WorldWideScience

Sample records for matter enhanced msw

  1. The MSW Effect and Matter Effects in Neutrino Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2006-03-01

    The MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) effect is the adiabatic or partially adiabatic neutrino flavor conversion in media with varying density. The main notions related to the effect, its dynamics and physical picture are reviewed. The large mixing MSW effect is realized inside the Sun providing a solution of the solar neutrino problem. The small mixing MSW effect driven by the 1-3 mixing can be realized for the supernova (SN) neutrinos. Inside collapsing stars new elements of the MSW dynamics may show up: non-oscillatory transition, non-adiabatic conversion, time dependent adiabaticity violation induced by shock waves. Effects of the resonance enhancement and the parametric enhancement of oscillations can be realized for atmospheric and accelerator neutrinos in the Earth. Precise results for neutrino oscillations in low density media with arbitrary density profile are presented and the attenuation effect is described. The area of applications is the solar and SN neutrinos inside the Earth, and the results are crucial for the neutrino oscillation tomography.

  2. Treatment of solar neutrino-oscillations in solar matter. The MSW effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messiah, A.

    1986-01-01

    Mikheyev and Smirnov, following Wolfenstein's theory of neutrino oscillations in the presence of matter, have found that the change of flavour of solar neutrinos may be spectacularly enhanced in the presence of solar matter, when the parameters of the neutrino mass operator fall in a suitable range (MSW effect). It is shown that this effect can be readily deduced from the adiatic solution of the equation of flavour evolution. A complete study of the two-flavour case is given, permitting to calculate, for any set of values of the mass operator parameters, the ν e suppression factor at the site of detection on earth. The adiabatic approximation holds over a wide range of the parameters, leading to especially simple expressions. Our calculations cover the whole range, including domains where the adiabatic approximation is no longer valid. Some of the results, presented in a form most suited for an analysis of solar neutrino experiments, are displayed for illustration and discussed. 7 refs

  3. The MSW conversion of solar neutrinos and random matter density perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunokawa, H.; Rossi, A.; Valle, J.W.F.

    1997-01-01

    A generalization of the resonant neutrino conversion in matter, including a random component in the matter density profile is presented. The study is focused on the effect of such matter perturbations upon both large and small mixing angle MSW solutions to the solar neutrino problem. This is carried out both for the active-active ν e → ν μ , τ as well as active-sterile ν e → conversion channels. The small mixing MSW solution is much more stable than the large mixing solution has been found. Future solar neutrino experiments, such as Borexino, could probe solar matter density noise at the few percent level

  4. The Enhancement Seminar Model as a Strategy to Promote Diversity and Student Success in MSW Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Larry D.; Rycraft, Joan R.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of an enhancement program by examining a cohort of 57 students admitted on probationary status to an MSW program in 2002 and required to participate in the enhancement program. The demographics for students admitted on probation demonstrate that the program is effective in increasing the diversity of the…

  5. Implications of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) mechanism of amplification of neutrino oscillations in matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langacker, P.; Petcov, S.T.; Steigman, G.; Toshev, S.

    1987-01-01

    Mikheyev and Smirnov have recently proposed a novel and plausible solution of the solar neutrino problem, based on the resonant amplification of the neutrino oscillations in matter. We comment on several aspects of this mechanism. (i) For the values of neutrino masses and mixing angles predicted by the seesaw model of grand unified theories, the MSW effect may take place naturally in the Sun, leading to a considerable reduction of the flux of solar electron neutrinos, with the dominant transition being ν e →ν τ (rather than ν e →ν μ ). (ii) Oscillations between the ordinary neutrinos (ν e ,ν μ ,ν τ ) can affect primordial nucleosynthesis, but the effect is small (i.e., the abundance of 4 He is predicted to change by less than 1.3x10 -3 ). (iii) A comparison of some of the general properties of neutrino oscillations in matter and in vacuum is given. (orig.)

  6. Matter oscillations and solar neutrinos: A review of the MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, S.P.; Gelb, J.M.

    1986-07-16

    We review the theory of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect, in which matter oscillations can greatly enhance ''in vacuo'' neutrino oscillations, and we examine its consequences for the solar neutrino problem. Using a two-flavor model, we discuss the solutions in the ..delta..m/sup 2/-sin/sup 2/2THETA parameter space for the /sup 37/Cl experiment, and describe their predictions for the /sup 71/Ga experiment and for the spectrum of electron-neutrinos arriving at earth. We also comment on the three-flavor case.

  7. Matter oscillations and solar neutrinos: A review of the MSW [Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein] effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, S.P.; Gelb, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    We review the theory of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect, in which matter oscillations can greatly enhance ''in vacuo'' neutrino oscillations, and we examine its consequences for the solar neutrino problem. Using a two-flavor model, we discuss the solutions in the Δm 2 -sin 2 2Θ parameter space for the 37 Cl experiment, and describe their predictions for the 71 Ga experiment and for the spectrum of electron-neutrinos arriving at earth. We also comment on the three-flavor case

  8. Evidence for the MSW effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogli, Gianluigi; Lisi, Eligio

    2004-01-01

    Recent solar and reactor neutrino data have convincingly established that electron neutrinos and antineutrinos are subject to flavour transitions driven by neutrino masses and mixing. In addition, such data can be used to prove that the interaction of neutrinos in matter modifies the flavour transition pattern with respect to the case of propagation in vacuum, as predicted long ago by Mikheyev, Smirnov and Wolfenstein (MSW). We present a brief review of how the current evidence for MSW solar neutrino transitions has developed in recent years, and how it has been strengthened by the latest reactor neutrino data presented at the Neutrino 2004 Conference

  9. Evidence for the MSW effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogli, Gianluigi; Lisi, Eligio

    2004-10-01

    Recent solar and reactor neutrino data have convincingly established that electron neutrinos and antineutrinos are subject to flavour transitions driven by neutrino masses and mixing. In addition, such data can be used to prove that the interaction of neutrinos in matter modifies the flavour transition pattern with respect to the case of propagation in vacuum, as predicted long ago by Mikheyev, Smirnov and Wolfenstein (MSW). We present a brief review of how the current evidence for MSW solar neutrino transitions has developed in recent years, and how it has been strengthened by the latest reactor neutrino data presented at the Neutrino 2004 Conference.

  10. Dark matter sterile neutrinos in stellar collapse: Alteration of energy/lepton number transport, and a mechanism for supernova explosion enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Jun; Fuller, George M.

    2006-12-01

    We investigate matter-enhanced Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) active-sterile neutrino conversion in the νe⇌νs channel in the collapse of the iron core of a presupernova star. For values of sterile neutrino rest mass ms and vacuum mixing angle θ (specifically, 0.5keV5×10-12) which include those required for viable sterile neutrino dark matter, our one-zone in-fall phase collapse calculations show a significant reduction in core lepton fraction. This would result in a smaller homologous core and therefore a smaller initial shock energy, disfavoring successful shock reheating and the prospects for an explosion. However, these calculations also suggest that the MSW resonance energy can exhibit a minimum located between the center and surface of the core. In turn, this suggests a post-core-bounce mechanism to enhance neutrino transport and neutrino luminosities at the core surface and thereby augment shock reheating: (1) scattering-induced or coherent MSW νe→νs conversion occurs deep in the core, at the first MSW resonance, where νe energies are large (˜150MeV); (2) the high energy νs stream outward at near light speed; (3) they deposit their energy when they encounter the second MSW resonance νs→νe just below the proto-neutron star surface.

  11. Mapping MSW Research Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freymond, Nancy; Morgenshtern, Marina; Duffie, Mark; Hong, Liu; Bugeja-Freitas, Shirley; Eulenberg, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The surge of interest in evidence-based interventions necessitates MSW graduates who will pursue research activities in the workplace. However, evidence suggests that social workers tend not to use their research skills after graduation. This study examined three constructs that inform students' relationships to research: (a) confidence in…

  12. Waste-to-Energy (WTE) network synthesis for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Wendy Pei Qin; Lam, Hon Loong; 2, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering – MŰKKI, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, H-8200 Veszprėm (Hungary))" data-affiliation=" (Centre for Process Integration and Intensification – CPI2, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering – MŰKKI, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, H-8200 Veszprėm (Hungary))" >Varbanov, Petar Sabev; 2, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering – MŰKKI, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, H-8200 Veszprėm (Hungary))" data-affiliation=" (Centre for Process Integration and Intensification – CPI2, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering – MŰKKI, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, H-8200 Veszprėm (Hungary))" >Klemeš, Jiří 2, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering – MŰKKI, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, H-8200 Veszprėm (Hungary))" data-affiliation=" (Centre for Process Integration and Intensification – CPI2, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering – MŰKKI, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, H-8200 Veszprėm (Hungary))" >Jaromír

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The possibility of utilising MSW as the source of WTE in Malaysia is evaluated. • Real case study is developed and its economic potential is demonstrated. • A MSW supply network with multiple objectives optimisation model is synthesised. • WTE scheme using MSW is one energy solution for country that generates a lot of MSW. - Abstract: MSW has been identified as one of the alternative energy sources that can be used for electricity and/or power generation. This appears to be one enhanced channel to tackle MSW disposal problem. WTE concept is incorporated into the MSW management system in this work. The integrated system is modelled to study its practicability and significance. The proposed model is illustrated with a case study involving the supply network design and the utilisation of MSW from urban sources. The modelling steps involve the generation of a superstructure, mathematical model construction, optimisation and solution interpretation. The MSW availability and its utilisation are investigated through its supply network design. Optimal locations of processing hubs and facilities are determined. Following this, boundaries and sizes of the processing hubs are calculated. The benefits of WTE strategy from MSW is analysed and its energy generation potential is demonstrated. This WTE strategy acts as one potential MSW management scheme for all interested parties

  13. Fresh organic matter of municipal solid waste enhances phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salati, S.; Quadri, G.; Tambone, F. [Dipartimento di Produzione Vegetale, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Adani, F., E-mail: fabrizio.adani@unimi.i [Dipartimento di Produzione Vegetale, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    In this study, the ability of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) to enhance heavy metal uptake of maize shoots compared with ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) was tested on soil contaminated with heavy metals. Soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS significantly increased the concentration of heavy metals in maize shoots (increments of 302%, 66%, 184%, 169%, and 23% for Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb with respect to the control and increments of 933%, 482%, 928%, 428%, and 5551% for soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS, respectively). In soil treated with OFMSW, metal uptake was favored because of the high presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) (41.6x than soil control) that exhibited ligand properties because of the high presence of carboxylic acids. Because of the toxic effect of EDDS on maize plants, soil treated with OFMSW achieved the highest extraction of total heavy metals. - Organic fraction of MSW affects the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil.

  14. Fresh organic matter of municipal solid waste enhances phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salati, S.; Quadri, G.; Tambone, F.; Adani, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the ability of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) to enhance heavy metal uptake of maize shoots compared with ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) was tested on soil contaminated with heavy metals. Soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS significantly increased the concentration of heavy metals in maize shoots (increments of 302%, 66%, 184%, 169%, and 23% for Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb with respect to the control and increments of 933%, 482%, 928%, 428%, and 5551% for soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS, respectively). In soil treated with OFMSW, metal uptake was favored because of the high presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) (41.6x than soil control) that exhibited ligand properties because of the high presence of carboxylic acids. Because of the toxic effect of EDDS on maize plants, soil treated with OFMSW achieved the highest extraction of total heavy metals. - Organic fraction of MSW affects the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil.

  15. Parametric resonance in neutrino oscillations in matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neutrino oscillations in matter can exhibit a specific resonance enhancement - parametric resonance, which is different from the MSW resonance. Oscillations of atmospheric and solar neutrinos inside the earth can undergo parametric enhancement when neutrino trajectories cross the core of the earth. In this paper we ...

  16. Cellulase hydrolysis of unsorted MSW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Wagner; Felby, Claus; Jørgensen, Henning

    2011-01-01

    A recent development in waste management and engineering has shown that the cellulase can be used for the liquefaction of organic fractions in household waste. The focus of this study was to optimize the enzyme hydrolysis of thermally treated municipal solid waste (MSW) by the addition of surfact......A recent development in waste management and engineering has shown that the cellulase can be used for the liquefaction of organic fractions in household waste. The focus of this study was to optimize the enzyme hydrolysis of thermally treated municipal solid waste (MSW) by the addition...... of calcium, potassium, sodium, chloride and others that may affect cellulolytic enzymes. Cellulase performance showed no effect of adding the metal ion-chelating agent EDTA to the solution. The cellulases were stable, tolerated and functioned in the presence of several contaminants....

  17. Concentrated dark matter: Enhanced small-scale structure from codecaying dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Dror, Jeff A.; Kuflik, Eric; Melcher, Brandon; Watson, Scott

    2018-01-01

    We study the cosmological consequences of codecaying dark matter—a recently proposed mechanism for depleting the density of dark matter through the decay of nearly degenerate particles. A generic prediction of this framework is an early dark matter dominated phase in the history of the Universe, that results in the enhanced growth of dark matter perturbations on small scales. We compute the duration of the early matter dominated phase and show that the perturbations are robust against washout...

  18. Enhancement of Light-Matter Interaction in Semiconductor Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stobbe, Søren

    This thesis reports research on enhancement of light-matter interaction in semi- conductor quantum nanostructures by means of nanostructure fabrication, optical measurements, and theoretical modeling. Photonic crystal membranes of very high quality and samples for studies of quantum dots in proxi......-matter interaction is investigated. For the rst time the vacuum Rabi splitting is observed in an electrically tunable device....

  19. Substructure boosts to dark matter annihilation from Sommerfeld enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovy, Jo

    2009-01-01

    The recently introduced Sommerfeld enhancement of the dark matter annihilation cross section has important implications for the detection of dark matter annihilation in subhalos in the Galactic halo. In addition to the boost to the dark matter annihilation cross section from the high densities of these subhalos with respect to the main halo, an additional boost caused by the Sommerfeld enhancement results from the fact that they are kinematically colder than the Galactic halo. If we further believe the generic prediction of the cold dark matter paradigm that in each subhalo there is an abundance of substructure which is approximately self-similar to that of the Galactic halo, then I show that additional boosts coming from the density enhancements of these small substructures and their small velocity dispersions enhance the dark matter annihilation cross section even further. I find that very large boost factors (10 5 to 10 9 ) are obtained in a large class of models. The implications of these boost factors for the detection of dark matter annihilation from dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Galactic halo are such that, generically, they outshine the background gamma-ray flux and are detectable by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.

  20. MSW effect and solar neutrino experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, S.P.

    1986-01-01

    We describe the MSW solutions to the 37 Cl solar neutrino experiment, and their implications for the 71 Ga experiment. Measurement of the spectrum of electron-type neutrinos arriving at earth is emphasized. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  1. Higgs enhancement for the dark matter relic density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harz, Julia; Petraki, Kalliopi

    2018-04-01

    We consider the long-range effect of the Higgs on the density of thermal-relic dark matter. While the electroweak gauge boson and gluon exchange have been previously studied, the Higgs is typically thought to mediate only contact interactions. We show that the Sommerfeld enhancement due to a 125 GeV Higgs can deplete TeV-scale dark matter significantly and describe how the interplay between the Higgs and other mediators influences this effect. We discuss the importance of the Higgs enhancement in the minimal supersymmetric standard model and its implications for experiments.

  2. Structure formation constraints on Sommerfeld-enhanced dark matter annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian; Neelakanta, Jayanth T.

    2012-01-01

    We study the growth of cosmic structure in a ΛCDM universe under the assumption that dark matter self-annihilates with an averaged cross section times relative velocity that grows with the scale factor, an increase known as Sommerfeld-enhancement. Such an evolution is expected in models in which a light force carrier in the dark sector enhances the annihilation cross section of dark matter particles, and has been invoked, for instance, to explain anomalies in cosmic ray spectra reported in the past. In order to make our results as general as possible, we assume that dark matter annihilates into a relativistic species that only interacts gravitationally with the standard model. This assumption also allows us to test whether the additional relativistic species mildly favored by cosmic-microwave background data could originate from dark matter annihilation. We do not find evidence for Sommerfeld-enhanced dark matter annihilation and derive the corresponding upper limits on the annihilation cross-section

  3. The Sommerfeld enhancement for dark matter with an excited state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slatyer, Tracy R.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the Sommerfeld enhancement to dark matter annihilation in the presence of an excited state, where the interaction inducing the enhancement is purely off-diagonal, such as in models of exciting or inelastic dark matter. We derive a simple and accurate semi-analytic approximation for the s-wave enhancement, which is valid provided the mass splitting between the ground and excited states is not too large, and discuss the cutoff of the enhancement for large mass splittings. We reproduce previously derived results in the appropriate limits, and demonstrate excellent agreement with numerical calculations of the enhancement. We show that the presence of an excited state leads to generically larger values of the Sommerfeld enhancement, larger resonances, and shifting of the resonances to lower mediator masses. Furthermore, in the presence of a mass splitting the enhancement is no longer a monotonic function of velocity: the enhancement where the kinetic energy is close to that required to excite the higher state can be up to twice as large as the enhancement at zero velocity

  4. Natural organic matter to enhance electrokinetic transport of PAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suer, P.; Joensson, S.; Allard, B. [Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre, Oerebro Univ. (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    The remediation of contaminated soil can be enhanced with natural organic matter (NOM) as a complexing agent for pollutants. NOM has both hydrophobic and acidic properties, so that it is charged and thus subject to electroremediation. At the same time many contaminants have a high affinity for organic matter. Organic matter was produced in situ in an electric field or added in solute form. The resulting dissolved organic matter was transported towards the cathode, probably by cationic colloids. Produced dissolved organic matter included high molecular weight molecules near the cathode, at the site of pH buffering. Pyrene and phenanthrene were likewise transported towards the cathode. Movement was small but distinctive in 2-day experiments. Clay influence the soil/water distribution of the PAH but no effect on the total transport could be discerned. The presence of solid organic matter in the soil removed all PAH from the water phase, even though the concentration of organic matter in the water phase was high as well. (orig.)

  5. A search for matter enhanced neutrino oscillations through measurements of day and night solar neutrino fluxes at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miknaitis, Kathryn Kelly Schaffer

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a heavy-water Cherenkov detector designed to study 8B neutrinos from the sun. Through the charged-current (CC) and neutral-current (NC) reactions of neutrinos on deuterium, SNO separately determines the flux of electron neutrinos and the flux of all active flavors of solar 8B neutrinos. SNO is also sensitive to the elastic scattering (ES) of neutrinos on electrons in the heavy water. Measurements of the CC and NC rates in SNO have conclusively demonstrated solar neutrino flavor change. This flavor change is believed to be caused by matter-enhanced oscillations in the sun, through the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. Matter effects could also change the flavor composition of neutrinos that traverse the earth. A comparison of the day and night measured CC flux at SNO directly tests for the MSW effect and contributes to constraints on neutrino oscillation parameters in the MSW model. We perform measurements of the day and night neutrino fluxes using data from the second phase of SNO, in which salt (NaCl) was added to the heavy water to enhance sensitivity to the NC reaction. Better discrimination between CC and NC events in the salt phase allows the fluxes to be determined without constraining the neutrino energy spectrum. The day-night asymmetry in the CC flux measured in this model-independent analysis is ACC = [-5.6 +/- 7.4(stat.) +/- 5.3(syst.)]%, where the asymmetry is defined as the difference between the night and day values divided by their average. The asymmetries in the NC and ES fluxes are ANC = [4.2 +/- 8.6(stat.) +/- 7.2(syst.)]%, and AES = (14.6 +/- 19.8(stat.) +/- 3.3(syst.)]%. The neutral current asymmetry is expected to be zero assuming standard neutrino oscillations. When we constrain it to be zero, we obtain ACC = [-3.7 +/- 6.3(stat.) +/- 3.2(syst.)]% and AES = [15.3 +/- 19.8(stat.) +/- 3.0(syst.)]%. The day and night energy spectra from the CC reaction have been measured and show no evidence for

  6. MSW-resonant fermion mixing during reheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Tsuneto; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2003-10-01

    We study the dynamics of reheating in which an inflaton field couples two flavor fermions through Yukawa-couplings. When two fermions have a mixing term with a constant coupling, we show that the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW)-type resonance emerges due to a time-dependent background in addition to the standard fermion creation via parametric resonance. This MSW resonance not only alters the number densities of fermions generated by a preheating process but also can lead to the larger energy transfer from the inflaton to fermions. Our mechanism can provide additional source terms for the creation of superheavy fermions which may be relevant for the leptogenesis scenario.

  7. MSW-resonant fermion mixing during reheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Tsuneto; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2003-01-01

    We study the dynamics of reheating in which an inflaton field couples two flavor fermions through Yukawa-couplings. When two fermions have a mixing term with a constant coupling, we show that the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW)-type resonance emerges due to a time-dependent background in addition to the standard fermion creation via parametric resonance. This MSW resonance not only alters the number densities of fermions generated by a preheating process but also can lead to the larger energy transfer from the inflaton to fermions. Our mechanism can provide additional source terms for the creation of superheavy fermions which may be relevant for the leptogenesis scenario

  8. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues...... related to the combustion of MSW and the formation of fly ash, especially in what concerns heavy metals. Treatment of the flue gas in air pollution control equipment plays an important role and the basic processes to accomplish this are explained. Fly ash from a semi-dry flue gas treatment system...

  9. Destroying lignocellulosic matters for enhancing methane production from excess sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiaodi; Hu, Yuansheng; Cao, Daqi

    2016-01-01

    A lot of lignocellulosic matters are usually present in excess sludge, which are hardly degraded in anaerobic digestion (AD) and thus remains mostly in digested sludge. This is a reason why the conversion rate of sludge organics into energy (CH4) is often low. Obviously, the hydrolysis of AD cannot destruct the structure of lignocellulosic matters. Structural destruction of lignocellulosic matters has to be performed in AD. In this study, pretreatments with the same principles as cell disintegration of sludge were applied to destruct lignocellulosic matters so that these materials could be converted to CH4 via AD. Acid, alkali, thermal treatment and ultrasonic were used in the experiments to observe the destructed/degraded efficiency of lignocellulosic matters. Thermal treatment was found to be the most effective pretreatment. Under optimized conditions (T = 150 °C and t = 30  min), pretreated sludge had a degraded rate of 52.6% in AD, due to easy destruction and/or degradation of hemicelluloses and celluloses in pretreatment. The sludge pretreated by thermal treatment could enhance the CH4 yield (mL CH4 g(-1) VSS) by 53.6% compared to raw sludge. Economically, the thermal treatment can balance the input energy with the produced energy (steam and electricity).

  10. Reducing Research Anxiety among MSW Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einbinder, Susan Dana

    2014-01-01

    Research anxiety significantly declined in a diverse sample of 59 MSW students in their first-year hybrid online research course in which the instructor used an array of innovative educational techniques empirically proven to reduce this phenomenon. The pretest/posttest study, the standardized survey instruments used, and a summary of these…

  11. Solubility of heavy metals added to MSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, H.M.; Lin, K.C.; Liu, M.H.; Pai, T.Z.; Lin, C.Y.; Liu, W.F.; Fang, G.C.; Lu, C.; Chiang, C.F.; Wang, S.C.; Chen, P.H.; Chen, J.K.; Chiu, H.Y.; Wu, K.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the six heavy metal levels (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) in municipal solid waste (MSW) at different pHs. It intends to provide the baseline information of metals solubility in MSW co-disposed or co-digested with MSW incinerator ashes in landfill or anaerobic bioreactors or heavy metals contaminated in anaerobic digesters. One milliliter (equal to 1 mg) of each metal was added to the 100 ml MSW and the batch reactor test was carried out. The results showed that higher HNO 3 and NaOH were consumed at extreme pH of 1 and 13 compared to those from pH 2 to 11 due to the comparably higher buffer capacity. Pb was found to have the least soluble level, highest metal adsorption (%) and highest partitioning K d (l g -1 ) between pH 3 and 12. In contrast, Ni showed the highest soluble level, lowest metal adsorption (%) and lowest K d (l g -1 ) between pH 4 and 12. Except Ni and Cr, other four metals seemed to show the amphibious properties as comparative higher solubility was found in the acidic and basic conditions

  12. Solubility of heavy metals added to MSW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, H.M. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168 Gifong E. Road, Wufong, Taichung County 41349, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hmlo@cyut.edu.tw; Lin, K.C. [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chung Shan Medical University, 110, Sec. 1, Jiangguo N. Rd., Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Liu, M.H.; Pai, T.Z. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168 Gifong E. Road, Wufong, Taichung County 41349, Taiwan (China); Lin, C.Y. [Department of Soil and Water Conservation, Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuokuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Liu, W.F. [Department of Electronical Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhwa Road, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Fang, G.C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, 34 Chung-Chie Road, Sha Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China); Lu, C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuokuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Chiang, C.F. [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, No. 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Wang, S.C.; Chen, P.H.; Chen, J.K.; Chiu, H.Y.; Wu, K.C. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168 Gifong E. Road, Wufong, Taichung County 41349, Taiwan (China)

    2009-01-15

    This paper aims to investigate the six heavy metal levels (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) in municipal solid waste (MSW) at different pHs. It intends to provide the baseline information of metals solubility in MSW co-disposed or co-digested with MSW incinerator ashes in landfill or anaerobic bioreactors or heavy metals contaminated in anaerobic digesters. One milliliter (equal to 1 mg) of each metal was added to the 100 ml MSW and the batch reactor test was carried out. The results showed that higher HNO{sub 3} and NaOH were consumed at extreme pH of 1 and 13 compared to those from pH 2 to 11 due to the comparably higher buffer capacity. Pb was found to have the least soluble level, highest metal adsorption (%) and highest partitioning K{sub d} (l g{sup -1}) between pH 3 and 12. In contrast, Ni showed the highest soluble level, lowest metal adsorption (%) and lowest K{sub d} (l g{sup -1}) between pH 4 and 12. Except Ni and Cr, other four metals seemed to show the amphibious properties as comparative higher solubility was found in the acidic and basic conditions.

  13. Impact of thermal pretreatment and MSW origin on composition and hydrolysability in a sugar platform biorefinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaurs, L. P.; Heaven, S.; Banks, C. J.

    2018-03-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a widely available large volume source of lignocellulosic material containing a waste paper/cardboard mixture which can be converted into fermentable sugars via cellulolytic enzyme hydrolysis in a sugar platform biorefinery. Thermal pretreatments are generally applied to MSW to facilitate the extraction of the lignocellulosic material from recyclable materials (plastics, metals etc.) and improve the paper pulp conversion to sugars. Applying high temperature might enhance food waste solubilisation but may collapse cellulose fibre decreasing its hydrolysability. Low temperature pre-treatment will reduce the energy demand but might result in highly contaminated pulp. Preliminary results showed that the enzymatic hydrolysis performances were dependent on the MSW origins. Using 8 different samples, the impact of thermal pretreatment and MSW origin on pulp composition and hydrolysability was assessed in this work. Low pre-treatment temperature produced pulp which contained less lignocellulosic material but which hydrolysed to a higher degree than MSW treated at high temperatures. High temperature pre-treatment could have exposed more of the inhibiting lignin to cellulase. This information would have a significant economic impact on a commercial plant as expensive autoclave could be advantageously replaced by a cheaper process. Glucan conversions were also found to vary depending on the region, the recycling rate possibly because of the lower recycling rate resulting in the use of less paper additive in the material or the difference in paper production technology (chemical VS mechanical pulping). This could also be explained by the differences in paper composition.

  14. Statistical analysis in MSW collection performance assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Carlos Afonso; Avelino, Catarina; Ferreira, Fátima; Bentes, Isabel

    2014-09-01

    The increase of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generated over the last years forces waste managers pursuing more effective collection schemes, technically viable, environmentally effective and economically sustainable. The assessment of MSW services using performance indicators plays a crucial role for improving service quality. In this work, we focus on the relevance of regular system monitoring as a service assessment tool. In particular, we select and test a core-set of MSW collection performance indicators (effective collection distance, effective collection time and effective fuel consumption) that highlights collection system strengths and weaknesses and supports pro-active management decision-making and strategic planning. A statistical analysis was conducted with data collected in mixed collection system of Oporto Municipality, Portugal, during one year, a week per month. This analysis provides collection circuits' operational assessment and supports effective short-term municipality collection strategies at the level of, e.g., collection frequency and timetables, and type of containers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Change in MSW characteristics under recent management strategies in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Min; Liu, Chien-Chung; Hung, Chao-Yang; Hu, Allen; Chen, Shiao-Shing

    2008-12-01

    Reduction and recycling initiatives such as producer responsibility and pay-as-you-throw are being implemented in Taiwan. This paper presents a study assessing the impact of recently implemented municipal solid waste (MSW) reduction and recycling management strategies on the characteristics of waste feedstock for incineration in Taiwan. Through the periodic sampling of two typical MSW incineration plants, proximate and ultimate analyses were conducted according to standard methods to explore the influence of MSW reduction and recycling management strategies on incineration feed waste characteristics. It was observed that the annual amount of MSW generated in 2005 decreased by about 10% compared to 2003 and that the characteristics of MSW have changed significantly due to recent management strategies. The heating value of the MSW generated in Taiwan increased yearly by about 5% after program implementation. A comparison of the monthly variations in chemical concentrations indicated that the chlorine content in MSW has changed. This change results from usage reduction of PVC plastic due to the recycling fund management (RFM) program, and the food waste as well as salt content reduction due to the total recycling for kitchen garbage program. This achievement will improve the reduction of dioxin emissions from MSW incineration. In summary, management strategies must be conducted in tandem with the global trend to achieve a zero-waste-discharge country. When implementing these strategies and planning for future MSW management systems, it is important to consider the changes that may occur in the composition and characteristics of MSW over time.

  16. Neutrino masses and mixings: Big Bang and Supernova nucleosynthesis and neutrino dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, George M.

    1999-01-01

    The existence of small mixings between light active and sterile neutrino species could have implications for Big Bang and Supernova Heavy Element Nucleosynthesis. As well, such mixing would force us to abandon cherished constraints on light neutrino Dark Matter. Two proposed 4-neutrino mass and mixing schemes, for example, can both accomodate existing experimental results and lead to elegant solutions to the neutron-deficit problem for r-Process nucleosynthesis from neutrino-heated supernova ejecta. Each of these solutions is based on matter-enhanced (MSW) active-sterile neutrino transformation. In plausible extensions of these schemes to the early universe, Shi and Fuller have shown that relatively light mass (∼200 eV to ∼10 keV) sterile neutrinos produced via active-sterile MSW conversion can have a ''cold'' energy spectrum. Neutrinos produced in this way circumvent the principal problem of light neutrino dark matter and would be, essentially, Cold Dark Matter

  17. WILCI: a LCA tool dedicated to MSW incineration in France

    OpenAIRE

    Beylot , Antoine; Muller , Stéphanie; Descat , Marie; Ménard , Yannick; Michel , Pascale; Villeneuve , Jacques

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used in the last decades to evaluate the global environmental performance of waste treatment options. This is in particular the case considering incineration that is the major treatment route for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in France (28% of French MSW are incinerated, in 126 MSW incineration plants; ADEME, 2015). In this context, this article describes a new Excel-tool, WILCI (for Waste Incineration Life Cycle Inventor...

  18. Comparative cardiopulmonary effects of particulate matter- and ozone-enhanced smog atmospheres in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to compare the cardiac effects of particulate matter (PM)-enhanced and ozone(O3)-enhanced smog atmospheres in mice. We hypothesized that O3-enhanced smog would cause greater cardiac dysfunction than PM-enhanced smog due to the higher concentrations of irr...

  19. Characterisation of the physico-mechanical parameters of MSW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltz, Guillaume; Gourc, Jean-Pierre; Oxarango, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Following the basics of soil mechanics, the physico-mechanical behaviour of municipal solid waste (MSW) can be defined through constitutive relationships which are expressed with respect to three physical parameters: the dry density, the porosity and the gravimetric liquid content. In order to take into account the complexity of MSW (grain size distribution and heterogeneity larger than for conventional soils), a special oedometer was designed to carry out laboratory experiments. This apparatus allowed a coupled measurement of physical parameters for MSW settlement under stress. The studied material was a typical sample of fresh MSW from a French landfill. The relevant physical parameters were measured using a gas pycnometer. Moreover, the compressibility of MSW was studied with respect to the initial gravimetric liquid content. Proposed methods to assess the set of three physical parameters allow a relevant understanding of the physico-mechanical behaviour of MSW under compression, specifically, the evolution of the limit liquid content. The present method can be extended to any type of MSW. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Significant Enhancement of Neutralino Dark Matter Annihilation from Electroweak Bremsstrahlung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bringmann, T.; Calore, F.

    2014-01-01

    ndirect searches for the cosmological dark matter have become ever more competitive during the past years. Here, we report the first full calculation of leading electroweak corrections to the annihilation rate of supersymmetric neutralino dark matter. We find that these corrections can be huge,

  1. Enhancement in secondary particulate matter production due to mountain trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Teng; Fung, J. C. H.; Ma, H.; Lau, A. K. H.; Chan, P. W.; Yu, J. Z.; Xue, J.

    2014-10-01

    As China's largest economic development zone, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is subject to particulate matter (PM) and visibility deterioration problems. Due to high PM concentration, haze days impacting ambient visibility have occurred frequently in this region. Besides visibility impairment, PM pollution also causes a negative impact on public health. These negative impacts have heightened the need to improve our understanding of the PM pollution of the PRD region. One major cause of the PRD pollution problem is cold front passages in the winter; however, the mechanism of pollution formation stays unclear. In this study, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) is utilized to investigate the detailed PM production and transport mechanisms in the PRD. Simulated concentrations of PM2.5 species, which have a good correlation with observation, show that sulfate and nitrate are the dominant pollutants among different PM2.5 species. Before the cold front passage a large amount of gas-phase and particle-phase pollutants are transported to the mountainous regions in the north of the PRD, and become trapped by the terrain. Over the mountain regions, cloud driven by upwelling flow promotes aqueous-phase reactions including oxidations of PM precursors such as SO2 and NO2. By this process, production of secondary PM is enhanced. When the cold front continues to advance further south, PM is transported to the PRD cities, and suppressed into a thin layer near the ground by a low planetary boundary layer (PBL). Thus high PM concentration episodes take place in the PRD cities. After examining production and transportation pathways, this study presents that the complex terrain configuration would block pollutant dispersion, provide cloudy environment, and advance secondary PM production. Previous studies have pointed out that pollution emitted from outside this region largely influences the air quality in the PRD; however, this study shows that pollutants from the outside could be

  2. Urban and Rural MSW Stream Characterization for Separate Collection Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ciuta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the new legislation framework enacted by new member countries of the European Union (EU, the characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW represents an important instrument for local governments and sanitation operators in setting and achieving targets for waste recycling and recovery. This paper presents the results of a study conducted in accordance with the Romanian methodology for domestic wastes characterization ROMECOM, aiming to provide a proper basis for developing clear and realistic forecasts in current municipal waste management, based on MSW composition and generation rate. The analyzed MSW came both from areas where the waste is collected in mixed and separate ways, in urban and rural areas. The MSW composition by fraction is detailed for dense urban areas, urban areas, rural and touristic areas from Romania. Based on these results, the MSW composition was determined for the eight development regions in Romania, and a generation rate of 0.9·kgMSW inhabitant−1·day−1 for the urban region and 0.4·kgMSW inh−1·day−1 for the rural region was established. The calorific values of urban and rural areas were determined as 6801 kJ·kg−1 and 5613 kJ·kg−1, respectively. In the perspective of sustainable development in this technical area, based on the obtained results and on the prognosis made for the following years, two proposals for urban and rural areas were developed for MSW treating options improvement. The two systems are characterized by selective collection (different efficiencies for urban and rural areas with subsequent recovery of the separated materials and energy recovery of the residual waste in a large-scale waste to energy (WTE plant.

  3. The Diffusion Effect of MSW Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tui Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to compare the recycling performance for some waste fractions selected including food waste, bulk waste, paper, metal products, plastics/rubber and glass products and then to develop some directions for the future improvements. The priority of each waste fraction for recycling is also analyzed by using an importance-performance analysis. Traditionally, the recycling rate that is calculated by the ratio of waste recycled to waste collected is used as an indicator to measure recycling performance. Due to a large variation among waste fractions in municipal solid waste (MSW, the recycling rate cannot reflect the actual recycling performance. The ceiling of recycling rate for each waste fraction estimated from the diffusion models is incorporated into a model to calculate recycling performance. The results show that (1 the diffusion effect exists significantly for the recycling of most recyclables but no evidence is found to support the diffusion effect for the recycling of food waste and bulk waste; (2 the recycling performance of waste metal products ranks the top, compared to waste paper, waste glass and other waste fractions; (3 furthermore, an importance-performance analysis (IPA is employed to analyze the priority of recycling programs and thus this paper suggests that the recycling of food waste should be seen as the most priority item to recycle.

  4. Compost amendment, enhanced nutrient uptake and dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trial was conducted to assess the influence of Compost and inorganic fertilizer as well as plant growth stage on growth, nutrient uptake, dry matter accumulation and partitioning in maize crop grown on the battery waste contaminated site. Two types of compost (Mexican Sunflower (MSC) and Cassava peels (CPC) ...

  5. Enhancement of multiple cranial and spinal nerves in vanishing white matter: expanding the differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluvathingal Muttikkal, Thomas Jose; Montealegre, Denia Ramirez; Matsumoto, Julie Ann

    2018-03-01

    Abnormal cranial or spinal nerve contrast enhancement on MRI in cases of suspected pediatric leukodystrophy is recognized as an important clue to the diagnosis of either metachromatic leukodystrophy or globoid cell leukodystrophy (Krabbe disease). We report a case of genetically confirmed childhood vanishing white matter with enhancement of multiple cranial and spinal nerves in addition to the more typical intracranial findings. This case expands the limited differential diagnosis of cranial nerve or spinal nerve enhancement in cases of suspected leukodystrophy and may aid in more efficient work-up and earlier diagnosis of vanishing white matter.

  6. Impact of Sommerfeld enhancement on helium reionization via WIMP dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Bidisha; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.

    2018-03-01

    Dark matter annihilation can have a strong impact on many astrophysical processes in the Universe. In the case of Sommerfeld-enhanced annihilation cross sections, the annihilation rates are enhanced at late times, thus enhancing the potential annihilation signatures. We here calculate the Sommerfeld-enhanced annihilation signatures during the epoch of helium reionization, the epoch where helium becomes fully ionized due to energetic photons. When considering the upper limits on the energy injection from the CMB, we find that the resulting abundance of He++ becomes independent of the dark matter particle mass. The resulting enhancement compared to a standard scenario is thus 1-2 orders of magnitude higher. For realistic scenarios compatible with CMB constraints, there is no significant shift in the epoch of helium reionization, which is completed between redshifts 3 and 4. While it is thus difficult to disentangle dark matter annihilation from astrophysical contributions (active galactic nuclei), a potential detection of dark matter particles and its interactions using the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) would allow one to quantify the dark matter contribution.

  7. Leachate pretreatment for enhancing organic matter conversion in landfill bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Pinjing; Qu Xian; Shao Liming; Li Guojian; Lee Duujong

    2007-01-01

    Direct recycling of leachate from refuse of high food waste content was shown to ineffectively stabilize the refuse. This work aims at evaluating the effects of three pretreatments of leachate on the refuse stabilization efficiency were investigated. Pretreatment of leachate using an anaerobic upflow filtration bioreactor (UFB) or a well-decomposed waste layer could reduce the COD and provide methanogens, both were beneficial to establish early methanogenesis status. Using an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR) to pretreat the leachate could reduce its COD to 1000 mg l -1 , but the fully developed methanogenesis phase would be built up in a later stage. The organic matters in the effluent leachate inhibited both the hydrolysis/acidogenesis and the methanogenesis steps in the refuse. With the dilution and acid neutralization effects by the recycled leachate, a favorable methanogenetic environment could be produced from the column's top, which moved downward along, and finally made the breakthrough of the column

  8. Public Attitudes Towards Moral Enhancement. Evidence that Means Matter Morally

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Specker (Jona); M.H.N. Schermer (Maartje); P.B. Reiner (Peter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractTo gain insight into the reasons that the public may have for endorsing or eschewing pharmacological moral enhancement for themselves or for others, we used empirical tools to explore public attitudes towards these issues. Participants (N = 293) from the United States were recruited via

  9. Hand Matters: Left-Hand Gestures Enhance Metaphor Explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyriou, Paraskevi; Mohr, Christine; Kita, Sotaro

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that speech-accompanying gestures influence cognitive processes, but it is not clear whether the gestural benefit is specific to the gesturing hand. Two experiments tested the "(right/left) hand-specificity" hypothesis for self-oriented functions of gestures: gestures with a particular hand enhance cognitive processes…

  10. MSW regeneration of solar and supernova V in the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cribier, M.; Lagage, P.O.; Rich, J.; Spiro, M.; Vignaud, D.

    1987-01-01

    We discuss the MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) effect for different radiochemical and real-time neutrino experiments taking into account the effects of the passage through the earth for solar and supernova neutrinos. We emphasize that V e regeneration in the earth can lead to measurable increases in counting rates and to a time dependent V e energy spectrum. Such observations would verify the presence of the MSW effect and lead to a restriction on the allowed values of neutrino mass differences and mixing angles

  11. Mathematical modelling of MSW incineration in a packed bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Guanyi; Gu, Tianbao; He, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Grate-firing is the most commonly used technology for municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration for heat and power generation, in which MSW undergoes thermochemical conversion (e.g., drying, devolatilization, char gasification and oxidation) in the fuel bed on the grate while the combustible gases...... and the entrained fine particles are further burned in the freeboard. Nevertheless, grate-firing generally needs to be improved in terms of efficiency and overall environmental impacts, in which computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling plays the vital role. In this paper, a comprehensive mathematical model...

  12. MSW regeneration of solar νe in the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cribier, M.; Rich, J.

    1986-01-01

    The MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) effect is discussed for a variety of radiochemical and real-time solar neutrino experiments taking into account the effects of neutrino passage through the sun and earth. It is emphasized that during the night ν e regeneration in the earth can lead to measurable increases in counting rates and to a time-dependent ν e energy spectrum. Such observations would verify the presence of the MSW effect and lead to a restriction on the allowed values of neutrino mass differences and mixing angles. (orig.)

  13. 76 FR 53897 - EPA Seeking Input Materials Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Measurement; Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Recycling, and Source Reduction Measurement in the U.S. AGENCY... Subjects Environmental protection, municipal solid waste (MSW) characterization, MSW management, recycling, measurement, data, data collection, construction and demolition (C&D) recycling, source reduction, life cycle...

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions during MSW landfilling in China: influence of waste characteristics and LFG treatment measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Li-Ming; Lü, Fan; He, Pin-Jing

    2013-11-15

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment can be highly cost-effective in terms of GHG mitigation. This study investigated GHG emissions during MSW landfilling in China under four existing scenarios and in terms of seven different categories: waste collection and transportation, landfill management, leachate treatment, fugitive CH4 (FM) emissions, substitution of electricity production, carbon sequestration and N2O and CO emissions. GHG emissions from simple sanitary landfilling technology where no landfill gas (LFG) extraction took place (Scenario 1) were higher (641-998 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww) than those from open dump (Scenario 0, 480-734 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww). This was due to the strictly anaerobic conditions in Scenario 1. LFG collection and treatment reduced GHG emissions to 448-684 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww in Scenario 2 (with LFG flare) and 214-277 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww in Scenario 3 (using LFG for electricity production). Amongst the seven categories, FM was the predominant contributor to GHG emissions. Global sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the parameters associated with waste characteristics (i.e. CH4 potential and carbon sequestered faction) and LFG management (i.e. LFG collection efficiency and CH4 oxidation efficiency) were of great importance. A further learning on the MSW in China indicated that water content and dry matter content of food waste were the basic factors affecting GHG emissions. Source separation of food waste, as well as increasing the incineration ratio of mixed collected MSW, could effectively mitigate the overall GHG emissions from landfilling in a specific city. To increase the LFG collection and CH4 oxidation efficiencies could considerably reduce GHG emissions on the landfill site level. While, the improvement in the LFG utilization measures had an insignificant impact as long as the LFG is recovered for energy generation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhanced Light–Matter Interactions in Graphene-Covered Gold Nanovoid Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Shi, Lei; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk

    2013-01-01

    The combination of graphene with noble-metal nanostructures is currently being explored for strong light–graphene interactions enhanced by plasmons. We introduce a novel hybrid graphene–metal system for studying light–matter interactions with gold-void nanostructures exhibiting resonances...... in the visible range. Enhanced coupling of graphene to the plasmon modes of the nanovoid arrays results in significant frequency shifts of the underlying plasmon resonances, enabling 30% enhanced absolute light absorption by adding a monolayer graphene and up to 700-fold enhancement of the Raman response...

  16. Analytic treatments of matter-enhanced solar-neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    Mikheyev and Smirnov have pointed out that flavor oscillations of solar neutrinos could be greatly enhanced. The Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism depends on the effective electron neutrino mass that arises from charged-current scattering off solar electrons, a phenomenon first discussed by Wolfenstein. Two analytic treatments, the adiabatic approximation and Landau-Zener (LZ) approximation, have been used in studies of this mechanism. I discuss a simple extension of the LZ approximation that merges naturally with the adiabatic approximation and is free of certain troublesome pathologies that arise in the conventional treatment. In this extension the solar density is approximated as in the conventional treatment, except that the starting and ending densities are the physical ones. Results of this finite LZ approximation are compared to those from the standard LZ approximation, the adiabatic approximation, and ''exact'' numerical integrations. The new approximation is virtually exact regardless of the point of origin of the neutrino in the solar core. This approximation is used to efficiently calculate the solar-neutrino capture rates for /sup 37/Cl, /sup 71/Ga, and /sup 98/Mo. The spatial extent of the solar core, the contributions of minor neutrino species, and the effects of 8 B neutrino capture to excited nuclear states are treated with care. Limits imposed on δm 2 and sin 2 2theta/sub v/ by the nonzero /sup 37/Cl capture rate are derived by considering the expected uncertainties in standard-solar-model flux estimates. Those oscillation parameters are determined that could account for the /sup 37/Cl puzzle and yet lead to a /sup 71/Ga counting rate above the minimum astronomical value

  17. Characterizing the contrast of white matter and grey matter in high-resolution phase difference enhanced imaging of human brain at 3.0 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Li [Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Institute of Medical Imaging, Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai (China); Shandong University, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment of Cardio-cerebral Vascular Diseases, Jinan, Shandong (China); Wang, Shanshan; Yao, Bin; Li, Lili; Guo, Lingfei; Zhang, Xinjuan; Wang, Guangbin [Shandong University, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment of Cardio-cerebral Vascular Diseases, Jinan, Shandong (China); Xu, Xiaofei [Erasmus University Rotterdam, Laboratory of Experimental Tumor Immunology, Department of Medical Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Zhao, Lianxin [Shandong University, Department of Radiology, Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong (China); Chen, Weibo; Chan, Queenie [Philips Healthcare, Shanghai (China)

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to address the feasibility of characterizing the contrast both between and within grey matter and white matter using the phase difference enhanced (PADRE) technique. PADRE imaging was performed in 33 healthy volunteers. Vessel enhancement (VE), tissue enhancement (TE), and PADRE images were reconstructed from source images and were evaluated with regard to differentiation of grey-to-white matter interface, the stria of Gennari, and the two layers, internal sagittal stratum (ISS) and external sagittal stratum (ESS), of optic radiation. White matter regions showed decreased signal intensity compared to grey matter regions. Discrimination was sharper between white matter and cortical grey matter in TE images than in PADRE images, but was poorly displayed in VE images. The stria of Gennari was observed on all three image sets. Low-signal-intensity bands displayed in VE images representing the optic radiation were delineated as two layers of different signal intensities in TE and PADRE images. Statistically significant differences in phase shifts were found between frontal grey and white matter, as well as between ISS and ESS (p < 0.01). The PADRE technique is capable of identifying grey-to-white matter interface, the stria of Gennari, and ISS and ESS, with improved contrast in PADRE and TE images compared to VE images. (orig.)

  18. Characterizing the contrast of white matter and grey matter in high-resolution phase difference enhanced imaging of human brain at 3.0 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Li; Wang, Shanshan; Yao, Bin; Li, Lili; Guo, Lingfei; Zhang, Xinjuan; Wang, Guangbin; Xu, Xiaofei; Zhao, Lianxin; Chen, Weibo; Chan, Queenie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to address the feasibility of characterizing the contrast both between and within grey matter and white matter using the phase difference enhanced (PADRE) technique. PADRE imaging was performed in 33 healthy volunteers. Vessel enhancement (VE), tissue enhancement (TE), and PADRE images were reconstructed from source images and were evaluated with regard to differentiation of grey-to-white matter interface, the stria of Gennari, and the two layers, internal sagittal stratum (ISS) and external sagittal stratum (ESS), of optic radiation. White matter regions showed decreased signal intensity compared to grey matter regions. Discrimination was sharper between white matter and cortical grey matter in TE images than in PADRE images, but was poorly displayed in VE images. The stria of Gennari was observed on all three image sets. Low-signal-intensity bands displayed in VE images representing the optic radiation were delineated as two layers of different signal intensities in TE and PADRE images. Statistically significant differences in phase shifts were found between frontal grey and white matter, as well as between ISS and ESS (p < 0.01). The PADRE technique is capable of identifying grey-to-white matter interface, the stria of Gennari, and ISS and ESS, with improved contrast in PADRE and TE images compared to VE images. (orig.)

  19. Analysis of physical composition and heavy metals pollution of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. B.; Zhang, H. Y.; Wang, G. Q.; Bai, X. J.

    2018-03-01

    By using on-site sampling and physical-chemical analysis, the physical composition and the contents of heavy metals in Beijing MSW were researched. The result showed that the main components of MSW in Beijing are mainly kitchen waste, the average content of kitchen waste are more than 60% and 50% in summer and in winter, respectively. The pollution of Cu, Hg and Cr are all more serious for MSW in Haidian and Dongcheng district. The heavy metal pollution of MSW in summer is higher than that in winter in Beijing. Seasonal impacts should be taken into consideration when dealing with MSW. The content of heavy metals in MSW exceeded the background value of soil in Haidian and Dongcheng districts. In order to reduce heavy metal pollution, the MSW should be separated collection and treated.

  20. MSW Oscillations - LMA and Subdominant Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedland, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    These notes, based on a talk given at the Neutrino 2006 conference [Neutrino 2006, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA, (http://neutrinosantafe06.com/)], review the sensitivity of solar neutrinos to certain types of new physics, namely modifications of neutrino-matter interactions by the exchange of a new heavy particle and a large neutrino transition moment. Both were first proposed in the 1970's as possible explanations for the solar neutrino “problem” and were actively investigated for many years. While since ruled out as the dominant mechanisms of the solar neutrino flavor conversion, they remain of great interest as subdominant effects, which, if observed, would open a window to new physics. We outline the sensitivity of the current experiments and describe progress that may be expected in the near future.

  1. Technical and economic assessment of energy conversion technologies for MSW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, W.R.

    2002-07-01

    Thermal processes for municipal solid wastes (MSW) based on pyrolysis and/or gasification that have relevance to the emerging UK market are described in this report, and the results of the technical and economical assessment of these processes are presented. The Mitsui R21 Technology, the Thermoselect Process, the Nippon Steel Waste Melting Process, the Pyropleq Process, and the Compact Power Process are selected for detailed comparison on the basis of the overall technical concept, the energy balance and the requirements for consumables, environmental performance, and the technical and commercial status of the technology. Details are also given of a comparison of the novel thermal technologies with conventional mass burn incineration for MSW.

  2. Technical and economic assessment of energy conversion technologies for MSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, W.R.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal processes for municipal solid wastes (MSW) based on pyrolysis and/or gasification that have relevance to the emerging UK market are described in this report, and the results of the technical and economical assessment of these processes are presented. The Mitsui R21 Technology, the Thermoselect Process, the Nippon Steel Waste Melting Process, the Pyropleq Process, and the Compact Power Process are selected for detailed comparison on the basis of the overall technical concept, the energy balance and the requirements for consumables, environmental performance, and the technical and commercial status of the technology. Details are also given of a comparison of the novel thermal technologies with conventional mass burn incineration for MSW

  3. Hot char-catalytic reforming of volatiles from MSW pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Na; Chen, Dezhen; Arena, Umberto; He, Pinjing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Volatile from MSW pyrolysis is reformed with hot char from the same pyrolysis process. • The yields of syngas increase evidently with H 2 being the main contributor and the major component of the syngas. • Pyrolysis oil becomes light and its composition distribution is narrowed. • The HHV, volatile elements and alkali metals contents in the char decrease. • The emissions including SO 2 , NO, NO 2 and HCN changed after reforming process. - Abstract: Volatile products obtained from pyrolysis of municipal solid waste (MSW), including syngas and pyrolysis oil, were forced to contact the hot char from the same pyrolysis process at 500–600 °C in a fixed bed reactor to be reformed. The yields and properties of syngas, char and pyrolysis liquid were investigated; and the energy re-distribution among the products due to char reforming was quantified. The preliminary investigation at lab scale showed that hot char-catalytic reforming of the volatiles leads to an increase in the dry syngas yield from 0.25 to 0.37 N m 3 kg −1 MSW at 550 °C. Accordingly, the carbon conversion ratio into syngas increases from 29.6% to 35.0%; and the MSW chemical energy transferred into syngas increased from 41.8% to 47.4%. The yield of pyrolysis liquid products, including pyrolysis oil and water, decreased from 27.3 to 16.5 wt%, and the molecular weight of the oil becoming lighter. Approximately 60% of the water vapour contained in the volatiles converted into syngas. After reforming, the concentrations of SO 2 and HCN in the syngas decreases, while those of NO and NO 2 increase. The char concentrations of N, H, C and alkali metal species decreased and its higher heating value decreased too.

  4. Recycling of the MSW in the Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Dubravská

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Paper aims at recycling of the MSW in the condition of Slovak Republic. Waste management is facing big criticism in Slovakia. It is one of the environmental policies that is written in political strategies but not taken seriously. Environmental policy has not been given any priority in the government for many years. The changes came together with EU membership. Standard scientific research methods included synthesis, analysis and comparative method

  5. Recycling of the MSW in the Slovak Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Dubravská

    2014-01-01

    The Paper aims at recycling of the MSW in the condition of Slovak Republic. Waste management is facing big criticism in Slovakia. It is one of the environmental policies that is written in political strategies but not taken seriously. Environmental policy has not been given any priority in the government for many years. The changes came together with EU membership. Standard scientific research methods included synthesis, analysis and comparative method.

  6. Progress in the treatment of MSW in TOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Noor Mohd Yunus; Mohamed, Z.; Kumar, R.

