
A unique description of the Big Crunch-Big Bang transition is given at the classical gravity level, along with a complete set of homogeneous, isotropic, analytic solutions in scalar-tensor cosmology, with radiation and curvature. All solutions repeat cyclically; they have been obtained by using conformal gauge symmetry (Weyl symmetry) as a powerful tool in cosmology, and more generally in gravity. The significance of the Big Crunch-Big Bang transition is that it provides a model independent analytic resolution of the singularity, as an unambiguous and unavoidable solution of the equations at the classical gravitational physics level. It is controlled only by geometry (including anisotropy) and only very general features of matter coupled to gravity, such as kinetic energy of a scalar field, and radiation due to all forms of relativistic matter. This analytic resolution of the singularity is due to an attractor mechanism created by the leading terms in the cosmological equation. It is unique, and it is unavoid...
Candelas, Philip; Rajesh, G; Candelas, Philip; Perevalov, Eugene; Rajesh, Govindan
1998-01-01
We present an algorithm for obtaining the matter content of effective six-dimensional theories resulting from compactification of F-theory on elliptic Calabi-Yau threefolds which are hypersurfaces in toric varieties. The algorithm allows us to read off the matter content of the theory from the polyhedron describing the Calabi-Yau manifold. This is based on the generalized Green-Schwarz anomaly cancellation condition.
Resource Letter HCMP-1: History of Condensed Matter Physics
Martin, Joseph D.
2017-02-01
This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the history of condensed matter physics, including discussions of the development of the field and strategies for approaching its complicated historical trajectory. Following the presentation of general resources, journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: conceptual development; institutional and community structure; social, cultural, and political history; and connections between condensed matter physics and technology.
Conformal Gravity: Dark Matter and Dark Energy
Robert K. Nesbet
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This short review examines recent progress in understanding dark matter, dark energy, and galactic halos using theory that departs minimally from standard particle physics and cosmology. Strict conformal symmetry (local Weyl scaling covariance, postulated for all elementary massless fields, retains standard fermion and gauge boson theory but modifies Einstein–Hilbert general relativity and the Higgs scalar field model, with no new physical fields. Subgalactic phenomenology is retained. Without invoking dark matter, conformal gravity and a conformal Higgs model fit empirical data on galactic rotational velocities, galactic halos, and Hubble expansion including dark energy.
A cosmological solution to mimetic dark matter
Saadi, Hassan, E-mail: hls01@mail.aub.edu [Physics Department, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon)
2016-01-11
In this paper, a cosmological solution to Mimetic Dark Matter (MDM) for an exponential potential is provided. Then a solution for the 0-i perturbed Einstein differential equation of MDM is obtained based on an exponential potential that satisfies inflation for some initial conditions. Another general potential is suggested that incorporates inflation too. Then quantum perturbations are included. The constants in the model can be tuned to be in agreement with the fluctuation amplitude of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Finally, the spectral index is calculated for the suggested potentials. Moreover, MDM is shown to be a viable model to produce dark matter, inflation, and CMB’s fluctuation.
A cosmological solution to mimetic dark matter
Saadi, Hassan [American University of Beirut, Physics Department, Beirut (Lebanon)
2016-01-15
In this paper, a cosmological solution to Mimetic Dark Matter (MDM) for an exponential potential is provided. Then a solution for the 0 - i perturbed Einstein differential equation of MDM is obtained based on an exponential potential that satisfies inflation for some initial conditions. Another general potential is suggested that incorporates inflation too. Then quantum perturbations are included. The constants in the model can be tuned to be in agreement with the fluctuation amplitude of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Finally, the spectral index is calculated for the suggested potentials. Moreover, MDM is shown to be a viable model to produce dark matter, inflation, and CMB's fluctuation. (orig.)
Curved non-relativistic spacetimes, Newtonian gravitation and massive matter
Geracie, Michael, E-mail: mgeracie@uchicago.edu; Prabhu, Kartik, E-mail: kartikp@uchicago.edu; Roberts, Matthew M., E-mail: matthewroberts@uchicago.edu [Kadanoff Center for Theoretical Physics, Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)
2015-10-15
There is significant recent work on coupling matter to Newton-Cartan spacetimes with the aim of investigating certain condensed matter phenomena. To this end, one needs to have a completely general spacetime consistent with local non-relativistic symmetries which supports massive matter fields. In particular, one cannot impose a priori restrictions on the geometric data if one wants to analyze matter response to a perturbed geometry. In this paper, we construct such a Bargmann spacetime in complete generality without any prior restrictions on the fields specifying the geometry. The resulting spacetime structure includes the familiar Newton-Cartan structure with an additional gauge field which couples to mass. We illustrate the matter coupling with a few examples. The general spacetime we construct also includes as a special case the covariant description of Newtonian gravity, which has been thoroughly investigated in previous works. We also show how our Bargmann spacetimes arise from a suitable non-relativistic limit of Lorentzian spacetimes. In a companion paper [M. Geracie et al., e-print http://arxiv.org/abs/1503.02680 ], we use this Bargmann spacetime structure to investigate the details of matter couplings, including the Noether-Ward identities, and transport phenomena and thermodynamics of non-relativistic fluids.
Dickens, J.K.; McConnell, J.W.
1977-03-29
ORCODE.77 is a versatile data-handling computer routine written in MACRO (assembler) language for a PDP-15 computer with EAE (extended arithmetic capability) connected to a CAMAC interface. The Interrupt feature of the computer is utilized. Although the code is oriented for a specific experimental problem, there are many routines of general interest, including a CAMAC Scaler handler, an executive routine to interpret and act upon three-character teletype commands, concise routines to type out double-precision integers (both octal and decimal) and floating-point numbers and to read in integers and floating-point numbers, a routine to convert to and from PDP-15 FORTRAN-IV floating-point format, a routine to handle clock interrupts, and our own DECTAPE handling routine. Routines having specific applications which are applicable to other very similar applications include a display routine using CAMAC instructions, control of external mechanical equipment using CAMAC instructions, storage of data from an Analog-to-digital Converter, analysis of stored data into time-dependent pulse-height spectra, and a routine to read the contents of a Nuclear Data 5050 Analyzer and to prepare DECTAPE output of these data for subsequent analysis by a code written in PDP-15-compiled FORTRAN-IV.
Dark Matter and Potential fields
Pestov, I
2004-01-01
A general concept of potential field is introduced. The potential field that one puts in correspondence with dark matter, has fundamental geometrical interpretation (parallel transport) and has intrinsically inherent in local symmetry. The equations of dark matter field are derived that are invariant with respect to the local transformations. It is shown how to reduce these equations to the Maxwell equations. Thus, the dark matter field may be considered as generalized electromagnetic field and a simple solution is given of the old problem to connect electromagnetic field with geometrical properties of the physical manifold itself. It is shown that gauge fixing renders generalized electromagnetic field effectively massive while the Maxwell electromagnetic field remains massless. To learn more about interactions between matter and dark matter on the microscopical level (and to recognize the fundamental role of internal symmetry) the general covariant Dirac equation is derived in the Minkowski space--time which...
Rodiet, Christophe; Remy, Benjamin; Degiovanni, Alain
2016-05-01
In this paper, it is shown how to select the optimal wavelengths minimizing the relative error and the standard deviation of the temperature. Furthermore, it is shown that the optimal wavelengths in mono-spectral and bi-spectral methods (for a Planck's law) can be determined by laws analogous to the displacement Wien's law. The simplicity of these laws can thus allow real-time selection of optimal wavelengths for a control/optimization of industrial processes, for example. A more general methodology to obtain the optimal wavelengths selection in a multi-spectral method (taking into account the spectral variations of the global transfer function including the emissivity variations) for temperature measurement of surfaces exhibiting non-uniform emissivity, is also presented. This latter can then find an interest in glass furnaces temperature measurement with spatiotemporal non-uniformities of emissivity, the control of biomass pyrolysis, the surface temperature measurement of buildings or heating devices, for example. The goal consists of minimizing the standard deviation of the estimated temperature (optimal design experiment). For the multi-spectral method, two cases will be treated: optimal global and optimal constrained wavelengths selection (to the spectral range of the detector, for example). The estimated temperature results obtained by different models and for different number of parameters and wavelengths are compared. These different points are treated from theoretical, numerical and experimental points of view.
Cosmological N -body simulations including radiation perturbations
Brandbyge, Jacob; Rampf, Cornelius; Tram, Thomas
2017-01-01
Cosmological $N$-body simulations are the standard tool to study the emergence of the observed large-scale structure of the Universe. Such simulations usually solve for the gravitational dynamics of matter within the Newtonian approximation, thus discarding general relativistic effects such as th......Cosmological $N$-body simulations are the standard tool to study the emergence of the observed large-scale structure of the Universe. Such simulations usually solve for the gravitational dynamics of matter within the Newtonian approximation, thus discarding general relativistic effects...
PREFACE: Polymers and Complex Matter
von Ferber, Christian
2005-05-01
This special issue, in honour of Lothar Schäfer on the occasion of his 60th birthday, focuses on polymers and complex matter and covers a broad range of topics both in terms of subject matter and methods applied. This reflects the wide and open minded interests of the honoree. Lothar Schäfer began his career in Heidelberg working on theoretical nuclear physics with H A Weidenmüller. Following a stay at the CEN Saclay in 1974, he turned to the field of critical phenomena. He made fundamental contributions to the subject of disordered systems, in particular on Goldstone modes with F J Wegner and on Anderson localization with A U Pruisken. With T A Witten he formulated a truly field theoretic description of general polymer solutions. Polymers in solution and the renormalization group approach to their experimentally accessible properties have, since 1980 in Hannover and 1983 in Essen, been his primary field of research summarized in his book Excluded Volume Effects in Polymer Solutions as Explained by the Renormalization Group covering `all you ought to know' on the subject. This work is complemented by analytical studies of polymer dynamics. The subjects contained in this special issue encompass soft matter and its rheology, polymers in confinement and their role in short- and long-range colloidal interactions: discussing lenses, dumbbells, rods and dendrimers. Special topics are short chains, directed molecules and gas permeation through polymers. Applications of polymer theory to biological systems include the interactions between DNA molecules and between DNA and proteins and the polymerization of the actin skeleton. Work on random matrix theory, functional renormalization and ageing is devoted to the implications of disorder. Finally, more general aspects of the field theory of polymers and complex matter are discussed, like the Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation, renormalization of polymer field theory, exact renormalization group equations, percolation and
Vogels, Raymond L. C.; van Harten, Barbera; Gouw, Alida A.; Scheltens, Philip; Poggesi, Anna; Weinstein, Henry C.; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Oosterman, J
2008-01-01
Various studies support an association between white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and deficits in executive function in nondemented ageing. Studies examining executive functions and WMH have generally adopted executive function as a phrase including various functions such as flexibility,
Gupta, Sandesh K; Jain, Amit; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen
2011-01-01
In this study, we evaluated the imaging characteristics of the high-resolution, high-sensitivity micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF) with 35-micron pixel-pitch when used with different commercially-available 300 micron thick phosphors: the high resolution (HR) and high light (HL) from Hamamatsu. The purpose of this evaluation was to see if the HL phosphor with its higher screen efficiency could be replaced with the HR phosphor to achieve improved resolution without an increase in noise resulting from the HR's decreased light-photon yield. We designated the detectors MAF-HR and MAF-HL and compared them with a standard flat panel detector (FPD) (194 micron pixel pitch and 600 micron thick CsI(Tl)). For this comparison, we used the generalized linear-system metrics of GMTF, GNNPS and GDQE which are more realistic measures of total system performance since they include the effect of scattered radiation, focal spot distribution, and geometric un-sharpness. Magnifications (1.05-1.15) and scatter fractions (0.28 and 0.33) characteristic of a standard head phantom were used. The MAF-HR performed significantly better than the MAF-HL at high spatial frequencies. The ratio of GMTF and GDQE of the MAF-HR compared to the MAF-HL at 3(6) cycles/mm was 1.45(2.42) and 1.23(2.89), respectively. Despite significant degradation by inclusion of scatter and object magnification, both MAF-HR and MAF-HL provide superior performance over the FPD at higher spatial frequencies with similar performance up to the FPD's Nyquist frequency of 2.5 cycles/mm. Both substantially higher resolution and improved GDQE can be achieved with the MAF using the HR phosphor instead of the HL phosphor.
Misra, Prasanta K
2012-01-01
Physics of Condensed Matter is designed for a two-semester graduate course on condensed matter physics for students in physics and materials science. While the book offers fundamental ideas and topic areas of condensed matter physics, it also includes many recent topics of interest on which graduate students may choose to do further research. The text can also be used as a one-semester course for advanced undergraduate majors in physics, materials science, solid state chemistry, and electrical engineering, because it offers a breadth of topics applicable to these majors. The book be
Resconi, Silvia; The ATLAS collaboration
2016-01-01
Results of Dark Matter searches in mono-X analysis with the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider are reported. The data were collected in proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb-1. A description of the main characteristics of each analysis and how the main backgrounds are estimated is shown. The observed data are in agreement with the expected Standard Model backgrounds for all analysis described. Exclusion limits are presented for Dark Matter models including pair production of dark matter candidates.
Dolgov, A. D.
These lectures have been given to particle physicists, mostly experimentalists and very briefly and at a pedestrian level review the problems of dark matter. The content of the lectures is the following: 1. Introduction. 2. Cosmological background. 3. Luminous matter. 4. Primordial nucleosynthesis and the total amount of baryons. 5. Gravitating invisible matter. 6. Baryonic crisis. 7. Inflationary omega. 8. Intermediate summary. 9. Possible forms of dark matter. 10. Structure formation: basic assumptions. 11. Structure formations: basics of the theory. 12. Evolution of perturbations with different forms of dark matter. 13. Conclusion. The presentation and conclusion reflect personal view of the author that a considerable amount of invisible energy in the universe is in the form of vacuum energy (cosmological constant) and possibly in the form of a classical field which adjusts vacuum energy to the value permitted and requested by astronomical data.
Wilson, B G; Sonnad, V
2011-02-14
Precise electronic structure calculations of ions in plasmas benefit from optimized numerical radial meshes. A new closed form expression for obtaining non-linear parameters for the efficient generation of analytic log-linear radial meshes is presented. In conjunction with the (very simple) algorithm for the rapid high precision evaluation of Lambert's W-function, the above identity allows the precise construction of generalized log-linear radial meshes adapted to various constraints.
García Sakai, Victoria; Chen, Sow-Hsin
2012-01-01
Dynamics of Soft Matter: Neutron Applications provides an overview of neutron scattering techniques that measure temporal and spatial correlations simultaneously, at the microscopic and/or mesoscopic scale. These techniques offer answers to new questions arising at the interface of physics, chemistry, and biology. Knowledge of the dynamics at these levels is crucial to understanding the soft matter field, which includes colloids, polymers, membranes, biological macromolecules, foams, emulsions towards biological & biomimetic systems, and phenomena involving wetting, friction, adhesion, or micr
Doran, C F; Gates, S J Jr; Hübsch, T; Iga, K M; Landweber, G D
2008-01-01
We introduce a variety of four-dimensional N = 2 matter multiplets which have not previously appeared explicitly in the literature. Using these, we develop a class of supersymmetric actions supplying a context for a systematic exploration of N = 2 matter theories, some of which include Hypermultiplet sectors in novel ways. We construct an N = 2 supersymmetric field theory in which the propagating fields are realized off-shell exclusively as Lorentz scalars and Weyl spinors and which involves a sector with precisely the R-charge assignments characteristic of Hypermultiplets.
Effective equations for isotropic quantum cosmology including matter
Bojowald, Martin; Skirzewski, Aureliano
2007-01-01
Effective equations often provide powerful tools to develop a systematic understanding of detailed properties of a quantum system. This is especially helpful in quantum cosmology where several conceptual and technical difficulties associated with the full quantum equations can be avoided in this way. Here, effective equations for Wheeler-DeWitt and loop quantizations of spatially flat, isotropic cosmological models sourced by a massive or interacting scalar are derived and studied. The resulting systems are remarkably different from that given for a free, massless scalar. This has implications for the coherence of evolving states and the realization of a bounce in loop quantum cosmology.
Testing a non-minimal coupling between matter and curvature
Páramos, J
2011-01-01
One of the most interesting and current phenomenological extensions of General Relativity is the so-called $f (R)$ class of theories; a natural generalization of this includes an explicit non-minimal coupling between matter and curvature. The purpose of this work is to present a unified view of the applicability of the latter to various contexts, ranging from astrophysical matter distributions to a cosmological setting. Various results are discussed, including the impact of this non-minimal coupling in the choice of Lagrangian density, a mechanism to mimic galactic dark matter and a Cosmological Constant at a astrophysical scale, the possibility of accounting for the accelerated expansion of the Universe and modifications to post-inflationary reheating. The equivalence between a model exhibiting a non-minimal coupling and multi-scalar-theories is also discussed.
CERN
2016-01-01
This video is a teaser-introduction to the Antimatter Matters exhibtion at the Royal Society's Summer Science exhibition July 4-10 2016. The exhibition is jointly organised and hosted by UK members of the ALPHA and LHCb collaborations.
Stone J.R.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The microscopic composition and properties of matter at super-saturation densities have been the subject of intense investigation for decades. The scarcity of experimental and observational data has led to the necessary reliance on theoretical models. There remains great uncertainty in these models which, of necessity, have to go beyond the over-simple assumption that high density matter consists only of nucleons and leptons. Heavy strange baryons, mesons and quark matter in different forms and phases have to be included to fulfil basic requirements of fundamental laws of physics. In this contribution latest developments in construction of the Equation of State (EoS of high-density matter at zero and finite temperature assuming different composition of matter will be discussed. Critical comparison of model EoS with available experimental data from heavy ion collisions and observations on neutron stars, including gravitational mass, radii and cooling patterns and data on X-ray burst sources and low mass X-ray binaries are made. Fundamental differences between the EoS of low-density, high temperature matter, such as is created in heavy ion collisions and of high-density, low temperature compact objects is discussed.
Salucci, Paolo
2013-01-01
To teach the topic of Dark Matter in Galaxies to undergraduate and PhD students is not easy, one reason being that the scientific community has not converged yet to a generally shared knowledge. We argue that the teaching of this topic and its subsequent scientific progress may benefit by Massive Online and Open Courses. The reader of this paper can express his/her opinion on this by means of a confidence vote at: https://moocfellowship.org/submissions/dark-matter-in-galaxies-the-last-mystery
El-Badry, M.; Loov, R.E.; Ruwanpura, J.; El-Hacha, R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Kroman, J. [City of Calgary, AB (Canada); Rankin, J. [New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Dunaszegi, L. [Earth Tech Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)] (eds.)
2006-07-01
This conference provided a forum for national and international practicing engineers, researchers and technical experts to discuss sustainable solutions to infrastructure development. Discussions focused on recent developments in new technologies for building more economic and sustainable infrastructure, while improving the safety of buildings, bridges, roads, water supply and sewage treatment systems. The conference was held in conjunction with associated specialty conferences, including a first international structures specialty conference, a first international construction specialty conference, and a first specialty conference on disaster mitigation. This book of abstracts highlights all the specialty conferences and accompanies a CD-ROM that has the full text of all the papers. Manuscripts of the full papers submitted to the specialty conferences were peer-reviewed by international scientific committees. The general conference provided a forum to learn about new technologies and future directions in various areas of civil engineering. It included a special theme session on sustainable development and a special session on innovation and information technology. Other technical sessions focused on topics such as civil engineering history and education; infrastructure management and renewal; asset management; risk assessment and management; engineering materials and mechanics; environmental engineering and science; hydrotechnical engineering; cold region engineering; and, transportation engineering. The general conference featured 88 presentations, of which 15 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.
Gravitational Origin of Dark Matter
Babichev, Eugeny; Raidal, Martti; Schmidt-May, Angnis; Urban, Federico; Veermäe, Hardi; von Strauss, Mikael
2016-01-01
Observational evidence for the existence of Dark Matter is limited to its gravitational effects. The extensive program for dedicated searches has yielded null results so far, challenging the most popular models. Here we propose that this is the case because the very existence of cold Dark Matter is a manifestation of gravity itself. The consistent bimetric theory of gravity, the only known ghost-free extension of General Relativity involving a massless and a massive spin-2 field, automatically contains a perfect Dark Matter candidate. We demonstrate that the massive spin-2 particle can be heavy, stable on cosmological scales, and that it interacts with matter only through a gravitational type of coupling. Remarkably, these features persist in the same region of parameter space where bimetric theory satisfies the current gravity tests. We show that the observed Dark Matter abundance can be generated via freeze-in and suggest possible particle physics and gravitational signatures of our bimetric Dark Matter mod...
Electromagnetic field in matter. Surface enhanced Raman scattering
Marian Apostol
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The polarization and magnetization degrees of freedom are included in the general treatment of the electromagnetic field in matter, and their governing equations are given. Particular cases of solutions are discussed for polarizable, non-magnetic matter, including quasi-static fields, surface plasmons, propagation, zero-point fluctuations of the eigenmodes, especially for a semi-infinite homogeneous body (half-space. The van der Waals London-Casimir force acting between a neutral nano-particle and a half-space is computed and the response of this electromagnetically coupled system to an external field is given, with relevance for the surface enhanced Raman scattering.
Dark matter as a Bose-Einstein Condensate: the relativistic non-minimally coupled case
Bettoni, Dario; Colombo, Mattia; Liberati, Stefano, E-mail: bettoni@sissa.it, E-mail: mattia.colombo@studenti.unitn.it, E-mail: liberati@sissa.it [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 (Italy)
2014-02-01
Bose-Einstein Condensates have been recently proposed as dark matter candidates. In order to characterize the phenomenology associated to such models, we extend previous investigations by studying the general case of a relativistic BEC on a curved background including a non-minimal coupling to curvature. In particular, we discuss the possibility of a two phase cosmological evolution: a cold dark matter-like phase at the large scales/early times and a condensed phase inside dark matter halos. During the first phase dark matter is described by a minimally coupled weakly self-interacting scalar field, while in the second one dark matter condensates and, we shall argue, develops as a consequence the non-minimal coupling. Finally, we discuss how such non-minimal coupling could provide a new mechanism to address cold dark matter paradigm issues at galactic scales.
Fabbrichesi, Marco
2015-01-01
We show how the Higgs boson mass is protected from the potentially large corrections due to the introduction of minimal dark matter if the new physics sector is made supersymmetric. The fermionic dark matter candidate (a 5-plet of $SU(2)_L$) is accompanied by a scalar state. The weak gauge sector is made supersymmetric and the Higgs boson is embedded in a supersymmetric multiplet. The remaining standard model states are non-supersymmetric. Non vanishing corrections to the Higgs boson mass only appear at three-loop level and the model is natural for dark matter masses up to 15 TeV--a value larger than the one required by the cosmological relic density. The construction presented stands as an example of a general approach to naturalness that solves the little hierarchy problem which arises when new physics is added beyond the standard model at an energy scale around 10 TeV.
Linear response of homogeneous nuclear matter with energy density functionals
Pastore, A. [Institut d’Astronomie et d’Astrophysique, CP 226, Université Libre de Bruxelles, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Davesne, D., E-mail: davesne@ipnl.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, CNRS-IN2P3, UMR 5822, Université Lyon 1, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Navarro, J. [IFIC (CSIC University of Valencia), Apdo. Postal 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)
2015-03-01
Response functions of infinite nuclear matter with arbitrary isospin asymmetry are studied in the framework of the random phase approximation. The residual interaction is derived from a general nuclear Skyrme energy density functional. Besides the usual central, spin–orbit and tensor terms it could also include other components as new density-dependent terms or three-body terms. Algebraic expressions for the response functions are obtained from the Bethe–Salpeter equation for the particle–hole propagator. Applications to symmetric nuclear matter, pure neutron matter and asymmetric nuclear matter are presented and discussed. Spin–isospin strength functions are analyzed for varying conditions of density, momentum transfer, isospin asymmetry, and temperature for some representative Skyrme functionals. Particular attention is paid to the discussion of instabilities, either real or unphysical, which could manifest in finite nuclei.
Harigaya, Keisuke; Lou, Hou Keong
2016-01-01
Motivated by gauge coupling unification and dark matter, we present an extension to the Standard Model where both are achieved by adding an extra new matter multiplet. Such considerations lead to a Grand Unified Theory with very heavy WIMPzilla dark matter, which has mass greater than ~10^7 GeV and must be produced before reheating ends. Naturally, we refer to this scenario as GUTzilla dark matter. Here we present a minimal GUTzilla model, adding a vector-like quark multiplet to the Standard Model. Proton decay constraints require the new multiplet to be both color and electroweak charged, which prompts us to include a new confining SU(3) gauge group that binds the multiplet into a neutral composite dark matter candidate. Current direct detection constraints are evaded due to the large dark matter mass; meanwhile, next-generation direct detection and proton decay experiments will probe much of the parameter space. The relic abundance is strongly dependent on the dynamics of the hidden confining sector, and we...
Asymmetric condensed dark matter
Aguirre, Anthony; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto
2016-04-01
We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate must be lighter than a few tens of eV so that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of decoupling to the scale of the QCD phase transition or above. This requires large dark matter-to-photon ratios and very weak interactions with standard model particles.
Pion decay constants in dense skyrmion matter
Lee H.-J.
2010-10-01
Full Text Available According to the QCD, the hadronic matter can have various phases with matter density and temperature. In general, when there is phase transition in a matter, it is known that a symmetry in the matter changes. In case of the hadronic matter, the chiral symmetry in the matter is expected to be restored when the matter density (or temperature increases. The actual order parameter with respect to the chiral symmetry in the hadronic matter is known as the quark condensate from the QCD, but the pion decay constant, corresponding to the radius of the chiral circle, plays the role of the order parameter in an eﬀective ﬁeld theoretical approach to the QCD. In this paper, by using the skyrmion model which is an eﬀective theory to the QCD, we construct the skyrmion matter as a model of the hadronic matter (nuclear matter and calculate the pion decay constant in the matter. Because of presence of the matter, the pion decay constant is split into the two components, the temporal component and the spatial component. We discuss the phase transition in the skyrmion matter and behavior of the two components of the decay constant for massless pion with density of the skyrmion matter.
