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Sample records for matter dm nutrient

  1. Consequences of DM/antiDM Oscillations for Asymmetric WIMP Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Cirelli, Marco; Servant, Geraldine; Zaharijas, Gabrijela

    2012-01-01

    Assuming the existence of a primordial asymmetry in the dark sector, a scenario usually dubbed Asymmetric Dark Matter (aDM), we study the effect of oscillations between dark matter and its antiparticle on the re-equilibration of the initial asymmetry before freeze-out, which enable efficient annihilations to recouple. We calculate the evolution of the DM relic abundance and show how oscillations re-open the parameter space of aDM models, in particular in the direction of allowing large (WIMP-scale) DM masses. A typical wimp with a mass at the EW scale (\\sim 100 GeV - 1 TeV) presenting a primordial asymmetry of the same order as the baryon asymmetry naturally gets the correct relic abundance if the DM-number-violating Delta(DM) = 2 mass term is in the \\sim meV range. The re-establishment of annihilations implies that constraints from the accumulation of aDM in astrophysical bodies are evaded. On the other hand, the ordinary bounds from BBN, CMB and indirect detection signals on annihilating DM have to be consi...

  2. Asymmetric WIMP Dark Matter in the presence of DM/anti-DM oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharijas, G.

    2014-01-01

    The general class of 'Asymmetric Dark Matter (DM)' scenarios assumes the existence of a primordial particle/anti-particle asymmetry in the dark matter sector related to the asymmetry in the baryonic one, as a way to achieve the observed similarity between the baryonic and dark matter energy densities today. Focusing on this framework we study the effect of oscillations between dark matter and its anti-particle on the re-equilibration of the initial asymmetry. We calculate the evolution of the dark matter relic abundance and show how oscillations re-open the parameter space of asymmetric dark matter models, in particular in the direction of allowing large (WIMP-scale) DM masses. We found in particular that a typical WIMP with a mass at the EW scale (about 1 TeV) having a primordial asymmetry of the same order as the baryon asymmetry, naturally gets the correct relic abundance if the δm mass term is in the ∼ meV range. This turns out to be a natural value for fermionic DM arising from the higher dimensional operator H 2 DM 2 /Λ where H is the Higgs field and Λ ∼ M Pl . Finally, we constrain the parameter space in this framework by applying up-to-date bounds from indirect detection signals on annihilating DM

  3. runDM: Running couplings of Dark Matter to the Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eramo, Francesco; Kavanagh, Bradley J.; Panci, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    runDM calculates the running of the couplings of Dark Matter (DM) to the Standard Model (SM) in simplified models with vector mediators. By specifying the mass of the mediator and the couplings of the mediator to SM fields at high energy, the code can calculate the couplings at low energy, taking into account the mixing of all dimension-6 operators. runDM can also extract the operator coefficients relevant for direct detection, namely low energy couplings to up, down and strange quarks and to protons and neutrons.

  4. PPPC 4 DM secondary: a Poor Particle Physicist Cookbook for secondary radiation from Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buch, Jatan [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CNRS, CEA,F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology,Kharagpur, West Bengal - 721302 (India); Cirelli, Marco; Giesen, Gaëlle; Taoso, Marco [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CNRS, CEA,F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-09-11

    We enlarge the set of recipes and ingredients at disposal of any poor particle physicist eager to cook up signatures from weak-scale Dark Matter models by computing two secondary emissions due to DM particles annihilating or decaying in the galactic halo, namely the radio signals from synchrotron emission and the gamma rays from bremsstrahlung. We consider several magnetic field configurations and propagation scenarios for electrons and positrons. We also provide an improved energy loss function for electrons and positrons in the Galaxy, including synchrotron losses in the different configurations, bremsstrahlung losses, ionization losses and Inverse Compton losses with an updated InterStellar Radiation Field.

  5. PPPC 4 DM secondary: a Poor Particle Physicist Cookbook for secondary radiation from Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buch, Jatan; Cirelli, Marco; Giesen, Gaëlle; Taoso, Marco, E-mail: jbuch.iitkgp@gmail.com, E-mail: marco.cirelli@cea.fr, E-mail: gaelle.giesen@cea.fr, E-mail: marco.taoso@cea.fr [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CNRS, CEA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-09-01

    We enlarge the set of recipes and ingredients at disposal of any poor particle physicist eager to cook up signatures from weak-scale Dark Matter models by computing two secondary emissions due to DM particles annihilating or decaying in the galactic halo, namely the radio signals from synchrotron emission and the gamma rays from bremsstrahlung. We consider several magnetic field configurations and propagation scenarios for electrons and positrons. We also provide an improved energy loss function for electrons and positrons in the Galaxy, including synchrotron losses in the different configurations, bremsstrahlung losses, ionization losses and Inverse Compton losses with an updated InterStellar Radiation Field.

  6. PPPC 4 DM secondary: a Poor Particle Physicist Cookbook for secondary radiation from Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buch, Jatan; Cirelli, Marco; Giesen, Gaëlle; Taoso, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We enlarge the set of recipes and ingredients at disposal of any poor particle physicist eager to cook up signatures from weak-scale Dark Matter models by computing two secondary emissions due to DM particles annihilating or decaying in the galactic halo, namely the radio signals from synchrotron emission and the gamma rays from bremsstrahlung. We consider several magnetic field configurations and propagation scenarios for electrons and positrons. We also provide an improved energy loss function for electrons and positrons in the Galaxy, including synchrotron losses in the different configurations, bremsstrahlung losses, ionization losses and Inverse Compton losses with an updated InterStellar Radiation Field

  7. PPPC 4 DM ID: a poor particle physicist cookbook for dark matter indirect detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirelli, Marco; Panci, Paolo; Strumia, Alessandro [CERN Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneve (Switzerland); Corcella, Gennaro [Museo Storico della Fisica, Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi, P. del Viminale 1, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Raidal, Martti [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Ravala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Hütsi, Gert [Tartu Observatory, Tõravere 61602 (Estonia); Sala, Filippo, E-mail: marco.cirelli@cea.fr [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-03-01

    We provide ingredients and recipes for computing signals of TeV-scale Dark Matter annihilations and decays in the Galaxy and beyond. For each DM channel, we present the energy spectra at production, computed by high-statistics simulations. We estimate the Monte Carlo uncertainty by comparing the results yielded by the Pythia and Herwig event generators. We then provide the propagation functions for charged particles in the Galaxy, for several DM distribution profiles and sets of propagation parameters. Propagation of e{sup ±} is performed with an improved semi-analytic method that takes into account position-dependent energy losses in the Milky Way. Using such propagation functions, we compute the energy spectra of e{sup ±}, p-bar and d-bar at the location of the Earth. We then present the gamma ray fluxes, both from prompt emission and from Inverse Compton scattering in the galactic halo. Finally, we provide the spectra of extragalactic gamma rays. All results are available in numerical form and ready to be consumed.

  8. PPPC 4 DM ID: a poor particle physicist cookbook for dark matter indirect detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirelli, Marco; Panci, Paolo; Strumia, Alessandro; Corcella, Gennaro; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Raidal, Martti; Hütsi, Gert; Sala, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    We provide ingredients and recipes for computing signals of TeV-scale Dark Matter annihilations and decays in the Galaxy and beyond. For each DM channel, we present the energy spectra at production, computed by high-statistics simulations. We estimate the Monte Carlo uncertainty by comparing the results yielded by the Pythia and Herwig event generators. We then provide the propagation functions for charged particles in the Galaxy, for several DM distribution profiles and sets of propagation parameters. Propagation of e ± is performed with an improved semi-analytic method that takes into account position-dependent energy losses in the Milky Way. Using such propagation functions, we compute the energy spectra of e ± , p-bar and d-bar at the location of the Earth. We then present the gamma ray fluxes, both from prompt emission and from Inverse Compton scattering in the galactic halo. Finally, we provide the spectra of extragalactic gamma rays. All results are available in numerical form and ready to be consumed

  9. Atmospheric Transport of Nutrient Matter during a Red Tide Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, R.; Weng, H.; Lin, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) resulting from an explosive increase in algae population have become a global problem in coastal marine environment. During 3rd -8th, May of 2006, large-scale, mixed prorocentrum dentatum stein and skeletonema costatum bloom developed in those water off the coast of Zhejiang province (Zhoushan city and Liuheng Island) of China. Using Global Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (GNAQPMS), we find an atmospheric transport of considerable nutrient matter (nitrate, ammonium, Fe (Ⅱ)) to East China Sea (ECS) before the red tide event. It be inferred that the atmospheric transport of nutrient matter is a significant source of nutrient matter in the water of East China Sea whose hydrological setting is dominated by oligotrophic Taiwan Warm Current in spring. Such atmospheric transport of nutrient matter is likely a cause factor of red tide in the coast of East China Sea, especially during dust event. The study provides new information for discovering the occurring mechanism of the red tides in ECS and the essential parameters for the red tide research.