    2000-01-01

    The solid waste management is getting very critical in Malaysia as the present landfill practice does not resolve the ever-growing amount of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generated especially in the urban areas. As such, the Government of Malaysia has decided to adopt thermal treatment method, in particular the gasification technology, due to superior emission control to solve this problem. The gasification technology is, however, very new, emerging, costly and fully imported. Upon realizing this, a simpler fixed bed gasification plant, called the Thermal Oxidation Plant (TOP), was acquired and installed in MINT, aimed at assessing the technology to be applied for MSW treatment. The performance, especially the emission, of this plant was examined and found to be very good. However, one of the weaknesses noted is on the level of HCl emitted, which at times exceeded the emission standard. A suggestion was made to improve this by Co-Combusting MSW with Malaysia Oil Palm Shell (MOPS), since the charcoal derived from MOPS is believed to be able to adsorb acidic gases in situ at the prevailing furnace condition. Early result shows some promise, especially the development of porosity in the charcoal derived from MOPS

  7. Power generation from MSW of Haridwar city: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M.P. [Biofuel Research Laboratory, Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India)

    2011-01-15

    Energy plays significant role in the development of a nation. The conventional sources, though exhausting and not environment friendly are being increasingly used. Looking at limited supplies and various environment problems associated with its uses, renewable energy sources are getting attention. Municipal solid waste [MSW] is getting importance in recent years. Having fewer disposal problems is being considered as valuable bio-energy resources. The MSW management involves collection, transportation, handling and conversion to energy by biological and thermal routes. The present paper reports the results of physical, proximate and TGA/DTA analysis, used to select the most appropriate method of energy conversion. Based on the energy potential available, the feasibility of energy conversion through biogas production using available waste has been carried out. The CDM benefits have also been considered. The cost of generation with and without CDM benefits is Rs. 1.36/- and Rs. 1.41/- per kWh respectively as compared to cost of energy from grid [Rs. 3.50/- per kWh]. Therefore power generation from MSW of Haridwar city using biomethanation conversion technology is feasible. (author)

  8. Multisteps Global Kinetic Analysis of MSW Slow Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Aries Himawanto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to find relationships between single components slow pyrolysis characteristics and mixed component slow pyrolysis characteristics of segregated municipal solid wastes (MSW. The material of this research consists of organic wastes (bamboo wastes and banana leaves wastes and inorganic wastes (styrofoam wastes and snack wrapping wastes. The materials which used to study were the unprosessing waste. The samples were collected, dried and crushed until passing 20 mesh shieves then characterized in self manufactured macro balance. The thermogravimetry analyses were done to find the MSW slow pyrolysis characteristics. The 20 gram sample was placed in the furnace whose temperature is increased with 10 0C/min heating rate until reached 400 0 final temperature and held for 30 minutes before the sample is cooled into room temperature. One hundred ml/min nitrogen introduced from the bottom of furnace as a swept gas. The results of the research show that the global kinetic method could be used to predict the MSW single component activation energy but it should be modified to calculate the mixed sample activation energy . The predictive activation energy values which calculated based on weighed sum of single component have 18.5 % deviations if compared with experimental result.

  9. Experimental Investigation and Aspen Plus Simulation of the MSW Pyrolysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansah, Emmanuel

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a potential feedstock for producing transportation fuels because it is readily available using an existing collection/transportation infrastructure and fees are provided by the suppliers or government agencies to treat MSW. North Carolina with a population of 9.4 millions generates 3.629 million metric tons of MSW each year, which contains about 113,396,356 TJs of energy. The average moisture content of MSW samples is 44.3% on a wet basis. About 77% of the dry MSW mass is combustible components including paper, organics, textile and plastics. The average heating values of MSW were 9.7, 17.5, and 22.7 MJ/kg on a wet basis, dry basis and dry combustible basis, respectively. The MSW generated in North Carolina can produce 7.619 million barrels of crude bio-oil or around 4% of total petroleum consumption in North Carolina. MSW can be thermally pyrolyzed into bio-oil in the absence of oxygen or air at a temperature of 500°C or above. As bio-oil can be easily stored and transported, compared to bulky MSW, landfill gas and electricity, pyrolysis offers significant logistical and economic advantages over landfilling and other thermal conversion processes such as combustion and gasification. Crude bio-oils produced from the pyrolysis of MSW can be further refined to transportation fuels in existing petroleum refinery facilities. The objective of this research is to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of pyrolyzing MSW into liquid transportation fuels. A combined thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) instrument, which can serve as a micro-scale pyrolysis reactor, was used to simultaneously determine the degradation characteristics of MSW during pyrolysis. An ASPEN Plus-based mathematical model was further developed to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of pyrolysing of MSW into liquid transportation fuels in fixed bed reactors at varying operating conditions

  10. Investigation of matter enhanced neutrino oscillations relevant to the solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losecco, J.M.; Bionta, R.M.; Casper, D.; Claus, R.; Errede, S.; Foster, G.; Park, H.S.; Seidel, S.; Shumard, E.; Sinclair, D.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.; Van der Velde, J.C.; Blewitt, G.; Cortez, B.; Lehmann, E.; Bratton, C.B.; Gajewski, W.; Ganezer, K.S.; Haines, T.J.; Kropp, W.R.; Reines, F.; Schultz, J.; Sobel, H.W.; Wuest, C.; Goldhaber, M.; Jones, T.W.; Kielczewska, D.; Learned, J.G.; Svoboda, R.

    1987-01-01

    We study the effect of matter enhanced neutrino oscillations on atmospheric neutrinos. A recently proposed solution to the solar neutrino problem with Δm 2 =1.1x10 -4 eV 2 suggests enhanced effects in the range 200 MeV-500 MeV. We find no evidence of this effect for ν μ ??ν e mixing. Limits are set on the magnitude of the mixing angle. Our limit is sin θ V <0.14 at 90% confidence level. The limit is dominated by statistical errors and may be improved. (orig.)

  11. Development and prospects of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongfeng NIE

    2008-01-01

    With the lack of space for new landfills, municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is playing an increasingly important role in municipal solid waste management in China. The literatures on certain aspects of incineration plants in China are reviewed in this paper, including the development and status of the application of MSW incineration technologies, the treatment of leachate from stored MSW, air pollution control technologies, and the status of the fly-ash control method. Energy policy and its promotion of MSW-to-energy conversion are also elucidated.

  12. Energy analysis and environmental impacts of a MSW oxy-fuel incineration power plant in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, YuTing; Ma, XiaoQian; Lai, ZhiYi; Chen, Yong

    2013-01-01

    The entire life cycle of a municipal solid waste (MSW) oxy-fuel incineration power plant was evaluated using the method of life cycle assessment (LCA) to identify and quantify the fossil energy requirements and environmental impacts. The functional unit was 1000 kg (1 t) MSW. During the life cycle, the saving standard coal by electricity generation was more than diesel consumption, and the effect of soot and ashes was the greatest among all calculated categorization impacts. The total weighted resource consumption and total weighted environment potential of MSW oxy-fuel incineration were −0.37 mPR 90 (milli person equivalent) and −0.27 PET 2010 (person equivalent), better than MSW incineration with CO 2 capture via monoethanolamine (MEA) absorption. The sensitivity analysis showed that the electric power consumption of air separation unit (ASU) was the primary influencing parameter, and the influence of electric power consumption of CO 2 compressor was secondary, while transport distance had small influence. Overall, MSW oxy-fuel incineration technology has certain development potential with the increment of MSW power supply efficiency and development of ASU in the future. - Highlights: • Life cycle assessment of a MSW oxy-fuel incineration power plant is novel. • The MSW oxy-fuel incineration was better than the MSW incineration with MEA. • Among calculated impacts, the effect of soot and ashes was the greatest. • The electric power consumption of ASU was the primary influencing parameter

  13. Preliminary treatment of MSW fly ash as a way of improving electrodialytic remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Célia Maria Dias; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2008-01-01

    In the current work electrodialytic remediation (EDR) was applied to remove heavy metals from municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ash, a hazardous waste collected during flue gas treatment. Tests were conducted to evaluate if EDR could be improved by introducing a preliminary treatment in which very...... soluble salts were removed. Three different preliminary treatments were conducted with different L:S ratios and pH. Treatment in which metal release and L/S ratio were lower was selected for EDR. Electrodialytic remediation was performed at a constant current of 38 mA, for 14 days, using gluconate...... as a solubilisation enhancement agent. Conductivity and pH were monitored and electrolyte samples were collected every 4 days to evaluate metal release over time. It was found that the preliminary treatment reduces fouling of the ion-exchange membranes used in EDR and drastically increases the removal of metals...

  14. Relic density and CMB constraints on dark matter annihilation with Sommerfeld enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavala, Jesus; White, Simon D. M.; Vogelsberger, Mark

    2010-01-01

    We calculate how the relic density of dark matter particles is altered when their annihilation is enhanced by the Sommerfeld mechanism due to a Yukawa interaction between the annihilating particles. Maintaining a dark matter abundance consistent with current observational bounds requires the normalization of the s-wave annihilation cross section to be decreased compared to a model without enhancement. The level of suppression depends on the specific parameters of the particle model, with the kinetic decoupling temperature having the most effect. We find that the cross section can be reduced by as much as an order of magnitude for extreme cases. We also compute the μ-type distortion of the CMB energy spectrum caused by energy injection from such Sommerfeld-enhanced annihilation. Our results indicate that in the vicinity of resonances, associated with bound states, distortions can be large enough to be excluded by the upper limit |μ|≤9.0x10 -5 found by the FIRAS (Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer) instrument on the COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer) satellite.

  15. Leptomeningeal Contrast Enhancement Is Associated with Disability Progression and Grey Matter Atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleb Makshakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptomeningeal contrast enhancement (LMCE on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a newly recognized possible biomarker in multiple sclerosis (MS, associated with MS progression and cortical atrophy. In this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence of LMCE foci and their impact on neurodegeneration and disability. Materials. 54 patients with MS were included in the study. LMCE were detected with a 3 Tesla scanner on postcontrast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR sequence. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score, number of relapses during 5 years from MS onset, and number of contrast-enhancing lesions on T1 weighted MRI were counted. Results. LMCE was detected in 41% (22/54 of patients. LMCE-positive patients had longer disease duration (p=0,0098 and higher EDSS score (p=0,039, but not a higher relapse rate (p=0,091. No association of LMCE with higher frequency of contrast-enhancing lesions on T1-weighted images was detected (p=0,3842. Analysis of covariates, adjusted for age, sex, and disease duration, revealed a significant effect of LMCE on the cortex volume (p=0.043, F=2.529, the total grey matter volume (p=0.043, F=2.54, and total ventricular volume (p=0.039, F=2.605. Conclusions. LMCE was shown to be an independent and significant biomarker of grey matter atrophy and disability in MS.

  16. Shear strength characteristics of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) from Bangalore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumar Babu, G.L.; Lakshmikanthan, P.; Santhosh, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste. • Effect of unit weight and particle size on the shear strength of waste. • Effect of particle size on the strength properties. • Stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW. - Abstract: Strength and stiffness properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) are important in landfill design. This paper presents the results of comprehensive testing of shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) in laboratory. Changes in shear strength of MSW as a function of unit weight and particle size were investigated by performing laboratory studies on the MSW collected from Mavallipura landfill site in Bangalore. Direct shear tests, small scale and large scale consolidated undrained and drained triaxial tests were conducted on reconstituted compost reject MSW samples. The triaxial test results showed that the MSW samples exhibited a strain-hardening behaviour and the strength of MSW increased with increase in unit weight. Consolidated drained tests showed that the mobilized shear strength of the MSW increased by 40% for a unit weight increase from 7.3 kN/m 3 to 10.3 kN/m 3 at 20% strain levels. The mobilized cohesion and friction angle ranged from 5 to 9 kPa and 8° to 33° corresponding to a strain level of 20%. The consolidated undrained tests exhibited reduced friction angle values compared to the consolidated drained tests. The friction angle increased with increase in the unit weight from 8° to 55° in the consolidated undrained tests. Minor variations were found in the cohesion values. Relationships for strength and stiffness of MSW in terms of strength and stiffness ratios are developed and discussed. The stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW were found to be 10 and 0.43

  17. Shear strength characteristics of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) from Bangalore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivakumar Babu, G.L., E-mail: gls@civil.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Lakshmikanthan, P., E-mail: lakshmikanthancp@gmail.com [Centre for Sustainable Technologies (CST), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Santhosh, L.G., E-mail: lgsanthu2006@gmail.com [Centre for Sustainable Technologies (CST), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste. • Effect of unit weight and particle size on the shear strength of waste. • Effect of particle size on the strength properties. • Stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW. - Abstract: Strength and stiffness properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) are important in landfill design. This paper presents the results of comprehensive testing of shear strength properties of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste (MBT-MSW) in laboratory. Changes in shear strength of MSW as a function of unit weight and particle size were investigated by performing laboratory studies on the MSW collected from Mavallipura landfill site in Bangalore. Direct shear tests, small scale and large scale consolidated undrained and drained triaxial tests were conducted on reconstituted compost reject MSW samples. The triaxial test results showed that the MSW samples exhibited a strain-hardening behaviour and the strength of MSW increased with increase in unit weight. Consolidated drained tests showed that the mobilized shear strength of the MSW increased by 40% for a unit weight increase from 7.3 kN/m{sup 3} to 10.3 kN/m{sup 3} at 20% strain levels. The mobilized cohesion and friction angle ranged from 5 to 9 kPa and 8° to 33° corresponding to a strain level of 20%. The consolidated undrained tests exhibited reduced friction angle values compared to the consolidated drained tests. The friction angle increased with increase in the unit weight from 8° to 55° in the consolidated undrained tests. Minor variations were found in the cohesion values. Relationships for strength and stiffness of MSW in terms of strength and stiffness ratios are developed and discussed. The stiffness ratio and the strength ratio of MSW were found to be 10 and 0.43.

  18. Study on the behavior of heavy metals during thermal treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Sun, Lushi; Wang, Ben; Qiao, Yu; Xiang, Jun; Hu, Song; Yao, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the volatilization behavior of heavy metals during pyrolysis and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) components at different heating rates and temperatures. The waste fractions comprised waste paper (Paper), disposable chopstick (DC), garbage bag (GB), PVC plastic (PVC), and waste tire (Tire). Generally, the release trend of heavy metals from all MSW fractions in rapid-heating combustion was superior to that in low-heating combustion. Due to the different characteristics of MSW fractions, the behavior of heavy metals varied. Cd exhibited higher volatility than the rest of heavy metals. For Paper, DC, and PVC, the vaporization of Cd can reach as high as 75% at 500 °C in the rapid-heating combustion due to violent combustion, whereas a gradual increase was observed for Tire and GB. Zn and Pb showed a moderate volatilization in rapid-heating combustion, but their volatilities were depressed in slow-heating combustion. During thermal treatment, the additives such as kaolin and calcium can react or adsorb Pb and Zn forming stable metal compounds, thus decreasing their volatilities. The formation of stable compounds can be strengthened in slow-heating combustion. The volatility of Cu was comparatively low in both high and slow-heating combustion partially due to the existence of Al, Si, or Fe in residuals. Generally, in the reducing atmosphere, the volatility of Cd, Pb, and Zn was accelerated for Paper, DC, GB, and Tire due to the formation of elemental metal vapor. TG analysis also showed the reduction of metal oxides by chars forming elemental metal vapor. Cu2S was the dominant Cu species in reducing atmosphere below 900 °C, which was responsible for the low volatility of Cu. The addition of PVC in wastes may enhance the release of heavy metals, while GB and Tire may play an opposite effect. In controlling heavy metal emission, aluminosilicate- and calcium-based sorbents can be co-treated with fuels. Moreover

  19. Measurement of atmospheric neutrino oscillations and matter effects with PINGU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenders, Stefan; Euler, Sebastian; Krings, Kai; Vehring, Markus; Wallraff, Marius; Wiebusch, Christopher [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). III. Physikalisches Inst.; Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    With IceCube's low-energy extension DeepCore the first significant effects of atmospheric neutrino oscillations have been observed. The planned ''Precision Icecube Next Generation Upgrade'' (PINGU) inside DeepCore will lower the energy threshold to a few GeV, where matter effects of neutrino oscillations have to be taken into account. The Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect modifies the mixing between flavor and mass eigenstates of the neutrinos, resulting in stronger oscillations. Furthermore, neutrinos when passing through the Earth core experience parametric enhancement due to multiple discontinuities in the electron density. In this talk the effects of matter oscillations and the capabilities to measure these effects with PINGU are investigated.

  20. Enhanced Indirect Photochemical Transformation of Histidine and Histamine through Association with Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chiheng; Lundeen, Rachel A; Remucal, Christina K; Sander, Michael; McNeill, Kristopher

    2015-05-05

    Photochemical transformations greatly affect the stability and fate of amino acids (AAs) in sunlit aquatic ecosystems. Whereas the direct phototransformation of dissolved AAs is well investigated, their indirect photolysis in the presence of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is poorly understood. In aquatic systems, CDOM may act both as sorbent for AAs and as photosensitizer, creating microenvironments with high concentrations of photochemically produced reactive intermediates, such as singlet oxygen (1O2). This study provides a systematic investigation of the indirect photochemical transformation of histidine (His) and histamine by 1O2 in solutions containing CDOM as a function of solution pH. Both His and histamine showed pH-dependent enhanced phototransformation in the CDOM systems as compared to systems in which model, low-molecular-weight 1O2 sensitizers were used. Enhanced reactivity resulted from sorption of His and histamine to CDOM and thus exposure to elevated 1O2 concentrations in the CDOM microenvironment. The extent of reactivity enhancement depended on solution pH via its effects on the protonation state of His, histamine, and CDOM. Sorption-enhanced reactivity was independently supported by depressed rate enhancements in the presence of a cosorbate that competitively displaced His and histamine from CDOM. Incorporating sorption and photochemical transformation processes into a reaction rate prediction model improved the description of the abiotic photochemical transformation rates of His in the presence of CDOM.

  1. Collective Behavior of Chiral Active Matter: Pattern Formation and Enhanced Flocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebchen, Benno; Levis, Demian

    2017-08-01

    We generalize the Vicsek model to describe the collective behavior of polar circle swimmers with local alignment interactions. While the phase transition leading to collective motion in 2D (flocking) occurs at the same interaction to noise ratio as for linear swimmers, as we show, circular motion enhances the polarization in the ordered phase (enhanced flocking) and induces secondary instabilities leading to structure formation. Slow rotations promote macroscopic droplets with late time sizes proportional to the system size (indicating phase separation) whereas fast rotations generate patterns consisting of phase synchronized microflocks with a controllable characteristic size proportional to the average single-particle swimming radius. Our results defy the viewpoint that monofrequent rotations form a vapid extension of the Vicsek model and establish a generic route to pattern formation in chiral active matter with possible applications for understanding and designing rotating microflocks.

  2. Exploring MSW students’ and social workers’ orientation toward the evidence-based practice process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Zwet, R.J.M.; Weling, J.; Beneken Genaamd Kolmer, D.M.; Schalk, R.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to assess whether practicing social workers currently enrolled in Master Social Work (MSW) programs (hereafter referred to as MSW students) were more oriented to the evidence-based practice (EBP) process and more engaged in it than practicing social workers who

  3. Model predictive control as a tool for improving the process operation of MSW combustion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskens, M.; Kessel, L.B.M. van; Bosgra, O.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a feasibility study is presented on the application of the advanced control strategy called model predictive control (MPC) as a tool for obtaining improved process operation performance for municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion plants. The paper starts with a discussion of the operational objectives and control of such plants, from which a motivation follows for applying MPC to them. This is followed by a discussion on the basic idea behind this advanced control strategy. After that, an MPC-based combustion control system is proposed aimed at tackling a typical MSW combustion control problem and, using this proposed control system, an assessment is made of the improvement in performance that an MPC-based MSW combustion control system can provide in comparison to conventional MSW combustion control systems. This assessment is based on simulations using an experimentally obtained process and disturbance model of a real-life large-scale MSW combustion plant

  4. Will enhanced turbulence in inland waters result in elevated production of autochthonous dissolved organic matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Zhou, Jian; Jeppesen, Erik; Zhang, Yunlin; Qin, Boqiang; Shi, Kun; Tang, Xiangming; Han, Xiaoxia

    2016-02-01

    Biological activity in lakes is strongly influenced by hydrodynamic conditions, not least turbulence intensity; which increases the encounter rate between plankter and nutrient patches. To investigate whether enhanced turbulence in shallow and eutrophic lakes may result in elevated biological production of autochthonous chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), a combination of field campaigns and mesocosm experiments was used. Parallel factor analysis identified seven components: four protein-like, one microbial humic-like and two terrestrial humic-like components. During our field campaigns, elevated production of autochthonous CDOM was recorded in open water with higher wind speed and wave height than in inner bays, implying that elevated turbulence resulted in increased production of autochthonous CDOM. Confirming the field campaign results, in the mesocosm experiment enhanced turbulence resulted in a remarkably higher microbial humic-like C1 and tryptophan-like C3 (pCDOM. This is consistent with the significantly higher mean concentrations of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the enhanced phytoplanktonic alkaline phosphatase activity (PAPA) recorded in the experimental turbulence groups than in the control group (pCDOM samples further suggested their probable autochthonous origin. Our results have implications for the understanding of CDOM cycling in shallow aquatic ecosystems influenced by wind-induced waves, in which the enhanced turbulence associated with extreme weather conditions may be further stimulated by the predicted global climate change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermal evolution and small scale structure of Sommerfeld enhanced dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarssen, Laura Gusta van den

    2013-04-01

    Although the existence of Dark Matter (DM) has been confirmed by many independent observations on various scales, its nature still remains a mystery. Leading candidates for the cold, non-baryonic DM are Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), that are well motivated from particle physics and naturally explain the observed relic density by their thermal production mechanism. In this thesis we focus on a particular class of WIMP models in which the Sommerfeld effect has to be taken into account. This is a quantum mechanical phenomenon that can significantly enhance the annihilation cross section in the non-relativistic limit. To describe the non-perturbative effect, we use a non-relativistic effective field theory derived from the full quantum field theory. We include a detailed discussion of the calculation for the righthanded sneutrino, which is the superpartner of the neutrino and a viable DM candidate. The Sommerfeld enhancement can have a profound influence on the thermal evolution of the DM, which can no longer be described by the standard scenario. We introduce a framework to correctly take this effect into account and apply it to a simple leptophilic DM model. A new era of annihilations can decrease the DM density even after usual freeze-out, and in some cases where the Sommerfeld enhancement is especially large, even continue until after matter-radiation equality. The effect on the asymptotic WIMP temperature, which can be directly related to a small scale cutoff in the matter density fluctuations, causes the mass of the smallest gravitationally bound objects to be larger than expected from standard calculations. Furthermore we study the effect of velocity dependent DM self-scattering in relation to the small scale structure formation. Numerical simulations of ΛCDM have shown a remarkable agreement with the large scale structure of the Universe. However, the simulations are in tension with observed abundances, inner densities and velocity profiles of

  6. Thermal evolution and small scale structure of Sommerfeld enhanced dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarssen, Laura Gusta van den

    2013-04-15

    Although the existence of Dark Matter (DM) has been confirmed by many independent observations on various scales, its nature still remains a mystery. Leading candidates for the cold, non-baryonic DM are Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), that are well motivated from particle physics and naturally explain the observed relic density by their thermal production mechanism. In this thesis we focus on a particular class of WIMP models in which the Sommerfeld effect has to be taken into account. This is a quantum mechanical phenomenon that can significantly enhance the annihilation cross section in the non-relativistic limit. To describe the non-perturbative effect, we use a non-relativistic effective field theory derived from the full quantum field theory. We include a detailed discussion of the calculation for the righthanded sneutrino, which is the superpartner of the neutrino and a viable DM candidate. The Sommerfeld enhancement can have a profound influence on the thermal evolution of the DM, which can no longer be described by the standard scenario. We introduce a framework to correctly take this effect into account and apply it to a simple leptophilic DM model. A new era of annihilations can decrease the DM density even after usual freeze-out, and in some cases where the Sommerfeld enhancement is especially large, even continue until after matter-radiation equality. The effect on the asymptotic WIMP temperature, which can be directly related to a small scale cutoff in the matter density fluctuations, causes the mass of the smallest gravitationally bound objects to be larger than expected from standard calculations. Furthermore we study the effect of velocity dependent DM self-scattering in relation to the small scale structure formation. Numerical simulations of {Lambda}CDM have shown a remarkable agreement with the large scale structure of the Universe. However, the simulations are in tension with observed abundances, inner densities and velocity

  7. MSW: From pollution/degradation source to resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Pirlone

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Municipal Solid Waste is one of the biggest challenges that cities are facing: MSW is considered of the main sources of energy consumption, urban degradation and pollution. This paper defines the major negative effects of MSW on cities and proposes new solutions to guide waste policies. Most contemporary waste management efforts are focused at regional government level and based on high tech waste disposal by methods such as landfill and incineration. However, these methods are becoming increasingly expensive, energy inefficient and pollutant: waste disposal is not sustainable and will have negative implications for future generations. In this paper are proposed all the principle solutions that could be undertaken. New policy instruments are presented updating and adapting policies and encouraging innovation for less wasteful systems. Waste management plans are fundamental to increase the ability of urban areas to effectively adapt to waste challenges. These plans have to give an outline of waste streams and treatment options and provide a scenario for the following years that significantly reduce landfills and incinerators in favor of prevention, reuse and recycling. The key aim of an urban waste management plan is to set out the work towards a zero waste economy as part of the transition to a sustainable economy. Other questions remain still opened: How to change people’s behavior? What is the role of environmental education and risk perception? It is sure that the involvement of the various stakeholders and the wider public in the planning process should aim at ensuring acceptance of the waste policy.

  8. MSW management for waste minimization in Taiwan: The last two decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, L.-T.; Hsiao, T.-Y.; Shang, N.-C.; Yu, Y.-H.; Ma, H.-W.

    2006-01-01

    Taiwan is the second most densely populated country in the world; its 22.604 million residents (2002) live in an area of 35,967 km 2 (628 people/km 2 ). Taiwan's economy has grown rapidly during the last 20 years, resulting in a corresponding increase in the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). This study describes and evaluates the municipal solid waste management system in Taiwan. The study's results indicate that the amount of MSW began to decline after 1997, when the government enforced aggressive MSW management policies. By 2002, total MSW production had dropped by 27%, and the average daily per capita weight of MSW had fallen from 1.14 kg in 1997 to 0.81 kg in 2002. Summarizing the successful experience of MSW reduction in Taiwan, the most important factor was the government's combining of the MSW collection system with reduction/recycling programs. The second most important factor was the policy of extended producer responsibility, which laid a foundation of recycling by producers and retailers and promoted public recycling

  9. MSW management for waste minimization in Taiwan: the last two decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li-Teh; Hsiao, Teng-Yuan; Shang, Neng-Chou; Yu, Yue-Hwa; Ma, Hwong-Wen

    2006-01-01

    Taiwan is the second most densely populated country in the world; its 22.604 million residents (2002) live in an area of 35,967 km2 (628 people/km2). Taiwan's economy has grown rapidly during the last 20 years, resulting in a corresponding increase in the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). This study describes and evaluates the municipal solid waste management system in Taiwan. The study's results indicate that the amount of MSW began to decline after 1997, when the government enforced aggressive MSW management policies. By 2002, total MSW production had dropped by 27%, and the average daily per capita weight of MSW had fallen from 1.14 kg in 1997 to 0.81 kg in 2002. Summarizing the successful experience of MSW reduction in Taiwan, the most important factor was the government's combining of the MSW collection system with reduction/recycling programs. The second most important factor was the policy of extended producer responsibility, which laid a foundation of recycling by producers and retailers and promoted public recycling.

  10. Fresh organic matter of municipal solid waste enhances phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salati, S; Quadri, G; Tambone, F; Adani, F

    2010-05-01

    In this study, the ability of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) to enhance heavy metal uptake of maize shoots compared with ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) was tested on soil contaminated with heavy metals. Soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS significantly increased the concentration of heavy metals in maize shoots (increments of 302%, 66%, 184%, 169%, and 23% for Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb with respect to the control and increments of 933%, 482%, 928%, 428%, and 5551% for soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS, respectively). In soil treated with OFMSW, metal uptake was favored because of the high presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) (41.6x than soil control) that exhibited ligand properties because of the high presence of carboxylic acids. Because of the toxic effect of EDDS on maize plants, soil treated with OFMSW achieved the highest extraction of total heavy metals. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In Situ Measurement of Alkali Metals in an MSW Incinerator Using a Spontaneous Emission Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Yan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental investigations of the in situ diagnosis of the alkali metals in the municipal solid waste (MSW flame of an industrial grade incinerator using flame emission spectroscopy. The spectral radiation intensities of the MSW flame were obtained using a spectrometer. A linear polynomial fitting method is proposed to uncouple the continuous spectrum and the characteristic line. Based on spectra processing and a non-gray emissivity model, the flame temperature, emissivity, and intensities of the emission of alkali metals were calculated by means of measuring the spectral radiation intensities of the MSW flame. Experimental results indicate that the MSW flame contains alkali metals, including Na, K, and even Rb, and it demonstrates non-gray characteristics in a wavelength range from 500 nm to 900 nm. Peak intensities of the emission of the alkali metals were found to increase when the primary air was high, and the measured temperature varied in the same way as the primary air. The temperature and peak intensities of the lines of emission of the alkali metals may be used to adjust the primary airflow and to manage the feeding of the MSW to control the alkali metals in the MSW flame. It was found that the peak intensity of the K emission line had a linear relationship with the peak intensity of the Na emission line; this correlation may be attributed to their similar physicochemical characteristics in the MSW. The variation trend of the emissivity of the MSW flame and the oxygen content in the flue gas were almost opposite because the increased oxygen content suppressed soot formation and decreased soot emissivity. These results prove that the flame emission spectroscopy technique is feasible for monitoring combustion in the MSW incinerator in situ.

  12. A hybrid procedure for MSW generation forecasting at multiple time scales in Xiamen City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lilai; Gao, Peiqing; Cui, Shenghui; Liu, Chun

    2013-06-01

    Accurate forecasting of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is crucial and fundamental for the planning, operation and optimization of any MSW management system. Comprehensive information on waste generation for month-scale, medium-term and long-term time scales is especially needed, considering the necessity of MSW management upgrade facing many developing countries. Several existing models are available but of little use in forecasting MSW generation at multiple time scales. The goal of this study is to propose a hybrid model that combines the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and grey system theory to forecast MSW generation at multiple time scales without needing to consider other variables such as demographics and socioeconomic factors. To demonstrate its applicability, a case study of Xiamen City, China was performed. Results show that the model is robust enough to fit and forecast seasonal and annual dynamics of MSW generation at month-scale, medium- and long-term time scales with the desired accuracy. In the month-scale, MSW generation in Xiamen City will peak at 132.2 thousand tonnes in July 2015 - 1.5 times the volume in July 2010. In the medium term, annual MSW generation will increase to 1518.1 thousand tonnes by 2015 at an average growth rate of 10%. In the long term, a large volume of MSW will be output annually and will increase to 2486.3 thousand tonnes by 2020 - 2.5 times the value for 2010. The hybrid model proposed in this paper can enable decision makers to develop integrated policies and measures for waste management over the long term. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. GENERALIZATION, FORMULATION AND HEAT CONTENTS OF SIMULATED MSW WITH HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. JOHARI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a generalization technique for the formulation of simulated municipal solid waste. This technique is used for the elimination of the inconsistency in the municipal solid waste (MSW characteristics due to its heterogeneous nature. The compositions of simulated municipal solid waste were formulated from four major municipal waste streams components in Malaysia namely paper, plastic, food and yard waste. The technique produced four simplified waste generalization categories with composition of paper (19%, plastic (25%, food (27% and green waste (29% respectively. Comparative study was conducted for proximate analysis for the determination of volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash content. Ultimate analysis was performed for carbon and hydrogen content. The heat content for simulated and actual municipal solid waste showed good agreement. The moisture content of the simulated municipal solid waste and actual municipal solid waste were established at 52.34% and 61.71% respectively. Overall results were considered to be representative of the actual compositions of municipal solid waste in Malaysia.

  14. A hybrid procedure for MSW generation forecasting at multiple time scales in Xiamen City, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Lilai; Gao, Peiqing; Cui, Shenghui; Liu, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We propose a hybrid model that combines seasonal SARIMA model and grey system theory. ► The model is robust at multiple time scales with the anticipated accuracy. ► At month-scale, the SARIMA model shows good representation for monthly MSW generation. ► At medium-term time scale, grey relational analysis could yield the MSW generation. ► At long-term time scale, GM (1, 1) provides a basic scenario of MSW generation. - Abstract: Accurate forecasting of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is crucial and fundamental for the planning, operation and optimization of any MSW management system. Comprehensive information on waste generation for month-scale, medium-term and long-term time scales is especially needed, considering the necessity of MSW management upgrade facing many developing countries. Several existing models are available but of little use in forecasting MSW generation at multiple time scales. The goal of this study is to propose a hybrid model that combines the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and grey system theory to forecast MSW generation at multiple time scales without needing to consider other variables such as demographics and socioeconomic factors. To demonstrate its applicability, a case study of Xiamen City, China was performed. Results show that the model is robust enough to fit and forecast seasonal and annual dynamics of MSW generation at month-scale, medium- and long-term time scales with the desired accuracy. In the month-scale, MSW generation in Xiamen City will peak at 132.2 thousand tonnes in July 2015 – 1.5 times the volume in July 2010. In the medium term, annual MSW generation will increase to 1518.1 thousand tonnes by 2015 at an average growth rate of 10%. In the long term, a large volume of MSW will be output annually and will increase to 2486.3 thousand tonnes by 2020 – 2.5 times the value for 2010. The hybrid model proposed in this paper can enable decision makers to

  15. A hybrid procedure for MSW generation forecasting at multiple time scales in Xiamen City, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lilai, E-mail: llxu@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, Xiamen 361021 (China); Gao, Peiqing, E-mail: peiqing15@yahoo.com.cn [Xiamen City Appearance and Environmental Sanitation Management Office, 51 Hexiangxi Road, Xiamen 361004 (China); Cui, Shenghui, E-mail: shcui@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, Xiamen 361021 (China); Liu, Chun, E-mail: xmhwlc@yahoo.com.cn [Xiamen City Appearance and Environmental Sanitation Management Office, 51 Hexiangxi Road, Xiamen 361004 (China)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► We propose a hybrid model that combines seasonal SARIMA model and grey system theory. ► The model is robust at multiple time scales with the anticipated accuracy. ► At month-scale, the SARIMA model shows good representation for monthly MSW generation. ► At medium-term time scale, grey relational analysis could yield the MSW generation. ► At long-term time scale, GM (1, 1) provides a basic scenario of MSW generation. - Abstract: Accurate forecasting of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is crucial and fundamental for the planning, operation and optimization of any MSW management system. Comprehensive information on waste generation for month-scale, medium-term and long-term time scales is especially needed, considering the necessity of MSW management upgrade facing many developing countries. Several existing models are available but of little use in forecasting MSW generation at multiple time scales. The goal of this study is to propose a hybrid model that combines the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and grey system theory to forecast MSW generation at multiple time scales without needing to consider other variables such as demographics and socioeconomic factors. To demonstrate its applicability, a case study of Xiamen City, China was performed. Results show that the model is robust enough to fit and forecast seasonal and annual dynamics of MSW generation at month-scale, medium- and long-term time scales with the desired accuracy. In the month-scale, MSW generation in Xiamen City will peak at 132.2 thousand tonnes in July 2015 – 1.5 times the volume in July 2010. In the medium term, annual MSW generation will increase to 1518.1 thousand tonnes by 2015 at an average growth rate of 10%. In the long term, a large volume of MSW will be output annually and will increase to 2486.3 thousand tonnes by 2020 – 2.5 times the value for 2010. The hybrid model proposed in this paper can enable decision makers to

  16. Combining collective, MSW, and turbulence effects in supernova neutrino flavor evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Tina; Kneller, James P.

    2013-07-01

    In order to decode the neutrino burst signal from a Galactic core-collapse supernova (ccSN) and reveal the complicated inner workings of the explosion we need a thorough understanding of the neutrino flavor evolution from the proto-neutron star outwards. The flavor content of the signal evolves due to both neutrino collective effects and matter effects which can lead to a highly interesting interplay and distinctive spectral features. In this paper we investigate the supernova neutrino flavor evolution in three different progenitors and include collective flavor effects, the evolution of the Mikheyev, Smirnov & Wolfenstein (MSW) conversion due to the shock wave passage through the star, and the impact of turbulence. We consider both normal and inverted neutrino mass hierarchies and a value of θ13 close to the current experimental measurements. In the Oxygen-Neon-Magnesium (ONeMg) supernova we find that the impact of turbulence is both brief and slight during a window of 1-2 seconds post bounce. This is because the shock races through the star extremely quickly and the turbulence amplitude is expected to be small, less than 10%, since these stars do not require multidimensional physics to explode. Thus the spectral features of collective and shock effects in the neutrino signals from Oxygen-Neon-Magnesium supernovae may be almost turbulence free making them the easiest to interpret. For the more massive progenitors we again find that small amplitude turbulence, up to 10%, leads to a minimal modification of the signal, and the emerging neutrino spectra retain both collective and MSW features. However, when larger amounts of turbulence is added, 30% and 50%, which is justified by the requirement of multidimensional physics in order to make these stars explode, the features of collective and shock wave effects in the high (H) density resonance channel are almost completely obscured at late times. Yet at the same time we find the other mixing channels—the low (L

  17. Enhancement of organic matter degradation and methane gas production of anaerobic granular sludge by degasification of dissolved hydrogen gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hisashi; Bandara, Wasala M K R T W; Sasakawa, Manabu; Nakahara, Yoshihito; Takahashi, Masahiro; Okabe, Satoshi

    2017-11-01

    A hollow fiber degassing membrane (DM) was applied to enhance organic matter degradation and methane gas production of anaerobic granular sludge process by reducing the dissolved hydrogen gas (D-H 2 ) concentration in the liquid phase. DM was installed in the bench-scale anaerobic granular sludge reactors and D-H 2 was removed through DM using a vacuum pump. Degasification improved the organic matter degradation efficiency to 79% while the efficiency was 62% without degasification at 12,000mgL -1 of the influent T-COD concentration. Measurement of D-H 2 concentrations in the liquid phase confirmed that D-H 2 was removed by degasification. Furthermore, the effect of acetate concentrations on the organic matter degradation efficiency was investigated. At acetate concentrations above 3gL -1 , organic matter degradation deteriorated. Degasification enhanced the propionate and acetate degradation. These results suggest that degasification reduced D-H 2 concentration and volatile fatty acids concentrations, prevented pH drop, and subsequent enhanced organic matter degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sequential batch anaerobic composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) and yard waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, D.M.; Chynoweth, D.P.; Barkdoll, A.W.; Nordstedt, R.A.; Owens, J.M.; Sifontes, J. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    Sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC[sup TM]) was used to treat two fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW), the organic fraction of the MSW (processed MSW) and yard waste. Processed MSW gave a mean methane yield of 0.19 m[sup 3] kg[sup -1] volatile solids (VS) after 42 days. The mean VS reduction was 49.7% for this same period. Yard waste gave a mean methane yield of 0.07 m[sup 3] kg[sup -1] VS. Methane content of the biogas stabilized at a mean of 48% from three to four days after startup. The mean VS reduction for yard waste was 19%. With processed MSW, the volatile acid concentration was over 3000 mg L[sup -1] during startup but these acids were reduced within a few days to negligible levels. The trend was similar with yard waste except that volatile acids reached maximum concentrations of less than 1000 mg L[sup -1]. Composts from the reactors were evaluated for agronomic characteristics and pollution potential. Processed MSW and yard waste residues had marginal fertilizer value but posed no potential for groundwater pollution. Yard waste residue caused no apparent inhibition to mustard (Brassica juncea) germination relative to a commercial growth medium. Anaerobic yard waste compost demonstrated the potential to improve the water holding capacity of Florida soils. (author)

  19. Chromium behavior during thermal treatment of MSW fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Donald W; Chan, Chris C Y; Marsh, Hilary

    2002-02-14

    Energy-from-waste incineration has been promoted as an environmentally responsible method for handling non-recyclable waste from households. Despite the benefits of energy production, elimination of organic residues and reduction of volume of waste to be landfilled, there is concern about fly ash disposal. Fly ash from an incinerator contains toxic species such as Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr which may leach into soil and ground water if landfilled. Thermal treatment of the fly ash from municipal solid waste has been tested and proposed as a treatment option for removal of metal species such as Pb, Cd and Zn, via thermal re-volatilization. However, Cr is an element that remains in the residue of the heat treated fly ash and appears to become more soluble. This Cr solubilization is of concern if it exceeds the regulatory limit for hazardous waste. Hence, this unexpected behavior of Cr was investigated. The initial work involved microscopic characterization of Cr in untreated and thermally-treated MSW fly ash. This was followed by determining leaching characteristics using standard protocol leaching tests and characterization leaching methods (sequential extraction). Finally, a mechanism explaining the increased solubilization was proposed and tested by reactions of synthetic chemicals.

  20. Asymmetric thermal-relic dark matter: Sommerfeld-enhanced freeze-out, annihilation signals and unitarity bounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldes, Iason [DESY, Notkestraße 85, Hamburg, D-22607 Germany (Germany); Petraki, Kalliopi, E-mail: iason.baldes@desy.de, E-mail: kpetraki@lpthe.jussieu.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes Energies (LPTHE), UMR 7589 CNRS and UPMC, 4 Place Jussieu, Paris, F-75252 France (France)

    2017-09-01

    Dark matter that possesses a particle-antiparticle asymmetry and has thermalised in the early universe, requires a larger annihilation cross-section compared to symmetric dark matter, in order to deplete the dark antiparticles and account for the observed dark matter density. The annihilation cross-section determines the residual symmetric component of dark matter, which may give rise to annihilation signals during CMB and inside haloes today. We consider dark matter with long-range interactions, in particular dark matter coupled to a light vector or scalar force mediator. We compute the couplings required to attain a final antiparticle-to-particle ratio after the thermal freeze-out of the annihilation processes in the early universe, and then estimate the late-time annihilation signals. We show that, due to the Sommerfeld enhancement, highly asymmetric dark matter with long-range interactions can have a significant annihilation rate, potentially larger than symmetric dark matter of the same mass with contact interactions. We discuss caveats in this estimation, relating to the formation of stable bound states. Finally, we consider the non-relativistic partial-wave unitarity bound on the inelastic cross-section, we discuss why it can be realised only by long-range interactions, and showcase the importance of higher partial waves in this regime of large inelasticity. We derive upper bounds on the mass of symmetric and asymmetric thermal-relic dark matter for s -wave and p -wave annihilation, and exhibit how these bounds strengthen as the dark asymmetry increases.

  1. Asymmetric thermal-relic dark matter. Sommerfeld-enhanced freeze-out, annihilation signals and unitarity bounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldes, Iason; Petraki, Kalliopi

    2017-03-01

    Dark matter that possesses a particle-antiparticle asymmetry and has thermalised in the early universe, requires a larger annihilation cross-section compared to symmetric dark matter, in order to deplete the dark antiparticles and account for the observed dark matter density. The annihilation cross-section determines the residual symmetric component of dark matter, which may give rise to annihilation signals during CMB and inside haloes today. We consider dark matter with long-range interactions, in particular dark matter coupled to a light vector or scalar force mediator. We compute the couplings required to attain a final antiparticle-to-particle ratio after the thermal freeze-out of the annihilation processes in the early universe, and then estimate the late-time annihilation signals. We show that, due to the Sommerfeld enhancement, highly asymmetric dark matter with long-range interactions can have a significant annihilation rate, potentially larger than symmetric dark matter of the same mass with contact interactions. We discuss caveats in this estimation, relating to the formation of stable bound states. Finally, we consider the non-relativistic partial-wave unitarity bound on the inelastic cross-section, we discuss why it can be realised only by long-range interactions, and showcase the importance of higher partial waves in this regime of large inelasticity. We derive upper bounds on the mass of symmetric and asymmetric thermal-relic dark matter for s-wave and p-wave annihilation, and exhibit how these bounds strengthen as the dark asymmetry increases.

  2. Asymmetric thermal-relic dark matter. Sommerfeld-enhanced freeze-out, annihilation signals and unitarity bounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldes, Iason [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Petraki, Kalliopi [Nationaal Instuut voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands); UMR 7589 CNRS et UPMC, Paris (France). Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies (LPTHE)

    2017-03-15

    Dark matter that possesses a particle-antiparticle asymmetry and has thermalised in the early universe, requires a larger annihilation cross-section compared to symmetric dark matter, in order to deplete the dark antiparticles and account for the observed dark matter density. The annihilation cross-section determines the residual symmetric component of dark matter, which may give rise to annihilation signals during CMB and inside haloes today. We consider dark matter with long-range interactions, in particular dark matter coupled to a light vector or scalar force mediator. We compute the couplings required to attain a final antiparticle-to-particle ratio after the thermal freeze-out of the annihilation processes in the early universe, and then estimate the late-time annihilation signals. We show that, due to the Sommerfeld enhancement, highly asymmetric dark matter with long-range interactions can have a significant annihilation rate, potentially larger than symmetric dark matter of the same mass with contact interactions. We discuss caveats in this estimation, relating to the formation of stable bound states. Finally, we consider the non-relativistic partial-wave unitarity bound on the inelastic cross-section, we discuss why it can be realised only by long-range interactions, and showcase the importance of higher partial waves in this regime of large inelasticity. We derive upper bounds on the mass of symmetric and asymmetric thermal-relic dark matter for s-wave and p-wave annihilation, and exhibit how these bounds strengthen as the dark asymmetry increases.

  3. Asymmetric thermal-relic dark matter: Sommerfeld-enhanced freeze-out, annihilation signals and unitarity bounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldes, Iason; Petraki, Kalliopi

    2017-01-01

    Dark matter that possesses a particle-antiparticle asymmetry and has thermalised in the early universe, requires a larger annihilation cross-section compared to symmetric dark matter, in order to deplete the dark antiparticles and account for the observed dark matter density. The annihilation cross-section determines the residual symmetric component of dark matter, which may give rise to annihilation signals during CMB and inside haloes today. We consider dark matter with long-range interactions, in particular dark matter coupled to a light vector or scalar force mediator. We compute the couplings required to attain a final antiparticle-to-particle ratio after the thermal freeze-out of the annihilation processes in the early universe, and then estimate the late-time annihilation signals. We show that, due to the Sommerfeld enhancement, highly asymmetric dark matter with long-range interactions can have a significant annihilation rate, potentially larger than symmetric dark matter of the same mass with contact interactions. We discuss caveats in this estimation, relating to the formation of stable bound states. Finally, we consider the non-relativistic partial-wave unitarity bound on the inelastic cross-section, we discuss why it can be realised only by long-range interactions, and showcase the importance of higher partial waves in this regime of large inelasticity. We derive upper bounds on the mass of symmetric and asymmetric thermal-relic dark matter for s -wave and p -wave annihilation, and exhibit how these bounds strengthen as the dark asymmetry increases.

  4. Responding to Changes in HIV Policy: Updating and Enhancing the Families Matter! Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kim S; Winskell, Kate; Berrier, Faith L

    2016-06-01

    The past decade has seen changes in US HIV policy in sub-Saharan Africa in response to a new Administration and far-reaching technical, scientific and programmatic developments. These include: dramatically increased access to life-saving ART and related services; the roll-out of voluntary medical male circumcision; and growing sensitivity to gender-based violence, including child sexual abuse, and to its role in increasing vulnerability to HIV. The Families Matter! Program (FMP) is an intervention for parents and caregivers of 9-12 year-olds that promotes effective parent-child communication about sexuality and sexual risk reduction. FMP was adapted from a US evidence-based intervention in 2003-4 and is now implemented in eight African countries. In 2012-13, the FMP curriculum was updated and enhanced to respond to new US Government priorities. Enhancements to the curriculum drew on the results of Violence Against Children surveys, on a review of existing literature, on feedback from the field on the existing curriculum, and on stories written by young people across Africa for scriptwriting competitions. We updated FMP with scientific content and stronger linkages to services. We also intensified our focus on structural determinants of risk. This contextualisation of sexual risk-taking within structural constraints led us to place greater emphasis on gendered vulnerability and the diverse pressures children face, and to intensify our situation-based pedagogical approach, drawing on the authentic youth-authored narratives. We describe these changes as an illustration of and source of insight into much-needed programmatic adaptation in response to evolving HIV policy.

  5. Antiproton and positron signal enhancement in dark matter mini-spikes scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, Pierre; Bertone, Gianfranco; Lavalle, Julien; Salati, Pierre; Taillet, Richard

    2007-04-01

    The annihilation of dark matter (DM) in the Galaxy could produce specific imprints on the spectra of antimatter species in Galactic cosmic rays, which could be detected by upcoming experiments such as PAMELA and AMS02. Recent studies show that the presence of substructures can enhance the annihilation signal by a 'boost factor' that not only depends on energy, but that is intrinsically a statistical property of the distribution of DM substructures inside the Milky Way. We investigate a scenario in which substructures consist of ∼100 'mini-spikes' around intermediate-mass black holes. Focusing on primary positrons and antiprotons, we find large boost factors, up to a few thousand, that exhibit a large variance at high energy in the case of positrons and at low energy in the case of antiprotons. As a consequence, an estimate of the DM particle mass based on the observed cut-off in the positron spectrum could lead to a substantial underestimate of its actual value. (authors)

  6. Investigating impact of waste reuse on the sustainability of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration industry using emergy approach: A case study from Sichuan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Zhang, Xiaohong; Liao, Wenjie; Wu, Jun; Yang, Xiangdong; Shui, Wei; Deng, Shihuai; Zhang, Yanzong; Lin, Lili; Xiao, Yinlong; Yu, Xiaoyu; Peng, Hong

    2018-04-25

    China has become the largest generator of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the world with its rapid urbanization, population growth and raising living standard. Among diverse solid waste disposal technologies, MSW incineration has been becoming an attractive choice. In terms of systematic point, an integrated MSW incineration system should include an incineration subsystem and a bottom ash (BA) disposal subsystem. This paper employed an extend emergy assessment method with several improved indicators, which considers the emissions' impact, to evaluate the comprehensive performances of an integrated MSW incineration system. One existing incineration plant in Yibin City, Sichuan Province, China, as a case study, is evaluated using the proposed method. Three alternative scenarios (scenario A: the incineration subsystem + the BA landfill subsystem; scenario B: the incineration subsystem + the concrete paving brick production subsystem using BA as raw material; scenario C: the incineration subsystem + the non-burnt wall brick production subsystem using BA as raw material) were compared. The study results reveal that the ratio of positive output is 1.225, 2.861 and 1.230, the improved environmental loading ratio is 2.715, 2.742 and 1.533, and the improved environmental sustainability index is 0.451, 1.043 and 0.803 for scenario A, B and C respectively. Therefore, reuse of BA can enhance the sustainability level of this integrated system greatly. Comparatively, scenario B has the best comprehensive performance among the three scenarios. Finally, some targeted recommendations are put forward for decision-making. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Quasar Microlensing at High Magnification and the Role of Dark Matter: Enhanced Fluctuations and Suppressed Saddle Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Paul L.; Wambsganss, Joachim

    2002-12-01

    Contrary to naive expectation, diluting the stellar component of the lensing galaxy in a highly magnified system with smoothly distributed ``dark'' matter increases rather than decreases the microlensing fluctuations caused by the remaining stars. For a bright pair of images straddling a critical curve, the saddle point (of the arrival time surface) is much more strongly affected than the associated minimum. With a mass ratio of smooth matter to microlensing matter of 4:1, a saddle point with a macromagnification of μ=9.5 will spend half of its time more than a magnitude fainter than predicted. The anomalous flux ratio observed for the close pair of images in MG 0414+0534 is a factor of 5 more likely than computed by Witt, Mao, & Schechter, if the smooth matter fraction is as high as 93%. The magnification probability histograms for macroimages exhibit a distinctly different structure that varies with the smooth matter content, providing a handle on the smooth matter fraction. Enhanced fluctuations can manifest themselves either in the temporal variations of a light curve or as flux ratio anomalies in a single epoch snapshot of a multiply imaged system. While the millilensing simulations of Metcalf & Madau also give larger anomalies for saddle points than for minima, the effect appears to be less dramatic for extended subhalos than for point masses. Moreover, microlensing is distinguishable from millilensing because it will produce noticeable changes in the magnification on a timescale of a decade or less.

  8. Investigations on mechanical biological treatment of waste in South America: Towards more sustainable MSW management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezama, Alberto; Aguayo, Pablo; Konrad, Odorico; Navia, Rodrigo; Lorber, Karl E.

    2007-01-01

    This work presents an analysis on the suitability of mechanical biological treatment of municipal solid waste in South America, based on two previous experimental investigations carried out in two different countries. The first experiment was performed for determining the mass and volume reduction of MSW in the province of Concepcion (Chile). The implemented bench-scale process consisted of a manual classification and separation stage, followed by an in-vessel biological degradation process. The second experiment consisted of a full-scale experiment performed in the city of Estrela (Brazil), where the existing municipal waste management facility was adapted to enhance the materials sorting and separation. Expressed in wet weight composition, 85.5% of the material input in the first experiment was separated for biological degradation. After 27 days of processing, 60% of the initial mass was reduced through degradation and water evaporation. The final fraction destined for landfilling equals 59% of the total input mass, corresponding to about 50% of the initial volume. In the second experiment, the fraction destined to landfill reaches 46.6% of the total input waste mass, whilst also significantly reducing the total volume to be disposed. These results, and the possible recovery of material streams suitable for recycling or for preparing solid recovered fuels, are the main advantages of the studied process

  9. Oxygen breathing accelerates decompression from saturation at 40 msw in 70-kg swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Kyle; Soutiere, Shawn E; Tucker, Kathryn E; Dainer, Hugh M; Mahon, Richard T

    2010-07-01

    Submarine disaster survivors can be transferred from a disabled submarine at a pressure of 40 meters of seawater (msw) to a new rescue vehicle; however, they face an inherently risky surface interval before recompression and an enormous decompression obligation due to a high likelihood of saturation. The goal was to design a safe decompression protocol using oxygen breathing and a trial-and-error methodology. We hypothesized that depth, timing, and duration of oxygen breathing during decompression from saturation play a role to mitigate decompression outcomes. Yorkshire swine (67-75 kg), compressed to 40 msw for 22 h, underwent one of three accelerated decompression profiles: (1) 13.3 h staged air decompression to 18 msw, followed by 1 h oxygen breathing, then dropout; (2) direct decompression to 18 msw followed by 1 h oxygen breathing then dropout; and (3) 1 h oxygen prebreathe at 40 msw followed by 1 h mixed gas breathing at 26 msw, 1 h oxygen breathing at 18 msw, and 1 h ascent breathing oxygen. Animals underwent 2-h observation for signs of DCS. Profile 1 (14.3 h total) resulted in no deaths, no Type II DCS, and 20% Type I DCS. Profile 2 (2.1 h total) resulted in 13% death, 50% Type II DCS, and 75% Type I DCS. Profile 3 (4.5 h total) resulted in 14% death, 21% Type II DCS, and 57% Type I DCS. No oxygen associated seizures occurred. Profile 1 performed best, shortening decompression with no death or severe DCS, yet it may still exceed emergency operational utility in an actual submarine rescue.