Bergson, Henri
1991-01-01
Since the end of the last century," Walter Benjamin wrote, "philosophy has made a series of attempts to lay hold of the 'true' experience as opposed to the kind that manifests itself in the standardized, denatured life of the civilized masses. It is customary to classify these efforts under the heading of a philosophy of life. Towering above this literature is Henri Bergson's early monumental work, Matter and Memory."Along with Husserl's Ideas and Heidegger's Being and Time, Bergson's work represents one of the great twentieth-century investigations into perception and memory, movement and time, matter and mind. Arguably Bergson's most significant book, Matter and Memory is essential to an understanding of his philosophy and its legacy.This new edition includes an annotated bibliography prepared by Bruno Paradis.Henri Bergson (1859-1941) was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1927. His works include Time and Free Will, An Introduction to Metaphysics, Creative Evolution, and The Creative Mind.
Visual Impairment, Including Blindness
... a child has, it’s helpful to understand the anatomy of the eye and the functions of its different parts. Rather than go into those details here, in this general fact sheet, we’re pleased to refer you ...
Resident Assistant Mattering: Do Placement and Community Size Matter?
Stoner, James C.; Zhang, Yi
2017-01-01
A sense of mattering among college students has been found to have positive outcomes, including lower levels of anxiety and depression as well as increased self-esteem, wellness, happiness, and job satisfaction. However, the feeling of mattering among Resident Assistants (RAs) has received little attention in literature. This quantitative study…
Sobieszczyk, Steven; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Goldman, Jami H.; Rounds, Stewart A.
2015-01-01
The term organic matter refers to the remnants of all living material. This can include fallen leaves, yard waste, animal waste, downed timber, or the remains of any other plant and animal life. Organic matter is abundant both on land and in water. Investigating organic matter is necessary for understanding the fate and transport of carbon (a major constituent of organic matter).
Chuan-Ren Chen
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Even though the sensitivity of direct dark matter search experiments reaches the level of about 10−45 cm2, no confident signal of dark matter has been observed. We point out that, if dark matter is a vector boson, the null result in direct dark matter search experiments may be due to the destructive effects in dark-matter–nucleon elastic scattering. We illustrate the scenario using a modified Higgs portal model that includes exotic quarks. The significant cancellation can occur for a certain mass gap between new heavy quark and dark matter. As a result, the spin-independent dark-matter–nucleon elastic scattering is so suppressed that the future direct search experiments will hardly observe the signal of dark matter.
Agrawal, Prateek; Fortes, Elaine C F S; Kilic, Can
2015-01-01
We explore a novel flavor structure in the interactions of dark matter with the Standard Model. We consider theories in which both the dark matter candidate, and the particles that mediate its interactions with the Standard Model fields, carry flavor quantum numbers. The interactions are skewed in flavor space, so that a dark matter particle does not directly couple to the Standard Model matter fields of the same flavor, but only to the other two flavors. This framework respects Minimal Flavor Violation, and is therefore naturally consistent with flavor constraints. We study the phenomenology of a benchmark model in which dark matter couples to right-handed charged leptons. In large regions of parameter space the dark matter can emerge as a thermal relic, while remaining consistent with the constraints from direct and indirect detection. The collider signatures of this scenario include events with multiple leptons and missing energy. These events exhibit a characteristic flavor pattern that may allow this cla...
Hyperuniformity and its generalizations.
Torquato, Salvatore
2016-08-01
Disordered many-particle hyperuniform systems are exotic amorphous states of matter that lie between crystal and liquid: They are like perfect crystals in the way they suppress large-scale density fluctuations and yet are like liquids or glasses in that they are statistically isotropic with no Bragg peaks. These exotic states of matter play a vital role in a number of problems across the physical, mathematical as well as biological sciences and, because they are endowed with novel physical properties, have technological importance. Given the fundamental as well as practical importance of disordered hyperuniform systems elucidated thus far, it is natural to explore the generalizations of the hyperuniformity notion and its consequences. In this paper, we substantially broaden the hyperuniformity concept along four different directions. This includes generalizations to treat fluctuations in the interfacial area (one of the Minkowski functionals) in heterogeneous media and surface-area driven evolving microstructures, random scalar fields, divergence-free random vector fields, and statistically anisotropic many-particle systems and two-phase media. In all cases, the relevant mathematical underpinnings are formulated and illustrative calculations are provided. Interfacial-area fluctuations play a major role in characterizing the microstructure of two-phase systems (e.g., fluid-saturated porous media), physical properties that intimately depend on the geometry of the interface, and evolving two-phase microstructures that depend on interfacial energies (e.g., spinodal decomposition). In the instances of random vector fields and statistically anisotropic structures, we show that the standard definition of hyperuniformity must be generalized such that it accounts for the dependence of the relevant spectral functions on the direction in which the origin in Fourier space is approached (nonanalyticities at the origin). Using this analysis, we place some well-known energy
Hyperuniformity and its generalizations
Torquato, Salvatore
2016-08-01
Disordered many-particle hyperuniform systems are exotic amorphous states of matter that lie between crystal and liquid: They are like perfect crystals in the way they suppress large-scale density fluctuations and yet are like liquids or glasses in that they are statistically isotropic with no Bragg peaks. These exotic states of matter play a vital role in a number of problems across the physical, mathematical as well as biological sciences and, because they are endowed with novel physical properties, have technological importance. Given the fundamental as well as practical importance of disordered hyperuniform systems elucidated thus far, it is natural to explore the generalizations of the hyperuniformity notion and its consequences. In this paper, we substantially broaden the hyperuniformity concept along four different directions. This includes generalizations to treat fluctuations in the interfacial area (one of the Minkowski functionals) in heterogeneous media and surface-area driven evolving microstructures, random scalar fields, divergence-free random vector fields, and statistically anisotropic many-particle systems and two-phase media. In all cases, the relevant mathematical underpinnings are formulated and illustrative calculations are provided. Interfacial-area fluctuations play a major role in characterizing the microstructure of two-phase systems (e.g., fluid-saturated porous media), physical properties that intimately depend on the geometry of the interface, and evolving two-phase microstructures that depend on interfacial energies (e.g., spinodal decomposition). In the instances of random vector fields and statistically anisotropic structures, we show that the standard definition of hyperuniformity must be generalized such that it accounts for the dependence of the relevant spectral functions on the direction in which the origin in Fourier space is approached (nonanalyticities at the origin). Using this analysis, we place some well-known energy
Lewis, Randy
2014-01-01
Several collaborations have recently performed lattice calculations aimed specifically at dark matter, including work with SU(2), SU(3), SU(4) and SO(4) gauge theories to represent the dark sector. Highlights of these studies are presented here, after a reminder of how lattice calculations in QCD itself are helping with the hunt for dark matter.
Thompson, K; Dockery, P; Horobin, R W
2012-10-01
Stimulated by difficulties experienced when using fluo-3 AM, we developed a general mechanistic model to aid understanding and practical application of calcium probes applied as acetoxymethyl (AM) esters. Several practical issues previously overlooked or under-emphasized are considered by this model. First, some AM ester probes are "super" lipophilic, e.g., calcium orange, fluo-3, fura red, and these are trapped in the plasma membrane. Entry of such compounds into cells requires the presence of serum albumin in the incubation medium or esterase in the plasma membrane or both. Second, visible cytosolic calcium signals require significant cytosolic esterase, which varies considerably among cell lines and within cell populations of a single cell line. Finally, compartmentalization artefacts are most likely when incompletely hydrolyzed esters are present in the cytosol. This can occur because of low cytosolic esterase concentration or activity, and especially when long incubation times or high extracellular probe concentrations are used. An additional factor favoring compartmentalization is the presence of the "salt" form of the probe in the cytosol in the absence of significant concentrations of calcium ions. We provide an algorithmic chart to aid assessment of possible compartmentalization, guides to relevant QSAR models, and notes on estimation of the structural parameters required when using these models.
Nanobeam X-ray scattering probing matter at the nanoscale
Stangl, Julian; Chamard, Virginie; Carbone, Dina
2013-01-01
A comprehensive overview of the possibilities and potential of X-ray scattering using nanofocused beams for probing matter at the nanoscale, including guidance on the design of nanobeam experiments. The monograph discusses various sources, including free electron lasers, synchrotron radiation and other portable and non-portable X-ray sources.For scientists using synchrotron radiation or students and scientists with a background in X-ray scattering methods in general.
Isihara, A
2007-01-01
More than a graduate text and advanced research guide on condensed matter physics, this volume is useful to plasma physicists and polymer chemists, and their students. It emphasizes applications of statistical mechanics to a variety of systems in condensed matter physics rather than theoretical derivations of the principles of statistical mechanics and techniques. Isihara addresses a dozen different subjects in separate chapters, each designed to be directly accessible and used independently of previous chapters. Topics include simple liquids, electron systems and correlations, two-dimensional
Neutrino Oscillations in Dense Matter
Lobanov, A. E.
2017-03-01
A modification of the electroweak theory, where the fermions with the same electroweak quantum numbers are combined in multiplets and are treated as different quantum states of a single particle, is proposed. In this model, mixing and oscillations of particles arise as a direct consequence of the general principles of quantum field theory. The developed approach enables one to calculate the probabilities of the processes taking place in the detector at long distances from the particle source. Calculations of higher-order processes, including computation of the contributions due to radiative corrections, can be performed in the framework of the perturbation theory using the regular diagram technique. As a result, the analog to the Dirac-Schwinger equation of quantum electrodynamics describing neutrino oscillations and its spin rotation in dense matter can be obtained.
Baltz, E.
2004-12-03
It is now widely accepted that most of mass-energy in the universe is unobserved except by its gravitational effects. Baryons make only about 4% of the total, with ''dark matter'' making up about 23% and the ''dark energy'' responsible for the accelerated expansion of the universe making up the remainder. We focus on the dark matter, which is the primary constituent of galaxies. We outline the observed properties of this material, enumerating some candidates covering 90 orders of magnitude in mass. Finally, we argue that the weak scale (100 GeV) is relevant to new physics, including the dark matter problem.
Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Rasmussen, Annette
During 2011 national standardised testing within areas such as reading, mathematics, science etc. has been introduced in Danish compulsory school by the Educational Ministry as something new. The inspirations behind this initiative are both the international comparative educational studies such a...... the introduction of standardised testing meens to pupils perception of school matters, selfperception etc. In my analysis and discussion I will among others draw on Basil Bernsteins theoretical...
Electrodynamic forces in elastic matter
Antoci, S.; Mihich, L.
1999-01-01
A macroscopic theory for the dynamics of elastic, isotropic matter in presence of electromagnetic fields is proposed here. We avail of Gordon's general relativistic derivation of Abraham's electromagnetic energy tensor as starting point. The necessary description of the elastic and of the inertial behaviour of matter is provided through a four dimensional generalisation of Hooke's law, made possible by the introduction of a four dimensional ``displacement'' vector. As intimated by Nordstroem,...
Mixed dark matter from technicolor
Belyaev, Alexander; T. Frandsen, Mads; Sannino, Francesco
2011-01-01
We study natural composite cold dark matter candidates which are pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons (pNGB) in models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. Some of these can have a significant thermal relic abundance, while others must be mainly asymmetric dark matter. By considering the thermal...... abundance alone we find a lower bound of MW on the pNGB mass when the (composite) Higgs is heavier than 115 GeV. Being pNGBs, the dark matter candidates are in general light enough to be produced at the LHC....
Precise Prediction of the Dark Matter Relic Density within the MSSM
Harz, J.; Herrmann, B.; Klasen, M.; Kovarik, K.; Steppeler, P.
With the latest Planck results the dark matter relic density is determined to an unprecedented precision. In order to reduce current theoretical uncertainties in the dark matter relic density prediction, we have calculated next-to-leading order SUSY-QCD corrections to neutralino (co)annihilation processes including Coulomb enhancement effects. We demonstrate that these corrections can have significant impact on the cosmologically favoured MSSM parameter space and are thus of general interest for parameter studies and global fits.
Precise Prediction of the Dark Matter Relic Density within the MSSM
Harz, Julia; Klasen, Michael; Kovarik, Karol; Steppeler, Patrick
2015-01-01
With the latest Planck results the dark matter relic density is determined to an unprecedented precision. In order to reduce current theoretical uncertainties in the dark matter relic density prediction, we have calculated next-to-leading order SUSY-QCD corrections to neutralino (co)annihilation processes including Coulomb enhancement effects. We demonstrate that these corrections can have significant impact on the cosmologically favoured MSSM parameter space and are thus of general interest for parameter studies and global fits.
Consciousness as a State of Matter
Tegmark, Max
2014-01-01
We examine the hypothesis that consciousness can be understood as a state of matter, "perceptronium", with distinctive information processing abilities. We explore five basic principles that may distinguish conscious matter from other physical systems such as solids, liquids and gases: the information, integration, independence, dynamics and utility principles. If such principles can identify conscious entities, then they can help solve the quantum factorization problem: why do conscious observers like us perceive the particular Hilbert space factorization corresponding to classical space (rather than Fourier space, say), and more generally, why do we perceive the world around us as a dynamic hierarchy of objects that are strongly integrated and relatively independent? Tensor factorization of matrices is found to play a central role, and our technical results include a theorem about Hamiltonian separability (defined using Hilbert-Schmidt superoperators) being maximized in the energy eigenbasis. Our approach g...
Asymmetric condensed dark matter
Aguirre, Anthony
2015-01-01
We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate can be very light, $10^{-22}\\,{\\rm eV} \\lesssim m \\lesssim 10^2\\,{\\rm eV}$; the lower limit arises from constraints on small-scale structure formation, while the upper bound ensures that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of deco...
Cosmological $N$-body simulations including radiation perturbations
Brandbyge, Jacob; Tram, Thomas; Leclercq, Florent; Fidler, Christian; Hannestad, Steen
2016-01-01
Cosmological $N$-body simulations are the standard tool to study the emergence of the observed large-scale structure of the Universe. Such simulations usually solve for the gravitational dynamics of matter within the Newtonian approximation, thus discarding general relativistic effects such as the coupling between matter and radiation ($\\equiv$ photons and neutrinos). In this paper we investigate novel hybrid simulations which incorporate interactions between radiation and matter to the leading order in General Relativity, whilst evolving the matter dynamics in full non-linearity according to Newtonian theory. Our hybrid simulations come with a relativistic space-time and make it possible to investigate structure formation in a unified framework. In the present work we focus on simulations initialized at $z=99$, and show that the extracted matter power spectrum receives up to $3\\%$ corrections on very large scales through radiation. Our numerical findings compare favourably with linear analytical results from...
Foot, R.
2004-01-01
The self consistency between the impressive DAMA annual modulation signal and the differential energy spectrum is an important test for dark matter candidates.Mirror matter-type dark matter passes this test while other dark matter candidates, including standard (spin-independent) WIMPs and mini-electric charged particle dark matter, do not do so well.We argue that the unique properties of mirror matter-type dark matter seem to be just those required to fully explain the data, suggesting that ...
Optical modulator including grapene
Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang
2016-06-07
The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.
Visual Impairment, Including Blindness
... Who Knows What? Survey Item Bank Search for: Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Links updated, April 2017 En ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...
Marder, Michael P.
2000-01-01
A modern, unified treatment of condensed matter physics This new work presents for the first time in decades a sweeping review of the whole field of condensed matter physics. It consolidates new and classic topics from disparate sources, teaching "not only about the effective masses of electrons in semiconductor crystals and band theory, but also about quasicrystals, dynamics of phase separation, why rubber is more floppy than steel, electron interference in nanometer-sized channels, and the quantum Hall effect." Six major areas are covered---atomic structure, electronic structure, mechanical properties, electron transport, optical properties, and magnetism. But rather than defining the field in terms of particular materials, the author focuses on the way condensed matter physicists approach physical problems, combining phenomenology and microscopic arguments with information from experiments. For graduate students and professionals, researchers and engineers, applied mathematicians and materials scientists, Condensed Matter Physics provides: * An exciting collection of new topics from the past two decades. * A thorough treatment of classic topics, including band theory, transport theory, and semiconductor physics. * Over 300 figures, incorporating many images from experiments. * Frequent comparison of theory and experiment, both when they agree and when problems are still unsolved. * More than 50 tables of data and a detailed index. * Ample end-of-chapter problems, including computational exercises. * Over 1000 references, both recent and historically significant.
Hidden Scale Invariance in Condensed Matter
Dyre, J. C.
2014-01-01
. This means that the phase diagram becomes effectively one-dimensional with regard to several physical properties. Liquids and solids with isomorphs include most or all van der Waals bonded systems and metals, as well as weakly ionic or dipolar systems. On the other hand, systems with directional bonding...... (hydrogen bonds or covalent bonds) or strong Coulomb forces generally do not exhibit hidden scale invariance. The article reviews the theory behind this picture of condensed matter and the evidence for it coming from computer simulations and experiments...
Tachyons in General Relativity
Schwartz, Charles
2011-01-01
We consider the motion of tachyons (faster-than-light particles) in the framework of General Relativity. An important feature is the large contribution of low energy tachyons to the energy-momentum tensor. We also calculate the gravitational field produced by tachyons in particular geometric arrangements; and it appears that there could be self-cohering bundles of such matter. This leads us to suggest that such theoretical ideas might be relevant to major problems (dark matter and dark energy...
Cionco, Rodolfo G; Caligaris, Marta G
2012-01-01
A substantial fraction of the particulate matter released into the atmosphere by industrial or natural processes corresponds to particles whose aerodynamic diameters are greater than 50 mm. It has been shown that, for these particles, the classical description of Gaussian plume diffusion processes, is inadequate to describe the transport and deposition. In this paper we present new results concerning the dispersion of coarse particulate matter. The simulations are done with our own code that uses the Bulirsch Stoer numerical integrator to calculate threedimensional trajectories of particles released into the environment under very general conditions. Turbulent processes are simulated by the Langevin equation and weather conditions are modeled after stable (Monin-Obukhov length L> 0) and unstable conditions (L <0). We present several case studies based on Monte Carlo simulations and discusses the effect of weather on the final deposition of these particles.
Gravitational, lensing, and stability properties of Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter halos
Harko, Tiberiu
2015-01-01
The possibility that dark matter, whose existence is inferred from the study of the galactic rotation curves and from the mass deficit in galaxy clusters, can be in a form of a Bose-Einstein condensate has recently been extensively investigated. In the present work, we consider a detailed analysis of the astrophysical properties of the Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter halos that could provide clear observational signatures and help discriminate between different dark matter models. In the Bose-Einstein condensation model dark matter can be described as a non-relativistic, gravitationally confined Newtonian gas, whose density and pressure are related by a polytropic equation of state with index $n=1$. The mass and the gravitational properties of the condensate halos are obtained in a systematic form, including the mean logarithmic slopes of the density and of the tangential velocity. Furthermore, the lensing properties of the condensate dark matter are also investigated in detail. In particular, a general ...
Theoretical Comparison Between Candidates for Dark Matter
McKeough, James; Hira, Ajit; Valdez, Alexandra
2017-01-01
Since the generally-accepted view among astrophysicists is that the matter component of the universe is mostly dark matter, the search for dark matter particles continues unabated. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) improvements, aided by advanced computer simulations at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's (Berkeley Lab) National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) and Brown University's Center for Computation and Visualization (CCV), can potentially eliminate some particle models of dark matter. Generally, the proposed candidates can be put in three categories: baryonic dark matter, hot dark matter, and cold dark matter. The Lightest Supersymmetric Particle(LSP) of supersymmetric models is a dark matter candidate, and is classified as a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP). Similar to the cosmic microwave background radiation left over from the Big Bang, there is a background of low-energy neutrinos in our Universe. According to some researchers, these may be the explanation for the dark matter. One advantage of the Neutrino Model is that they are known to exist. Dark matter made from neutrinos is termed ``hot dark matter''. We formulate a novel empirical function for the average density profile of cosmic voids, identified via the watershed technique in ΛCDM N-body simulations. This function adequately treats both void size and redshift, and describes the scale radius and the central density of voids. We started with a five-parameter model. Our research is mainly on LSP and Neutrino models.
Dark Matter Reality Check: Chandra Casts Cloud On Alternative Theory
2002-10-01
New evidence from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory challenges an alternative theory of gravity that eliminates the need for dark matter. The observation also narrows the field for competing forms of dark matter, the elusive material thought to be the dominant form of matter in the universe. An observation of the galaxy NGC 720 shows it is enveloped in a slightly flattened, or ellipsoidal cloud of hot gas that has an orientation different from that of the optical image of the galaxy. The flattening is too large to be explained by theories in which stars and gas are assumed to contain most of the mass in the galaxy. "The shape and orientation of the hot gas cloud require it to be confined by an egg-shaped dark matter halo," said David Buote of the University of California, Irvine, and lead author of a report on this research in the 2002 September 20 issue of The Astrophysical Journal. "This means that dark matter is not just an illusion due to a shortcoming of the standard theory of gravity - it is real." According to the generally accepted standard theory of gravity, the hot X-ray cloud would need an additional source of gravity - a halo of dark matter - to keep the hot gas from expanding away. The mass of dark matter required would be about five to ten times the mass of the stars in the galaxy. If the dark matter tracked the optical light from the stars in the galaxy, the hot X-ray cloud would be more round than it is. The flattened shape of the hot gas cloud requires a flattened dark matter halo. An alternative theory of gravity called MOND, for Modified Newtonian Dynamics, was proposed in 1983 by Mordecai Milgrom of the Weizmann Institute in Israel, and has remained viable over the years. MOND does away with the need for dark matter by modifying the theory where the acceleration produced by gravity is very small, such as the outskirts of galaxies. However, MOND cannot explain the Chandra observation of NGC 720. This is apparently the first dynamical evidence that
How to include fermions into General relativity by exotic smoothness
Asselmeyer-Maluga, T
2015-01-01
This paper is two-fold. At first we will discuss the generation of source terms in the Einstein-Hilbert action by using (topologically complicated) compact 3-manifolds. There is a large class of compact 3-manifolds with boundary: a torus given as the complement of a (thickened) knot admitting a hyperbolic geometry, denoted as hyperbolic knot complements in the following. We will discuss the fermionic properties of this class of 3-manifolds, i.e. we are able to identify a fermion with a hyperbolic knot complement. Secondly we will construct a large class of space-times, the exotic $\\mathbb{R}^{4}$, containing this class of 3-manifolds naturally. We begin with a topological trivial space, the $\\mathbb{R}^{4}$, and change only the differential structure to obtain many nontrivial 3-manifolds. It is known for a long time that exotic $\\mathbb{R}^{4}$'s generate extra sources of gravity (Brans conjecture) but here we will analyze the structure of these source terms more carefully. Finally we will state that adding a...
Generalization of the Lorentz-Dirac equation to include spin
Barut, A. O.; Unal, Nuri
1989-11-01
For the classical point electron with Zitterbewegung (hence spin) we derive, after regularization, the radiation reaction force and covariant equations for the dynamical variables (xμ, πμ, vμ, and Sμν), which reduce to the Lorentz-Dirac equation in the spinless limit.
Phases of Cannibal Dark Matter
Farina, Marco; Ruderman, Joshua T; Trevisan, Gabriele
2016-01-01
A hidden sector with a mass gap undergoes an epoch of cannibalism if number changing interactions are active when the temperature drops below the mass of the lightest hidden particle. During cannibalism, the hidden sector temperature decreases only logarithmically with the scale factor. We consider the possibility that dark matter resides in a hidden sector that underwent cannibalism, and has relic density set by the freeze-out of two-to-two annihilations. We identify three novel phases, depending on the behavior of the hidden sector when dark matter freezes out. During the cannibal phase, dark matter annihilations decouple while the hidden sector is cannibalizing. During the chemical phase, only two-to-two interactions are active and the total number of hidden particles is conserved. During the one way phase, the dark matter annihilation products decay out of equilibrium, suppressing the production of dark matter from inverse annihilations. We map out the distinct phenomenology of each phase, which includes ...
Balázs, Csaba
2015-01-01
In this work we perform a comprehensive statistical analysis of the AMS-02 electron, positron fluxes and the antiproton-to-proton ratio in the context of a simplified dark matter model. We include known, standard astrophysical sources and a dark matter component in the cosmic ray injection spectra. To predict the AMS-02 observables we use propagation parameters extracted from observed fluxes of heavier nuclei and the low energy part of the AMS-02 data. We assume that the dark matter particle is a Majorana fermion coupling to third generation fermions via a spin-0 mediator, and annihilating to multiple channels at once. The simultaneous presence of various annihilation channels provides the dark matter model with additional flexibility, and this enables us to simultaneously fit all cosmic ray spectra using a simple particle physics model and coherent astrophysical assumptions. Our results indicate that AMS-02 observations are not only consistent with the dark matter hypothesis within the uncertainties, but add...
Analytic device including nanostructures
Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.
2015-07-02
A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.
Borsali, Redouane
2008-01-01
Progress in basic soft matter research is driven largely by the experimental techniques available. Much of the work is concerned with understanding them at the microscopic level, especially at the nanometer length scales that give soft matter studies a wide overlap with nanotechnology. This 2 volume reference work, split into 4 parts, presents detailed discussions of many of the major techniques commonly used as well as some of those in current development for studying and manipulating soft matter. The articles are intended to be accessible to the interdisciplinary audience (at the graduate student level and above) that is or will be engaged in soft matter studies or those in other disciplines who wish to view some of the research methods in this fascinating field. Part 1 contains articles with a largely (but, in most cases, not exclusively) theoretical content and/or that cover material relevant to more than one of the techniques covered in subsequent volumes. It includes an introductory chapter on some of t...
Electrodynamic forces in elastic matter
Antoci, S
2000-01-01
A macroscopic theory for the dynamics of elastic, isotropic matter in presence of electromagnetic fields is proposed here. We avail of Gordon's general relativistic derivation of Abraham's electromagnetic energy tensor as starting point. The necessary description of the elastic and of the inertial behaviour of matter is provided through a four dimensional generalisation of Hooke's law, made possible by the introduction of a four dimensional ``displacement'' vector. As intimated by Nordstroem, the physical origin of electrostriction and of magnetostriction is attributed to the change in the constitutive equation of electromagnetism caused by the deformation of matter. The part of the electromagnetic Lagrangian that depends on that deformation is given explicitly for the case of an isotropic medium and the resulting expression of the electrostrictive force is derived, thus showing how more realistic equations of motion for matter subjected to electromagnetic fields can be constructed.