  10. Compost amendment, enhanced nutrient uptake and dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trial was conducted to assess the influence of Compost and inorganic fertilizer as well as plant growth stage on growth, nutrient uptake, dry matter accumulation and partitioning in maize crop grown on the battery waste contaminated site. Two types of compost (Mexican Sunflower (MSC) and Cassava peels (CPC) ...

  11. First search for a dark matter annual modulation signal with NaI(Tl) in the Southern Hemisphere by DM-Ice17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa de Souza, E.; Cherwinka, J.; Cole, A.; Ezeribe, A. C.; Grant, D.; Halzen, F.; Heeger, K. M.; Hsu, L.; Hubbard, A. J. F.; Jo, J. H.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Lim, K. E.; Macdonald, C.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mouton, F.; Paling, S. M.; Pettus, W.; Pierpoint, Z. P.; Reilly, B. N.; Robinson, M.; Rogers, F. R.; Sandstrom, P.; Scarff, A.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Telfer, S.; Yang, L.

    2017-02-28

    The first search for a dark matter annual modulation signal with NaI(Tl) target material in the Southern Hemisphere conducted with the DM-Ice17 experiment is presented. DM-Ice17 consists of 17 kg of NaI(Tl) scintillating crystal under 2200 m.w.e. overburden of Antarctic glacial ice. The analysis presented here utilizes a 60.8 kg yr exposure. While unable to exclude the signal reported by DAMA/LIBRA, the DM-Ice17 data are consistent with no modulation in the energy range of 4-20 keV, providing the strongest limits on WIMP candidates from a direct detection experiment located in the Southern Hemisphere. Additionally, the successful deployment and stable operation of 17 kg of NaI(Tl) crystal over 3.5 years establishes the South Pole ice as a viable location for future underground, low-background experiments.

  12. The role of aquatic fungi in transformations of organic matter mediated by nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia J. Tant; Amy D. Rosemond; Andrew S. Mehring; Kevin A. Kuehn; John M. Davis

    2015-01-01

    1. We assessed the key role of aquatic fungi in modifying coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) by affecting its breakdown rate, nutrient concentration and conversion to fine particulate organic matter (FPOM). Overall, we hypothesised that fungal-mediated conditioning and breakdown of CPOM would be accelerated when nutrient concentrations are increased and tested...

  13. Dry Matter Production, Nutrient Cycled and Removed, and Soil Fertility Changes in Yam-Based Cropping Systems with Herbaceous Legumes in the Guinea-Sudan Zone of Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphiou Maliki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional yam-based cropping systems (shifting cultivation, slash-and-burn, and short fallow often result in deforestation and soil nutrient depletion. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of yam-based systems with herbaceous legumes on dry matter (DM production (tubers, shoots, nutrients removed and recycled, and the soil fertility changes. We compared smallholders’ traditional systems (1-year fallow of Andropogon gayanus-yam rotation, maize-yam rotation with yam-based systems integrated herbaceous legumes (Aeschynomene histrix/maize intercropping-yam rotation, Mucuna pruriens/maize intercropping-yam rotation. The experiment was conducted during the 2002 and 2004 cropping seasons with 32 farmers, eight in each site. For each of them, a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replicates was carried out using a partial nested model with five factors: Year, Replicate, Farmer, Site, and Treatment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA using the general linear model (GLM procedure was applied to the dry matter (DM production (tubers, shoots, nutrient contribution to the systems, and soil properties at depths 0–10 and 10–20 cm. DM removed and recycled, total N, P, and K recycled or removed, and soil chemical properties (SOM, N, P, K, and pH water were significantly improved on yam-based systems with legumes in comparison with traditional systems.

  14. Stream nutrient enrichment has a greater effect on coarse than on fine benthic organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia J. Tant; Amy D. Rosemond; Matthew R. First

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment affects bacteria and fungi associated with detritus, but little is known about how biota associated with different size fractions of organic matter respond to nutrients. Bacteria dominate on fine (1 mm) fractions, which are used by different groups of detritivores. We measured the effect of experimental...

  15. Relationship between rumen protozoal growth, intake of DM, TDN, N, DOM and VFA production rate in buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.

    1981-01-01

    Relationships between in vivo rumen protozoal growth and intakes of dry matter (DM), nitrogen, digestible organic matter (DOM), total digestible nutrients (TDN) and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production have been studied. Isotope dilution technique and 14 C-labelled rumen protozoa were used in the studies. (author)

  16. The ArDM experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Haranczyk, M; Badertscher, A; Boccone, V; Bourgeois, N; Bueno, A; Carmona-Benitez, M C; Chorowski, M; Creus, W; Curioni, A; Daw, E; Degunda, U; Dell'Antone, A; Droge, M; Epprecht, L; Haller, C; Horikawa, S; Kaufmann, L; Kisiel, J; Knecht, L; Laffranchi, M; Lagoda, J; Lazzaro, C; Lightfoot, P; Lozano, J; Lussi, D; Maire, G; Mania, S; Marchionni, A; Mavrokoridis, K; Melgarejo, A; Mijakowski, P; Natterer, G; Navas-Concha, S; Otiougova, P; Piotrowska, A; Polinski, J; de Prado, M; Przewlocki, P; Ravat, S; Regenfus, C; Resnati, F; Robinson, M; Rochet, J; Romero, L; Rondio, E; Rubbia, A; Scotto-Lavina, L; Spooner, N; Viant, T; Trawinski, A; Ulbricht, J; Zalewska, A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the ArDM project is the development and operation of a one ton double-phase liquid argon detector for direct Dark Matter searches. The detector measures both the scintillation light and the ionization charge from ionizing radiation using two independent readout systems. This paper briefly describes the detector concept and presents preliminary results from the ArDM R&D program, including a 3 l prototype developed to test the charge readout system.

  17. Tidal pumping drives nutrient and dissolved organic matter dynamics in a Gulf of Mexico subterranean estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Isaac R.; Burnett, William C.; Dittmar, Thorsten; Suryaputra, I. G. N. A.; Chanton, Jeffrey

    2009-03-01

    We hypothesize that nutrient cycling in a Gulf of Mexico subterranean estuary (STE) is fueled by oxygen and labile organic matter supplied by tidal pumping of seawater into the coastal aquifer. We estimate nutrient production rates using the standard estuarine model and a non-steady-state box model, separate nutrient fluxes associated with fresh and saline submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), and estimate offshore fluxes from radium isotope distributions. The results indicate a large variability in nutrient concentrations over tidal and seasonal time scales. At high tide, nutrient concentrations in shallow beach groundwater were low as a result of dilution caused by seawater recirculation. During ebb tide, the concentrations increased until they reached a maximum just before the next high tide. The dominant form of nitrogen was dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in freshwater, nitrate in brackish waters, and ammonium in saline waters. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) production was two-fold higher in the summer than in the winter, while nitrate and DON production were one order of magnitude higher. Oxic remineralization and denitrification most likely explain these patterns. Even though fresh SGD accounted for only ˜5% of total volumetric additions, it was an important pathway of nutrients as a result of biogeochemical inputs in the mixing zone. Fresh SGD transported ˜25% of DOC and ˜50% of total dissolved nitrogen inputs into the coastal ocean, with the remainder associated with a one-dimensional vertical seawater exchange process. While SGD volumetric inputs are similar seasonally, changes in the biogeochemical conditions of this coastal plain STE led to higher summertime SGD nutrient fluxes (40% higher for DOC and 60% higher for nitrogen in the summer compared to the winter). We suggest that coastal primary production and nutrient dynamics in the STE are linked.