  10. Study of the composition and gas-phase release characteristics of salt material extracted from MSW ash particles using STA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvelakis, Stelios; Frandsen, Flemming; Koukios, E.G.

    2007-01-01

    material extracted from MSW ash particles using a six-stage leaching process is studied using simultaneous thermal analysis (STA). The produced results provide useful information regarding the composition of the salt material and its melting behavior that is considered to play an important role...... to deposition and corrosion problems at MSW incinerators. The results may be used to model the deposition process and to the better understanding of the corrosion process during MSW incineration....

  11. Emission of volatile sulfur compounds during composting of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guoxue; Yang, Jinbing; Yang, Qingyuan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We compare the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) emissions during three types of municipal solid wastes (MSWs) composting. ► The VSCs released from the kitchen waste composting was significantly higher than that from 15–80 mm fraction of MSW. ► Among the five VSCs, H 2 S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. ► Addition of 20% cornstalks could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions during kitchen waste composting. - Abstract: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are the main source for malodor from composting plants. In this study, the VSCs generated from composting of 15–80 mm municipal solid waste (T0), kitchen waste (T1) and kitchen waste mixed dry cornstalks (T2) were measured in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for a period of 30 days. The VSCs detected in all treatments were hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon bisulfide (CS 2 ) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Over 90% of the VSCs emissions occurred during the first 15 days, and reached their peak values at days 4–7. The emission profiles of five VSCs species were significantly correlated with internal materials temperature and outlet O 2 concentration (p −1 (dry matter) for T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Among the five VSCs, H 2 S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. Composting of kitchen waste from separate collection posed a negative influence on the VSC and leachate production because of its high moisture content. An addition of dry cornstalks at a mixing ratio of 4:1 (wet weight) could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions and avoid leachate. Compared to pure kitchen waste, VSCs were reduced 66.8%

  12. Thickening and enhancement of multiple cranial nerves in conjunction with cystic white matter lesions in early infantile Krabbe disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beslow, Lauren A.; Boennemann, Carsten G. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Neurology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Schwartz, Erin S. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Neuroradiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2008-06-15

    We present serial MR findings in a child ultimately diagnosed with the early infantile form of Krabbe disease. MR showed typical features of Krabbe disease including cerebellar and brainstem hyperintensity, periventricular and deep white matter hyperintensity, and cerebral atrophy. In addition, the combination of both enlargement and enhancement of multiple cranial nerves in conjunction with unusual cystic lesions adjacent to the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles was previously unreported and expands the spectrum of imaging findings in early Krabbe disease. (orig.)

  13. Enhancement of the white matter following prophylactic therapy of the central nervous system for leukemia: radiation effects and methotrexate leukoencephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalen, P.R.; Ostrow, P.T.; Glass, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    The authors report a case of fatal necrotizing leukoencephalopathy following prophylactic therapy of the central nervous system for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The clinical, CT, and neuropathological findings are described. The CT scan demonstrated symmetrical white-matter enhancement. Histological analysis was consistent with the effects of irradiation and methotrexate. The differential diagnosis of the clinical and CT findings is discussed. Brain biopsy is the diagnostic procedure of choice

  14. Municipal solid waste (MSW) as a renewable source of energy: current and future practices in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

    2010-06-01

    With rapid economic growth and massive urbanization, China faces the problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal and the pressing need for development of alternative energy. Waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration, which recovers energy from discarded MSW and produces electricity and/or steam for heating, is recognized as a renewable source of energy and is playing an increasingly important role in MSW management in China. This article provides an overview of the WTE industry, discusses the major challenges in expanding WTE incineration in China, namely, high capital and operational costs, equipment corrosion, air pollutant emissions, and fly ash disposal. A perspective on MSW as a renewable energy source in China is also presented. Currently, only approximately 13% of MSW generated in China is disposed in WTE facilities. With the significant benefits of environmental quality, the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and government policies and financial incentives as a renewable energy source, WTE incineration industry is expected to experience significant growth in the coming decade and make greater contribution to supplying renewable energy in China. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental study on the solidification and influence factors of MSW stabilized soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of kinds and dosage of curing agent on the curing effect and strength characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW stabilized soil is very obvious. In order to reveal these effects, this paper uses cement, fly ash, lime and gypsum as main curing agent and additives to make MSW stabilized soil samples of different components and contents and its strength is obtained using unconfined compressive strength test. The results showed that the curing age, dosage of cement, fly ash, lime and gypsum have effect on the strengths of stabilized MSW soil. The bigger the content of cement and fly ash, the higher the strength of stabilized soil. But the amount of lime and gypsum has a critical value. Within the critical value, the strength of the stabilized soil increases with the increasing of the content of the additives, and decreases with the increase of the additives content if the content of the additives exceeds the critical value. The curing age has much effect on the strength of the stabilized soil. The strength of the samples for 7 days is far less than that for 28 days. This can be explained that: when the curing agent is added into the stabilized soil, the connection among the particles of the MSW soil is changed from weak connection to bond connection, and therefore the strength of the curing MSW soil is improved.

  16. Large or small angle MSW from single right-handed neutrino dominance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, S.F

    2000-01-01

    In this talk we discuss a natural explanation of both neutrino mass hierarchies and large neutrino mixing angles, as required by the atmospheric neutrino data, in terms of a single right-handed neutrino giving the dominant contribution to the 23 block of the light effective neutrino matrix, and illustrate this mechanism in the framework of models with U(1) family symmetries. Sub-dominant contributions from other right-handed neutrinos are required to give small mass splittings appropriate to the MSW solution to the solar neutrino problem. We present three explicit examples for achieving the small angle MSW solution in the framework of U(1) family symmetry models containing three right-handed neutrinos, which can naturally describe all quark and lepton masses and mixing angles. In this talk we also extend the analysis to the large angle MSW solution

  17. Natural gas reburning technology for NOx reduction from MSW combustion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penterson, C.A.; Abbasi, H.; Khinkis, M.J.; Wakamura, Y.; Linz, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    A technology for reducing emissions from municipal solid waste combustion systems through advanced combustion techniques is being developed. Pilot testing of natural gas reburning was first performed in the Institute of Gas Technology's pilot-scale furnace under conditions simulating the firing of 1.7 x 10 6 Btu/hr (0.5 MWth) of MSW. Pilot testing then continued in Riley Stoker Corporation's 3 x 10 6 Btu/hr (0.88 MWth), 7 ton/day, pilot-scale MSW combustor using actual MSW in both test series, injection of up to 15% (HHV basis) natural gas reduced NO, by 50--70% while maintaining or improving combustion efficiency as measured by CO and hydrocarbon emissions and temperature stability. This paper will review the test results and discuss the status of the full-scale field demonstration testing that is planned for 1990

  18. Sintering of MSW fly ash for reuse as a concrete aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangialardi, T

    2001-10-12

    The sintering process of municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ash was investigated in order to manufacture sintered products for reuse as concrete aggregates. Four types of fly ash resulting from different Italian MSW incineration plants were tested in this study. A modification of the chemical composition of MSW fly ash--through a preliminary four-stage washing treatment of this material with water--was attempted to improve the chemical and mechanical characteristics of sintered products.The sintering treatment of untreated or washed fly ash was performed on cylindrical compact specimens (15 mm in diameter and 20mm in height) at different compact pressures, sintering temperatures and times.The sintering process of untreated MSW fly ashes proved to be ineffective for manufacturing sintered products for reuse as a construction material, because of the adverse chemical characteristics of these fly ashes in terms of sulfate, chloride, and vitrifying oxide contents.A preliminary washing treatment of MSW fly ash with water greatly improved the chemical and mechanical characteristics of sintered products and, for all the types of fly ash tested, the sintered products satisfied the Italian requirements for normal weight aggregates for use in concretes having a specified strength not greater than 12 and 15N/mm(2), when measured on cylindrical and cubic specimens, respectively.A compact pressure of 28 N/mm(2), a sintering temperature of 1140 degrees C, and a sintering time of 60 min were the best operating conditions for manufacturing sintered products of washed MSW fly ash.

  19. Solar neutrinos and the MSW effect for three-neutrino mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X.; Schramm, David N.

    1991-01-01

    Researchers considered three-neutrino Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) mixing, assuming m sub 3 is much greater than m sub 2 is greater than m sub 1 as expected from theoretical consideration if neutrinos have mass. They calculated the corresponding mixing parameter space allowed by the Cl-37 and Kamiokande 2 experiments. They also calculated the expected depletion for the Ga-71 experiment. They explored a range of theoretical uncertainty due to possible astrophysical effects by varying the B-8 neutrino flux and redoing the MSW mixing calculation.

  20. Best of Both Worlds: A Conceptual Model for Integrating an Aging Specialization within an Advanced Generalist MSW Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, Emily K.; Quijano, Louise M.; Bishop, Pamela S.; Sheafor, Bradford W.

    2015-01-01

    Must a master's of social work (MSW) program's orientation be either advanced generalist or some form of specialist? Or is there the possibility of a hybrid curriculum that provides enough breadth to prepare MSW graduates for a wide range of social work jobs, but that also addresses students' and community agencies' demands for student…

  1. MSW oxy-enriched incineration technology applied in China: combustion temperature, flue gas loss and economic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhe; Zhang, Shihong; Li, Xiangpeng; Shao, Jingai; Wang, Ke; Chen, Hanping

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the application prospect of MSW oxy-enriched incineration technology in China, the technical and economical analyses of a municipal solid waste (MSW) grate furnace with oxy-fuel incineration technology in comparison to co-incineration with coal are performed. The rated capacity of the grate furnace is 350 tonnes MSW per day. When raw MSW is burned, the amount of pure oxygen injected should be about 14.5 wt.% under 25% O2 oxy-fuel combustion conditions with the mode of oxygen supply determined by the actual situation. According to the isothermal combustion temperature (Ta), the combustion effect of 25% O2 oxy-enriched incineration (α = 1.43) is identical with that of MSW co-incineration with 20% mass ratio of coal (α = 1.91). However, the former is better than the latter in terms of plant cost, flue gas loss, and environmental impact. Despite the lower costs of MSW co-incineration with mass ratio of 5% and 10% coal (α = 1.91), 25% O2 oxy-enriched incineration (α = 1.43) is far more advantageous in combustion and pollutant control. Conventional combustion flue gas loss (q2) for co-incineration with 0% coal, 20% coal, 10% coal, 5% coal are around 17%, 13%, 14% and 15%, respectively, while that under the condition of 25% O2 oxy-enriched combustion is approximately 12% (α = 1.43). Clearly, q2 of oxy-enriched incineration is less than other methods under the same combustion conditions. High moisture content presents challenges for MSW incineration, therefore it is necessary to dry MSW prior to incineration, and making oxy-enriched incineration technology achieves higher combustion temperature and lower flue gas loss. In conclusion, based on technical and economical analysis, MSW oxy-enriched incineration retains obvious advantages and demonstrates great future prospects for MSW incineration in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. TAILORING ACTIVATED CARBONS FOR ENHANCED REMOVAL OF NATURAL ORGANIC MATTER FROM NATURAL WATERS. (R828157)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several pathways have been employed to systematically modify two granular activated carbons (GACs), F400 (coal-based) and Macro (wood-based), for examining adsorption of dissolved natural organic matter (DOM) from natural waters. A total of 24 activated carbons with different ...

  3. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of focal nodular hyperplasia: a matter of size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertin, Caroline [Hopital Beaujon APHP, Radiology Department, Clichy (France); Egels, Sophie; Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere APHP, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Wagner, Mathilde [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere APHP, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, INSERM, UMR 1149, Laboratoire IPMA, Centre de Recherche sur l' Inflammation, Faculte de Medecine X Bichat, Paris (France); Vilgrain, Valerie [Hopital Beaujon APHP, Radiology Department, Clichy (France); Universite Paris Diderot, INSERM, UMR 1149, Laboratoire IPMA, Centre de Recherche sur l' Inflammation, Faculte de Medecine X Bichat, Paris (France); Lucidarme, Olivier [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere APHP, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS UMR 7371, INSERM UMRS 1146, Laboratoire d' Imagerie Biomedicale, Paris (France); Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere - Charles Foix, Service de Radiologie Polyvalente et Oncologique, Paris (France)

    2014-10-15

    To assess the contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) frequencies of centrifugal enhancement, spoke-wheel sign and central scar in focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) as a function of lesion size. Ninety-four FNHs were retrospectively reviewed to assess their largest diameter and enhancement pattern, including centrifugal enhancement from one central artery, spoke-wheel sign, diffuse or centripetal enhancement, central scar and late-phase washout. Mean FNH-lesion size was 3.7 ± 2.1 cm. Only 43.6 % of FNHs had centrifugal enhancement, with a spoke-wheel pattern (23.4 %) or without (20.2 %), while 56.4 % showed diffuse or centripetal enhancement. Centrifugal enhancement was observed in 73.9 % of FNHs ≤3.1 cm and 14.6 % of FNHs >3.1 cm (P < 10{sup -4}). Size and frequency of centrifugal enhancement were negatively correlated (r = -0.57, P < 10{sup -4}). The spoke-wheel pattern was also seen more frequently in smaller (37 %) than in larger FNHs (10.4 %) (P < 10{sup -3}). Late-phase washout was described in 5.3 % of FNHs and was not size-dependent. Lesions with a central scar were larger than those without, respectively, 5.7 ± 1.7 and 3.6 ± 2.0 cm (P = 0.012). Typical centrifugal enhancement yielding a confident FNH diagnosis is seen significantly more frequently when the lesion is ≤3.1 cm. (orig.)

  4. Pilot scale high solids anaerobic digestion of steam autoclaved municipal solid waste (MSW) pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steam autoclaving is an efficient method for the separation and recovery of nearly all organics from MSW, yet a reliable alternative outlet for the large volume of organics produced has not yet been successfully demonstrated. The material produced by the autoclave contains a high concentration of s...

  5. You Can't Recover from Suicide: Perspectives on Suicide Education in MSW Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Betty J.; Gianino, Mark; Muroff, Jordana; McLaughlin, Donna; Feldman, Barry N.

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is a profound worldwide public health problem that has received increased attention in recent years. The major federal response, the National Strategy for Suicide Prevention, calls for more suicide education for mental health professionals, including social workers. Little is known about the amount of suicide education in MSW curricula…

  6. How Prepared Are MSW Graduates for Doctoral Research? Views of PhD Research Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drisko, James W.; Evans, Kristin

    2018-01-01

    This national survey of PhD faculty assessed the research preparation of entering doctoral social work students on a wide range of research knowledge and related skills. The prior literature shows that PhD programs repeat much BSW and MSW research course content. This study shows that the trend continues and has perhaps widened. PhD research…

  7. Meeting the Challenge of Preparing Social Workers for Integrated Health Practice: Evidence from Two MSW Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishel, Carrie W.; Hartnett, Helen P.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in health care policy have led to an expansion of integrated care models that rely on collaboration among interprofessional health teams. Recent federal funding has encouraged the development of innovative training models to prepare social workers for integrated health practice. This article presents evidence from the first two MSW cohorts…

  8. Desired Characteristics for MSW Students and Social Work Employees: Cognitive versus Personal Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipel, Michael M. O.; Johnson, Jennifer D.; Walton, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the best students and hiring the best social workers are important professional responsibilities. Findings from this exploratory study identify personal attributes that are significant in enabling MSW students and social work employees to succeed. Social work educators and agency administrators generally agree that personal attributes…

  9. Burnout among Entering MSW Students: Exploring the Role of Personal Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Meekyung; Lee, Sang E.; Lee, Peter Allan

    2012-01-01

    Although individual susceptibility to burnout within a similar structural context is well-documented in other helping professions, little is known about the relationship between personal attributes and burnout in social work. Furthermore, despite a large number of entering MSW students with prior work experience, there is a paucity of research…

  10. Neutrino-electron scattering and the choice between different MSW solutions of the solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, S.P.; Gelb, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    We consider the scattering of solar neutrinos by electrons as a means for distinguishing between MSW solutions of the solar neutrino problem. In terms of the ratio R between the observed cross-section and that for pure electron-type neutrinos, we find that some correlation between the value R and the appropriate solution. 9 refs., 3 figs

  11. Raster-based outranking method: a new approach for municipal solid waste landfill (MSW) siting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzeh, Mohamad; Abbaspour, Rahim Ali; Davalou, Romina

    2015-08-01

    MSW landfill siting is a complicated process because it requires integration of several factors. In this paper, geographic information system (GIS) and multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) were combined to handle the municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill siting. For this purpose, first, 16 input data layers were prepared in GIS environment. Then, the exclusionary lands were eliminated and potentially suitable areas for the MSW disposal were identified. These potentially suitable areas, in an innovative approach, were further examined by deploying Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE) II and analytic network process (ANP), which are two of the most recent MCDA methods, in order to determine land suitability for landfilling. PROMETHEE II was used to determine a complete ranking of the alternatives, while ANP was employed to quantify the subjective judgments of evaluators as criteria weights. The resulting land suitability was reported on a grading scale of 1-5 from 1 to 5, which is the least to the most suitable area, respectively. Finally, three optimal sites were selected by taking into consideration the local conditions of 15 sites, which were candidates for MSW landfilling. Research findings show that the raster-based method yields effective results.

  12. Testing the "Learning Journey" of MSW Students in a Rural Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Misty L.; Rainford, Will

    2013-01-01

    Using a quasi-experimental one-group, pretest-posttest design with non-random convenience sampling, the researchers assessed 61 advanced standing MSW students who matriculated at a rural intermountain Northwest school of social work. Changes in students' knowledge and attitudes toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people were measured using…

  13. Teaching Note-CASA Volunteerism: Preparing MSW Students for Public Child Welfare Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrick, Jill Duerr; Durst, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to reform public child welfare systems across the nation, Title IV-E child welfare training programs were established over 2 decades ago. Participating students typically engage in a customized educational experience as part of their MSW program that prepares them to work in the field of child welfare upon graduation. This article…

  14. An Outcome Evaluation of a Problem-Based Learning Approach with MSW Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhues, Anne; Barsen, Chia; Freymond, Nancy; Train, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we report the findings from a study exploring the effects of a problem-based learning (PBL) approach to teaching and learning on learning outcomes for master's of social work (MSW) students. Students who participated in a PBL pilot project were compared with students who did not participate in 5 outcome areas: social work…

  15. Emission of volatile sulfur compounds during composting of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongyu [Beijing Building Materials Academy of Science Research/State Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Reuse for Building Material, Beijing 100041 (China); College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Schuchardt, Frank [Johann Heinrich von Thuenen-Institute, Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Li, Guoxue, E-mail: ligx@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Yang, Jinbing; Yang, Qingyuan [College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► We compare the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) emissions during three types of municipal solid wastes (MSWs) composting. ► The VSCs released from the kitchen waste composting was significantly higher than that from 15–80 mm fraction of MSW. ► Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. ► Addition of 20% cornstalks could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions during kitchen waste composting. - Abstract: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are the main source for malodor from composting plants. In this study, the VSCs generated from composting of 15–80 mm municipal solid waste (T0), kitchen waste (T1) and kitchen waste mixed dry cornstalks (T2) were measured in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for a period of 30 days. The VSCs detected in all treatments were hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon bisulfide (CS{sub 2}) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Over 90% of the VSCs emissions occurred during the first 15 days, and reached their peak values at days 4–7. The emission profiles of five VSCs species were significantly correlated with internal materials temperature and outlet O{sub 2} concentration (p < 0.05). Total emissions of the VSCs were 216.1, 379.3 and 126.0 mg kg{sup −1} (dry matter) for T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. Composting of kitchen waste from separate collection posed a negative influence on the VSC and leachate production because of its high moisture content. An addition of dry cornstalks at a mixing ratio of 4:1 (wet weight) could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions and avoid leachate. Compared to pure kitchen waste, VSCs were reduced 66.8%.

  16. Homogeneity based segmentation and enhancement of Diffusion Tensor Images : a white matter processing framework

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    In diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (DMRI) the Brownian motion of the water molecules, within biological tissue, is measured through a series of images. In diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) this diffusion is represented using tensors. DTI describes, in a non-invasive way, the local anisotropy pattern enabling the reconstruction of the nervous fibers - dubbed tractography. DMRI constitutes a powerful tool to analyse the structure of the white matter within a voxel, but also to investigate the...

  17. Polarization-based enhancement of ocean color signal for estimating suspended particulate matter: radiative transfer simulations and laboratory measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; He, Xianqiang; Liu, Jiahang; Bai, Yan; Wang, Difeng; Chen, Tieqiao; Wang, Yihao; Zhu, Feng

    2017-04-17

    Absorption and scattering by molecules, aerosols and hydrosols, and the reflection and transmission over the sea surface can modify the original polarization state of sunlight. However, water-leaving radiance polarization, containing embedded water constituent information, has largely been neglected. Here, the efficiency of the parallel polarization radiance (PPR) for enhancing ocean color signal of suspended particulate matter is examined via vector radiative transfer simulations and laboratory experiments. The simulation results demonstrate that the PPR has a slightly higher ocean color signal at the top-of-atmosphere as compared with that of the total radiance. Moreover, both the simulations and laboratory measurements reveal that, compared with total radiance, PPR can effectively enhance the normalized ocean color signal for a large range of observation geometries, wavelengths, and suspended particle concentrations. Thus, PPR has great potential for improving the ocean color signal detection from satellite.

  18. Present and future in the municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Romania in the context of new sanitation standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solea, M. [ICECON SA, Bucharest (Romania)

    2000-07-01

    The production and utilization of products made of metals, plastics, asbestos, cement, glass fibers or other non-biodegradable materials generate massive accumulation of solid waste. When this waste degrades, it causes pollution through the release of heavy metals in the environment. Romania had to deal with a complex situation concerning the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). The population was not well informed of the negative effects that MSW had on the environment and was not ready to take responsibility for any aspect of the problem. The author, as a member of a City Sanitation committee, promoted the utilization of standard terminology as a first step. Then, the committee classified MSW according to origin, composition, main treatment characteristics and possibilities of reuse. The standards also included indicators to calculate the amount of MSW required to size landfills, pre-collection, collection and transport equipment, and a valorization system. Forms and sizes of containers for pre-collection were established, and specific pre-collection points were identified. It resulted in an integrated MSW management (IMSWM). Some factors had to be considered in order to select the best possible approach: waste structure, quantity produced, MSW composition, weight, moisture, caloric power. The objectives of the IMSWM were summarized as follows: (1) reduction of the generation of solid waste, (2) recycling, (3) combustion and energy recovery for productive use, and (4) the disposal of the remainder MSW. 5 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  19. ENHANCING TRUST OR REDUCING PERCEIVED RISK, WHAT MATTERS MORE WHEN LAUNCHING A NEW PRODUCT?

    OpenAIRE

    ANN-MARIE NIENABER; GERHARD SCHEWE

    2014-01-01

    Using a collection of data among 490 participants from different companies in the field of medical engineering market, we contribute to the role of contact intensity by a business partner when launching new products by introducing trust as a mediator to the concept of perceived risk reduction to enhance the relationship commitment. The findings show that the common concept of risk reduction to enhance the relationship commitment is overrated. In detail, the results show first, that the influe...

  20. Cross-modal enhancement of speech detection in young and older adults: does signal content matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tye-Murray, Nancy; Spehar, Brent; Myerson, Joel; Sommers, Mitchell S; Hale, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of age and visual content on cross-modal enhancement of auditory speech detection. Visual content consisted of three clearly distinct types of visual information: an unaltered video clip of a talker's face, a low-contrast version of the same clip, and a mouth-like Lissajous figure. It was hypothesized that both young and older adults would exhibit reduced enhancement as visual content diverged from the original clip of the talker's face, but that the decrease would be greater for older participants. Nineteen young adults and 19 older adults were asked to detect a single spoken syllable (/ba/) in speech-shaped noise, and the level of the signal was adaptively varied to establish the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at threshold. There was an auditory-only baseline condition and three audiovisual conditions in which the syllable was accompanied by one of the three visual signals (the unaltered clip of the talker's face, the low-contrast version of that clip, or the Lissajous figure). For each audiovisual condition, the SNR at threshold was compared with the SNR at threshold for the auditory-only condition to measure the amount of cross-modal enhancement. Young adults exhibited significant cross-modal enhancement with all three types of visual stimuli, with the greatest amount of enhancement observed for the unaltered clip of the talker's face. Older adults, in contrast, exhibited significant cross-modal enhancement only with the unaltered face. Results of this study suggest that visual signal content affects cross-modal enhancement of speech detection in both young and older adults. They also support a hypothesized age-related deficit in processing low-contrast visual speech stimuli, even in older adults with normal contrast sensitivity.

  1. Combination Of Organic Matter And Inorganic N Fertilizer For Enhancing Productivity And N Uptake Of Upland Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idawati; Haryanto

    2002-01-01

    reported in this paper is the percentage of N derived from fertilizer (%N-dff) which is adopted to assess N fertilizer utilization in field experiment. Important information came of the experiments were that correct combination of organic matter and N fertilizer enhanced rice production and N uptake by rice. N immobilization in the use of organic matter having high C/N ratio, in this case rice straw, was very helpfully to regulate N dynamic in soil. Treatment of JN-I gave highest rice production. The pruning of Gliricidia was not only as N source, but also had the best effect on fertilizer N dynamic in soil giving high rice production and highest N fertilizer efficiency. N fertilization without organic matter addition (treatment N as Control 2) gave rice production not as high as IN-I or GN-I and low N fertilizer efficiency, informing that there were high N fertilizer loss and high utilization of soil N

  2. Retrieval Attempts Enhance Learning, but Retrieval Success (versus Failure) Does Not Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornell, Nate; Klein, Patricia Jacobs; Rawson, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Retrieving information from memory enhances learning. We propose a 2-stage framework to explain the benefits of retrieval. Stage 1 takes place as one attempts to retrieve an answer, which activates knowledge related to the retrieval cue. Stage 2 begins when the answer becomes available, at which point appropriate connections are strengthened and…

  3. Patient-specific 3D FLAIR for enhanced visualization of brain white matter lesions in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabr, Refaat E; Pednekar, Amol S; Govindarajan, Koushik A; Sun, Xiaojun; Riascos, Roy F; Ramírez, María G; Hasan, Khader M; Lincoln, John A; Nelson, Flavia; Wolinsky, Jerry S; Narayana, Ponnada A

    2017-08-01

    To improve the conspicuity of white matter lesions (WMLs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) using patient-specific optimization of single-slab 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sixteen MS patients were enrolled in a prospective 3.0T MRI study. FLAIR inversion time and echo time were automatically optimized for each patient during the same scan session based on measurements of the relative proton density and relaxation times of the brain tissues. The optimization criterion was to maximize the contrast between gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), while suppressing cerebrospinal fluid. This criterion also helps increase the contrast between WMLs and WM. The performance of the patient-specific 3D FLAIR protocol relative to the fixed-parameter protocol was assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Patient-specific optimization achieved a statistically significant 41% increase in the GM-WM contrast ratio (P < 0.05) and 32% increase in the WML-WM contrast ratio (P < 0.01) compared with fixed-parameter FLAIR. The increase in WML-WM contrast ratio correlated strongly with echo time (P < 10 -11 ). Two experienced neuroradiologists indicated substantially higher lesion conspicuity on the patient-specific FLAIR images over conventional FLAIR in 3-4 cases (intrarater correlation coefficient ICC = 0.72). In no case was the image quality of patient-specific FLAIR considered inferior to conventional FLAIR by any of the raters (ICC = 0.32). Changes in proton density and relaxation times render fixed-parameter FLAIR suboptimal in terms of lesion contrast. Patient-specific optimization of 3D FLAIR increases lesion conspicuity without scan time penalty, and has potential to enhance the detection of subtle and small lesions in MS. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:557-564. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. Does the Room Matter? Active Learning in Traditional and Enhanced Lecture Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Jon R.; Libarkin, Julie

    2016-01-01

    SCALE-UP–type classrooms, originating with the Student-Centered Active Learning Environment with Upside-down Pedagogies project, are designed to facilitate active learning by maximizing opportunities for interactions between students and embedding technology in the classroom. Positive impacts when active learning replaces lecture are well documented, both in traditional lecture halls and SCALE-UP–type classrooms. However, few studies have carefully analyzed student outcomes when comparable active learning–based instruction takes place in a traditional lecture hall and a SCALE-UP–type classroom. Using a quasi-experimental design, we compared student perceptions and performance between sections of a nonmajors biology course, one taught in a traditional lecture hall and one taught in a SCALE-UP–type classroom. Instruction in both sections followed a flipped model that relied heavily on cooperative learning and was as identical as possible given the infrastructure differences between classrooms. Results showed that students in both sections thought that SCALE-UP infrastructure would enhance performance. However, measures of actual student performance showed no difference between the two sections. We conclude that, while SCALE-UP–type classrooms may facilitate implementation of active learning, it is the active learning and not the SCALE-UP infrastructure that enhances student performance. As a consequence, we suggest that institutions can modify existing classrooms to enhance student engagement without incorporating expensive technology. PMID:27909018

  5. Exponentially Enhanced Light-Matter Interaction, Cooperativities, and Steady-State Entanglement Using Parametric Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Miranowicz, Adam; Li, Peng-Bo; Lü, Xin-You; You, J. Q.; Nori, Franco

    2018-03-01

    We propose an experimentally feasible method for enhancing the atom-field coupling as well as the ratio between this coupling and dissipation (i.e., cooperativity) in an optical cavity. It exploits optical parametric amplification to exponentially enhance the atom-cavity interaction and, hence, the cooperativity of the system, with the squeezing-induced noise being completely eliminated. Consequently, the atom-cavity system can be driven from the weak-coupling regime to the strong-coupling regime for modest squeezing parameters, and even can achieve an effective cooperativity much larger than 100. Based on this, we further demonstrate the generation of steady-state nearly maximal quantum entanglement. The resulting entanglement infidelity (which quantifies the deviation of the actual state from a maximally entangled state) is exponentially smaller than the lower bound on the infidelities obtained in other dissipative entanglement preparations without applying squeezing. In principle, we can make an arbitrarily small infidelity. Our generic method for enhancing atom-cavity interaction and cooperativities can be implemented in a wide range of physical systems, and it can provide diverse applications for quantum information processing.

  6. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy strongly enhances soil organic matter composition analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucemarianadin, Laure; Erhagen, Björn; Öquist, Mats; Nilsson, Mats; Hedenström, Mattias; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is the largest terrestrial carbon pool and strongly affects soil properties. With climate change, understanding SOM processes and turnover and how they could be affected by increasing temperatures becomes critical. This is particularly key for organic soils as they represent a huge carbon pool in very sensitive ecosystems, like boreal ecosystems and peatlands. Nevertheless, characterization of SOM molecular composition, which is essential to elucidate soil carbon processes, is not easily achieved, and further advancements in that area are greatly needed. Solid-state one-dimensional (1D) 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is often used to characterize its molecular composition, but only provides data on a few major functional groups, which regroup many different molecular fragments. For instance, in the carbohydrates region, signals of all monosaccharides present in many different polymers overlap. This overlap thwarts attempts to identify molecular moieties, resulting in insufficient information to characterize SOM composition. Here we show that two-dimensional (2D) liquid-state 1H-13C NMR spectra provided much richer data on the composition of boreal plant litter and organic surface soil. The 2D spectra indeed resolved overlaps observed in 1D 13C spectra and displayed signals from hundreds of identifiable molecular groups. For example, in the aromatics region, signals from individual lignin units could be recognized. It was hence possible to follow the fate of specific structural moieties in soils. We observed differences between litter and soil samples, and were able to relate them to the decomposition of identifiable moieties. Sample preparation and data acquisition were both simple and fast. Further, using multivariate data analysis, we aimed at linking the detailed chemical fingerprints of SOM to turnover rates in a soil incubation experiment. With the multivariate models, we were able to identify specific molecular

  7. Connectivity-enhanced diffusion analysis reveals white matter density disruptions in first episode and chronic schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael G. Grazioplene

    microstructural group differences. These results underline the need to move beyond tensor-based models in favor of acquisition and analysis techniques that can help disambiguate different sources of white matter disruptions associated with schizophrenia. Keywords: Schizophrenia, Diffusion imaging, DWI, DTI, First episode, Chronic, White matter, Fiber density, Fiber organization

  8. Enhanced WWTP effluent organic matter removal in hybrid ozonation-coagulation (HOC) process catalyzed by Al-based coagulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China); Jin, Pengkang, E-mail: pkjin@hotmail.com [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China); Hou, Rui [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China); Yang, Lei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800 (Australia); Wang, Xiaochang C., E-mail: xcwang@xauat.edu.cn [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • A novel HOC process was firstly put forward to apply in wastewater reclamation. • Interactions between ozone and Al-based coagulants was found in the HOC process. • Ozonation can be catalyzed and enhanced by Al-based coagulants in the HOC process. • HOC process showed better organics removal than pre-ozonation-coagulation process. - Abstract: A novel hybrid ozonation-coagulation (HOC) process was developed for application in wastewater reclamation. In this process, ozonation and coagulation occurred simultaneously within a single unit. Compared with the conventional pre-ozonation-coagulation process, the HOC process exhibited much better performance in removing dissolved organic matters. In particular, the maximal organic matters removal efficiency was obtained at the ozone dosage of 1 mgO{sub 3}/mg DOC at each pH value (pH 5, 7 and 9). In order to interpret the mechanism of the HOC process, ozone decomposition was monitored. The results indicated that ozone decomposed much faster in the HOC process. Moreover, by using the reagent of O{sub 3}-resistant hydroxyl radical (·OH) probe compound, para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis, it was observed that the HOC process generated higher content of ·OH compared with pre-ozonation process. This indicates that the ·OH oxidation reaction as the key step can be catalyzed and enhanced by Al-based coagulants and their hydrolyzed products in this developed process. Thus, based on the catalytic effects of Al-based coagulants on ozonation, the HOC process provides a promising alternative to the conventional technology for wastewater reclamation in terms of higher efficiency.

  9. Greening MSW management systems by saving footprint: The contribution of the waste transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peri, G; Ferrante, P; La Gennusa, M; Pianello, C; Rizzo, G

    2018-05-03

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management constitutes a highly challenging issue to cope with in order of moving towards more sustainable urban policies. Despite new Standards call for recycling and reusing materials contained in the urban waste, several municipalities still use landfilling as a waste disposal method. Other than the environmental pressure exerted by these plants, waste transportation from the collection points to the landfill needs a specific attention to correctly assess the whole burden of the waste management systems. In this paper, the Ecological Footprint (EF) indicator is applied to the actual MSW of the city of Palermo (Sicily). Results show that the effects produced by the involved transportation vehicles are not negligible, compared to those generated by the other segments of the waste management system. This issue is further deepened by analysing the role of transportation in an upgraded waste management system that is represented by the newly designed waste management plan of Palermo. The computed saved ecological footprint is used here for suitably comparing the environmental performances of the MSW system in both scenarios. Finally, the suitability of the EF method to address not only complete waste management plans but also single segments of the waste management system, is also discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Seasonal characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the city of Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2009-07-01

    Management of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a significant environmental problem, especially in fast-growing cities. The amount of waste generated increases each year and this makes it difficult to create solutions which due to the increase in waste generation year after year and having to identify a solution that will have minimum impact on the environment. To determine the most sustainable waste management strategy for Chihuahua, it is first necessary to identify the nature and composition of the city's urban waste. The MSW composition varied considerably depending on many factors, the time of year is one of them. Therefore, as part of our attempt to implement an integral waste management system in the city of Chihuahua, we conducted a study of the characteristics of MSW composition for the different seasons. This paper analyzes and compares the findings of the study of the characterization and the generation of solid waste from households at three different socio-economic levels in the city over three periods (April and August, 2006 and January, 2007). The average weight of waste generated in Chihuahua, taking into account all three seasons, was 0.592 kg capita(-1) day(-1). Our results show that the lowest income groups generated the least amount of waste. We also found that less waste was generated during the winter season. The breakdown for the composition of the waste shows that organic waste accounts for the largest proportion (45%), followed by paper (17%) and others (16%).

  11. Self-care and Professional Quality of Life: Predictive Factors among MSW Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kori R Bloomquist

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the effects of self-care practices and perceptions on positive and negative indicators of professional quality of life, including burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and compassion satisfaction among MSW practitioners. Results reveal that while social workers value and believe self-care is effective in alleviating job-related stress, they engage in self-care on a limited basis. Findings indicate that MSW programs and employers do not teach social workers how to effectively engage in self-care practice. Various domains of self-care practice contribute differently to indicators of professional quality of life. This study sheds light on the under-studied relationship between social worker self-care and professional quality of life, provides insights into the types of activities practiced and not practiced by MSW practitioners, and identifies gaps between perceived value and effective teaching of self-care. Implications exist for social work educators and employers and the potential to support a healthier, sustainable workforce.

  12. Seasonal characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the city of Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2009-01-01

    Management of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a significant environmental problem, especially in fast-growing cities. The amount of waste generated increases each year and this makes it difficult to create solutions which due to the increase in waste generation year after year and having to identify a solution that will have minimum impact on the environment. To determine the most sustainable waste management strategy for Chihuahua, it is first necessary to identify the nature and composition of the city's urban waste. The MSW composition varied considerably depending on many factors, the time of year is one of them. Therefore, as part of our attempt to implement an integral waste management system in the city of Chihuahua, we conducted a study of the characteristics of MSW composition for the different seasons. This paper analyzes and compares the findings of the study of the characterization and the generation of solid waste from households at three different socio-economic levels in the city over three periods (April and August, 2006 and January, 2007). The average weight of waste generated in Chihuahua, taking into account all three seasons, was 0.592 kg capita -1 day -1 . Our results show that the lowest income groups generated the least amount of waste. We also found that less waste was generated during the winter season. The breakdown for the composition of the waste shows that organic waste accounts for the largest proportion (45%), followed by paper (17%) and others (16%).

  13. Characterization and aerobic biological treatment of msw: a case study of hyderabad city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korai, M.S.; Mahar, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) generated in Hyderabad city for its suitability to make compost product through AB (Aerobic Biological) treatment. Assessment of MSW regarding its generation rate, quantification and characterization decides its suitability for composting process. Three AB treatment reactors R1 (natural air circulation and manually mixed reactor), R2 (compressed air circulation and manually mixed reactor) and R3 (compressed air circulation and mechanically mixed reactor) were designed and fabricated. AB treatment of the segregated food and yard waste reveals that there is no any significant change occurs in the moisture content of the compost product in all the reactors but, significant loss of VS (Volatile Solids) and gain of ash content was observed for reactor R2. Thus, the reactor R2 is the most efficient reactor in comparison to other reactors. Moreover, the mechanical mixing in AB treatment does not significantly increase VS loss. Further the reactor R1 does not consumes electricity and thus can be employed as the solution for converting segregated food and yard waste from MSW into a compost product. (author)

  14. Life cycle assessment for optimising the level of separated collection in integrated MSW management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, L; Grosso, M; Giugliano, M

    2009-02-01

    This life cycle assessment study analyses material and energy recovery within integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems, and, in particular, the recovery of the source-separated materials (packaging and organic waste) and the energy recovery from the residual waste. The recovery of materials and energy are analysed together, with the final aim to evaluate possible optimum levels of source-separated collection that lead to the most favourable energetic and environmental results; this method allows identification of an optimum configuration of the MSW management system. The results show that the optimum level of source-separated collection is about 60%, when all the materials are recovered with high efficiency; it decreases to about 50%, when the 60% level is reached as a result of a very high recovery efficiency for organic fractions at the expense of the packaging materials, or when this implies an appreciable reduction of the quality of collected materials. The optimum MSW management system is thus characterized by source-separated collection levels as included in the above indicated range, with subsequent recycling of the separated materials and energy recovery of the residual waste in a large-scale incinerator operating in combined heat and power mode.

  15. Waste into Fuel—Catalyst and Process Development for MSW Valorisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela S. Pieta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present review paper highlights recent progress in the processing of potential municipal solid waste (MSW derived fuels. These wastes come from the sieved fraction (∅ < 40 mm, which, after sorting, can differ in biodegradable fraction content ranging from 5–60%. The fuels obtained from these wastes possess volumetric energy densities in the range of 15.6–26.8 MJL−1 and are composed mainly of methanol, ethanol, butanol, and carboxylic acids. Although these waste streams are a cheap and abundant source (and decrease the fraction going to landfills, syngas produced from MSW contains various impurities such as organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur, and chlorine components. These limit its use for advanced electricity generation especially for heat and power generation units based on high temperature fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC or molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC. In this paper, we review recent research developments in the continuous MSW processing for syngas production specifically concentrating on dry reforming and the catalytic sorbent effects on effluent and process efficiency. A particular emphasis is placed on waste derived biofuels, which are currently a primary candidate for a sustainable biofuel of tomorrow, catalysts/catalytic sorbents with decreased amounts of noble metals, their long term activity, and poison resistance, and novel nano-sorbent materials. In this review, future prospects for waste to fuels or chemicals and the needed research to further process technologies are discussed.

  16. Characterization and open windrow composting of MSW in Jodhpur City, Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambade, Bhushan; Sharma, Sunil; Sharma, Yukti; Sharma, Yagya

    2013-07-01

    Solid waste is sometimes not suitable for direct land application. Processing solid waste through composting converts it to a humus-containing organic material advantageous for agriculture/horticulture use. Major advantages of composting are stabilization of the wastes; substantially reduced C/N ratio and gas formation, and virtually elimination of odors and pathogens. Composting is accomplished under aerobic conditions developing temperatures of 55 degrees C or above. The windrow technique is simple and accomplished easily with standard equipments. The open windrow composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) in windrows was analyzed in this study for six weeks. The raw MSW was introduced to active composting without any source segregations. The moisture content of the MSW dropped from 58.88% to 48.06% and windrow attained a thermophillic temperature for about two weeks. It was observed that the pH, C/N ratio and temperature variations were comparable to that of traditional windrow composting. The peak temperature recorded was 68 degrees C and temperature remained above 60 degrees C for more than three weeks. The volume reduction was obtained by using one-cu.m. cage. The results indicate that the bulk composting could reduce by about 29% the total mass of the waste.

  17. Characterization and Aerobic Biological Treatment of MSW: A Case Study of Hyderabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Safar Korai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the MSW (Municipal Solid Waste generated in Hyderabad city for its suitability to make compost product through AB (Aerobic Biological treatment. Assessment of MSW regarding its generation rate, quantification and characterization decides its suitability for composting process. Three AB treatment reactors R1 (natural air circulation and manually mixed reactor, R2 (compressed air circulation and manually mixed reactor and R3 (compressed air circulation and mechanically mixed reactor were designed and fabricated. AB treatment of the segregated food and yard waste reveals that there is no any significant change occurs in the moisture content of the compost product in all the reactors but, significant loss of VS (Volatile Solids and gain of ash content was observed for reactor R2. Thus, the reactor R2 is the most efficient reactor in comparison to other reactors. Moreover, the mechanical mixing in AB treatment does not significantly increase VS loss. Further the reactor R1 does not consumes electricity and thus can be employed as the solution for converting segregated food and yard waste from MSW into a compost product

  18. Developing Statistical Evaluation Model of Introduction Effect of MSW Thermal Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Makoto; Kato, Takeyoshi; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    For the effective utilization of municipal solid waste (MSW) through a thermal recycling, new technologies, such as an incineration plant using a Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC), are being developed. The impact of new technologies should be evaluated statistically for various municipalities, so that the target of technological development or potential cost reduction due to the increased cumulative number of installed system can be discussed. For this purpose, we developed a model for discussing the impact of new technologies, where a statistical mesh data set was utilized to estimate the heat demand around the incineration plant. This paper examines a case study by using a developed model, where a conventional type and a MCFC type MSW incineration plant is compared in terms of the reduction in primary energy and the revenue by both electricity and heat supply. Based on the difference in annual revenue, we calculate the allowable investment in MCFC-type MSW incineration plant in addition to conventional plant. The results suggest that allowable investment can be about 30 millions yen/(t/day) in small municipalities, while it is only 10 millions yen/(t/day) in large municipalities. The sensitive analysis shows the model can be useful for discussing the difference of impact of material recycling of plastics on thermal recycling technologies.

  19. Potential to cofire high-sulfur coal and MSW/RDF in Illinois utility boilers: A survey and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    The disposal of refuse is of ever-increasing concern for municipalities and other organizations and agencies throughout the United States. Disposal in landfills is becoming more costly, and new landfills are more difficult to site because of stricter environmental regulations. Mass burning incinerators for municipal solid wastes (MSW) have also met with increased public resistance due to excessive emissions. Nevertheless, increased awareness of the need for alternative disposal techniques has led to a new interest in cofiring MSW with coal. In addition to solid waste concerns, the requirements to reduce SO 2 and NO x emissions from coal-fired utility boilers in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, present an opportunity to cofire MSW/RDF with coal as an emission control measure. These issues were the impetus for a 1992 study (conducted by ANL for the Illinois Clean Coal Institute) to examine the potential to cofire coal with MSW/RDF in Illinois utility boilers. This paper will provide a synopsis of the ANL/ICCI report. It will summarize (1) the combustibility and emission characteristics of high-sulfur coal and MSW/RDF; (2) the facilities firing RDF and/or producing/selling RDF, together with their combustion and emissions experience; (3) the applicable emissions regulations in Illinois; and (4) the analysis of candidate utility boilers in Illinois capable of cofiring, together with the effect on coal consumption and SO 2 and NO x emissions that would result from 20% cofiring with RDF/MSW

  20. Enhancing organic matter removal in desalination pretreatment systems by application of dissolved air flotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shutova, Yulia; Karna, Barun Lal; Hambly, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    on the sample, respectively. The optimal normalised coagulant dose (Fe3+ to DOC ratio) was observed to be 0.5-4 at pH5.5 increasing to 4-12 at pH7.5. At pH5.5, the optimum coagulant dose increased with increasing humic character of the feed water. Overall, the OM removal efficiency by DAF observed in this study......Membrane fouling in reverse osmosis (RO) systems caused by organic matter (OM) remains a significant operational issue during desalination. Dissolved air flotation (DAF) has recently received attention as a pre-treatment option for seawater OM removal; however, only a limited number of studies have...... been undertaken. This may be because it is difficult to characterise OM in seawater due to the high salt content and low carbon concentration. In this study, DAF pre-treatment experiments were conducted using a model seawater solution, and real seawater and brackish water samples. DAF performance...

  1. Enhancing organic matter removal, biopolymer recovery and electricity generation from distillery wastewater by combining fungal fermentation and microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh Ray, S; Ghangrekar, M M

    2015-01-01

    For enhancing organic matter removal from cereal-based distillery stillage two-stage treatment consisting of fermentation by Aspergillus awamori followed by microbial fuel cell (MFC) is proposed. Considerable reduction in total and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) up to 70% and 40%, respectively, along with 98% reduction of suspended solids (SS) has been achieved during fungal pretreatment. The process generated chitosan, a useful fermentation byproduct from fungal mycelia, as 0.6-0.7g/l of settled sludge with mycelium (3.8% solids). Prior treatment of wastewater with fungal strain enhanced the power generation in MFC by 2.9 times at an organic loading rate of 1.5kgCOD/m(3)day, demonstrating soluble COD reduction of 92% in MFC. While treating distillery wastewater, this two-stage integrated biological process demonstrated overall 99% COD removal and almost complete removal of SS, delivering ample scope for scale-up and industrial application to offer effective solution for distillery wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dissipative neutrino oscillations in randomly fluctuating matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benatti, F.; Floreanini, R.

    2005-01-01

    The generalized dynamics describing the propagation of neutrinos in randomly fluctuating media is analyzed: It takes into account matter-induced, decoherence phenomena that go beyond the standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. A widely adopted density fluctuation pattern is found to be physically untenable: A more general model needs to be instead considered, leading to flavor changing effective neutrino-matter interactions. They induce new, dissipative effects that modify the neutrino oscillation pattern in a way amenable to a direct experimental analysis

  3. Dissipative neutrino oscillations in randomly fluctuating matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatti, F.; Floreanini, R.

    2005-01-01

    The generalized dynamics describing the propagation of neutrinos in randomly fluctuating media is analyzed: It takes into account matter-induced, decoherence phenomena that go beyond the standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. A widely adopted density fluctuation pattern is found to be physically untenable: A more general model needs to be instead considered, leading to flavor changing effective neutrino-matter interactions. They induce new, dissipative effects that modify the neutrino oscillation pattern in a way amenable to a direct experimental analysis.

  4. Photodegradation of estrone enhanced by dissolved organic matter under simulated sunlight

    KAUST Repository

    Caupos, Emilie

    2011-05-01

    In the present work the degradation of estrone (E1) a natural estrogenic hormone has been studied under simulated solar irradiation. The photodegradation of E1 has been investigated in the absence and in the presence of 7.7-8.9 mg L-1 of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), under solar light simulation with irradiance approximating that of the sun. DOC extracts from different origins have been used. Half-lives ranging between 3.9 h and 7.9 h were observed. Results indicated that E1 was photodegraded even in the absence of DOC. The presence of DOC was found to enhance the degradation of E1. Experiments performed with the addition of reactive species scavengers (azide ions and 2-propanol) have shown that these two species play a significant role in the photodegradation. Some experiments have been performed with a DOC previously submitted to solar irradiation. Changes in optical and physico-chemical properties of DOC strongly affect its photoinductive properties, and hence its efficiency on E1 degradation. A part of the study consisted in the investigation of photoproducts structures. Five photoproducts were shown by chromatographic analysis: one arising from direct photolysis and the four others from DOC photoinduced degradation. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. A matter of attention: Crossmodal congruence enhances and impairs performance in a novel trimodal matching paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misselhorn, Jonas; Daume, Jonathan; Engel, Andreas K; Friese, Uwe

    2016-07-29

    A novel crossmodal matching paradigm including vision, audition, and somatosensation was developed in order to investigate the interaction between attention and crossmodal congruence in multisensory integration. To that end, all three modalities were stimulated concurrently while a bimodal focus was defined blockwise. Congruence between stimulus intensity changes in the attended modalities had to be evaluated. We found that crossmodal congruence improved performance if both, the attended modalities and the task-irrelevant distractor were congruent. If the attended modalities were incongruent, the distractor impaired performance due to its congruence relation to one of the attended modalities. Between attentional conditions, magnitudes of crossmodal enhancement or impairment differed. Largest crossmodal effects were seen in visual-tactile matching, intermediate effects for audio-visual and smallest effects for audio-tactile matching. We conclude that differences in crossmodal matching likely reflect characteristics of multisensory neural network architecture. We discuss our results with respect to the timing of perceptual processing and state hypotheses for future physiological studies. Finally, etiological questions are addressed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Photodegradation of estrone enhanced by dissolved organic matter under simulated sunlight

    KAUST Repository

    Caupos, Emilie; Mazellier, Patrick; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    In the present work the degradation of estrone (E1) a natural estrogenic hormone has been studied under simulated solar irradiation. The photodegradation of E1 has been investigated in the absence and in the presence of 7.7-8.9 mg L-1 of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), under solar light simulation with irradiance approximating that of the sun. DOC extracts from different origins have been used. Half-lives ranging between 3.9 h and 7.9 h were observed. Results indicated that E1 was photodegraded even in the absence of DOC. The presence of DOC was found to enhance the degradation of E1. Experiments performed with the addition of reactive species scavengers (azide ions and 2-propanol) have shown that these two species play a significant role in the photodegradation. Some experiments have been performed with a DOC previously submitted to solar irradiation. Changes in optical and physico-chemical properties of DOC strongly affect its photoinductive properties, and hence its efficiency on E1 degradation. A part of the study consisted in the investigation of photoproducts structures. Five photoproducts were shown by chromatographic analysis: one arising from direct photolysis and the four others from DOC photoinduced degradation. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Male circumcision and penis enhancement in Southeast Asia: matters of pain and pleasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, T H; Budiharsana, M

    2001-11-01

    This paper reviews some uniquely male sexual health concerns in Southeast Asia, with particular attention to Indonesia. These include various forms of male circumcision, different types of 'penis enhancement' carried out across the region and the use of dry sex by women. These practices appear to be motivated by specific notions of sexual pleasure, based on indigenous gender constructs. Although they may or may not pose a serious public health problem, as markers of misguided or exploitative gender relations they do reveal important aspects of social psychology related to sexuality and sexual health. Male circumcision provides an ideal opportunity to consider male reproductive health needs and risks in Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines. Practices that involve cutting the male genitals need to be addressed in ways that stress the importance of sexual relationships based on mutual respect and open communication. Penis implants and inserts and other penis augmentation devices, as well as dry sex practices, are potentially dangerous to both men and women, and of questionable value in bringing pleasure to either, and should be discouraged.

  8. CFD modeling of hydro-biochemical behavior of MSW subjected to leachate recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi-Jin; Cao, Ben-Yi; Li, An-Zheng; Chen, Hong-Xin; Zheng, Qi-Teng

    2018-02-01

    The most commonly used method of operating landfills more sustainably is to promote rapid biodegradation and stabilization of municipal solid waste (MSW) by leachate recirculation. The present study is an application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to the 3D modeling of leachate recirculation in bioreactor landfills using vertical wells. The objective is to model and investigate the hydrodynamic and biochemical behavior of MSW subject to leachate recirculation. The results indicate that the maximum recirculated leachate volume can be reached when vertical wells are set at the upper middle part of a landfill (H W /H T  = 0.4), and increasing the screen length can be more helpful in enlarging the influence radius than increasing the well length (an increase in H S /H W from 0.4 to 0.6 results in an increase in influence radius from 6.5 to 7.7 m). The time to reach steady state of leachate recirculation decreases with the increase in pressure head; however, the time for leachate to drain away increases with the increase in pressure head. It also showed that methanogenic biomass inoculum of 1.0 kg/m 3 can accelerate the volatile fatty acid depletion and increase the peak depletion rate to 2.7 × 10 -6  kg/m 3 /s. The degradation-induced void change parameter exerts an influence on the processes of MSW biodegradation because a smaller parameter value results in a greater increase in void space.

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions from MSW incineration in China: Impacts of waste characteristics and energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Na [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang Hua, E-mail: zhanghua_tj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Chen Miao; Shao Liming [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); He Pinjing, E-mail: xhpjk@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Determination of the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted during municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is complex because both contributions and savings of GHGs exist in the process. To identify the critical factors influencing GHG emissions from MSWI in China, a GHG accounting model was established and applied to six Chinese cities located in different regions. The results showed that MSWI in most of the cities was the source of GHGs, with emissions of 25-207 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw. Within all process stages, the emission of fossil CO{sub 2} from the combustion of MSW was the main contributor (111-254 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw), while the substitution of electricity reduced the GHG emissions by 150-247 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw. By affecting the fossil carbon content and the lower heating value of the waste, the contents of plastic and food waste in the MSW were the critical factors influencing GHG emissions of MSWI. Decreasing food waste content in MSW by half will significantly reduce the GHG emissions from MSWI, and such a reduction will convert MSWI in Urumqi and Tianjin from GHG sources to GHG sinks. Comparison of the GHG emissions in the six Chinese cities with those in European countries revealed that higher energy recovery efficiency in Europe induced much greater reductions in GHG emissions. Recovering the excess heat after generation of electricity would be a good measure to convert MSWI in all the six cities evaluated herein into sinks of GHGs.