Eisenberg, Bob
2016-01-01
Charges are everywhere because most atoms are charged. Chemical bonds are formed by electrons with their charge. Charges move and interact according to Maxwell's equations in space and in atoms where the equations of electrodynamics are embedded in Schroedinger's equation as the potential. Maxwell's equations are universal, valid inside atoms and between stars from times much shorter than those of atomic motion (0.1 femtoseconds) to years (32 mega-seconds). Maxwell's equations enforce the conservation of current. Analysis shows that the electric field can take on whatever value is needed to ensure conservation of current. The properties of matter rearrange themselves to satisfy Maxwell's equations and conservation of current. Conservation of current is as universal as Maxwell's equations themselves. Yet equations of electrodynamics find little place in the literature of material physics, chemistry, or biochemistry. Kinetic models of chemistry and Markov treatments of atomic motion are ordinary differential eq...
Charged anisotropic matter with linear or nonlinear equation of state
Varela, Victor; Ray, Saibal; Chakraborty, Kaushik; Kalam, Mehedi
2010-01-01
Ivanov pointed out substantial analytical difficulties associated with self-gravitating, static, isotropic fluid spheres when pressure explicitly depends on matter density. Simplification achieved with the introduction of electric charge were noticed as well. We deal with self-gravitating, charged, anisotropic fluids and get even more flexibility in solving the Einstein-Maxwell equations. In order to discuss analytical solutions we extend Krori and Barua's method to include pressure anisotropy and linear or non-linear equations of state. The field equations are reduced to a system of three algebraic equations for the anisotropic pressures as well as matter and electrostatic energy densities. Attention is paid to compact sources characterized by positive matter density and positive radial pressure. Arising solutions satisfy the energy conditions of general relativity. Spheres with vanishing net charge contain fluid elements with unbounded proper charge density located at the fluid-vacuum interface. Notably the...
White Matter Hyperintensities Improve Ischemic Stroke Recurrence Prediction
Andersen, Søren Due; Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders;
2017-01-01
-based, observational cohort study, we included 832 patients (mean age 59.6 (SD 13.9); 42.0% females) with incident ischemic stroke and no AF. We assessed the severity of white matter hyperintensities using MRI. Hazard ratios stratified by the white matter hyperintensities score and adjusted for the components......BACKGROUND: Nearly one in 5 patients with ischemic stroke will invariably experience a second stroke within 5 years. Stroke risk stratification schemes based solely on clinical variables perform only modestly in non-atrial fibrillation (AF) patients and improvement of these schemes will enhance...... their clinical utility. Cerebral white matter hyperintensities are associated with an increased risk of incident ischemic stroke in the general population, whereas their association with the risk of ischemic stroke recurrence is more ambiguous. In a non-AF stroke cohort, we investigated the association between...
75 FR 9217 - Submission for OMB Review; Information Regarding Responsibility Matters
2010-03-01
...; Information Regarding Responsibility Matters AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... regarding Information Regarding Responsibility Matters. Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether..., Information Regarding Responsibility Matters, in all correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms...
78 FR 55719 - Submission for OMB Review; Information Regarding Responsibility Matters
2013-09-11
...; Information Regarding Responsibility Matters AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... approved information collection requirement regarding Information Regarding Responsibility Matters. A... Information Collection 9000- 0174, Information Regarding Responsibility Matters, by any of the following...
Network representation of electromagnetic fields and forces using generalized bond graphs
Nijen Twilhaar, G.D.
1985-01-01
We show that it is possible to describe electromagnetic (E-M) fields with a generalized network representation (generalized bond graphs). E-M fields inmoving matter, forces due to E-M fields (Lorentz force, ets.) and field transformations are included in the network description. The relations of the
micrOMEGAs4.1: two dark matter candidates
Belanger, G.; Boudjema, F.; Pukhov, A.; Semenov, A.
2014-01-01
International audience; micrOMEGAs is a code to compute dark matter observables in generic extensionsof the standard model. This version of micrOMEGAs includes a generalization ofthe Boltzmann equations to take into account the possibility of two dark mattercandidates. The modification of the relic density calculation to includeinteractions between the two DM sectors as well as semi-annihilation ispresented. Both DM signals in direct and indirect detection are computed aswell. An extension of...
Kurkela, Aleksi; Vuorinen, Aleksi
2016-07-22
We generalize the state-of-the-art perturbative equation of state of cold quark matter to nonzero temperatures, needed in the description of neutron star mergers and core collapse processes. The new result is accurate to O(g^{5}) in the gauge coupling, and is based on a novel framework for dealing with the infrared sensitive soft field modes of the theory. The zero Matsubara mode sector is treated via a dimensionally reduced effective theory, while the soft nonzero modes are resummed using the hard thermal loop approximation. This combination of known effective descriptions offers unprecedented access to small but nonzero temperatures, both in and out of beta equilibrium.
Kurkela, Aleksi
2016-01-01
We generalize the state-of-the-art perturbative Equation of State of cold quark matter to nonzero temperatures, needed in the description of neutron star mergers and core collapse processes. The new result is accurate to order g^5 in the gauge coupling, and is based on a novel framework for dealing with the infrared sensitive soft field modes of the theory. The zero Matsubara mode sector is treated using a dimensionally reduced effective theory, while the soft non-zero modes are resummed using the Hard Thermal Loop approximation. This combination of known effective descriptions offers unprecedented access to small but nonzero temperatures, both in and out of beta equilibrium.
Unified Dark Matter Scalar Field Models
Daniele Bertacca
2010-01-01
of a single scalar field accounts for a unified description of the Dark Matter and Dark Energy sectors, dubbed Unified Dark Matter (UDM models. In this framework, we consider the general Lagrangian of -essence, which allows to find solutions around which the scalar field describes the desired mixture of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. We also discuss static and spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's equations for a scalar field with noncanonical kinetic term, in connection with galactic halo rotation curves.
Dissolved Organic Matter in Freshwaters
Perdue, E. M.; Ritchie, J. D.
2003-12-01
Organic matter in freshwaters exists as dissolved molecules, colloids, and particles. It is appropriate to regard these distinctions as dynamic, however, because organic matter can be interconverted readily between these forms by dissolution and precipitation, sorption and desorption, aggregation and disaggregation, etc. Dissolved organic matter (DOM), the subject of this chapter, is defined operationally as the fraction of organic matter in a water sample that passes through a 0.45 μm filter. In the authors' opinion, the scientific literature on organic matter in freshwaters will be better reflected in this review, if data are considered without regard to the manner in which water samples may have been filtered. This more general approach is warranted because: * many submicron colloids and some microorganisms can pass through 0.45 μm filters; * the effective pore size of a 0.45 μm filter is usually unknown, because it is decreased by partial clogging during the filtration of a water sample; * some important studies have been conducted on unfiltered samples or on samples that were filtered through other types of filters; and * some important studies have been conducted on samples that were concentrated with ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), or reverse osmosis (RO) membranes.As methods for fractionation and isolation of organic matter in freshwaters have evolved, and as the intensity of research has waxed and waned in various academic disciplines, a rich and potentially confusing nomenclature has evolved for organic matter in freshwaters. Some of the more commonly encountered descriptors and their associated acronyms, if any, are yellow organic acids (YOAs), aquatic humus, DOM, and natural organic matter (NOM). Regardless of the terminology used in the original literature, the organic matter in freshwaters is referred to as DOM in this review, except when it is necessary to be more specific.
Soft Matter under Exogenic Impacts
Rzoska, Sylwester J
2007-01-01
‘Soft Matter Under Exogenic Impacts’ is fairly unique in supplying a comprehensive presentation of high pressures, negative pressures, random constraints and strong electric field exogenic (external) impacts on various soft matter systems. These are: (i) critical liquids, (ii) glass formers, such as supercooled liquids including water, polymers and resins, (iii) liquid crystals and (iv) bio-liquids. It is, because of this, an excellent guide in this novel and still puzzling research area. Besides new results, the identification of new types of physical behavior, new technological materials, ultimate verification of condensed and soft matter physics models, new applications in geophysics, biophysics, biotechnology, are all discussed in this book.
General Anesthesia for a Patient With Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease
Kamekura, Nobuhito; Nitta, Yukie; Takuma, Shigeru; Fujisawa, Toshiaki
2016-01-01
We report the successful management of general anesthesia for a patient with Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD). PMD is one of a group of progressive, degenerative disorders of the cerebral white matter. The typical clinical manifestations of PMD include psychomotor retardation, nystagmus, abnormal muscle tone, seizures, and cognitive impairment. General anesthesia for a patient with PMD may be difficult mainly because of seizures and airway complications related to poor pharyngeal muscle con...
General relativistic corrections and non-Gaussianity
Villa, Eleonora; Matarrese, Sabino
2014-01-01
General relativistic cosmology cannot be reduced to linear relativistic perturbations superposed on an isotropic and homogeneous (Friedmann-Robertson-Walker) background, even though such a simple scheme has been successfully applied to analyse a large variety of phenomena (such as Cosmic Microwave Background primary anisotropies, matter clustering on large scales, weak gravitational lensing, etc.). The general idea of going beyond this simple paradigm is what characterises most of the efforts made in recent years: the study of second and higher-order cosmological perturbations including all general relativistic contributions -- also in connection with primordial non-Gaussianities -- the idea of defining large-scale structure observables directly from a general relativistic perspective, the various attempts to go beyond the Newtonian approximation in the study of non-linear gravitational dynamics, by using e.g., Post-Newtonian treatments, are all examples of this general trend. Here we summarise some of these ...
Linearizing neutrino evolution equations including neutrino-antineutrino pairing correlations
Väänänen, D
2013-01-01
We linearize the neutrino mean-field evolution equations describing the neutrino propagation in a background of matter and of neutrinos, using techniques from many-body microscopic approaches. The procedure leads to an eigenvalue equation that allows to identify instabilities in the evolution, associated with a change of the curvature of the neutrino energy-density surface. Our result includes all contributions from the neutrino Hamiltonian and is generalizable to linearize the equations of motion at an arbitrary point of the evolution. We then consider the extended equations that comprise the normal mean field as well as the abnormal mean field that is associated with neutrino-antineutrino pairing correlations. We first re-derive the extended neutrino Hamiltonian and show that such a Hamiltonian can be diagonalized by introducing a generalized Bogoliubov transformation with quasi-particle operators that mix neutrinos and antineutrinos. We give the eigenvalue equations that determine the energies of the quasi...
Matter Matters: Unphysical Properties of the Rh = ct Universe
Lewis, Geraint F
2013-01-01
It is generally agreed that there is matter in the universe and, in this paper, we show that the existence of matter is extremely problematic for the proposed Rh = ct universe. Considering a dark energy component with an equation of state of w=-1/3, it is shown that the presence of matter destroys the strict expansion properties that define the evolution of Rh = ct cosmologies, distorting the observational properties that are touted as its success. We further examine whether an evolving dark energy component can save this form of cosmological expansion in the presence of matter by resulting in an expansion consistent with a mean value of = -1/3, finding that the presence of mass requires unphysical forms of the dark energy component in the early universe. We conclude that matter in the universe significantly limits the fundamental properties of the Rh = ct cosmology, and that novel, and unphysical, evolution of the matter component would be required to save it. Given this, Rh = ct cosmology is not simpler or...
Modified gravity without dark matter
Sanders, Robert; Papantonopoulos, L
2007-01-01
On an empirical level, the most successful alternative to dark matter in bound gravitational systems is the modified Newtonian dynamics, or MOND, proposed by Milgrom. Here I discuss the attempts to formulate MOND as a modification of General Relativity. I begin with a summary of the phenomenological
Torm, Nina; Bjerge, Benedikte; Trifkovic, Neda
In many developing countries the skill base is a cause of concern with respect to international competition. Firm-provided training is generally seen as an important tool for bridging the skills gap between labour force and private sector demand. Yet little is known about how successful...
Gillian Warner-Søderholm
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Whether managers are concerned with financial issues, marketing, or human resource management (HRM, cultural values and practices do matter. The purpose of this article is to understand Norwegian managers’ cultural values within the cross-cultural landscape of her neighbors in the “Scandinavian cluster.” Clearly, subtle but disturbing differences may surface even when representatives from similar cultures work together. As a follow on from the GLOBE project, data based on the GLOBE instrument were collected on culture and communication values in Norway from 710 Norwegian middle managers for this present study. Although the Scandinavian cultures appear ostensibly similar, the results illustrate that research can reveal subtle but important cultural differences in nations that are similar yet dissimilar. All three Scandinavian societies appear intrinsically egalitarian; they appear to value low Power Distance, directness, and consensus in decision making and to promote Gender Egalitarianism. Nevertheless, there are significant differences in the degrees of commitment to these values by each individual Scandinavian partner. These differences need to be understood and appreciated to avoid misunderstandings.
Neutralino event rates in dark matter detectors
Arnowitt, Richard Lewis; Pran Nath
1995-01-01
ABSTRACT: The expected event rates for {\\tilde Z_{1}} dark matter for a variety of dark matter detectors are studied over the full parameter space with tan \\beta\\leq 20 for supergravity grand unified models. Radiative breaking constraints are implemented and effects of the heavy netural Higgs included as well as loop corrections to the neutral Higgs sector. The parameter space is restricted so that the {\\tilde Z_{1}} relic density obeys 0.10 \\leq\\Omega_{\\tilde Z_{1}}h^2\\leq 0.35, consistent with the COBE data and astronomical determinations of the Hubble constant. It is found that the best detectors sensitive to coherrent {\\tilde Z_{1}} scattering (e.g. Pb) is about 5-10 more sensitive than those based on incoherrent spin dependent scattering (e.g. CaF). In general, the dark matter detectors are most sensistive to the large tan \\beta and small m_o and m_{\\tilde g} sector of the parameter space.
Functional renormalization group approach to neutron matter
Matthias Drews
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The chiral nucleon-meson model, previously applied to systems with equal number of neutrons and protons, is extended to asymmetric nuclear matter. Fluctuations are included in the framework of the functional renormalization group. The equation of state for pure neutron matter is studied and compared to recent advanced many-body calculations. The chiral condensate in neutron matter is computed as a function of baryon density. It is found that, once fluctuations are incorporated, the chiral restoration transition for pure neutron matter is shifted to high densities, much beyond three times the density of normal nuclear matter.
Superconducting Detectors for Superlight Dark Matter.
Hochberg, Yonit; Zhao, Yue; Zurek, Kathryn M
2016-01-08
We propose and study a new class of superconducting detectors that are sensitive to O(meV) electron recoils from dark matter-electron scattering. Such devices could detect dark matter as light as the warm dark-matter limit, m(X)≳1 keV. We compute the rate of dark-matter scattering off of free electrons in a (superconducting) metal, including the relevant Pauli blocking factors. We demonstrate that classes of dark matter consistent with terrestrial and cosmological or astrophysical constraints could be detected by such detectors with a moderate size exposure.
Frisvad, Jeppe Revall
2008-01-01
This thesis is about physically-based modelling of the appearance of materials. When a material is graphically rendered, its appearance is computed by considering the interaction of light and matter at a macroscopic level. In particular, the shape and the macroscopic optical properties...... of the material determine how it will interact with incident illumination. In this thesis the macroscopic optical properties are connected to the microscopic physical theories of light and matter. This enables prediction of the macroscopic optical properties of materials, and, consequently, also prediction...... of appearance based on the contents and the physical conditions of the materials. Physically-based appearance models have many potential input and output parameters. There are many choices that must be made: How many material components to include in the model, how many physical conditions to take into account...
Freed, Daniel S
2012-01-01
We show how general principles of symmetry in quantum mechanics lead to twisted notions of a group representation. This framework generalizes both the classical 3-fold way of real/complex/quaternionic representations as well as a corresponding 10-fold way which has appeared in condensed matter and nuclear physics. We establish a foundation for discussing continuous families of quantum systems. Having done so, topological phases of quantum systems can be defined as deformation classes of continuous families of gapped Hamiltonians. For free particles there is an additional algebraic structure on the deformation classes leading naturally to notions of twisted equivariant K-theory. In systems with a lattice of translational symmetries we show that there is a canonical twisting of the equivariant K-theory of the Brillouin torus. We give precise mathematical definitions of two invariants of the topological phases which have played an important role in the study of topological insulators. Twisted equivariant K-theor...
PREFACE: Quark Matter 2006 Conference Quark Matter 2006 Conference
Ma, Yu-Gang; Wang, En-Ke; Cai, Xu; Huang, Huan-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan
2007-07-01
scientific program of the conference began with an overview of high energy nuclear physics in China by Professor Wenqing Shen, vice president of the National Natural Science Foundation of China. Professor Shen highlighted many contributions made by the Chinese scientists in both theory and experiment. Dr Nick Samios, former director of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), gave a vivid account of the early years of RHIC and recent accomplishments. Highlights of the conference include new results from RHIC at BNL and SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research). Many experimental results reported at the conference support the notion that the quark-gluon matter at RHIC behaves like a perfect liquid with minimum viscosity to entropy ratio. There were 15 plenary sessions which covered 54 plenary talks, 12 parallel sessions and 1 poster session. A total of 320 abstracts were submitted to the conference out of which 124 were selected for oral presentation and the rest were assigned to the poster session. Talks and posters in the conference covered a broad range of experimental and theoretical progress in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions, which includes new evidence of sQGP, jet quenching and heavy quark energy loss, heavy-ion collision phenomenology, quantum field theory at finite temperature and/or density, and relevant areas of astrophysics and plasma physics. The Quark Matter 2006 conference coincided with the 80th birthday of Professor T D Lee. A special reception was held in the banquet hall of the Shanghai Grand Theatre to celebrate Professor Lee's birthday and to honor his great contributions to physics, in particular, to the development of high energy nuclear physics research in China. We would like to thank the members of the International Advisory Committee for providing valuable advice on a variety of matters, from the general structure of the conference to the selection of the plenary speakers and selection of abstracts for
Dark Matter with Variable Masses
García-Bellido, Juan
String effective theories contain a dilaton scalar field which couples to gravity, matter and radiation. In general, particle masses will have different dilaton couplings. We can always choose a conformal frame in which baryons have constant masses while (nonbaryonic) dark matter have variable masses, in the context of a scalar-tensor gravity theory. We are interested in the phenomenology of this scenario. Dark matter with variable masses could have a measurable effect on the dynamical motion of the halo of spiral galaxies, which may affect cold dark matter models of galaxy formation. As a consequence of variable masses, the energy-momentum tensor is not conserved; there is a dissipative effect, due to the dilaton coupling, associated with a “dark entropy” production. In particular, if axions had variable masses they could be diluted away, thus opening the “axion window.” Assuming that dark matter with variable masses dominates the cosmological evolution during the matter era, it will affect the primordial nucleosynthesis predictions on the abundances of light elements. Furthermore, the dilaton also couples to radiation in the form of a variable gauge coupling. Experimental bounds will constrain the parameters of this model.
Phases of cannibal dark matter
Farina, Marco; Pappadopulo, Duccio; Ruderman, Joshua T.; Trevisan, Gabriele
2016-12-01
A hidden sector with a mass gap undergoes an epoch of cannibalism if number changing interactions are active when the temperature drops below the mass of the lightest hidden particle. During cannibalism, the hidden sector temperature decreases only logarithmically with the scale factor. We consider the possibility that dark matter resides in a hidden sector that underwent cannibalism, and has relic density set by the freeze-out of two-to-two annihilations. We identify three novel phases, depending on the behavior of the hidden sector when dark matter freezes out. During the cannibal phase, dark matter annihilations decouple while the hidden sector is cannibalizing. During the chemical phase, only two-to-two interactions are active and the total number of hidden particles is conserved. During the one way phase, the dark matter annihilation products decay out of equilibrium, suppressing the production of dark matter from inverse annihilations. We map out the distinct phenomenology of each phase, which includes a boosted dark matter annihilation rate, new relativistic degrees of freedom, warm dark matter, and observable distortions to the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background.
Phases of cannibal dark matter
Farina, Marco [New High Energy Theory Center, Department of Physics, Rutgers University,136 Frelinghuisen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Pappadopulo, Duccio; Ruderman, Joshua T.; Trevisan, Gabriele [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University,New York, NY 10003 (United States)
2016-12-13
A hidden sector with a mass gap undergoes an epoch of cannibalism if number changing interactions are active when the temperature drops below the mass of the lightest hidden particle. During cannibalism, the hidden sector temperature decreases only logarithmically with the scale factor. We consider the possibility that dark matter resides in a hidden sector that underwent cannibalism, and has relic density set by the freeze-out of two-to-two annihilations. We identify three novel phases, depending on the behavior of the hidden sector when dark matter freezes out. During the cannibal phase, dark matter annihilations decouple while the hidden sector is cannibalizing. During the chemical phase, only two-to-two interactions are active and the total number of hidden particles is conserved. During the one way phase, the dark matter annihilation products decay out of equilibrium, suppressing the production of dark matter from inverse annihilations. We map out the distinct phenomenology of each phase, which includes a boosted dark matter annihilation rate, new relativistic degrees of freedom, warm dark matter, and observable distortions to the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background.
Torm, Nina; Bjerge, Benedikte; Trifkovic, Neda
such training may be in closing the gender wage gap. We use a matched employer–employee panel dataset to assess why firms train and whether formal training affects wage outcomes in Vietnamese SMEs. Training is generally found to be firm-sponsored and specific in nature. We find that training is associated......, firm-sponsored on-the-job training helps close the gender wage gap.......In many developing countries the skill base is a cause of concern with respect to international competition. Firm-provided training is generally seen as an important tool for bridging the skills gap between labour force and private sector demand. Yet little is known about how successful...
Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter with Supersymmetry
Shakya, Bibhushan
2016-01-01
Sterile neutrino dark matter, a popular alternative to the WIMP paradigm, has generally been studied in non-supersymmetric setups. If the underlying theory is supersymmetric, we find that several interesting and novel dark matter features can arise. In particular, in scenarios of freeze-in production of sterile neutrino dark matter, its superpartner, the sterile sneutrino, can play a crucial role in early Universe cosmology as the dominant source of cold, warm, or hot dark matter, or of a subdominant relativistic population of sterile neutrinos that can contribute to the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom Neff during Big Bang nucleosynthesis.
Consistent matter couplings for Plebanski gravity
Tennie, Felix
2010-01-01
We develop a scheme for the minimal coupling of all standard types of tensor and spinor field matter to Plebanski gravity. This theory is a geometric reformulation of vacuum general relativity in terms of two-form frames and connection one-forms, and provides a covariant basis for various quantization approaches. Using the spinor formalism we prove the consistency of the newly proposed matter coupling by demonstrating the full equivalence of Plebanski gravity plus matter to Einstein--Cartan gravity. As a byproduct we also show the consistency of some previous suggestions for matter actions.
Consistent matter couplings for Plebanski gravity
Tennie, Felix; Wohlfarth, Mattias N. R.
2010-11-01
We develop a scheme for the minimal coupling of all standard types of tensor and spinor field matter to Plebanski gravity. This theory is a geometric reformulation of vacuum general relativity in terms of two-form frames and connection one-forms, and provides a covariant basis for various quantization approaches. Using the spinor formalism we prove the consistency of the newly proposed matter coupling by demonstrating the full equivalence of Plebanski gravity plus matter to Einstein-Cartan gravity. As a by-product we also show the consistency of some previous suggestions for matter actions.
Peng, Yan; Liu, Yunqi
2015-01-01
We generalize the holographic phase transitions affected by the dark matter sector in the AdS soliton background by including backreaction. We observe the unstable retrograde condensation appears due to the dark matter sector and also derive the general stable conditions expressed by the coupling parameters $\\alpha$ and $\\xi/\\mu$. Moreover, we find that the larger coupling parameter $\\alpha$ makes the gap of condensation lower but the ratio $\\xi/\\mu$ does not affect it. In contrast, the critical chemical potential always keeps as a constant for different values of $\\alpha$ and $\\xi/\\mu$ even including backreaction. In all, there is a lot of difference between the properties of dark matter sector in insulator/superconductor transitions and those reported in metal/superconductor systems. We also arrive at the same conclusion from the effective mass and holographic topological entanglement entropy approach. In particular, we state that the entanglement entropy is powerful in studying the effects of the dark matt...
PREFACE: Quark Matter 2006 Conference
Ma, Yu-Gang; Wang, En-Ke; Cai, Xu; Huang, Huan-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan
2007-07-01
scientific program of the conference began with an overview of high energy nuclear physics in China by Professor Wenqing Shen, vice president of the National Natural Science Foundation of China. Professor Shen highlighted many contributions made by the Chinese scientists in both theory and experiment. Dr Nick Samios, former director of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), gave a vivid account of the early years of RHIC and recent accomplishments. Highlights of the conference include new results from RHIC at BNL and SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research). Many experimental results reported at the conference support the notion that the quark-gluon matter at RHIC behaves like a perfect liquid with minimum viscosity to entropy ratio. There were 15 plenary sessions which covered 54 plenary talks, 12 parallel sessions and 1 poster session. A total of 320 abstracts were submitted to the conference out of which 124 were selected for oral presentation and the rest were assigned to the poster session. Talks and posters in the conference covered a broad range of experimental and theoretical progress in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions, which includes new evidence of sQGP, jet quenching and heavy quark energy loss, heavy-ion collision phenomenology, quantum field theory at finite temperature and/or density, and relevant areas of astrophysics and plasma physics. The Quark Matter 2006 conference coincided with the 80th birthday of Professor T D Lee. A special reception was held in the banquet hall of the Shanghai Grand Theatre to celebrate Professor Lee's birthday and to honor his great contributions to physics, in particular, to the development of high energy nuclear physics research in China. We would like to thank the members of the International Advisory Committee for providing valuable advice on a variety of matters, from the general structure of the conference to the selection of the plenary speakers and selection of abstracts for
Volume Integral Theorem for Exotic Matter
Nandi, Kamal Kanti; Zhang, Yuan-Zhong; Kumar, K. B. Vijaya
2004-01-01
We answer an important question in general relativity about the volume integral theorem for exotic matter by suggesting an exact integral quantifier for matter violating Averaged Null Energy Condition (ANEC). It is checked against some well known static, spherically symmetric traversable wormhole solutions of general relativity with a sign reversed kinetic term minimally coupled scalar field. The improved quantifier is consistent with the principle that traversable wormholes can be supported ...