  18. Nutrient variations and isotopic evidences of particulate organic matter provenance in fringing reefs, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Di; Cao, Wenzhi; Liang, Ying; Huang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient over-enrichment is considered to be one of the causes of coral decline. Increase in traditional fishing in the Xuwen National Coral Reefs Reserve tract (XW) and tourism around the Sanya National Coral Reefs Reserve tract (SY) are causing this coral decline. This study reviews the current state of knowledge of the nutrient status of coastal fringing reefs in South China and evaluates the primary sources of nutrients using stable isotope method. Surveys of seawater nutrients showed that the seawater remained clean in both the XW and SY coastal coral reef areas. Based on the isotopic differences between anthropogenic sewage and naturally occurring aquatic nutrients, the isotopic values of particulate organic matter (POM) and the C/N ratios were successfully used to identify the presence of anthropogenic nutrients in aquatic environments. The δ"1"3C, δ"1"5N and C/N compositions of POM from XW and SY (− 21.18 ± 2.11‰, 10.30 ± 5.54‰, and 5.35 ± 0.69 and − 20.80 ± 1.34‰, 7.06 ± 3.95‰, and 5.77 ± 2.15, respectively) showed statistically significant variations with the season. The δ"1"3C and δ"1"5N values of POM suggest marine and terrestrial-derived nutrient sources. Organic carbon is a mixture of marine phytoplankton, marine benthic algae and terrestrial-derived plants. The δ"1"5N values suggest terrestrial-derived sewage and upwelling-dominated nitrogen sources. In the presence of natural upwelling and coastal currents, coastal coral reef areas are more vulnerable to the increasing anthropogenic nutrient inputs. Anthropogenic activities might lead to large increases in the nutrient concentrations and could trigger the shift from coral- to macroalgae-dominated ecosystems, which would ultimately result in the degradation of the coastal coral reef ecosystem. These results provide some understanding of the declining coral reef ecosystem and the importance of conservation areas and coastal coral reef resource management. - Highlights: • The

  19. Nutrient variations and isotopic evidences of particulate organic matter provenance in fringing reefs, South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Di; Cao, Wenzhi, E-mail: wzcao@xmu.edu.cn; Liang, Ying; Huang, Zheng

    2016-10-01

    Nutrient over-enrichment is considered to be one of the causes of coral decline. Increase in traditional fishing in the Xuwen National Coral Reefs Reserve tract (XW) and tourism around the Sanya National Coral Reefs Reserve tract (SY) are causing this coral decline. This study reviews the current state of knowledge of the nutrient status of coastal fringing reefs in South China and evaluates the primary sources of nutrients using stable isotope method. Surveys of seawater nutrients showed that the seawater remained clean in both the XW and SY coastal coral reef areas. Based on the isotopic differences between anthropogenic sewage and naturally occurring aquatic nutrients, the isotopic values of particulate organic matter (POM) and the C/N ratios were successfully used to identify the presence of anthropogenic nutrients in aquatic environments. The δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 15}N and C/N compositions of POM from XW and SY (− 21.18 ± 2.11‰, 10.30 ± 5.54‰, and 5.35 ± 0.69 and − 20.80 ± 1.34‰, 7.06 ± 3.95‰, and 5.77 ± 2.15, respectively) showed statistically significant variations with the season. The δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of POM suggest marine and terrestrial-derived nutrient sources. Organic carbon is a mixture of marine phytoplankton, marine benthic algae and terrestrial-derived plants. The δ{sup 15}N values suggest terrestrial-derived sewage and upwelling-dominated nitrogen sources. In the presence of natural upwelling and coastal currents, coastal coral reef areas are more vulnerable to the increasing anthropogenic nutrient inputs. Anthropogenic activities might lead to large increases in the nutrient concentrations and could trigger the shift from coral- to macroalgae-dominated ecosystems, which would ultimately result in the degradation of the coastal coral reef ecosystem. These results provide some understanding of the declining coral reef ecosystem and the importance of conservation areas and coastal coral reef resource management

  20. Consequences of DM/antiDM oscillations for asymmetric WIMP darkmatter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirelli, M.; Panci, P.; Servant, G.

    2012-01-01

    Assuming the existence of a primordial asymmetry in the dark sector, a scenario usually dubbed Asymmetric Dark Matter (aDM), we study the effect of oscillations between dark matter and its antiparticle on the re-equilibration of the initial asymmetry before freeze-out, which enable efficient...... a primordial asymmetry of the same order as the baryon asymmetry naturally gets the correct relic abundance if the DM-number-violating Delta(DM) = 2 mass term is in the similar to meV range. The re-establishment of annihilations implies that constraints from the accumulation of aDM in astrophysical bodies...

  1. Nutrient and organic matter inputs to Hawaiian anchialine ponds: influences of n-fixing and non-n-fixing trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehauwealani K. Nelson-Kaula; Rebecca Ostertag; R. Flint Hughes; Bruce D. Dudley

    2016-01-01

    Invasive nitrogen-fixing plants often increase energy and nutrient inputs to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems via litterfall, and these effects may be more pronounced in areas lacking native N2-fixers. We examined organic matter and nutrient inputs to and around anchialine ponds...

  2. MOTOR 2.0: module for transformation of organic matter and nutrients in soil; user guide and technical documentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assinck, F.B.T.; Rappoldt, C.

    2004-01-01

    MOTOR is a MOdule describing the Transformation of Organic matteR and nutrients in soil. It calculates the transformations between pools of organic matter and mineral nitrogen in soil. Pools are characterized by a carbon and nitrogen content and can be labelled. MOTOR is a flexible tool because the

  3. Vertical flow constructed wetlands: kinetics of nutrient and organic matter removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, M M; Hernández, J M; Bossens, J; Jiménez, T; Rosa, E; Tack, F

    2014-01-01

    The kinetics of organic matter and nutrient removal in a pilot vertical subsurface wetland with red ferralitic soil as substrate were evaluated. The wetland (20 m(2)) was planted with Cyperus alternifolius. The domestic wastewater that was treated in the wetland had undergone a primary treatment consisting of a septic moat and a buffer tank. From the sixth week of operation, the performance of the wetland stabilized, and a significant reduction in pollutant concentration of the effluent wastewater was obtained. Also a significant increase of dissolved oxygen (5 mg/l) was obtained. The organic matter removal efficiency was greater than 85% and the nutrient removal efficiency was greater than 75% in the vertical subsurface wetland. Nitrogen and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) removal could be described by a first-order model. The kinetic constants were 3.64 and 3.27 d(-1) for BOD and for total nitrogen, respectively. Data on the removal of phosphorus were adapted to a second-order model. The kinetic constant was 0.96 (mg/l)(-1) d(-1). The results demonstrated the potential of vertical flow constructed wetlands to clean treated domestic wastewater before discharge into the environment.

  4. Coupled DM Heating in SCDEW Cosmologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Bonometto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly-Coupled Dark Energy plus Warm dark matter (SCDEW cosmologies admit the stationary presence of ∼1% of coupled-DM and DE, since inflationary reheating. Coupled-DM fluctuations therefore grow up to non-linearity even in the early radiative expansion. Such early non-linear stages are modelized here through the evolution of a top-hat density enhancement, reaching an early virial balance when the coupled-DM density contrast is just 25–26, and the DM density enhancement is ∼10 % of the total density. During the time needed to settle in virial equilibrium, the virial balance conditions, however, continue to modify, so that “virialized” lumps undergo a complete evaporation. Here, we outline that DM particles processed by overdensities preserve a fraction of their virial momentum. Although fully non-relativistic, the resulting velocities (moderately affect the fluctuation dynamics over greater scales, entering the horizon later on.

  5. Soil Chemical Properties and Nutrient Uptake of Cocoa as Affected by Application of Different Organic Matters and Phosphate Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiyanto Sugiyanto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Effort repair of land quality better be done by simultan namely with application of organic matters and inorganic fertilization. The objective of this research is to study the effect of varied organic matters source and phosphate fertilizers on the chemicals soil characteristic and cocoa nutrient uptake. The experiment was laid experimentally in split-plot design and environmentally in randomized complete block design. The main plot was source of P consisted of, control, SP 36 and rock phosphate in dosage of 200 mg P2O5 per kg of air dry soil. Source of organic matter as sub-plot consisted of control (no organic matter, cow dung, cocoa pod husk compost and sugar cane filter cake, each in dosage of 2.5 and 5.0%. Result of this experiment showed application of cow dung, cocoa pod husk compost and sugar cane filter cake increased content of C, N, Ca exchangeable, Fe available, and pH in soil, and SP 36 increased availability of P in soil. Application of sugar cane filter cake increased N, K, Ca, Mg, and SO4 uptake but did not increase Cl uptake, application of cow dung in dosage 5% increased N, K, and Cl uptake and cocoa pod husk compost dosage 5% increased N and K uptake of cocoa. SP 36 increased Mg uptake of cocoa but rock phosphate did not increase it. They were not interaction between organic matters and phosphate fertilizers to nutrient uptake of cocoa. Nutrient soil content as affected by organic matters correlated with nutrient uptake of cocoa.Key words : soil chemical properties, nutrient uptake, cocoa, organic matter, phosphate fertlizers.