  10. Leachate properties as indicators of methane production process in MSW anaerobic digestion bioreactor landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yunmin; Wang, Li'ao; Xu, Tengtun; Li, Jiaxiang; Song, Xue; Hu, Chaochao

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, bioreactor was used to simulate the municipal solid waste (MSW) biodegradation process of landfill, tracing and testing trash methanogenic process and characteristics of leachate during anaerobic digestion, exploring the relationship between the two processes, aiming to screen out the indicators that can predict the methane production process of anaerobic digestion, which provides the support for real-time adjustment of technological parameters of MSW anaerobic digestion system and ensures the efficient operation of bioreactor landfill. The results showed that MSW digestion gas production rate constant is 0.0259 1/d, biogas production potential is 61.93 L/kg. The concentration of TN in leachate continued to increase, showing the trend of nitrogen accumulation. "Ammonia poisoning" was an important factor inhibiting waste anaerobic digestion gas production. In the anaerobic digestion system, although pH values of leachate can indicate methane production process to some degree, there are obvious lagging behind, so it cannot be used as indicator alone. The TOC/TN value of leachate has a certain indication on the stability of the methane production system. When TOC/TN value was larger than12, anaerobic digestion system was stable along with normal production of biogas. However, when TOC/TN value was lower than 12, the digestive system is unstable and the gas production is small. In the process of anaerobic digestion, the synthesis and transformation of valeric acid is more active. HAc/HVa changed greatly and had obvious inflection points, from which methane production period can be predicted.

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions from MSW incineration in China: impacts of waste characteristics and energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Miao; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2012-12-01

    Determination of the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted during municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is complex because both contributions and savings of GHGs exist in the process. To identify the critical factors influencing GHG emissions from MSWI in China, a GHG accounting model was established and applied to six Chinese cities located in different regions. The results showed that MSWI in most of the cities was the source of GHGs, with emissions of 25-207 kg CO(2)-eq t(-1) rw. Within all process stages, the emission of fossil CO(2) from the combustion of MSW was the main contributor (111-254 kg CO(2)-eq t(-1) rw), while the substitution of electricity reduced the GHG emissions by 150-247 kg CO(2)-eq t(-1) rw. By affecting the fossil carbon content and the lower heating value of the waste, the contents of plastic and food waste in the MSW were the critical factors influencing GHG emissions of MSWI. Decreasing food waste content in MSW by half will significantly reduce the GHG emissions from MSWI, and such a reduction will convert MSWI in Urumqi and Tianjin from GHG sources to GHG sinks. Comparison of the GHG emissions in the six Chinese cities with those in European countries revealed that higher energy recovery efficiency in Europe induced much greater reductions in GHG emissions. Recovering the excess heat after generation of electricity would be a good measure to convert MSWI in all the six cities evaluated herein into sinks of GHGs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Removal of selected heavy metals from MSW fly ash by the electrodialytic process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Célia Maria Dias; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the applicability of the electrodialytic remediation technique for the removal of zinc, lead, copper and cadmium from municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator fly ash. A broad range of experimental conditions were studied including current densities, remediation times, use...... of assisting agents and cell design. Several operational problems were identified during the electrodialytic experiments, among which are formation of precipitates, dryness of sample and partial dissolution of sample creating preferential pathways for the electric current. These problems may explain the low...

  13. Role of the transport in management of MSW. Part 1.: global balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturi, M.; Rada, E.C.; Ragazzi, M.

    2008-01-01

    An important aspect, which has to be considered in terms of municipal solid waste (MSW) management, is the stage of collection. The emissions generated from these systems can arrive to values that are of the same order of magnitude of emissions from combustion of waste in waste-to-energy plants. The present work faces the problem of transport, from intermediate station to the center of final combustion, placing attention to the emissions from scenarios that has been selected between real systems of management. This analysis can lead to highlight some important elements that can be useful to minimize the impacts [it

  14. Composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) organic fraction. Energy and CO2 balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Benedetti, B.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study is the comparison between different technologies for the treatment of the organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology constitutes the basic approach of the work, as reference international method of analysis, and allows to compare the energy and CO 2 balances taking into account the fractions deriving from renewable resources or from fossils resources. Results obtained show a significant advantage of the anaerobic treatment of MSW if compared with composting technology: obviously this conclusion refers only to an environmental point of view [it

  15. Mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment in Waste centre Spodnji Stari Grad, Krško

    OpenAIRE

    Kortnik, Jože; Leskovar, Jože

    2015-01-01

    Review paper Received: October 25, 2013 Accepted: November 7, 2013 Mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment in Waste centre Spodnji Stari Grad, Krško Ravnanje z mešanimi komunalnimi odpadki v Zbirnem centru Spodnji Stari Grad, Krško Jože Kortnik1'*, Jože Leskovar2 University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Mining and Geotechnology, Aškerčeva 12, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia 2Kostak, d. d., Leskovška cesta 2a, 8270 Krško, Slovenia Correspo...

  16. Correlates of MSW Students’ Perceptions of Preparedness to Manage Risk and Personal Liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N. Kane

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Few studies in the discipline of social work have identified correlates of preparedness to manage risk and personal liability among practitioners or students. This study investigated predictors of MSW students’ perceptions of managing personal risk and liability (N=116. Four correlates were identified from the standard regression model that accounts for 43% of the adjusted variance. These predictor variables included: (a concern and worry about lawsuits (Beta=-.458, p=.00, (b understanding the fit between client advocacy and managed care (Beta=.328,p=.00, (c understanding agency documentation requirements (Beta=-.164, p=.05, and (d perceptions of field preparation for documentation (Beta=.162, p=.05. Implications are discussed.

  17. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management system--an Italian case study on the quality of MSW data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, A; Pellegrini, M; Saccani, C

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the way numerical data on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) quantities are recorded, processed and then reported for six of the most meaningful Italian Districts and shows the difficulties found during the comparison of these Districts, starting from the lack of homogeneity and the fragmentation of the data indispensable to make this critical analysis. These aspects are often ignored, but data certainty are the basis for serious MSW planning. In particular, the paper focuses on overall Source Separation Level (SSL) definition and on the influence that Special Waste (SW) assimilated to MSW has on it. An investigation was then necessary to identify new parameters in place of overall SSL. Moreover, these parameters are not only important for a waste management system performance measure, but are fundamental in order to design and check management plan and to identify possible actions to improve it. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Potential of municipal solid waste (MSW) as a source of energy in Sao Paulo: its impact on CO2 balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leao, A.L.; Ing Hwie Tan

    1998-01-01

    Energy generation is needed in Sao Paulo and MSW represents a promising alternative, although it is more expensive than hydroelectric power. About 14 900 t/day of MSW is generated, of which 8433 t/day is domestic and commercial MSW. From this amount, 1800 t will be destined to generate 30 MW of power. The eco-balance of CO 2 has been considered for incineration and recycling. The recycling program of plastics, metals, paper and glass would represent a significant reduction in energy and CO 2 emission. The total CO 2 released is 3.34 x 10 5 t/yr without recycling, and is 1.25 x 10 5 t/yr with a recycling program. Most of the CO 2 comes from plastics and paper production. Economic aspects could probably favor incineration with energy production as the best option. (author)

  19. An accurate analytic description of neutrino oscillations in matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmedov, E. Kh.; Niro, Viviana

    2008-12-01

    A simple closed-form analytic expression for the probability of two-flavour neutrino oscillations in a matter with an arbitrary density profile is derived. Our formula is based on a perturbative expansion and allows an easy calculation of higher order corrections. The expansion parameter is small when the density changes relatively slowly along the neutrino path and/or neutrino energy is not very close to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) resonance energy. Our approximation is not equivalent to the adiabatic approximation and actually goes beyond it. We demonstrate the validity of our results using a few model density profiles, including the PREM density profile of the Earth. It is shown that by combining the results obtained from the expansions valid below and above the MSW resonance one can obtain a very good description of neutrino oscillations in matter in the entire energy range, including the resonance region.

  20. A novel shredder for municipal solid waste (MSW): influence of feed moisture on breakage performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Siyi; Xiao, Bo; Xiao, Lei

    2010-08-01

    A novel MSW shredder was presented but many aspects of the shredder have not been fully characterized. The feed moisture is an important factor that influences crushing performance. This paper focuses on the effect of feed moisture. The breakage of municipal solid waste (MSW) at several moisture levels (0%, 10%, 20%, 40% and 60%) was conducted with a laboratory shredder to investigate the effect of feed moisture on product size distribution and specific energy consumption under two different hydraulic pressures (40 and 60 kg/cm(2)). The results showed definite effects of feed moisture on the product size distribution and specific energy consumption: there is a tendency for the fine production in products to decrease with increasing amounts of water content in the feed; with the increasing feed moisture, specific energy shows an increasing trend; the specific energy and product size distribution under lower hydraulic pressure is more sensitive to the feed moisture than it is under higher hydraulic pressure. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimation of residual MSW heating value as a function of waste component recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magrinho, Alexandre; Semiao, Viriato

    2008-01-01

    Recycling of packaging wastes may be compatible with incineration within integrated waste management systems. To study this, a mathematical model is presented to calculate the fraction composition of residual municipal solid waste (MSW) only as a function of the MSW fraction composition at source and recycling fractions of the different waste materials. The application of the model to the Lisbon region yielded results showing that the residual waste fraction composition depends both on the packaging wastes fraction at source and on the ratio between that fraction and the fraction of the same material, packaging and non-packaging, at source. This behaviour determines the variation of the residual waste LHV. For 100% of paper packaging recycling, LHV reduces 4.2% whereas this reduction is of 14.4% for 100% of packaging plastics recycling. For 100% of food waste recovery, LHV increases 36.8% due to the moisture fraction reduction of the residual waste. Additionally the results evidence that the negative impact of recycling paper and plastic packaging on the LHV may be compensated by recycling food waste and glass and metal packaging. This makes packaging materials recycling and food waste recovery compatible strategies with incineration within integrated waste management systems

  2. Results of full scale dry injection tests at MSW-incinerators using a new active absorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felsvang, K.S.; Helvind, O.

    1991-01-01

    Worldwide incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been utilized to reduce the volume of waste to be disposed of. Increasing environmental concerns over the potential air pollution impacts have led to emission limits for pollutants such as HCl, SO 2 , particulate, and more recently also for mercury and dioxins. For a certain size of incinerators, dry sorbent injection is the preferred technology for air pollution control. This paper describes the development of a new active sorbent, Scansorb, which is particularly suited for use in dry injection processes. The new sorbent is a lime based product with adjustable properties. Scansorb can be produced with a specific surface area of 30 to 100 m 2 /g. Pilot plant development work has shown that a considerable reduction in the absorbent quantity can be achieved when Scansorb is used instead of commercial hydrated lime. Full scale tests performed at four different MSW incinerators have confirmed the viability of the new active absorbent. The full scale tests have demonstrated that more than 50% SO 2 removal can be achieved with Scansorb at quantities much less than with commercial hydrated lime

  3. Effect of natural ageing on volume stability of MSW and wood waste incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, Manuela; Bergfeldt, Britta; Reichelt, Jürgen; Sirini, Piero

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Natural weathering on BA from MSW and wood waste incineration was evaluated. ► Type of mineral phases, pH and volume stability were considered. ► Weathering reactions effect in improved stability of the materials. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of a study on the effect of natural weathering on volume stability of bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste (MSW) and wood waste incineration. BA samples were taken at different steps of treatment (fresh, 4 weeks and 12 weeks aged) and then characterised for their chemical and mineralogical composition and for volume stability by means of the mineralogical test method (M HMVA-StB), which is part of the German quality control system for using aggregates in road construction (TL Gestein-StB 04). Changes of mineralogical composition with the proceeding of the weathering treatment were also monitored by leaching tests. At the end of the 12 weeks of treatment, almost all the considered samples resulted to be usable without restrictions in road construction with reference to the test parameter volume stability

  4. Design of experiment (DOE) based screening of factors affecting municipal solid waste (MSW) composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Khoshrooz; Zhang, Baiyu; Lye, Leonard M; Cai, Qinghong; Cao, Tong

    2016-12-01

    A design of experiment (DOE) based methodology was adopted in this study to investigate the effects of multiple factors and their interactions on the performance of a municipal solid waste (MSW) composting process. The impact of four factors, carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N), moisture content (MC), type of bulking agent (BA) and aeration rate (AR) on the maturity, stability and toxicity of compost product was investigated. The statistically significant factors were identified using final C/N, germination index (GI) and especially the enzyme activities as responses. Experimental results validated the use of enzyme activities as proper indices during the course of composting. Maximum enzyme activities occurred during the active phase of decomposition. MC has a significant effect on dehydrogenase activity (DGH), β-glucosidase activity (BGH), phosphodiesterase activity (PDE) and the final moisture content of the compost. C/N is statistically significant for final C/N, DGH, BGH, and GI. The results provided guidance to optimize a MSW composting system that will lead to increased decomposition rate and the production of more stable and mature compost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Continuous ‘Passive’ flow-proportional monitoring of drainage using a new modified Sutro weir (MSW) unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Rozemeijer, Joachim; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen

    2016-01-01

    concentrations. The MSWbuilds on a modern passive sampling technique that responds to hydraulic pressure and measures average concentrations over time (days to months) for various substances. Mounting the samplers in the MSW allowed a flow-proportional part of the drainage to be sampled. Laboratory testing...... yielded high linear correlation between the accumulated sampler flow, qtotal, and accumulated drainage flow, Qtotal (r2 > 0.96). The slope of these correlations was used to calculate the total drainage discharge from the sampled volume, and therefore contaminant load. A calibration of the MSW under...

  6. [Optimization for MSW logistics of new Xicheng and new Dongcheng districts in Beijing based on the maximum capacity of transfer stations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Li, Guo-xue; Zhang, Hong-yu; Luo, Yi-ming

    2013-09-01

    It is necessary to achieve the optimization for MSW logistics based on the new Xicheng (combining the former Xicheng and the former Xuanwu districts) and the new Dongcheng (combining the former Dongcheng and the former Chongwen districts) districts of Beijing. Based on the analysis of current MSW logistics system, transfer station's processing capacity and the terminal treatment facilities' conditions of the four former districts and other districts, a MSW logistics system was built by GIS methods considering transregional treatment. This article analyzes the MSW material balance of current and new logistics systems. Results show that the optimization scheme could reduce the MSW collection distance of the new Xicheng and the new Dongcheng by 9.3 x 10(5) km x a(-1), reduced by 10% compared with current logistics. Under the new logistics solution, considering transregional treatment, can reduce landfill treatment of untreated MSW about 28.3%. If the construction of three incineration plants finished based on the new logistics, the system's optimal ratio of incineration: biochemical treatment: landfill can reach 3.8 : 4.5 : 1.7 compared with 1 : 4.8 : 4.2, which is the ratio of current MSW logistics. The ratio of the amount of incineration: biochemical treatment: landfill approximately reach 4 : 3 : 3 which is the target for 2015. The research results are benefit in increasing MSW utilization and reduction rate of the new Dongcheng and Xicheng districts and nearby districts.

  7. Has Group Work Education Lost Its Social Group Work Essence? A Content Analysis of MSW Course Syllabi in Search of Mutual Aid and Group Conflict Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweifach, Jay Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of a content analysis of MSW group work course syllabi in an effort to better understand the extent to which mutual aid and group conflict, two important dimensions of social group work, are included and featured as prominent elements in MSW-level group work instruction.

  8. Feasibility of municipal solid waste (MSW as energy sources for Saudi Arabia’s future Reverse osmosis (RO desalination plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agboola Phillips O.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA generates between 1.4–1.75 kg/person/day of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW that accounts for over 16 million tons of MSW/year. The solid waste collected from different sources is dumped in landfills, thereby creating environmental concerns. In this paper, the potential of solid waste as an energy source (Waste to Energy (WTE for Reverse Osmosis (RO water purification was evaluated. The KSA is known for its acute fresh water shortages and uses desalination technology in meeting its daily water requirements; a process that is energy intensive. The evaluation of the energy content of MSW shows a potential to produce about 927 MW in 2015, based on a total mass burn, and about 1,692 MW in 2032. The MSW-WTE plants can produce about 1.5% of the targeted 120 GW of energy for 2032. For the R.O system, it will give approximately 16.8% of the daily fresh water needed for total mass burn and 2.4% with the recycling option.

  9. Sources and speciation of heavy metals in municipal solid waste (MSW) and its effect on the separation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biollaz, S; Ludwig, Ch; Stucki, S [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    A literature search was carried out to determine sources and speciation of heavy metals in MSW. A combination of thermal and mechanical separation techniques is necessary to achieve the required high degrees of metal separation. Metallic goods should be separated mechanically, chemically bound heavy metals by a thermal process. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 6 refs.

  10. Teaching Note--Educating Public Health Social Work Professionals: Results from an MSW/MPH Program Outcomes Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Betty J.; Marshall, Jamie Wyatt; Velásquez, Esther E. M.; Bachman, Sara S.

    2015-01-01

    Dual-degree programs in public health and social work continue to proliferate, yet there has been little research on master's of social work (MSW)/master's of public health (MPH) graduates. The purpose of this study was to describe and better understand the self-reported professional experiences, identities, roles, and outcomes associated with 1…

  11. Comparison of potential greenhouse gas emissions from disposal of MSW in sanitary landfills vs. waste-to-energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, H.F.

    1991-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates the US currently generates about 160 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) per year, and this figure will exceed 200 million tons annually by the year 2000. About 80 percent of the MSW will be disposed of in landfills and waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities, both of which generate greenhouse gases, namely methane and carbon dioxide. This paper provides an introductory level analysis of the potential long term greenhouse gas emissions from these two MSW disposal alternatives. Carbon dioxide credits are derived for fossil fuel offset by WTE and methane emissions are converted to equivalent CO 2 emissions in order to derive a single emission figure for comparison of the greenhouse contribution of the two disposal strategies. A secondary analysis is presented to compare the net equivalent CO 2 emissions from WTE facilities to those from landfills with methane gas recovery, combustion and energy generation. The conclusion is, that for a given amount of MSW, landfilling contributes to the greenhouse effect about 10 times more than a modern Waste-To-Energy facility. Even with 50% of all landfill methane emissions recovered and converted to electricity, the contribution to the greenhouse effect by the landfill alternative is about 6 times greater than the waste-to-energy alternative

  12. 210Pb and 210Po in sediments and suspended matter in the Tagus estuary, Portugal: Local enhancement of natural levels by wastes from phosphate ore processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.

    1994-01-01

    Results of analyses of uranium series radionuclides in phosphate ore and in wastes released by the phosphate fertilizer industry confirm their potential for the enhancement of environmental radioactivity levels. Therefore, concentrations of 210 Pb and 210 Po were measured in bottom sediments and suspended matter in the Tagus estuary, Portugal, to assess the enhancement of radioactivity due to wastes from the phosphate industry. The concentration of 210 Pb in surface sediments in the estuary increased inversely with sediment grain-size; conversely, increased percentage of sand has a dilution effect on the concentration of 210 Pb measured in bulk sediment samples. By normalizing the data to the 210 Pb in sediments was found to be 68 ± 19 Bq kg -1 (dry wt.) in background sediments. Higher 210 Pb levels, up to 1580 Bq kg -1 (dry wt.), were measured in some bulk sediment samples. It was verified that this radionuclide has been introduced by the discharge of wastes from a phosphate fertilizer plant but enhanced concentrations are localized near the point of discharge. In other zones of the estuary, the concentrations of 210 Pb in sediments and suspended matter were generally below those measured in the zone of phosphatic releases at the Barreiro Peninsula. Concentrations higher than the predicted average concentration of unsupported 210 Pb from natural sources (atmospheric deposition, river input) were also measured in the upper estuary, both in bottom sediments and in suspended matter. It is suggested that these relatively elevated concentrations are due to the highly efficient scavenging of soluble naturally-occurring unsupported 210 Pb onto suspended matter and to co-precipitation with iron-manganese hydroxides in the fresh water-salt water mixing zone

  13. Neutrino-electron scattering and the choice between different MSW solutions of the solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, S.P.; Gelb, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper considers the scattering of solar neutrinos by electrons as a means for distinguishing between different MSW solutions of the solar neutrino problem. In terms of the ratio R between the observed cross-section and that for pure electron-type neutrinos, some correlation between the value of R and each solution is found. A value of R ≤ 1/3 implies that the adiabatic solution is correct, while values between 1/3 and 3/5 are consistent with the large angle solution. A value close to 1/2 is also consistent with the non-adiabatic solution, and a value less than (1/6 - 1/7) implies oscillations into sterile neutrinos

  14. Analysis of MSW treatment plant with production of biogas, RDF and compost through simulative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosca, R; Giribone, P; Schenone, M. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). ITIM, Engineering Dept.; Macchiavello, A [Genoa Univ. (Italy). ISTIC, Engineering Dept.

    1996-12-31

    This work concerns the feasibility study of a MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) treatment plant based on wet way technology. The choice towards such a plant engineering-solution is due to the utilization of the energetic component of waste, through a production of both biogas and RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) with practically any impact on environment. That`s why this solution is preferred to the traditional incinerating technologies and pyrolysis, that cause environmental damage because of more or less noxious emissions. In order to analyse how a so called multipurpose platform works, a discrete and stochastic simulation modeL able to describe in detail the flow of plant materials, was built. Then a very accurate experimentation campaign was carried out in order to determine a technical evaluation and consequently an economic analysis to verify the convenience of such a plant in the area of western Liguria. (author)

  15. Analysis of MSW treatment plant with production of biogas, RDF and compost through simulative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosca, R.; Giribone, P.; Schenone, M. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). ITIM, Engineering Dept.; Macchiavello, A. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). ISTIC, Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31

    This work concerns the feasibility study of a MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) treatment plant based on wet way technology. The choice towards such a plant engineering-solution is due to the utilization of the energetic component of waste, through a production of both biogas and RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) with practically any impact on environment. That`s why this solution is preferred to the traditional incinerating technologies and pyrolysis, that cause environmental damage because of more or less noxious emissions. In order to analyse how a so called multipurpose platform works, a discrete and stochastic simulation modeL able to describe in detail the flow of plant materials, was built. Then a very accurate experimentation campaign was carried out in order to determine a technical evaluation and consequently an economic analysis to verify the convenience of such a plant in the area of western Liguria. (author)

  16. Public perception of odour and environmental pollution attributed to MSW treatment and disposal facilities: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Feo, Giovanni, E-mail: g.defeo@unisa.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, via Ponte don Melillo 1, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); De Gisi, Sabino [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, via Ponte don Melillo 1, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Williams, Ian D. [Waste Management Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Effects of closing MSW facilities on perception of odour and pollution studied. ► Residents’ perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished post closure. ► Odour perception showed an association with distance from MSW facilities. ► Media coverage increased knowledge about MSW facilities and how they operate. ► Economic compensation possibly affected residents’ views and concerns. - Abstract: If residents’ perceptions, concerns and attitudes towards waste management facilities are either not well understood or underestimated, people can produce strong opposition that may include protest demonstrations and violent conflicts such as those experienced in the Campania Region of Italy. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the closure of solid waste treatment and disposal facilities (two landfills and one RDF production plant) on public perception of odour and environmental pollution. The study took place in four villages in Southern Italy. Identical questionnaires were administered to residents during 2003 and after the closure of the facilities occurred in 2008. The residents’ perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished between 2003 and 2009 for the nearest villages, with odour perception showing an association with distance from the facilities. Post closure, residents had difficulty in identifying the type of smell due to the decrease in odour level. During both surveys, older residents reported most concern about the potentially adverse health impacts of long-term exposure to odours from MSW facilities. However, although awareness of MSW facilities and concern about potentially adverse health impacts varied according to the characteristics of residents in 2003, substantial media coverage produced an equalisation effect and increased knowledge about the type of facilities and how they operated. It is possible that residents of the village nearest to the facilities reported lower awareness of and concern about

  17. Public perception of odour and environmental pollution attributed to MSW treatment and disposal facilities: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Feo, Giovanni; De Gisi, Sabino; Williams, Ian D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effects of closing MSW facilities on perception of odour and pollution studied. ► Residents’ perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished post closure. ► Odour perception showed an association with distance from MSW facilities. ► Media coverage increased knowledge about MSW facilities and how they operate. ► Economic compensation possibly affected residents’ views and concerns. - Abstract: If residents’ perceptions, concerns and attitudes towards waste management facilities are either not well understood or underestimated, people can produce strong opposition that may include protest demonstrations and violent conflicts such as those experienced in the Campania Region of Italy. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the closure of solid waste treatment and disposal facilities (two landfills and one RDF production plant) on public perception of odour and environmental pollution. The study took place in four villages in Southern Italy. Identical questionnaires were administered to residents during 2003 and after the closure of the facilities occurred in 2008. The residents’ perception of odour nuisance considerably diminished between 2003 and 2009 for the nearest villages, with odour perception showing an association with distance from the facilities. Post closure, residents had difficulty in identifying the type of smell due to the decrease in odour level. During both surveys, older residents reported most concern about the potentially adverse health impacts of long-term exposure to odours from MSW facilities. However, although awareness of MSW facilities and concern about potentially adverse health impacts varied according to the characteristics of residents in 2003, substantial media coverage produced an equalisation effect and increased knowledge about the type of facilities and how they operated. It is possible that residents of the village nearest to the facilities reported lower awareness of and concern about

  18. A multi-objective programming model for assessment the GHG emissions in MSW management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrotas, George; Skoulaxinou, Sotiria; Gakis, Nikos; Katsouros, Vassilis; Georgopoulou, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The multi-objective multi-period optimization model. • The solution approach for the generation of the Pareto front with mathematical programming. • The very detailed description of the model (decision variables, parameters, equations). • The use of IPCC 2006 guidelines for landfill emissions (first order decay model) in the mathematical programming formulation. - Abstract: In this study a multi-objective mathematical programming model is developed for taking into account GHG emissions for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management. Mathematical programming models are often used for structure, design and operational optimization of various systems (energy, supply chain, processes, etc.). The last twenty years they are used all the more often in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management in order to provide optimal solutions with the cost objective being the usual driver of the optimization. In our work we consider the GHG emissions as an additional criterion, aiming at a multi-objective approach. The Pareto front (Cost vs. GHG emissions) of the system is generated using an appropriate multi-objective method. This information is essential to the decision maker because he can explore the trade-offs in the Pareto curve and select his most preferred among the Pareto optimal solutions. In the present work a detailed multi-objective, multi-period mathematical programming model is developed in order to describe the waste management problem. Apart from the bi-objective approach, the major innovations of the model are (1) the detailed modeling considering 34 materials and 42 technologies, (2) the detailed calculation of the energy content of the various streams based on the detailed material balances, and (3) the incorporation of the IPCC guidelines for the CH 4 generated in the landfills (first order decay model). The equations of the model are described in full detail. Finally, the whole approach is illustrated with a case study referring to the application

  19. A multi-objective programming model for assessment the GHG emissions in MSW management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrotas, George, E-mail: mavrotas@chemeng.ntua.gr [National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou 9, Zografou, Athens, 15780 (Greece); Skoulaxinou, Sotiria [EPEM SA, 141 B Acharnon Str., Athens, 10446 (Greece); Gakis, Nikos [FACETS SA, Agiou Isidorou Str., Athens, 11471 (Greece); Katsouros, Vassilis [Athena Research and Innovation Center, Artemidos 6 and Epidavrou Str., Maroussi, 15125 (Greece); Georgopoulou, Elena [National Observatory of Athens, Thisio, Athens, 11810 (Greece)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • The multi-objective multi-period optimization model. • The solution approach for the generation of the Pareto front with mathematical programming. • The very detailed description of the model (decision variables, parameters, equations). • The use of IPCC 2006 guidelines for landfill emissions (first order decay model) in the mathematical programming formulation. - Abstract: In this study a multi-objective mathematical programming model is developed for taking into account GHG emissions for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management. Mathematical programming models are often used for structure, design and operational optimization of various systems (energy, supply chain, processes, etc.). The last twenty years they are used all the more often in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management in order to provide optimal solutions with the cost objective being the usual driver of the optimization. In our work we consider the GHG emissions as an additional criterion, aiming at a multi-objective approach. The Pareto front (Cost vs. GHG emissions) of the system is generated using an appropriate multi-objective method. This information is essential to the decision maker because he can explore the trade-offs in the Pareto curve and select his most preferred among the Pareto optimal solutions. In the present work a detailed multi-objective, multi-period mathematical programming model is developed in order to describe the waste management problem. Apart from the bi-objective approach, the major innovations of the model are (1) the detailed modeling considering 34 materials and 42 technologies, (2) the detailed calculation of the energy content of the various streams based on the detailed material balances, and (3) the incorporation of the IPCC guidelines for the CH{sub 4} generated in the landfills (first order decay model). The equations of the model are described in full detail. Finally, the whole approach is illustrated with a case study referring to the

  20. Present and long-term composition of MSW landfill leachate: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Barlaz, M.A.; Rooker, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    The major potential environmental impacts related to landfill leachate are pollution of groundwater and surface waters. Landfill leachate contains pollutants that can be categorized into four groups (dissolved organic matter, inorganic macrocomponents, heavy metals, and xenobiotic organic compounds...... are observed. In contrast, the concentration of ammonia does not decrease, and often constitutes a major long-term pollutant in leachate. A broad range of xenobiotic organic compounds is observed in landfill leachate. The long-term behavior of landfills with respect to changes in oxidation-reduction status...... is discussed based on theory and model simulations. It seems that the somewhere postulated enhanced release of accumulated heavy metals would not take place within the time frames of thousands of years. This is supported by a few laboratory investigations. The existing data and model evaluations indicate...

  1. Evaluation of the potentialities to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions resulting from various treatments of municipal solid wastes (MSW) in moist tropical climates: application to Yaounde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngnikam, Emmanuel; Tanawa, Emile; Rousseaux, Patrick; Riedacker, Arthur; Gourdon, Rémy

    2002-12-01

    The authors here analyse the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) resulting from the various treatment of municipal solid waste found in the town of Yaounde. Four management systems have been taken as the basis for analyses. System 1 is the traditional collection and landfill disposal, while in system 2 the hiogas produced in the landfill is recuperated to produce electricity. In systems 3 and 4, in addition to the collection, we have introduced a centralised composting or biogas plant before the landfilling disposal of refuse. A Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) of the four systems was made; this enable us to quantify the flux of matter and of energy, consumed or produced by the systems. Following this, only the greenhouse effect was taken into account to evaluate the ecological consequences of the MSW management systems. The method used to evaluate this impact takes into consideration on the one hand, GHG emissions or avoided emission following the substitution of fuel with methane recovered from landfills or produced in the digesters, and on the other hand, sequestrated carbon in the soil following the regular deposit of compost. Landfilling without recuperation of methane is the most emitting solution for greenhouse gas: it leads to the emission of 1.7 ton of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2E) per ton of household waste. Composting and methanisation allow one to have a comparable level of emission reduction, either respectively 1.8 and 2 tCO2E/t of MSW. In order to reduce the emission of GHG in the waste management systems, it is advisable to avoid first of all the emissions of methane coming from the landfills. System 2 seems to be a solution that would reduce the emissions of GHG at low cost (2.2 to 4 $/tCO2E). System 2 is calculated as the most effective at the environmental and economic level in the context of Yaounde. Therefore traditional collection, landfill disposal and biogas recuperation to produce electricity is preferable in moist tropical climates.

  2. Removal and transformation of effluent organic matter (EfOM) in biotreated textile wastewater by GAC/O3 pre-oxidation and enhanced coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Feiyue; Sun, Xianbo; Liu, Yongdi; Xu, Hongyong

    2013-01-01

    GAC/O3 (ozonation in the presence of granular activated carbon) combined with enhanced coagulation was employed to process biotreated textile wastewater for possible reuse. The doses of ozone, GAC and coagulant were the variables studied for optimization. The effects of different treatment processes on effluent organic matter (EfOM) characteristics, including biodegradability, hydrophobic and hydrophilic nature, and apparent molecular weight (AMW) distribution were also investigated. Compared with ozonation, GAC/O3 not only presented a higher pre-oxidation efficiency, but also improved the treatability of hydrophobic and high molecular weight compounds by enhanced coagulation. After treatment by GAC/O3 pre-oxidation (0.6 mg O3 x mg(-1) COD and 20 g x L(-1) GAC) and enhanced coagulation (25 mg x L(-1) Al3+ at pH 5.5), the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and colour were higher than those for coagulation alone by 17.3%, 12.0% and 25.6%, respectively. Residual organic matter consisted mainly of hydrophobic acids and hydrophilic compounds of AMW wastewater.

  3. Thermodynamic analysis on heavy metals partitioning impacted by moisture during the MSW incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanguo; Li Qinghai; Jia Jinyan; Meng Aihong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Partitioning of HMs affected by moisture was investigated by thermodynamic analysis. ► Increase in moisture and in temperature was opposite impact on HMs contribution. ► The extent of temperature decreased by increase in moisture determines the impact. - Abstract: A thermodynamic calculation was carried out to predict the behavior and speciation of heavy metals (HMs), Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd, during municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration with the different moisture levels. The calculation was based on the minimization of the total Gibbs free energy of the multi-components and multi-phases closed system reaching chemical equilibrium. The calculation also indicated the reaction directions and tendencies of HMs components. The impacts of chlorine additives (No PVC, 1%PVC, and 5%PVC) and moisture on the behavior of HMs were investigated at different temperature levels in the system (750 °C, 950 °C, and 1150 °C). Furthermore, because the incineration temperature falls down with the increase in moisture in waste, the co-influence of moisture and temperature in combusting MSW on the HMs was also studied with the given chlorine (as 1%PVC + 0.5%NaCl). The results showed that in the non-chlorine system, the impact of the moisture on Pb, Zn, and Cu was not significant, and the ratio of compound transformation was less than 10%, except the Cd compounds at 950 °C and 1150 °C. In the system with low chlorine (as 1%PVC) at constant temperature, the chlorides of HMs (Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu) transferred to oxides, and when the content of chlorine rose up (as 5%PVC), the ratio of the chlorides of HMs (Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu) transferring to oxides fell down noticeably. When the moisture varied together with the temperature, the Zn and Cu compounds transferred from chlorides to oxides with increase in moisture as well as decrease in temperature. At the temperature of 700–1000 °C, the impact of temperature on Pb and Cd was little and the moisture was the main factor

  4. CFD simulation of MSW combustion and SNCR in a commercial incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Zihong; Li, Jian; Wu, Tingting [Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification and Energy Chemical Engineering of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Chen, Caixia, E-mail: cxchen@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification and Energy Chemical Engineering of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Xiaoke [Shanghai Environment Group Company, 1881 Hongqiao Road, Shanghai 200336 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Presented a CFD scheme for modeling MSW incinerator including SNCR process. • Performed a sensitivity analysis of SNCR operating conditions. • Non-uniform distributions of gas velocity, temperature and NO{sub x} in the incinerator. • The injection position of reagent was critical for a desirable performance of SNCR. • A NSR 1.5 was recommended as a compromise of NO{sub x} reduction rates and NH{sub 3} slip. - Abstract: A CFD scheme was presented for modeling municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in a moving-grate incinerator, including the in-bed burning of solid wastes, the out-of-bed burnout of gaseous volatiles, and the selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) process between urea (CO(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}) and NO{sub x}. The in-bed calculations provided 2-D profiles of the gas–solid temperatures and the gas species concentrations along the bed length, which were then used as inlet conditions for the out-of-bed computations. The over-bed simulations provided the profiles of incident radiation heat flux on the top of bed. A 3-dimensional benchmark simulation was conducted with a 750 t/day commercial incinerator using the present coupling scheme incorporating with a reduced SNCR reduction mechanism. Numerical tests were performed to investigate the effects of operating parameters such as injection position, injection speed and the normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) on the SNCR performance. The simulation results showed that the distributions of gas velocity, temperature and NO{sub x} concentration were highly non-uniform, which made the injection position one of the most sensitive operating parameters influencing the SNCR performance of moving grate incinerators. The simulation results also showed that multi-layer injections were needed to meet the EU2000 standard, and a NSR 1.5 was suggested as a compromise of a satisfactory NO{sub x} reduction and reasonable NH{sub 3} slip rates. This work provided useful guides to the design and

  5. Assessment of mobility and bioavailability of contaminants in MSW incineration ash with aquatic and terrestrial bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribé, V; Nehrenheim, E; Odlare, M

    2014-10-01

    Incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a waste treatment method which can be sustainable in terms of waste volume reduction as well as a source of renewable energy. In the process fly and bottom ash is generated as a waste material. The ash residue may vary greatly in composition depending on the type of waste incinerated and it can contain elevated levels of harmful contaminants such as heavy metals. In this study, the ecotoxicity of a weathered, untreated incineration bottom ash was characterized as defined by the H14 criterion of the EU Waste Framework Directive by means of an elemental analysis, leaching tests followed by a chemical analysis and a combination of aquatic and solid-phase bioassays. The experiments were conducted to assess the mobility and bioavailability of ash contaminants. A combination of aquatic and terrestrial bioassays was used to determine potentially adverse acute effects of exposure to the solid ash and aqueous ash leachates. The results from the study showed that the bottom ash from a municipal waste incineration plant in mid-Sweden contained levels of metals such as Cu, Pb and Zn, which exceeded the Swedish EPA limit values for inert wastes. The chemical analysis of the ash leachates showed high concentrations of particularly Cr. The leachate concentration of Cr exceeded the limit value for L/S 10 leaching for inert wastes. Filtration of leachates prior to analysis may have underestimated the leachability of complex-forming metals such as Cu and Pb. The germination test of solid ash and ash leachates using T. repens showed a higher inhibition of seedling emergence of seeds exposed to the solid ash than the seeds exposed to ash leachates. This indicated a relatively low mobility of toxicants from the solid ash into the leachates, although some metals exceeded the L/S 10 leaching limit values for inert wastes. The Microtox® toxicity test showed only a very low toxic response to the ash leachate exposure, while the D. magna

  6. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gug, JeongIn; Cacciola, David; Sobkowicz, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in higher heating value. Analysis of the post-processing water uptake and compressive strength showed a correlation between density and stability to both mechanical stress and humid environment. Proximate analysis indicated heating values comparable to coal. The results showed that mechanical and moisture uptake stability were improved when the moisture and air contents were optimized. Moreover, the briquette

  7. Production and characterization refuse derived fuel (RDF) from high organic and moisture contents of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianda, P.; Mahidin; Munawar, E.

    2018-03-01

    Many cities in developing countries is facing a serious problems to dealing with huge municipal solid waste (MSW) generated. The main approach to manage MSW is causes environmental impact associated with the leachate and landfill gas emissions. On the other hand, the energy available also limited by rapid growth of population and economic development due to shortage of the natural resource. In this study, the potential utilized of MSW to produce refuse derived fuel (RDF) was investigate. The RDF was produced with various organic waste content. Then, the RDF was subjected to laboratory analysis to determine its characteristic including the calorific value. The results shows the moisture content was increased by increasing organic waste content, while the calorific value was found 17-36 MJ/kg. The highest calorific value was about 36 MJ/kg obtained at RDF with 40% organic waste content. This results indicated that the RDF can be use to substitute coal in main burning process and calcinations of cement industry.

  8. Production of valuable pyrolytic oils from mixed Municipal Solid Waste (MSW in Indonesia using non-isothermal and isothermal experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Mamad Gandidi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste (MSW, disposed of at open dumping sites, poses health risks, contaminates surface water, and releases greenhouse gasses such as methane. However, pyrolysis offers the opportunity to convert MSW into Bio-Oil (BO for clean energy resource. In this paper, an MSW sample consisting of plastic, paper and cardboard, rubber and textiles, and vegetable waste is pyrolysed on a laboratory scale in a fixed-bed vacuum reactor. In the non-isothermal process, the sample was fed into the reactor and then heated. In the isothermal process, the reactor is first heated and then the sample is added. The non-isothermal process created greater BO in both quality and quantity. The BO had a larger amount of gasoline species than diesel-48 fuel, with at 33.44%the BO produced by isothermal pyrolysis and 36.42% in non-isothermal pyrolysis. However the product of isothermal pyrolysis had a higher acid content that reduced its heating value.

  9. Characterization study of heavy metal-bearing phases in MSW slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Motomura, Yoshinobu; Watanabe, Koichiro

    2009-01-01

    Slag products derived from the pyrolysis/melting and plasma/melting treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Japan were examined for the characterization study of heavy metal-bearing phases using petrographic techniques. Detailed microscopic observations revealed that the shapes of heavy metal-rich inclusions are generally spherical to semi-spherical and their sizes range from submicron to scarcely large size spheres (over 100 μm). The experiments (both optical microscopy and electron probe microanalysis) indicated that Fe and Cu participate in mutual substitution and different proportions, and form mainly two-phase Fe-Cu alloys that bound in the silicate glass. This alloy characterizes the composition of more than 80% of the metal-rich inclusions. Other metals and non-metals (such as Pb, Ni, Sb, Sn, P, Si, Al and S) with variable amounts and uneven distributions are also incorporated in the Fe-Cu alloy. In average, the bulk concentration of heavy metals in samples from pyrolysis/melting type is almost six times greater than samples treated under plasma/arc processing. The observations also confirmed that slag from pyrolysis origin contains remarkably higher concentration of metallic inclusions than slag from plasma treatment. In the latter, the metallic compounds are separately tapped from molten slag during the melting treatment that might lead to the generation of safer slag product for end users from environmental viewpoint.

  10. Enhanced antiproton production in Pb(160 A GeV)+Pb reactions evidence for quark gluon matter?

    CERN Document Server

    Bleicher, M; Bass, S A; Soff, S; Stöcker, H

    2000-01-01

    The centrality dependence of the antiproton per participant ratio is studied in Pb(160 AGeV)+Pb reactions. Antiproton production in collisions of heavy nuclei at the CERN/SPS seems considerably enhanced as compared to conventional hadronic physics, given by the antiproton production rates in $pp$ and antiproton annihilation in $\\bar{p}p$ reactions. This enhancement is consistent with the observation of strong in-medium effects in other hadronic observables and may be an indication of partial restoration of chiral symmetry.

  11. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Nano-Optics for Enhancing Light-Matter Interactions on a Molecular Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, John

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a considerable number of interrelated contributions dealing with the new scientific ability to shape and control matter and electromagnetic fields on a sub-wavelength scale. The topics range from the fundamental ones, such as photonic metamateriials, plasmonics and sub-wavelength resolution to the more applicative, such as detection of single molecules, tomography on a micro-chip, fluorescence spectroscopy of biological systems, coherent control of biomolecules, biosensing of single proteins, terahertz spectroscopy of nanoparticles, rare earth ion-doped nanoparticles, random lasing, and nanocoax array architecture. The various subjects bridge over the disciplines of physics, biology and chemistry, making this volume of interest to people working in these fields. The emphasis is on the principles behind each technique and on examining the full potential of each technique. The contributions that appear in this volume were presented at a NATO Advanced Study Institute that was held in Erice, ...

  12. An Indication of the Enhanced Circumstellar Matter Near the Orbital Plane of the Symbiotic Star EG And

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagatova, N.; Skopal, A.

    2015-07-01

    In this contribution we derive the velocity profile of the material produced by the giant in the symbiotic binary EG And, and the corresponding mass loss rate. Our analysis revealed a significant enhancement of the wind material along the binary plane, which allows a high efficiency of the wind transfer onto the accreting white dwarf.

  13. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gug, JeongIn; Cacciola, David; Sobkowicz, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Briquetting was used to produce solid fuels from municipal solid waste and recycled plastics. • Optimal drying, processing temperature and pressure were found to produce stable briquettes. • Addition of waste plastics yielded heating values comparable with typical coal feedstocks. • This processing method improves utilization of paper and plastic diverted from landfills. - Abstract: Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in

  14. Processing and properties of a solid energy fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW) and recycled plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gug, JeongIn, E-mail: Jeongin_gug@student.uml.edu; Cacciola, David, E-mail: david_cacciola@student.uml.edu; Sobkowicz, Margaret J., E-mail: Margaret_sobkowiczkline@uml.edu

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Briquetting was used to produce solid fuels from municipal solid waste and recycled plastics. • Optimal drying, processing temperature and pressure were found to produce stable briquettes. • Addition of waste plastics yielded heating values comparable with typical coal feedstocks. • This processing method improves utilization of paper and plastic diverted from landfills. - Abstract: Diversion of waste streams such as plastics, woods, papers and other solid trash from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is to burn the high-energy-content components in standard coal power plant. This research aims to reform wastes into briquettes that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, free of hazardous contaminants, and moisture resistant, while retaining high fuel value. This study aims to investigate the effects of processing conditions and added recyclable plastics on the properties of MSW solid fuels. A well-sorted waste stream high in paper and fiber content was combined with controlled levels of recyclable plastics PE, PP, PET and PS and formed into briquettes using a compression molding technique. The effect of added plastics and moisture content on binding attraction and energy efficiency were investigated. The stability of the briquettes to moisture exposure, the fuel composition by proximate analysis, briquette mechanical strength, and burning efficiency were evaluated. It was found that high processing temperature ensures better properties of the product addition of milled mixed plastic waste leads to better encapsulation as well as to greater calorific value. Also some moisture removal (but not complete) improves the compacting process and results in

  15. Stabilization of ash from combustion of MSW in a fluidised bed boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steenari, Britt-Marie; Wilewska, Magda [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Inorganic Chemistry

    2004-06-01

    Due to restrictions against the land filling of combustible waste and directives from authorities that favour energy recovery from the waste, combustion of household waste is becoming more common. Even though combustion of MSW reduces the volume of waste to be handled by approximately 90%, it produces ash residues containing most of the metals present in the original fuel and a number of other species carried through the boiler or formed during combustion. The residues can be divided into three categories: 1. Stable, inert ash that can be utilised in, for example, construction applications 2. Ash that is stable enough to be land filled as nonhazardous waste 3. Ash that contains large amounts of soluble components and potentially toxic metal species. The regulations considering leaching of ash components set limits for the release of soluble salts and toxic metals. Some fly ashes show low leachability for metals but gives a salt release that is too close to the limit for total dissolved solids. Since fly ash from FBC boilers represent the largest volume of ash from these boilers there is a need for a simple and cheap treatment method that reduces the amount of soluble salts, i.e. NaCl, KCl etc, in the ash. After stabilisation, the ash is supposed to go into a more stable category. The aim of this project has been to investigate the applicability of a method to wash such an ash with water. The work included laboratory studies of the ash properties, the water washing process, filtration properties of the ash slurry and also tests of the method in pilot scale at a full scale boiler. This work has been concentrated towards the investigation of cyclone ash from a bubbling fluidised bed boiler in Lidkoeping fired with 100% household waste. Elemental composition of ash samples before and after washing/filtration was determined by AAS or ICP after a suitable dissolution of the sample. The mineralogy of ash samples was analysed using X-ray powder diffractometry. This method

  16. The Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW Compost Properties Produced in Sanandaj City with a View of Improving the Soil Quality and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Sharifi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the use of municipal solid waste (MSW compost in agriculture as a soil conditioner is increasing day by day because of its positive effects on biological, physical, and chemical soil properties. However, some of the composts because of contamination with heavy metals and other impurities can have deleterious effects on groundwater quality, agricultural environment, food chain, plant growth and activity of soil microorganisms. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the physical and chemical properties, fertilizing potential and heavy metal polluting potential of two types of municipal solid waste composts with processing time between 4 to 8 years (type A and between1 to 4 years (type B produced in Sanandaj city with the aim of using it as an organic fertilizer. Materials and Methods: Sanadaj city, the center of Kurdistan province, with a population of about 335,000 is located in the west of Iran. The current solid waste generation from the city is about 320 t/day, which are not separated at source of generation. About 200 t of the total produced wastes are composted using an open windrows system at the Sanandaj MSW Composting Plant, which is located in 10 km of Sanadaj-Kamiaran road and the rest are disposed at the landfill site. The compost manufactured by the composting plant has been collected around it in two different locations. The first belonges to the product of 2004-2008 (type A and the second belonges to the product of 2009-2013 (type B. Till now, due to lack of quality information associated with these products, they have remained unused. Therefore, in this study, we sampled 3 samples composed of six subsamples (each containing 2 kg from the products in March 2013. The samples were analyzed to determine the physical properties (including undesirable impurities, initial moisture content, particle size distribution, particle density, bulk density (ρb, porosity, and maximum water holding capacity, and the

  17. Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystals: enhanced light-matter interactions for lab-on-a-chip applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Asger; Xiao, Sanshui; Pedersen, Jesper Goor

    2008-01-01

    Optical techniques are finding widespread use in analytical chemistry for chemical and bio-chemical analysis. During the past decade, there has been an increasing emphasis on miniaturization of chemical analysis systems and naturally this has stimulated a large effort in integrating microfluidics...... slow-light enhancement of Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption, photonic band-gap based refractometry, and high-Q cavity sensing....

  18. Hidden charged dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Tu, Huitzu; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2009-01-01

    Can dark matter be stabilized by charge conservation, just as the electron is in the standard model? We examine the possibility that dark matter is hidden, that is, neutral under all standard model gauge interactions, but charged under an exact (\\rm U)(1) gauge symmetry of the hidden sector. Such candidates are predicted in WIMPless models, supersymmetric models in which hidden dark matter has the desired thermal relic density for a wide range of masses. Hidden charged dark matter has many novel properties not shared by neutral dark matter: (1) bound state formation and Sommerfeld-enhanced annihilation after chemical freeze out may reduce its relic density, (2) similar effects greatly enhance dark matter annihilation in protohalos at redshifts of z ∼ 30, (3) Compton scattering off hidden photons delays kinetic decoupling, suppressing small scale structure, and (4) Rutherford scattering makes such dark matter self-interacting and collisional, potentially impacting properties of the Bullet Cluster and the observed morphology of galactic halos. We analyze all of these effects in a WIMPless model in which the hidden sector is a simplified version of the minimal supersymmetric standard model and the dark matter is a hidden sector stau. We find that charged hidden dark matter is viable and consistent with the correct relic density for reasonable model parameters and dark matter masses in the range 1 GeV ∼ X ∼< 10 TeV. At the same time, in the preferred range of parameters, this model predicts cores in the dark matter halos of small galaxies and other halo properties that may be within the reach of future observations. These models therefore provide a viable and well-motivated framework for collisional dark matter with Sommerfeld enhancement, with novel implications for astrophysics and dark matter searches

  19. Comparative analysis of the complete genome sequence of the California MSW strain of myxoma virus reveals potential host adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter J; Rogers, Matthew B; Fitch, Adam; Depasse, Jay V; Cattadori, Isabella M; Hudson, Peter J; Tscharke, David C; Holmes, Edward C; Ghedin, Elodie

    2013-11-01

    Myxomatosis is a rapidly lethal disease of European rabbits that is caused by myxoma virus (MYXV). The introduction of a South American strain of MYXV into the European rabbit population of Australia is the classic case of host-pathogen coevolution following cross-species transmission. The most virulent strains of MYXV for European rabbits are the Californian viruses, found in the Pacific states of the United States and the Baja Peninsula, Mexico. The natural host of Californian MYXV is the brush rabbit, Sylvilagus bachmani. We determined the complete sequence of the MSW strain of Californian MYXV and performed a comparative analysis with other MYXV genomes. The MSW genome is larger than that of the South American Lausanne (type) strain of MYXV due to an expansion of the terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) of the genome, with duplication of the M156R, M154L, M153R, M152R, and M151R genes and part of the M150R gene from the right-hand (RH) end of the genome at the left-hand (LH) TIR. Despite the extreme virulence of MSW, no novel genes were identified; five genes were disrupted by multiple indels or mutations to the ATG start codon, including two genes, M008.1L/R and M152R, with major virulence functions in European rabbits, and a sixth gene, M000.5L/R, was absent. The loss of these gene functions suggests that S. bachmani is a relatively recent host for MYXV and that duplication of virulence genes in the TIRs, gene loss, or sequence variation in other genes can compensate for the loss of M008.1L/R and M152R in infections of European rabbits.

  20. Environmental impacts of a large-scale incinerator with mixed MSW of high water content from a LCA perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Ziyang; Bilitewski, Bernd; Zhu, Nanwen; Chai, Xiaoli; Li, Bing; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-04-01

    Large-scale incinerators are applied widely as a result of the heavy burden of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated, while strong opposition is arising from the public living nearby. A large-scale working incineration plant of 1500 ton/day was chosen for evaluation using life cycle assessment. It was found that the corresponding human toxicity impacts via soil (HTs), human toxicity impacts via water (HTw) and human toxicity impacts via air (HTa) categories are 0.213, 2.171, and 0.012 personal equivalents (PE), and global warming (GW100) and nutrient enrichment (NE) impacts are 0.002 and 0.001 PE per ton of waste burned for this plant. Heavy metals in flue gas, such as Hg and Pb, are the two dominant contributors to the toxicity impact categories, and energy recovery could reduce the GW100 and NE greatly. The corresponding HTs, HTw and HTa decrease to 0.087, 0.911 and 0.008 PE, and GW100 turns into savings of -0.007 PE due to the increase of the heating value from 3935 to 5811 kJ/kg, if a trommel screener of 40 mm mesh size is used to pre-separate MSW. MSW sorting and the reduction of water content by physical pressure might be two promising pre-treatment methods to improve the combustion performance, and the application of stricter standards for leachate discharge and the flue gas purification process are two critical factors for improvement of the environmental profile identified in this work. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Assessing the 'Waste Hierarchy' a social cost-benefit analyse of MSW management in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisson, I. E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses, in the context of an impending 'waste crisis', the concept of optimal waste generation and an optimal mix of municipal solid waste (MSW) management methods. It argues that excessive quantities of MSW are likely to be generated, and consequently excessive demand for waste services will exist, as long as the marginal cost of waste services facing the household is zero. In order to avoid this excess demand, households should be charged for waste services according to their use of it, and not as presently at a flat rate. In the price to be paid by householders should be included financial as well as external costs. With respect to the optimal mix of MSW management methods, the paper asserts that this would be attained when the marginal net social costs of each management methods were equal. After setting out the theoretical background, the paper then proceeds to undertake a social cost-benefit analysis of waste management methods currently employed by the 12 'old' European Union Member States, including external and financial costs of landfill, incineration, recycling and composting. The estimates obtained from this analysis are used to assess the validity of the 'waste hierarchy', which has won widespread acceptance, and is used as a guideline in a number of countries' waste policies. In the light of the widespread focus on increasing recycling efforts, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to ascertain whether particular materials are especially suited for recycling, and whether there are other materials for which recycling should not be encouraged. (au) 16 refs

  2. Enhancement of Fenton oxidation for removing organic matter from hypersaline solution by accelerating ferric system with hydroxylamine hydrochloride and benzoquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Siwei; Zhang, Weijun; He, Jie; Yang, Xiaofang; Wang, Dongsheng; Zeng, Guisheng

    2016-03-01

    Fenton oxidation is generally inhibited in the presence of a high concentration of chloride ions. This study investigated the feasibility of using benzoquinone (BQ) and hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HA) as Fenton enhancers for the removal of glycerin from saline water under ambient temperature by accelerating the ferric system. It was found that organics removal was not obviously affected by chloride ions of low concentration (less than 0.1mol/L), while the mineralization rate was strongly inhibited in the presence of a large amount of chloride ions. In addition, ferric hydrolysis-precipitation was significantly alleviated in the presence of HA and BQ, and HA was more effective in reducing ferric ions into ferrous ions than HA, while the H2O2 decomposition rate was higher in the BQ-Fenton system. Electron spin resonance analysis revealed that OH production was reduced in high salinity conditions, while it was enhanced after the addition of HA and BQ (especially HA). This study provided a possible solution to control and alleviate the inhibitory effect of chloride ions on the Fenton process for organics removal. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Enhanced precipitation promotes decomposition and soil C stabilization in semiarid ecosystems, but seasonal timing of wetting matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Xochi; Germino, Matthew; de Graaff, Marie-Anne

    2017-01-01

    AimsChanging precipitation regimes in semiarid ecosystems will affect the balance of soil carbon (C) input and release, but the net effect on soil C storage is unclear. We asked how changes in the amount and timing of precipitation affect litter decomposition, and soil C stabilization in semiarid ecosystems.MethodsThe study took place at a long-term (18 years) ecohydrology experiment located in Idaho. Precipitation treatments consisted of a doubling of annual precipitation (+200 mm) added either in the cold-dormant season or in the growing season. Experimental plots were planted with big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), or with crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). We quantified decomposition of sagebrush leaf litter, and we assessed organic soil C (SOC) in aggregates, and silt and clay fractions.ResultsWe found that: (1) increased precipitation applied in the growing season consistently enhanced decomposition rates relative to the ambient treatment, and (2) precipitation applied in the dormant season enhanced soil C stabilization.ConclusionsThese data indicate that prolonged increases in precipitation can promote soil C storage in semiarid ecosystems, but only if these increases happen at times of the year when conditions allow for precipitation to promote plant C inputs rates to soil.