Open cohort ("time-series") studies of the adverse health effects of short-term exposures to ambient particulate matter and gaseous co-pollutants have been essential in the standard setting process. Last year, a number of serious issues were raised concerning the fitting of Gener...
Matter, dark matter, and anti-matter in search of the hidden universe
Mazure, Alain
2012-01-01
For over ten years, the dark side of the universe has been headline news. Detailed studies of the rotation of spiral galaxies, and 'mirages' created by clusters of galaxies bending the light from very remote objects, have convinced astronomers of the presence of large quantities of dark (unseen) matter in the cosmos. Moreover, in the 1990s, it was discovered that some four to five billion years ago the expansion of the universe entered a phase of acceleration. This implies the existence of dark energy. The nature of these 'dark; ingredients remains a mystery, but they seem to comprise about 95 percent of the matter/energy content of the universe. As for ordinary matter, although we are immersed in a sea of dark particles, including primordial neutrinos and photons from 'fossil' cosmological radiation, both we and our environment are made of ordinary, baryonic matter. Strangely, even if 15-20 percent of matter is baryonic matter, this represents only 4-5 percent of the total matter/energy content of the cosmos...
Ross, Jennifer L
2016-09-06
The inside of the cell is full of important, yet invisible species of molecules and proteins that interact weakly but couple together to have huge and important effects in many biological processes. Such "dark matter" inside cells remains mostly hidden, because our tools were developed to investigate strongly interacting species and folded proteins. Example dark-matter species include intrinsically disordered proteins, posttranslational states, ion species, and rare, transient, and weak interactions undetectable by biochemical assays. The dark matter of biology is likely to have multiple, vital roles to regulate signaling, rates of reactions, water structure and viscosity, crowding, and other cellular activities. We need to create new tools to image, detect, and understand these dark-matter species if we are to truly understand fundamental physical principles of biology.
Relationship between grey matter integrity and executive abilities in aging.
Manard, Marine; Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Salmon, Eric; Collette, Fabienne
2016-07-01
This cross-sectional study was designed to investigate grey matter changes that occur in healthy aging and the relationship between grey matter characteristics and executive functioning. Thirty-six young adults (18-30 years old) and 43 seniors (60-75 years old) were included. A general executive score was derived from a large battery of neuropsychological tests assessing three major aspects of executive functioning (inhibition, updating and shifting). Age-related grey matter changes were investigated by comparing young and older adults using voxel-based morphometry and voxel-based cortical thickness methods. A widespread difference in grey matter volume was found across many brain regions, whereas cortical thinning was mainly restricted to central areas. Multivariate analyses showed age-related changes in relatively similar brain regions to the respective univariate analyses but appeared more limited. Finally, in the older adult sample, a significant relationship between global executive performance and decreased grey matter volume in anterior (i.e. frontal, insular and cingulate cortex) but also some posterior brain areas (i.e. temporal and parietal cortices) as well as subcortical structures was observed. Results of this study highlight the distribution of age-related effects on grey matter volume and show that cortical atrophy does not appear primarily in "frontal" brain regions. From a cognitive viewpoint, age-related executive functioning seems to be related to grey matter volume but not to cortical thickness. Therefore, our results also highlight the influence of methodological aspects (from preprocessing to statistical analysis) on the pattern of results, which could explain the lack of consensus in literature.
Invisible Higgs and Dark Matter
Heikinheimo, Matti; Tuominen, Kimmo; Virkajärvi, Jussi Tuomas
2012-01-01
We investigate the possibility that a massive weakly interacting fermion simultaneously provides for a dominant component of the dark matter relic density and an invisible decay width of the Higgs boson at the LHC. As a concrete model realizing such dynamics we consider the minimal walking...... technicolor, although our results apply more generally. Taking into account the constraints from the electroweak precision measurements and current direct searches for dark matter particles, we find that such scenario is heavily constrained, and large portions of the parameter space are excluded....
Natarajan, Vasant
2017-01-01
This is a collection of essays on physics topics. It is written as a textbook for non-physics science and arts students, at the undergraduate level. Topics covered include cellphone radiation, lasers, the twin paradox, and more.
Natural Implementation of Neutralino Dark Matter
King, S F
2006-01-01
The prediction of neutralino dark matter is generally regarded as one of the successes of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). However the successful regions of parameter space allowed by WMAP and collider constraints are quite restricted. We discuss fine-tuning with respect to both dark matter and Electroweak Symmetry Breaking (EWSB) and explore regions of MSSM parameter space with non-universal gaugino and third family scalar masses in which neutralino dark matter may be implemented naturally. In particular allowing non-universal gauginos opens up the bulk region that allows Bino annihilation via t-channel slepton exchange, leading to ``supernatural dark matter'' corresponding to no fine-tuning at all with respect to dark matter. By contrast we find that the recently proposed ``well tempered neutralino'' regions involve substantial fine-tuning of MSSM parameters in order to satisfy the dark matter constraints, although the fine tuning may be ameliorated if several annihilation channels act simu...
Van Maldeghem, Hendrik
1998-01-01
Generalized Polygons is the first book to cover, in a coherent manner, the theory of polygons from scratch. In particular, it fills elementary gaps in the literature and gives an up-to-date account of current research in this area, including most proofs, which are often unified and streamlined in comparison to the versions generally known. Generalized Polygons will be welcomed both by the student seeking an introduction to the subject as well as the researcher who will value the work as a reference. In particular, it will be of great value for specialists working in the field of generalized polygons (which are, incidentally, the rank 2 Tits-buildings) or in fields directly related to Tits-buildings, incidence geometry and finite geometry. The approach taken in the book is of geometric nature, but algebraic results are included and proven (in a geometric way!). A noteworthy feature is that the book unifies and generalizes notions, definitions and results that exist for quadrangles, hexagons, octagons - in the ...
28 CFR 0.71 - Delegation respecting immunity matters.
2010-07-01
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delegation respecting immunity matters. 0... JUSTICE Tax Division § 0.71 Delegation respecting immunity matters. The Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Tax Division is authorized to handle matters involving the immunity of the Federal...
Bojesen, Anders
2004-01-01
This paper explores how the context of competencies affects the way we see and value competence and how it thereby forms communication and strategies of action. The paper puts forward the view that the context of competence is often spoken of in incomprehensible terms and generally taken...... for granted and unproblematic, although it is agreed to be of great importance. By crystallising three different modes of contextualised competence thinking (prescriptive, descriptive and analytical) the paper shows that the underlying assumptions about context - the interaction between the individual...... and the social - has major consequences for the specific enactment of competence. The paper argues in favour of a second order observation strategy for the context of competence. But in doing so it also shows that prevailing second-order competence theories so far, in criticising (counter) positions (and...
Babichev, Eugeny; Raidal, Martti; Schmidt-May, Angnis; Urban, Federico; Veermäe, Hardi; von Strauss, Mikael
2016-01-01
We provide further details on a recent proposal addressing the nature of the dark sectors in cosmology and demonstrate that all current observations related to Dark Matter can be explained by the presence of a heavy spin-2 particle. Massive spin-2 fields and their gravitational interactions are uniquely described by ghost-free bimetric theory, which is a minimal and natural extension of General Relativity. In this setup, the largeness of the physical Planck mass is naturally related to extremely weak couplings of the heavy spin-2 field to baryonic matter and therefore explains the absence of signals in experiments dedicated to Dark Matter searches. It also ensures the phenomenological viability of our model as we confirm by comparing it with cosmological and local tests of gravity. At the same time, the spin-2 field possesses standard gravitational interactions and it decays universally into all Standard Model fields but not into massless gravitons. Matching the measured DM abundance together with the require...
Dipolar Dark Matter and Cosmology
Blanchet, Luc; Tiec, Alexandre Le; Marsat, Sylvain
2013-01-01
The phenomenology of the modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) can be recovered from a mechanism of "gravitational polarization" of some dipolar medium playing the role of dark matter. We review a relativistic model of dipolar dark matter (DDM) within standard general relativity to describe, at some effective level, a fluid polarizable in a gravitational field. At first order in cosmological perturbation theory, this model is equivalent to the concordance cosmological scenario, or Lambda-cold dark matter (CDM) model. At second order, however, the internal energy of DDM modifies the curvature perturbation generated by CDM. This correction, which depends quadratically on the dipole, induces a new type of non-Gaussianity in the bispectrum of the curvature perturbation with respect to standard CDM. Recent observations by the Planck satellite impose stringent constraints on the primordial value of the dipole field.
2008-04-18
This podcast gives an overview of malaria, including prevention and treatment, and what CDC is doing to help control and prevent malaria globally. Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED). Date Released: 4/18/2008.
Invariant conserved currents in generalized gravity
Obukhov, Yuri N; Puetzfeld, Dirk; Rubilar, Guillermo F
2015-01-01
We study conservation laws for gravity theories invariant under general coordinate transformations. The class of models under consideration includes Einstein's general relativity theory as a special case as well as its generalizations to non-Riemannian spacetime geometry and nonminimal coupling. We demonstrate that an arbitrary vector field on the spacetime manifold generates a current density that is conserved under certain conditions, and find the expression of the corresponding superpotential. For a family of models including nonminimal coupling between geometry and matter, we discuss in detail the differential conservation laws and the conserved quantities defined in terms of covariant multipole moments. We show that the equations of motion for the multipole moments of extended microstructured test bodies lead to conserved quantities that are closely related to the conserved currents derived in the field-theoretic framework.
Mashhoon, B
2014-01-01
A brief account of the present status of the recent nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation is presented. The main physical assumptions that underlie this theory are described. We clarify the physical meaning and significance of Weitzenb\\"ock's torsion, and emphasize its intimate relationship with the gravitational field, characterized by the Riemannian curvature of spacetime. In this theory, nonlocality can simulate dark matter; in fact, in the Newtonian regime, we recover the phenomenological Tohline-Kuhn approach to modified gravity. To account for the observational data regarding dark matter, nonlocality is associated with a characteristic length scale of order 1 kpc. The confrontation of nonlocal gravity with observation is briefly discussed.
Staff Association
2016-01-01
What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...
Graybill, George
2007-01-01
This is science made easy! You don't have to be a rocket scientist to understand matter and energy. Our Combined resource includes all the important concepts in an easy-to-understand way using simple language and vocabulary. Discover what matter is, and isn't. Learn about solids, liquids and gases, properties and changes in matter, and the difference between a mixture and a solution. Then, explore the invisible world of atoms and molecules.
Generalised matter couplings in massive bigravity
2016-01-01
We investigate matter couplings in massive bigravity. We find a new family of such consistent couplings, including and extending known consistent matter couplings, and we investigate their decoupling limits, ADM decompositions, Higuchi bounds and further aspects. We show that differences to previous known consistent couplings only arise beyond the $\\Lambda_3$ decoupling limit and discuss the uniqueness of consistent matter couplings and how this is related to the so-called symmetric vielbein ...
TASI 2008 Lectures on Dark Matter
Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.
2009-01-01
Based on lectures given at the 2008 Theoretical Advanced Study Institute (TASI), I review here some aspects of the phenomenology of particle dark matter, including the process of thermal freeze-out in the early universe, and the direct and indirect detection of WIMPs. I also describe some of the most popular particle candidates for dark matter and summarize the current status of the quest to discover dark matter's particle identity.
Matter and twin matter in bimetric MOND
Milgrom, Mordehai
2010-01-01
Bimetric MOND (BIMOND) theories, propounded recently, predict peculiar gravitational interactions between matter and twin matter (TM). Twin matter is hypothetical matter that might couple directly only to the second metric of the theory. Considerations of cosmology in the BIMOND framework suggest that such TM might exist and copy matter in its attributes. Here I investigate the indirect interactions that BIMOND theories predict between nonrelativistic masses of matter and TM. The most salient result is that in the deep-MOND regime of the matter-TM-symmetric theories, TM behaves as if it has a negative gravitational mass. To wit, interaction within each sector is attractive MOND gravity, but between matter and TM it is repulsive MOND gravity. In the high-acceleration regime, the interaction depends on a parameter, beta. For the favored value beta=1, matter and TM do not interact in this regime; for beta1 they repel each other. Such interactions may have substantial ramifications for all aspects of structure fo...
Earon, Ofri
2013-01-01
the building. The research explores and develops the architectural characteristics of correlations between the resident, the singular unit, the building and the given location at the edge zone. It approaches the edge zone of the urban house as a platform for dynamic interactions between these behaviours....... The following text includes the first draft of the first two chapters: introduction and theory. The chapters are not written completely, and some parts are written only as headlines. These headlines and other comments are marked in red. The text is on working progress and far from being finished...
Isabel de Riquer
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The scene is at the court of James I of Aragon in the mid-13th c., the place is the royal palace of Barcelona or any of the crown's other possessions, and the dramatis personae include the heir to the throne, prince Peire (future king Peire the Great, and the court's most famous troubadour, Cerverí de Girona (fl. 1259-85. Author of the largest corpus of any Occitan troubadour (114 poems, Cerverì distinguishes himself by the surprises and challenges he presents to his audience: an alba (the most openly erotic genre to the Virgin Mary, the Cobla in sis lengatges (Cobla in Six Languages, the apparently nonsensical Vers estrayn. Cerverì borrows equally from the folk-inspired Galician-Portuguese poetry and from the French tradition, including the chanson de malmariée, where a young woman bemoans being sold off by her family to an old man (gilos, "Jealous" and separated from her youthful doulz amis, some even praying for the death of their husband. Both within that tradition and among Cerverì's three chansons de malmariée, the Gelosesca stands out as "especially determined" to lose her husband, using every "solution" (prayer, black magic, potion or experimenta.
Freitas, Ayres; Plehn, Tilman
2016-01-01
Effective Lagrangians are a useful tool for a data-driven approach to physics beyond the Standard Model at the LHC. However, for the new physics scales accessible at the LHC, the effective operator expansion is only relatively slowly converging at best. For tree-level processes, it has been found that the agreement between the effective Lagrangian and a range of UV-complete models depends sensitively on the appropriate definition of the matching. We extend this analysis to the one-loop level, which is relevant for electroweak precision data and Higgs decay to photons. We show that near the scale of electroweak symmetry breaking the validity of the effective theory description can be systematically improved through an appropriate matching procedure. In particular, we find a significant increase in accuracy when including suitable terms suppressed by the Higgs vacuum expectation value in the matching.
Brosch, Noah
2008-01-01
Since very early times Sirius was a point of attraction in the night sky. It served to synchronize calendars in antiquity and was the subject of many myths and legends, including some modern ones. It was perceived as a red star for more than 400 years, but such reports were relegated to the Mediterranean region. Astronomically, Sirius is a very bright star. This, and its present close distance to us, argues in favor of it being the target of detailed studies of stellar structure and evolution. Its binary nature, with a companion that is one of the more massive white dwarfs, is an additional reason for such studies. This book collects the published information on Sirius in an attempt to derive a coherent picture of how this system came to look as it does.
Implications of a positive cosmological constant for general relativity.
Ashtekar, Abhay
2017-08-29
Most of the literature on general relativity over the last century assumes that the cosmological constant [Formula: see text] is zero. However, by now independent observations have led to a consensus that the dynamics of the universe is best described by Einstein's equations with a small but positive [Formula: see text]. Interestingly, this requires a drastic revision of conceptual frameworks commonly used in general relativity, no matter how small [Formula: see text] is. We first explain why, and then summarize the current status of generalizations of these frameworks to include a positive [Formula: see text], focusing on gravitational waves.
Correlation between white matter damage and gray matter lesions in multiple sclerosis patients
Xue-mei Han
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We observed the characteristics of white matter fibers and gray matter in multiple sclerosis patients, to identify changes in diffusion tensor imaging fractional anisotropy values following white matter fiber injury. We analyzed the correlation between fractional anisotropy values and changes in whole-brain gray matter volume. The participants included 20 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 20 healthy volunteers as controls. All subjects underwent head magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Our results revealed that fractional anisotropy values decreased and gray matter volumes were reduced in the genu and splenium of corpus callosum, left anterior thalamic radiation, hippocampus, uncinate fasciculus, right corticospinal tract, bilateral cingulate gyri, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus in multiple sclerosis patients. Gray matter volumes were significantly different between the two groups in the right frontal lobe (superior frontal, middle frontal, precentral, and orbital gyri, right parietal lobe (postcentral and inferior parietal gyri, right temporal lobe (caudate nucleus, right occipital lobe (middle occipital gyrus, right insula, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left cingulate gyrus. The voxel sizes of atrophic gray matter positively correlated with fractional anisotropy values in white matter association fibers in the patient group. These findings suggest that white matter fiber bundles are extensively injured in multiple sclerosis patients. The main areas of gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis are the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, caudate nucleus, parahippocampal gyrus, and cingulate gyrus. Gray matter atrophy is strongly associated with white matter injury in multiple sclerosis patients, particularly with injury to association fibers.
White matter and cognition: making the connection.
Filley, Christopher M; Fields, R Douglas
2016-11-01
Whereas the cerebral cortex has long been regarded by neuroscientists as the major locus of cognitive function, the white matter of the brain is increasingly recognized as equally critical for cognition. White matter comprises half of the brain, has expanded more than gray matter in evolution, and forms an indispensable component of distributed neural networks that subserve neurobehavioral operations. White matter tracts mediate the essential connectivity by which human behavior is organized, working in concert with gray matter to enable the extraordinary repertoire of human cognitive capacities. In this review, we present evidence from behavioral neurology that white matter lesions regularly disturb cognition, consider the role of white matter in the physiology of distributed neural networks, develop the hypothesis that white matter dysfunction is relevant to neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and the newly described entity chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and discuss emerging concepts regarding the prevention and treatment of cognitive dysfunction associated with white matter disorders. Investigation of the role of white matter in cognition has yielded many valuable insights and promises to expand understanding of normal brain structure and function, improve the treatment of many neurobehavioral disorders, and disclose new opportunities for research on many challenging problems facing medicine and society.
Changes in Dictionary Subject Matter
Nielsen, Sandro
2003-01-01
The general content of the three editions of the Duden dictionary has undergone few changes. The most substantial changes are the addition of syllabification and the deletion of antonomy in respect of lemmata in the second and third editions. The concept of dictionary subject matter is questioned......, and it is argued that it is more appropriate to consider how the relationships between the classes of items interact with the function of the dictionary....
Changes in Dictionary Subject Matter
Nielsen, Sandro
2003-01-01
The general content of the three editions of the Duden dictionary has undergone few changes. The most substantial changes are the addition of syllabification and the deletion of antonomy in respect of lemmata in the second and third editions. The concept of dictionary subject matter is questioned......, and it is argued that it is more appropriate to consider how the relationships between the classes of items interact with the function of the dictionary....
Phases of dense matter with holographic instantons
Preis, Florian
2016-01-01
We discuss nuclear matter and the transition to quark matter in the decompactified limit of the Sakai-Sugimoto model. Nuclear matter is included through instantons on the flavor branes of the model. Our approximation is based on the flat-space solution, but we allow for a dynamical instanton width and deformation and compute the energetically preferred number of instanton layers in the bulk as a function of the baryon chemical potential. We determine the regions in parameter space where the binding energy of nuclear matter is like in QCD, and compute the phase diagram in the plane of temperature and chemical potential.
Environmental psychology matters.
Gifford, Robert
2014-01-01
Environmental psychology examines transactions between individuals and their built and natural environments. This includes investigating behaviors that inhibit or foster sustainable, climate-healthy, and nature-enhancing choices, the antecedents and correlates of those behaviors, and interventions to increase proenvironmental behavior. It also includes transactions in which nature provides restoration or inflicts stress, and transactions that are more mutual, such as the development of place attachment and identity and the impacts on and from important physical settings such as home, workplaces, schools, and public spaces. As people spend more time in virtual environments, online transactions are coming under increasing research attention. Every aspect of human existence occurs in one environment or another, and the transactions with and within them have important consequences both for people and their natural and built worlds. Environmental psychology matters.
Staff Association
2016-01-01
5th April, 2016 – Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association! In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Tuesday, April 5th 2016 from 11:00 to 12:00 in BE Auditorium, Meyrin (6-2-024). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its financial management, and an opportunity to express one’s opinion, including taking part in the votes. Other points are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Only “ordinary” members (MPE) of the SA can vote. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give his/her opinion? The Ordinary General Asse...
2010-07-01
... Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.19 Matter. Matter includes for purposes of part 1504: (a) With respect to the Environmental Protection Agency, any proposed legislation, project, action or regulation as those terms are used in section 309(a) of the Clean Air Act...
Topological hierarchy matters — topological matters with superlattices of defects
He, Jing; Kou, Su-Peng
2016-11-01
Topological insulators/superconductors are new states of quantum matter with metallic edge/surface states. In this paper, we review the defects effect in these topological states and study new types of topological matters — topological hierarchy matters. We find that both topological defects (quantized vortices) and non topological defects (vacancies) can induce topological mid-gap states in the topological hierarchy matters after considering the superlattice of defects. These topological mid-gap states have nontrivial topological properties, including the nonzero Chern number and the gapless edge states. Effective tight-binding models are obtained to describe the topological mid-gap states in the topological hierarchy matters. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB921803 and 2012CB921704), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174035, 11474025, 11404090, and 11674026), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. A2015205189), the Hebei Education Department Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. QN2014022), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China.
42 CFR 1008.5 - Matters subject to advisory opinions.
2010-10-01
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Matters subject to advisory opinions. 1008.5 Section 1008.5 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES ADVISORY OPINIONS BY THE OIG General Provisions § 1008.5 Matters subject...
Asorey, Manuel
2016-01-01
An old branch of mathematics, Topology, has opened the road to the discovery of new phases of matter. A hidden topology in the energy spectrum is the key for novel conducting/insulating properties of topological matter.
Avakyan, R.M.; Sarkisyan, A.V.
1987-07-01
The properties of degenerate stellar matter in the region of nuclear densities are considered. The threshold of the transition of the electron-nucleus phase to the state of continuous nuclear matter is found.
... Term(s): Teachers / NIDA Teaching Guide / Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Cocaine Print Mind Over Matter: Cocaine Order Free Publication in: English Spanish Download PDF 806.08 KB Cocaine is ...
... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Why Arrhythmia Matters Updated:Dec 21,2016 When the heart's ... fibrillation. This content was last reviewed September 2016. Arrhythmia • Home • About Arrhythmia • Why Arrhythmia Matters • Understand Your ...
2014-01-01
Since 1992, the NextMed/MMVR conference has gathered researchers who create tools that improve medical care and education. Engineers, clinicians, scientists, educators, industry, military, and students come to share, learn, evaluate, and nurture progress. Their mission is to improve healthcare outcomes and efficiency through computing and networking technologies-products of the IT industry. These researchers also participate in the healthcare crisis that the United States and, to a lesser extent, other developed countries now face: how to meet the public's high expectations of care when costs are precariously high. Multiple factors have elevated these expectations. Baby Boomers are entering retirement after a lifetime of viewing ads that promise them "golden years" invigorated by science. Competition for affluent patients means hospital ads never admit a tacit truth: "Yes, our experienced doctors treat people with fancy machines, but some still die or never improve". The media glowingly report on patients saved by dedicated physicians, and people believe they can buy miracles with sufficient talent and technology. Meanwhile, a convoluted reimbursement system obscures the true cost of care, individually and collectively. The cost of care is steadily increasing, too. In the United States, the chronically ill of all ages-five percent of the population-consume half of all healthcare spending. Many of these patients suffer from lifestyle diseases that proliferate in synch with modernization. Aging Boomers will exacerbate this increase as they approach the inevitable during the next decade or so. Granted, human nature compels us to fight illness by any means possible-without weighing the financial toll beforehand. (If a TV medical drama included accountants in the ER who tabulated invoices while doctors saved lives, it would morph into a dark comedy that's not too far from reality.) However, when we extend lives with innovative therapies but don't completely heal, the
Khriplovich, I. B
2005-01-01
This book offers an alternative to other textbooks on the subject, providing a more specific discussion of numerous general relativistic effects for readers who have knowledge of classical mechanics and electrodynamics, including special relativity. Coverage includes gravitational lensing, signal retardation in the gravitational field of the Sun, the Reissner-Nordström solution, selected spin effects, the resonance transformation of an electromagnetic wave into a gravitational one, and the entropy and temperature of black holes. The book includes numerous problems at various levels of difficulty, making it ideal also for independent study by a broad readership of advanced students and researchers. I.B. Khriplovich is Chief Researcher, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, and Chair of Theoretical Physics at Novosibirsk University. Dr. Khriplovich is a Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He has been awarded the Dirac Medal ``For the advancement of theoretical physics'' by Univ...
2016-01-01
universal design, listed in alphabetical order: Bettye Rose Connell, Mike Jones, Ron Mace, Jim Mueller, Abir Mullick, Elaine Ostroff, Jon Sanford, Ed Steinfeld, Molly Story, & Gregg Vanderheiden https://www.ncsu.edu/project/design-projects/sites/cud/content/principles/principles.html. , we can review some of the terminology and its development around the concept of Universal Design. From the outset, the term referred to a broad spectrum of applications. It covered the design of buildings, products and environments, and the need for these to be inherently accessible to older people, people without disabilities, and people with disabilities. More specifically, the term Universal Design was defined in 1997 as "the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design" https://www.ncsu.edu/ncsu/design/cud/about_ud/about_ud.htm. . As with all concise definitions, it has been necessary to emphasise and add to this statement, for instance: • Universal Design is really about including all people and not a euphemism for "design for those with a disability". It is about products, services, and environments being usable, to the greatest extent possible, by everyone, regardless of their age, ability, cultural background or status in life [1]. • The phrase "to the greatest extent possible" was added to counter criticism that Universal Design was a utopian ideal, and to underscore that Universal Design is a practical as well as conceptual approach. • The focus of Universal Design is on mainstream products, services, and environments and not on adaptations or specialist products, services, and environments. • Universal Design emphasises the need to design from the outset for the widest possible range of users, rather than try to make modifications later on, whether during the design process or after release. • Products, services, and environments should also be aesthetically pleasing
Interaction of radiation with matter
Nikjoo, Hooshang; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris
2012-01-01
Written for students approaching the subject for the first time, this text provides a solid grounding in the physics of the interactions of photons and particles with matter, which is the basis of radiological physics and radiation dosimetry. The authors first present the relevant atomic physics and then describe the interactions, emphasizing practical applications in health/medical physics and radiation biology. They cover such important topics as microdosimetry, interaction of photons with matter, electron energy loss, and dielectric response. Each chapter includes exercises and a summary.