  6. Effects of nitrogen enrichment on soil organic matter in tropical forests with different ambient nutrient status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, E.; Cusack, D. F.; McDowell, W. H.; Marin-Spiotta, E.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) enrichment is a widespread and increasingly important human influence on ecosystems globally, with implications for net primary production and biogeochemical processes. Previous research has shown that N enrichment can alter soil carbon (C) cycling, although the direction and magnitude of the changes are not consistent across studies, and may change with time. Inconsistent responses to N additions may be due to differences in ambient nutrient status, and/or variable responses of plant C inputs and microbial decomposition. Although plant production in the tropics is not often limited by N, soil processes may respond differently to N enrichment. Our study uses a 15-year N addition experiment at two different tropical forest sites in the Luquillo Long-Term Ecological Research project site in Puerto Rico to address long-term changes in soil C pools due to fertilization. The two forests differ in elevation and ambient nutrient status. Soil sampling three and five years post-fertilization showed increased soil C concentrations under fertilization, driven by increases in mineral-associated C (Cusack et al. 2011). However, the longer-term trends at these sites are unknown. To this end, soil samples were collected following fifteen years of fertilization. Soils were sampled from 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm. Bulk soil C and N concentrations will be measured and compared to samples collected before fertilization (2002) and three years post fertilization (2005). We are using density fractionation to isolate different soil organic matter pools into a free light, occluded light, and dense, mineral associated fraction. These pools represent different mechanisms of soil organic matter stabilization, and provide more detailed insight into changes in bulk soil C. These data will provide insight into the effects of N enrichment on tropical forest soils, and how those effects may change through time with a unique long-term data set.

  7. Exogenous nutrients and carbon resource change the responses of soil organic matter decomposition and nitrogen immobilization to nitrogen deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Wan, Song-Ze; Fang, Xiang-Min; Wang, Fang-Chao; Chen, Fu-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether exogenous nutrients and carbon (C) additions alter substrate immobilization to deposited nitrogen (N) during decomposition. In this study, we used laboratory microcosm experiments and 15N isotope tracer techniques with five different treatments including N addition, N+non-N nutrients addition, N+C addition, N+non-N nutrients+C addition and control, to investigate the coupling effects of non-N nutrients, C addition and N deposition on forest floor decomposition in subtropical China. The results indicated that N deposition inhibited soil organic matter and litter decomposition by 66% and 38%, respectively. Soil immobilized 15N following N addition was lowest among treatments. Litter 15N immobilized following N addition was significantly higher and lower than that of combined treatments during the early and late decomposition stage, respectively. Both soil and litter extractable mineral N were lower in combined treatments than in N addition treatment. Since soil N immobilization and litter N release were respectively enhanced and inhibited with elevated non-N nutrient and C resources, it can be speculated that the N leaching due to N deposition decreases with increasing nutrient and C resources. This study should advance our understanding of how forests responds the elevated N deposition. PMID:27020048

  8. Effect of integrated forage rotation and manure management on yield, nutrient balance and soil organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Tomasoni

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports results from a field experiment established in 1995 and still on going. It is located in Lodi, in the irrigated lowlands of Lombardy, Northern Italy. The experiment compares two rotations: the annual double cropping system, Italian ryegrass + silage maize (R1; and the 6-year rotation, in which three years of double crop Italian ryegrass + silage maize are followed by three years of alfalfa harvested for hay (R6 Each rotation have received two types of dairy manure: i farmyard manure (FYM; ii semi-liquid manure (SLM. The intent was to apply to each unit land area the excreta produced by the number of adult dairy cows sustained, in terms of net energy, by the forage produced in each rotation, corresponding to about 6 adult cows ha-1 for R1 and 4 adult cows ha-1 for R6. Manure was applied with (N1 or without (N0 an extra supply of mineral N in the form of urea. The objectives of this study were: i to assess whether the recycling of two types of manure in two forage rotation systems can sustain crop yields in the medium and long term without additional N fertilization; ii to evaluate the nutrient balance of these integrated forage rotations and manure management systems; iii to compare the effects of farmyard manure and semi-liquid manure on soil organic matter. The application of FYM, compared to SLM, increased yield of silage maize by 19% and alfalfa by 23%, while Italian ryegrass was not influenced by the manure treatment. Yet, silage maize produced 6% more in rotation R6 compared to rotation R1. The mineral nitrogen fertilization increased yield of Italian ryegrass by 11% and of silage maize by 10%. Alfalfa, not directly fertilized with mineral nitrogen, was not influenced by the nitrogen applied to the other crops in rotation. The application of FYM, compared to SLM, increased soil organic matter (SOM by +37 % for the rotation R1, and by +20% for the rotation R6. Conversely, no significant difference on SOM was observed

  9. Simultaneous attenuation of pharmaceuticals, organic matter, and nutrients in wastewater effluent through managed aquifer recharge: Batch and column studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Huncheol; Yeo, Inseol; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Park, Chul Hwi; Choi, Heechul

    2016-01-01

    Batch and column experiments were conducted to evaluate the removal of organic matter, nutrients, and pharmaceuticals and to identify the removal mechanisms of the target contaminants. The sands used in the experiments were obtained from the Youngsan River located in South Korea. Neutral and cationic pharmaceuticals (iopromide, estrone, and trimethoprim) were removed with efficiencies greater than 80% from different sand media during experiments, due to the effect of sorption between sand and pharmaceuticals. However, the anionic pharmaceuticals (sulfamethoxazole, ketoprofen, ibuprofen, and diclofenac) were more effectively removed by natural sand, compared to baked sand. These observations were mainly attributed to biodegradation under natural conditions of surface organic matter and ATP concentrations. The removal of organic matter and nitrogen was also found to increase under biotic conditions. Therefore, it is indicated that biodegradation plays an important role and act as major mechanisms for the removal of organic matter, nutrients, and selected pharmaceuticals during sand passage and the managed aquifer recharge, which is an effective treatment method for removing target contaminants. However, the low removal efficiencies of pharmaceuticals (e.g., carbamazepine and sulfamethoxazole) require additional processes (e.g., AOPs, NF and RO membrane), a long residence time, and long travel distance for increasing the removal efficiencies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Phytoplankton variation and its relation to nutrients and allochthonous organic matter in a coastal lagoon on the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aké-Castillo, José A.; Vázquez, Gabriela

    2008-07-01

    In tropical and subtropical zones, coastal lagoons are surrounded by mangrove communities which are a source of high quantity organic matter that enters the aquatic system through litter fall. This organic matter decomposes, becoming a source of nutrients and other substances such as tannins, fulvic acids and humic acids that may affect the composition and productivity of phytoplankton communities. Sontecomapan is a coastal lagoon located in the southern Gulf of Mexico, which receives abundant litter fall from mangrove. To study the phytoplankton composition and its variation in this lagoon from October 2002 to October 2003, we evaluated the concentrations of dissolved folin phenol active substances (FPAS) as a measure of plant organic matter, salinity, temperature, pH, O 2, N-NH 4+, N-NO 3-, P-PO 43-, Si-SiO 2, and phytoplanktonic cell density in different mangrove influence zones including the three main rivers that feed the lagoon. Nutrients concentrations depended on freshwater from rivers, however these varied seasonally. Concentrations of P-PO 43-, N-NH 4+ and FPAS were the highest in the dry season, when maximum mangrove litter fall is reported. Variation of these nutrients seemed to depend on the internal biogeochemical processes of the lagoon. Blooms of diatoms ( Skeletonema spp., Cyclotella spp. and Chaetoceros holsaticus) and dinoflagellates ( Peridinium aff. quinquecorne, Prorocentrum cordatum) occurred seasonally and in the different mangrove influence zones. The high cell densities in these zones and the occurrence of certain species and its ordination along gradient of FPAS in a canonical correspondence analysis, suggest that plant organic matter (i.e. mangrove influence) may contribute to phytoplankton dynamics in Sontecomapan lagoon.

  11. Nutrient Intake and Digestibility in Merino Sheep Fed Peanut Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanim, C.; Muhlisin

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to compare nutrient intake and digestibility between male and female Merino fed peanut straw as sole feed. Four male and five female Merino sheep ages 10 to 12 month with average weight of 40 kg were used in this study. All animals were confined in individual metabolism cages and nylon nets were fitted bellow the cages for faecal collection. This experiment was done with 14 d adaptation period and 7 d collection period. Representative sample of feed, refusal feed, and faeces were analysed proximate including dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ether extract (EE), and extract-free nitrogen (EFN). Data collected were used to calculate nutrient intake and digestibility. All nutrient intake in male Merino was higher (Pdigestibility of DM, CP, and CF in male Merino sheep were higher (Pdigestibility.

  12. Distribution of organic matter and plant nutrients in a sal (shorea robusta) coppice plantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaul, O.N.; Sharma, D.C.; Srivastava, P.B.L.

    The biomass and nutrient content (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) of leaves, twigs, branches, stems and bark were determined for sample trees in a stand in the New Forest, Dehra Dun, coppiced 21 years previously. It was estimated that the removal of stems, branches and bark by harvesting at this age would remove 82-91% of the total nutrients (kg/ha) in the stand.