  4. Increasing Soil Organic Matter Enhances Inherent Soil Productivity while Offsetting Fertilization Effect under a Rice Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Nan Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the role of soil organic matter (SOM in soil quality and subsequent crop yield and input requirements is useful for agricultural sustainability. SOM is widely considered to affect a wide range of soil properties, however, great uncertainty still remains in identifying the relationships between SOM and crop yield due to the difficulty in separating the effect of SOM from other yield-limiting factors. Based on 543 on-farm experiments, where paired treatments with and without NPK fertilizer were conducted during 2005–2009, we quantified the inherent soil productivity, fertilization effect, and their contribution to rice yield and further evaluated their relationships with SOM contents under a rice cropping system in the Sichuan Basin of China. The inherent soil productivity assessed by rice grain yield under no fertilization (Y-CK was 5.8 t/ha, on average, and contributed 70% to the 8.3 t/ha of rice yield under NPK fertilization (Y-NPK while the other 30% was from the fertilization effect (FE. No significant correlation between SOM content and Y-NPK was observed, however, SOM content positively related to Y-CK and its contribution to Y-NPK but negatively to FE and its contribution to Y-NPK, indicating an increased soil contribution but a decreased fertilizer contribution to rice yield with increasing SOM. There were significantly positive relationships between SOM and soil available N, P, and K, indicating the potential contribution of SOM to inherent soil productivity by supplying nutrients from mineralization. As a result, approaches for SOM accumulation are practical to improve the inherent soil productivity and thereafter maintain a high crop productivity with less dependence on chemical fertilizers, while fertilization recommendations need to be adjusted with the temporal and spatial SOM variation.

  5. Quantifying Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying Matter explains how scientists learned to measure matter and quantify some of its most fascinating and useful properties. It presents many of the most important intellectual achievements and technical developments that led to the scientific interpretation of substance. Complete with full-color photographs, this exciting new volume describes the basic characteristics and properties of matter. Chapters include:. -Exploring the Nature of Matter. -The Origin of Matter. -The Search for Substance. -Quantifying Matter During the Scientific Revolution. -Understanding Matter's Electromagnet

  6. Differences in Signal Intensity and Enhancement on MR Images of the Perivascular Spaces in the Basal Ganglia versus Those in White Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Nakane, Toshiki; Kawai, Hisashi; Taoka, Toshiaki

    2018-01-18

    To elucidate differences between the perivascular space (PVS) in the basal ganglia (BG) versus that found in white matter (WM) using heavily T 2 -weighted FLAIR (hT 2 -FL) in terms of 1) signal intensity on non-contrast enhanced images, and 2) the degree of contrast enhancement by intravenous single dose administration of gadolinium based contrast agent (IV-SD-GBCA). Eight healthy men and 13 patients with suspected endolymphatic hydrops were included. No subjects had renal insufficiency. All subjects received IV-SD-GBCA. MR cisternography (MRC) and hT 2 -FL images were obtained prior to and 4 h after IV-SD-GBCA. The signal intensity of the PVS in the BG, subinsular WM, and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in Ambient cistern (CSF AC ) and CSF in Sylvian fissure (CSF Syl ) was measured as well as that of the thalamus. The signal intensity ratio (SIR) was calculated by dividing the intensity by that of the thalamus. We used 5% as a threshold to determine the significance of the statistical test. In the pre-contrast scan, the SIR of the PVS in WM (Mean ± standard deviation, 1.83 ± 0.46) was significantly higher than that of the PVS in the BG (1.05 ± 0.154), CSF Syl (1.03 ± 0.15) and the CSF AC (0.97 ± 0.29). There was no significant difference between the SIR of the PVS in the BG compared to the CSF AC and CSF Syl . For the evaluation of the contrast enhancement effect, significant enhancement was observed in the PVS in the BG, the CSF AC and the CSF Syl compared to the pre-contrast scan. No significant contrast enhancement was observed in the PVS in WM. The signal intensity difference between the PVS in the BG versus WM on pre-contrast images suggests that the fluid composition might be different between these PVSs. The difference in the contrast enhancement between the PVSs in the BG versus WM suggests a difference in drainage function.

  7. Enhancing inhibition-induced plasticity in tinnitus--spectral energy contrasts in tailor-made notched music matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwina Stein

    Full Text Available Chronic tinnitus seems to be caused by reduced inhibition among frequency selective neurons in the auditory cortex. One possibility to reduce tinnitus perception is to induce inhibition onto over-activated neurons representing the tinnitus frequency via tailor-made notched music (TMNM. Since lateral inhibition is modifiable by spectral energy contrasts, the question arises if the effects of inhibition-induced plasticity can be enhanced by introducing increased spectral energy contrasts (ISEC in TMNM. Eighteen participants suffering from chronic tonal tinnitus, pseudo randomly assigned to either a classical TMNM or an ISEC-TMNM group, listened to notched music for three hours on three consecutive days. The music was filtered for both groups by introducing a notch filter centered at the individual tinnitus frequency. For the ISEC-TMNM group a frequency bandwidth of 3/8 octaves on each side of the notch was amplified, additionally, by about 20 dB. Before and after each music exposure, participants rated their subjectively perceived tinnitus loudness on a visual analog scale. During the magnetoencephalographic recordings, participants were stimulated with either a reference tone of 500 Hz or a test tone with a carrier frequency representing the individual tinnitus pitch. Perceived tinnitus loudness was significantly reduced after TMNM exposure, though TMNM type did not influence the loudness ratings. Tinnitus related neural activity in the N1m time window and in the so called tinnitus network comprising temporal, parietal and frontal regions was reduced after TMNM exposure. The ISEC-TMNM group revealed even enhanced inhibition-induced plasticity in a temporal and a frontal cortical area. Overall, inhibition of tinnitus related neural activity could be strengthened in people affected with tinnitus by increasing spectral energy contrast in TMNM, confirming the concepts of inhibition-induced plasticity via TMNM and spectral energy contrasts.

  8. Enhanced Measurements of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) for Water Quality Analysis using a New Simultaneous Absorbance and Fluorescence Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    Water quality, with respect to suspended particles and dissolved organic and inorganic compounds, is now recognized as one of the top global environmental concerns. Contemporary research indicates fluorescence spectral analyses coupled with UV-VIS absorbance assays have the potential, especially when combined and coordinated, to facilitate rapid, robust quantification of a wide range of compounds, including interactions among them. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) collected over the UV-VIS region provide a wealth of information on chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). CDOM includes humic and fulvic acid, chlorophyll, petroleum, protein, amino acid, quinone, fertilizer, pesticide, sewage and numerous other compound classes. Analysis of the EEMs using conventional and multivariate techniques, including primarily parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), provides information about many types of CDOM relevant to carbon cycling and pollution of fresh, marine and drinking water sources. Of critical concern also are the CDOM interactions with, and optical activities of, dissolved inorganic compounds. Many of the inorganic compounds and oxygen demand parameters can be analyzed with a wide range of UV-VIS absorbance assays. The instrument is designed and optimized for high UV throughput and low stray light performance. The sampling optics are optimized for both fluorescence and absorbance detection with the same sample. Both EEM and absorbance measurements implement NIST traceable instrument correction and calibration routines. The fluorescence detection utilizes a high dynamic range CCD coupled to a high-resolution spectrograph while absorbance utilizes diode based detection with a high dynamic range and extremely low-stray light specifications. The CDOM analysis is facilitated by a transfer of the data and model information with the PARAFAC routine. The EEM analysis software package facilitates coordinated correction of and correlation with the

  9. Prediction of municipal solid waste generation using artificial neural network approach enhanced by structural break analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamović, Vladimir M; Antanasijević, Davor Z; Ristić, Mirjana Đ; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra A; Pocajt, Viktor V

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a general regression neural network (GRNN) model for the prediction of annual municipal solid waste (MSW) generation at the national level for 44 countries of different size, population and economic development level. Proper modelling of MSW generation is essential for the planning of MSW management system as well as for the simulation of various environmental impact scenarios. The main objective of this work was to examine the potential influence of economy crisis (global or local) on the forecast of MSW generation obtained by the GRNN model. The existence of the so-called structural breaks that occur because of the economic crisis in the studied period (2000-2012) for each country was determined and confirmed using the Chow test and Quandt-Andrews test. Two GRNN models, one which did not take into account the influence of the economic crisis (GRNN) and another one which did (SB-GRNN), were developed. The novelty of the applied method is that it uses broadly available social, economic and demographic indicators and indicators of sustainability, together with GRNN and structural break testing for the prediction of MSW generation at the national level. The obtained results demonstrate that the SB-GRNN model provide more accurate predictions than the model which neglected structural breaks, with a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 4.0 % compared to 6.7 % generated by the GRNN model. The proposed model enhanced with structural breaks can be a viable alternative for a more accurate prediction of MSW generation at the national level, especially for developing countries for which a lack of MSW data is notable.

  10. Enhanced Cr(VI) reduction and As(III) oxidation in ice phase: Important role of dissolved organic matter from biochar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xiaoling [Department of Soil and Water Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Ma, Lena Q., E-mail: lqma@ufl.edu [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Jiangsu 210046 (China); Department of Soil and Water Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Gress, Julia; Harris, Willie [Department of Soil and Water Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Li, Yuncong [Soil and Water Science Department, Tropical Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Homestead, FL 33031-3314 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Biochar-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) effectively reduced Cr(VI) and oxidized As(III). • Cr(VI) and As(III) could serve as a redox couple. • Cr(VI) and As(III) redox conversion was more effective in the ice phase than aqueous phase. • FTIR and ESR showed that biochar DOM served as both electron donor and acceptor. - Abstract: This study evaluated the impact of DOM from two biochars (sugar beet tailing and Brazilian pepper) on Cr(VI) reduction and As(III) oxidation in both ice and aqueous phases with a soil DOM as control. Increasing DOM concentration from 3 to 300 mg C L{sup −1} enhanced Cr(VI) reduction from 20% to 100% and As(III) oxidation from 6.2% to 25%; however, Cr(VI) reduction decreased from 80–86% to negligible while As(III) oxidation increased from negligible to 18–19% with increasing pH from 2 to 10. Electron spin resonance study suggested semiquinone radicals in DOM were involved in As(III) oxidation while Fourier transform infrared analysis suggested that carboxylic groups in DOM participated in both Cr(VI) reduction and As(III) oxidation. During Cr(VI) reduction, part of DOM (∼10%) was oxidized to CO{sub 2}. The enhanced conversion of Cr(VI) and As(III) in the ice phase was due to the freeze concentration effect with elevated concentrations of electron donors and electron acceptors in the grain boundary. Though DOM enhanced both Cr(VI) reduction and As(III)oxidation, Cr(VI) reduction coupled with As(III) oxidation occurred in absence of DOM. The role of DOM, Cr(VI) and/or As(III) in Cr and As transformation may provide new insights into their speciation and toxicity in cold regions.

  11. Enhancement of polyethersulfone (PES) membrane performance by modification with rice husk nanosilica for removal of organic matter in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyati, S.; Armando, M. A.; Mawardi, H.; Azmi, F. A.; Pratiwi, W. P.; Fadzlina, A.; Akbar, R.; Syawaliah

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the effects of rice husk nanosilica addition on the performance of polyethersulfone (PES) membrane. Polyethersulfone membrane (PES) was fabricated by using N-methyl-2-pyrolidone (NMP) as a solvent and rice husk nanosilica as a modifying agent. The influence of the rice husk nanosilica additive on the characteristics and performance of the membrane has been studied. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis confirmed that the manufactured membrane has an asymmetric morphological structure consisting of two layers. The upper part of the membrane is a thin layer, meanwhile in the bottom side is a porous layer. The addition of 5% nanosilica resulting a PES membrane to have a bigger porous than that of pristine PES. The pure water flux of nanosilica-modified membranes were greater in comparison to the pure water flux of unmodified PES membrane. The performance of all membranes were evaluated on humic acid removal. The highest selectivity was showcased by pure PES membrane. The introduction of rice husk nanosilica additive to the membrane declined the selectivity of the membrane to humic acid in the feed solution. This is caused by the pores enlargement and enhanced hydrophilicity of the membrane after modification with rice husk biosilica.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF MSW COLLECTION SERVICES ON REGIONAL SCALE: SPATIAL ANALYSIS AND URBAN DISPARITIES IN NORTH-EAST REGION, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIN-CONSTANTIN MIHAI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The cities are facing illegal dumping of municipal solid waste (MSW because the waste collection facilities do not cover the entire population. Furthermore, this sector is poorly developed in small towns or villages annexed to administrative territory units (ATU of cities , MSW are disposed in open dumps polluting the local environment. This paper analyzes on the one hand the urban disparities on public access to waste collection services (WCS in the North-East Region on the other hand, it performs a comparative analysis between 2003 and 2010 outlining the changes made in the context of Romania’s accession to EU. Also, it performs a quantitative assessment method of uncollected waste at urban level and correlated to demographic features of each city. Spatial-temporal analysis of waste indicators using thematic cartography or GIS techniques should be a basic tool for environmental monitoring or assessment of projects from this field in every development region (NUTS 2. The EU acquis requires the closure of noncompliant landfills, the extension of waste collection services, the development of facilities for separate collection, recycling and reuse according to waste hierarchy concept. Full coverage of urban population to waste collection services is necessary to provide a proper management of this sector. Urban disparities between counties and within counties highlights that current traditional waste management system is an environmental threat at local and regional scale.

  13. Codecaying Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Jeff Asaf; Kuflik, Eric; Ng, Wee Hao

    2016-11-18

    We propose a new mechanism for thermal dark matter freeze-out, called codecaying dark matter. Multicomponent dark sectors with degenerate particles and out-of-equilibrium decays can codecay to obtain the observed relic density. The dark matter density is exponentially depleted through the decay of nearly degenerate particles rather than from Boltzmann suppression. The relic abundance is set by the dark matter annihilation cross section, which is predicted to be boosted, and the decay rate of the dark sector particles. The mechanism is viable in a broad range of dark matter parameter space, with a robust prediction of an enhanced indirect detection signal. Finally, we present a simple model that realizes codecaying dark matter.

  14. Enhanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin I. Bayala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is a key parameter in the energy balance model. However, the spatial resolution of the retrieved LST from sensors with high temporal resolution is not accurate enough to be used in local-scale studies. To explore the LST–Normalised Difference Vegetation Index relationship potential and obtain thermal images with high spatial resolution, six enhanced image sharpening techniques were assessed: the disaggregation procedure for radiometric surface temperatures (TsHARP, the Dry Edge Quadratic Function, the Difference of Edges (Ts∗DL and three models supported by the relationship of surface temperature and water stress of vegetation (Normalised Difference Water Index, Normalised Difference Infrared Index and Soil wetness index. Energy Balance Station data and in situ measurements were used to validate the enhanced LST images over a mixed agricultural landscape in the sub-humid Pampean Region of Argentina (PRA, during 2006–2010. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS thermal datasets were assessed for different spatial resolutions (e.g., 960, 720 and 240 m and the performances were compared with global and local TsHARP procedures. Results suggest that the Ts∗DL technique is the most adequate for simulating LST to high spatial resolution over the heterogeneous landscape of a sub-humid region, showing an average root mean square error of less than 1 K.

  15. Enhancement of particle aggregation in the presence of organic matter during neutralization of acid drainage in a stream confluence and its effect on arsenic immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, Guillermo; Montecinos, Mauricio; Guerra, Paula; Escauriaza, Cristian; Coquery, Marina; Pastén, Pablo

    2017-08-01

    Acid drainage (AD) is an important environmental concern that impacts water quality. The formation of reactive Fe and Al oxyhydroxides during the neutralization of AD at river confluences is a natural attenuation process. Although it is known that organic matter (OM) can affect the aggregation of Fe and Al oxyhydroxides and the sorption of As onto their surfaces, the role of OM during the neutralization of AD at river confluences has not been studied. Field and experimental approaches were used to understand this role, using the Azufre River (pH 2) - Caracarani River (pH 8.6) confluence (northern Chile) as model system. Field measurements of organic carbon revealed a 10-15% loss of OM downstream the confluence, which was attributed to associations with Fe and Al oxyhydroxides that settle in the river bed. Laboratory mixtures of AD water with synthetic Caracarani waters under varying conditions of pH, concentration and type of OM revealed that OM promoted the aggregation of Fe oxyhydroxides without reducing As sorption, enhancing the removal of As at slightly acidic conditions (pH ∼4.5). At acidic conditions (pH ∼3), aggregation of OM - metal complexes at high OM concentrations could become the main removal mechanism. One type of OM promoted bimodal particle size distributions with larger mean sizes, possibly increasing the settling velocity of aggregates. This work contributes to a better understanding of the role of OM in AD affected basins, showing that the presence of OM during processes of neutralization of AD can enhance the removal of toxic elements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhanced biotic and abiotic transformation of Cr(vi) by quinone-reducing bacteria/dissolved organic matter/Fe(iii) in anaerobic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Gu, Lipeng; He, Huan; Xu, Zhixiang; Pan, Xuejun

    2016-09-14

    This study investigated the simultaneous transformation of Cr(vi) via a closely coupled biotic and abiotic pathway in an anaerobic system of quinone-reducing bacteria/dissolved organic matters (DOM)/Fe(iii). Batch studies were conducted with quinone-reducing bacteria to assess the influences of sodium formate (NaFc), electron shuttling compounds (DOM) and the Fe(iii) on Cr(vi) reduction rates as these chemical species are likely to be present in the environment during in situ bioremediation. Results indicated that the concentration of sodium formate and anthraquinone-2-sodium sulfonate (AQS) had apparently an effect on Cr(vi) reduction. The fastest decrease in rate for incubation supplemented with 5 mM sodium formate and 0.8 mM AQS showed that Fe(iii)/DOM significantly promoted the reduction of Cr(vi). Presumably due to the presence of more easily utilizable sodium formate, DOM and Fe(iii) have indirect Cr(vi) reduction capability. The coexisting cycles of Fe(ii)/Fe(iii) and DOM(ox)/DOM(red) exhibited a higher redox function than the individual cycle, and their abiotic coupling action can significantly enhance Cr(vi) reduction by quinone-reducing bacteria.

  17. Plant tolerance to mercury in a contaminated soil is enhanced by the combined effects of humic matter addition and inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, V; De Martino, A; Nebbioso, A; Di Meo, V; Salluzzo, A; Piccolo, A

    2016-06-01

    In a greenhouse pot experiment, lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) were grown in a Hg-contaminated sandy soil with and without inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (a commercial inoculum containing infective propagules of Rhizophagus irregularis and Funneliformis mosseae) amended with different rates of a humic acid (0, 1, and 2 g kg(-1) of soil), with the objective of verifying the synergistic effects of the two soil treatments on the Hg tolerance of lettuce plants. Our results indicated that the plant biomass was significantly increased by the combined effect of AMF and humic acid treatments. Addition of humic matter to soil boosted the AMF effect on improving the nutritional plant status, enhancing the pigment content in plant leaves, and inhibiting both Hg uptake and Hg translocation from the roots to the shoots. This was attributed not only to the Hg immobilization by stable complexes with HA and with extraradical mycorrhizal mycelium in soil and root surfaces but also to an improved mineral nutrition promoted by AMF. This work indicates that the combined use of AMF and humic acids may become a useful practice in Hg-contaminated soils to reduce Hg toxicity to crops.

  18. Biochar accelerates organic matter degradation and enhances N mineralisation during composting of poultry manure without a relevant impact on gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, M; Alburquerque, J A; Sánchez-Monedero, M A; Roig, A; Cayuela, M L

    2015-09-01

    A composting study was performed to assess the impact of biochar addition to a mixture of poultry manure and barley straw. Two treatments: control (78% poultry manure + 22% barley straw, dry weight) and the same mixture amended with biochar (3% dry weight), were composted in duplicated windrows during 19 weeks. Typical monitoring parameters and gaseous emissions (CO2, CO, CH4, N2O and H2S) were evaluated during the process as well as the agronomical quality of the end-products. Biochar accelerated organic matter degradation and ammonium formation during the thermophilic phase and enhanced nitrification during the maturation phase. Our results suggest that biochar, as composting additive, improved the physical properties of the mixture by preventing the formation of clumps larger than 70 mm. It favoured microbiological activity without a relevant impact on N losses and gaseous emissions. It was estimated that biochar addition at 3% could reduce the composting time by 20%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The composition and physicochemical characteristics of MSW generated from a city of the Middle East at Ramadan Period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Yong Woo; Park, In Chul; Kim, Nam Yeol; Kim, Sung Soo; Cho, Yeun Haeng; Yoon, Kyoon Duk

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the worlds first composition and physicochemical characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW) which was generated from a city of the Middle East at Ramadan period (one month in a year). 17 places in a city of the Middle East were selected for sampling MSW which were roughly classified into three categories - residential area, hotel and public facilities, and commercial area. Investigation and analysis about specific weight, physical characteristics, 3-components (moisture/ combustible/ ash), chemical characteristics, and calorific value were carried out for this research. Specific weight of waste samples depends on the physical characteristics of them, the higher moisture and non-combustible component content, the higher specific weight value. Office building, shopping mall, and school were relatively lower than other places. The average specific weight of waste in this city was equal to 0.129 ton/ m 3 which was lower than in Korea (0.2 ton/ m 3 ). Moisture and combustible component content showed a big difference between residential area and other areas. Residential area, hotel and public facilities, and commercial area showed 37.58 %, 21.80 %, and 18.81 % of moisture content, 54.79 %, 70.28 %, and 70.74 % of combustible component content, 7.63 %, 7.92 %, and 10.46 % of ash content on a wet basis, respectively. Residential area showed relatively high value of moisture content because of high content of food waste. To eat food is prohibited during the day at Ramadan period of the Middle East. But much more food than usual is made for eating after dark, and also is put into the garbage can. The results of chemical characteristics, meanwhile, are similar to Koreas. The low calorific value (LCV) of waste in residential area, hotel and public facilities, and commercial area was 2,875 kcal/ kg, 4,142 kcal/ kg, and 4,279 kcal/ kg on a wet basis, respectively. It could provide the economical and optimum design for MSW treatment system in the Middle East

  20. Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einasto J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available I give a review of the development of the concept of dark matter. The dark matter story passed through several stages from a minor observational puzzle to a major challenge for theory of elementary particles. Modern data suggest that dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, and that it consists of some unknown non-baryonic particles. Dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, thus properties of dark matter particles determine the structure of the cosmic web.

  1. Energy, economic and environmental (3E) analysis of waste-to-energy (WTE) strategies for municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Sie Ting; Ho, Wai Shin; Hashim, Haslenda; Lee, Chew Tin; Taib, Mohd Rozainee; Ho, Chin Siong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 3E impact of WTE derived from MSW were performed. • MSW treatment technologies significantly effects the economic and environmental benefits of WTE. • Different scenarios are conducted based on the waste projections and production. • Comprehensive discussion on the trade-off of both incineration and anaerobic digestion for MSWM. - Abstract: The utilisation of municipal solid waste (MSW) for energy production has been implemented globally for many decades. Malaysia, however, is still highly dependent on landfills for MSW management. Because of the concern for greenhouse gases (GHG) emission and the scarcity of land, Malaysia has an urgent need for a better waste management strategy. This study aims to evaluate the energy, economic and environmental (3E) impact of waste-to-energy (WTE) for municipal solid waste management. An existing landfill in Malaysia is selected as the case study for consideration to adopt the advanced WTE technologies including the landfill gas recovery system (LFGRS), incineration, anaerobic digestion (AD), and gasification. The study presented an interactive comparison of different WTE scenarios and followed by further discussion on waste incineration and AD as the two potential WTE options in Malaysia. The 3E assessment reveals incineration as the superior technology choice when the production of electricity and heat were considered; however, AD is found to be more favourable under the consideration of electricity production only

  2. Virulence and pathogenesis of the MSW and MSD strains of Californian myxoma virus in European rabbits with genetic resistance to myxomatosis compared to rabbits with no genetic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, L; Inglis, B; Labudovic, A; Janssens, P A; van Leeuwen, B H; Kerr, P J

    2006-04-25

    The pathogenesis of two Californian strains of myxoma virus (MSW and MSD) was examined in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) that were either susceptible to myxomatosis (laboratory rabbits) or had undergone natural selection for genetic resistance to myxomatosis (Australian wild rabbits). MSW was highly lethal for both types of rabbits with average survival times of 7.3 and 9.4 days, respectively, and 100% mortality. Classical clinical signs of myxomatosis were not present except in one rabbit that survived for 13 days following infection. Previously described clinical signs of trembling and shaking were observed in laboratory but not wild rabbits. Despite the high resistance of wild rabbits to myxomatosis caused by South American strains of myxoma virus, the MSW strain was of such high virulence that it was able to overcome resistance. The acute nature of the infection, relatively low viral titers in the tissues and destruction of lymphoid tissues, suggested that death was probably due to an acute and overwhelming immunopathological response to the virus. No virus was found in the brain. The MSD strain was attenuated compared to previously published descriptions and therefore was only characterized in laboratory rabbits. It is concluded that Californian MSW strain of myxoma virus is at the extreme end of a continuum of myxoma virus virulence but that the basic pathophysiology of the disease induced is not broadly different to other strains of myxoma virus.

  3. Neutrino Flavor Evolution in Turbulent Supernova Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Tina; Kneller, James P.

    In order to decode the neutrino burst signal from a Galactic core-collapse supernova and reveal the complicated inner workings of the explosion, we need a thorough understanding of the neutrino flavor evolution from the proto-neutron-star outwards. The flavor content of the signal evolves due to both neutrino collective effects and matter effects which can lead to a highly interesting interplay and distinctive spectral features. In this paper we investigate the supernova neutrino flavor evolution by including collective flavor effects, the evolution of the Mikheyev, Smirnov & Wolfenstein (MSW) matter conversions due to the shock wave passing through the star, and the impact of turbulence. The density profiles utilized in our calculations represent a 10.8 MG progenitor and comes from a 1D numerical simulation by Fischer et al.[1]. We find that small amplitude turbulence, up to 10% of the average potential, leads to a minimal modification of the signal, and the emerging neutrino spectra retain both collective and MSW features. However, when larger amounts of turbulence are added, 30% and 50%, the features of collective and shock wave effects in the high density resonance channel are almost completely obscured at late times. At the same time we find the other mixing channels - the low density resonance channel and the non-resonant channels - begin to develop turbulence signatures. Large amplitude turbulent motions in the outer layers of massive, iron core-collapse supernovae may obscure the most obvious fingerprints of collective and shock wave effects in the neutrino signal but cannot remove them completely, and additionally bring about new features in the signal. We illustrate how the progression of the shock wave is reflected in the changing survival probabilities over time, and we show preliminary results on how some of these collective and shock wave induced signatures appear in a detector signal.

  4. Separate collection of MSW. Technical and economical survey; Evoluzione e mercato della ricerca differenziata. Aspetti tecnici ed economici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riganti, V. [Pavia Univ., Pavia (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Generale, Cattedra di Chimica Merceologica; Vaccari, V. [Pavia Univ., Pavia (Italy). Dipt. di Ricerche Aziendali, Cattedra di Tecnologia dei Cicli Produttivi; Miranda, S. [CISPEL Lombardia, Segreteria Tecnica del Gruppo di Lavoro Ambiente, Milan (Italy)

    2000-01-01

    In this work the increasing of the separate collection of MSW (Municipal Solid Wastes) in Italy, has been studied, in terms of environmental improving, materials recycling and energy recovery, developing the concerning technical and economical aspects. The national situation has been evaluated too, on the basis of a statistical approach, carried out using data from reports of: CRS-Pro Acqua, ANPA, Federambiente. [Italian] Lo sviluppo della raccolta differenziata in Italia viene delineato in funzione della tutela ambientale e del recupero di materie e di energia, sviluppandone gli aspetti tecnici ed economici. Viene altresi' presentato un quadro statistico delle raccolte differenziate sulla base di elaborazioni da varie fonti (CRS-Pro Acqua, ANPA, Federambiente).

  5. Analytical study of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in leachate treatment process of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Hiroshi; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Nobutoshi

    2007-01-01

    Influent and processed water were sampled at different points in the leachate treatment facilities of five municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill sites. Then, the concentrations of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), namely, alkylphenols (APs), bisphenol A (BPA), phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and organotin compounds (OTs), in the treated leachate samples were determined and the behavior of the EDCs in the treatment processes was discussed. The concentrations of APs were as low as those in surface waters, and no OTs were detected (detection limit: 0.01 microg/L). Meanwhile, diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), which was the most abundant of the four substances measured as PAEs, and BPA were found in all of the influent samples. BPA was considerably degraded by aeration, except when the water temperature was low and the total organic carbon (TOC) was high. By contrast, aeration, biological treatment, and coagulation/sedimentation removed only a small amount of DEHP.

  6. Environmental performance review and cost analysis of MSW landfilling by baling-wrapping technology versus conventional system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldasano, J.M.; Gasso, S.; Perez, C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper first reviews the chemical, physical and biological processes, and the environmental performance of MSW compacted and plastic-wrapped into air-tight bales with low-density polyethylene (LDPE). The baling-wrapping process halts the short and half-term biological activity and consequently the emission of gases and leachates. It also facilitates the handling of the refuse, and considerably reduces the main environmental impacts of a landfill. The main technologies available for baling-wrapping MSW are also presented. Furthermore, a cost analysis comparing a conventional landfill (CL) without baling system versus two landfills using different baling-wrapping technologies (rectangular and cylindrical bales) is carried out. The results are presented comparatively under the conditions of construction, operation and maintenance and postclosure, as required by European Directive 1999/31. A landfill using rectangular plastic-wrapped bales (LRPB) represents an economically competitive option compared to a CL. The increased capacity of the waste disposal zone when using rectangular bales due to the high density of the bales compensates for the increased operating and maintenance (O and M) costs of the method. Landfills using cylindrical plastic-wrapped bales (LCPB's) do not fare so well, mainly because the density within the bales is lower, the cylindrical geometry of the bales does not allow such an efficient use of the space within the landfill, and the processing capacity of the machinery is lower. From the cost model, the resulting unit costs per tonne in a LRPB, a LCPB and a CL for 100,000 t/year of waste, an operation time of 15 years and a landfill depth (H) of 20 m, are 31.52, 43.36 and 31.83 Euro/t, respectively

  7. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  8. Cyanobacterium removal and control of algal organic matter (AOM) release by UV/H2O2 pre-oxidation enhanced Fe(II) coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Peili; Zhou, Yanping; Zhang, Xufeng; Zhang, Yi; Dai, Ruihua

    2017-12-11

    Harmful algal blooms in source water are a worldwide issue for drinking water production and safety. UV/H 2 O 2 , a pre-oxidation process, was firstly applied to enhance Fe(II) coagulation for the removal of Microcystis aeruginosa [M. aeruginosa, 2.0 (±0.5) × 10 6  cell/mL] in bench scale. It significantly improved both algae cells removal and algal organic matter (AOM) control, compared with UV irradiation alone (254 nm UVC, 5.4 mJ/cm 2 ). About 94.7% of algae cells were removed after 5 min UV/H 2 O 2 pre-treatment with H 2 O 2 dose 375 μmol/L, FeSO 4 coagulation (dose 125 μmol/L). It was also certified that low residue Fe level and AOM control was simultaneously achieved due to low dose of Fe(II) to settle down the cells as well as the AOM. The result of L 9 (3) 4 orthogonal experiment demonstrated that H 2 O 2 and FeSO 4 dose was significantly influenced the algae removal. UV/H 2 O 2 induced an increase of intracellular reactive oxidant species (ROS) and a decrease in zeta potential, which might contribute to the algae removal. The total microcystins (MCs) concentration was 1.5 μg/L after UV/H 2 O 2 pre-oxidation, however, it could be removed simultaneously with the algae cells and AOM. This study suggested a novel application of UV/H 2 O 2 -Fe(II) process to promote algae removal and simultaneously control AOM release in source waters, which is a green and promising technology without secondary pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adding Organic Matter Enhanced the Effectiveness of Silicate Rock Fertilizer for Food Crops Grown on Nutritionally Disorder Soils: A Glasshouse Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Arifin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A glasshouse experiment was carried to identify effects of the application rate of ground silicate rock as a multinutrientfertilizer (SRF with and without organic matter (OM on growth and nutrient status of food crops (rice,corn, and soybean. Those crops were grown on 3 different soils in 2 cropping patterns, i.e., rice – soybean and corn– soybean, providing 6 experimental sets. A completely randomized design was applied in each experimental set.The treatment in each set consisted of 3 rates of SRF (5, 10, and 15 g kg-1, those 3 rates + 5 g kg-1 of OM, and acontrol (without adding SRF or OM. The first crops (rice and corn were grown up to 65 days, while the secondcrop (soybean was up to 40 days. Results indicated that for crops grown on less fertile soils, the application of SRFonly slightly increased growth of crops, mainly of the 2nd crops, and adding OM greatly increased the growth ofboth the 1st and 2nd crops. In those experimental sets, about 60 – 80% of the variation of crop growth was significantlydetermined by concentration of Cu and several other essential nutrients in crop tissue. In contrast, the growth forcrops grown on more fertile soils was not affected by the application of SRF or/and OM. It was concluded thatadding OM enhanced the effectiveness of SRF as a multi-nutrient fertilizer, and that may be used as an appropriatemulti-nutrient fertilizer or general ameliorant to sustain soil quality and remediate the nutritionally disorder soils.

  10. Speech Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina

    2011-01-01

    About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....

  11. Memory Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Memory Matters KidsHealth / For Kids / Memory Matters What's in ... of your complex and multitalented brain. What Is Memory? When an event happens, when you learn something, ...

  12. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    What You See Ain't What. You Got, Resonance, Vol.4,. No.9,1999. Dark Matter. 2. Dark Matter in the Universe. Bikram Phookun and Biman Nath. In Part 11 of this article we learnt that there are compelling evidences from dynamics of spiral galaxies, like our own, that there must be non-luminous matter in them. In this.

  13. Effect of initial bulk density on high-solids anaerobic digestion of MSW: General mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, Luis M; Wang, Hongtao; Lu, Wenjing; De Clercq, Djavan; Liu, Yanjun; Xu, Sai; Ni, Zhe

    2017-06-01

    Initial bulk density (IBD) is an important variable in anaerobic digestion since it defines and optimizes the treatment capacity of a system. This study reveals the mechanism on how IBD might affect anaerobic digestion of waste. Four different IBD values: D 1 (500-700kgm -3 ), D 2 (900-1000kgm -3 ), D 3 (1100-1200kgm -3 ) and D 4 (1200-1400kgm -3 ) were set and tested over a period of 90days in simulated landfill reactors. The main variables affected by the IBD are the methane generation, saturation degree, extraction of organic matter, and the total population of methanogens. The study identified that IBD >1000kgm -3 may have significant effect on methane generation, either prolonging the lag time or completely inhibiting the process. This study provides a new understanding of the anaerobic digestion process in saturated high-solids systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A methodology for optimal MSW management, with an application in the waste transportation of Attica Region, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Economopoulou, M.A. [Hellenic Statistical Authority, Pireos 46 and Eponiton, Pireus 185 10 (Greece); Economopoulou, A.A. [Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climatic Change, 15 Amaliados Street, Athens 11523 (Greece); Economopoulos, A.P., E-mail: eco@otenet.gr [Environmental Engineering Dept., Technical University of Crete, Chania 73100 (Greece)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • A two-step (strategic and detailed optimal planning) methodology is used for solving complex MSW management problems. • A software package is outlined, which can be used for generating detailed optimal plans. • Sensitivity analysis compares alternative scenarios that address objections and/or wishes of local communities. • A case study shows the application of the above procedure in practice and demonstrates the results and benefits obtained. - Abstract: The paper describes a software system capable of formulating alternative optimal Municipal Solid Wastes (MSWs) management plans, each of which meets a set of constraints that may reflect selected objections and/or wishes of local communities. The objective function to be minimized in each plan is the sum of the annualized capital investment and annual operating cost of all transportation, treatment and final disposal operations involved, taking into consideration the possible income from the sale of products and any other financial incentives or disincentives that may exist. For each plan formulated, the system generates several reports that define the plan, analyze its cost elements and yield an indicative profile of selected types of installations, as well as data files that facilitate the geographic representation of the optimal solution in maps through the use of GIS. A number of these reports compare the technical and economic data from all scenarios considered at the study area, municipality and installation level constituting in effect sensitivity analysis. The generation of alternative plans offers local authorities the opportunity of choice and the results of the sensitivity analysis allow them to choose wisely and with consensus. The paper presents also an application of this software system in the capital Region of Attica in Greece, for the purpose of developing an optimal waste transportation system in line with its approved waste management plan. The formulated plan was able to

  15. A methodology for optimal MSW management, with an application in the waste transportation of Attica Region, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economopoulou, M.A.; Economopoulou, A.A.; Economopoulos, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-step (strategic and detailed optimal planning) methodology is used for solving complex MSW management problems. • A software package is outlined, which can be used for generating detailed optimal plans. • Sensitivity analysis compares alternative scenarios that address objections and/or wishes of local communities. • A case study shows the application of the above procedure in practice and demonstrates the results and benefits obtained. - Abstract: The paper describes a software system capable of formulating alternative optimal Municipal Solid Wastes (MSWs) management plans, each of which meets a set of constraints that may reflect selected objections and/or wishes of local communities. The objective function to be minimized in each plan is the sum of the annualized capital investment and annual operating cost of all transportation, treatment and final disposal operations involved, taking into consideration the possible income from the sale of products and any other financial incentives or disincentives that may exist. For each plan formulated, the system generates several reports that define the plan, analyze its cost elements and yield an indicative profile of selected types of installations, as well as data files that facilitate the geographic representation of the optimal solution in maps through the use of GIS. A number of these reports compare the technical and economic data from all scenarios considered at the study area, municipality and installation level constituting in effect sensitivity analysis. The generation of alternative plans offers local authorities the opportunity of choice and the results of the sensitivity analysis allow them to choose wisely and with consensus. The paper presents also an application of this software system in the capital Region of Attica in Greece, for the purpose of developing an optimal waste transportation system in line with its approved waste management plan. The formulated plan was able to

  16. Some economic and environmental considerations about the feasibility of a MSW (Municipal Solid Wastes) incinerator with energy recovery in the province of Cosenza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoletti, G.; Anile, F.; Marandola, C.

    1998-01-01

    From new years, also in Italy is increasing the awareness of the not deferability of the problems about energetic consumption and with environmental pollution. In this contest, in the present note it's pointed out the risk of the sell of unloading of the MSW (Municipal Solid Wastes) and also the importance of legislative directions promulgate recently to face correctly the problem. In this work is considered the qualitative-quantitative aspects of the municipal solid wastes in the province of Cosenza with some reference to the experiences made in this sector. It's also shown that a MSW incinerator with energy recovery is principally characterized for a strong contribution to the environmental healing and, in second step, but not less important, for a energetic saving of the fossil fuels [it

  17. The use of LCA in selecting the best MSW management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feo, Giovanni De; Malvano, Carmela

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the study of eleven environmental impact categories produced by several municipal solid waste management systems (scenarios) operating on a provincial scale in Southern Italy. In particular, the analysis takes into account 12 management scenarios with 16 management phases for each one. The only difference among ten of the scenarios (separated kerbside collection of all recyclables, glass excepted, composting of putrescibles, RDF pressed bales production and incineration, final landfilling) is the percentage of separated collection varying in the range of 35-80%, while the other two scenarios, for 80% of separate collection, consider different alternatives in the disposal of treatment residues (dry residue sorting and final landfilling or direct disposal in landfill). The potential impacts induced on the environmental components were analysed using the life cycle assessment (LCA) procedure called 'WISARD' (Waste Integrated System Assessment for Recovery and Disposal). Paper recycling was the phase with the greatest influence on avoided impacts, while the collection logistics of dry residue was the phase with the greatest influence on produced impacts. For six impact categories (renewable and total energy use, water, suspended solids and oxydable matters index, eutrophication and hazardous waste production), for high percentages of separate collection a management system based on recovery and recycling but without incineration would be preferable.

  18. The use of LCA in selecting the best MSW management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, Giovanni; Malvano, Carmela

    2009-06-01

    This paper focuses on the study of eleven environmental impact categories produced by several municipal solid waste management systems (scenarios) operating on a provincial scale in Southern Italy. In particular, the analysis takes into account 12 management scenarios with 16 management phases for each one. The only difference among ten of the scenarios (separated kerbside collection of all recyclables, glass excepted, composting of putrescibles, RDF pressed bales production and incineration, final landfilling) is the percentage of separated collection varying in the range of 35-80%, while the other two scenarios, for 80% of separate collection, consider different alternatives in the disposal of treatment residues (dry residue sorting and final landfilling or direct disposal in landfill). The potential impacts induced on the environmental components were analysed using the life cycle assessment (LCA) procedure called "WISARD" (Waste Integrated System Assessment for Recovery and Disposal). Paper recycling was the phase with the greatest influence on avoided impacts, while the collection logistics of dry residue was the phase with the greatest influence on produced impacts. For six impact categories (renewable and total energy use, water, suspended solids and oxydable matters index, eutrophication and hazardous waste production), for high percentages of separate collection a management system based on recovery and recycling but without incineration would be preferable.

  19. D matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiu, Gary; Wang Liantao

    2004-01-01

    We study the properties and phenomenology of particlelike states originating from D branes whose spatial dimensions are all compactified. They are nonperturbative states in string theory and we refer to them as D matter. In contrast to other nonperturbative objects such as 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles, D-matter states could have perturbative couplings among themselves and with ordinary matter. The lightest D particle (LDP) could be stable because it is the lightest state carrying certain (integer or discrete) quantum numbers. Depending on the string scale, they could be cold dark matter candidates with properties similar to that of WIMPs or wimpzillas. The spectrum of excited states of D matter exhibits an interesting pattern which could be distinguished from that of Kaluza-Klein modes, winding states, and string resonances. We speculate about possible signatures of D matter from ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and colliders

  20. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S. S.; Bennett, C. L.

    1995-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Astrophysics conference in Maryland, organized by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland. The topics covered included low mass stars as dark matter, dark matter in galaxies and clusters, cosmic microwave background anisotropy, cold and hot dark matter, and the large scale distribution and motions of galaxies. There were eighty five papers presented. Out of these, 10 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  1. Chemical and sewage sludge co-incineration in a full-scale MSW incinerator: toxic trace element mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Grosso, Mario; Giugliano, Michele; Campolunghi, Manuel

    2012-10-01

    Co-incineration of sludges with MSW is a quite common practice in Europe. This paper illustrates a case of co-incineration of both sewage sludges and chemical sludges, the latter obtained from drinking water production, in a waste-to-energy (WTE) plant located in northern Italy and equipped with a grate furnace, and compares the toxic trace elements mass balance with and without the co-incineration of sludges. The results show that co-incineration of sewage and chemical sludges does not result in an increase of toxic trace elements the total release in environment, with the exception of arsenic, whose total release increases from 1 mg t(fuel) (-1) during standard operation to 3 mg t(fuel) (-1) when sludges are co-incinerated. The increase of arsenic release is, however, attributable to the sole bottom ashes, where its concentration is five times higher during sludge co-incineration. No variation is observed for arsenic release at the stack. This fact is a further guarantee that the co-incineration of sludges, when performed in a state-of-the-art WTE plant, does not have negative effects on the atmospheric environment.

  2. Experimental plant for the physical-chemical treatment of groundwater polluted by Municipal Solid Waste (MSW leachate, with ammonia recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Raboni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper documents the results of the experimental treatment of groundwater (flow rate: 300 m3 h-1 polluted by the leachate of an old MSW landfill (7 million tonnes in northern Italy. The process consists of a coagulation-flocculation pre-treatment at pH > 11, and subsequent ammonia stripping, after heating the water to 35-38 °C by means of the biogas produced by the landfill. The stripped ammonia was recovered by absorption with sulfuric acid, producing a 30% solution of ammonium sulfate, which was reused as a base fertilizer. In addition, the paper reports important operational aspects related to the scaling of the stripping tower’s packing and its effect on pH and temperature profiles inside the towers caused by the closed loop, which recirculates the stripping air coming from the ammonia absorption towers with sulfuric acid. The average removal efficiency of ammonia reached 95.4% with an inlet mean concentration of 199.0 mg L-1.

  3. Environmental performance of the Kvaerner BFB boilers for MSW combustion -- Analysis of gaseous emissions and solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, M.; Hagman, U.; Andersson, B.A.; Olofsson, J.

    1997-01-01

    Kvaerner Pulping AB (formerly Kvaerner EnviroPower AB) has, due to the stringent demands on emissions performance, developed a state-of-the-art bubbling fluidized bed boiler (BFB) designed for waste fuel firing with very low emissions to the air. A complete evaluation of the environmental performance of the Kvaerner BFB technique for MSW combustion is now possible thanks to a thorough characterization study of the solid residues from the Lidkoeping plant. This paper gives an overall mapping of the emissions performance. Data from the operating plants on solid residue characteristics and leachability, heavy metal and dioxin emissions, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, acid gases, and other emissions to air are presented. Comparisons are made with legislative limits and data from the mass burning technique. It is concluded that the emissions are low compared both with data from traditional mass burn incinerators and with legislative limits in the USA and Europe. Furthermore, the bottom and cyclone ash characteristics are shown not to cause any particular problem from an environmental point of view, and that the leachability is well below the existing legislative limits in Europe and the USA. The results show that fluidized bed combustion of municipal solid waste is a very competitive alternative to the traditional mass burning technique in every respect

  4. Evaluation of landfill gas production and emissions in a MSW large-scale Experimental Cell in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Felipe Jucá; Jucá, José Fernando Thomé

    2011-05-01

    Landfill gas (LFG) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are an important environmental concern in Brazil due to the existence of several uncontrolled disposal sites. A program of laboratory and field tests was conducted to investigate gas generation in and emission from an Experimental Cell with a 36,659-ton capacity in Recife/PE - Brazil. This investigation involved waste characterisation, gas production and emission monitoring, and geotechnical and biological evaluations and was performed using three types of final cover layers. The results obtained in this study showed that waste decomposes 4-5 times faster in a tropical wet climate than predicted by traditional first-order models using default parameters. This fact must be included when considering the techniques and economics of projects developed in tropical climate countries. The design of the final cover layer and its geotechnical and biological behaviour proved to have an important role in minimising gas emissions to the atmosphere. Capillary and methanotrophic final cover layers presented lower CH(4) flux rates than the conventional layer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, A.; Cotti, U.; De Leon, C. L.; Raya, A; Villasenor, L.

    2008-01-01

    One of the biggest scientific mysteries of our time resides in the identification of the particles that constitute a large fraction of the mass of our Universe, generically known as dark matter. We review the observations and the experimental data that imply the existence of dark matter. We briefly discuss the properties of the two best dark-matter candidate particles and the experimental techniques presently used to try to discover them. Finally, we mention a proposed project that has recently emerged within the Mexican community to look for dark matter

  6. CCA-treated wood disposed in landfills and life-cycle trade-offs with waste-to-energy and MSW landfill disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambeck, Jenna; Weitz, Keith; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Townsend, Timothy; Thorneloe, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood is a preservative treated wood construction product that grew in use in the 1970s for both residential and industrial applications. Although some countries have banned the use of the product for some applications, others have not, and the product continues to enter the waste stream from construction, demolition and remodeling projects. CCA-treated wood as a solid waste is managed in various ways throughout the world. In the US, CCA-treated wood is disposed primarily within landfills; however some of the wood is combusted in waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities. In other countries, the predominant disposal option for wood, sometimes including CCA-treated wood, is combustion for the production of energy. This paper presents an estimate of the quantity of CCA-treated wood entering the disposal stream in the US, as well as an examination of the trade-offs between landfilling and WTE combustion of CCA-treated wood through a life-cycle assessment and decision support tool (MSW DST). Based upon production statistics, the estimated life span and the phaseout of CCA-treated wood, recent disposal projections estimate the peak US disposal rate to occur in 2008, at 9.7 million m(3). CCA-treated wood, when disposed with construction and demolition (C&D) debris and municipal solid waste (MSW), has been found to increase arsenic and chromium concentrations in leachate. For this reason, and because MSW landfills are lined, MSW landfills have been recommended as a preferred disposal option over unlined C&D debris landfills. Between landfilling and WTE for the same mass of CCA-treated wood, WTE is more expensive (nearly twice the cost), but when operated in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) regulations, it produces energy and does not emit fossil carbon emissions. If the wood is managed via WTE, less landfill area is required, which could be an influential trade-off in some countries. Although metals are concentrated

  7. Biochemical, hydrological and mechanical behaviors of high food waste content MSW landfill: Liquid-gas interactions observed from a large-scale experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Liang-Tong; Xu, Hui; Chen, Yun-Min; Lan, Ji-Wu; Lin, Wei-An; Xu, Xiao-Bing; He, Pin-Jing

    2017-10-01

    The high food waste content (HFWC) MSW at a landfill has the characteristics of rapid hydrolysis process, large leachate production rate and fast gas generation. The liquid-gas interactions at HFWC-MSW landfills are prominent and complex, and still remain significant challenges. This paper focuses on the liquid-gas interactions of HFWC-MSW observed from a large-scale bioreactor landfill experiment (5m×5m×7.5m). Based on the connected and quantitative analyses on the experimental observations, the following findings were obtained: (1) The high leachate level observed at Chinese landfills was attributed to the combined contribution from the great quantity of self-released leachate, waste compression and gas entrapped underwater. The contribution from gas entrapped underwater was estimated to be 21-28% of the total leachate level. (2) The gas entrapped underwater resulted in a reduction of hydraulic conductivity, decreasing by one order with an increase in gas content from 13% to 21%. (3) The "breakthrough value" in the gas accumulation zone was up to 11kPa greater than the pore liquid pressure. The increase of the breakthrough value was associated with the decrease of void porosity induced by surcharge loading. (4) The self-released leachate from HFWC-MSW was estimated to contribute to over 30% of the leachate production at landfills in Southern China. The drainage of leachate with a high organic loading in the rapid hydrolysis stage would lead to a loss of landfill gas (LFG) potential of 13%. Based on the above findings, an improved method considering the quantity of self-released leachate was proposed for the prediction of leachate production at HFWC-MSW landfills. In addition, a three-dimensional drainage system was proposed to drawdown the high leachate level and hence to improve the slope stability of a landfill, reduce the hydraulic head on a bottom liner and increase the collection efficiency for LFG. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Enhanced Input of Terrestrial Particulate Organic Matter Reduces the Resilience of the Clear-Water State of Shallow Lakes: A Model Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lischke, B.; Hilt, S.; Janse, J.H.; Kuiper, J.J.; Mehner, T.; Mooij, W.M.; Gaedke, U.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of terrestrial particulate organic matter (t-POM) entering lakes is predicted to increase as a result of climate change. This may especially alter the structure and functioning of ecosystems in small, shallow lakes which can rapidly shift from a clear-water, macrophyte-dominated into a

  9. Near-road enhancement and solubility of fine and coarse particulate matter trace elements near a major interstate in Detroit, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communities near major roadways are disproportionately affected by traffic-related air pollution which can contribute to adverse health outcomes. The specific role of particulate matter (PM) from traffic sources is not fully understood due to complex emissions processes and physi...

  10. Combining geographic information system, multicriteria evaluation techniques and fuzzy logic in siting MSW landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemitzi, Alexandra; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A.; Voudrias, Evangelos; Petalas, Christos; Stravodimos, George

    2007-01-01

    This study presents a methodology for siting municipal solid waste landfills, coupling geographic information systems (GIS), fuzzy logic, and multicriteria evaluation techniques. Both exclusionary and non-exclusionary criteria are used. Factors, i.e., non-exclusionary criteria, are divided in two distinct groups which do not have the same level of trade off. The first group comprises factors related to the physical environment, which cannot be expressed in terms of monetary cost and, therefore, they do not easily trade off. The second group includes those factors related to human activities, i.e., socioeconomic factors, which can be expressed as financial cost, thus showing a high level of trade off. GIS are used for geographic data acquisition and processing. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is the multicriteria evaluation technique used, enhanced with fuzzy factor standardization. Besides assigning weights to factors through the AHP, control over the level of risk and trade off in the siting process is achieved through a second set of weights, i.e., order weights, applied to factors in each factor group, on a pixel-by-pixel basis, thus taking into account the local site characteristics. The method has been applied to Evros prefecture (NE Greece), an area of approximately 4,000 km2. The siting methodology results in two intermediate suitability maps, one related to environmental and the other to socioeconomic criteria. Combination of the two intermediate maps results in the final composite suitability map for landfill siting.