The destruction of organic matter
Gorsuch, T T
1970-01-01
International Series of Monographs in Analytical Chemistry, Volume 39: The Destruction of Organic Matter focuses on the identification of trace elements in organic compounds. The monograph first offers information on the processes involved in the determination of trace elements in organic matters, as well as the methods not involving complete destruction of these elements. The text surveys the sources of errors in the processes responsible in pinpointing elements in organic compounds. These processes include sampling, disruption of the samples, manipulation, and measurements. The book
Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia; Slatyer, Tracy R.; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Xue, Wei
2016-01-01
We consider a new class of thermal dark matter models, dubbed "Impeded Dark Matter", in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. We demonstrate that either case can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonst...
Frontiers and challenges in warm dense matter
Desjarlais, Michael; Redmer, Ronald; Trickey, Samuel
2014-01-01
Warm Dense Matter (WDM) occupies a loosely defined region of phase space intermediate between solid, liquid, gas, and plasma, and typically shares characteristics of two or more of these phases. WDM is generally associated with the combination of strongly coupled ions and moderately degenerate electrons, and careful attention to quantum physics and electronic structure is essential. The lack of a small perturbation parameter greatly limits approximate attempts at its accurate description. Since WDM resides at the intersection of solid state and high energy density physics, many high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments pass through this difficult region of phase space. Thus, understanding and modeling WDM is key to the success of experiments on diverse facilities. These include the National Ignition Campaign centered on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), pulsed-power driven experiments on the Z machine, ion-beam-driven WDM experiments on the NDCX-II, and fundamental WDM research at the Linear Coherent...
Wambach, Jochen
2013-01-01
In this presentation I discuss two aspects of the neutron-matter equation of state. One relates to the symmetry energy of nuclear matter and empirical constraints on its slope parameter at saturation density. The second deals with spatially inhomogeneous chiral phases of deconfined quark matter in the inner core of a neutron star.
2015-01-01
has defined four basic areas to be managed in the new care model: address the big data challenges; foster meaningful innovation; understand and address the potential new risks; and support concerted effort to un-silo communities for a virtual care future. The multilateral benefits of pHealth technologies for all stakeholder communities including patients, citizens, health professionals, politicians, healthcare establishments, and companies from the biomedical technology, pharmaceutical, and telecommunications domain gives enormous potential, not only for medical quality improvement and industrial competitiveness, but also for managing health care cost. The pHealth 2015 Conference thankfully benefits from the experience and the lessons learned from the organizing committees of previous pHealth events, particularly 2009 in Oslo, 2010 in Berlin, 2011 in Lyon, 2012 in Porto, 2013 in Tallinn, and 2014 Vienna. The 2009 conference brought up the interesting idea of having special sessions, focusing on a particular topic, and being organized by a mentor/moderator. The Berlin event in 2010 initiated workshops on particular topics prior to the official kick-off of the conference. Lyon in 2011 initiated the launch of socalled dynamic demonstrations allowing the participants to dynamically show software and hardware solutions on the fly without needing a booth. Implementing preconference events, the pHealth 2012 in Porto gave attendees a platform for presenting and discussing recent developments and provocative ideas that helped to animate the sessions. Highlight of pHealth 2013 in Tallinn was the special session on European projects' success stories, but also presentations on the newest paradigm changes and challenges coming up with Big Data, Analytics, Translational and Nano Medicine, etc. Vienna in 2014 focused on lessons learned from international and national R&D activities and practical solutions, and especially from the new EU Framework Program for Research and Innovation
Kaloper, Nemanja
2009-01-01
A sizable fraction of the total energy density of the universe may be in heavy particles with a net dark $U(1)'$ charge equal to its mass, such as the BPS states in string theory. When the charges have the same sign the cancellation between their gravitational and gauge forces may lead to a mismatch between different measures of masses in the universe. Measuring galactic masses by orbits of normal matter, such as galaxy rotation curves or lensing, will give the total mass, while the flows of dark matter agglomerates may yield smaller values if the gauge repulsion is not accounted for. If distant galaxies which house light beacons like SNe Ia contain such dark particles, the observations of their cosmic recession may mistake the weaker forces for an extra `antigravity', and infer an effective dark energy equation of state smaller than the real one. In some cases, including that of a cosmological constant, these effects can mimic $w<-1$. They can also lead to a {\\it local} variation of galaxy-galaxy forces, ...
Kaloper, Nemanja; Padilla, Antonio
2009-10-01
A sizable fraction of the total energy density of the universe may be in heavy particles with a net dark U(1)' charge comparable to its mass. When the charges have the same sign the cancellation between their gravitational and gauge forces may lead to a mismatch between different measures of masses in the universe. Measuring galactic masses by orbits of normal matter, such as galaxy rotation curves or lensing, will give the total mass, while the flows of dark matter agglomerates may yield smaller values if the gauge repulsion is not accounted for. If distant galaxies which house light beacons like SNe Ia contain such dark particles, the observations of their cosmic recession may mistake the weaker forces for an extra `antigravity', and infer an effective dark energy equation of state smaller than the real one. In some cases, including that of a cosmological constant, these effects can mimic w < -1. They can also lead to a local variation of galaxy-galaxy forces, yielding a larger `Hubble Flow' in those regions of space that could be taken for a dynamical dark energy, or superhorizon effects.
Cosmology with matter diffusion
Calogero, Simone
2013-01-01
We construct a viable cosmological model based on velocity diffusion of matter particles. In order to ensure the conservation of the total energy-momentum tensor in the presence of diffusion, we include a cosmological scalar field $\\phi$ which we identify with the dark energy component of the Universe. The model is characterized by only one new degree of freedom, the diffusion parameter $\\sigma$. The standard $\\Lambda$CDM model can be recovered by setting $\\sigma=0$. If diffusion takes place ($\\sigma >0$) the dynamics of the matter and of the dark energy fields are coupled. We argue that the existence of a diffusion mechanism in the Universe can serve as a theoretical motivation for interacting models. We constrain the background dynamics of the diffusion model with Supernovae, H(z) and BAO data. We also perform a perturbative analysis of this model in order to understand structure formation in the Universe. We calculate the impact of diffusion both on the CMB spectrum, with particular attention to the integr...
Decoupling Dark Energy from Matter
Brax, Philippe; Martin, Jerome; Davis, Anne-Christine
2009-01-01
We examine the embedding of dark energy in high energy models based upon supergravity and extend the usual phenomenological setting comprising an observable sector and a hidden supersymmetry breaking sector by including a third sector leading to the acceleration of the expansion of the universe. We find that gravitational constraints on the non-existence of a fifth force naturally imply that the dark energy sector must possess an approximate shift symmetry. When exact, the shift symmetry provides an example of a dark energy sector with a runaway potential and a nearly massless dark energy field whose coupling to matter is very weak, contrary to the usual lore that dark energy fields must couple strongly to matter and lead to gravitational inconsistencies. Moreover, the shape of the potential is stable under one-loop radiative corrections. When the shift symmetry is slightly broken by higher order terms in the Kahler potential, the coupling to matter remains small. However, the cosmological dynamics are largel...
Pontzen, Andrew; Governato, Fabio
2014-02-13
A principal discovery in modern cosmology is that standard model particles comprise only 5 per cent of the mass-energy budget of the Universe. In the ΛCDM paradigm, the remaining 95 per cent consists of dark energy (Λ) and cold dark matter. ΛCDM is being challenged by its apparent inability to explain the low-density 'cores' of dark matter measured at the centre of galaxies, where centrally concentrated high-density 'cusps' were predicted. But before drawing conclusions, it is necessary to include the effect of gas and stars, historically seen as passive components of galaxies. We now understand that these can inject heat energy into the cold dark matter through a coupling based on rapid gravitational potential fluctuations, explaining the observed low central densities.
Statistical physics and condensed matter
NONE
2003-07-01
This document is divided into 4 sections: 1) General aspects of statistical physics. The themes include: possible geometrical structures of thermodynamics, the thermodynamical foundation of quantum measurement, transport phenomena (kinetic theory, hydrodynamics and turbulence) and out of equilibrium systems (stochastic dynamics and turbulence). The techniques involved here are typical of applied analysis: stability criteria, mode decomposition, shocks and stochastic equations. 2) Disordered, glassy and granular systems: statics and dynamics. The complexity of the systems can be studied through the structure of their phase space. The geometry of this phase space is studied in several works: the overlap distribution can now be computed with a very high precision; the boundary energy between low lying states does not behave like in ordinary systems; and the Edward's hypothesis of equi-probability of low lying metastable states is invalidated. The phenomenon of aging, characteristic of glassy dynamics, is studied in several models. Dynamics of biological systems or of fracture is shown to bear some resemblance with that of disordered systems. 3) Quantum systems. The themes include: mesoscopic superconductors, supersymmetric approach to strongly correlated electrons, quantum criticality and heavy fermion compounds, optical sum rule violation in the cuprates, heat capacity of lattice spin models from high-temperature series expansion, Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem in dimension larger than one, quantum Hall effect, Bose-Einstein condensation and multiple-spin exchange model on the triangular lattice. 4) Soft condensed matter and biological systems. Path integral representations are invaluable to describe polymers, proteins and self-avoiding membranes. Using these methods, problems as diverse as the titration of a weak poly-acid by a strong base, the denaturation transition of DNA or bridge-hopping in conducting polymers have been addressed. The problems of RNA folding
Essay: fifty years of condensed matter physics.
Cohen, Marvin L
2008-12-19
Since the birth of Physical Review Letters fifty years ago, condensed matter physics has seen considerable growth, and both the journal and the field have flourished during this period. In this essay, I begin with some general comments about condensed matter physics and then give some personal views on the conceptual development of the field and list some highlights. The focus is mostly on theoretical developments.
Consciousness as a state of matter
Tegmark, Max
2015-07-01
I examine the hypothesis that consciousness can be understood as a state of matter, "perceptronium", with distinctive information processing abilities. I explore five basic principles that may distinguish conscious matter from other physical systems such as solids, liquids and gases: the information, integration, independence, dynamics and utility principles. This approach generalizes Giulio Tononi's integrated information framework for neural-network-based consciousness to arbitrary quantum systems, and provides interesting links to error-correcting codes and condensed matter criticality, as well as an interesting connections between the emergence of consciousness and the emergence of time. (For more technical details, see arXiv:1401.1219).
Consciousness as a State of Matter
Tegmark, Max
2014-01-01
I examine the hypothesis that consciousness can be understood as a state of matter, "perceptronium", with distinctive information processing abilities. I explore five basic principles that may distinguish conscious matter from other physical systems such as solids, liquids and gases: the information, integration, independence, dynamics and utility principles. This approach generalizes Giulio Tononi's integrated information framework for neural-network-based consciousness to arbitrary quantum systems, and provides interesting links to error-correcting codes and condensed matter criticality, as well as an interesting connections between the emergence of consciousness and the emergence of time. (For more technical details, see arXiv:1401.1219).
Constraints on hadronically decaying dark matter
Garny, Mathias [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ibarra, Alejandro [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Tran, David [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). School of Physics and Astronomy
2012-05-15
We present general constraints on dark matter stability in hadronic decay channels derived from measurements of cosmic-ray antiprotons.We analyze various hadronic decay modes in a model-independent manner by examining the lowest-order decays allowed by gauge and Lorentz invariance for scalar and fermionic dark matter particles and present the corresponding lower bounds on the partial decay lifetimes in those channels. We also investigate the complementarity between hadronic and gamma-ray constraints derived from searches for monochromatic lines in the sky, which can be produced at the quantum level if the dark matter decays into quark-antiquark pairs at leading order.
5 CFR 2638.303 - Subject matter of formal advisory opinions.
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subject matter of formal advisory... Service § 2638.303 Subject matter of formal advisory opinions. Formal advisory opinions will be rendered on matters of general applicability or on important matters of first impression concerning...
-matrix approach to the equation of state of dilute nuclear matter
J N De; S K Samaddar; B K Agrawal
2014-04-01
Based on the general analysis of the grand canonical partition function in the -matrix framework, a method is presented to calculate the equation of state of dilute warm nuclear matter. The result is a model-independent virial series for the pressure and density that systematically includes contributions from all the ground and excited states of all the stable nuclear species and their scattering channels. The multiplicity distribution of these species to keep the matter in statistical equilibrium is found out and then the pressure, incompressibility and the symmetry energy of the system are evaluated. The calculated symmetry energy coefficients are found to be in fair agreement with the recent experimental data.
Fifteen Years of Cold Matter on the Atom Chip: Promise, Realizations, and Prospects
Keil, Mark; Zhou, Shuyu; Groswasser, David; Japha, Yonathan; Folman, Ron
2016-01-01
Here we review the field of atom chips in the context of Bose-Einstein Condensates (BEC) as well as cold matter in general. Twenty years after the first realization of the BEC and fifteen years after the realization of the atom chip, the latter has been found to enable extraordinary feats: from producing BECs at a rate of several per second, through the realization of matter-wave interferometry, and all the way to novel probing of surfaces and new forces. In addition, technological applications are also being intensively pursued. This review will describe these developments and more, including new ideas which have not yet been realized.
Fifteen years of cold matter on the atom chip: promise, realizations, and prospects
Keil, Mark; Amit, Omer; Zhou, Shuyu; Groswasser, David; Japha, Yonathan; Folman, Ron
2016-10-01
Here we review the field of atom chips in the context of Bose-Einstein Condensates (BEC) as well as cold matter in general. Twenty years after the first realization of the BEC and 15 years after the realization of the atom chip, the latter has been found to enable extraordinary feats: from producing BECs at a rate of several per second, through the realization of matter-wave interferometry, and all the way to novel probing of surfaces and new forces. In addition, technological applications are also being intensively pursued. This review will describe these developments and more, including new ideas which have not yet been realized.
Detection of sub-GeV Dark Matter and Solar Neutrinos via Chemical-Bond Breaking
Essig, Rouven; Slone, Oren; Volansky, Tomer
2016-01-01
We explore a new low-threshold direct-detection concept for dark matter, based on the breaking of chemical bonds between atoms. This includes the dissociation of molecules and the creation of defects in a lattice. With thresholds of a few to 10's of eV, such an experiment could probe the nuclear couplings of dark matter particles as light as a few MeV. We calculate the expected rates for dark matter to break apart diatomic molecules, which we take as a case study for more general systems. We briefly mention ideas for how chemical-bond breaking might be detected in practice. We also discuss the possibility of detecting solar neutrinos, including pp neutrinos, with this experimental concept. With an event rate of $\\mathcal{O}$(0.1/kg-year), large exposures are required, but measuring low-energy solar neutrinos would provide a crucial test of the solar model.
Using XFELs for Probing of Complex Interaction Dynamics of Ultra-Intense Lasers with Solid Matter
Kluge, Thomas; Huang, Lingen; Metzkes, Josefine; Schramm, Ulrich; Bussmann, Michael; Cowan, Thomas E
2013-01-01
We demonstrate the potential of X-ray free-electron lasers (XFEL) to advancethe understanding of complex plasma dynamics by allowing for the first time nanometer and femtosecond resolution at the same time in plasma diagnostics. Plasma phenomena on such short timescales are of high relevance for many fields of physics, in particular in the ultra-intense ultra-short laser interaction with matter. Highly relevant yet only partially understood phenomena may become directly accessible in experiment. These include relativistic laser absorption at solid targets, creation of energetic electrons and electron transport in warm dense matter, including the seeding and development of surface and beam instabilities, ambipolar expansion, shock formation, and dynamics at the surfaces or at buried layers. We demonstrate the potentials of XFEL plasma probing for high power laser matter interactions using exemplary the small angle X-ray scattering technique, focusing on general considerations for XFEL probing.
Effective gravitational couplings for cosmological perturbations in generalized Proca theories
De Felice, Antonio; Kase, Ryotaro; Mukohyama, Shinji; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Zhang, Ying-li
2016-01-01
We consider the finite interactions of the generalized Proca theory including the sixth-order Lagrangian and derive the full linear perturbation equations of motion on the flat Friedmann-Lema\\^{i}tre-Robertson-Walker background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid. By construction, the propagating degrees of freedom (besides the matter perfect fluid) are two transverse vector perturbations, one longitudinal scalar, and two tensor polarizations. The Lagrangians associated with intrinsic vector modes neither affect the background equations of motion nor the second-order action of tensor perturbations, but they do give rise to non-trivial modifications to the no-ghost condition of vector perturbations and to the propagation speeds of vector and scalar perturbations. We derive the effective gravitational coupling $G_{\\rm eff}$ with matter density perturbations under a quasi-static approximation on scales deep inside the sound horizon. We find that the existence of intrinsic vector modes allows a possibility ...
Statistics of Dark Matter Halos from the Excursion Set Approach
Lapi, A; Danese, L
2013-01-01
We exploit the excursion set approach in integral formulation to derive novel, accurate analytic approximations of the unconditional and conditional first crossing distributions, for random walks with uncorrelated steps and general shapes of the moving barrier; we find the corresponding approximations of the unconditional and conditional halo mass functions for Cold Dark Matter power spectra to represent very well the outcomes of state-of-the-art cosmological N-body simulations. In addition, we apply these results to derive and confront with simulations other quantities of interest in halo statistics, including the rates of halo formation and creation, the average halo growth history, and the halo bias. Finally, we discuss how our approach and main results change when considering random walks with correlated instead of uncorrelated steps, and Warm instead of Cold Dark Matter power spectra.
arXiv The DArk Matter Particle Explorer mission
Chang, J.; An, Q.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Azzarello, P.; Bernardini, P.; Bertucci, B.; Cai, M.S.; Caragiulo, M.; Chen, D.Y.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, J.L.; Chen, W.; Cui, M.Y.; Cui, T.S.; D'Amone, A.; De Benedittis, A.; De Mitri, I.; Di Santo, M.; Dong, J.N.; Dong, T.K.; Dong, Y.F.; Dong, Z.X.; Donvito, G.; Droz, D.; Duan, K.K.; Duan, J.L.; Duranti, M.; D'Urso, D.; Fan, R.R.; Fan, Y.Z.; Fang, F.; Feng, C.Q.; Feng, L.; Fusco, P.; Gallo, V.; Gan, F.J.; Gao, M.; Gao, S.S.; Gargano, F.; Gong, K.; Gong, Y.Z.; Guo, J.H.; Hu, Y.M.; Huang, G.S.; Huang, Y.Y.; Ionica, M.; Jiang, D.; Jiang, W.; Jin, X.; Kong, J.; Lei, S.J.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Li, W.L.; Li, Y.; Liang, Y.F.; Liang, Y.M.; Liao, N.H.; Liu, Q.Z.; Liu, H.; Liu, J.; Liu, S.B.; Liu, W.Q.; Liu, Y.; Loparco, F.; Lü, J.; Ma, M.; Ma, P.X.; Ma, S.Y.; Ma, T.; Ma, X.Q.; Ma, X.Y.; Marsella, G.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Mo, D.; Miao, T.T.; Niu, X.Y.; Pohl, M.; Peng, X.Y.; Peng, W.X.; Qiao, R.; Rao, J.N.; Salinas, M.M.; Shang, G.Z.; Shen, W.H.; Shen, Z.Q.; Shen, Z.T.; Song, J.X.; Su, H.; Sun, M.Su$^{a}$\\footnote{Also at at Department of Physics and Laboratory for Space Research,The University of Hong Kong,Pokfulam Road,Hong Kong},Z.Y.; Surdo, A.; Teng, X.J.; Tian, X.B.; Tykhonov, A.; Vagelli, V.; Vitillo, S.; Wang, C.; Wang, Chi; Wang, H.; Wang, H.Y.; Wang, J.Z.; Wang, L.G.; Wang, Q.; Wang, S.; Wang, X.H.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Y.F.; Wang, Y.P.; Wang, Y.Z.; Wen, S.C.; Wang, Z.M.; Wei, D.M.; Wei, J.J.; Wei, Y.F.; Wu, D.; Wu, J.; Wu, S.S.; Wu, X.; Xi, K.; Xia, Z.Q.; Xin, Y.L.; Xu, H.T.; Xu, Z.L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Xue, G.F.; Yang, H.B.; Yang, J.; Yang, P.; Yang, Y.Q.; Yang, Z.L.; Yao, H.J.; Yu, Y.H.; Yuan, Q.; Yue, C.; Zang, J.J.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, D.L.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, J.B.; Zhang, J.Y.; Zhang, J.Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, P.F.; Zhang, S.X.; Zhang, W.Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.J.; Zhang, Y.Q.; Zhang, Y.L.; Zhang, Y.P.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, Z.Y.; Zhao, H.; Zhao, H.Y.; Zhao, X.F.; Zhou, C.Y.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y.; Zimmer, S.
The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE), one of the four scientific space science missions within the framework of the Strategic Pioneer Program on Space Science of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is a general purpose high energy cosmic-ray and gamma-ray observatory, which was successfully launched on December 17th, 2015 from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center. The DAMPE scientific objectives include the study of galactic cosmic rays up to ∼ 10 TeV and hundreds of TeV for electrons/gammas and nuclei respectively, and the search for dark matter signatures in their spectra. In this paper we illustrate the layout of the DAMPE instrument, and discuss the results of beam tests and calibrations performed on ground. Finally we present the expected performance in space and give an overview of the mission key scientific goals.
A Scientific Cloud Computing Platform for Condensed Matter Physics
Jorissen, K.; Johnson, W.; Vila, F. D.; Rehr, J. J.
2013-03-01
Scientific Cloud Computing (SCC) makes possible calculations with high performance computational tools, without the need to purchase or maintain sophisticated hardware and software. We have recently developed an interface dubbed SC2IT that controls on-demand virtual Linux clusters within the Amazon EC2 cloud platform. Using this interface we have developed a more advanced, user-friendly SCC Platform configured especially for condensed matter calculations. This platform contains a GUI, based on a new Java version of SC2IT, that permits calculations of various materials properties. The cloud platform includes Virtual Machines preconfigured for parallel calculations and several precompiled and optimized materials science codes for electronic structure and x-ray and electron spectroscopy. Consequently this SCC makes state-of-the-art condensed matter calculations easy to access for general users. Proof-of-principle performance benchmarks show excellent parallelization and communication performance. Supported by NSF grant OCI-1048052
Probing the diamagnetic term in light-matter interaction
Rossi, Matteo A C; Paris, Matteo G A; Genoni, Marco G; Adesso, Gerardo; Tufarelli, Tommaso
2016-01-01
Should the Dicke model of light-matter interaction include a diamagnetic term? This question has generated intense debate in the literature, and is particularly relevant in the modern contexts of cavity and circuit quantum electrodynamics. We design an appropriate probing strategy to address the issue experimentally. Applying the tools of quantum estimation theory to a general Dicke model, we quantify how much information about the diamagnetic term (or lack thereof) is contained in the ground state of the coupled system. We demonstrate that feasible measurements, such as homodyne detection or photon counting, give access to a significant fraction of such information. These measurements could be performed by suddenly switching off the light-matter coupling, and collecting the radiation that naturally leaks out of the system. We further show that, should the model admit a critical point, both measurements would become asymptotically optimal in its vicinity. We finally discuss binary discrimination strategies be...
Generalized holomorphic structures
Wang, Yicao
2014-12-01
We define the notion of generalized holomorphic principal bundles and establish that their associated vector bundles of holomorphic representations are generalized holomorphic vector bundles defined by M. Gualtieri. Motivated by our definition, several examples of generalized holomorphic structures are constructed. A reduction theorem of generalized holomorphic structures is also included.
Hydrodynamical description of Galactic dark matter
Cabral, L G; Sussman, R A; Matos, T
2003-01-01
We consider simple hydrodynamical models of galactic dark matter in which the galactic halo is a self-gravitating and self-interacting gas that dominates the dynamics of the galaxy. Modeling this halo as a sphericaly symmetric and static perfect fluid satisfying the field equations of General Relativity, visible barionic matter can be treated as 'test particles' in the geometry of this field. We show that the assumption of an empirical 'universal rotation curve' that fits a wide variety of galaxies is compatible, under suitable approximations, with state variables characteristic of a non-relativistic Maxwell-Boltzmann gas that becomes an isothermal sphere in the Newtonian limit. Consistency criteria lead to a minimal bound for particle masses in the range 30 eV < m < 60 eV and to a constraint between the central temperature and the particles mass. The allowed mass range includes popular supersymmetric particle candidates, such as the neutslino, axino and gravitino, as well as lighter particles (m - keV)...
How clustering dark energy affects matter perturbations
Mehrabi, A; Pace, F
2015-01-01
The rate of structure formation in the Universe is different in homogeneous and clustered dark energy models. The degree of dark energy clustering depends on the magnitude of its effective sound speed $c^{2}_{\\rm eff}$ and for $c_{\\rm eff}=0$ dark energy clusters in a similar fashion to dark matter while for $c_{\\rm eff}=1$ it stays (approximately) homogeneous. In this paper we consider two distinct equations of state for the dark energy component, $w_{\\rm d}=const$ and $w_{\\rm d}=w_0+w_1\\left(\\frac{z}{1+z}\\right)$ with $c_{\\rm eff}$ as a free parameter and we try to constrain the dark energy effective sound speed using current available data including SnIa, Baryon Acoustic Oscillation, CMB shift parameter ({\\em Planck} and {\\em WMAP}), Hubble parameter, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and the growth rate of structures $f\\sigma_{8}(z)$. At first we derive the most general form of the equations governing dark matter and dark energy clustering under the assumption that $c_{\\rm eff}=const$. Finally we constrain the mod...