  13. Tenor of macro nutrients and dry matter productivity of covering crops in function of the potassium doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Ferreira da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the adoption of the system of direct sowing it is necessary the formation of a straw layer in the surface of the soils. In this sense, some species of grass can be used for that goal, besides; those plants can act in the recycling for the accumulation of nutrients in the aerial part, and its readiness for the subsequent culture. The potassium is one of the most accumulated nutrients for many of those plants. The objective of this work was to quantify the macronutrients tenor and the productivity of dry matter of Penisetum glaucum L. and Panicum miliaceum L. under different potassium doses. A blocks at random design, with the treatments disposed in factorial 3x2, was used, being the factors: covering cultures (P.glaucum and P. miliaceum and potassium doses (0; 50 and 100 kg ha-1 of K2 O, with four repetitions. The matter dries was evaluated and the tenors of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S in them, at 50 days after sowing covering cultures. P.glaucum produced larger dry matter content and tenor of N, K and Mg in the aerial part, independently of the K dose applied, while the tenor of P decreased with the application of high dose of K in the soil. The application of K influenced on the tenors of Ca and S in the two covering cultures, nevertheless P.glaucum accumulated higher tenor of those macronutrients in the absence of application of K.

  14. The potential for disinfection of separated faecal matter by urea and by peracetic acid for hygienic nutrient recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnerås, B; Holmqvist, A; Bagge, E; Albihn, A; Jönsson, H

    2003-09-01

    No efficient, reliable, and scale independent disinfection methods for toilet waste are available today for safe recycling of plant nutrients. Therefore, two chemical treatment methods, addition of urea or of PAA (a quaternary mixture of 15% peracetic acid, 15% hydrogen peroxide and 30% acetic acid), were evaluated for disinfection of faecal matter.Degradation of the added urea resulted in 30 g of ammonia nitrogen per kilogram of treated matter and a pH increase to approximately 9.3. This produced an efficient disinfection of E. coli, Enterococcus spp., and Salmonella spp. within 3 weeks (>6log(10) reduction) and a reduction of the chemical resistant Salmonella typhimurium 28b phage, corresponding to a decimal reduction within 7.5 days. No viable Ascaris suum eggs were found after 50 days of treatment. No reduction of spore forming Clostridia spp. was observed. Urea treatment proved to be efficient for disinfection of source separated faecal matter in a scale independent method used for safe recycling of nutrients found in the faecal matter.PAA reduced all of the above indicator organisms within 12 h after application. For this faecal material, with a dry matter content of approximately 10%, an addition of 0.5-1% of PAA (active substance, corresponding to 3.3-6.7% of the Proxitane 15 used) was required before no viable organisms were found in the material. However, this was not tested for the A. suum. No viable spore-forming bacteria or phages were detected. A high rate of bacteria regrowth occurred at 0.15% dosage and 5 days of treatment. PAA is an efficient alternative for disinfection of separated faeces if a rapid treatment is needed.

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mycorrhizal stimulant affect dry matter and nutrient accumulation in bean and soybean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Henrique Moreira Salgado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of biological resources in agriculture may allow less dependence and better use of finite resources. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi native to the Brazilian Savannah associated with the application of mycorrhizal stimulant (7-hydroxy, 4'-methoxy-isoflavone, in the early growth of common bean and soybean. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in a completely randomized design, with a 7 x 2 factorial arrangement, consisting of five arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi species, joint inoculation (junction of all species in equal proportions and native fungi (without inoculation, in the presence and absence of stimulant. The following traits were evaluated: shoot dry matter, root dry matter, mycorrhizal colonization, nodules dry matter and accumulation of calcium, zinc and phosphorus in the shoot dry matter. The increase provided by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the use of stimulant reached over 200 % in bean and over 80 % in soybean plants. The fungi Acaulospora scrobiculata, Dentiscutata heterogama, Gigaspora margarita and Rhizophagus clarus, for bean, and Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Dentiscutata heterogama, Rhizophagus clarus and the joint inoculation, for soybean, increased the dry matter and nutrients accumulation.

  16. Towards an ecologically sustainable energy production based on forest biomass - Forest fertilisation with nutrient rich organic waste matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roegaard, Pia-Maria; Aakerback, Nina; Sahlen, Kenneth; Sundell, Markus [Swedish Polytechnic, Vasa (Finland)

    2006-07-15

    The project is a collaboration between Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Forest Sciences in Umeaa, Swedish Polytechnic, Finland in Vaasa and the Finnish Forest Research Institute in Kannus. Today there are pronounced goals within the EU that lead towards an ecologically sustainable community and there is also a global goal to decrease net carbon dioxide emissions. These goals involve among other things efforts to increase the use of renewable biofuel as energy source. This will result in an enlarged demand for biomass for energy production. Therefore, the forest resources in the Nordic countries will be required for energy production to a far greater extent in the future. One way to meet this increased tree biomass demand is to increase forest tree growth through supply of nutrients, of which nitrogen is the most important. Organic nutrient rich waste matter from the society, such as sewage sludge and mink and fox manure compost from fur farms might be used as forest fertilizer. This would result in increased supply of renewable tree biomass, decreased net carbon dioxide emissions, increased forest ecosystem carbon sequestration, decreased methane emissions from sewage sludge landfill and decreased society costs for sludge landfill or incineration. Therefore, the purpose of this project is to develop methods for forest fertilisation with nutrient rich organic waste matter from municipal wastewater, sludge and manure from mink and fox farms. The project may be divided into three main parts. The first part is the chemical composition of the fertiliser with the objective to increase the nitrogen content in sludge-based fertilisers and in compost of mink and fox manure. The second part involves the technique and logistics for forest fertilisation i.e., to develop application equipment that may be integrated in existing forest technical systems. The third part consists of field fertilisation investigations and an environmental impact assessment

  17. Soil Fertility Status, Nutrient Uptake, and Maize (Zea mays L.) Yield Following Organic Matters and P Fertilizer Application on Andisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minardi, S.; Harieni, S.; Anasrullah, A.; Purwanto, H.

    2017-04-01

    Objective of this study were to elucidate effects of organic matters and P fertilizer application on soil fertility status, nutrient uptake and maize yield in the Andisol. This experiment consisted of two factors. The first factor comprised of four levels of organic matters input (without organic matter, manure, rice straw, and Gliricidia sepium leaves), with the application dosage 10 t.ha-1 and the second factor comprised of three levels of P fertilizer application (without P addition (control), 50 kg P2O5 ha-1, 100 kg P2O5 ha-1). Results of this study showed that organic matters and P fertilizer application improved soil fertility status, especially pH, soil organic C, cation exchange capacity (CEC), available P which resulted in an increase in P uptake that improve yield of maize. The highest yield of maize (corn cob) was obtained through application Gliricida sepium (8.40 t.ha-1), followed by manure (6.02 t.ha-1) and rice straw (5.87 t.ha-1). Application of 50 kg P2O5 Ha-1 yield was (5.76 t.ha-1) and application of 100 Kg P2O5 Ha-1 yield was (6.12 t.ha-1).

  18. Effect of Foliar Application of Micro Nutrients on Physiological Growth Indices and Total Dry Matter Yield of Forage Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Soleymani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of foliar application of micro nutrients on physiological growth indices and total dry matter yield of forage corn. Field experiment was conducted in 2006 at Bersian village Isfahan. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Plant treated with 8 foliar application treatments (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe + Mn, Cu + Zn, Fe + Mn + Cu + Zn and control. The responses to foliar application in total dry weight, LAI and CGR appeared to differ between the treatments, but there is no significant difference in NAR between the treatments. Maximum leaf area index gained in foliar application of Fe but there is significant difference between this treatment and other treatments except foliar application of Zn and Fe + Mn. Foliar application of Fe and Fe + Mn result to maximum total dry weight, but there is no significant difference between these treatments and foliar application of Zn, Mn, Mn + Cu and Fe + Zn + Cu +Mn. Maximum and minimum NAR gained in foliar application of Mn and control treatments respectively. Maximum CGR gained in foliar application of Zn, there is significant difference between this treatment and others. Control treatment in comparison with others shows minimum value in all measured factors. The results indicate that foliar application of micro nutrients particularly Fe and Fe+Mn may be suitable to product maximum total dry matter yield under similar condition.