  11. Gaseous Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    aseous Matter focuses on the many important discoveries that led to the scientific interpretation of matter in the gaseous state. This new, full-color resource describes the basic characteristics and properties of several important gases, including air, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nature and scope of the science of fluids is discussed in great detail, highlighting the most important scientific principles upon which the field is based. Chapters include:. Gaseous Matter An Initial Perspective. Physical Characteristics of Gases. The Rise of the Science of Gases. Kinetic Theory of

  12. Enhancing Signal Output and Avoiding BOD/Toxicity Combined Shock Interference by Operating a Microbial Fuel Cell Sensor with an Optimized Background Concentration of Organic Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the monitoring of pollutants in an aquatic environment, it is important to preserve water quality safety. Among the available analysis methods, the microbial fuel cell (MFC sensor has recently been used as a sustainable and on-line electrochemical microbial biosensor for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and toxicity, respectively. However, the effect of the background organic matter concentration on toxicity monitoring when using an MFC sensor is not clear and there is no effective strategy available to avoid the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity. Thus, the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity was systematically studied in this experiment. The background organic matter concentration was optimized in this study and it should be fixed at a high level of oversaturation for maximizing the signal output when the current change (ΔI is selected to correlate with the concentration of a toxic agent. When the inhibition ratio (IR is selected, on the other hand, it should be fixed as low as possible near the detection limit for maximizing the signal output. At least two MFC sensors operated with high and low organic matter concentrations and a response chart generated from pre-experiment data were both required to make qualitative distinctions of the four types of combined shock caused by a sudden change in BOD and toxicity.

  13. Prospective outcome of the influence of complexation by natural organic matter on enhanced or retarded transport of radionuclides: case of humic substances retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiller, P.

    2010-01-01

    This document takes a prospective stock of the natural organic matter influence on the possible effects on radionuclide migration, as well as a brief critical analysis of the literature data. A comparison with the retention of the 'simple' organic complexing agents is done in order to fix the limit of the 'simplistic' analogies done in the literature very often. It appears that the magnitude of the effects is function of the residence time in the medium, and of the possibilities for the organic complexes to be retained on the mineral surfaces. The contact time between radionuclides and the natural organic matter is also an influent parameter, as it influences part of the reversibility of this interaction vis-a-vis surface retention. Modelling of the metal-organic-surface systems is only satisfying up to now when accounting fractions of organic matter that are less susceptible to form colloidal aggregates, i.e., fulvic acids. These non-aggregated fractions could be considered as simple ligands in a first approximation. Conversely, when it comes to aggregated colloids of organic origin, i.e., humic acids, modelling are limited by the lack of theoretical understanding of their structure and of their evolution in response to geochemical condition variations, as ionic strength (harsh meteoric events), acidity or water composition (non-saturated water table). (author)

  14. Dark matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark. That is, not only is the night sky dark, but also most of the matter and the energy in the universe is dark. For every atom visible in planets, stars and galaxies today there exists at least five or six times as much 'Dark Matter' in the universe. Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious but pervasive dark matter, which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe. Dark energy remains even more elusive, as we lack candidate fields that emerge from well established physics. I will describe various attempts to measure dark matter by direct and indirect means, and discuss the prospects for progress in unravelling dark energy.

  15. Dirac matter

    CERN Document Server

    Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel

    2017-01-01

    This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...

  16. Resonant SIMP dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Min Choi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider a resonant SIMP dark matter in models with two singlet complex scalar fields charged under a local dark U(1D. After the U(1D is broken down to a Z5 discrete subgroup, the lighter scalar field becomes a SIMP dark matter which has the enhanced 3→2 annihilation cross section near the resonance of the heavier scalar field. Bounds on the SIMP self-scattering cross section and the relic density can be fulfilled at the same time for perturbative couplings of SIMP. A small gauge kinetic mixing between the SM hypercharge and dark gauge bosons can be used to make SIMP dark matter in kinetic equilibrium with the SM during freeze-out.

  17. The effect of random matter density perturbations on the large mixing angle solution to the solar neutrino problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, M. M.; Holanda, P. C.; Reggiani, N.

    2003-08-01

    The neutrino energy spectrum observed in KamLAND is compatible with the predictions based on the Large Mixing Angle realization of the MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) mechanism, which provides the best solution to the solar neutrino anomaly. From the agreement between solar neutrino data and KamLAND observations, we can obtain the best fit values of the mixing angle and square difference mass. When doing the fitting of the MSW predictions to the solar neutrino data, it is assumed the solar matter do not have any kind of perturbations, that is, it is assumed the the matter density monothonically decays from the center to the surface of the Sun. There are reasons to believe, nevertheless, that the solar matter density fluctuates around the equilibrium profile. In this work, we analysed the effect on the Large Mixing Angle parameters when the density matter randomically fluctuates around the equilibrium profile, solving the evolution equation in this case. We find that, in the presence of these density perturbations, the best fit values of the mixing angle and the square difference mass assume smaller values, compared with the values obtained for the standard Large Mixing Angle Solution without noise. Considering this effect of the random perturbations, the lowest island of allowed region for KamLAND spectral data in the parameter space must be considered and we call it very-low region.

  18. Quark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csernai, L.; Kampert, K. H.

    1994-10-15

    Precisely one decade ago the GSI (Darmstadt)/LBL (Berkeley) Collaboration at the Berkeley Bevalac reported clear evidence for collective sidewards flow in high energy heavy ion collisions. This milestone observation clearly displayed the compression and heating up of nuclear matter, providing new insights into how the behaviour of nuclear matter changes under very different conditions. This year, evidence for azimuthally asymmetric transverse flow at ten times higher projectile energy (11 GeV per nucleon gold on gold collisions) was presented by the Brookhaven E877 collaboration at the recent European Research Conference on ''Physics of High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions'', held in Helsinki from 17-22 June.

  19. Suprathermal viscosity of dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Schwenzer, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the existence of unstable modes of compact stars that eventually grow large, we study the bulk viscosity of dense matter, taking into account non-linear effects arising in the large amplitude regime, where the deviation μ Δ of the chemical potentials from chemical equilibrium fulfills μ Δ > or approx. T. We find that this supra-thermal bulk viscosity can provide a potential mechanism for saturating unstable modes in compact stars since the viscosity is strongly enhanced. Our study confirms previous results on strange quark matter and shows that the suprathermal enhancement is even stronger in the case of hadronic matter. We also comment on the competition of different weak channels and the presence of suprathermal effects in various color superconducting phases of dense quark matter.

  20. Rethinking the MSW Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Ira C.

    2013-01-01

    The foundation year and specialization year of study are the accepted framework for graduate social work education. A common belief among educators is that accreditation standards are prescriptive by design, resulting in a rigidity that neither encourages nor supports curricular innovation. This article outlines a newly developed curriculum model…

  1. Solar neutrinos as a probe of dark matter-neutrino interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capozzi, Francesco; Vecchi, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Shoemaker, Ian M., E-mail: capozzi.12@osu.edu, E-mail: ian.shoemaker@usd.edu, E-mail: vecchi@infn.pd.it [Department of Physics, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Sterile neutrinos at the eV scale have long been studied in the context of anomalies in short baseline neutrino experiments. Their cosmology can be made compatible with our understanding of the early Universe provided the sterile neutrino sector enjoys a nontrivial dynamics with exotic interactions, possibly providing a link to the Dark Matter (DM) puzzle. Interactions between DM and neutrinos have also been proposed to address the long-standing 'missing satellites' problem in the field of large scale structure formation. Motivated by these considerations, in this paper we discuss realistic scenarios with light steriles coupled to DM . We point out that within this framework active neutrinos acquire an effective coupling to DM that manifests itself as a new matter potential in the propagation within a medium of asymmetric DM . Assuming that at least a small fraction of asymmetric DM has been captured by the Sun, we show that a sizable region of the parameter space of these scenarios can be probed by solar neutrino experiments, especially in the regime of small couplings and light mediators where all other probes become inefficient. In the latter regime these scenarios behave as familiar 3+1 models in all channels except for solar data, where a Solar Dark MSW effect takes place. Solar Dark MSW is characterized by modifications of the most energetic {sup 8}B and CNO neutrinos, whereas the other fluxes remain largely unaffected.

  2. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As if this was not enough, it turns out that if our knowledge of ... are thought to contain dark matter, although the evidences from them are the .... protons, electrons, neutrons ... ratio of protons to neutrons was close to unity then as they were in ...

  3. Quantum matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechler, Hans Peter; Calcarco, Tommaso; Dressel, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Artificial atoms and molecules, tailored from solids, fractional flux quanta, molecular magnets, controlled interaction in quantum gases, the theory of quantum correlations in mott matter, cold gases, and mesoscopic systems, Bose-Einstein condensates on the chip, on the route to the quantum computer, a quantum computer in diamond. (HSI)

  4. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 4. Molecule Matters – van der Waals Molecules - History and Some Perspectives on Intermolecular Forces. E Arunan. Feature Article Volume 14 Issue 4 April 2009 pp 346-356 ...

  5. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Molecule Matters - Dinitrogen. A G Samuelson J Jabadurai. Volume 16 Issue 12 ... Author Affiliations. A G Samuelson1 J Jabadurai1. Department of Inroganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  6. Interstellar matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezger, P.G.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the formation of our galaxy is presented followed by a summary of recent work in star formation and related topics. Selected discussions are given on interstellar matter including absorption characteristics of dust, the fully ionised component of the ISM and the energy density of lyc-photons in the solar neighbourhood and the diffuse galactic IR radiation

  7. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of gas clouds orbiting in the outer regions of spiral galaxies has revealed that their gravitational at- traction is much larger than the stars alone can provide. Over the last twenty years, astronomers have been forced to postulate the presence of large quantities of 'dark matter' to explain their observations. They are ...

  8. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 9. Molecule Matters - A Chromium Compound with a Quintuple Bond. K C Kumara Swamy. Feature Article Volume 11 Issue 9 September 2006 pp 72-75. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. Central sorting and recovery of MSW recyclable materials: A review of technological state-of-the-art, cases, practice and implications for materials recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Maul, Anja; Jansen, Michael; Pretz, Thomas; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-06-01

    Today's waste regulation in the EU comprises stringent material recovery targets and calls for comprehensive programs in order to achieve them. A similar movement is seen in the US where more and more states and communities commit to high diversion rates from landfills. The present paper reviews scientific literature, case studies and results from pilot projects, on the topic of central sorting of recyclable materials commonly found in waste from households. The study contributes, inter alia, with background understanding on the development of materials recovery, both in a historical and geographical perspective. Physical processing and sorting technology has reached a high level of maturity, and many quality issues linked to cross-contamination by commingling have been successfully addressed to date. New sorting plants tend to benefit from economies of scale, and innovations in automation and process control, which are targeted at curtailing process inefficiencies shown by operational practice. Technology developed for the sorting of commingled recyclables from separate collection is also being successfully used to upgrade residual MSW processing plants. The strongest motivation for central sorting of residual MSW is found for areas where source separation and separate collection is difficult, such as urban agglomerations, and can in such areas contribute to increasing recycling rates, either complementary to- or as a substitute for source separation of certain materials, such as plastics and metals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Life cycle and economic assessment of source-separated MSW collection with regard to greenhouse gas emissions: a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Ni, Mingjiang; Chi, Yong; Zou, Daoan; Fu, Chao

    2013-08-01

    In China, the continuously increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) has resulted in an urgent need for changing the current municipal solid waste management (MSWM) system based on mixed collection. A pilot program focusing on source-separated MSW collection was thus launched (2010) in Hangzhou, China, to lessen the related environmental loads. And greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (Kyoto Protocol) are singled out in particular. This paper uses life cycle assessment modeling to evaluate the potential environmental improvement with regard to GHG emissions. The pre-existing MSWM system is assessed as baseline, while the source separation scenario is compared internally. Results show that 23 % GHG emissions can be decreased by source-separated collection compared with the base scenario. In addition, the use of composting and anaerobic digestion (AD) is suggested for further optimizing the management of food waste. 260.79, 82.21, and -86.21 thousand tonnes of GHG emissions are emitted from food waste landfill, composting, and AD, respectively, proving the emission reduction potential brought by advanced food waste treatment technologies. Realizing the fact, a modified MSWM system is proposed by taking AD as food waste substitution option, with additional 44 % GHG emissions saved than current source separation scenario. Moreover, a preliminary economic assessment is implemented. It is demonstrated that both source separation scenarios have a good cost reduction potential than mixed collection, with the proposed new system the most cost-effective one.

  11. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.; Tran Thanh Van, J.

    1988-01-01

    The book begins with the papers devoted to the experimental search of signatures of the dark matter which governs the evolution of the Universe as a whole. A series of contributions describe the presently considered experimental techniques (cryogenic detectors, supraconducting detectors...). A real dialogue concerning these techniques has been instaured between particle physicists and astrophysicists. After the progress report of the particle physicists, the book provides the reader with an updated situation concerning the research in cosmology. The second part of the book is devoted to the analysis of the backgrounds at different energies such as the possible role of the cooling flows in the constitution of massive galactic halos. Any search of dark matter implies necessarily the analysis of the spatial distributions of the large scale structures of the Universe. This report is followed by a series of statistical analyses of these distributions. These analyses concern mainly universes filled up with cold dark matter. The last paper of this third part concerns the search of clustering in the spatial distribution of QSOs. The presence of dark matter should affect the solar neighborhood and related to the existence of galactic haloes. The contributions are devoted to the search of such local dark matter. Primordial nucleosynthesis provides a very powerful tool to set up quite constraining limitations on the overall baryonic density. Even if on takes into account the inhomogeneities in density possibly induced by the Quark-Hadron transition, this baryonic density should be much lower than the overall density deduced from the dynamical models of Universe or the inflationary theories

  12. Do work relationships matter? Characteristics of workplace interactions that enhance or detract from employee perceptions of well-being and health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, Karen; Storberg-Walker, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study adopted the position that health and health behaviors are complex social constructs influenced by multiple factors. Framed by the social ecological model, the study explored how work interactions enhanced or detracted from the perceptions of well-being and health behaviors. Despite the fact that previous studies indicated that the social workplace environment contributed to employee health, there was little information regarding the characteristics. Specifically, little was known about how employees perceived the connections between workplace interactions and health, or how social interactions enhanced or detracted from well-being and health behaviors. The participants included 19 volunteers recruited from four companies, who shared their experiences of workplace interactions through interviews and journaling assignments. The findings indicated that feelings of well-being were enhanced by work interactions, which were trusting, collaborative, and positive, as well as when participants felt valued and respected. The study also found that interactions detracted from well-being and health behaviors when interactions lacked the aforementioned characteristics, and also included lack of justice and empathy. The enhancing and detracting relationships generated physical symptoms, and influenced sleeping and eating patterns, socializing, exercise, personal relations, careers, and energy. Surprisingly, the study found that regardless of how broadly participants defined health, when they were asked to rate their health, participants uniformly rated theirs on physical attributes alone. The exclusive consideration of physical attributes suggests that participants may have unconsciously adopted the typical western medical view of health - an individually determined and physiologic characteristic. Despite research suggesting health is more than biology, and despite defining health broadly, participants uniformly adopted this traditional view. The study

  13. Do work relationships matter? Characteristics of workplace interactions that enhance or detract from employee perceptions of well-being and health behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, Karen; Storberg-Walker, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study adopted the position that health and health behaviors are complex social constructs influenced by multiple factors. Framed by the social ecological model, the study explored how work interactions enhanced or detracted from the perceptions of well-being and health behaviors. Despite the fact that previous studies indicated that the social workplace environment contributed to employee health, there was little information regarding the characteristics. Specifically, little was known about how employees perceived the connections between workplace interactions and health, or how social interactions enhanced or detracted from well-being and health behaviors. The participants included 19 volunteers recruited from four companies, who shared their experiences of workplace interactions through interviews and journaling assignments. The findings indicated that feelings of well-being were enhanced by work interactions, which were trusting, collaborative, and positive, as well as when participants felt valued and respected. The study also found that interactions detracted from well-being and health behaviors when interactions lacked the aforementioned characteristics, and also included lack of justice and empathy. The enhancing and detracting relationships generated physical symptoms, and influenced sleeping and eating patterns, socializing, exercise, personal relations, careers, and energy. Surprisingly, the study found that regardless of how broadly participants defined health, when they were asked to rate their health, participants uniformly rated theirs on physical attributes alone. The exclusive consideration of physical attributes suggests that participants may have unconsciously adopted the typical western medical view of health – an individually determined and physiologic characteristic. Despite research suggesting health is more than biology, and despite defining health broadly, participants uniformly adopted this traditional view. The

  14. Solid Waste Biodegradation Enhancements and the Evaluation of Analytical Methods Used to Predict Waste Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Ryan J.

    2002-01-01

    Conventional landfills are built to dispose of the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated each year. A relatively new type of landfill, called a bioreactor landfill, is designed to optimize the biodegradation of the contained waste to stabilized products. Landfills with stabilized waste pose little threat to the environment from ozone depleting gases and groundwater contamination. Limited research has been done to determine the importance of biodegradation enhancement tech...

  15. Disposal Of Waste Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hyeon; Lee, Seung Mu

    1989-02-01

    This book deals with disposal of waste matter management of soiled waste matter in city with introduction, definition of waste matter, meaning of management of waste matter, management system of waste matter, current condition in the country, collect and transportation of waste matter disposal liquid waste matter, industrial waste matter like plastic, waste gas sludge, pulp and sulfuric acid, recycling technology of waste matter such as recycling system of Black clawson, Monroe and Rome.

  16. Protozoa enhance foraging efficiency of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for mineral nitrogen from organic matter in soil to the benefit of host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Robert; Rodriguez, Alia; Robin, Christophe; Scheu, Stefan; Bonkowski, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Dead organic matter (OM) is a major source of nitrogen (N) for plants. The majority of plants support N uptake by symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Mineralization of N is regulated by microfauna, in particular, protozoa grazing on bacteria. We hypothesized that AM fungi and protozoa interactively facilitate plant N nutrition from OM. In soil systems consisting of an OM patch and a root compartment, plant N uptake and consequences for plant carbon (C) allocation were investigated using stable isotopes. Protozoa mobilized N by consuming bacteria, and the mobilized N was translocated via AM fungi to the host plant. The presence of protozoa in both the OM and root compartment stimulated photosynthesis and the translocation of C from the host plant via AM fungi into the OM patch. This stimulated microbial activity in the OM patch, plant N uptake from OM and doubled plant growth. The results indicate that protozoa increase plant growth by both mobilization of N from OM and by protozoa-root interactions, resulting in increased C allocation to roots and into the rhizosphere, thereby increasing plant nutrient exploitation. Hence, mycorrhizal plants need to interact with protozoa to fully exploit N resources from OM. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Timing matters: negative emotion elicited 5 min but not 30 min or 45 min after learning enhances consolidation of internal-monitoring source memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Bukuan, Sun

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments examined the time-dependent effects of negative emotion on consolidation of item and internal-monitoring source memory. In Experiment 1, participants (n=121) learned a list of words. They were asked to read aloud half of the words and to think about the remaining half. They were instructed to memorize each word and its associative cognitive operation ("reading" versus "thinking"). Immediately following learning they conducted free recall and then watched a 3-min either neutral or negative video clip when 5 min, 30 min or 45 min had elapsed after learning. Twenty-four hours later they returned to take surprise tests for item and source memory. Experiment 2 was similar to Experiment 1 except that participants, without conducting an immediate test of free recall, took tests of source memory for all encoded words both immediately and 24 h after learning. Experiment 1 showed that negative emotion enhanced consolidation of item memory (as measured by retention ratio of free recall) regardless of delay of emotion elicitation and that negative emotion enhanced consolidation of source memory when it was elicited at a 5 min delay but reduced consolidation of source memory when it was elicited at a 30 min delay; when elicited at a 45 min delay, negative emotion had little effect. Furthermore, Experiment 2 replicated the enhancement effect on source memory in the 5 min delay even when participants were tested on all the encoded words. The current study partially replicated prior studies on item memory and extends the literature by providing evidence for a time-dependent effect of negative emotion on consolidation of source memory based on internal monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csernai, L.; Kampert, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    Precisely one decade ago the GSI (Darmstadt)/LBL (Berkeley) Collaboration at the Berkeley Bevalac reported clear evidence for collective sidewards flow in high energy heavy ion collisions. This milestone observation clearly displayed the compression and heating up of nuclear matter, providing new insights into how the behaviour of nuclear matter changes under very different conditions. This year, evidence for azimuthally asymmetric transverse flow at ten times higher projectile energy (11 GeV per nucleon gold on gold collisions) was presented by the Brookhaven E877 collaboration at the recent European Research Conference on ''Physics of High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions'', held in Helsinki from 17-22 June

  19. Enhanced transfer of organic matter to higher trophic levels caused by ocean acidification and its implications for export production: A mass balance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxhammer, Tim; Taucher, Jan; Bach, Lennart T; Achterberg, Eric P; Algueró-Muñiz, María; Bellworthy, Jessica; Czerny, Jan; Esposito, Mario; Haunost, Mathias; Hellemann, Dana; Ludwig, Andrea; Yong, Jaw C; Zark, Maren; Riebesell, Ulf; Anderson, Leif G

    2018-01-01

    Ongoing acidification of the ocean through uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is known to affect marine biota and ecosystems with largely unknown consequences for marine food webs. Changes in food web structure have the potential to alter trophic transfer, partitioning, and biogeochemical cycling of elements in the ocean. Here we investigated the impact of realistic end-of-the-century CO2 concentrations on the development and partitioning of the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and silica pools in a coastal pelagic ecosystem (Gullmar Fjord, Sweden). We covered the entire winter-to-summer plankton succession (100 days) in two sets of five pelagic mesocosms, with one set being CO2 enriched (~760 μatm pCO2) and the other one left at ambient CO2 concentrations. Elemental mass balances were calculated and we highlight important challenges and uncertainties we have faced in the closed mesocosm system. Our key observations under high CO2 were: (1) A significantly amplified transfer of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from primary producers to higher trophic levels, during times of regenerated primary production. (2) A prolonged retention of all three elements in the pelagic food web that significantly reduced nitrogen and phosphorus sedimentation by about 11 and 9%, respectively. (3) A positive trend in carbon fixation (relative to nitrogen) that appeared in the particulate matter pool as well as the downward particle flux. This excess carbon counteracted a potential reduction in carbon sedimentation that could have been expected from patterns of nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes. Our findings highlight the potential for ocean acidification to alter partitioning and cycling of carbon and nutrients in the surface ocean but also show that impacts are temporarily variable and likely depending upon the structure of the plankton food web.

  20. Enhanced transfer of organic matter to higher trophic levels caused by ocean acidification and its implications for export production: A mass balance approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Boxhammer

    Full Text Available Ongoing acidification of the ocean through uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is known to affect marine biota and ecosystems with largely unknown consequences for marine food webs. Changes in food web structure have the potential to alter trophic transfer, partitioning, and biogeochemical cycling of elements in the ocean. Here we investigated the impact of realistic end-of-the-century CO2 concentrations on the development and partitioning of the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and silica pools in a coastal pelagic ecosystem (Gullmar Fjord, Sweden. We covered the entire winter-to-summer plankton succession (100 days in two sets of five pelagic mesocosms, with one set being CO2 enriched (~760 μatm pCO2 and the other one left at ambient CO2 concentrations. Elemental mass balances were calculated and we highlight important challenges and uncertainties we have faced in the closed mesocosm system. Our key observations under high CO2 were: (1 A significantly amplified transfer of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from primary producers to higher trophic levels, during times of regenerated primary production. (2 A prolonged retention of all three elements in the pelagic food web that significantly reduced nitrogen and phosphorus sedimentation by about 11 and 9%, respectively. (3 A positive trend in carbon fixation (relative to nitrogen that appeared in the particulate matter pool as well as the downward particle flux. This excess carbon counteracted a potential reduction in carbon sedimentation that could have been expected from patterns of nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes. Our findings highlight the potential for ocean acidification to alter partitioning and cycling of carbon and nutrients in the surface ocean but also show that impacts are temporarily variable and likely depending upon the structure of the plankton food web.

  1. Density profiles of supernova matter and determination of neutrino parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shao-Hsuan

    2007-08-01

    The flavor conversion of supernova neutrinos can lead to observable signatures related to the unknown neutrino parameters. As one of the determinants in dictating the efficiency of resonant flavor conversion, the local density profile near the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) resonance in a supernova environment is, however, not so well understood. In this analysis, variable power-law functions are adopted to represent the independent local density profiles near the locations of resonance. It is shown that the uncertain matter density profile in a supernova, the possible neutrino mass hierarchies, and the undetermined 1-3 mixing angle would result in six distinct scenarios in terms of the survival probabilities of νe and ν¯e. The feasibility of probing the undetermined neutrino mass hierarchy and the 1-3 mixing angle with the supernova neutrinos is then examined using several proposed experimental observables. Given the incomplete knowledge of the supernova matter profile, the analysis is further expanded to incorporate the Earth matter effect. The possible impact due to the choice of models, which differ in the average energy and in the luminosity of neutrinos, is also addressed in the analysis.

  2. Enhanced recycling of organic matter and Os-isotopic evidence for multiple magmatic or meteoritic inputs to the Late Permian Panthalassic Ocean, Opal Creek, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Svetoslav V.; Stein, Holly J.; Hannah, Judith L.; Henderson, Charles M.; Algeo, Thomas J.

    2015-02-01

    The geochemical record for the Permian-Triassic boundary in northern latitudes is essential to evaluation of global changes associated with the most profound extinction of life on Earth. We present inorganic and organic geochemical data, and Re-Os isotope systematics in a critical stratigraphic interval of pre- and post-extinction Upper Permian-Lower Triassic sediments from Opal Creek, western Canada (paleolatitude of ∼30°N). We document significant and long-lived changes in Panthalassa seawater chemistry that were initiated during the first of four magmatic or meteoritic inputs to Late Permian seawater, evidenced by notable decreases of Os isotopic ratios upsection. Geochemical signals indicate establishment of anoxic bottom waters shortly after regional transgression reinitiated sedimentation in the Late Permian. Euxinic signals are most prominent in the Upper Permian sediments with low organic carbon and high sulfur contents, and gradually wane in the Lower Triassic. The observed features may have been generated in a strongly euxinic ocean in which high bacterioplankton productivity sustained prolific microbial sulfate reduction in the sediment and/or water column, providing hydrogen sulfide to form pyrite. This scenario requires nearly complete anaerobic decomposition of predominantly labile marine organic matter (OM) without the necessity for a complete collapse of primary marine productivity. Similar geochemical variations could have been achieved by widespread oxidation of methane by sulfate reducers after a methanogenic burst in the Late Permian. Both scenarios could have provided similar kill mechanisms for the latest Permian mass extinction. Despite the moderate thermal maturity of the section, OM in all studied samples is dominantly terrestrial and/or continentally derived, recycled and refractory ancient OM. We argue that, as such, the quantity of the OM in the section mainly reflects changes in terrestrial vegetation and/or weathering, and not in

  3. Media Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Pötzsch

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution maps materialist advances in media studies. Based on the assumption that matter and materiality constitute significant aspects of communication processes and practices, I introduce four fields of inquiry - technology, political economy, ecology, and the body - and argue that these perspectives enable a more comprehensive understanding of the implications of contemporary technologically afforded forms of interaction. The article shows how each perspective can balance apologetic and apocalyptic approaches to the impact of in particular digital technologies, before it demonstrates the applicability of an integrated framework with reference to the techno-politics of NSA surveillance and the counter-practices of WikiLeaks.

  4. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    ? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty...

  5. Central sorting and recovery of MSW recyclable materials: A review of technological state-of-the-art, cases, practice and implications for materials recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Maul, Anja; Jansen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Today's waste regulation in the EU comprises stringent material recovery targets and calls for comprehensive programs in order to achieve them. A similar movement is seen in the US where more and more states and communities commit to high diversion rates from landfills. The present paper reviews...... scientific literature, case studies and results from pilot projects, on the topic of central sorting of recyclable materials commonly found in waste from households. The study contributes, inter alia, with background understanding on the development of materials recovery, both in a historical...... sorting of residual MSW is found for areas where source separation and separate collection is difficult, such as urban agglomerations, and can in such areas contribute to increasing recycling rates, either complementary to- or as a substitute for source separation of certain materials, such as plastics...

  6. Karakterisasi Unjuk Kerja Diesel Engine Generator Set Sistem Dual Fuel Solar-Syngas Hasil Gasifikasi Briket Municipal Solid Waste (MSW Secara Langsung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Rizkal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sejalan dengan semakin banyaknya kebutuhan energi untuk dapat digunakan sebagai bahan bakar maka perlu adanya pengembangan gas biomassa sebagai bahan bakar alternatif pada motor pembakaran dalam maka akan dilakukan penelitian mengenai aplikasi sistem dual fuel gas hasil gasifikasi biomassa municipal solid waste (msw pada sistem downdraft dengan minyak solar pada motor diesel stasioner. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui seberapa besar solar yang tersibtitusi dengan adanya penambahan syngas yang disalurkan secara langsung. Penelitian ini dilakukan secara eksperimental dengan proses pemasukan aliran syngas yang dihasilkan downdraft municipal solid waste (MSW kedalam saluran udara mesin diesel generator set secara langsung menggunakan sistem mixer. Pengujian dilakukan dengan putaran konstan 2000 rpm dengan pembebanan bervariasi dari 200 watt sampai dengan 2000 watt dengan interval 200 watt. Bahwa produksi syngas dari reaktor gasifikasi ditambahkan sistem bypass untuk mengetahui kesesuaian antara reaktor gasifikasi dan mesin generatorset data ṁ syngas yang dibutuhkan mesin diesel, ṁ syngas yang di bypass untuk mendapatkan kesesuaian antara produksi syngas dan yang di bypass.  Data-data yang diukur dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa besar nilai mass flowrate gas syngas yang dibutuhkan mesin diesel pada AFR reaktor gasifier 1,39 sebesar 0,0003748 kg/s. Mass flowrate gas syngas yang di bypass menunjukkan nilai 0 pada saat sistem dijalankan karena seluruh gas syngas masuk kedalam ruang bakar. AFR rata-rata sebesar 14,54 ,Nilai Spesifik fuel consumption (sfc mengalami peningkatan 68% dari kondisi standar single fuel , Nilai efesiensi thermal mengalami kenaikan sebesar 7% dari kondisi single fuel, Nilai daya rata-rata sebesar 2,28kW, Nilai torsi rata-rata sebesar 10,94 N.m. Solar yang tersibtitusi sebesar 48%. Nilai temperatur (coolant, mesin, oil, dan gas buang pada setiap pembebanan mengalami kenaikan.

  7. Self-interacting warm dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannestad, Steen; Scherrer, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    It has been shown by many independent studies that the cold dark matter scenario produces singular galactic dark halos, in strong contrast with observations. Possible remedies are that either the dark matter is warm so that it has significant thermal motion or that the dark matter has strong self-interactions. We combine these ideas to calculate the linear mass power spectrum and the spectrum of cosmic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations for self-interacting warm dark matter. Our results indicate that such models have more power on small scales than is the case for the standard warm dark matter model, with a CMB fluctuation spectrum which is nearly indistinguishable from standard cold dark matter. This enhanced small-scale power may provide better agreement with the observations than does standard warm dark matter. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  8. Thermophilic two-phase anaerobic digestion using an innovative fixed-bed reactor for enhanced organic matter removal and bioenergy recovery from sugarcane vinasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuess, Lucas Tadeu; Kiyuna, Luma Sayuri Mazine; Ferraz, Antônio Djalma Nunes; Persinoti, Gabriela Felix

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An innovative fixed-film anaerobic reactor was applied to sugarcane vinasse. • Stable operation was observed for OLRs as high as 30 kg COD m"−"3 day"−"1. • Propionate buildup did not impact the stability of the structured-bed reactor. • Enhanced bioenergy recovery was estimated from biodigestion with phase separation. • Energy extraction was over 20% higher compared to single-phase systems. - Abstract: This study considered the application of anaerobic digestion (AD) with phase separation combined with the use of an anaerobic structured-bed reactor (ASTBR) as the methanogenic phase for the treatment of sugarcane vinasse, a high-strength wastewater resulting from ethanol production. Two combined thermophilic acidogenic-methanogenic systems formed by one single acidogenic reactor followed by two methanogenic reactors operated in parallel were compared, namely, a conventional UASB reactor and an upflow ASTBR reactor. Increasing organic loading rate (OLR) conditions (15–30 kg COD m"−"3 d"−"1) were applied to the methanogenic reactors. The results highlighted the feasibility of applying the ASTBR to vinasse, indicating a global COD removal higher than 80%. The ASTBR exhibited a stable long-term operation (240 days), even for OLR values as high as 30 kg COD m"−"3 d"−"1. The application of similar conditions to the UASB reactor indicated severe performance losses, leading to the accumulation of acids for every increase in the OLR. An energetic potential of 181.5 MJ for each cubic meter of vinasse was estimated from both hydrogen and methane. The provision of bicarbonate alkalinity proved to be a key factor in obtaining stable performance, offsetting the limitations of relatively low hydraulic retention times (<24 h).

  9. Marginal Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hecke, Martin

    2013-03-01

    All around us, things are falling apart. The foam on our cappuccinos appears solid, but gentle stirring irreversibly changes its shape. Skin, a biological fiber network, is firm when you pinch it, but soft under light touch. Sand mimics a solid when we walk on the beach but a liquid when we pour it out of our shoes. Crucially, a marginal point separates the rigid or jammed state from the mechanical vacuum (freely flowing) state - at their marginal points, soft materials are neither solid nor liquid. Here I will show how the marginal point gives birth to a third sector of soft matter physics: intrinsically nonlinear mechanics. I will illustrate this with shock waves in weakly compressed granular media, the nonlinear rheology of foams, and the nonlinear mechanics of weakly connected elastic networks.

  10. Behavior of oxyfluorfen in soils amended with different sources of organic matter. Effects on soil biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Isidoro; Rodríguez-Morgado, Bruno; Parrado, Juan; García, Carlos; Hernández, Teresa; Tejada, Manuel

    2014-05-30

    We performed a laboratory study on the effect of oxyfluorfen at a rate of 4lha(-1) on biological properties of a soil amended with four organic wastes (two biostimulants/biofertilizers, obtained from rice bran, RB1 and RB2; municipal solid waste, MSW; and sheep manure, SM). Soil was mixed with SM at a rate of 1%, MSW at a rate of 0.52%, RB1 at a rate of 0.39% and RB2 at a rate of 0.30%, in order to apply the same amount of organic matter to the soil. The enzymatic activities and microbial community in the soil were determined during the incubation times. The application of RB1 and RB2 to soil without oxyfluorfen increased the enzymatic activities and biodiversity, peaking at day 10 of the incubation period. This stimulation was higher in the soil amended with RB2 than in that amended with RB1. In SM and CF-amended soils, the stimulation of enzymatic activities and soil biodiversity increased during the experiment. The application of herbicide in organic-amended soils decreased the inhibition of soil enzymatic activities and soil biodiversity. Possibly the low molecular weight protein content easily assimilated by soil microorganisms and the higher fat content in the biostimulants/biofertilizers are responsible for the lower inhibition of these soil biological properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Iron deposition of the deep grey matter in patients with multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica: A control quantitative study by 3D-enhanced susceptibility-weighted angiography (ESWAN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xuan; Zeng Chun; Luo Tianyou; Ouyang Yu; Lv Fajin; Rumzan, Reshiana; Wang Zhongping; Li Qi; Wang Jingjie; Hou Huanxin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have detected abnormal iron deposition in the deep grey matter (DGM) of multiple sclerosis (MS). The regional specificity of the DGM iron deposition in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is still unclear. We compared the differences in the DGM iron concentration between MS and NMO patients. Methods: We enrolled 42 relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS) patients, 42 NMO patients and 42 healthy controls undergoing brain conventional MRI and three-dimensional (3D)-enhanced T 2 *-weighted angiography (ESWAN) sequences. We obtained the mean phase values (MPVs) for ESWAN-filtered phase images. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare MPVs among three groups. The correlations of MPVs changes with disease duration and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) were analyzed. Results: The RRMS patients had higher DGM iron concentration than did the NMO and control groups, but only the bilateral substantia nigra (SN) showed a significant statistical difference among three groups (p 0.05). Furthermore, no correlations were found between the DGM iron concentration and EDSS (p > 0.05). Conclusions: We confirm the iron concentration in the DGM iron content of MS patients is more than NMO patients and healthy controls in the same age range. Furthermore, the disease duration was found to be a significant contributor to patients with MS.

  12. Dark Matter Coannihilation with a Lighter Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Asher

    2017-09-22

    We propose a new thermal freeze-out mechanism for ultraheavy dark matter. Dark matter coannihilates with a lighter unstable species that is nearby in mass, leading to an annihilation rate that is exponentially enhanced relative to standard weakly interactive massive particles. This scenario destabilizes any potential dark matter candidate. In order to remain consistent with astrophysical observations, our proposal necessitates very long-lived states, motivating striking phenomenology associated with the late decays of ultraheavy dark matter, potentially as massive as the scale of grand unified theories, M_{GUT}∼10^{16}  GeV.

  13. Looks Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Rikke Schmidt; Wong, Bang

    2012-01-01

    We’ve all done it—spent hours getting a figure just right for a paper, presenta- tion, or grant application. We use tried and true compositions, standard depic- tions, and intuitive colors and then think to ourselves, this is how you do it. Or is it? A new guide by Felice C. Frankel and Angela H....... DePace, Visual Strategies, eases the process of data presentation and enhances its effectiveness. If you seek inspiration and practical advice on how to craft more useful scientific graphics, this guide might be what you are looking for....

  14. Baryonic matter and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We summarize recent developments in identifying the ground state of dense baryonic matter and beyond. The topics include deconfinement from baryonic matter to quark matter, a diquark mixture, topological effect coupled with chirality and density, and inhomogeneous chiral condensates.

  15. Light dark matter through assisted annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Ujjal Kumar; Maity, Tarak Nath; Ray, Tirtha Sankar

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate light dark matter scenarios where annihilation to Standard Model particles at tree-level is kinematically forbidden. In such cases annihilation can be aided by massive Standard Model-like species, called assisters , in the initial state that enhances the available phase space opening up novel tree-level processes. We investigate the feasibility of such non-standard assisted annihilation processes to reproduce the observed relic density of dark matter. We present a simple scalar dark matter-scalar assister model where this is realised. We find that if the dark matter and assister are relatively degenerate the required relic density can be achieved for a keV-MeV scale dark matter. We briefly discuss the cosmological constraints on such dark matter scenarios.

  16. Front Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HLRC Editor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Higher Learning Research Communications (HLRC, ISSN: 2157-6254 [Online] is published collaboratively by Walden University (USA, Universidad Andrés Bello (Chile, Universidad Europea de Madrid (Spain and Istanbul Bilgi University (Turkey. Written communication to HLRC should be addressed to the office of the Executive Director at Laureate Education, Inc. 701 Brickell Ave Ste. 1700, Miami, FL 33131, USA. HLRC is designed for open access and online distribution through www.hlrcjournal.com. The views and statements expressed in this journal do not necessarily reflect the views of Laureate Education, Inc. or any of its affiliates (collectively “Laureate”. Laureate does not warrant the accuracy, reliability, currency or completeness of those views or statements and does not accept any legal liability arising from any reliance on the views, statements and subject matter of the journal. Acknowledgements The Guest Editors gratefully acknowledge the substantial contribution of the readers for the blind peer review of essays submitted for this special issue as exemplars of individuals from around the world who have come together in a collective endeavor for the common good: Robert Bringle (Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, US, Linda Buckley (University of the Pacific, US, Guillermo Calleja (Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Spain, Eva Egron-Polak (International Association of Universities, France, Heather Friesen (Abu Dhabi University, UAE, Saran Gill (National University of Malaysia, Malaysia, Chester Haskell (higher education consultant, US, Kanokkarn Kaewnuch (National Institute for Development Administration, Thailand, Gil Latz (Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, US, Molly Lee (higher education consultant, Malaysia, Deane Neubauer (East-West Center at University of Hawaii, US, Susan Sutton (Bryn Mawr College, US, Francis Wambalaba (United States International University, Kenya, and Richard Winn (higher education

  17. Environmental psychology matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Environmental psychology examines transactions between individuals and their built and natural environments. This includes investigating behaviors that inhibit or foster sustainable, climate-healthy, and nature-enhancing choices, the antecedents and correlates of those behaviors, and interventions to increase proenvironmental behavior. It also includes transactions in which nature provides restoration or inflicts stress, and transactions that are more mutual, such as the development of place attachment and identity and the impacts on and from important physical settings such as home, workplaces, schools, and public spaces. As people spend more time in virtual environments, online transactions are coming under increasing research attention. Every aspect of human existence occurs in one environment or another, and the transactions with and within them have important consequences both for people and their natural and built worlds. Environmental psychology matters.

  18. Management matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Rebecca A; Canter, Deborah

    2008-11-01

    Fewer than 50% of registered dietitians (RDs) supervise personnel and 76% have no budget authority. Because higher salaries are tied to increasing levels of authority and responsibility, RDs must seek management and leadership roles to enjoy the increased remuneration tied to such positions. Advanced-level practice in any area of dietetics demands powerful communication abilities, proficiency in budgeting and finance, comfort with technology, higher-order decision-making/problem-solving skills, and well-honed human resource management capabilities, all foundational to competent management practice. As RDs envision the future of the dietetics profession, practitioners must evaluate management competence in both hard and soft skills. Just as research is needed to support evidenced-based clinical practice, the same is needed to support management practice across the profession. Dietetics educators and preceptors should be as enthusiastic about management practice as they are clinical practice when educating and mentoring future professionals. Such encouragement and support can mean that new RDs and dietetic technicians, registered, will understand what it takes to advance to higher levels of responsibility, authority, and subsequent enhanced remuneration. In the ever-changing social, legal, ethical, political, economic, technological, and ecological environments of work, food and nutrition professionals who are willing to step forward and assume the risks and responsibilities of management also will share in the rewards, and propel the profession to new heights of recognition and respect.

  19. Determination of personal care products and hormones in leachate and groundwater from Polish MSW landfills by ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelewska, Justyna; Kotowska, Urszula; Wiśniewska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Determination of the endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in leachate and groundwater samples from the landfill sites is very important because of the proven harmful effects of these compounds on human and animal organisms. A method combining ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction (USAEME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for simultaneous determination of seven personal care products (PCPs): methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP), buthylparaben (BP), benzophenone (BPh), 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC), N,N-diethyltoluamide (DEET), and two hormones: estrone (E1) and β-estradiol (E2) in landfill leachate and groundwater samples. The limit of detection (LOD)/limit of quantification (LOQ) values in landfill leachate and groundwater samples were in the range of 0.003-0.083/0.009-0.277 μg L(-1) and 0.001-0.015/0.002-0.049 μg L(-1), respectively. Quantitative recoveries and satisfactory precision were obtained. All studied compounds were found in the landfill leachates from Polish municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills; the concentrations were between 0.66 and 202.42 μg L(-1). The concentration of pollutants in groundwater samples was generally below 0.1 μg L(-1).

  20. Study of some characteristic Mediterranean vegetation species best suited for renaturalization of terminal-phase municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills in Puglia (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mei, Massimiliano; Di Mauro, Mariaida

    2006-07-01

    Natural recovery of worked-out or closed municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills is a current topic, but knowledge about the adaptability of Mediterranean vegetation species to such stressful conditions is still quite poor. Autochthonous plants were selected to withstand the stresses such as hot climate and drought typical of Mediterranean areas; this characteristic potentially allows the plants an easier, efficient adaptation. Our aim was to provide information in order to obtain an adequate quality of environmental renewal of a landfill and a reduced management cost while ensuring rehabilitation to an acceptable naturalistic state. The investigation lasted 3 years; some Mediterranean scrub native plant species were selected and monitored in their morphological (total and relative height, basal diameter, number of inter-nodes) and physiological (photosynthetic rate and water potential) activity. In order to test dependence on CO 2 concentration, different meteorological parameters were also monitored. Ceratonia siliqua, Phillyrea latifolia, Olea europaea and Quercus ilex showed considerable adaptability, reacting positively to every improvement in environmental conditions, particularly those of a meteorological nature. Survival and growth was satisfactory in Hedysarum coronarium, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Myrtus communis and Viburnum tinus. Fraxinus ornus and Acer campestre suffered stress during the summer dry period and recovered quickly when atmospheric conditions improved. A drop irrigation system to ensure a satisfactory soil moisture during summer dry periods was the fundamental element for survival.

  1. Conducting compositions of matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Tito (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention provides conductive compositions of matter, as well as methods for the preparation of the conductive compositions of matter, solutions comprising the conductive compositions of matter, and methods of preparing fibers or fabrics having improved anti-static properties employing the conductive compositions of matter.

  2. Symmetry breaking, and the effect of matter density on neutrino oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni Sadjadi, H.; Khosravi Karchi, A. P.

    2018-04-01

    A proposal for the neutrino mass, based on neutrino-scalar field interaction, is introduced. The scalar field is also non-minimally coupled to the Ricci scalar, and hence relates the neutrino mass to the matter density. In a dense region, the scalar field obeys the Z2 symmetry, and the neutrino is massless. In a dilute region, the Z2 symmetry breaks and neutrino acquires mass from the non-vanishing expectation value of the scalar field. We consider this scenario in the framework of a spherical dense object whose outside is a dilute region. In this background, we study the neutrino flavors oscillation, along with the consequences of the theory on oscillation length and MSW effect. This preliminary model may shed some lights on the existing anomalies within the neutrino data, concerning the different oscillating behavior of the neutrinos in regions with different densities.

  3. Condensed elementary particle matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajantie, K.

    1996-01-01

    Quark matter is a special case of condensed elementary particle matter, matter governed by the laws of particle physics. The talk discusses how far one can get in the study of particle matter by reducing the problem to computations based on the action. As an example the computation of the phase diagram of electroweak matter is presented. It is quite possible that ultimately an antireductionist attitude will prevail: experiments will reveal unpredicted phenomena not obviously reducible to the study of the action. (orig.)

  4. Dark matter from decaying topological defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Kirk, Russell; West, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    We study dark matter production by decaying topological defects, in particular cosmic strings. In topological defect or ''top-down'' (TD) scenarios, the dark matter injection rate varies as a power law with time with exponent p−4. We find a formula in closed form for the yield for all p < 3/2, which accurately reproduces the solution of the Boltzmann equation. We investigate two scenarios (p = 1, p = 7/6) motivated by cosmic strings which decay into TeV-scale states with a high branching fraction into dark matter particles. For dark matter models annihilating either by s-wave or p-wave, we find the regions of parameter space where the TD model can account for the dark matter relic density as measured by Planck. We find that topological defects can be the principal source of dark matter, even when the standard freeze-out calculation under-predicts the relic density and hence can lead to potentially large ''boost factor'' enhancements in the dark matter annihilation rate. We examine dark matter model-independent limits on this scenario arising from unitarity and discuss example model-dependent limits coming from indirect dark matter search experiments. In the four cases studied, the upper bound on Gμ for strings with an appreciable channel into TeV-scale states is significantly more stringent than the current Cosmic Microwave Background limits

  5. Leptonic Dark Matter with Scalar Dilepton Mediator

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Ernest

    2018-01-01

    A simple and elegant mechanism is proposed to resolve the problem of having a light scalar mediator for self-interacting dark matter and the resulting disruption to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at late times by the former's enhanced Sommerfeld production and decay. The crucial idea is to have Dirac neutrinos with the conservation of U(1) lepton number extended to the dark sector. The simplest scenario consists of scalar or fermion dark matter with unit lepton number accompanied by a ...

  6. Dark energy and dark matter in galaxy halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetradis, N.

    2006-01-01

    We consider the possibility that the dark matter is coupled through its mass to a scalar field associated with the dark energy of the Universe. In order for such a field to play a role at the present cosmological distances, it must be effectively massless at galactic length scales. We discuss the effect of the field on the distribution of dark matter in galaxy halos. We show that the profile of the distribution outside the galaxy core remains largely unaffected and the approximately flat rotation curves persist. The dispersion of the dark matter velocity is enhanced by a potentially large factor relative to the case of zero coupling between dark energy and dark matter. The counting rates in terrestrial dark matter detectors are similarly enhanced. Existing bounds on the properties of dark matter candidates can be extended to the coupled case, by taking into account the enhancement factor

  7. Iron deposition in the gray matter in patients with relapse-remitting multiple sclerosis: A longitudinal study using three-dimensional (3D)-enhanced T2*-weighted angiography (ESWAN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Silin; Sah, Shambhu K.; Zeng, Chun; Wang, Jingjie; Liu, Yi; Xiong, Hua; Li, Yongmei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between the iron content by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinic correlation in patients with relapse-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) over a two-year period. Methods: Thirty RRMS patients and 30 healthy control subjects were examined twice, two years apart, by undergoing brain conventional MRI and three-dimensional (3D)-enhanced T2*-weighted angiography (ESWAN) sequences at 3.0 T. Quantitative differences in iron content in deep gray matter (GM) nuclei and precentral gyrus GM between patients and control subjects with repeated-measures the mean phase values (MPVs) for ESWAN-filtered phase images. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient analysis was used to evaluate correlations of the MPVs, both 2-year-difference and single-time measurements, to disease duration, expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and times of recurrence. Results: The RRMS patients had higher GM iron concentration than that of the healthy control subjects in both single-time measurements, but only the substantia nigra (SN), and the precentral gyrus GM (PGM) showed a significant statistical difference (p < 0.05). Using the paired samples t test, we found that there were significant differences in two-year-difference measurements of the MPVs in the putamen (PUT), the globus pallidus (GP), the head of the caudate nucleus (HCN), the thalamus (THA), SN, the red nucleus (RN), the dentate nucleus (DN) and PGM, especially in SN (t = 2.92, p = 0.007) in RRMS patients. The MPVs of the PUT, GP, HCN, THA, SN, RN, DN and PGM for the subgroup with RRMS patients in times of recurrence less than twice were similar to the healthy controls. There was no significant difference in all regions of interests (ROIs). However, there were significant differences in all ROIs except THA and GP for the other subgroup with RRMS patients in times of recurrence more than and equal to twice. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient analysis showed there were

  8. Iron deposition in the gray matter in patients with relapse-remitting multiple sclerosis: A longitudinal study using three-dimensional (3D)-enhanced T2*-weighted angiography (ESWAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Silin, E-mail: 182389558@qq.com; Sah, Shambhu K., E-mail: mrsks2007@hotmail.com; Zeng, Chun, E-mail: zengchun19840305@163.com; Wang, Jingjie, E-mail: 345151097@qq.com; Liu, Yi, E-mail: 993537544@qq.com; Xiong, Hua, E-mail: rjdfxyh@163.com; Li, Yongmei, E-mail: lymzhang70@aliyun.com

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between the iron content by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinic correlation in patients with relapse-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) over a two-year period. Methods: Thirty RRMS patients and 30 healthy control subjects were examined twice, two years apart, by undergoing brain conventional MRI and three-dimensional (3D)-enhanced T2*-weighted angiography (ESWAN) sequences at 3.0 T. Quantitative differences in iron content in deep gray matter (GM) nuclei and precentral gyrus GM between patients and control subjects with repeated-measures the mean phase values (MPVs) for ESWAN-filtered phase images. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient analysis was used to evaluate correlations of the MPVs, both 2-year-difference and single-time measurements, to disease duration, expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and times of recurrence. Results: The RRMS patients had higher GM iron concentration than that of the healthy control subjects in both single-time measurements, but only the substantia nigra (SN), and the precentral gyrus GM (PGM) showed a significant statistical difference (p < 0.05). Using the paired samples t test, we found that there were significant differences in two-year-difference measurements of the MPVs in the putamen (PUT), the globus pallidus (GP), the head of the caudate nucleus (HCN), the thalamus (THA), SN, the red nucleus (RN), the dentate nucleus (DN) and PGM, especially in SN (t = 2.92, p = 0.007) in RRMS patients. The MPVs of the PUT, GP, HCN, THA, SN, RN, DN and PGM for the subgroup with RRMS patients in times of recurrence less than twice were similar to the healthy controls. There was no significant difference in all regions of interests (ROIs). However, there were significant differences in all ROIs except THA and GP for the other subgroup with RRMS patients in times of recurrence more than and equal to twice. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient analysis showed there were

  9. Soil organic matter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A total of 77 papers were presented and discussed during this symposium, 37 are included in this Volume II. The topics covered in this volume include: biochemical transformation of organic matter in soils; bitumens in soil organic matter; characterization of humic acids; carbon dating of organic matter in soils; use of modern techniques in soil organic matter research; use of municipal sludge with special reference to heavy metals constituents, soil nitrogen, and physical and chemical properties of soils; relationship of soil organic matter and plant metabolism; interaction between agrochemicals and organic matter; and peat. Separate entries have been prepared for those 20 papers which discuss the use of nuclear techniques in these studies

  10. Charged mediators in dark matter scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    We consider a scenario, within the framework of the MSSM, in which dark matter is bino-like and dark matter-nucleon spin-independent scattering occurs via the exchange of light squarks which exhibit left-right mixing. We show that direct detection experiments such as LUX and SuperCDMS will be sensitive to a wide class of such models through spin-independent scattering. The dominant nuclear physics uncertainty is the quark content of the nucleon, particularly the strangeness content. We also investigate parameter space with nearly degenerate neutralino and squark masses, thus enhancing dark matter annihilation and nucleon scattering event rates.

  11. Quark matter 93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otterlund, Ingvar; Ruuskanen, Vesa

    1993-12-15

    evolution is followed in terms of perturbative QCD. These calculations, as well as several others reported, reflect the ongoing effort to go beyond the simplified treatment of the initial stage of the collision as an ideal gas of quarks and gluons. As pointed out by Miklos Gyulassy in his talk on QCD transport theory, the possibility of two different production mechanisms can affect the subsequent evolution of produced matter. Nuclear collision experiments have reported an enhancement in the pion yield at low transverse momentum (less than 300 MeV/c). Four CERN experiments (NA34, NA35, EMU05 and NA44) and three at Brookhaven (E810, E802/859/866 and E814) have studied single hadron distributions under these conditions. Jehanne Simon-Gillo concluded that the Brookhaven results are well described by models incorporating resonances. However the CERN results are not fully understood, leaving room for further speculations. Johanna Stachel reported a mysterious and significant low transverse momentum kaon enhancement in E814.

  12. Quark matter 93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, Ingvar; Ruuskanen, Vesa

    1993-01-01

    and the evolution is followed in terms of perturbative QCD. These calculations, as well as several others reported, reflect the ongoing effort to go beyond the simplified treatment of the initial stage of the collision as an ideal gas of quarks and gluons. As pointed out by Miklos Gyulassy in his talk on QCD transport theory, the possibility of two different production mechanisms can affect the subsequent evolution of produced matter. Nuclear collision experiments have reported an enhancement in the pion yield at low transverse momentum (less than 300 MeV/c). Four CERN experiments (NA34, NA35, EMU05 and NA44) and three at Brookhaven (E810, E802/859/866 and E814) have studied single hadron distributions under these conditions. Jehanne Simon-Gillo concluded that the Brookhaven results are well described by models incorporating resonances. However the CERN results are not fully understood, leaving room for further speculations. Johanna Stachel reported a mysterious and significant low transverse momentum kaon enhancement in E814

  13. Baryonic Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    In the first two of these lectures, I present the evidence for baryonic dark matter and describe possible forms that it may take. The final lecture discusses formation of baryonic dark matter, and sets the cosmological context.