X-ray line from exciting dark matter
Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Weiner, Neal
2016-10-01
The exciting dark matter (XDM) model was proposed as a mechanism to efficiently convert the kinetic energy (in sufficiently hot environments) of dark matter into e +e - pairs. The standard scenario invokes a doublet of nearly degenerate dark matter (DM) states and a dark force to mediate a large upscattering cross section between the two. For heavy (˜TeV ) DM, the kinetic energy of weakly interacting massive particles in large (galaxy-sized or larger) halos is capable of producing low-energy positrons. For lighter dark matter, this is kinematically impossible, and the unique observable signature becomes an x-ray line, arising from χ χ →χ*χ*, followed by χ*→χ γ . This variant of XDM is distinctive from other DM x-ray scenarios in that its signatures tend to be most present in more massive, hotter environments, such as clusters, rather than nearby dwarfs, and has different dependencies from decaying models. We find that it is capable of explaining the recently reported s-ray line at 3.56 keV. For very long lifetimes of the excited state, primordial decays can explain the signal without the presence of upscattering. Thermal models freeze out as in the normal XDM setup, via annihilations to the light boson ϕ . For suitable masses, the annihilation χ χ →ϕ ϕ followed by ϕ →SM can explain the reported gamma-ray signature from the Galactic center. Direct detection is discussed, including the possibility of explaining DAMA via the "luminous" dark matter approach. Quite generally, the proximity of the 3.56 keV line to the energy scale of DAMA motivates a reexamination of electromagnetic explanations. Other signals, including lepton jets and the modification of cores of dwarf galaxies are also considered.
Organic matter in the universe
Kwok, Sun
2012-01-01
Authored by an experienced writer and a well-known researcher of stellar evolution, interstellar matter and spectroscopy, this unique treatise on the formation and observation of organic compounds in space includes a spectroscopy refresher, as well as links to geological findings and finishes with the outlook for future astronomical facilities and solar system exploration missions. A whole section on laboratory simulations includes the Miller-Urey experiment and the ultraviolet photolysis of ices.
Dark Matter and Energy as Antimatter
Lundberg, Wayne
2005-04-01
A new interpretation of dark matter observations via gravitational lensing through galaxy clusters is proposed. Gravitational lensing studies of SDSS J1004+4112 by Williams and Saha (astro-ph/0412445) indicate that any dark matter contribution to lensing is smoothly distributed in space. All particle theories (i.e WIMPs) which propose to explain dark matter inevitably yield gravitational clumping. Note that string theory requires that matter at radii, R, less than the Planck scale, α', is equivalent to matter at distance D=α'/R. The proposed interpretation involves antimatter existing within anti-deSitter spaces to explain the unexpected smoothness. This proposal asserts that a (non-Hawking) black hole exists with an AdS space at its singularity. Antimatter interactions also explain Galactic Annihilation Fountain(s) and similar observed phenomena. Non-temporal matter is thereby defined as matter which exists in 4-space, either advanced or retarded wrt the present. A `radical' form of cosmology is then developed in which the curvature tensor of Einstein's general relativity is treated as complex. FRW cosmology plus dark matter and energy results. Theories regarding the black hole ``end state'' and Seiberg's chronology protection lend support to this approach. Previous work (http://www-astro-theory.fnal.gov/Conferences/cosmo02/poster/lundberg.pdfhttp://www-astro-theory.fnal.gov/Conferences/cosmo02/poster/lundberg.pdf) to establish the architecture of a comprehensive theory is thus modified.
Einstein-Bianchi Hyperbolic System for General Relativity
Anderson, A; York, J W; Anderson, Arlen; Choquet-Bruhat, Yvonne; York, James W.
1997-01-01
By employing the Bianchi identities for the Riemann tensor in conjunction with the Einstein equations, we construct a first order symmetric hyperbolic system for the evolution part of the Cauchy problem of general relativity. In this system, the metric evolves at zero speed with respect to observers at rest in a foliation of spacetime by spacelike hypersurfaces while the curvature and connection propagate at the speed of light. The system has no unphysical characteristics, and matter sources can be included.
Chen, Hongsheng; Liu, Ye; Zhu, Zhenjun; Li, Zhigang
2017-04-21
China's rapid urbanization over the past decades has exacerbated the problems of environmental degradation and health disparities. However, few studies have analysed the differences between urban and rural residents in relation to how environmental quality impacts health outcomes. This study examines the associations between Chinese people's perceptions of environmental quality and their self-rated health, particularly focusing on differences between rural and urban residents in environment-health relationships. Using a logistic regression model and data from the 2013 Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS), a representative sample of data for 3,402 urban residents (46 ± 16 years) and 2,439 rural residents (48 ± 15 years) was analysed. The dependent variable used for the logistic regressions was whether or not respondents reported being healthy. Independent variables included respondents' evaluations of the living environment, and how frequently they participated in physical activities. Interaction terms were employed to measure the moderating effects of physical exercise on the relationship between perceived environmental quality and health. The percentage of healthy urban residents was significantly larger than that of healthy rural respondents (70.87% versus 62.87%). Urban respondents living in areas with sufficient green space were more likely to report good health (OR = 0.749, CI = [0.628, 0.895]), while rural respondents without reliable access to fresh water were more likely to report poor health (OR = 0.762, CI = [0.612, 0.949]). Urban respondents who were exposed to green spaces and exercised frequently were 21.6 per cent more likely to report good health than those who exercised infrequently (OR = 1.216, CI = [1.047, 1.413]). Those who lived in areas with insufficient green space and exercised frequently were 19.1 per cent less likely to report good health than those who exercised infrequently (OR = 0.805, CI = [0
Kopp, Joachim; Slatyer, Tracy R; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Xue, Wei
2016-01-01
We consider a new class of thermal dark matter models, dubbed "Impeded Dark Matter", in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. We demonstrate that either case can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may even be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. For positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppress...
How dark matter came to matter
de Swart, J. G.; Bertone, G.; van Dongen, J.
2017-03-01
The history of the dark matter problem can be traced back to at least the 1930s, but it was not until the early 1970s that the issue of 'missing matter' was widely recognized as problematic. In the latter period, previously separate issues involving missing mass were brought together in a single anomaly. We argue that reference to a straightforward accumulation of evidence alone is inadequate to comprehend this episode. Rather, the rise of cosmological research, the accompanying renewed interest in the theory of relativity and changes in the manpower division of astronomy in the 1960s are key to understanding how dark matter came to matter. At the same time, this story may also enlighten us on the methodological dimensions of past practices of physics and cosmology.
Dissipative dark matter explains rotation curves
Foot, R
2015-01-01
Dissipative dark matter, where dark matter particles interact with a massless (or very light) boson, is studied. Such dark matter can arise in simple hidden sector gauge models, including those featuring an unbroken $U(1)'$ gauge symmetry, leading to a dark photon. Previous work has shown that such models can not only explain the LSS and CMB, but potentially also dark matter phenomena on small scales, such as the inferred cored structure of dark matter halos. In this picture, dark matter halos of disk galaxies not only cool via dissipative interactions but are also heated via ordinary supernovae (facilitated by an assumed photon - dark photon kinetic mixing interaction). This interaction between the dark matter halo and ordinary baryons, a very special feature of these types of models, plays a critical role in governing the physical properties of the dark matter halo. Here, we further study the implications of this type of dissipative dark matter for disk galaxies. Building on earlier work, we develop a simpl...
Vos, Hans J.
1994-01-01
Describes the construction of a model of computer-assisted instruction using a qualitative block diagram based on general systems theory (GST) as a framework. Subject matter representation is discussed, and appendices include system variables and system equations of the GST model, as well as an example of developing flexible courseware. (Contains…
How Dark Matter Came to Matter
de Swart, Jaco; Bertone, Gianfranco; Dongen, Jeroen
2017-01-01
The history of the dark matter problem can be traced back to at least the 1930s, but it was not until the early 1970s that the issue of 'missing matter' was widely recognized as problematic. In the latter period, previously separate issues involving missing mass were brought together in a single anomaly. We argue that reference to a straightforward 'accumulation of evidence' alone is inadequate to comprehend this episode. Rather, the rise of cosmological research, the accompanying renewed int...
Lianne J Woodward
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral white matter abnormalities on term MRI are a strong predictor of motor disability in children born very preterm. However, their contribution to cognitive impairment is less certain. OBJECTIVE: Examine relationships between the presence and severity of cerebral white matter abnormalities on neonatal MRI and a range of neurocognitive outcomes assessed at ages 4 and 6 years. DESIGN/METHODS: The study sample consisted of a regionally representative cohort of 104 very preterm (≤32 weeks gestation infants born from 1998-2000 and a comparison group of 107 full-term infants. At term equivalent, all preterm infants underwent a structural MRI scan that was analyzed qualitatively for the presence and severity of cerebral white matter abnormalities, including cysts, signal abnormalities, loss of white matter volume, ventriculomegaly, and corpus callosal thinning/myelination. At corrected ages 4 and 6 years, all children underwent a comprehensive neurodevelopmental assessment that included measures of general intellectual ability, language development, and executive functioning. RESULTS: At 4 and 6 years, very preterm children without cerebral white matter abnormalities showed no apparent neurocognitive impairments relative to their full-term peers on any of the domain specific measures of intelligence, language, and executive functioning. In contrast, children born very preterm with mild and moderate-to-severe white matter abnormalities were characterized by performance impairments across all measures and time points, with more severe cerebral abnormalities being associated with increased risks of cognitive impairment. These associations persisted after adjustment for gender, neonatal medical risk factors, and family social risk. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the importance of cerebral white matter connectivity for later intact cognitive functioning amongst children born very preterm. Preterm born children without cerebral white
Matter-coupled de Sitter supergravity
Kallosh, R. E.
2016-05-01
The de Sitter supergravity describes the interaction of supergravity with general chiral and vector multiplets and also one nilpotent chiral multiplet. The extra universal positive term in the potential, generated by the nilpotent multiplet and corresponding to the anti-D3 brane in string theory, is responsible for the de Sitter vacuum stability in these supergravity models. In the flat-space limit, these supergravity models include the Volkov-Akulov model with a nonlinearly realized supersymmetry. We generalize the rules for constructing the pure de Sitter supergravity action to the case of models containing other matter multiplets. We describe a method for deriving the closed-form general supergravity action with a given potential K, superpotential W, and vectormatrix fAB interacting with a nilpotent chiral multiplet. It has the potential V = eK(|F2|+|DW|2-3|W|2), where F is the auxiliary field of the nilpotent multiplet and is necessarily nonzero. The de Sitter vacuums are present under the simple condition that |F2|-3|W|2 > 0. We present an explicit form of the complete action in the unitary gauge.
Front Matter: Volume 1 (Proceedings of CBU
Petr Hájek
2013-06-01
Full Text Available This PDF file contains the front matter associated with CBU Proceedings Volume 1 including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction, and Conference Committee listing.
Front Matter: Volume 3 (Proceedings of CBU
Petr Hájek
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This PDF file contains the front matter associated with CBU Proceedings Volume 1 including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction, and Conference Committee listing.
Bigna, Jean Joel R; Um, Lewis N; Nansseu, Jobert Richie N
2016-10-13
Journal abstracts including those reporting systematic reviews (SR) should contain sufficiently clear and accurate information for adequate comprehension and interpretation. The aim was to compare the quality of reporting of abstracts of SRs including meta-analysis published in high-impact general medicine journals before and after publication of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) extension for abstracts (PRISMA-A) released in April 2013. SRs including meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials published in 2012, 2014, and 2015 in top-tier general medicine journals were searched in PubMed. Data was selected and extracted by two reviewers based on the PRISMA-A guidelines which recommend to include 12 items. The primary outcome was the adjusted mean number of items reported; the secondary outcome was the reporting of each item and factors associated with a better reporting. Adjustment was made for abstract word count and format, number of authors, PRISMA endorsement, and publication on behalf of a group. We included 84 abstracts from 2012, 59 from 2014, and 61 from 2015. The mean number of items reported in 2015 (7.5; standard deviation [SD] 1.6) and in 2014 (6.8; SD 1.6) differed and did not differ from that reported in 2012 (7.2; SD 1.7), respectively; adjusted mean difference: 0.9 (95 % CI 0.4; 1.3) and -0.1 (95 % CI -0.6; 0.4). From 2012 to 2014, the quality of reporting was in regression for "strengths and limitations of evidence" and "funding"; contrariwise, it remained unchanged for the others items. Between 2012 and 2015, the quality of reporting rose up for "description of the effect", "synthesis of results", "interpretation", and "registration"; but decreased for "strengths and limitations of evidence"; it remained unchanged for the other items. The overall better reporting was associated with abstracts structured in the 8-headings format in 2014 and abstracts with a word count PRISMA-A guidelines. Stricter
Schramm, S; The ATLAS collaboration
2014-01-01
Numerous independent astrophysical experiments have observed and measured the influence of the phenomenon named Dark Matter, but its nature is still unknown. If the assumption that Dark Matter is a particle which has a weak coupling to the Standard Model is valid, then collider searches have the ability to search for the production of this new Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP). Any Dark Matter particles produced in collisions would escape the detector without being observed. Signatures which include an initial-state radiated particle balancing a large amount of Missing Transverse Momentum, known as mono-X topologies, provide a generic means of conducting Dark Matter searches. ATLAS has conducted several mono-X searches, including recoiling jets, photons, W/Z bosons which decay hadronically, and Z bosons which decay leptonically. Searches were carried out with centre of mass energies of both 7 and 8 TeV, and with up to 20/fb of data. No evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model is observed, and t...
Indirect detection constraints on s- and t-channel simplified models of dark matter
Carpenter, Linda M.; Colburn, Russell; Goodman, Jessica; Linden, Tim
2016-09-01
Recent Fermi-LAT observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Milky Way have placed strong limits on the gamma-ray flux from dark matter annihilation. In order to produce the strongest limit on the dark matter annihilation cross section, the observations of each dwarf galaxy have typically been "stacked" in a joint-likelihood analysis, utilizing optical observations to constrain the dark matter density profile in each dwarf. These limits have typically been computed only for singular annihilation final states, such as b b ¯ or τ+τ- . In this paper, we generalize this approach by producing an independent joint-likelihood analysis to set constraints on models where the dark matter particle annihilates to multiple final-state fermions. We interpret these results in the context of the most popular simplified models, including those with s- and t-channel dark matter annihilation through scalar and vector mediators. We present our results as constraints on the minimum dark matter mass and the mediator sector parameters. Additionally, we compare our simplified model results to those of effective field theory contact interactions in the high-mass limit.
Indirect Detection Constraints on s and t Channel Simplified Models of Dark Matter
Carpenter, Linda M; Goodman, Jessica; Linden, Tim
2016-01-01
Recent Fermi-LAT observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Milky Way have placed strong limits on the gamma-ray flux from dark matter annihilation. In order to produce the strongest limit on the dark matter annihilation cross-section, the observations of each dwarf galaxy have typically been "stacked" in a joint-likelihood analysis, utilizing optical observations to constrain the dark matter density profile in each dwarf. These limits have typically been computed only for singular annihilation final states, such as $b\\bar{b}$ or $\\tau^+\\tau^-$. In this paper, we generalize this approach by producing an independent joint-likelihood analysis to set constraints on models where the dark matter particle annihilates to multiple final state fermions. We interpret these results in the context of the most popular simplified models, including those with s- and t-channel dark matter annihilation through scalar and vector mediators. We present our results as constraints on the minimum dark matter mass and the medi...
Student teacher conceptions of matter and substances – evaporation and dew formation
Bjørn Håland
2010-09-01
Full Text Available It is observed that student teachers have problems with seemingly simple ideas in introductory chemistry. In order to uncover possible underlying problems, a rather comprehensive investigation on their views on matter, substances and the particulate view of matter, was accomplished.31 students were interviewed before they started on an introductory course in chemistry. The interviews were semi-structured and linked to a sorting task and some demonstrations. All the interviews were tape-recorded and some photos were taken.This paper reports on the students’ views on evaporation and dew formation and discusses what their statements on these phenomena tell us about their general view on matter, substances and the particulate view of matter. Their statements about evaporation and dew formation are compared.Only 6/31 students displayed a reasonably good understanding of both evaporation and dew formation, and only two of these used a more “advanced” particulate model in their explanation of both phenomena. Most of the other students hold some sensible views and some alternative non-scientific views. All measure of understanding was revealed, from almost total ignorance to an almost complete understanding. At least 4/5 of the students seem to have some problem with the concepts of matter, substance and the particulate view of matter. These concepts, therefore, clearly need to be included and addressed in an understandable way in Norwegian teacher education.
... Some general dentists work in government health services, research programs, higher education, corporations and even the military. ?xml:namespace> What kind of procedures do general dentists provide? ?xml:namespace> Many general dentists are ...
Dark matter freeze-out in a nonrelativistic sector
Pappadopulo, Duccio; Ruderman, Joshua T.; Trevisan, Gabriele
2016-08-01
A thermally decoupled hidden sector of particles, with a mass gap, generically enters a phase of cannibalism in the early Universe. The Standard Model sector becomes exponentially colder than the hidden sector. We propose the cannibal dark matter framework, where dark matter resides in a cannibalizing sector with a relic density set by 2-to-2 annihilations. Observable signals of cannibal dark matter include a boosted rate for indirect detection, new relativistic degrees of freedom, and warm dark matter.
Teachers Matter. Yes. Schools Matter. Yes. Districts Matter--Really?
Chenoweth, Karin
2015-01-01
School districts shape the conditions in which schools operate and as such can support or undermine school success and thus student success. All of which is to say that school districts matter. This article looks at the success of two districts whose low-income and minority students beat the odds in academic achievement. Lessons from these…
Ibarra, Alejandro [Physik-Department T30d, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße, 85748 Garching (Germany)
2015-07-15
Neutrinos could be key particles to unravel the nature of the dark matter of the Universe. On the one hand, sterile neutrinos in minimal extensions of the Standard Model are excellent dark matter candidates, producing potentially observable signals in the form of a line in the X-ray sky. On the other hand, the annihilation or the decay of dark matter particles produces, in many plausible dark matter scenarios, a neutrino flux that could be detected at neutrino telescopes, thus providing non-gravitational evidence for dark matter. More conservatively, the non-observation of a significant excess in the neutrino fluxes with respect to the expected astrophysical backgrounds can be used to constrain dark matter properties, such as the self-annihilation cross section, the scattering cross section with nucleons and the lifetime.
Dror, Jeff Asaf; Kuflik, Eric; Ng, Wee Hao
2016-11-18
We propose a new mechanism for thermal dark matter freeze-out, called codecaying dark matter. Multicomponent dark sectors with degenerate particles and out-of-equilibrium decays can codecay to obtain the observed relic density. The dark matter density is exponentially depleted through the decay of nearly degenerate particles rather than from Boltzmann suppression. The relic abundance is set by the dark matter annihilation cross section, which is predicted to be boosted, and the decay rate of the dark sector particles. The mechanism is viable in a broad range of dark matter parameter space, with a robust prediction of an enhanced indirect detection signal. Finally, we present a simple model that realizes codecaying dark matter.
On algebraic structure of matter spectrum
Varlamov, V V
2016-01-01
An algebraic structure of matter spectrum is studied. It is shown that a base mathematical construction, lying in the ground of matter spectrum (introduced by Heisenberg) , is a two-level Hilbert space. Two-level structure of the Hilbert space is defined by the following pair: 1) a separable Hilbert space with operator algebras and fundamental symmetries; 2) a nonseparable (physical) Hilbert space with dynamical and gauge symmetries, that is, a space of states (energy levels) of the matter spectrum. The each state of matter spectrum is defined by a cyclic representation within Gel'fand-Naimark-Segal construction. A decomposition of the physical Hilbert space onto coherent subspaces is given. This decomposition allows one to describe the all observed spectrum of states on an equal footing, including lepton, meson and baryon sectors of the matter spectrum. Following to Heisenberg, we assume that there exist no fundamental particles, there exist fundamental symmetries. It is shown also that all the symmetries of...
Concepts of matter in science education
Sevian, Hannah
2013-01-01
Bringing together a wide collection of ideas, reviews, analyses and new research on particulate and structural concepts of matter, Concepts of Matter in Science Education informs practice from pre-school through graduate school learning and teaching and aims to inspire progress in science education. The expert contributors offer a range of reviews and critical analyses of related literature and in-depth analysis of specific issues, as well as new research. Among the themes covered are learning progressions for teaching a particle model of matter, the mental models of both students and teachers of the particulate nature of matter, educational technology, chemical reactions and chemical phenomena, chemical structure and bonding, quantum chemistry and the history and philosophy of science relating to the particulate nature of matter. The book will benefit a wide audience including classroom practitioners and student teachers at every educational level, teacher educators and researchers in science education.
An introduction to particle dark matter
Profumo, Stefano
2017-01-01
What is the dark matter that fills the Universe and binds together galaxies? How was it produced? What are its interactions and particle properties?The paradigm of dark matter is one of the key developments at the interface of cosmology and elementary particle physics. It is also one of the foundations of the standard cosmological model. This book presents the state of the art in building and testing particle models for dark matter. Each chapter gives an analysis of questions, research directions, and methods within the field. More than 200 problems are included to challenge and stimulate the reader's knowledge and provide guidance in the practical implementation of the numerous 'tools of the trade' presented. Appendices summarize the basics of cosmology and particle physics needed for any quantitative understanding of particle models for dark matter.This interdisciplinary textbook is essential reading for anyone interested in the microscopic nature of dark matter as it manifests itself in particle physics ex...
Glutamatergic signaling in the brain's white matter.
Bakiri, Y; Burzomato, V; Frugier, G; Hamilton, N B; Káradóttir, R; Attwell, D
2009-01-12
Glutamatergic signaling has been exceptionally well characterized in the brain's gray matter, where it underlies fast information processing, learning and memory, and also generates the neuronal damage that occurs in pathological conditions such as stroke. The role of glutamatergic signaling in the white matter, an area until recently thought to be devoid of synapses, is less well understood. Here we review what is known, and highlight what is not known, of glutamatergic signaling in the white matter. We focus on how glutamate is released, the location and properties of the receptors it acts on, the interacting molecules that may regulate trafficking or signaling of the receptors, the possible functional roles of glutamate in the white matter, and its pathological effects including the possibility of treating white matter disorders with glutamate receptor blockers.
Trusted, Jennifer
1999-01-01
As Russell said The word matter is, in philosophy, the name of a problem and our scientific investigations and philosophical inquiries show that it becomes more and more complex and interesting as we study it. This book seeks to show how ideas of matter have developed from Democritus to Heisenberg. The problem of matter may well be insoluble but at least we can begin to appreciate the mystery of what is so often taken to be the mundane 'stuff' of common sense.
Gorbunov, D
2013-01-01
Assuming existence of (very) heavy fourth generation of quarks and antiquarks we argue that antibaryon composed of the three heavy antiquarks can be light, stable and invisible, hence a good candidate for the Dark matter particle. Such opportunity allows to keep the baryon number conservation for the generation of the visible baryon asymmetry. The dark matter particles traveling through the ordinary matter will annihilate with nucleons inducing proton(neutron)-decay-like events with ~5GeV energy release in outcoming particles.
An acoustic finite element including viscothermal effects
Nijhof, M.J.J.; Wijnant, Y.H.; Boer, de A.
2007-01-01
In acoustics it is generally assumed that viscous- en thermal boundary layer effects play a minor role in the propagation of sound waves. Hence, these effects are neglected in the basic set of equations describing the sound field. However, for geometries that include small confinements of air or thi
Including the Excluded: One School for All.
EFA 2000 Bulletin, 1998
1998-01-01
This issue of "EFA 2000" focuses on the theme of inclusive education, i.e., including children with disabilities in general education classrooms. The cover story discusses a 1995 UNESCO survey of 63 countries that showed that integration of children with disabilities in regular schools is a declared policy in almost every country.…
Ratcheting Up The Search for Dark Matter
McDermott, Samuel Dylan [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
2014-01-01
The last several years have included remarkable advances in two of the primary areas of fundamental particle physics: the search for dark matter and the discovery of the Higgs boson. This dissertation will highlight some contributions made on the forefront of these exciting fields. Although the circumstantial evidence supporting the dark matter hypothesis is now almost undeniably significant, indisputable direct proof is still lacking. As the direct searches for dark matter continue, we can maximize our prospects of discovery by using theoretical techniques complementary to the observational searches to rule out additional, otherwise accessible parameter space. In this dissertation, I report bounds on a wide range of dark matter theories. The models considered here cover the spectrum from the canonical case of self-conjugate dark matter with weak-scale interactions, to electrically charged dark matter, to non-annihilating, non-fermionic dark matter. These bounds are obtained from considerations of astrophysical and cosmological data, including, respectively: diffuse gamma ray photon observations; structure formation considerations, along with an explication of the novel local dark matter structure due to galactic astrophysics; and the existence of old pulsars in dark-matter-rich environments. I also consider the prospects for a model of neutrino dark matter which has been motivated by a wide set of seemingly contradictory experimental results. In addition, I include a study that provides the tools to begin solving the speculative ``inverse'' problem of extracting dark matter properties solely from hypothetical nuclear energy spectra, which we may face if dark matter is discovered with multiple direct detection experiments. In contrast to the null searches for dark matter, we have the example of the recent discovery of the Higgs boson. The Higgs boson is the first fundamental scalar particle ever observed, and precision measurements of the production and
Bergström, L
2005-01-01
As cosmology has entered a phase of precision experiments, the content of the universe has been established to contain interesting and not yet fully understood components, namely dark energy and dark matter. While the cause and exact nature of the dark energy remains mysterious, there is greater hope to connect the dark matter to current models of particle physics. Supersymmetric models provide several excellent candidates for dark matter, with the lightest neutralino the prime example. This and other dark matter candidates are discussed, and prospects for their detection summarized. Some methods of detection are explained, and indications of signals in present data are critically examined.