  19. Effect of land use on the spatial variability of organic matter and nutrient status in an Oxisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Alves, Marlene Cristina; Vidal Vázquez, Eva

    2013-04-01

    Heterogeneity is now considered as an inherent soil property. Spatial variability of soil attributes in natural landscapes results mainly from soil formation factors. In cultivated soils much heterogeneity can additionally occur as a result of land use, agricultural systems and management practices. Organic matter content (OMC) and nutrients associated to soil exchange complex are key attribute in the maintenance of a high quality soil. Neglecting spatial heterogeneity in soil OMC and nutrient status at the field scale might result in reduced yield and in environmental damage. We analyzed the impact of land use on the pattern of spatial variability of OMC and soil macronutrients at the stand scale. The study was conducted in São Paulo state, Brazil. Land uses were pasture, mango orchard and corn field. Soil samples were taken at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth in 84 points, within 100 m x 100 m plots. Texture, pH, OMC, cation exchange capacity (CEC), exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, K, H, Al) and resin extractable phosphorus were analyzed.. Statistical variability was found to be higher in parameters defining the soil nutrient status (resin extractable P, K, Ca and Mg) than in general soil properties (OMC, CEC, base saturation and pH). Geostatistical analysis showed contrasting patterns of spatial dependence for the different soil uses, sampling depths and studied properties. Most of the studied data sets collected at two different depths exhibited spatial dependence at the sampled scale and their semivariograms were modeled by a nugget effect plus a structure. The pattern of soil spatial variability was found to be different between the three study soil uses and at the two sampling depths, as far as model type, nugget effect or ranges of spatial dependence were concerned. Both statistical and geostatistical results pointed out the importance of OMC as a driver responsible for the spatial variability of soil nutrient status.

  20. The role of Juncus effusus litter quality and nutrient availability on organic matter decomposition in restored cutover bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agethen, Svenja; Knorr, Klaus-Holger

    2017-04-01

    More than 90% of peatlands in Europe are degraded by drainage and subsequent land use. However, beneficial effects of functioning peatlands, most of all carbon storage, have long been recognized but remain difficult to recover. Fragmentation and a surrounding of intensively used agricultural catchments with excess nutrients in air and waters further affects the recovery of sites. Under such conditions, highly competitive species such as Juncus effusus colonize restored peatlands instead of peat forming Sphagnum. While the specific stoichiometry and chemical composition makes Sphagnum litter recalcitrant in decomposition and hence, effective in carbon sequestration, we know little about dynamics involving Juncus, although this species provides organic matter in high quantity and of rather labile quality. To better understand decomposition in context of litter quality and nutrient availability, we incubated different peat types for 70 days; I) recent, II) weakly degraded fossil, and III) earthyfied nutrient rich fossil peat, amended with two 13C pulse-labelled Juncus litter types (excessively fertilized "F", and nutrient poor "NF" plants grown for three years watered with MilliQ only), respectively. We determined anaerobic decomposition rates, compared potential rates extrapolated from pure materials with measured rates of the mixtures, and tracked the 13C in the solid, liquid, and gaseous phase. To characterize the biogeochemical conditions, inorganic and organic electron acceptors, hydrogen and organic acids, and total enzyme activity were monitored. For characterization of dissolved organic matter we used UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy (parallel factor analysis), and for solid organic matter elemental analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. There were two main structural differences between litter types: "F" litter and its leachates contained more proteinaceous components, the C/N ratio was 20 in contrast to 60 of the "NF" litter. However, humic components and

  1. Production, partitioning and stoichiometry of organic matter under variable nutrient supply during mesocosm experiments in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. S. Franz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen-deficient waters in the ocean, generally referred to as oxygen minimum zones (OMZ, are expected to expand as a consequence of global climate change. Poor oxygenation is promoting microbial loss of inorganic nitrogen (N and increasing release of sediment-bound phosphate (P into the water column. These intermediate water masses, nutrient-loaded but with an N deficit relative to the canonical N:P Redfield ratio of 16:1, are transported via coastal upwelling into the euphotic zone. To test the impact of nutrient supply and nutrient stoichiometry on production, partitioning and elemental composition of dissolved (DOC, DON, DOP and particulate (POC, PON, POP organic matter, three nutrient enrichment experiments were conducted with natural microbial communities in shipboard mesocosms, during research cruises in the tropical waters of the southeast Pacific and the northeast Atlantic. Maximum accumulation of POC and PON was observed under high N supply conditions, indicating that primary production was controlled by N availability. The stoichiometry of microbial biomass was unaffected by nutrient N:P supply during exponential growth under nutrient saturation, while it was highly variable under conditions of nutrient limitation and closely correlated to the N:P supply ratio, although PON:POP of accumulated biomass generally exceeded the supply ratio. Microbial N:P composition was constrained by a general lower limit of 5:1. Channelling of assimilated P into DOP appears to be the mechanism responsible for the consistent offset of cellular stoichiometry relative to inorganic nutrient supply and nutrient drawdown, as DOP build-up was observed to intensify under decreasing N:P supply. Low nutrient N:P conditions in coastal upwelling areas overlying O2-deficient waters seem to represent a net source for DOP, which may stimulate growth of diazotrophic phytoplankton. These results demonstrate that microbial nutrient assimilation and

  2. Potential for Increasing Soil Nutrient Availability via Soil Organic Matter Improvement Using Pseudo Panel Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavez Clemente, M.D.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Oenema, O.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Fixed and random effect models were applied to a pseudo-panel data built of soil analysis reports from tobacco farms to analyze relationships between soil characteristics like soil organic matter (SOM) and soil nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) and to explore the potential for

  3. One year monitoring of fire-induced effects on dissolved organic matter and nutrient dynamics under different land-use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthast, Karin; Meyer, Stefanie; Crecelius, Anna; Schubert, Ulrich; Michalzik, Beate

    2016-04-01

    It is supposed that the changing climate will promote extreme weather events that in turn will increase drought periods and the abundance of fire events in temperate climate regions such as Central Europe. The impact of fires on the nutrient budgets of ecosystems is highly diverse and seems to depend on the ecosystem type. For example, little is known about fire effects on water-bound organic matter (OM) and nutrient fluxes in temperate managed forest ecosystems. Fires can strongly alter the distribution (forest floor vs. mineral soil), binding forms (organic vs. inorganic) and availability (solubility by water) of OM and associated nutrients. To elucidate the effects and seasonality of low intensity fires on the mobilization of dissolved organic carbon and nutrients, an experimental ground fire was conducted in November 2014 in the Hainich region, Central Germany. In addition, differences in response patterns between two land-use types (pasture and beech forest) were investigated. Lysimeters (n=5 controls/ 5 fire-manipulated) with topsoil monoliths (0-4 cm), rainfall/throughfall samplers, littertraps as well as temperature and moisture sensors were installed on three sites of each land-use type. During the one year of monitoring (Sep14-Dec15) soil solution, rainfall, and throughfall samples were taken biweekly and analyzed for pH, dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC) and nitrogen (DN, PN) as well as for nutrients (e.g. K, Ca, Mg, P, S). Compared to the control sites, the ground fire immediately induced a short-run release peak of DOC in both land-use types. Within two weeks these differences were muted in the post-fire period. The effect of fire was land-use specific with annual DOC fluxes of 82 and 45 kg/(ha*a) for forest and pasture sites, respectively. In contrast, nitrogen fluxes responded differently to the fire event. In the forest, a significant increase in DN concentrations was notable five months after the fire, at the beginning of the

  4. Search for Higgs portal DM at the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, P. [School of Physics, KIAS,Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of); Quantum Universe Center, KIAS,Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of); Yokoya, Hiroshi [Quantum Universe Center, KIAS,Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-18

    Higgs portal dark matter (DM) models are simple interesting and viable DM models. There are three types of the models depending on the DM spin: scalar, fermion and vector DM models. In this paper, we consider renormalizable, unitary and gauge invariant Higgs portal DM models, and study how large parameter regions can be surveyed at the International Linear Collider (ILC) experiment at √s=500 GeV. For the Higgs portal singlet fermion and vector DM cases, the force mediator involves two scalar propagators, the SM-like Higgs boson and the dark Higgs boson. We show that their interference generates interesting and important patterns in the mono-Z plus missing E{sub T} signatures at the ILC, and the results are completely different from those obtained from the Higgs portal DM models within the effective field theories. In addition, we show that it would be possible to distinguish the spin of DM in the Higgs portal scenarios, if the shape of the recoil-mass distribution is observed. We emphasize that the interplay between these collider observations and those in the direct detection experiments has to be performed in the model with renomalizability and unitarity to combine the model analyses in different scales.