  14. Grammar of the matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the author describes the structure of the matter and presents the families of elementary particles (fermions) and the interaction messengers (bosons) with their properties. He presents the actual status and future trends of research on nuclear matter

  15. Dark matter detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, G.

    1995-01-01

    A fundamental question of astrophysics and cosmology is the nature of dark matter. Astrophysical observations show clearly the existence of some kind of dark matter, though they cannot yet reveal its nature. Dark matter can consist of baryonic particles, or of other (known or unknown) elementary particles. Baryonic dark matter probably exists in the form of dust, gas, or small stars. Other elementary particles constituting the dark matter can possibly be measured in terrestrial experiments. Possibilities for dark matter particles are neutrinos, axions and weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). While a direct detection of relic neutrinos seems at the moment impossible, there are experiments looking for baryonic dark matter in the form of Massive Compact Halo Objects, and for particle dark matter in the form of axions and WIMPS. (orig.)

  16. Dence Cold Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavinskiy Alexey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Possible way to create dense cold baryonic matter in the laboratory is discussed. The density of this matter is comparable or even larger than the density of neutron star core. The properties of this matter can be controlled by trigger conditions. Experimental program for the study of properties of dense cold matter for light and heavy ion collisions at initial energy range √sNN~2-3GeV is proposed..

  17. Dark Matter Effective Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Nobile, Eugenio; Sannino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We organize the effective (self)interaction terms for complex scalar dark matter candidates which are either an isosinglet, isodoublet or an isotriplet with respect to the weak interactions. The classification has been performed ordering the operators in inverse powers of the dark matter cutoff...... scale. We assume Lorentz invariance, color and charge neutrality. We also introduce potentially interesting dark matter induced flavor-changing operators. Our general framework allows for model independent investigations of dark matter properties....

  18. Nonthermal Supermassive Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Riotto, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    We discuss several cosmological production mechanisms for nonthermal supermassive dark matter and argue that dark matter may he elementary particles of mass much greater than the weak scale. Searches for dark matter should ma be limited to weakly interacting particles with mass of the order of the weak scale, but should extend into the supermassive range as well.

  19. Nonthermal Supermassive Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, D.J.; Chung, D.J.; Kolb, E.W.; Kolb, E.W.; Riotto, A.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss several cosmological production mechanisms for nonthermal supermassive dark matter and argue that dark matter may be elementary particles of mass much greater than the weak scale. Searches for dark matter should not be limited to weakly interacting particles with mass of the order of the weak scale, but should extend into the supermassive range as well. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  20. Nonthermal Supermassive Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Riotto, Antonio

    1998-01-01

    We discuss several cosmological production mechanisms for nonthermal supermassive dark matter and argue that dark matter may be elementary particles of mass much greater than the weak scale. Searches for dark matter should not be limited to weakly interacting particles with mass of the order of the weak scale, but should extend into the supermassive range as well.

  1. Matter and Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Karam, P Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In Matter and Energy, readers will learn about the many forms of energy, the wide variety of particles in nature, and Albert Einstein's world-changing realization of how matter can be changed into pure energy. The book also examines the recent discoveries of dark matter and dark energy and the future of the universe.

  2. Secretly asymmetric dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Kilic, Can; Swaminathan, Sivaramakrishnan; Trendafilova, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    We study a mechanism where the dark matter number density today arises from asymmetries generated in the dark sector in the early Universe, even though the total dark matter number remains zero throughout the history of the Universe. The dark matter population today can be completely symmetric, with annihilation rates above those expected from thermal weakly interacting massive particles. We give a simple example of this mechanism using a benchmark model of flavored dark matter. We discuss the experimental signatures of this setup, which arise mainly from the sector that annihilates the symmetric component of dark matter.

  3. Dark Matter Caustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, Aravind

    2010-01-01

    The continuous infall of dark matter with low velocity dispersion in galactic halos leads to the formation of high density structures called caustics. Dark matter caustics are of two kinds : outer and inner. Outer caustics are thin spherical shells surrounding galaxies while inner caustics have a more complicated structure that depends on the dark matter angular momentum distribution. The presence of a dark matter caustic in the plane of the galaxy modifies the gas density in its neighborhood which may lead to observable effects. Caustics are also relevant to direct and indirect dark matter searches.

  4. Dark Matter Searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Shigetaka

    2008-01-01

    Recent cosmological as well as historical observations of rotational curves of galaxies strongly suggest the existence of dark matter. It is also widely believed that dark matter consists of unknown elementary particles. However, astrophysical observations based on gravitational effects alone do not provide sufficient information on the properties of dark matter. In this study, the status of dark matter searches is investigated by observing high-energy neutrinos from the sun and the earth and by observing nuclear recoils in laboratory targets. The successful detection of dark matter by these methods facilitates systematic studies of its properties. Finally, the XMASS experiment, which is due to start at the Kamioka Observatory, is introduced

  5. Impeded Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence & Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University,Staudingerweg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Slatyer, Tracy R. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wang, Xiao-Ping [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence & Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University,Staudingerweg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Xue, Wei [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-12

    We consider dark matter models in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. To emphasize this modification, we dub our scenario “Impeded Dark Matter”. We demonstrate that Impeded Dark Matter can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may even be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. For positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppressed by the small mass splitting, which helps light dark matter to survive increasingly stringent constraints from indirect searches. As specific realizations for Impeded Dark Matter, we introduce a model of vector dark matter from a hidden SU(2) sector, and a composite dark matter scenario based on a QCD-like dark sector.

  6. Impeded Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia; Slatyer, Tracy R.; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Xue, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We consider dark matter models in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. To emphasize this modification, we dub our scenario “Impeded Dark Matter”. We demonstrate that Impeded Dark Matter can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may even be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. For positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppressed by the small mass splitting, which helps light dark matter to survive increasingly stringent constraints from indirect searches. As specific realizations for Impeded Dark Matter, we introduce a model of vector dark matter from a hidden SU(2) sector, and a composite dark matter scenario based on a QCD-like dark sector.

  7. Collapsed Dark Matter Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R; DiFranzo, Anthony

    2018-02-02

    The distributions of dark matter and baryons in the Universe are known to be very different: The dark matter resides in extended halos, while a significant fraction of the baryons have radiated away much of their initial energy and fallen deep into the potential wells. This difference in morphology leads to the widely held conclusion that dark matter cannot cool and collapse on any scale. We revisit this assumption and show that a simple model where dark matter is charged under a "dark electromagnetism" can allow dark matter to form gravitationally collapsed objects with characteristic mass scales much smaller than that of a Milky-Way-type galaxy. Though the majority of the dark matter in spiral galaxies would remain in the halo, such a model opens the possibility that galaxies and their associated dark matter play host to a significant number of collapsed substructures. The observational signatures of such structures are not well explored but potentially interesting.

  8. Collapsed Dark Matter Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R.; DiFranzo, Anthony

    2018-02-01

    The distributions of dark matter and baryons in the Universe are known to be very different: The dark matter resides in extended halos, while a significant fraction of the baryons have radiated away much of their initial energy and fallen deep into the potential wells. This difference in morphology leads to the widely held conclusion that dark matter cannot cool and collapse on any scale. We revisit this assumption and show that a simple model where dark matter is charged under a "dark electromagnetism" can allow dark matter to form gravitationally collapsed objects with characteristic mass scales much smaller than that of a Milky-Way-type galaxy. Though the majority of the dark matter in spiral galaxies would remain in the halo, such a model opens the possibility that galaxies and their associated dark matter play host to a significant number of collapsed substructures. The observational signatures of such structures are not well explored but potentially interesting.

  9. Sterile neutrino dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Merle, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    This book is a new look at one of the hottest topics in contemporary science, Dark Matter. It is the pioneering text dedicated to sterile neutrinos as candidate particles for Dark Matter, challenging some of the standard assumptions which may be true for some Dark Matter candidates but not for all. So, this can be seen either as an introduction to a specialized topic or an out-of-the-box introduction to the field of Dark Matter in general. No matter if you are a theoretical particle physicist, an observational astronomer, or a ground based experimentalist, no matter if you are a grad student or an active researcher, you can benefit from this text, for a simple reason: a non-standard candidate for Dark Matter can teach you a lot about what we truly know about our standard picture of how the Universe works.

  10. Strategies for dark matter detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    1988-01-01

    The present status of alternative forms of dark matter, both baryonic and nonbaryonic, is reviewed. Alternative arguments are presented for the predominance of either cold dark matter (CDM) or of baryonic dark matter (BDM). Strategies are described for dark matter detection, both for dark matter that consists of weakly interacting relic particles and for dark matter that consists of dark stellar remnants

  11. Stars of strange matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethe, H.A.; Brown, G.E.; Cooperstein, J.

    1987-01-01

    We investigate suggestions that quark matter with strangeness per baryon of order unity may be stable. We model this matter at nuclear matter densities as a gas of close packed Λ-particles. From the known mass of the Λ-particle we obtain an estimate of the energy and chemical potential of strange matter at nuclear densities. These are sufficiently high to preclude any phase transition from neutron matter to strange matter in the region near nucleon matter density. Including effects from gluon exchange phenomenologically, we investigate higher densities, consistently making approximations which underestimate the density of transition. In this way we find a transition density ρ tr > or approx.7ρ 0 , where ρ 0 is nuclear matter density. This is not far from the maximum density in the center of the most massive neutron stars that can be constructed. Since we have underestimated ρ tr and still find it to be ∝7ρ 0 , we do not believe that the transition from neutron to quark matter is likely in neutron stars. Moreover, measured masses of observed neutron stars are ≅1.4 M sun , where M sun is the solar mass. For such masses, the central (maximum) density is ρ c 0 . Transition to quark matter is certainly excluded for these densities. (orig.)

  12. Repeated applications of compost and manure mainly affect the size and chemical nature of particulate organic matter in a loamy soil after 8 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltre, Clement; Dignac, Marie-France; Doublet, Jeremy; Plante, Alain; Houot, Sabine

    2013-04-01

    Land application of exogenous organic matter (EOM) of residual origin can help to maintain or increase soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. However, it remains necessary to quantify and predict the soil C accumulation and to determine under which form the C accumulates. Changes to the chemical composition of soil organic matter (SOM) after repeated applications of composts and farmyard manure were investigated in a field experiment (Qualiagro experiment, Ile-de-France) after 8 years of applications of green waste and sludge compost (GWS), municipal solid waste compost (MSW), biowaste compost (BIOW) or farmyard manure (FYM). The soil was fractionated into particulate organic matter >50 µm (POM), a heavy fraction >50 µm and a 0-50 µm fraction demineralized with hydrofluoric acid (HF). Repeated EOM applications significantly increased total SOC stocks, the C amount in the POM fraction and to a less extent in the 0-50 µm fraction compared to the reference treatment. Compost applications accumulated C preferentially under the form of coarse organic matter of size >50 µm, whereas the FYM accumulated similar C proportions of size >50 µm and 0-50 µm, which was attributed to the presence in the FYM of a fraction of labile C stimulating microbial activity and producing humified by-products together with a fraction of stabilized C directly alimenting the humified fraction of SOC. Pyrolysis-GC/MS and DRIFT spectroscopy revealed enrichment in lignin in the POM fractions of amended soils with GWS, BIOW and FYM. In the soil receiving MSW compost, the pyrolysate of the POM fraction revealed the presence of plastics originating from the MSW compost. A lower C mineralization during laboratory incubation was found for the POM fractions of amended soils compared with the POM from reference soil. This feature was related to a lower ratio of (furfural+acetic acid) / pyrole pyrolysis products in POM of amended vs. reference plots, indicating a higher degree of recalcitrance.. The POM

  13. High Momentum Probes of Nuclear Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, R.

    2009-07-24

    We discuss how the chemical composition of QCD jets is altered by final state interactions in surrounding nuclear matter. We describe this process through conversions of leading jet particles. We find that conversions lead to an enhancement of kaons at high transverse momentum in Au+Au collisions at RHIC, while their azimuthal asymmetry v{sub 2} is suppressed.

  14. Diseases of white matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    The diagnosis of white matter abnormalities was revolutionized by the advent of computed tomography (CT), which provided a noninvasive method of detection and assessment of progression of a variety of white matter processes. However, the inadequacies of CT were recognized early, including its relative insensitivity to small foci of abnormal myelin in the brain when correlated with autopsy findings and its inability to image directly white matter diseases of the spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), on the other hand, sensitive to the slight difference in tissue composition of normal gray and white matter and to subtle increase in water content associated with myelin disorders, is uniquely suited for the examination of white matter pathology. Its clinical applications include the evaluation of the normal process of myelination in childhood and the various white matter diseases, including disorders of demyelination and dysmyelination

  15. Detecting dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Roger L.

    2000-01-01

    Dark matter is one of the most pressing problems in modern cosmology and particle physic research. This talk will motivate the existence of dark matter by reviewing the main experimental evidence for its existence, the rotation curves of galaxies and the motions of galaxies about one another. It will then go on to review the corroborating theoretical motivations before combining all the supporting evidence to explore some of the possibilities for dark matter along with its expected properties. This will lay the ground work for dark matter detection. A number of differing techniques are being developed and used to detect dark matter. These will be briefly discussed before the focus turns to cryogenic detection techniques. Finally, some preliminary results and expectations will be given for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment

  16. Clumpy cold dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph; Stebbins, Albert

    1993-01-01

    A study is conducted of cold dark matter (CDM) models in which clumpiness will inhere, using cosmic strings and textures suited to galaxy formation. CDM clumps of 10 million solar mass/cu pc density are generated at about z(eq) redshift, with a sizable fraction surviving. Observable implications encompass dark matter cores in globular clusters and in galactic nuclei. Results from terrestrial dark matter detection experiments may be affected by clumpiness in the Galactic halo.

  17. CO-PRODUCT ENHANCEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT FOR THE MASADA OXYNOL PROCESS PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald V. Watkins

    2010-06-14

    The focus of this project was an overall process improvement through the enhancement of the co-product streams. The enhancement of the process operations and co-products will increase both ethanol production and the value of other process outputs and reduces the amount of waste byproducts. This leads to a more economical and environmentally sound alternative to landfill disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). These enhancements can greatly increase the commercial potential for the production of ethanol from MSW by the Masada CES OxyNol process. Both technological and economical issues were considered for steps throughout the conversion process. The research efforts of this project are varied but synergistic. The project investigated many of the operations involved in the Masada process with the overall goal of process improvements. The general goal of the testing was to improve co-product quality, improve conversions efficiencies, minimize process losses, increase energy efficiency, and mitigate process and commercialization risks. The project was divided into 16 subtasks as described in general terms below. All these tasks are interrelated but not necessarily interdependent.

  18. Peer review - Why does it matter for your academic career?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Kalz, M. (2012, 8 March). Peer review - Why does it matter for your academic career? Presentation provided in the context of the Young Researchers Special Issue 2012 of the International Journal of Technology-Enhanced Learning (IJTEL).

  19. Hybrid Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Dark matter can be produced in the early universe via the freeze-in or freeze-out mechanisms. Both scenarios were investigated in references, but the production of dark matters via the combination of these two mechanisms are not addressed. In this paper we propose a hybrid dark matter model where dark matters have two components with one component produced thermally and the other one produced non-thermally. We present for the first time the analytical calculation for the relic abundance of th...

  20. The quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, Mannque.

    1980-04-01

    The present status of our understanding of the physics of hadronic (nuclear or neutron) matter under extreme conditions, in particular at high densities is discussed. This is a problem which challenges three disciplines of physics: nuclear physics, astrophysics and particle physics. It is generally believed that we now have a correct and perhaps ultimate theory of the strong interactions, namely quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The constituents of this theory are quarks and gluons, so highly dense matters should be describable in terms of these constituents alone. This is a question that addresses directly to the phenomenon of quark confinement, one of the least understood aspects in particle physics. For nuclear physics, the possibility of a phase change between nuclear matter and quark matter introduces entirely new degrees of freedom in the description of nuclei and will bring perhaps a deeper understanding of nuclear dynamics. In astrophysics, the properties of neutron stars will be properly understood only when the equation of state of 'neutron' matter at densities exceeding that of nuclear matter can be realiably calculated. Most fascinating is the possibility of quark stars existing in nature, not entirely an absurd idea. Finally the quark matter - nuclear matter phase transition must have occured in the early stage of universe when matter expanded from high temperature and density; this could be an essential ingredient in the big-bang cosmology

  1. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Soft matter (polymers, colloids, surfactants and liquid crystals) are an important class of materials in modern technology. They also form the basis of many future technologies, for example in medical and environmental applications. Soft matter shows complex behaviour between fluids and solids, and used to be a synonym of complex materials. Due to the developments of the past two decades, soft condensed matter can now be discussed on the same sound physical basis as solid condensedmatter. The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of soft matter for undergraduate and graduate students

  2. Searching for dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Mario

    1994-01-01

    Three teams of astronomers believe they have independently found evidence for dark matter in our galaxy. A brief history of the search for dark matter is presented. The use of microlensing-event observation for spotting dark matter is described. The equipment required to observe microlensing events and three groups working on dark matter detection are discussed. The three groups are the Massive Compact Halo Objects (MACHO) Project team, the Experience de Recherche d'Objets Sombres (EROS) team, and the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) team. The first apparent detections of microlensing events by the three teams are briefly reported.

  3. SOLAR CONSTRAINTS ON ASYMMETRIC DARK MATTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Ilidio [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Silk, Joseph, E-mail: ilidio.lopes@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: silk@astro.ox.ac.uk [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2012-10-01

    The dark matter content of the universe is likely to be a mixture of matter and antimatter, perhaps comparable to the measured asymmetric mixture of baryons and antibaryons. During the early stages of the universe, the dark matter particles are produced in a process similar to baryogenesis, and dark matter freezeout depends on the dark matter asymmetry and the annihilation cross section (s-wave and p-wave annihilation channels) of particles and antiparticles. In these {eta}-parameterized asymmetric dark matter ({eta}ADM) models, the dark matter particles have an annihilation cross section close to the weak interaction cross section, and a value of dark matter asymmetry {eta} close to the baryon asymmetry {eta}{sub B}. Furthermore, we assume that dark matter scattering of baryons, namely, the spin-independent scattering cross section, is of the same order as the range of values suggested by several theoretical particle physics models used to explain the current unexplained events reported in the DAMA/LIBRA, CoGeNT, and CRESST experiments. Here, we constrain {eta}ADM by investigating the impact of such a type of dark matter on the evolution of the Sun, namely, the flux of solar neutrinos and helioseismology. We find that dark matter particles with a mass smaller than 15 GeV, a spin-independent scattering cross section on baryons of the order of a picobarn, and an {eta}-asymmetry with a value in the interval 10{sup -12}-10{sup -10}, would induce a change in solar neutrino fluxes in disagreement with current neutrino flux measurements. This result is also confirmed by helioseismology data. A natural consequence of this model is suppressed annihilation, thereby reducing the tension between indirect and direct dark matter detection experiments, but the model also allows a greatly enhanced annihilation cross section. All the cosmological {eta}ADM scenarios that we discuss have a relic dark matter density {Omega}h {sup 2} and baryon asymmetry {eta}{sub B} in agreement with

  4. SOLAR CONSTRAINTS ON ASYMMETRIC DARK MATTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Ilídio; Silk, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The dark matter content of the universe is likely to be a mixture of matter and antimatter, perhaps comparable to the measured asymmetric mixture of baryons and antibaryons. During the early stages of the universe, the dark matter particles are produced in a process similar to baryogenesis, and dark matter freezeout depends on the dark matter asymmetry and the annihilation cross section (s-wave and p-wave annihilation channels) of particles and antiparticles. In these η-parameterized asymmetric dark matter (ηADM) models, the dark matter particles have an annihilation cross section close to the weak interaction cross section, and a value of dark matter asymmetry η close to the baryon asymmetry η B . Furthermore, we assume that dark matter scattering of baryons, namely, the spin-independent scattering cross section, is of the same order as the range of values suggested by several theoretical particle physics models used to explain the current unexplained events reported in the DAMA/LIBRA, CoGeNT, and CRESST experiments. Here, we constrain ηADM by investigating the impact of such a type of dark matter on the evolution of the Sun, namely, the flux of solar neutrinos and helioseismology. We find that dark matter particles with a mass smaller than 15 GeV, a spin-independent scattering cross section on baryons of the order of a picobarn, and an η-asymmetry with a value in the interval 10 –12 -10 –10 , would induce a change in solar neutrino fluxes in disagreement with current neutrino flux measurements. This result is also confirmed by helioseismology data. A natural consequence of this model is suppressed annihilation, thereby reducing the tension between indirect and direct dark matter detection experiments, but the model also allows a greatly enhanced annihilation cross section. All the cosmological ηADM scenarios that we discuss have a relic dark matter density Ωh 2 and baryon asymmetry η B in agreement with the current WMAP measured values, Ω DM h 2 = 0

  5. Effect of dissolved organic matter derived from waste amendments on the mobility of inorganic arsenic (III) in the Egyptian alluvial soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashad, Mohamed [Land and Water Technologies Department, Arid Lands Cultivation Research Institute, City of Scientific Research and Technological Applications (SRTA-City), New Borg El-Arab, 21934 Alexandria (Egypt); Assaad, Faiz F. [Soils and Water Use Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Shalaby, Elsayed A. [Environmental Studies Department, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria University (Egypt)

    2013-07-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is one of the decisive factors affecting pollutants mobility in soils receiving waste amendments. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DOM1 derived from agricultural solid waste (ASW) and DOM2 derived from municipal solid waste (MSW) on the mobility of inorganic arsenic (As) in two alluvial soils from the Nile River Delta. In column experiments, addition of DOM solutions significantly increased As concentration in the effluents. There was no significant difference between the two soils, the obtained results from soil2 columns revealed that DOM2 has stronger capability than DOM1 to facilitate As mobility. The pH of the studied soils is alkaline (8.1) which promoted the dissociation as well as deprotonation of DOM and as a consequence, humic substances in DOM become negatively charged organic anions, leading to their substantial competition with As for the adsorption sites on both soil surfaces. The results emphasized that in alkaline soils there is a risk of groundwater pollution in the long run by arsenic either naturally found in soil or originated at high soil pH when dissolved organic carbon (DOC) released from various organic amendments ASW and/or MSW and leached through soil profile.

  6. Dark matter and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between ``cold`` and ``hot`` non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed ``seeds`` that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.

  7. Dark matter and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between cold'' and hot'' non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed seeds'' that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.

  8. Superball dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kusenko, A

    1999-01-01

    Supersymmetric models predict a natural dark-matter candidate, stable baryonic Q-balls. They could be copiously produced in the early Universe as a by-product of the Affleck-Dine baryogenesis. I review the cosmological and astrophysical implications, methods of detection, and the present limits on this form of dark matter.

  9. Baryonic Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    De Paolis, F.; Jetzer, Ph.; Ingrosso, G.; Roncadelli, M.

    1997-01-01

    Reasons supporting the idea that most of the dark matter in galaxies and clusters of galaxies is baryonic are discussed. Moreover, it is argued that most of the dark matter in galactic halos should be in the form of MACHOs and cold molecular clouds.

  10. Dark matter detection - II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacek, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The quest for the mysterious missing mass of the universe has become one of the big challenges of today's particle physics and cosmology. Astronomical observations show that only 1% of the matter of the universe is luminous. Moreover there is now convincing evidence that 85% of all gravitationally observable matter in the universe is of a new exotic kind, different from the 'ordinary' matter surrounding us. In a series of three lectures we discuss past, recent and future efforts made world-wide to detect and/or decipher the nature of Dark Matter. In Lecture I we review our present knowledge of the Dark Matter content of the Universe and how experimenters search for it's candidates; In Lecture II we discuss so-called 'direct detection' techniques which allow to search for scattering of galactic dark matter particles with detectors in deep-underground laboratories; we discuss the interpretation of experimental results and the challenges posed by different backgrounds; In Lecture III we take a look at the 'indirect detection' of the annihilation of dark matter candidates in astrophysical objects, such as our sun or the center of the Milky Way; In addition we will have a look at efforts to produce Dark Matter particles directly at accelerators and we shall close with a look at alternative nonparticle searches and future prospects. (author)

  11. Dark matter and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the Ω = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between ''cold'' and ''hot'' non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed ''seeds'' that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed

  12. Matter in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Lara B.; Gray, James; Raghuram, Nikhil; Taylor, Washington

    2016-01-01

    We explore a novel type of transition in certain 6D and 4D quantum field theories, in which the matter content of the theory changes while the gauge group and other parts of the spectrum remain invariant. Such transitions can occur, for example, for SU(6) and SU(7) gauge groups, where matter fields in a three-index antisymmetric representation and the fundamental representation are exchanged in the transition for matter in the two-index antisymmetric representation. These matter transitions are realized by passing through superconformal theories at the transition point. We explore these transitions in dual F-theory and heterotic descriptions, where a number of novel features arise. For example, in the heterotic description the relevant 6D SU(7) theories are described by bundles on K3 surfaces where the geometry of the K3 is constrained in addition to the bundle structure. On the F-theory side, non-standard representations such as the three-index antisymmetric representation of SU(N) require Weierstrass models that cannot be realized from the standard SU(N) Tate form. We also briefly describe some other situations, with groups such as Sp(3), SO(12), and SU(3), where analogous matter transitions can occur between different representations. For SU(3), in particular, we find a matter transition between adjoint matter and matter in the symmetric representation, giving an explicit Weierstrass model for the F-theory description of the symmetric representation that complements another recent analogous construction.

  13. CONFERENCE: Quark matter 88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Maurice

    1988-01-01

    The 'Quark Matter' Conference caters for physicists studying nuclear matter under extreme conditions. The hope is that relativistic (high energy) heavy ion collisions allow formation of the long-awaited quark-gluon plasma, where the inter-quark 'colour' force is no longer confined inside nucleon-like dimensions

  14. Dark matter detection - I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacek, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The quest for the mysterious missing mass of the universe has become one of the big challenges of today's particle physics and cosmology. Astronomical observations show that only 1% of the matter of the universe is luminous. Moreover there is now convincing evidence that 85% of all gravitationally observable matter in the universe is of a new exotic kind, different from the 'ordinary' matter surrounding us. In a series of three lectures we discuss past, recent and future efforts made world-wide to detect and/or decipher the nature of Dark Matter. In Lecture I we review our present knowledge of the Dark Matter content of the Universe and how experimenters search for it's candidates; In Lecture II we discuss so-called 'direct detection' techniques which allow to search for scattering of galactic dark matter particles with detectors in deep-underground laboratories; we discuss the interpretation of experimental results and the challenges posed by different backgrounds; In Lecture III we take a look at the 'indirect detection' of the annihilation of dark matter candidates in astrophysical objects, such as our sun or the center of the Milky Way; In addition we will have a look at efforts to produce Dark Matter particles directly at accelerators and we shall close with a look at alternative nonparticle searches and future prospects. (author)

  15. Dark matter detection - III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacek, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The quest for the missing mass of the universe has become one of the big challenges of todays particle physics and cosmology. Astronomical observations show that only 1% of the matter of the Universe is luminous. Moreover there is now convincing evidence that 85% of all gravitationally observable matter in the Universe is of a new exotic kind, different from the 'ordinary' matter surrounding us. In a series of three lectures we discuss past, recent and future efforts made world- wide to detect and/or decipher the nature of Dark Matter. In Lecture I we review our present knowledge of the Dark Matter content of the Universe and how experimenters search for it's candidates; In Lecture II we discuss so-called 'direct detection' techniques which allow to search for scattering of galactic dark matter particles with detectors in deep-underground laboratories; we discuss the interpretation of experimental results and the challenges posed by different backgrounds; In Lecture III we take a look at the 'indirect detection' of the annihilation of dark matter candidates in astrophysical objects, such as our sun or the center of the Milky Way; In addition we will have a look at efforts to produce Dark Matter particles directly at accelerators and we shall close with a look at alternative nonparticle searches and future prospects. (author)

  16. Asymptotically Safe Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting...... searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter....

  17. Asymmetric dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, David E.; Luty, Markus A.; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a simple class of models in which the relic density of dark matter is determined by the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. In these models a B-L asymmetry generated at high temperatures is transferred to the dark matter, which is charged under B-L. The interactions that transfer the asymmetry decouple at temperatures above the dark matter mass, freezing in a dark matter asymmetry of order the baryon asymmetry. This explains the observed relation between the baryon and dark matter densities for the dark matter mass in the range 5-15 GeV. The symmetric component of the dark matter can annihilate efficiently to light pseudoscalar Higgs particles a or via t-channel exchange of new scalar doublets. The first possibility allows for h 0 →aa decays, while the second predicts a light charged Higgs-like scalar decaying to τν. Direct detection can arise from Higgs exchange in the first model or a nonzero magnetic moment in the second. In supersymmetric models, the would-be lightest supersymmetric partner can decay into pairs of dark matter particles plus standard model particles, possibly with displaced vertices.

  18. Inelastic dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, David; Weiner, Neal

    2001-01-01

    Many observations suggest that much of the matter of the universe is nonbaryonic. Recently, the DAMA NaI dark matter direct detection experiment reported an annual modulation in their event rate consistent with a WIMP relic. However, the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) Ge experiment excludes most of the region preferred by DAMA. We demonstrate that if the dark matter can only scatter by making a transition to a slightly heavier state (Δm∼100 keV), the experiments are no longer in conflict. Moreover, differences in the energy spectrum of nuclear recoil events could distinguish such a scenario from the standard WIMP scenario. Finally, we discuss the sneutrino as a candidate for inelastic dark matter in supersymmetric theories

  19. Baryonic dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uson, Juan M.

    2000-01-01

    Many searches for baryonic dark matter have been conducted but, so far, all have been unsuccessful. Indeed, no more than 1% of the dark matter can be in the form of hydrogen burning stars. It has recently been suggested that most of the baryons in the universe are still in the form of ionized gas so that it is possible that there is no baryonic dark matter. Although it is likely that a significant fraction of the dark matter in the Milky Way is in a halo of non-baryonic matter, the data do not exclude the possibility that a considerable amount, perhaps most of it, could be in a tenuous halo of diffuse ionized gas

  20. Macro Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, David M; Lynn, Bryan W.

    2015-01-01

    Dark matter is a vital component of the current best model of our universe, $\\Lambda$CDM. There are leading candidates for what the dark matter could be (e.g. weakly-interacting massive particles, or axions), but no compelling observational or experimental evidence exists to support these particular candidates, nor any beyond-the-Standard-Model physics that might produce such candidates. This suggests that other dark matter candidates, including ones that might arise in the Standard Model, should receive increased attention. Here we consider a general class of dark matter candidates with characteristic masses and interaction cross-sections characterized in units of grams and cm$^2$, respectively -- we therefore dub these macroscopic objects as Macros. Such dark matter candidates could potentially be assembled out of Standard Model particles (quarks and leptons) in the early universe. A combination of earth-based, astrophysical, and cosmological observations constrain a portion of the Macro parameter space; ho...

  1. Dark matter universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcall, Neta A

    2015-10-06

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter--a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations--from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is "cold" (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology--a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)--fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle.

  2. Baryonic pinching of galactic dark matter halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Michael; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    High resolution cosmological N-body simulations of four galaxy-scale dark matter halos are compared to corresponding N-body/hydrodynamical simulations containing dark matter, stars and gas. The simulations without baryons share features with others described in the literature in that the dark matter density slope continuously decreases towards the center, with a density ρ DM ∝r -1.3±0.2 , at about 1% of the virial radius for our Milky Way sized galaxies. The central cusps in the simulations which also contain baryons steepen significantly, to ρ DM ∝r -1.9±0.2 , with an indication of the inner logarithmic slope converging. Models of adiabatic contraction of dark matter halos due to the central buildup of stellar/gaseous galaxies are examined. The simplest and most commonly used model, by Blumenthal et al., is shown to overestimate the central dark matter density considerably. A modified model proposed by Gnedin et al. is tested and it is shown that, while it is a considerable improvement, it is not perfect. Moreover, it is found that the contraction parameters in their model not only depend on the orbital structure of the dark-matter-only halos but also on the stellar feedback prescription which is most relevant for the baryonic distribution. Implications for dark matter annihilation at the galactic center are discussed and it is found that, although our simulations show a considerable reduced dark matter halo contraction as compared to the Blumenthal et al. model, the fluxes from dark matter annihilation are still expected to be enhanced by at least a factor of a hundred, as compared to dark-matter-only halos. Finally, it is shown that, while dark-matter-only halos are typically prolate, the dark matter halos containing baryons are mildly oblate with minor-to-major axis ratios of c/a=0.73±0.11, with their flattening aligned with the central baryonic disks

  3. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biberian, Jean-Paul

    2006-02-01

    into characteristics of X-ray emission laser beams from solidstate cathode medium of high-current glow discharge / A. B. Karabut. Charged particles from Ti and Pd foils / L. Kowalski ... [et al.]. Cr-39 track detectors in cold fusion experiments: review and perspectives / A. S. Roussetski. Energetic particle shower in the vapor from electrolysis / R. A. Oriani and J. C. Fisher. Nuclear reactions produced in an operating electrolysis cell / R. A. Oriani and J. C. Fisher. Evidence of microscopic ball lightning in cold fusion experiments / E. H. Lewis. Neutron emission from D[symbol] gas in magnetic fields under low temperature / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Energetic charged particle emission from hydrogen-loaded Pd and Ti cathodes and its enhancement by He-4 implantation / A. G. Lipson ... [et al.]. H-D permeation. Observation of nuclear transmutation reactions induced by D[symbol] gas permeation through Pd complexes / Y. Iwamura ... [et al.]. Deuterium (hydrogen) flux permeating through palladium and condensed matter nuclear science / Q. M. Wei ... [et al.]. Triggering. Precursors and the fusion reactions in polarized Pd/D-D[symbol]O system: effect of an external electric field / S. Szpak, P. A. Mosier-Boss, and F. E. Gordon. Calorimetric and neutron diagnostics of liquids during laser irradiation / Yu. N. Bazhutov ... [et al.]. Anomalous neutron capture and plastic deformation of Cu and Pd cathodes during electrolysis in a weak thermalized neutron field: evidence of nuclei-lattice exchange / A. G. Lipson and G. H. Miley. H-D loading. An overview of experimental studies on H/Pd over-loading with thin Pd wires and different electrolytic solutions / A. Spallone ... [et al.] -- 3. Transmutations. Photon and particle emission, heat production, and surface transformation in Ni-H system / E. Campari ... [et al.]. Surface analysis of hydrogen-loaded nickel alloys / E. Campari ... [et al.]. Low-energy nuclear reactions and the leptonic monopole / G. Lochak and L. Urutskoev. Results

  4. Asymmetric dark matter and the Sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Sarkar, Subir

    2010-01-01

    Cold dark matter particles with an intrinsic matter-antimatter asymmetry do not annihilate after gravitational capture by the Sun and can affect its interior structure. The rate of capture is exponentially enhanced when such particles have self-interactions of the right order to explain structure...... formation on galactic scales. A `dark baryon' of mass 5 GeV is a natural candidate and has the required relic abundance if its asymmetry is similar to that of ordinary baryons. We show that such particles can solve the `solar composition problem'. The predicted small decrease in the low energy neutrino...

  5. Exothermic dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, Peter W.; Saraswat, Prashant; Harnik, Roni; Rajendran, Surjeet

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel mechanism for dark matter to explain the observed annual modulation signal at DAMA/LIBRA which avoids existing constraints from every other dark matter direct detection experiment including CRESST, CDMS, and XENON10. The dark matter consists of at least two light states with mass ∼few GeV and splittings ∼5 keV. It is natural for the heavier states to be cosmologically long-lived and to make up an O(1) fraction of the dark matter. Direct detection rates are dominated by the exothermic reactions in which an excited dark matter state downscatters off of a nucleus, becoming a lower energy state. In contrast to (endothermic) inelastic dark matter, the most sensitive experiments for exothermic dark matter are those with light nuclei and low threshold energies. Interestingly, this model can also naturally account for the observed low-energy events at CoGeNT. The only significant constraint on the model arises from the DAMA/LIBRA unmodulated spectrum but it can be tested in the near future by a low-threshold analysis of CDMS-Si and possibly other experiments including CRESST, COUPP, and XENON100.

  6. Dark matter universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcall, Neta A.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter—a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations—from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is “cold” (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology—a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)—fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle. PMID:26417091

  7. Physics of condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, Prasanta K

    2012-01-01

    Physics of Condensed Matter is designed for a two-semester graduate course on condensed matter physics for students in physics and materials science. While the book offers fundamental ideas and topic areas of condensed matter physics, it also includes many recent topics of interest on which graduate students may choose to do further research. The text can also be used as a one-semester course for advanced undergraduate majors in physics, materials science, solid state chemistry, and electrical engineering, because it offers a breadth of topics applicable to these majors. The book be

  8. Light, Matter, and Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    Interaction of light and matter produces the appearance of materials. To deal with the immense complexity of nature, light and matter is modelled at a macroscopic level in computer graphics. This work is the first to provide the link between the microscopic physical theories of light and matter...... of a material and determine the contents of the material. The book is in four parts. Part I provides the link between microscopic and macroscopic theories of light. Part II describes how to use the properties of microscopic particles to compute the macroscopic properties of materials. Part III illustrates...

  9. QED coherence in matter

    CERN Document Server

    Preparata, Giuliano

    1995-01-01

    Up until now the dominant view of condensed matter physics has been that of an "electrostatic MECCANO" (erector set, for Americans). This book is the first systematic attempt to consider the full quantum-electrodynamical interaction (QED), thus greatly enriching the possible dynamical mechanisms that operate in the construction of the wonderful variety of condensed matter systems, including life itself.A new paradigm is emerging, replacing the "electrostatic MECCANO" with an "electrodynamic NETWORK," which builds condensed matter through the long range (as opposed to the "short range" nature o

  10. Nuclear matter revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negele, J.W.; Zabolitzky, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    It is stated that at the Workshop on Nuclear and Dense Matter held at the University of Illinois in May 1977 significant progress was reported that largely resolves many of the questions raised in this journal Vol. 6, p.149, 1976. These include perturbative versus variational methods as applied to nuclear matter, exact solutions for bosons, what is known as the fermion 'homework problem', and various other considerations regarding nuclear matter, including the use of variational methods as opposed to perturbation theory. (15 references) (U.K.)

  11. Dark matter: the astrophysical case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of dark matter is one of the most urgent problems in cosmology. I describe the astrophysical case for dark matter, from both an observational and a theoretical perspective. This overview will therefore focus on the observational motivations rather than the particle physics aspects of dark matter constraints on specific dark matter candidates. First, however, I summarize the astronomical evidence for dark matter, then I highlight the weaknesses of the standard cold dark matter model (LCDM) to provide a robust explanation of some observations. The greatest weakness in the dark matter saga is that we have not yet identified the nature of dark matter itself

  12. Matter-antimatter and matter-matter interactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Antonio Carlos Fontes dos

    2002-01-01

    This article presents some of the recent experimental advances on the study on antimatter-matter and matter-matter interactions, and some of the subtle differences stimulated a great theoretical efforts for explanation of the results experimentally observed

  13. Little composite dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkin, Reuven; Perez, Gilad; Weiler, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    We examine the dark matter phenomenology of a composite electroweak singlet state. This singlet belongs to the Goldstone sector of a well-motivated extension of the Littlest Higgs with T -parity. A viable parameter space, consistent with the observed dark matter relic abundance as well as with the various collider, electroweak precision and dark matter direct detection experimental constraints is found for this scenario. T -parity implies a rich LHC phenomenology, which forms an interesting interplay between conventional natural SUSY type of signals involving third generation quarks and missing energy, from stop-like particle production and decay, and composite Higgs type of signals involving third generation quarks associated with Higgs and electroweak gauge boson, from vector-like top-partners production and decay. The composite features of the dark matter phenomenology allows the composite singlet to produce the correct relic abundance while interacting weakly with the Higgs via the usual Higgs portal coupling [Formula: see text], thus evading direct detection.

  14. Inflatable Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D

    2016-01-22

    We describe a general scenario, dubbed "inflatable dark matter," in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early Universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many, otherwise, well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context. Thermal relics that would, otherwise, be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the nonthermal abundance of grand unified theory or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levels without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. A period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ∼MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the standard model.

  15. Dark matter search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabei, R.

    2003-01-01

    Some general arguments on the particle Dark Matter search are addressed. The WIMP direct detection technique is mainly considered and recent results obtained by exploiting the annual modulation signature are summarized. (author)

  16. Mind Over Matter: Methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Guide and Series / Methamphetamine Mind Over Matter: Methamphetamine (Meth) Print Order Free Publication in: English Spanish ... paranoia, aggressiveness, and hallucinations. The Brain's Response to Methamphetamine Hi, my name's Sara Bellum. Welcome to my ...

  17. Matter Tracking Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Matter Tracking Information System (MTIS) principle function is to streamline and integrate the workload and work activity generated or addressed by our 300 plus...

  18. Lectures on dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seljak, U.

    2001-01-01

    These lectures concentrate on evolution and generation of dark matter perturbations. The purpose of the lectures is to present, in a systematic way, a comprehensive review of the cosmological parameters that can lead to observable effects in the dark matter clustering properties. We begin by reviewing the relativistic linear perturbation theory formalism. We discuss the gauge issue and derive Einstein's and continuity equations for several popular gauge choices. We continue by developing fluid equations for cold dark matter and baryons and Boltzmann equations for photons, massive and massless neutrinos. We then discuss the generation of initial perturbations by the process of inflation and the parameters of that process that can be extracted from the observations. Finally we discuss evolution of perturbations in various regimes and the imprint of the evolution on the dark matter power spectrum both in the linear and in the nonlinear regime. (author)

  19. Prevention Research Matters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Prevention Research Matters is a series of one-on-one interviews with researchers from 26 university prevention research centers across the country. Their work focuses on preventing and controlling chronic diseases like obesity, cancer, and heart disease.

  20. Dynamics of interstellar matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, F.D.

    1975-01-01

    A review of the dynamics of interstellar matter is presented, considering the basic equations of fluid flow, plane waves, shock waves, spiral structure, thermal instabilities and early star cocoons. (B.R.H.)

  1. Lectures on dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seljak, U [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2001-11-15

    These lectures concentrate on evolution and generation of dark matter perturbations. The purpose of the lectures is to present, in a systematic way, a comprehensive review of the cosmological parameters that can lead to observable effects in the dark matter clustering properties. We begin by reviewing the relativistic linear perturbation theory formalism. We discuss the gauge issue and derive Einstein's and continuity equations for several popular gauge choices. We continue by developing fluid equations for cold dark matter and baryons and Boltzmann equations for photons, massive and massless neutrinos. We then discuss the generation of initial perturbations by the process of inflation and the parameters of that process that can be extracted from the observations. Finally we discuss evolution of perturbations in various regimes and the imprint of the evolution on the dark matter power spectrum both in the linear and in the nonlinear regime. (author)

  2. Dark matter search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabei, R [Dipto. di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' and INFN, sez. Roma2, Rome (Italy)

    2003-08-15

    Some general arguments on the particle Dark Matter search are addressed. The WIMP direct detection technique is mainly considered and recent results obtained by exploiting the annual modulation signature are summarized. (author)

  3. Cold dark matter in brane cosmology scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahab, Eiman Abou El; Khalil, Shaaban

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the dark matter problem in the context of brane cosmology. We investigate the impact of the non-conventional brane cosmology on the relic abundance of non-relativistic stable particles in high and low reheating temperature scenarios. We show that in case of high reheating temperature, the brane cosmology may enhance the dark matter relic density by many order of magnitudes and a stringent lower bound on the five dimensional scale is obtained. We also consider low reheating temperature scenarios with chemical equilibrium and non-equilibrium. We emphasize that in non-equilibrium case, the resulting relic density is very small. While with equilibrium, it is increased by a factor of O(10 2 ) with respect to the standard thermal production. Therefore, dark matter particles with large cross section, which is favored by detection expirements, can be consistent with the recent relic density observational limits

  4. Soft Active Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Marchetti, M. C.; Joanny, J. -F.; Ramaswamy, S.; Liverpool, T. B.; Prost, J.; Rao, Madan; Simha, R. Aditi

    2012-01-01

    In this review we summarize theoretical progress in the field of active matter, placing it in the context of recent experiments. Our approach offers a unified framework for the mechanical and statistical properties of living matter: biofilaments and molecular motors in vitro or in vivo, collections of motile microorganisms, animal flocks, and chemical or mechanical imitations. A major goal of the review is to integrate the several approaches proposed in the literature, from semi-microscopic t...

  5. DARK MATTER: Optical shears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence for dark matter continues to build up. Last year (December 1993, page 4) excitement rose when the French EROS (Experience de Recherche d'Objets Sombres) and the US/Australia MACHO collaborations reported hints that small inert 'brown dwarf stars could provide some of the Universe's missing matter. In the 1930s, astronomers first began to suspect that there is a lot more to the Universe than meets the eye

  6. Charming dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubb, Thomas; Kirk, Matthew; Lenz, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    We have considered a model of Dark Minimal Flavour Violation (DMFV), in which a triplet of dark matter particles couple to right-handed up-type quarks via a heavy colour-charged scalar mediator. By studying a large spectrum of possible constraints, and assessing the entire parameter space using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), we can place strong restrictions on the allowed parameter space for dark matter models of this type.

  7. Dynamics of Soft Matter

    CERN Document Server

    García Sakai, Victoria; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Dynamics of Soft Matter: Neutron Applications provides an overview of neutron scattering techniques that measure temporal and spatial correlations simultaneously, at the microscopic and/or mesoscopic scale. These techniques offer answers to new questions arising at the interface of physics, chemistry, and biology. Knowledge of the dynamics at these levels is crucial to understanding the soft matter field, which includes colloids, polymers, membranes, biological macromolecules, foams, emulsions towards biological & biomimetic systems, and phenomena involving wetting, friction, adhesion, or micr

  8. Matter-antimatter Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omnes, R.

    1973-01-01

    The possible existence of antimatter on a large scale in the universe is evaluated. As a starting point, an attempt was made to understand the origin of matter as being essentially analogous to the origin of backgound thermal radiation. Several theories and models are examined, with particular emphasis on nucleon-antinucleon interactions at intermediate energies. Data also cover annihilation interaction with the matter-antimatter boundary to produce the essential fluid motion known as coalesence.

  9. Matter and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effenberger, R.

    1974-09-01

    The author summarizes some of the many questions and answers which have been raised over the years regarding the nature of matter, the origin of its forms and the associated concept of cosmology including the formation of the universe, our place in it and its course of evolution. An examination of the development of the classical concept of matter and its subsequent transformations within the space-time fields of relativity and quantum theory is also presented

  10. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    The author both reviews and makes the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that (i) there are no dark-matter candidates within the open-quotes standard modelclose quotes of particle physics, (ii) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics, and (iii) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for open-quotes new physics.close quotes The compelling candidates are a very light axion (10 -6 --10 -4 eV), a light neutrino (20--90 eV), and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. The author briefly mentions more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos. 119 refs

  11. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that: (1) there are no dark matter candidates within the standard model of particle physics; (2) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics; and (3) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for ''new physics.'' The compelling candidates are: a very light axion ( 10 -6 eV--10 -4 eV); a light neutrino (20 eV--90 eV); and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos

  12. Soil organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The nature, content and behaviour of the organic matter, or humus, in soil are factors of fundamental importance for soil productivity and the development of optimum conditions for growth of crops under diverse temperate, tropical and arid climatic conditions. In the recent symposium on soil organic matter studies - as in the two preceding ones in 1963 and 1969 - due consideration was given to studies involving the use of radioactive and stable isotopes. However, the latest symposium was a departure from previous efforts in that non-isotopic approaches to research on soil organic matter were included. A number of papers dealt with the behaviour and functions of organic matter and suggested improved management practices, the use of which would contribute to increasing agricultural production. Other papers discussed the turnover of plant residues, the release of plant nutrients through the biodegradation of organic compounds, the nitrogen economy and the dynamics of transformation of organic forms of nitrogen. In addition, consideration was given to studies on the biochemical transformation of organic matter, characterization of humic acids, carbon-14 dating and the development of modern techniques and their impact on soil organic matter research

  13. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S. (Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States))

    1993-01-01

    I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that: (1) there are no dark matter candidates within the standard model of particle physics; (2) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics; and (3) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for new physics.'' The compelling candidates are: a very light axion ( 10[sup [minus]6] eV--10[sup [minus]4] eV); a light neutrino (20 eV--90 eV); and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos.

  14. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst.]|[Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that: (1) there are no dark matter candidates within the standard model of particle physics; (2) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics; and (3) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for ``new physics.`` The compelling candidates are: a very light axion ( 10{sup {minus}6} eV--10{sup {minus}4} eV); a light neutrino (20 eV--90 eV); and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos.

  15. Decaying vs. annihilating dark matter in light of a tentative gamma-ray line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmüller, Wilfried; Garny, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    Recently reported tentative evidence for a gamma-ray line in the Fermi-LAT data is of great potential interest for identifying the nature of dark matter. We compare the implications for decaying and annihilating dark matter taking the constraints from continuum gamma-rays, antiproton flux and morphology of the excess into account. We find that higgsino and wino dark matter are excluded, also for nonthermal production. Generically, the continuum gamma-ray flux severely constrains annihilating dark matter. Consistency of decaying dark matter with the spatial distribution of the Fermi-LAT excess would require an enhancement of the dark matter density near the Galactic center

  16. Decaying vs annihilating dark matter in light of a tentative gamma-ray line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, Wilfried; Garny, Mathias

    2012-06-15

    Recently reported tentative evidence for a gamma-ray line in the Fermi-LAT data is of great potential interest for identifying the nature of dark matter. We compare the implications for decaying and annihilating dark matter taking the constraints from continuum gamma-rays, antiproton flux and morphology of the excess into account. We find that higgsino and wino dark matter are excluded, also for nonthermal production. Generically, the continuum gamma-ray ux severely constrains annihilating dark matter. Consistency of decaying dark matter with the spatial distribution of the Fermi-LAT excess would require an enhancement of the dark matter density near the Galactic center.

  17. Method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, George; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Chapman, Kent; Faure, Lionel; Koulen, Peter

    2016-10-25

    A method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) is disclosed. The method comprising administering a phenoxyacylethanolamide that causes the enhanced activity. The enhanced activity can have numerous effects on biological organisms including, for example, enhancing the growth of certain seedlings. The subject matter disclosed herein relates to enhancers of amidohydrolase activity.

  18. Application of organic matter to enhance phytoremediation of mercury contaminated soils using local plant species: a case study on small-scale gold mining locations in Banyuwangi of East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Muddarisna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The discharge of small-scale gold mine tailing to agricultural lands at Pesanggaran village of Banyuwangi Regency caused soil degradation as indicated by reduced crop production. This soil degradation is mainly due to the toxicity of mercury contained in the tailing. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential of three local plant species, i.e. Lindernia crustacea, Digitaria radicosa, and Cyperus kyllingia for phytoremediation of agricultural land contaminated gold mine waste containing mercury, and its influence on the growth of maize. Six treatments (three plant species, and two levels of organic matter application were arranged in a randomized block design with three replicates. Maize was grown on soil after phytoremediation for 8 weeks. The results showed that among the three plant species tested, Cyperus kyllingia was the potential candidate plant species for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with gold mine tailing containing mercury because of its ability to accumulate mercury from 32.06 to 73.90 mg / kg of soil in 60 days. Phytoremediation of mercury contaminated soil using Cyperus kyllingia using increased maize yield by 126% compared to that the biomass yield of maize grown on soil without phytoremediation. Induce phytoremediation needs to be carried out to accelerate the process of remediation of mercury contaminated soils

  19. Imperfect Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzagholi, Leila; Vikman, Alexander, E-mail: l.mirzagholi@physik.uni-muenchen.de, E-mail: alexander.vikman@lmu.de [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, Theresienstr. 37, Munich, D-80333 Germany (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    We consider cosmology of the recently introduced mimetic matter with higher derivatives (HD). Without HD this system describes irrotational dust—Dark Matter (DM) as we see it on cosmologically large scales. DM particles correspond to the shift-charges—Noether charges of the shifts in the field space. Higher derivative corrections usually describe a deviation from the thermodynamical equilibrium in the relativistic hydrodynamics. Thus we show that mimetic matter with HD corresponds to an imperfect DM which: i) renormalises the Newton's constant in the Friedmann equations, ii) has zero pressure when there is no extra matter in the universe, iii) survives the inflationary expansion which puts the system on a dynamical attractor with a vanishing shift-charge, iv) perfectly tracks any external matter on this attractor, v) can become the main (and possibly the only) source of DM, provided the shift-symmetry in the HD terms is broken during some small time interval in the radiation domination époque. In the second part of the paper we present a hydrodynamical description of general anisotropic and inhomogeneous configurations of the system. This imperfect mimetic fluid has an energy flow in the field's rest frame. We find that in the Eckart and in the Landau-Lifshitz frames the mimetic fluid possesses nonvanishing vorticity appearing already at the first order in the HD. Thus, the structure formation and gravitational collapse should proceed in a rather different fashion from the simple irrotational DM models.

  20. Entropy, matter, and cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigogine, I; Géhéniau, J

    1986-09-01

    The role of irreversible processes corresponding to creation of matter in general relativity is investigated. The use of Landau-Lifshitz pseudotensors together with conformal (Minkowski) coordinates suggests that this creation took place in the early universe at the stage of the variation of the conformal factor. The entropy production in this creation process is calculated. It is shown that these dissipative processes lead to the possibility of cosmological models that start from empty conditions and gradually build up matter and entropy. Gravitational entropy takes a simple meaning as associated to the entropy that is necessary to produce matter. This leads to an extension of the third law of thermodynamics, as now the zero point of entropy becomes the space-time structure out of which matter is generated. The theory can be put into a convenient form using a supplementary "C" field in Einstein's field equations. The role of the C field is to express the coupling between gravitation and matter leading to irreversible entropy production.

  1. Imperfect Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzagholi, Leila; Vikman, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We consider cosmology of the recently introduced mimetic matter with higher derivatives (HD). Without HD this system describes irrotational dust—Dark Matter (DM) as we see it on cosmologically large scales. DM particles correspond to the shift-charges—Noether charges of the shifts in the field space. Higher derivative corrections usually describe a deviation from the thermodynamical equilibrium in the relativistic hydrodynamics. Thus we show that mimetic matter with HD corresponds to an imperfect DM which: i) renormalises the Newton's constant in the Friedmann equations, ii) has zero pressure when there is no extra matter in the universe, iii) survives the inflationary expansion which puts the system on a dynamical attractor with a vanishing shift-charge, iv) perfectly tracks any external matter on this attractor, v) can become the main (and possibly the only) source of DM, provided the shift-symmetry in the HD terms is broken during some small time interval in the radiation domination époque. In the second part of the paper we present a hydrodynamical description of general anisotropic and inhomogeneous configurations of the system. This imperfect mimetic fluid has an energy flow in the field's rest frame. We find that in the Eckart and in the Landau-Lifshitz frames the mimetic fluid possesses nonvanishing vorticity appearing already at the first order in the HD. Thus, the structure formation and gravitational collapse should proceed in a rather different fashion from the simple irrotational DM models

  2. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre, Anthony; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto, E-mail: aguirre@scipp.ucsc.edu, E-mail: alberto.diez@fisica.ugto.mx [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA, 95064 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate must be lighter than a few tens of eV so that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of decoupling to the scale of the QCD phase transition or above. This requires large dark matter-to-photon ratios and very weak interactions with standard model particles.