Doi, Masao
2013-01-01
Soft matter (polymers, colloids, surfactants and liquid crystals) are an important class of materials in modern technology. They also form the basis of many future technologies, for example in medical and environmental applications. Soft matter shows complex behaviour between fluids and solids, and used to be a synonym of complex materials. Due to the developments of the past two decades, soft condensed matter can now be discussed on the same sound physical basis as solid condensedmatter. The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of soft matter for undergraduate and graduate students
Feinstein, Fabrice
2000-01-01
The fact that the mass of the visible stars could not account for the gravitational cohesion of the galaxies was the first sign of non-visible (i.e. dark) matter in the Universe. Since then, many observational evidences tell us that most of the matter is indeed dark. The nature of this dark matter is still unknown. There are good reasons to think that most of it is not composed of normal matter. These lectures will review the experimental methods, which have been developed to unravel this mystery and will compare their results with theoretical predictions.
Opto-thermophoretic assembly of colloidal matter.
Lin, Linhan; Zhang, Jianli; Peng, Xiaolei; Wu, Zilong; Coughlan, Anna C H; Mao, Zhangming; Bevan, Michael A; Zheng, Yuebing
2017-09-01
Colloidal matter exhibits unique collective behaviors beyond what occurs at single-nanoparticle and atomic scales. Treating colloidal particles as building blocks, researchers are exploiting new strategies to rationally organize colloidal particles into complex structures for new functions and devices. Despite tremendous progress in directed assembly and self-assembly, a truly versatile assembly technique without specific functionalization of the colloidal particles remains elusive. We develop a new strategy to assemble colloidal matter under a light-controlled temperature field, which can solve challenges in the existing assembly techniques. By adding an anionic surfactant (that is, cetyltrimethylammonium chloride), which serves as a surface charge source, a macro ion, and a micellar depletant, we generate a light-controlled thermoelectric field to manipulate colloidal atoms and a depletion attraction force to assemble the colloidal atoms into two-dimensional (2D) colloidal matter. The general applicability of this opto-thermophoretic assembly (OTA) strategy allows us to build colloidal matter of diverse colloidal sizes (from subwavelength scale to micrometer scale) and materials (polymeric, dielectric, and metallic colloids) with versatile configurations and tunable bonding strengths and lengths. We further demonstrate that the incorporation of the thermoelectric field into the optical radiation force can achieve 3D reconfiguration of the colloidal matter. The OTA strategy releases the rigorous design rules required in the existing assembly techniques and enriches the structural complexity in colloidal matter, which will open a new window of opportunities for basic research on matter organization, advanced material design, and applications.
... continuing education. BECOME A FELLOW OR MASTER Continuing Education Access the latest CE opportunities, including live and on-demand webinars, specifically designed for the general dentist. BROWSE ...
Limits in late time conversion of cold dark matter into hot dark matter
Motta, M; de Holanda, P C
2013-01-01
Structure formation creates high temperature and density regions in the Universe that allow the conversion of matter into more stable states, with a corresponding emission of relativistic matter and radiation. An example of such a mechanism is the supernova event, that releases relativistic neutrinos corresponding to 99% of the binding energy of remnant neutron star. We take this phenomena as a starting point for an assumption that similar processes could occur in the dark sector, where structure formation would generate a late time conversion of cold dark matter into a relativistic form of dark matter. We performed a phenomenological study about the limits of this conversion, where we assumed a transition profile that is a generalized version of the process responsible for the neutrino production in supernovae events. With this assumption, we obtained interesting modifications for the constraints over some parameters such as the dark energy equation of state and the cold dark matter density. We show that whe...
Detection prospects of singlet fermionic dark matter
Esch, Sonja; Yaguna, Carlos E
2013-01-01
A singlet fermion which interacts only with a new singlet scalar provides a viable and minimal scenario that can explain the dark matter. The singlet fermion is the dark matter particle whereas the new scalar mixes with the Higgs boson providing a link between the dark matter sector and the Standard Model. In this paper, we present an updated analysis of this model focused on its detection prospects. Both, the parity-conserving case and the most general case are considered. First, the full parameter space of the model is analyzed, and the regions compatible with the dark matter constraint are obtained and characterized. Then, the implications of current and future direct detection experiments are taken into account. Specifically, we determine the regions of the multidimensional parameter space that are currently excluded and those that are going to be probed by next generation experiments. Finally, indirect detection prospects are discussed and the expected signal at neutrino telescopes is calculated.
Detection prospects of singlet fermionic dark matter
Esch, Sonja; Klasen, Michael; Yaguna, Carlos E.
2013-10-01
A singlet fermion which interacts only with a new singlet scalar provides a viable and minimal scenario that can explain the dark matter. The singlet fermion is the dark matter particle whereas the new scalar mixes with the Higgs boson providing a link between the dark matter sector and the standard model. In this paper, we present an updated analysis of this model focused on its detection prospects. Both the parity-conserving case and the most general case are considered. First, the full parameter space of the model is analyzed, and the regions compatible with the dark matter constraint are obtained and characterized. Then, the implications of current and future direct detection experiments are taken into account. Specifically, we determine the regions of the multidimensional parameter space that are currently excluded and those that are going to be probed by next generation experiments. Finally, indirect detection prospects are discussed and the expected signal at neutrino telescopes is calculated.
Perspectives of dark matter searches with antideuterons
Vittino, A., E-mail: vittino.andrea@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Fornengo, N., E-mail: fornengo@to.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Maccione, L., E-mail: luca.maccione@lmu.de [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Theresienstraße 37, D-80333 München (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner Heisenberg Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany)
2014-04-01
The search for an excess of antideuterons in the cosmic rays flux has been proposed as a very promising channel for dark matter indirect detection, especially for WIMPs with a low or an intermediate mass. With the development of the AMS experiment and the proposal of a future dedicated experiment, i.e. the General Antiparticle Spectrometer (GAPS), there are exciting possibilities for a dark matter detection in the near future. We give an overview on the principal issues related both to the antideuterons production in dark matter annihilation reactions and to their propagation through the interstellar medium and the heliosphere, with a particular focus on the impact of various solar modulation models on the flux at Earth. Lastly, we provide an updated calculation of the reaching capabilities for current and future experiments compatible with the constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross-section imposed by the antiproton measurements of PAMELA.
Katarina Anthony
2010-01-01
ALICE has launched a new online newsletter to report on developments at the detector: ALICE Matters. The fortnightly newsletter will keep members of the collaboration – and a wider readership – up-to-date with the latest news from the detector. Screenshot of the ALICE Matters website. The new ALICE Matters newsletter highlights the work of ALICE collaborators through news, interviews and feature articles. Published online every fortnight, it will report the latest developments from the experiment, providing information about operation and data taking, installation work during technical stops, and news from ALICE members. The newsletter is aimed at members of the collaboration, but as an online publication it is also open to the general public. “We often receive questions from people who follow our progress and are interested in what's happening at ALICE,” explains Despina Hatzifotiadou, ALICE Outreach Coordinator. “With ALICE Matters, we can n...
Rosfort, René
2012-01-01
This article questions the methodological conflation at work in Karen Barad's agential realism. Barad's immense appeal is first explained against the tense background of the nature/culture antagonism in the twentieth century. Then, by using some of the penetrating observations of a seventeen......-century philosopher, Princess Elisabeth of Bohemia, Barad's “ethico-onto-epistem-ology” is examined and subsequently criticized for disregarding the persistence of subjectivity, dissolving the ambivalence of the bodily matter(s), and neglecting the need for concrete individuality in ethics....
From superWIMPs to decaying dark matter. Models, bounds and indirect searches
Weniger, Christoph
2010-06-15
Despite lots of observational and theoretical efforts, the particle nature of dark matter remains unknown. Beyond the paradigmatic WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles), many theoretically well motivated models exist where dark matter interacts much more weakly than electroweak with Standard Model particles. In this case new phenomena occur, like the decay of dark matter or the interference with the standard cosmology of the early Universe. In this thesis we study some of these aspects of superweakly coupled dark matter in general, and in the special case of hidden U(1){sub X} gauginos that kinetically mix with hypercharge. There, we will assume that the gauge group remains unbroken, similar to the Standard Model U(1){sub em}. We study different kinds of cosmological bounds, including bounds from thermal overproduction, from primordial nucleosynthesis and from structure formation. Furthermore, we study the possible cosmic-ray signatures predicted by this scenario, with emphasis on the electron and positron channel in light of the recent observations by PAMELA and Fermi LAT. Moreover we study the cosmic-ray signatures of decaying dark matter independently of concrete particle-physics models. In particular we analyze in how far the rise in the positron fraction above 10 GeV, as observed by PAMELA, can be explained by dark matter decay. Lastly, we concentrate on related predictions for gamma-ray observations with the Fermi LAT, and propose to use the dipole-like anisotropy of the prompt gamma-ray dark matter signal to distinguish exotic dark matter contributions from the extragalactic gamma-ray background. (orig.)
Hyperon masses in nuclear matter
Savage, M J; Savage, Martin J; Wise, Mark B
1996-01-01
We analyze hyperon and nucleon mass shifts in nuclear matter using chiral perturbation theory. Expressions for the mass shifts that include strong interaction effects at leading order in the density are derived. Corrections to our results are suppressed by powers of the Fermi momentum divided by either the chiral symmetry breaking scale or the nucleon mass. Our work is relevant for neutron stars and for large hypernuclei.
The DRIFT Dark Matter Experiments
Daw, E; Fox, J R; Gauvreau, J -L; Ghag, C; Harmon, L J; Harton, J L; Gold, M; Lee, E R; Loomba, D; Miller, E H; Murphy, A St J; Paling, S M; Landers, J M; Phan, N; Pipe, M; Pushkin, K; Robinson, M; Sadler, S W; Snowden-Ifft, D P; Spooner, N J C; Walker, D; Warner, D
2011-01-01
The current status of the DRIFT (Directional Recoil Identification From Tracks) experiment at Boulby Mine is presented, including the latest limits on the WIMP spin-dependent cross-section from 1.5 kg days of running with a mixture of CS2 and CF4. Planned upgrades to DRIFT IId are detailed, along with ongoing work towards DRIFT III, which aims to be the world's first 10 m3-scale directional Dark Matter detector.
Aramaki, T; von Doetinchem, P; Fuke, H; Hailey, C J; Mognet, S A I; Ong, R A; Perez, K M; Zweerink, J
2014-01-01
The general antiparticle spectrometer (GAPS) experiment is an indirect dark matter search focusing on antiparticles produced by WIMP annihilation and decay in the Galactic halo. In addition to the very powerful search channel provided by antideuterons, GAPS has a strong capability to measure low-energy antiprotons (0.07 $\\le$ E $\\le$ 0.25 GeV) as dark matter signatures. This is an especially effective means for probing light dark matter, whose existence has been hinted at in the direct dark matter searches, including the recent result from the CDMS-II experiment. While severely constrained by LUX and other direct dark matter searches, light dark matter candidates are still viable in an isospin- violating dark matter scenario and halo-independent analysis. Along with the excellent antideuteron sensitivity, GAPS will be able to detect an order of magnitude more low-energy antiprotons, compared to BESS and PAMELA, providing a precision measurement of low-energy antiproton flux and a unique channel for probing li...
The goldstino brane, the constrained superfields and matter in N=1 supergravity
Bandos, Igor [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU,P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science,48011, Bilbao (Spain); Heller, Markus [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei' , Università degli Studi di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität,Philosophenweg 19, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kuzenko, Sergei M. [School of Physics M013, The University of Western Australia35 Stirling Highway, Crawley W.A. 6009 (Australia); Martucci, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei' , Università degli Studi di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Sorokin, Dmitri [INFN - Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei' , Università degli Studi di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)
2016-11-21
We show that different (brane and constrained superfield) descriptions for the Volkov-Akulov goldstino coupled to N=1, D=4 supergravity with matter produce similar wide classes of models with spontaneously broken local supersymmetry and discuss the relation between the different formulations. As with the formulations with irreducible constrained superfields, the geometric goldstino brane approach has the advantage of being manifestly off-shell supersymmetric without the need to introduce auxiliary fields. It provides an explicit solution of the nilpotent superfield constraints and avoids issues with non-Gaussian integration of auxiliary fields. We describe general couplings of the supersymmetry breaking sector, including the goldstino and other non-supersymmetric matter, to supergravity and matter supermultiplets. Among various examples, we discuss a goldstino brane contribution to the gravitino mass term and the supersymmetrization of the anti-D3-brane contribution to the effective theory of type IIB warped flux compactifications.
The Goldstino Brane, the Constrained Superfields and Matter in N=1 Supergravity
Bandos, Igor; Kuzenko, Sergei M; Martucci, Luca; Sorokin, Dmitri
2016-01-01
We show that different (brane and constrained superfield) descriptions for the Volkov-Akulov goldstino coupled to N=1, D=4 supergravity with matter produce similar wide classes of models with spontaneously broken local supersymmetry and discuss the relation between the different formulations. As with the formulations with irreducible constrained superfields, the geometric goldstino brane approach has the advantage of being manifestly off-shell supersymmetric without the need to introduce auxiliary fields. It provides an explicit solution of the nilpotent superfield constraints and avoids issues with non-Gaussian integration of auxiliary fields. We describe general couplings of the supersymmetry breaking sector, including the goldstino and other non-supersymmetric matter, to supergravity and matter supermultiplets. Among various examples, we discuss a goldstino brane contribution to the gravitino mass term and the supersymmetrization of the anti-D3-brane contribution to the effective theory of type IIB warped ...
Neutron stars - General review
Cameron, A. G. W.; Canuto, V.
1974-01-01
A review is presented of those properties of neutron stars upon which there is general agreement and of those areas which currently remain in doubt. Developments in theoretical physics of neutron star interiors are summarized with particular attention devoted to hyperon interactions and the structure of interior layers. Determination of energy states and the composition of matter is described for successive layers, beginning with the surface and proceeding through the central region into the core. Problems encountered in determining the behavior of matter in the ultra-high density regime are discussed, and the effects of the magnetic field of a neutron star are evaluated along with the behavior of atomic structures in the field. The evolution of a neutron star is outlined with discussion centering on carbon detonation, cooling, vibrational damping, rotation, and pulsar glitches. The role of neutron stars in cosmic-ray propagation is considered.
Instabilities in mimetic matter perturbations
Firouzjahi, Hassan; Gorji, Mohammad Ali; Mansoori, Seyed Ali Hosseini
2017-07-01
We study cosmological perturbations in mimetic matter scenario with a general higher derivative function. We calculate the quadratic action and show that both the kinetic term and the gradient term have the wrong sings. We perform the analysis in both comoving and Newtonian gauges and confirm that the Hamiltonians and the associated instabilities are consistent with each other in both gauges. The existence of instabilities is independent of the specific form of higher derivative function which generates gradients for mimetic field perturbations. It is verified that the ghost instability in mimetic perturbations is not associated with the higher derivative instabilities such as the Ostrogradsky ghost.
Cotta, R C; Hewett, J L; Rizzo, T G
2009-01-01
We have recently examined a large number of points in the parameter space of the phenomenological MSSM, the 19-dimensional parameter space of the CP-conserving MSSM with Minimal Flavor Violation. We determined whether each of these points satisfied existing experimental and theoretical constraints. This analysis provides insight into general features of the MSSM without reference to a particular SUSY breaking scenario or any other assumptions at the GUT scale. This study opens up new possibilities for SUSY phenomenology both in colliders and in astrophysical experiments. Here we shall discuss the implications of this analysis relevant to the study of dark matter.
Dark-matter QCD-axion searches.
Rosenberg, Leslie J
2015-10-06
In the late 20th century, cosmology became a precision science. Now, at the beginning of the next century, the parameters describing how our universe evolved from the Big Bang are generally known to a few percent. One key parameter is the total mass density of the universe. Normal matter constitutes only a small fraction of the total mass density. Observations suggest this additional mass, the dark matter, is cold (that is, moving nonrelativistically in the early universe) and interacts feebly if at all with normal matter and radiation. There's no known such elementary particle, so the strong presumption is the dark matter consists of particle relics of a new kind left over from the Big Bang. One of the most important questions in science is the nature of this dark matter. One attractive particle dark-matter candidate is the axion. The axion is a hypothetical elementary particle arising in a simple and elegant extension to the standard model of particle physics that nulls otherwise observable CP-violating effects (where CP is the product of charge reversal C and parity inversion P) in quantum chromo dynamics (QCD). A light axion of mass 10(-(6-3)) eV (the invisible axion) would couple extraordinarily weakly to normal matter and radiation and would therefore be extremely difficult to detect in the laboratory. However, such an axion is a compelling dark-matter candidate and is therefore a target of a number of searches. Compared with other particle dark-matter candidates, the plausible range of axion dark-matter couplings and masses is narrowly constrained. This focused search range allows for definitive searches, where a nonobservation would seriously impugn the dark-matter QCD-axion hypothesis. Axion searches use a wide range of technologies, and the experiment sensitivities are now reaching likely dark-matter axion couplings and masses. This article is a selective overview of the current generation of sensitive axion searches. Not all techniques and experiments
Condensation of galactic cold dark matter
Visinelli, Luca
2016-07-01
We consider the steady-state regime describing the density profile of a dark matter halo, if dark matter is treated as a Bose-Einstein condensate. We first solve the fluid equation for ``canonical'' cold dark matter, obtaining a class of density profiles which includes the Navarro-Frenk-White profile, and which diverge at the halo core. We then solve numerically the equation obtained when an additional ``quantum pressure'' term is included in the computation of the density profile. The solution to this latter case is finite at the halo core, possibly avoiding the ``cuspy halo problem'' present in some cold dark matter theories. Within the model proposed, we predict the mass of the cold dark matter particle to be of the order of Mχ c2 ≈ 10-24 eV, which is of the same order of magnitude as that predicted in ultra-light scalar cold dark matter models. Finally, we derive the differential equation describing perturbations in the density and the pressure of the dark matter fluid.
Schramm, D.N.
1992-03-01
The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between ``cold`` and ``hot`` non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed ``seeds`` that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.
Schramm, D.N.
1992-03-01
The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between cold'' and hot'' non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed seeds'' that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.
Asymptotically Safe Dark Matter
Sannino, Francesco; Shoemaker, Ian M.
2015-01-01
We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting...... searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter....
Asymptotically Safe Dark Matter
Sannino, Francesco; Shoemaker, Ian M.
2015-01-01
We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting...... searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter....
Blanchet, Luc
2015-01-01
Massive gravity theories have been developed as viable IR modifications of gravity motivated by dark energy and the problem of the cosmological constant. On the other hand, modified gravity and modified dark matter theories were developed with the aim of solving the problems of standard cold dark matter at galactic scales. Here we propose to adapt the framework of ghost-free massive bigravity theories to reformulate the problem of dark matter at galactic scales. We investigate a promising alternative to dark matter called dipolar dark matter (DDM) in which two different species of dark matter are separately coupled to the two metrics of bigravity and are linked together by an internal vector field. We show that this model successfully reproduces the phenomenology of dark matter at galactic scales (i.e. MOND) as a result of a mechanism of gravitational polarisation. The model is safe in the gravitational sector, but because the two types of dark matter interact through the vector field, a ghostly degree of fre...
Gobato, Ricardo; Fedrigo, Desire Francine Gobato
2015-01-01
Our work is an approach between matter and energy. Using the famous equation E = mc^2, Einstein and the Law of Universal Gravitation of Newton, we estimate that a small amount matter converted into energy is needed to lift, using the gravitational potential energy equation on the surface, a mountain of solid iron or even Mount Everest.
Anderson, Lara B.; Gray, James; Raghuram, Nikhil; Taylor, Washington
2016-04-01
We explore a novel type of transition in certain 6D and 4D quantum field theories, in which the matter content of the theory changes while the gauge group and other parts of the spectrum remain invariant. Such transitions can occur, for example, for SU(6) and SU(7) gauge groups, where matter fields in a three-index antisymmetric representation and the fundamental representation are exchanged in the transition for matter in the two-index antisymmetric representation. These matter transitions are realized by passing through superconformal theories at the transition point. We explore these transitions in dual F-theory and heterotic descriptions, where a number of novel features arise. For example, in the heterotic description the relevant 6D SU(7) theories are described by bundles on K3 surfaces where the geometry of the K3 is constrained in addition to the bundle structure. On the F-theory side, non-standard representations such as the three-index antisymmetric representation of SU( N) require Weierstrass models that cannot be realized from the standard SU( N) Tate form. We also briefly describe some other situations, with groups such as Sp(3), SO(12), and SU(3), where analogous matter transitions can occur between different representations. For SU(3), in particular, we find a matter transition between adjoint matter and matter in the symmetric representation, giving an explicit Weierstrass model for the F-theory description of the symmetric representation that complements another recent analogous construction.
Kroustrup, Jonas
studies approach the paper acknowledges that management and project management technologies does matter, but comes in many shapes, and is performed differently in various socio-technical settings. The field of STS offers a new ground for a participatory and practice oriented approach to the development...... of a new direction in project management research that puts management matter into focus....
Carbonaceous Matter in Growing Nanoparticles
Johnston, M. V.; Stangl, C. M.; Horan, A. J.
2015-12-01
Atmospheric nanoparticles constitute the greatest portion of ambient aerosol loading by number. A major source of atmospheric nanoparticles is new particle formation (NPF), a gas to particle conversion process whereby clusters nucleate from gas phase precursors to form clusters on the order of one or a few nanometers and then grow rapidly to climatically relevant sizes. A substantial fraction of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are thought to arise from NPF. In order to better predict the frequency, growth rates, and climatic impacts of NPF, knowledge of the chemical mechanisms by which nucleated nanoparticles grow is needed. The two main contributors to particle growth are (neutralized) sulfate and carbonaceous matter. Particle growth by sulfuric acid condensation is generally well understood, though uncertainty remains about the extent of base neutralization and the relative roles of ammonia and amines. Much less is known about carbonaceous matter, and field measurements suggest that nitrogen-containing species are important. In this presentation, recent work by our group will be described that uses a combination of ambient measurements, laboratory experiments and computational work to study carbonaceous matter in growing nanoparticles. These studies span a range of particle sizes from the initial adsorption of molecules onto a nanometer-size ammonium bisulfate seed cluster to reactions in particles that are large enough to support condensed-phase chemistry.
Babichev, Eugeny [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay,91405 Orsay (France); UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, GReCO,98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, University of Tartu,Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Schmidt-May, Angnis [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich,Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Urban, Federico; Veermäe, Hardi [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Strauss, Mikael von [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, GReCO,98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)
2016-09-12
We provide further details on a recent proposal addressing the nature of the dark sectors in cosmology and demonstrate that all current observations related to Dark Matter can be explained by the presence of a heavy spin-2 particle. Massive spin-2 fields and their gravitational interactions are uniquely described by ghost-free bimetric theory, which is a minimal and natural extension of General Relativity. In this setup, the largeness of the physical Planck mass is naturally related to extremely weak couplings of the heavy spin-2 field to baryonic matter and therefore explains the absence of signals in experiments dedicated to Dark Matter searches. It also ensures the phenomenological viability of our model as we confirm by comparing it with cosmological and local tests of gravity. At the same time, the spin-2 field possesses standard gravitational interactions and it decays universally into all Standard Model fields but not into massless gravitons. Matching the measured DM abundance together with the requirement of stability constrains the spin-2 mass to be in the 1 to 100 TeV range.
Glendenning, N.K.
1989-11-01
We investigate the implications of rapid rotation corresponding to the frequency of the new pulsar reported in the supernovae remnant SN1987A. It places very stringent conditions on the equation of state if the star is assumed to be bound by gravity alone. We find that the central energy density of the star must be greater than 13 times that of nuclear density to be stable against the most optimistic estimate of general relativistic instabilities. This is too high for the matter to consist of individual hadrons. We conclude that it is implausible that the newly discovered pulsar, if its half-millisecond signals are attributable to rotation, is a neutron star. We show that it can be a strange quark star, and that the entire family of strange stars can sustain high rotation if strange matter is stable at an energy density exceeding about 5.4 times that of nuclear matter. We discuss the conversion of a neutron star to strange star, the possible existence of a crust of heavy ions held in suspension by centrifugal and electric forces, the cooling and other features. 34 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.
Dark Matter Detection in Space
Feng, Jonathan L.
2004-01-01
I review prospects for detecting dark matter in space-based experiments, with an emphasis on recent developments. I propose the ``Martha Stewart criterion'' for identifying dark matter candidates that are particularly worth investigation and focus on three that satisfy it: neutralino dark matter, Kaluza-Klein dark matter, and superWIMP gravitino dark matter.
White matter structure changes as adults learn a second language.
Schlegel, Alexander A; Rudelson, Justin J; Tse, Peter U
2012-08-01
occurred in frontal lobe tracts crossing the genu of the corpus callosum-a region not generally included in current neural models of language processing. These results indicate that plasticity of white matter plays an important role in adult language learning and additionally demonstrate the potential of longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging as a new tool to yield insights into cognitive processes.
The Top 10 Matters That Matter
2008-01-01
To review what matters most to the people of China,the country’s official Xinhua News Agency created a list of the 10 greatest changes in 2007.Here are the issues that reflect the pulse of the past year
Wet granular matter a truly complex fluid
Herminghaus, Stephan
2013-01-01
This is a monograph written for the young and advanced researcher who is entering the field of wet granular matter and keen to understand the basic physical principles governing this state of soft matter. It treats wet granulates as an instance of a ternary system, consisting of the grains, a primary, and a secondary fluid. After addressing wetting phenomena in general and outlining the basic facts on dry granular systems, a chapter on basic mechanisms and their effects is dedicated to every region of the ternary phase diagram. Effects of grain shape and roughness are considered as well. Rather than addressing engineering aspects such as existing books on this topic do, the book aims to provide a generalized framework suitable for those who want to understand these systems on a more fundamental basis. Readership: For the young and advanced researcher entering the field of wet granular matter.
Holographic duality in condensed matter physics
Zaanen, Jan; Sun, Ya-Wen; Schalm, Koenraad
2015-01-01
A pioneering treatise presenting how the new mathematical techniques of holographic duality unify seemingly unrelated fields of physics. This innovative development morphs quantum field theory, general relativity and the renormalisation group into a single computational framework and this book is the first to bring together a wide range of research in this rapidly developing field. Set within the context of condensed matter physics and using boxes highlighting the specific techniques required, it examines the holographic description of thermal properties of matter, Fermi liquids and superconductors, and hitherto unknown forms of macroscopically entangled quantum matter in terms of general relativity, stars and black holes. Showing that holographic duality can succeed where classic mathematical approaches fail, this text provides a thorough overview of this major breakthrough at the heart of modern physics. The inclusion of extensive introductory material using non-technical language and online Mathematica not...