  5. Effect of K-N-humates on dry matter production and nutrient use efficiency of maize in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrus, Auldry Chaddy; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Muhamad, Ab Majid Nik; Nasir, Hassan Mohammad; Jiwan, Make

    2010-07-06

    Agricultural waste, such as sago waste (SW), is one of the sources of pollution to streams and rivers in Sarawak, particularly those situated near sago processing plants. In addition, unbalanced and excessive use of chemical fertilizers can cause soil and water pollution. Humic substances can be used as organic fertilizers, which reduce pollution. The objectives of this study were to produce K- and ammonium-based organic fertilizer from composted SW and to determine the efficiency of the organic-based fertilizer produced. Humic substances were isolated using standard procedures. Liquid fertilizers were formulated except for T2 (NPK fertilizer), which was in solid form. There were six treatments with three replications. Organic fertilizers were applied to soil in pots on the 10th day after sowing (DAS), but on the 28th DAS, only plants of T2 were fertilized. The plant samples were harvested on the 57th DAS during the tassel stage. The dry matter of plant parts (leaves, stems, and roots) were determined and analyzed for N, P, and K using standard procedures. Soil of every treatment was also analyzed for exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and Na, organic matter, organic carbon, available P, pH, total N, P, nitrate and ammonium contents using standard procedures. Treatments with humin (T5 and T6) showed remarkable results on dry matter production; N, P, and K contents; their uptake; as well as their use efficiency by maize. The inclusion of humin might have loosened the soil and increased the soil porosity, hence the better growth of the plants. Humin plus inorganic fertilizer provided additional nutrients for the plants. The addition of inorganic fertilizer into compost is a combination of quick and slow release sources, which supplies N throughout the crop growth period. Common fertilization by surface application of T2 without any additives (acidic and high CEC materials) causes N and K to be easily lost. High Ca in the soil may have reacted with phosphate from fertilizer to

  6. Effect of K-N-Humates on Dry Matter Production and Nutrient Use Efficiency of Maize in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auldry Chaddy Petrus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural waste, such as sago waste (SW, is one of the sources of pollution to streams and rivers in Sarawak, particularly those situated near sago processing plants. In addition, unbalanced and excessive use of chemical fertilizers can cause soil and water pollution. Humic substances can be used as organic fertilizers, which reduce pollution. The objectives of this study were to produce K- and ammonium-based organic fertilizer from composted SW and to determine the efficiency of the organic-based fertilizer produced. Humic substances were isolated using standard procedures. Liquid fertilizers were formulated except for T2 (NPK fertilizer, which was in solid form. There were six treatments with three replications. Organic fertilizers were applied to soil in pots on the 10th day after sowing (DAS, but on the 28th DAS, only plants of T2 were fertilized. The plant samples were harvested on the 57th DAS during the tassel stage. The dry matter of plant parts (leaves, stems, and roots were determined and analyzed for N, P, and K using standard procedures. Soil of every treatment was also analyzed for exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and Na, organic matter, organic carbon, available P, pH, total N, P, nitrate and ammonium contents using standard procedures. Treatments with humin (T5 and T6 showed remarkable results on dry matter production; N, P, and K contents; their uptake; as well as their use efficiency by maize. The inclusion of humin might have loosened the soil and increased the soil porosity, hence the better growth of the plants. Humin plus inorganic fertilizer provided additional nutrients for the plants. The addition of inorganic fertilizer into compost is a combination of quick and slow release sources, which supplies N throughout the crop growth period. Common fertilization by surface application of T2 without any additives (acidic and high CEC materials causes N and K to be easily lost. High Ca in the soil may have reacted with phosphate from

  7. DM Considerations for Deep Drilling

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    An outline of the current situation regarding the DM plans for the Deep Drilling surveys and an invitation to the community to provide feedback on what they would like to see included in the data processing and visualization of these surveys.

  8. 12 billion DM for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The German atomic industry has achieved the break-through to the world market: Brazil orders eight nuclear electricity generating plants from Siemens-AEG daughter Kraftwerk-Union. US concerns attacked the twelve billion DM deal, the biggest export order in the history of German industry. Without avail - the contract is to be signed in Bonn this week. (orig./LH) [de

  9. Geochemical ecosystem engineering by the mud shrimp Upogebia pugettensis (Crustacea: Thalassinidae) in Yaquina Bay, Oregon: density-dependent effects on organic matter remineralization and nutrient cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the effect of the thalassinid mud shrimp Upogebia pugettensis on organic matter and nutrient cycling on Idaho Flat, an intertidal flat in the Yaquina River estuary, Oregon. Field studies were conducted to measure carbon and nitrogen remineralization rates and bent...

  10. Mass loss and nutrient concentrations of buried wood as a function of organic matter removal, soil compaction, and vegetation control in a regenerating oak-pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix Ponder; John M. Kabrick; Mary Beth Adams; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Marty F. Jurgensen

    2017-01-01

    Mass loss and nutrient concentrations of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) and white oak (Q. alba) wood stakes were measured 30 months after their burial in the upper 10 cm of soil in a regenerating forest after harvesting and soil disturbance. Disturbance treatments were two levels of organic matter (OM) removal (only...

  11. Suspended matter and nutrient gradients of a small-scale river plume in Sepetiba Bay, SE-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Paiva Rodrigues

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Coastal river plumes represent one of the final stages of material transport across the land-sea interface. Most studies, however have focused on the behavior of medium to large sized river plumes of coastal-shelf waters, whereas small sized river plumes acting within estuaries have been neglected. This study addressed the behavior of suspended particulate matter (SPM, dissolved inorganic nutrients (DIN, DIP and DSi and Chlorophyll a (Chl. a of a small sized river plume derived from the closely lain São Francisco and Guandú river channels, set in the Sepetiba Bay estuary, SE-Brazil. Two surface water sampling campaigns were conducted, one in January 2003 (humid summer conditions and the other in June 2003 (dry winter conditions. On both occasions, the plumes dispersed in a SE direction towards the inner portion of the bay. The "wet" event plume was more turbid, nutrient rich and dispersed beyond nearshore waters, whereas the "dry" event plume proliferated as a narrow, less turbid and more nutrient poor film alongshore. Both exhibited a marked degree of patchiness, induced by the differential input of materials from the river sources and resuspension processes from the shallow nearshore bottom. The São Francisco river channel was the main source of freshwater, SPM and nutrients, except for ammonia (NH4+-N derived from domestic effluents of the Guandú river. The mesohaline portion of the estuarine mixing zone of the plumes behaved as a slight source for SPM, DSi and DIP, due to bottom resuspension processes. N:P molar ratios ranged between 80:1 and 20:1 along the estuarine gradient, being higher in the summer than in the winter event, indicating that DIP was the potential nutrient limiting primary production. Chl. a concentrations increased at the outer premises of the plume, suggesting that the short residence times and turbidity of the plume waters, hampered primary production nearshore, particularly during the summer occasion. The small

  12. Recent sedimentary history of organic matter and nutrient accumulation in the Ohuira Lagoon, northwestern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina; Frignani, Mauro; Tesi, Tommaso; Bojórquez-Leyva, Humberto; Bellucci, Luca Giorgio; Páez-Osuna, Federico

    2007-08-01

    (210)Pb-derived sediment accumulation rates, as well as a suite of geochemical proxies (Al, Fe, delta(13)C, delta(15)N), were used to assess the time-dependent variations of C, N, and P fluxes recorded in two sediment cores collected at Ohuira Lagoon, in the Gulf of California, Mexico, during the last 100 years. Sedimentary C, N, and P concentrations increased with time and were related to land clearing, water impoundment, and agriculture practices, such as fertilization. C:N:P ratios and delta(13)C suggested an estuarine system that is responsive to increased C loading from a N-limited phytoplankton community, whereas delta(15)N values showed the transition between an estuarine-terrestrial to an estuarine-more marine environment, as a consequence of the declining freshwater supply into the estuary due to the channeling and impoundment of El Fuerte River between 1900 and 1956. The recent increases in nutrient fluxes (2- to 9-fold the pre-anthropogenic fluxes of C and N, and 2 to 13 times for P) taking place in the mainland from the 1940s, were related to the expansion of the intensive agriculture fields and to the more recent development of shrimp farming activities.

  13. Aspen increase soil moisture, nutrients, organic matter and respiration in Rocky Mountain forest communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Joshua R; St Clair, Samuel B

    2012-01-01

    Development and change in forest communities are strongly influenced by plant-soil interactions. The primary objective of this paper was to identify how forest soil characteristics vary along gradients of forest community composition in aspen-conifer forests to better understand the relationship between forest vegetation characteristics and soil processes. The study was conducted on the Fishlake National Forest, Utah, USA. Soil measurements were collected in adjacent forest stands that were characterized as aspen dominated, mixed, conifer dominated or open meadow, which includes the range of vegetation conditions that exist in seral aspen forests. Soil chemistry, moisture content, respiration, and temperature were measured. There was a consistent trend in which aspen stands demonstrated higher mean soil nutrient concentrations than mixed and conifer dominated stands and meadows. Specifically, total N, NO(3) and NH(4) were nearly two-fold higher in soil underneath aspen dominated stands. Soil moisture was significantly higher in aspen stands and meadows in early summer but converged to similar levels as those found in mixed and conifer dominated stands in late summer. Soil respiration was significantly higher in aspen stands than conifer stands or meadows throughout the summer. These results suggest that changes in disturbance regimes or climate scenarios that favor conifer expansion or loss of aspen will decrease soil resource availability, which is likely to have important feedbacks on plant community development.