  3. Imperfect Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzagholi, Leila; Vikman, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    We consider cosmology of the recently introduced mimetic matter with higher derivatives (HD). Without HD this system describes irrotational dust—Dark Matter (DM) as we see it on cosmologically large scales. DM particles correspond to the shift-charges—Noether charges of the shifts in the field space. Higher derivative corrections usually describe a deviation from the thermodynamical equilibrium in the relativistic hydrodynamics. Thus we show that mimetic matter with HD corresponds to an imperfect DM which: i) renormalises the Newton's constant in the Friedmann equations, ii) has zero pressure when there is no extra matter in the universe, iii) survives the inflationary expansion which puts the system on a dynamical attractor with a vanishing shift-charge, iv) perfectly tracks any external matter on this attractor, v) can become the main (and possibly the only) source of DM, provided the shift-symmetry in the HD terms is broken during some small time interval in the radiation domination époque. In the second part of the paper we present a hydrodynamical description of general anisotropic and inhomogeneous configurations of the system. This imperfect mimetic fluid has an energy flow in the field's rest frame. We find that in the Eckart and in the Landau-Lifshitz frames the mimetic fluid possesses nonvanishing vorticity appearing already at the first order in the HD. Thus, the structure formation and gravitational collapse should proceed in a rather different fashion from the simple irrotational DM models.

  4. WISPy cold dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Paola [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Fisica; Cadamuro, Davide; Redondo, Javier [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Goodsell, Mark [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Jaeckel, Joerg [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Very weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs), such as axion-like particles (ALPs) or hidden photons (HPs), may be non-thermally produced via the misalignment mechanism in the early universe and survive as a cold dark matter population until today. We find that, both for ALPs and HPs whose dominant interactions with the standard model arise from couplings to photons, a huge region in the parameter spaces spanned by photon coupling and ALP or HP mass can give rise to the observed cold dark matter. Remarkably, a large region of this parameter space coincides with that predicted in well motivated models of fundamental physics. A wide range of experimental searches - exploiting haloscopes (direct dark matter searches exploiting microwave cavities), helioscopes (searches for solar ALPs or HPs), or light-shining-through-a-wall techniques - can probe large parts of this parameter space in the foreseeable future. (orig.)

  5. Thermal Properties of Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachan, Joe

    2018-02-01

    The ancient Greeks believed that all matter was composed of four elements: earth, water, air, and fire. By a remarkable coincidence (or perhaps not), today we know that there are four states of matter: solids (e.g. earth), liquids (e.g. water), gasses (e.g. air) and plasma (e.g. ionized gas produced by fire). The plasma state is beyond the scope of this book and we will only look at the first three states. Although on the microscopic level all matter is made from atoms or molecules, everyday experience tells us that the three states have very different properties. The aim of this book is to examine some of these properties and the underlying physics.

  6. Asymmetric Higgsino dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kfir; Efrati, Aielet; Grossman, Yuval; Nir, Yosef; Riotto, Antonio

    2012-08-03

    In the supersymmetric framework, prior to the electroweak phase transition, the existence of a baryon asymmetry implies the existence of a Higgsino asymmetry. We investigate whether the Higgsino could be a viable asymmetric dark matter candidate. We find that this is indeed possible. Thus, supersymmetry can provide the observed dark matter abundance and, furthermore, relate it with the baryon asymmetry, in which case the puzzle of why the baryonic and dark matter mass densities are similar would be explained. To accomplish this task, two conditions are required. First, the gauginos, squarks, and sleptons must all be very heavy, such that the only electroweak-scale superpartners are the Higgsinos. With this spectrum, supersymmetry does not solve the fine-tuning problem. Second, the temperature of the electroweak phase transition must be low, in the (1-10) GeV range. This condition requires an extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model.

  7. Cerebral white matter hypoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, R.B.; Shields, W.D.; Sankar, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the MR imaging findings in children with cerebral white matter hypoplasia (CWMH). The MR studies of four children, aged 3-7 y (mean age, 2.3 y) with a diagnosis of CWMH were reviewed. In all cases multiplanar T1-weighted and T2-weighted spin-echo images were obtained. All children had similar histories of severe developmental delay and nonprogressive neurologic deficits despite normal gestational and birth histories. In two cases there was a history of maternal cocaine abuse. Autopsy correlation was available in one child. The MR images of all four children demonstrated diffuse lack of white matter and enlarged ventricles but normal-appearing gray matter. The corpus callosum, although completely formed, was severely thinned. There was no evidence of gliosis or porencephaly, and the distribution of myelin deposition was normal for age in all cases. Autopsy finding in one child correlated exactly with the MR finding

  8. Dark matter from unification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kainulainen, Kimmo; Tuominen, Kimmo; Virkajärvi, Jussi Tuomas

    2013-01-01

    We consider a minimal extension of the Standard Model (SM), which leads to unification of the SM coupling constants, breaks electroweak symmetry dynamically by a new strongly coupled sector and leads to novel dark matter candidates. In this model, the coupling constant unification requires...... eigenstates of this sector and determine the resulting relic density. The results are constrained by available data from colliders and direct and indirect dark matter experiments. We find the model viable and outline briefly future research directions....... the existence of electroweak triplet and doublet fermions singlet under QCD and new strong dynamics underlying the Higgs sector. Among these new matter fields and a new right handed neutrino, we consider the mass and mixing patterns of the neutral states. We argue for a symmetry stabilizing the lightest mass...

  9. Matter and memory

    CERN Document Server

    Bergson, Henri

    1991-01-01

    Since the end of the last century," Walter Benjamin wrote, "philosophy has made a series of attempts to lay hold of the 'true' experience as opposed to the kind that manifests itself in the standardized, denatured life of the civilized masses. It is customary to classify these efforts under the heading of a philosophy of life. Towering above this literature is Henri Bergson's early monumental work, Matter and Memory."Along with Husserl's Ideas and Heidegger's Being and Time, Bergson's work represents one of the great twentieth-century investigations into perception and memory, movement and time, matter and mind. Arguably Bergson's most significant book, Matter and Memory is essential to an understanding of his philosophy and its legacy.This new edition includes an annotated bibliography prepared by Bruno Paradis.Henri Bergson (1859-1941) was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1927. His works include Time and Free Will, An Introduction to Metaphysics, Creative Evolution, and The Creative Mind.

  10. Interacting hot dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atrio-Barandela, F.; Davidson, S.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the viability of a light particle (∼30eV neutrino) with strong self-interactions as a dark matter candidate. The interaction prevents the neutrinos from free-streaming during the radiation-dominated regime so galaxy-sized density perturbations can survive. Smaller scale perturbations are damped due to neutrino diffusion. We calculate the power spectrum in the imperfect fluid approximation, and show that it is damped at the length scale one would estimate due to neutrino diffusion. The strength of the neutrino-neutrino coupling is only weakly constrained by observations, and could be chosen by fitting the power spectrum to the observed amplitude of matter density perturbations. The main shortcoming of our model is that interacting neutrinos cannot provide the dark matter in dwarf galaxies. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. Interacting warm dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Norman; Palma, Guillermo; Zambrano, David; Avelino, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    We explore a cosmological model composed by a dark matter fluid interacting with a dark energy fluid. The interaction term has the non-linear λρ m α ρ e β form, where ρ m and ρ e are the energy densities of the dark matter and dark energy, respectively. The parameters α and β are in principle not constrained to take any particular values, and were estimated from observations. We perform an analytical study of the evolution equations, finding the fixed points and their stability properties in order to characterize suitable physical regions in the phase space of the dark matter and dark energy densities. The constants (λ,α,β) as well as w m and w e of the EoS of dark matter and dark energy respectively, were estimated using the cosmological observations of the type Ia supernovae and the Hubble expansion rate H(z) data sets. We find that the best estimated values for the free parameters of the model correspond to a warm dark matter interacting with a phantom dark energy component, with a well goodness-of-fit to data. However, using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) we find that this model is overcame by a warm dark matter – phantom dark energy model without interaction, as well as by the ΛCDM model. We find also a large dispersion on the best estimated values of the (λ,α,β) parameters, so even if we are not able to set strong constraints on their values, given the goodness-of-fit to data of the model, we find that a large variety of theirs values are well compatible with the observational data used

  12. Enhanced stabilisation of municipal solid waste in bioreactor landfills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valencia Vázquez, R.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing development and urbanization of the society has led to an increase per-capita production of municipal solid waste (MSW) materials. These MSW materials are of organic and inorganic nature that can be of rapidly, moderately and slowly biodegradable or inert characteristics. With regard

  13. Neutrons for probing matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, F. Ed.; Mazzucchetti, D.

    2008-01-01

    The authors tell the story of the French Orphee reactor located in Saclay from the decision to build it in the seventies, to its commissioning in 1980, to its upgrading in the nineties and to its today's operating life. As early as its feasibility studies Orphee has been designed as a dual-purpose reactor: scientific research for instance in crystallography and magnetism, and industrial uses like neutron radiography, silicon doping or radionuclide production. This book is divided into 4 parts: 1) the neutron: an explorer of the matter, 2) the Orphee reactor: a neutron source, 3) the adventurers of the matter: Leon Brillouin laboratory's staff, and 4) the perspectives for neutrons

  14. Condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Isihara, A

    2007-01-01

    More than a graduate text and advanced research guide on condensed matter physics, this volume is useful to plasma physicists and polymer chemists, and their students. It emphasizes applications of statistical mechanics to a variety of systems in condensed matter physics rather than theoretical derivations of the principles of statistical mechanics and techniques. Isihara addresses a dozen different subjects in separate chapters, each designed to be directly accessible and used independently of previous chapters. Topics include simple liquids, electron systems and correlations, two-dimensional

  15. Implication of collider experiments for detecting cold dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednyakov, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    Investigation of Minimal Supersymmetry Standard Model shows, that any discovery with high-energy colliders at least one supersymmetric particle would strongly enhance importance of very accurate experiments. which search for lightest supersymmetric neutralinos as cold dark matter particles. Form other side, non-observations of any signal of cold dark matter in such experiments would force us to change strategy of searching for, for instance, light charged Higgs bosons at high energies [ru

  16. Interacting dark matter disguised as warm dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, Celine; Riazuelo, Alain; Hansen, Steen H.; Schaeffer, Richard

    2002-01-01

    We explore some of the consequences of dark-matter-photon interactions on structure formation, focusing on the evolution of cosmological perturbations and performing both an analytical and a numerical study. We compute the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and matter power spectrum in this class of models. We find, as the main result, that when dark matter and photons are coupled, dark matter perturbations can experience a new damping regime in addition to the usual collisional Silk damping effect. Such dark matter particles (having quite large photon interactions) behave like cold dark matter or warm dark matter as far as the cosmic microwave background anisotropies or matter power spectrum are concerned, respectively. These dark-matter-photon interactions leave specific imprints at sufficiently small scales on both of these two spectra, which may allow us to put new constraints on the acceptable photon-dark-matter interactions. Under the conservative assumption that the abundance of 10 12 M · galaxies is correctly given by the cold dark matter, and without any knowledge of the abundance of smaller objects, we obtain the limit on the ratio of the dark-matter-photon cross section to the dark matter mass σ γ-DM /m DM -6 σ Th /(100 GeV)≅6x10 -33 cm 2 GeV -1

  17. Energy Matters, July 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, E.

    1999-07-09

    This issue of Energy Matters focuses on selling an energy-efficient project to management. There are also articles on combined heat and power systems, inspecting steam traps for efficient system, root cause failure analysis on AC induction motors, and performance optimization tips.

  18. Little composite dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkin, Reuven; Perez, Gilad; Weiler, Andreas

    2018-02-01

    We examine the dark matter phenomenology of a composite electroweak singlet state. This singlet belongs to the Goldstone sector of a well-motivated extension of the Littlest Higgs with T-parity. A viable parameter space, consistent with the observed dark matter relic abundance as well as with the various collider, electroweak precision and dark matter direct detection experimental constraints is found for this scenario. T-parity implies a rich LHC phenomenology, which forms an interesting interplay between conventional natural SUSY type of signals involving third generation quarks and missing energy, from stop-like particle production and decay, and composite Higgs type of signals involving third generation quarks associated with Higgs and electroweak gauge boson, from vector-like top-partners production and decay. The composite features of the dark matter phenomenology allows the composite singlet to produce the correct relic abundance while interacting weakly with the Higgs via the usual Higgs portal coupling λ _{ {DM}}˜ O(1%), thus evading direct detection.

  19. Matter: the fundamental particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Landua, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    "The largest particle physics centre in the world is located in Europe. It straddles the Franco-Swiss border, near Geneva. At CERN - the European Organisation for Nuclear Research , which is focused on the science of nuclear matter rather than on the exploitation of atomic energy - there are over 6 500 scientists." (1 page)

  20. Why Philosophy Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The motives of philosophers tend to be personal. Philosophy has mattered politically as part of continuing political debates. Its effects on politics, religion and the development of the sciences have been evident. Philosophy has been supposed to have special educational value, from its contents or from the benefits of its methods and arguments.…

  1. with dark matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-11-16

    Nov 16, 2012 ... November 2012 physics pp. 1271–1274. Radiative see-saw formula in ... on neutrino physics, dark matter and all fermion masses and mixings. ... as such, high-energy accelerators cannot directly test the underlying origin of ...

  2. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create 'cosmic music'. The fourth lecture in the series, entitled 'The Birth of Matter', will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Auditorium...

  3. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create "cosmic music". The fourth lecture in the series, entitled "The Birth of Matter", will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Audito...

  4. Exceptional composite dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo [Universite Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Institut de Physique Theorique, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Carmona, Adrian [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Chala, Mikael [Universitat de Valencia y IFIC, Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Departament de Fisica Teorica, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2017-07-15

    We study the dark matter phenomenology of non-minimal composite Higgs models with SO(7) broken to the exceptional group G{sub 2}. In addition to the Higgs, three pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons arise, one of which is electrically neutral. A parity symmetry is enough to ensure this resonance is stable. In fact, if the breaking of the Goldstone symmetry is driven by the fermion sector, this Z{sub 2} symmetry is automatically unbroken in the electroweak phase. In this case, the relic density, as well as the expected indirect, direct and collider signals are then uniquely determined by the value of the compositeness scale, f. Current experimental bounds allow one to account for a large fraction of the dark matter of the Universe if the dark matter particle is part of an electroweak triplet. The totality of the relic abundance can be accommodated if instead this particle is a composite singlet. In both cases, the scale f and the dark matter mass are of the order of a few TeV. (orig.)

  5. The origin of matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.

    2004-01-01

    The author presents the issue of how matter triumphed over anti-matter in the formation of the universe. Theories focus on the nature of asymmetry that might have created an excess of matter over anti-matter. Sakharov and Kuzmin listed 3 conditions that must be met for baryogenesis to take place. First the baryon number must not be conserved: there must be some interactions that change the number of baryons, baryon-number violation can rise from an interaction between quarks and leptons. Secondly, 2 symmetries that relate particles to antiparticles must be violated. The CP violation in Kaon decay is too weak to create enough baryon asymmetry, so physicists believe that larger sources of CP violation await discovery. Thirdly, there must be the loss of thermal equilibrium of the universe. In thermal equilibrium, baryons are decaying but inverse processes are also taking place, quarks are fusing to form baryons, rates being equal no baryon asymmetry is generated. But if thermal equilibrium is broken, to say temperature is decreasing, at a certain temperature a pair of quarks will no longer have enough energy to produce a heavy particle which generates baryon asymmetry. (A.C.)

  6. Elliott on Mind Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maattanen, Pentti

    2000-01-01

    Argues that David Elliott's conception of the human mind presented in his book "Music Matters" is not coherent. Outlines three alternatives to Elliott's theory of mind. Suggests that the principles associated with the pragmatism of Charles Sanders Pierce would complement Elliott's ideas in his book. (CMK)

  7. Simplified Dark Matter Models

    OpenAIRE

    Morgante, Enrico

    2018-01-01

    I review the construction of Simplified Models for Dark Matter searches. After discussing the philosophy and some simple examples, I turn the attention to the aspect of the theoretical consistency and to the implications of the necessary extensions of these models.

  8. Condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The condensed matter physics research in the Physics Department of Risoe National Laboratory is predominantly experimental utilising diffraction of neutrons and x-rays. The research topics range from studies of structure, excitations and phase transitions in model systems to studies of ion transport, texture and recrystallization kinetics with a more applied nature. (author)

  9. 6d Conformal matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotto, Michele Del; Heckman, Jonathan J.; Tomasiello, Alessandro; Vafa, Cumrun

    2015-01-01

    A single M5-brane probing G, an ADE-type singularity, leads to a system which has G×G global symmetry and can be viewed as “bifundamental” (G,G) matter. For the A N series, this leads to the usual notion of bifundamental matter. For the other cases it corresponds to a strongly interacting (1,0) superconformal system in six dimensions. Similarly, an ADE singularity intersecting the Hořava-Witten wall leads to a superconformal matter system with E 8 ×G global symmetry. Using the F-theory realization of these theories, we elucidate the Coulomb/tensor branch of (G,G ′ ) conformal matter. This leads to the notion of fractionalization of an M5-brane on an ADE singularity as well as fractionalization of the intersection point of the ADE singularity with the Hořava-Witten wall. Partial Higgsing of these theories leads to new 6d SCFTs in the infrared, which we also characterize. This generalizes the class of (1,0) theories which can be perturbatively realized by suspended branes in IIA string theory. By reducing on a circle, we arrive at novel duals for 5d affine quiver theories. Introducing many M5-branes leads to large N gravity duals.

  10. States of Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepak Dhar. States of Matter. Deepak Dhar. Keywords. Solid, liquid, gas, glasses, powders. D Dhar is a theoretical physicist at the Tata. Institute of Funamental. Research, Mumbai. His research interests are mainly in the area of non- equilibrium statistical physics. All of us have read about solid, liquid and gaseous.

  11. The Dark Matter Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Robert H.

    1. Introduction; 2. Early history of the dark matter hypothesis; 3. The stability of disk galaxies: the dark halo solutions; 4. Direct evidence: extended rotation curves of spiral galaxies; 5. The maximum disk: light traces mass; 6. Cosmology and the birth of astroparticle physics; 7. Clusters

  12. Template Composite Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drach, Vincent; Hietanen, Ari; Pica, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    We present a non perturbative study of SU(2) gauge theory with two fundamental Dirac flavours. We discuss how the model can be used as a template for composite Dark Matter (DM). We estimate one particular interaction of the DM candidate with the Standard Model : the interaction through photon...

  13. Little composite dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balkin, Reuven; Weiler, Andreas [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, First Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Perez, Gilad [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Rehovot (Israel)

    2018-02-15

    We examine the dark matter phenomenology of a composite electroweak singlet state. This singlet belongs to the Goldstone sector of a well-motivated extension of the Littlest Higgs with T-parity. A viable parameter space, consistent with the observed dark matter relic abundance as well as with the various collider, electroweak precision and dark matter direct detection experimental constraints is found for this scenario. T-parity implies a rich LHC phenomenology, which forms an interesting interplay between conventional natural SUSY type of signals involving third generation quarks and missing energy, from stop-like particle production and decay, and composite Higgs type of signals involving third generation quarks associated with Higgs and electroweak gauge boson, from vector-like top-partners production and decay. The composite features of the dark matter phenomenology allows the composite singlet to produce the correct relic abundance while interacting weakly with the Higgs via the usual Higgs portal coupling λ{sub DM} ∝ O(1%), thus evading direct detection. (orig.)

  14. Dark matter axions '96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikivie, P.

    1996-01-01

    This report discusses why axions have been postulated to exist, what cosmology implies about their presence as cold dark matter in the galactic halo, how axions might be detected in cavities wherein strong magnetic fields stimulate their conversion into photons, and relations between axions' energy spectra and galactic halos' properties

  15. Condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This is a summary of condensed matter physics in Brazil. It discusses as well, the perspectives and financing evolved in this research area for the next decade. It is specially concerned with semiconductors, magnetic materials, superconductivity, polymers, glasses, crystals ceramics, statistical physics, magnetic resonance and Moessbauer spectroscopy. (A.C.A.S.)

  16. Matter and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effenberger, R.

    1975-07-01

    The author looks empirically at the processes by which the various forms of matter, the chemical elements, come into existence. In doing so he examines unification within relativity and quantum mechanics, atomic and nuclear structure, the quantum idea as a unifying concept, particle physics and finally nucleosynthesis and a viable nucleosynthetic theory

  17. Soft Matter Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Borsali, Redouane

    2008-01-01

    Progress in basic soft matter research is driven largely by the experimental techniques available. Much of the work is concerned with understanding them at the microscopic level, especially at the nanometer length scales that give soft matter studies a wide overlap with nanotechnology. This 2 volume reference work, split into 4 parts, presents detailed discussions of many of the major techniques commonly used as well as some of those in current development for studying and manipulating soft matter. The articles are intended to be accessible to the interdisciplinary audience (at the graduate student level and above) that is or will be engaged in soft matter studies or those in other disciplines who wish to view some of the research methods in this fascinating field. Part 1 contains articles with a largely (but, in most cases, not exclusively) theoretical content and/or that cover material relevant to more than one of the techniques covered in subsequent volumes. It includes an introductory chapter on some of t...

  18. Dibaryons and nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besliu, C.; Popa, L.; Popa, V.

    1992-01-01

    We discuss some recent ideas concerning the structure and the properties of the dibaryonic resonances, with special emphasis on their behaviour when produced in dense nuclear matter. Some features of their de-excitation mechanism and consequent experimentally identifiable signatures are predicted. (Author)

  19. Dark matter and its detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Xiaojun; Qin Bo

    2011-01-01

    We first explain the concept of dark matter,then review the history of its discovery and the evidence of its existence. We describe our understanding of the nature of dark matter particles, the popular dark matter models,and why the weakly interacting massive particles (called WIMPs) are the most attractive candidates for dark matter. Then we introduce the three methods of dark matter detection: colliders, direct detection and indirect detection. Finally, we review the recent development of dark matter detection, including the new results from DAMA, CoGent, PAMELA, ATIC and Fermi. (authors)

  20. Planck-scale effects on WIMP dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane M Boucenna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There exists a widely known conjecture that gravitational effects violate global symmetries. We study the effect of global-symmetry violating higher-dimension operators induced by Planck-scale physics on the properties of WIMP dark matter. Using an effective description, we show that the lifetime of the WIMP dark matter candidate can satisfy cosmological bounds under reasonable assumptions regarding the strength of the dimension-five operators. On the other hand, the indirect WIMP dark matter detection signal is significantly enhanced due to new decay channels.

  1. Spinodal instability of baryon-rich quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Feng; Ko, Che Ming

    2017-01-01

    The spinodal instabilities of both confined and expanding baryon-rich quark matters are studied in a transport model derived from the Nambu-Jona-Lasino model. Appreciable higher-order density moments are seen as a result of the first-order phase transition in both cases. The skewness of the quark number event-by-event distribution in a small subvolume of the system becomes appreciable for the confined quark matter. For the expanding quark matter, the density fluctuations lead to enhanced anisotropic flows and dilepton yield. (paper)

  2. D-brane disformal coupling and thermal dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Bhaskar; Jimenez, Esteban; Zavala, Ivonne

    2017-11-01

    Conformal and disformal couplings between a scalar field and matter occur naturally in general scalar-tensor theories. In D-brane models of cosmology and particle physics, these couplings originate from the D-brane action describing the dynamics of its transverse (the scalar) and longitudinal (matter) fluctuations, which are thus coupled. During the post-inflationary regime and before the onset of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN), these couplings can modify the expansion rate felt by matter, changing the predictions for the thermal relic abundance of dark matter particles and thus the annihilation rate required to satisfy the dark matter content today. We study the D-brane-like conformal and disformal couplings effect on the expansion rate of the Universe prior to BBN and its impact on the dark matter relic abundance and annihilation rate. For a purely disformal coupling, the expansion rate is always enhanced with respect to the standard one. This gives rise to larger cross sections when compared to the standard thermal prediction for a range of dark matter masses, which will be probed by future experiments. In a D-brane-like scenario, the scale at which the expansion rate enhancement occurs depends on the string coupling and the string scale.

  3. Non-baryonic dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkes, I.

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses the nature of the dark matter and the possibility of the detection of non-baryonic dark matter in an underground experiment. Among the useful detectors the low temperature bolometers are considered in some detail. (author)

  4. Is old organic matter simple organic matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Naoise; Lerch, Thomas; Pouteau, Valérie; Mora, Philippe; Changey, Fréderique; Kätterer, Thomas; Herrmann, Anke

    2016-04-01

    Bare fallow soils that have been deprived of fresh carbon inputs for prolonged periods contain mostly old, stable organic carbon. In order to shed light on the nature of this carbon, the functional diversity profiles (MicroResp™, Biolog™ and enzyme activity spectra) of the microbial communities of long-term barefallow soils were analysed and compared with those of the microbial communities from their cultivated counterparts. The study was based on the idea that microbial communities adapt to their environment and that therefore the catabolic and enzymatic profiles would reflect the type of substrates available to the microbial communities. The catabolic profiles suggested that the microbial communities in the long-term bare-fallow soil were exposed to a less diverse range of substrates and that these substrates tended to be of simpler molecular forms. Both the catabolic and enzyme activity profiles suggested that the microbial communities from the long-term bare-fallow soils were less adapted to using polymers. These results do not fit with the traditional view of old, stable carbon being composed of complex, recalcitrant polymers. An energetics analysis of the substrate use of the microbial communities for the different soils suggested that the microbial communities from the long-term bare-fallow soils were better adapted to using readily oxidizable,although energetically less rewarding, substrates. Microbial communities appear to adapt to the deprivation of fresh organic matter by using substrates that require little investment.

  5. New underground neutrino observatory-GENIUS-in the new millenium for solar neutrinos, dark matter and double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H V

    2001-01-01

    Double beta decay is indispensable to solve the question of the neutrino mass matrix together with nu oscillation experiments. The most sensitive experiment for eight years-the HEIDELBERG-MOSCOW experiment in Gran-Sasso-already now, with the experimental limit of (m/sub nu /)<0.26 eV excludes degenerate nu mass scenarios allowing neutrinos as hot dark matter in the Universe for the small angle MSW solution of the solar neutrino problem. It probes cosmological models including hot dark matter already now on the level of future satellite experiments MAP and PLANCK. It further probes many topics of beyond standard model physics at the TeV scale. Future experiments should give access to the multiTeV range and complement on many ways the search for new physics at future colliders like LHC and NLC. For neutrino physics GENIUS will allow to test almost all neutrino mass scenarios allowed by the present neutrino oscillation experiments. At the same time GENIUS will cover a wide range of the parameter space of pred...

  6. Sulfate Formation Enhanced by a Cocktail of High NOx, SO2, Particulate Matter, and Droplet pH during Haze-Fog Events in Megacities in China: An Observation-Based Modeling Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jian; Yuan, Zibing; Griffith, Stephen M; Yu, Xin; Lau, Alexis K H; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2016-07-19

    In recent years in a few Chinese megacities, fog events lasting one to a few days have been frequently associated with high levels of aerosol loading characterized by high sulfate (as high as 30 μg m(-3)), therefore termed as haze-fog events. The concomitant pollution characteristics include high gas-phase mixing ratios of SO2 (up to 71 ppbv) and NO2 (up to 69 ppbv), high aqueous phase pH (5-6), and smaller fog droplets (as low as 2 μm), resulting from intense emissions from fossil fuel combustion and construction activities supplying abundant Ca(2+). In this work, we use an observation-based model for secondary inorganic aerosols (OBM-SIA) to simulate sulfate formation pathways under conditions of haze-fog events encountered in Chinese megacities. The OBM analysis has identified, at a typical haze-fogwater pH of 5.6, the most important pathway to be oxidation of S(IV) by dissolved NO2, followed by the heterogeneous reaction of SO2 on the aerosol surface. The aqueous phase oxidation of S(IV) by H2O2 is a very minor formation pathway as a result of the high NOx conditions suppressing H2O2 formation. The model results indicate that the unique cocktail of high fogwater pH, high concentrations of NO2, SO2, and PM, and small fog droplets are capable of greatly enhancing sulfate formation. Such haze-fog conditions could lead to rapid sulfate production at night and subsequently high PM2.5 in the morning when the fog evaporates. Sulfate formation is simulated to be highly sensitive to fogwater pH, PM, and precursor gases NO2 and SO2. Such insights on major contributing factors imply that reduction of road dust and NOx emissions could lessen PM2.5 loadings in Chinese megacities during fog events.

  7. Direct search for dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jonghee; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    Dark matter is hypothetical matter which does not interact with electromagnetic radiation. The existence of dark matter is only inferred from gravitational effects of astrophysical observations to explain the missing mass component of the Universe. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles are currently the most popular candidate to explain the missing mass component. I review the current status of experimental searches of dark matter through direct detection using terrestrial detectors.

  8. Particle Dark Matter: An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roszkowski, Leszek

    2009-01-01

    Dark matter in the Universe is likely to be made up of some new, hypothetical particle which would be a part of an extension of the Standard Model of particle physics. In this overview, I will first briefly review well motivated particle candidates for dark matter. Next I will focus my attention on the neutralino of supersymmetry which is the by far most popular dark matter candidate. I will discuss some recent progress and comment on prospects for dark matter detection.

  9. Physics of hot hadronic matter and quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuryak, E.V.

    1990-07-01

    This Introductory talk contains a brief review of the current status of theoretical and experimental activities related to physics of superdense matter. In particular, we discuss latest lattice results on the phase transition, recent progress in chiral symmetry physics based on the theory of interacting instantons, new in the theory of QGP and of hot hadronic matter, mean p t and collective flow, the shape of p t distribution, strangeness production, J/ψ suppression and φ enhancement, two puzzles connected with soft pion and soft photon enhancements, and some other ''ultrasoft'' phenomena. 56 refs., 6 figs

  10. Dark-Matter Particles without Weak-Scale Masses or Weak Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Kumar, Jason

    2008-01-01

    We propose that dark matter is composed of particles that naturally have the correct thermal relic density, but have neither weak-scale masses nor weak interactions. These models emerge naturally from gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking, where they elegantly solve the dark-matter problem. The framework accommodates single or multiple component dark matter, dark-matter masses from 10 MeV to 10 TeV, and interaction strengths from gravitational to strong. These candidates enhance many direct and indirect signals relative to weakly interacting massive particles and have qualitatively new implications for dark-matter searches and cosmological implications for colliders

  11. Topological hierarchy matters — topological matters with superlattices of defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jing; Kou Su-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Topological insulators/superconductors are new states of quantum matter with metallic edge/surface states. In this paper, we review the defects effect in these topological states and study new types of topological matters — topological hierarchy matters. We find that both topological defects (quantized vortices) and non topological defects (vacancies) can induce topological mid-gap states in the topological hierarchy matters after considering the superlattice of defects. These topological mid-gap states have nontrivial topological properties, including the nonzero Chern number and the gapless edge states. Effective tight-binding models are obtained to describe the topological mid-gap states in the topological hierarchy matters. (topical review)

  12. Defining Human Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2017-01-01

    -matter definitions are vital legal tools to determine what is currently regulated in established fields of law and whether there is room for a new legal field – Enhancement Law. This paper provides a reflection on the relevance of establishing a legal definition of human enhancement and to what extent different...... legal fields and jurisdictions may warrant different understandings of such concept. It reviews a number of different and often divergent concepts and taxonomies of human enhancement and concludes with the proposal and analysis of a definition: Use of technological means with the intention to improve......Emerging technologies open the prospect of extraordinary interventions on the human body. These may go beyond what is strictly necessary to sustain health and well-being. While responding to social and ethical challenges of such advances, the Law simultaneously faces the challenge of reflecting...

  13. Flipped dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.; Hagelin, J.S.; Kelley, S.; Nanopoulos, D.V.; Olive, K.A.

    1988-08-04

    We study candidates for dark matter in a minimal flipped SU(5) x U(1) supersymmetric GUT. Since the model has no R-parity, spin-1/2 supersymmetric partners of conventional particles mix with other neutral fermions including neutrinos, and can decay into them. The lighest particle which is predominantly a gaugino/higgsino mixture decays with a lifetime tau/sub chi/ approx. = 1-10/sup 9/ s. The model contains a scalar 'flaton' field whose coherent oscillations decay before cosmological nucleosynthesis, and whose pseudoscalar partner contributes negligibly to ..cap omega.. if it is light enough to survive to the present epoch. The fermionic 'flatino' partner of the flaton has a lifetime tau/sub PHI/ approx. = 10/sup 28/-10/sup 34/ yr and is a viable candiate for metastable dark matter with ..cap omega.. < or approx. 1.

  14. Deuterium in organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straaten, C.M. van der.

    1981-01-01

    In order to obtain an insight in the processes governing the macroclimate on earth, a knowledge is required of the behaviour of climates in the past. It is well known that D/H ratio of rain varies with temperature determined by latitude as well as by season. Because land plants use this water during the assimilation process, it is expected that the D/H variations are propagated in the organic plant matter. The D/H palaeoclimatic method has therefore been applied to peat to distinguish between the chemical constituents and trace the stable hydrogen fraction in the organic matter. The relation between the hydrogen isotopic composition of precipitation and climatic factors such as the temperature have also been studied. (Auth.)

  15. A matter of quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Quarks are understood to interact through the 'colour' force, carried by gluons. Under normal conditions these quarks are confined - frozen together in 'colourless' states such as protons, neutrons and other strongly interacting particles. However if the quarks are compressed tightly together and/or are 'heated' by increasing their energy, they should eventually break loose from their colour bonds to form a new kind of matter – the so-called quark-gluon plasma. Although QGP has not yet been synthesized in the Laboratory, it was most likely the stuff of the Universe 10 -5 second after the Big Bang. Thus the search for this 'new' matter is attracting a growing number of physicists, theorists and experimenters from both the particle physics and nuclear physics fields

  16. Hyperons in dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dapo, Haris

    2009-01-28

    The hyperon-nucleon YN low momentum effective interaction (V{sub low} {sub k}) allows for an extensive study of the behavior of hyperons in dense matter, together with an investigation of effects of the presence of hyperons on dense matter. The first step towards this goal is the construction of the matrix elements for the hyperon-nucleon low momentum potential. In order to assess the different properties of hyperons within these potentials we calculate the hyperon single-particle potentials in the Hartree-Fock approximation for all of the interactions. Their dependence on both momentum and density, is studied. The single-particle potentials are then used to determine the chemical potential of hyperons in neutron stars. For nucleonic properties, the nucleon-nucleon V{sub low} {sub k} can be used with the caveat that the calculation of the ground-state energy of symmetric nuclear matter does not correctly reproduce the properties of matter at saturation. With the nucleon-nucleon V{sub low} {sub k} one is unable to reach the densities needed for the calculation of neutron star masses. To circumvent this problem we use two approaches: in the first one, we parametrize the entire nucleonic sector. In the second one, we replace only the three-body force. The former will enable us to study neutron star masses, and the latter for studying the medium's response to the external probe. In this thesis we take the external probe to be the neutrino. By combining this parametrization with the YN V{sub low} {sub k} potential, we calculate the equation of state of equilibrated matter. Performing the calculation in the Hartree-Fock approximation at zero temperature, the concentrations of all particles are calculated. From these we can ascertain at which densities hyperons appear for a wide range of parameters. Finally, we calculate the masses of neutron stars with these concentrations. For the calculation of the medium's response to an external probe, we replace the three

  17. Hyperons in dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dapo, Haris

    2009-01-01

    The hyperon-nucleon YN low momentum effective interaction (V low k ) allows for an extensive study of the behavior of hyperons in dense matter, together with an investigation of effects of the presence of hyperons on dense matter. The first step towards this goal is the construction of the matrix elements for the hyperon-nucleon low momentum potential. In order to assess the different properties of hyperons within these potentials we calculate the hyperon single-particle potentials in the Hartree-Fock approximation for all of the interactions. Their dependence on both momentum and density, is studied. The single-particle potentials are then used to determine the chemical potential of hyperons in neutron stars. For nucleonic properties, the nucleon-nucleon V low k can be used with the caveat that the calculation of the ground-state energy of symmetric nuclear matter does not correctly reproduce the properties of matter at saturation. With the nucleon-nucleon V low k one is unable to reach the densities needed for the calculation of neutron star masses. To circumvent this problem we use two approaches: in the first one, we parametrize the entire nucleonic sector. In the second one, we replace only the three-body force. The former will enable us to study neutron star masses, and the latter for studying the medium's response to the external probe. In this thesis we take the external probe to be the neutrino. By combining this parametrization with the YN V low k potential, we calculate the equation of state of equilibrated matter. Performing the calculation in the Hartree-Fock approximation at zero temperature, the concentrations of all particles are calculated. From these we can ascertain at which densities hyperons appear for a wide range of parameters. Finally, we calculate the masses of neutron stars with these concentrations. For the calculation of the medium's response to an external probe, we replace the three-body force with a density-dependent interaction. This

  18. Compressed Baryonic Matter of Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yanjun; Xu, Renxin

    2013-01-01

    Baryonic matter in the core of a massive and evolved star is compressed significantly to form a supra-nuclear object, and compressed baryonic matter (CBM) is then produced after supernova. The state of cold matter at a few nuclear density is pedagogically reviewed, with significant attention paid to a possible quark-cluster state conjectured from an astrophysical point of view.

  19. Normal matter storage of antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Various simple issues connected with the possible storage of anti p in relative proximity to normal matter are discussed. Although equilibrium storage looks to be impossible, condensed matter systems are sufficiently rich and controllable that nonequilibrium storage is well worth pursuing. Experiments to elucidate the anti p interactions with normal matter are suggested. 32 refs

  20. Hadrons in dense matter. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buballa, M.; Noerenberg, W.; Schaefer, B.J.; Wambach, J.

    2000-03-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Elementary hadronic reactions, Delta dynamics in nuclei, in-medium s-wave ππ-correlations, strangeness in hot and dense matter, medium modifications of vector mesons and dilepton production, medium modifications of charmonium, thermal properties of hot and dense hadronic matter, nuclear matter, spectral functions and QCD sum rules

  1. Dark Matter Searches at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Terashi, Koji; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This talk will present dark matter searches at the LHC in the PIC2017 conference. The main emphasis is placed on the direct dark matter searches while the interpretation of searches for SUSY and invisible Higgs signals for the dark matter is also presented.

  2. Condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Marder, Michael P

    2010-01-01

    This Second Edition presents an updated review of the whole field of condensed matter physics. It consolidates new and classic topics from disparate sources, teaching not only about the effective masses of electrons in semiconductor crystals and band theory, but also about quasicrystals, dynamics of phase separation, why rubber is more floppy than steel, granular materials, quantum dots, Berry phases, the quantum Hall effect, and Luttinger liquids.

  3. Baryonic dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Both canonical primordial nucleosynthesis constraints and large-scale structure measurements, as well as observations of the fundamental cosmological parameters, appear to be consistent with the hypothesis that the universe predominantly consists of baryonic dark matter (BDM). The arguments for BDM to consist of compact objects that are either stellar relics or substellar objects are reviewed. Several techniques for searching for halo BDM are described.

  4. Matter in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Two theories of matter in general relativity, the fluid theory and the kinetic theory, were studied. Results include: (1) a discussion of various methods of completing the fluid equations; (2) a method of constructing charged general relativistic solutions in kinetic theory; and (3) a proof and discussion of the incompatibility of perfect fluid solutions in anisotropic cosmologies. Interpretations of NASA gravitational experiments using the above mentioned results were started. Two papers were prepared for publications based on this work.

  5. Nuclear matter theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negele, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Recent advances in variational and perturbative theories are surveyed which offer genuine promise that nuclear matter will soon become a viable tool for investigating nuclear interactions. The basic elements of the hypernetted chain expansion for Jastrow variational functions are briefly reviewed, and comparisons of variational and perturbative results for a series of increasingly complicated systems are presented. Prospects for investigating realistic forces are assessed and the unresolved, open problems are summarized

  6. Dark Matter remains obscure

    CERN Multimedia

    Fabio Capello

    2011-01-01

    It is one of the hidden secrets that literally surround the Universe. Experiments have shown no result so far because trying to capture particles that do not seem to interact with ordinary matter is no trivial exercise. The OSQAR experiment at CERN is dedicated to the search for axions, one of the candidates for Dark Matter. For its difficult challenge, OSQAR counts on one of the world’s most powerful magnets borrowed from the LHC. In a recent publication, the OSQAR collaboration was able to confirm that no axion signal appears out of the background. In other words: the quest is still on.   The OSQAR experiment installed in the SM18 hall. (Photo by F. Capello) The OSQAR “Light Shining Through a Wall” experiment was officially launched in 2007 with the aim of detecting axions, that is, particles that might be the main components of Dark Matter. OSQAR uses the powerful LHC dipole magnet to intensify the predicted photon-axion conversions in the presence of strong m...

  7. Testing Lorentz invariance of dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Blas, Diego; Sibiryakov, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    We study the possibility to constrain deviations from Lorentz invariance in dark matter (DM) with cosmological observations. Breaking of Lorentz invariance generically introduces new light gravitational degrees of freedom, which we represent through a dynamical timelike vector field. If DM does not obey Lorentz invariance, it couples to this vector field. We find that this coupling affects the inertial mass of small DM halos which no longer satisfy the equivalence principle. For large enough lumps of DM we identify a (chameleon) mechanism that restores the inertial mass to its standard value. As a consequence, the dynamics of gravitational clustering are modified. Two prominent effects are a scale dependent enhancement in the growth of large scale structure and a scale dependent bias between DM and baryon density perturbations. The comparison with the measured linear matter power spectrum in principle allows to bound the departure from Lorentz invariance of DM at the per cent level.

  8. Testing Lorentz invariance of dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blas, Diego [Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Ivanov, Mikhail M.; Sibiryakov, Sergey, E-mail: diego.blas@cern.ch, E-mail: mm.ivanov@physics.msu.ru, E-mail: sibir@inr.ac.ru [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Vorobjevy Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-01

    We study the possibility to constrain deviations from Lorentz invariance in dark matter (DM) with cosmological observations. Breaking of Lorentz invariance generically introduces new light gravitational degrees of freedom, which we represent through a dynamical timelike vector field. If DM does not obey Lorentz invariance, it couples to this vector field. We find that this coupling affects the inertial mass of small DM halos which no longer satisfy the equivalence principle. For large enough lumps of DM we identify a (chameleon) mechanism that restores the inertial mass to its standard value. As a consequence, the dynamics of gravitational clustering are modified. Two prominent effects are a scale dependent enhancement in the growth of large scale structure and a scale dependent bias between DM and baryon density perturbations. The comparison with the measured linear matter power spectrum in principle allows to bound the departure from Lorentz invariance of DM at the per cent level.

  9. Mapping Dark Matter in Simulated Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are the most massive bound objects in the Universe with most of their mass being dark matter. Cosmological simulations of structure formation show that clusters are embedded in a cosmic web of dark matter filaments and large scale structure. It is thought that these filaments are found preferentially close to the long axes of clusters. We extract galaxy clusters from the simulations "cosmo-OWLS" in order to study their properties directly and also to infer their properties from weak gravitational lensing signatures. We investigate various stacking procedures to enhance the signal of the filaments and large scale structure surrounding the clusters to better understand how the filaments of the cosmic web connect with galaxy clusters. This project was supported in part by the NSF REU grant AST-1358980 and by the Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association.

  10. Dark matter in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormendy, J.; Knapp, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    Until recently little more was known than that dark matter appears to exist; there was little systematic information about its properties. Only in the past several years was progress made to the point where dark matter density distributions can be measured. For example, with accurate rotation curves extending over large ranges in radius, decomposing the effects of visible and dark matter to measure dark matter density profiles can be tried. Some regularities in dark matter behaviour have already turned up. This volume includes review and invited papers, poster papers, and the two general discussions. (Auth.)

  11. Dark Matter Detection: Current Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerib, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    Overwhelming observational evidence indicates that most of the matter in the Universe consists of non-baryonic dark matter. One possibility is that the dark matter is Weakly-Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) that were produced in the early Universe. These relics could comprise the Milky Way's dark halo and provide evidence for new particle physics, such as Supersymmetry. This talk focuses on the status of current efforts to detect dark matter by testing the hypothesis that WIMPs exist in the galactic halo. WIMP searches have begun to explore the region of parameter space where SUSY particles could provide dark matter candidates.

  12. Evaluation method for material flow and MSW calorific power object of differentiated collection; Metodo per la valutazione dei flussi di materia e del potere calorifico di RSU oggetto di raccolta differenziata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florio, G. [Rende, Cosenza, Univ. della Calabria (Italy). Dip. di Meccanica; Giordano, R.; Greco, G.

    1998-11-01

    The method developed in the present paper, starting from a knowledge of demographic data, the growth of refuse production and the material composition of solid urban refuse, allows the evaluation of the effects of the aims of differentiated collection, over a period of time, provided for by the norm in force (D.Lgs 22/97). This evaluation is effected both on the quantity of individual materials to be recovered and on the average MSW calorific power to be incinerated. The model was applied to the Region of Calabria and a parametric study was carried out on the average calorific power of the refuse produced by the two different strategies employed to attain the aims provided for by the Ronchi Act (mainly dry and mainly wet differentiated collection). [Italiano] La metodologia sviluppata nel presente lavoro, interamente automatizzata in ambiente Excel, permette, a partire dalla conoscenza di dati demografici, di crescita della produzione di rifiuti e della composizione merceologica del rifiuto solido urbano, di valutare, in un fissato periodo temporale, gli effetti degli obiettivi di raccolta differenziata previsti dalla norma vigente (D.Legs. 22/97) sia sui quantitativi dei singoli materiali da recuperare sia sul potere calorifico medio del RSU da incenerire. Oltre ad una applicazione alla Regione Calabria e` presentato, a titolo esemplificativo, uno studio parametrico sul potere calorifico medio del rifiuto per effetto di due diverse strategie di raggiungimento degli obiettivi previsti dal decreto Ronchi (raccolta differenziata a prevalenza secco e a prevalenza umido).

  13. Dark matter wants Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, S.; Asano, M.; Fujii, K.; Takubo, Y.; Honda, T.; Saito, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Humdi, R.S.; Ito, H.; Kanemura, S; Nabeshima, T.; Okada, N.; Suehara, T.

    2011-01-01

    One of the main purposes of physics at the International Linear Collider (ILC) is to study the property of dark matter such as its mass, spin, quantum numbers, and interactions with particles of the standard model. We discuss how the property can or cannot be investigated at the ILC using two typical cases of dark matter scenario: 1) most of new particles predicted in physics beyond the standard model are heavy and only dark matter is accessible at the ILC, and 2) not only dark matter but also other new particles are accessible at the ILC. We find that, as can be easily imagined, dark matter can be detected without any difficulties in the latter case. In the former case, it is still possible to detect dark matter when the mass of dark matter is less than a half mass of the Higgs boson.

  14. Interactions between dark energy and dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldi, Marco

    2009-03-20

    We have investigated interacting dark energy cosmologies both concerning their impact on the background evolution of the Universe and their effects on cosmological structure growth. For the former aspect, we have developed a cosmological model featuring a matter species consisting of particles with a mass that increases with time. In such model the appearance of a Growing Matter component, which is negligible in early cosmology, dramatically slows down the evolution of the dark energy scalar field at a redshift around six, and triggers the onset of the accelerated expansion of the Universe, therefore addressing the Coincidence Problem. We propose to identify this Growing Matter component with cosmic neutrinos, in which case the present dark energy density can be related to the measured average mass of neutrinos. For the latter aspect, we have implemented the new physical features of interacting dark energy models into the cosmological N-body code GADGET-2, and we present the results of a series of high-resolution simulations for a simple realization of dark energy interaction. As a consequence of the new physics, cold dark matter and baryon distributions evolve differently both in the linear and in the non-linear regime of structure formation. Already on large scales, a linear bias develops between these two components, which is further enhanced by the non-linear evolution. We also find, in contrast with previous work, that the density profiles of cold dark matter halos are less concentrated in coupled dark energy cosmologies compared with {lambda}{sub CDM}. Also, the baryon fraction in halos in the coupled models is significantly reduced below the universal baryon fraction. These features alleviate tensions between observations and the {lambda}{sub CDM} model on small scales. Our methodology is ideally suited to explore the predictions of coupled dark energy models in the fully non-linear regime, which can provide powerful constraints for the viable parameter

  15. Interactions between dark energy and dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, Marco

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated interacting dark energy cosmologies both concerning their impact on the background evolution of the Universe and their effects on cosmological structure growth. For the former aspect, we have developed a cosmological model featuring a matter species consisting of particles with a mass that increases with time. In such model the appearance of a Growing Matter component, which is negligible in early cosmology, dramatically slows down the evolution of the dark energy scalar field at a redshift around six, and triggers the onset of the accelerated expansion of the Universe, therefore addressing the Coincidence Problem. We propose to identify this Growing Matter component with cosmic neutrinos, in which case the present dark energy density can be related to the measured average mass of neutrinos. For the latter aspect, we have implemented the new physical features of interacting dark energy models into the cosmological N-body code GADGET-2, and we present the results of a series of high-resolution simulations for a simple realization of dark energy interaction. As a consequence of the new physics, cold dark matter and baryon distributions evolve differently both in the linear and in the non-linear regime of structure formation. Already on large scales, a linear bias develops between these two components, which is further enhanced by the non-linear evolution. We also find, in contrast with previous work, that the density profiles of cold dark matter halos are less concentrated in coupled dark energy cosmologies compared with Λ CDM . Also, the baryon fraction in halos in the coupled models is significantly reduced below the universal baryon fraction. These features alleviate tensions between observations and the Λ CDM model on small scales. Our methodology is ideally suited to explore the predictions of coupled dark energy models in the fully non-linear regime, which can provide powerful constraints for the viable parameter space of such scenarios

  16. Antiprotons are another matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hynes, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    Theories of gravity abound, whereas experiments in gravity are few in number. An important experiment in gravity that has not been performed is the measurement of the gravitational acceleration of antimatter. Although there have been attempts to infer these properties from those of normal matter, none of these theoretical arguments are compelling. Modern theories of gravity that attempt to unify gravity with the other forces of nature predict that in principle antimatter can fall differently than normal matter in the Earth's field. Some of these supergravity theories predict that antimatter will fall faster, and that normal matter will fall with a small Baryon-number dependance in the earth's field. All of these predictions violate the Weak Equivalence Principle, a cornerstone of General Relativity, but are consistent with CPT conservation. In our approved experiment at LEAR (PS-200) we will test the Weak Equivalence Principle for antimatter by measuring the gravitational acceleration of the antiproton. Through a series of deceleration stages, antiprotons from LEAR will be lowered in energy to ∼4 Kelvin at which energy the gravitational effect will be measureable. The measurement will employ the time-of-flight technique wherein the antiprotons are released vertically in a drift tube. The spectrum of time-of-flight measurements can be used to extract the gravitational acceleration experienced by the particles. The system will be calibrated using H - ions which simulates the electromagnetic behavior of the antiproton, yet is a baryon to ∼0.1%. To extract the gravitational acceleration of the antiproton relative to the H - ion with a statistical precision of 1% will require the release of ∼10 6 to 10 7 particles

  17. Matter and antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schopper, H.

    1989-01-01

    For many years the physicist Herwig Schopper has been contributing in leading positions - either as director of DESY in Hamburg or as general director of CERN in Geneva - to the development of a fascinating field of modern physics. His book is the first comprehensive presentation of experimental particle physics for non-physicists. The search for the smallest constituents of matter, i.e. the exploration of the microcosmos, apart from the advance of the man into space belongs to the most exciting scientific-technical adventures of our century. Contrarily to the stars, atoms, atomic nuclei, and quarks cannot be seen. How objects are studied which are by thousands smaller than the smallest atomic nucleus? Can matter be decomposed in ever smaller constituents, or does there exist a limit? What is matter, and what is of consequence for the mysterious antimatter. Do the laws of the infinitely small also determine the development of the universe since its origin? Such and other questions - expressions of human curiosity - Schopper wants to answer with his generally understandable book. Thereby the 'machines' and the experiments of high-energy physics play a decicive role in the presentation. The author describes the development of the accelerators - in Europe, as well as in the Soviet Union, Japan, or in the USA -, and he shows, why for the investigation of the smallest immense experimental facilities - the 1989 finished LEP storage ring at CERN has a circumference of 27 kilometers - are necessary. Schopper explains how the 'machines' work and how the single experiments run. His book satisfies the curiosity of all those, who want to know more about the world of the quarks. (orig.) With 96 figs [de

  18. Antiprotons are another matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hynes, M.V.

    1988-01-01

    Theories of gravity abound whereas experiments in gravity are few in number. An important experiment in gravity that has not been performed is the measurement of the gravitational acceleration of antimatter. Although there have been attempts to infer this property from those of normal matter, none of these theoretical arguments are compelling. Modern theories of gravity that attempt to unify gravity with the other forces of nature predict that in principle antimatter can fall differently than normal matter in the Earth's field. Some of these supergravity theories predict that antimatter will fall faster and that normal matter will fall with a small Baryon-number dependence in the Earth's field. All of these predictions violate the Weak Equivalence Principle, a cornerstone of General Relativity, but are consistent with CPT conservation. In our approved experiment at LEAR (PS-200) we will test the Weak Equivalence Principle for antimatter by measuring the gravitational acceleration of the antiproton. Through a series of deceleration stages, antiprotons from LEAR will be lowered in energy to ≅ 4 Kelvin at which energy the gravitational effect will be measureable. The measurement will employ the time-of-flight technique wherein the antiprotons are released vertically in a drift tube. The spectrum of time-of-flight measurements can be used to extract the gravitational acceleration experienced by the particles. The system will be calibrated using H - ions which simulate the electromagnetic behavior of the antiproton yet are baryons to ≅ 0.1%. To extract the gravitational acceleration of the antiproton relative to the H - ion with a statistical precision of 1% will require the release of ≅ 10 6 -10 7 particles. (orig.)

  19. Interaction of the radiation with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This third chapter presents the ionization, excitation, activation and radiation breaking; radiation directly and indirectly ionizing; interaction of the electromagnetic radiation with matter; interaction of neutrons with matter; interaction of radiation directly ionizing with matter; interaction of electrons with matter, interaction of alpha particle with matter; interaction of fission fragments with matter; travel time and integrated processes of interaction: energy dissipation

  20. Why international primacy matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington, S.P.

    1993-01-01

    Does international primacy matter? The answer seems so obvious that one first wonders why someone as intelligent, perceptive, and knowledgeable as Robert Jervis raises the question. On further thought, however, one sees that while the answer may be obvious for most people, the reasons why it is obvious may not be all that clear and may have been forgotten or lost in the other concerns of political scientists and economists studying international relations. By posing this question at this time of change in world affairs Jervis has constructively forced us to rethink why primacy is of central importance. This issue involves several subordinate questions