EDITORIAL: Focus on Nanostructured Soft Matter
Reineker, Peter; Schülz, Michael
2004-01-01
Nanostructures in general are playing a more and more important role in the physics and chemistry of condensed matter systems including both hard and soft materials. This Focus Issue concentrates particularly on recent developments in Nanostructured Soft Matter Systems. Many interesting questions related to both fundamental and applied research in this field have arisen. Some of them are connected to the chemical reactions that take place during the irreversible formation of soft matter systems. Others refer to the theoretical and experimental investigations of structures and topologies of `nanostructured soft matter', e.g. heterogeneous polymers and polymer networks, or soft matter at low dimensions or in constrained geometries. Additional research has also been devoted to the dynamics of other complex nanostructured systems, such as the structure formation on the basis of polymer systems and polyelectrolytes, and several kinds of phase transitions on nano- and microscales. The contributions collected here present the most up-to-date research results on all of these topics. New Journal of Physics, as an electronic journal, is perfectly suited for the presentation of the complex results that the experimental and theoretical investigations reported here yield. The articles that will follow provide a number of excellent examples of the use of animations, movies and colour features for the added benefit of the reader. Focus on Nanostructured Soft Matter Contents Phase separation kinetics in compressible polymer solutions: computer simulation of the early stages Peter Virnau, Marcus Müller, Luis González MacDowell and Kurt Binder Spectral dynamics in the B800 band of LH2 from Rhodospirillum molischianum: a single-molecule study Clemens Hofmann, Thijs J Aartsma, Hartmut Michel and Jürgen Köhler Adsorption of polyacrylic acid on self-assembled monolayers investigated by single-molecule force spectroscopy Claudia Friedsam, Aránzazu Del Campo Bécares, Ulrich Jonas
Models of Supersymmetry for Dark Matter
Muñoz Carlos
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A brief review of supersymmetric models and their candidates for dark matter is carried out. The neutralino is a WIMP candidate in the MSSM where R-parity is conserved, but this model has the μ problem. There are natural solutions to this problem that necessarily introduce new structure beyond the MSSM, including new candidates for dark matter. In particular, in an extension of the NMSSM, the right-handed sneutrino can be used for this job. In R-parity violating models such as the μvSSM, the gravitino can be the dark matter, and could be detected by its decay products in gamma-ray experiments.
Updated galactic radio constraints on Dark Matter
Cirelli, Marco
2016-01-01
We perform a detailed analysis of the synchrotron signals produced by Dark Matter annihilations and decays. We consider different set-ups for the propagation of electrons and positrons, the galactic magnetic field and Dark Matter properties. We then confront these signals with radio and microwave maps, including Planck measurements, from a frequency of 22 MHz up to 70 GHz. We derive two sets of constraints: conservative and progressive, the latter based on a modeling of the astrophysical emission. Radio and microwave constraints are complementary to those obtained with other indirect detection methods, especially for dark matter annihilating into leptonic channels.
Updated galactic radio constraints on Dark Matter
Cirelli, Marco [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes Energies (LPTHE),UMR 7589 CNRS & UPMC, 4 Place Jussieu, Paris, F-75252 (France); Taoso, Marco [Instituto de Física Teórica (IFT) UAM/CSIC,calle Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Cantoblanco, Madrid, 28049 (Spain)
2016-07-25
We perform a detailed analysis of the synchrotron signals produced by dark matter annihilations and decays. We consider different set-ups for the propagation of electrons and positrons, the galactic magnetic field and dark matter properties. We then confront these signals with radio and microwave maps, including PLANCK measurements, from a frequency of 22 MHz up to 70 GHz. We derive two sets of constraints: conservative and progressive, the latter based on a modeling of the astrophysical emission. Radio and microwave constraints are complementary to those obtained with other indirect detection methods, especially for dark matter annihilating into leptonic channels.
Hidden photons in connection to dark matter
Andreas, Sarah; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Goodsell, Mark D. [CPhT, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France)
2013-06-15
Light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so called hidden photons, which reside in a hidden sector have attracted much attention since they are a well motivated feature of many scenarios beyond the Standard Model and furthermore could mediate the interaction with hidden sector dark matter.We review limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from such experiments at KEK and Orsay. In addition, we study the possibility of having dark matter in the hidden sector. A simple toy model and different supersymmetric realisations are shown to provide viable dark matter candidates in the hidden sector that are in agreement with recent direct detection limits.
Generalised matter couplings in massive bigravity
Melville, Scott [Harvard University,Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); The Queen’s College,High Street, Oxford, OX1 4AW (United Kingdom); Noller, Johannes [The Queen’s College,High Street, Oxford, OX1 4AW (United Kingdom); Astrophysics, University of Oxford,DWB, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)
2016-01-18
We investigate matter couplings in massive bigravity. We find a new family of such consistent couplings, including and extending known consistent matter couplings, and we investigate their decoupling limits, ADM decompositions, Higuchi bounds and further aspects. We show that differences to previous known consistent couplings only arise beyond the Λ{sub 3} decoupling limit and discuss the uniqueness of consistent matter couplings and how this is related to the so-called symmetric vielbein condition. Since we work in a vielbein formulation, these results easily generalise to multi-gravity.
Baudis, Laura
2015-01-01
One of the major challenges of modern physics is to decipher the nature of dark matter. Astrophysical observations provide ample evidence for the existence of an invisible and dominant mass component in the observable universe, from the scales of galaxies up to the largest cosmological scales. The dark matter could be made of new, yet undiscovered elementary particles, with allowed masses and interaction strengths with normal matter spanning an enormous range. Axions, produced non-thermally in the early universe, and weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), which froze out of thermal equilibrium with a relic density matching the observations, represent two well-motivated, generic classes of dark matter candidates. Dark matter axions could be detected by exploiting their predicted coupling to two photons, where the highest sensitivity is reached by experiments using a microwave cavity permeated by a strong magnetic field. WIMPs could be directly observed via scatters off atomic nuclei in underground, ultr...
Incompressibility of strange matter
Sinha, M N; Dey, J; Dey, M; Ray, S; Bhowmick, S; Sinha, Monika; Bagchi, Manjari; Dey, Jishnu; Dey, Mira; Ray, Subharthi; Bhowmick, Siddhartha
2002-01-01
Strange stars calculated from a realistic equation of state (EOS) show compact objects in the mass radius curve, when they are solved for gravitational fields via TOV equation. Many of the observed stars seem to fit in with this kind of compactness irrespective of whether they are X-ray pulsars, bursters or soft $\\gamma$ repeaters or radio pulsars. Calculated incompressibility of this strange matter shows continuity with that of nuclear matter. This is important in the cosmic separation of phase scenario. We compare our calculations of incompressibility with that of a nuclear matter EOS. This EOS has a continuous transition to ud-matter at about five times normal density. From a look at the consequent velocity of sound it is found that the transition to ud-matter seems necessary.
Niemi, Antti; Wilczek, Frank; Ardonne, Eddy; Hansson, Hans
2012-01-01
The 2010 Nobel Symposium on Graphene and Quantum Matter, was held at the Grand Hotel in Saltsjöbaden south of Stockholm on 27-31 May. The main theme of the meeting was graphene, and the symposium turned out to be very timely: two of the participants, Andre Geim and Kanstantin Novoselov returned to Stockholm less then six months later to receive the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics. In these proceedings leading experts give up-to-date, historical, experimental, theoretical and technological perspectives on the remarkable material graphene, and several papers also make connections to other states of quantum matter. Saltsjöbaden is beautifully situated in the inner archipelago of Stockholm. It provided a pleasant setting for the talks and the ensuing discussions that took place in an enthusiastic and friendly atmosphere. The social programme included a boat trip in the light summer night and a dinner at the renowned Grand Hotel. These proceedings are ordered thematically, starting with historical overviews, followed by first experimental and then theoretical papers on the physics of graphene. Next are several papers addressing more general topics in quantum matter and finally contributions on the technological applications of graphene. We hope that this volume will serve as a source of knowledge and inspiration for any physicist interested in graphene, and at the same time provide a snapshot of a young field of research that is developing at very high speed. We are grateful to Marja Fahlander for excellent administrative support, and to the Nobel Foundation who funded the symposium.
Generalized Gaussian Error Calculus
Grabe, Michael
2010-01-01
For the first time in 200 years Generalized Gaussian Error Calculus addresses a rigorous, complete and self-consistent revision of the Gaussian error calculus. Since experimentalists realized that measurements in general are burdened by unknown systematic errors, the classical, widespread used evaluation procedures scrutinizing the consequences of random errors alone turned out to be obsolete. As a matter of course, the error calculus to-be, treating random and unknown systematic errors side by side, should ensure the consistency and traceability of physical units, physical constants and physical quantities at large. The generalized Gaussian error calculus considers unknown systematic errors to spawn biased estimators. Beyond, random errors are asked to conform to the idea of what the author calls well-defined measuring conditions. The approach features the properties of a building kit: any overall uncertainty turns out to be the sum of a contribution due to random errors, to be taken from a confidence inter...
2010-10-01
... REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Administrative Matters 970.0470-1 General. (a) The..., Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Work Planning and Execution. When such a process is...
28 CFR 0.20 - General functions.
2010-07-01
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General functions. 0.20 Section 0.20 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of the Solicitor General § 0.20 General functions. The following-described matters are assigned to, and shall...
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General. 4.801 Section 4.801 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Government Contract Files 4.801 General. (a) The head of each office performing...
The white matter query language: a novel approach for describing human white matter anatomy.
Wassermann, Demian; Makris, Nikos; Rathi, Yogesh; Shenton, Martha; Kikinis, Ron; Kubicki, Marek; Westin, Carl-Fredrik
2016-12-01
We have developed a novel method to describe human white matter anatomy using an approach that is both intuitive and simple to use, and which automatically extracts white matter tracts from diffusion MRI volumes. Further, our method simplifies the quantification and statistical analysis of white matter tracts on large diffusion MRI databases. This work reflects the careful syntactical definition of major white matter fiber tracts in the human brain based on a neuroanatomist's expert knowledge. The framework is based on a novel query language with a near-to-English textual syntax. This query language makes it possible to construct a dictionary of anatomical definitions that describe white matter tracts. The definitions include adjacent gray and white matter regions, and rules for spatial relations. This novel method makes it possible to automatically label white matter anatomy across subjects. After describing this method, we provide an example of its implementation where we encode anatomical knowledge in human white matter for ten association and 15 projection tracts per hemisphere, along with seven commissural tracts. Importantly, this novel method is comparable in accuracy to manual labeling. Finally, we present results applying this method to create a white matter atlas from 77 healthy subjects, and we use this atlas in a small proof-of-concept study to detect changes in association tracts that characterize schizophrenia.
The C-4 Dark Matter Experiment
Bonicalzi, R M; Colaresi, J; Fast, J E; Fields, N E; Fuller, E S; Hai, M; Hossbach, T W; Kos, M S; Orrell, J L; Overman, C T; Reid, D J; VanDevender, B A; Wiseman, C; Yocum, K M
2012-01-01
We describe the experimental design of C-4, an expansion of the CoGeNT dark matter search to four identical detectors each approximately three times the mass of the p-type point contact germanium diode presently taking data at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. Expected reductions of radioactive backgrounds and energy threshold are discussed, including an estimate of the additional sensitivity to low-mass dark matter candidates to be obtained with this search.
The C-4 dark matter experiment
Bonicalzi, R. M.; Collar, J. I.; Colaresi, J.; Fast, J. E.; Fields, N. E.; Fuller, E. S.; Hai, M.; Hossbach, T. W.; Kos, M. S.; Orrell, J. L.; Overman, C. T.; Reid, D. J.; VanDevender, B. A.; Wiseman, C.; Yocum, K. M.
2013-06-01
We describe the experimental design of C-4, an expansion of the CoGeNT dark matter search to four identical detectors each approximately three times the mass of the p-type point contact germanium diode presently taking data at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. Expected reductions of radioactive backgrounds and energy threshold are discussed, including an estimate of the additional sensitivity to low-mass dark matter candidates to be obtained with this search.
Inflammation in White Matter: Clinical and Pathophysiological Aspects
Pleasure, David; Soulika, Athena; Singh, Sunit K.; Gallo, Vittorio; Bannerman, Peter
2006-01-01
While the central nervous system (CNS) is generally thought of as an immunopriviledged site, immune-mediated CNS white matter damage can occur in both the perinatal period and in adults, and can result in severe and persistent neurological deficits. Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is an inflammatory white matter disease of premature infants…
White Matter Development during Adolescence as Shown by Diffusion MRI
Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Yuan, Weihong
2010-01-01
Previous volumetric developmental MRI studies of the brain have shown white matter development continuing through adolescence and into adulthood. This review presents current findings regarding white matter development and organization from diffusion MRI studies. The general trend during adolescence (age 12-18 years) is towards increasing…
Direct Dark Matter Searches: Fits to WIMP Candidates
Gelmini, Graciela B.
2011-01-01
After a brief introduction to dark matter in general and to WIMPs as candidates, we review recent results of direct dark matter searches. We concentrate on older and more recent hints pointing to light WIMP's with mass below 10 GeV.
Dark Viscous Fluid coupled with Dark Matter and future singularity
Sebastiani, Lorenzo
2010-01-01
We study effects of viscous fluid coupled with dark matter in our universe. We consider bulk viscosity in the cosmic fluid and we suppose the existence of a coupling between fluid and dark matter, in order to reproduce a stable de Sitter universe protected against future-time singularities. More general inhomogeneous fluids are studied related to future singularities.
Beyond generalized Proca theories
Lavinia Heisenberg
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We consider higher-order derivative interactions beyond second-order generalized Proca theories that propagate only the three desired polarizations of a massive vector field besides the two tensor polarizations from gravity. These new interactions follow the similar construction criteria to those arising in the extension of scalar–tensor Horndeski theories to Gleyzes–Langlois–Piazza–Vernizzi (GLPV theories. On the isotropic cosmological background, we show the existence of a constraint with a vanishing Hamiltonian that removes the would-be Ostrogradski ghost. We study the behavior of linear perturbations on top of the isotropic cosmological background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid and find the same number of propagating degrees of freedom as in generalized Proca theories (two tensor polarizations, two transverse vector modes, and two scalar modes. Moreover, we obtain the conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities of tensor, vector, and scalar perturbations. We observe key differences in the scalar sound speed, which is mixed with the matter sound speed outside the domain of generalized Proca theories.
Beyond generalized Proca theories
Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2016-09-01
We consider higher-order derivative interactions beyond second-order generalized Proca theories that propagate only the three desired polarizations of a massive vector field besides the two tensor polarizations from gravity. These new interactions follow the similar construction criteria to those arising in the extension of scalar-tensor Horndeski theories to Gleyzes-Langlois-Piazza-Vernizzi (GLPV) theories. On the isotropic cosmological background, we show the existence of a constraint with a vanishing Hamiltonian that removes the would-be Ostrogradski ghost. We study the behavior of linear perturbations on top of the isotropic cosmological background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid and find the same number of propagating degrees of freedom as in generalized Proca theories (two tensor polarizations, two transverse vector modes, and two scalar modes). Moreover, we obtain the conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities of tensor, vector, and scalar perturbations. We observe key differences in the scalar sound speed, which is mixed with the matter sound speed outside the domain of generalized Proca theories.
Mass bounds for compact spherically symmetric objects in generalized gravity theories
Burikham, Piyabut; Lake, Matthew J
2016-01-01
We derive upper and lower bounds on the mass-radius ratio of stable compact objects in extended gravity theories, in which modifications of the gravitational dynamics via-{\\' a}-vis standard general relativity are described by an effective contribution to the matter energy-momentum tensor. Our results include the possibility of a variable coupling between the matter sector and the gravitational field and are valid for a large class of generalized gravity models. The generalized continuity and Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations are expressed in terms of the effective mass, density and pressure, given by the bare values plus additional contributions from the total energy-momentum tensor, and general theoretical limits for the maximum and minimum mass-radius ratios are explicitly obtained. As an applications of the formalism developed herein, we consider compact bosonic objects, described by scalar-tensor gravitational theories with self-interacting scalar field potentials, and charged compact objects, respect...
New extended standard model, dark matters and relativity theory
Hwang, Jae-Kwang
2016-03-01
Three-dimensional quantized space model is newly introduced as the extended standard model. Four three-dimensional quantized spaces with total 12 dimensions are used to explain the universes including ours. Electric (EC), lepton (LC) and color (CC) charges are defined to be the charges of the x1x2x3, x4x5x6 and x7x8x9 warped spaces, respectively. Then, the lepton is the xi(EC) - xj(LC) correlated state which makes 3x3 = 9 leptons and the quark is the xi(EC) - xj(LC) - xk(CC) correlated state which makes 3x3x3 = 27 quarks. The new three bastons with the xi(EC) state are proposed as the dark matters seen in the x1x2x3 space, too. The matter universe question, three generations of the leptons and quarks, dark matter and dark energy, hadronization, the big bang, quantum entanglement, quantum mechanics and general relativity are briefly discussed in terms of this new model. The details can be found in the article titled as ``journey into the universe; three-dimensional quantized spaces, elementary particles and quantum mechanics at https://www.researchgate.net/profile/J_Hwang2''.
Putting matters on the triangle-hinge models
Fukuma, Masafumi; Umeda, Naoya
2015-01-01
In a recent paper [arXiv:1503.08812] a new class of models generating three-dimensional random volumes are introduced, where the Boltzmann weight of each configuration is given by the product of values assigned to the triangles and the hinges. These triangle-hinge models are characterized by semisimple associative algebras, and the set of possible diagrams can be reduced such that only and all of the three-dimensional manifolds with tetrahedral decompositions are generated. In this letter, we give a general prescription to put matters on the models. We show that the degrees of freedom representing matter fields can be assigned to simplices of any dimensions (tetrahedra, triangles, edges and vertices) in such a way that they have local interactions. Simple examples include the Ising model, the q-state Potts models and the RSOS models coupled to three-dimensional quantum gravity. We also show that the three-dimensional colored tensor models can be obtained by putting specific matters on both tetrahedra and tria...
Serakos, Demetrios
2015-01-01
This book defines and develops the generalized adjoint of an input-output system. It is the result of a theoretical development and examination of the generalized adjoint concept and the conditions under which systems analysis using adjoints is valid. Results developed in this book are useful aids for the analysis and modeling of physical systems, including the development of guidance and control algorithms and in developing simulations. The generalized adjoint system is defined and is patterned similarly to adjoints of bounded linear transformations. Next the elementary properties of the generalized adjoint system are derived. For a space of input-output systems, a generalized adjoint map from this space of systems to the space of generalized adjoints is defined. Then properties of the generalized adjoint map are derived. Afterward the author demonstrates that the inverse of an input-output system may be represented in terms of the generalized adjoint. The use of generalized adjoints to determine bounds for ...
Interacting dark energy collapse with matter components separation
Delliou, Morgan Le
2012-01-01
We use the spherical collapse model of structure formation to investigate the separation in the collapse of uncoupled matter (including dark matter and baryons) and coupled dark matter in an interacting dark energy scenario. Following the usual assumption of a single radius of collapse for all species, we show that we only need to evolve the uncoupled matter sector to obtain the evolution for all matter components. This gives us more information on the collapse with a simplified set of evolution equations compared with the usual approaches. We then apply these results to five quintessence potentials and show how we can discriminate between different quintessence models.
QCD matter in extreme environments
Fukushima, Kenji
2011-01-01
We review various theoretical approaches to the states of QCD matter out of quarks and gluons in extreme environments such as the high-temperature states at zero and finite baryon density and the dimensionally reduced state under an intense magnetic field. The topics at high temperature include the Polyakov loop and the 't Hooft loop in the perturbative regime, the Polyakov loop behaviour and the phase transition in some of non-perturbative methods; the strong-coupling expansion, the large-Nc limit and the holographic QCD models. These analyses are extended to hot and dense matter with a finite baryon chemical potential. We point out that the difficulty in the finite-density problem has similarity to that under a strong magnetic field. We make a brief summary of results related to the topological contents probed by the magnetic field and the Chiral Magnetic Effect. We also address the close connection to the (1+1) dimensional system.
Mayotte, Jean-Marc; Grabs, Thomas; Sutliff-Johansson, Stacy; Bishop, Kevin
2017-06-01
This study examined how the inactivation of bacteriophage MS2 in water was affected by ionic strength (IS) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) using static batch inactivation experiments at 4 °C conducted over a period of 2 months. Experimental conditions were characteristic of an operational managed aquifer recharge (MAR) scheme in Uppsala, Sweden. Experimental data were fit with constant and time-dependent inactivation models using two methods: (1) traditional linear and nonlinear least-squares techniques; and (2) a Monte-Carlo based parameter estimation technique called generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE). The least-squares and GLUE methodologies gave very similar estimates of the model parameters and their uncertainty. This demonstrates that GLUE can be used as a viable alternative to traditional least-squares parameter estimation techniques for fitting of virus inactivation models. Results showed a slight increase in constant inactivation rates following an increase in the DOC concentrations, suggesting that the presence of organic carbon enhanced the inactivation of MS2. The experiment with a high IS and a low DOC was the only experiment which showed that MS2 inactivation may have been time-dependent. However, results from the GLUE methodology indicated that models of constant inactivation were able to describe all of the experiments. This suggested that inactivation time-series longer than 2 months were needed in order to provide concrete conclusions regarding the time-dependency of MS2 inactivation at 4 °C under these experimental conditions.
Searching for SUSY dark matter
Arnowitt, Richard Lewis; Nath, Pran
1994-01-01
{\\tenrm The possibility of detecting supersymmetric dark matter is examined within the framework of the minimal supergravity model (MSGM) where the \\tilde{Z}_{1} is the LSP for almost the entire parameter space. A brief discussion is given of experimental strategies for detecting dark matter. The relic density is constrained to obey 0.10 \\leq \\Omega_{\\tilde{Z}_{1}}h^2 \\leq0.35, consistent with COBE data. Expected event rates for an array of possible terrestrial detectors (^3He, CaF_2, Ge, GaAs, NaI and Pb) are examined. In general, detectors relying on coherrent \\tilde{Z}_{1}-nucleus scattering are more sensitive than detectors relying on incoherrent (spin-dependent) scattering. The dependence of the event rates as a function of the SUSY parameters are described. The detectors are generally most sensitive to the small m_0 and small m_{\\tilde{q}} and large tan\\beta part of the parameter space. The current b\\rightarrow s+\\gamma decay rate eliminates regions of large event rates for \\mu >0, but allows large even...
Soberman, R K; Soberman, Robert K.; Dubin, Maurice
2001-01-01
A comet-like, but magnitudes smaller, extremely low albedo interstellar meteoroid population of fragile aggregates with solar type composition, measured in space and terrestrially, is most probably the universal dark matter. Although non-baryonic particles cannot be excluded, only "Big Bang" cosmology predicts an appreciable fraction of such alternate forms. As more counter-physics hypotheses are added to fit observation to the expanding universe assumption, a classical physics alternative proffers dark matter interactive red shifts normally correlated with distance. The cosmic microwave background results from size-independent thermal plateau radiation that emanates from dark matter gravitationally drawn into the Galaxy.
Schumann Marc
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This article gives an overview on the status of experimental searches for dark matter at the end of 2014. The main focus is on direct searches for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs using underground-based low-background detectors, especially on the new results published in 2014. WIMPs are excellent dark matter candidates, predicted by many theories beyond the standard model of particle physics, and are expected to interact with the target nuclei either via spin-independent (scalar or spin-dependent (axial-vector couplings. Non-WIMP dark matter candidates, especially axions and axion-like particles are also briefly discussed.
Fong, Richard; Doroshkevich, Andrei G.; Turchaninov, Victor I.
1995-07-01
The theory of the formation of large-scale structure in the universe through the action of gravitational instability imply the existence of substantial amounts of baryonic dark matter, of the order of 50% of the total baryon content in the universe, in the ``voids'' or under-dense regions seen in the large-scale distribution of galaxies. We discuss also the large-scale structure of dark matter expected in voids and the present and future possibilities for the observation of this baryonic dark matter in ``voids.''
Fong, R. [Department of Physics, University of Durham, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Doroshkevich, A.G. [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, 125047 Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Teoretical Astrophysics Centrum, Blegsdamsvej 17, Copenhagen DK 2100 (Denmark); Turchaninov, V.I. [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, 125047 Moscow (Russian Federation)
1995-07-01
The theory of the formation of large-scale structure in the universe through the action of gravitational instability imply the existence of substantial amounts of baryonic dark matter, of the order of 50% of the total baryon content in the universe, in the ``voids`` or under-dense regions seen in the large-scale distribution of galaxies. We discuss also the large-scale structure of dark matter expected in voids and the present and future possibilities for the observation of this baryonic dark matter in ``voids.`` {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.
Enabling Forbidden Dark Matter
Cline, James; Liu, Hongwan; Slatyer, Tracy; Xue, Wei
2017-01-01
The thermal relic density of dark matter is conventionally set by two-body annihilations. We point out that in many simple models, $3 \\to 2$ annihilations can play an important role in determining the relic density over a broad range of model parameters. This occurs when the two-body annihilation is kinematically forbidden, but the $3\\to 2$ process is allowed; we call this scenario "Not-Forbidden Dark Matter". We illustrate this mechanism for a vector portal dark matter model, showing that fo...
Schumann, Marc
2015-01-01
This article gives an overview on the status of experimental searches for dark matter at the end of 2014. The main focus is on direct searches for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) using underground-based low-background detectors, especially on the new results published in 2014. WIMPs are excellent dark matter candidates, predicted by many theories beyond the standard model of particle physics, and are expected to interact with the target nuclei either via spin-independent (scalar) or spin-dependent (axial-vector) couplings. Non-WIMP dark matter candidates, especially axions and axion-like particles are also briefly discussed.
Yakmaci-Guzel, Buket; Adadan, Emine
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in 19 preservice chemistry teachers' understandings of the structure of matter, including the aspects of the physical states of matter, the physical composition of matter, and the chemical composition of matter, before, immediately after, and months after they received a specific instruction.…