  14. Analysis for low-molecular-weight carbohydrates is needed to account for all energy-contributing nutrients in some feed ingredients, but physical characteristics do not predict in vitro digestibility of dry matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro, D.M.D.L.; Bruininx, E.M.A.M.; Jong, de L.; Stein, H.H.

    2018-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to quantify nutrient and fiber fractions of feed ingredients and to determine in vitro apparent ileal digestibility (IVAID) and in vitro apparent total tract digestibility (IVATTD) of DM and OM in each ingredient. Ten ingredients that vary in fiber concentration and

  15. Effect of thymol and carvacrol on nutrient digestibility in rams fed high or low concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamiri, M J; Azizabadi, E; Momeni, Z; Rezvani, M R; Atashi, H; Akhlaghi, A

    2015-01-01

    Published data on the effects of essential oils (EO) on in vivo nutrient digestibility in sheep are contradictory. In 2 experiments, the effect of thymol and carvacrol on nutrient digestibility was studied in sheep fed with high (70%) or low (52%) concentrate diets, using incomplete Latin Square designs. The essential oils were mixed with the concentrate portion of the diet at the rate of 0.0, 0.3, or 0.6 g per kg dry matter (DM) diet. Supplementation of thymol had no significant effect on digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and acid detergent fiber (ADF). The main effect of thymol on neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ether extract (EE) digestibility and on nitrogen balance (NB) was significant (Pdigestibility. The main effect of carvacrol on ruminal ammonia levels and NB was significant, but within each level of dietary concentrate no significant differences were observed in ammonia levels and NB. Inclusion of 0.3 g/kg diet DM of carvacrol or thyme was more effective than 0.6 g/kg diet DM in terms of NB but neither dose affected nutrient digestibility. Future research should determine the long-term effects of essential oils on digestibility and performance in sheep, before recommendation can be made for their use under practical husbandry conditions.

  16. Acúmulo de massa seca e marcha de absorção de nutrientes em mudas de goiabeira 'Pedro Sato' Dry matter storage and absorption route of nutrients in guava seedlings "Pedro Sato"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Mariano Dias Augostinho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar a curva de acúmulo da matéria seca de mudas e a marcha de absorção de macro e micronutrientes de goiabeira cultivar 'Pedro Sato'. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Foram utilizadas sete coletas de plantas de goiabeira 'Pedro Sato', em cultivo hidropônico, em casa de vegetação da Unesp, Campus de Jaboticabal. Nas coletas, avaliaram-se o crescimento das plantas e o acúmulo de nutrientes, a cada 15 dias, durante 120 dias após o transplantio. As mudas de goiabeira proporcionaram maior acúmulo de biomassa no órgão folha em relação ao caule e à raiz. Observou-se alta absorção dos nutrientes, no período de 60 a 90 dias após o transplantio, nas mudas de goiabeira. O acúmulo de nutrientes das mudas de goiabeira (planta inteira foi de 340, 44, 380, 173, 33 e 40 mg planta-1, respectivamente para N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, e de 743, 118, 5.114, 2.151, 566 mg planta-1, respectivamente, para B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn.This work aimed to determine the dry matter storage curve of seedlings and the absorptions of macro and micro nutrients of guava tree cultivar 'Pedro Sato'. It was used randomized design with three repetitions. Seven samples of guava plants cultivar 'Pedro Sato' were used in hydroponic growth in the greenhouse located at UNESP- Jaboticabal Campus, São Paulo State, Brazil. It was evaluated the samples of plants growing and the nutrients storage every 15 days, during 120 days after the transplanting. The seedlings of guava priorized the dry matter storage of leaves in relation of the stem and leaves. The guava seedlings presented high absorption of nutrients in the period of 60 and 90 days after the transplanting. The nutrients storage of the guava seedlings (whole plant were of : 340; 44; 380; 173; 33; and 40 mg plant-1, respectively, for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and 743; 118; 5114; 2151; 566µg plant-1, respectively for B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn.

  17. Dissolved organic matter and lake metabolism: Biogeochemistry and controls of nutrient flux dynamics in lakes: Technical progress report, 1 July 1986-30 June 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Most lakes are small and possess large littoral and wetland components in the interface region between the open water per se and the drainage basin. Not only does the photosynthetic productivity of the surrounding littoral-wetland complex vastly exceed that of the pelagic zone, but the littoral-wetland vegetation and its intensive synthesis and decompositional metabolism regulate loading of inorganic nutrients passing to the open water (functioning as pulsed sources and sinks), and regulate loading of dissolved organic matter and particulate organic matter to the recipient open water, which by numerous complex pathways and mechanisms enhance or suppress pelagic productivity. Research emphasis was placed on the sources, fates, and interactions of dissolved and particulate organic matter in relation to inorganic chemical cycling: allochthonous loading to the lake system; and the coupled nutrient physiology and metabolism of phytoplankton, bacterial populations, macrophytes and attendant sessile algal-bacterial communities. Regulatory mechanisms of growth and rates of carbon and nutrient cycling were evaluated among the inorganic-organic influxes of allochthonous sources as they are controlled by wetland-littoral communities, the littoral photosynthetic producer-decomposer complex, the microflora of the sediment-water interface, and the microflora of the pelagic zone. 28 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  18. The role of isotopes in studying nutrient and organic matter dynamics in livestock/cropping systems, with emphasis on carbon and nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledgard, Stewart F.

    2002-01-01

    Integration of livestock and cropping systems can increase the efficiency of use and recycling of nutrients and other resources. In developing countries, a key goal in mixed animal/cropping systems is maximising production of animals and crops, possibly including grain for human consumption, while minimising the need for inputs of resources such as fertilisers, irrigation water and energy. Low organic N levels in soil in some developing countries, such as in Africa, mean that achievement and maintenance of high yielding crops requires appropriate inputs of organic and/or fertiliser N sources. Improvement in organic matter and N levels in cropping soils are generally achieved via crop rotations or inter-cropping with grain legumes or green manures, or by importing external sources of organic material. Recycling of crop residues is also important for retaining organic matter and nutrients in cropped soils. Increases in the efficiency of these farming systems require a detailed knowledge of the limiting factors or resources for maximising productivity. Isotopes can play a valuable role in identifying, understanding and testing new methodologies associated with soil, water and nutrient resources. Isotopes (particularly 15 N) have been widely used in field studies for determining fertiliser use efficiency, N 2 fixation, and more recently for studying the fate of nutrients from organic materials and crop residues. The major benefit in using isotopes in studies of nutrient use efficiency is that it enables the fate of the nutrient to be traced throughout the soil/plant system even where there are large reserves of the nutrient in soil pools. Most research with isotopes has been restricted to above-ground plant components but some recent studies have targeted plant roots. Foliar 15 N labelling has been used to better quantify root N yields and to determine the uptake of 15 N-labelled root N by subsequent crops. Similarly, 13 CO 2 pulse labelling studies have provided

  19. How do stars affect ψDM halos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, James H. H.; Schive, Hsi-Yu; Woo, Tak-Pong; Chiueh, Tzihong

    2018-04-01

    Wave dark matterDM) predicts a compact soliton core and a granular halo in every galaxy. This work presents the first simulation study of an elliptical galaxy by including both stars and ψDM, focusing on the systematic changes of the central soliton and halo granules. With the addition of stars in the inner halo, we find the soliton core consistently becomes more prominent by absorbing mass from the host halo than that without stars, and the halo granules become "non-isothermal", "hotter" in the inner halo and "cooler" in the outer halo, as opposed to the isothermal halo in pure ψDM cosmological simulations. Moreover, the composite (star+ψDM) mass density is found to follow a r-2 isothermal profile near the half-light radius in most cases. Most striking is the velocity dispersion of halo stars that increases rapidly toward the galactic center by a factor of at least 2 inside the half-light radius caused by the deepened soliton gravitational potential, a result that compares favorably with observations of elliptical galaxies and bulges in spiral galaxies. However in some rare situations we find a phase segregation turning a compact distribution of stars into two distinct populations with high and very low velocity dispersions; while the high-velocity component mostly resides in the halo, the very low-velocity component is bound to the interior of the soliton core, resembling stars in faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies.

  20. Climate induced variability of suspended matter and nutrient in the discharge of Kali river, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghavan, B.R.; Chauhan, O.S.

    to understand the influence of the SWM precipitation on estuarine and coastal processes. The seasonal discharge data of the river is obtained during 2004, which was a normal monsoon year. We find high nutrient load in the rivers, specially in the estuarine...

  1. Nutrient Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Content of Mucuna pruriens Whole Pods Fed to Growing Pelibuey Lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyra-Tzab, Enrique; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis Armando; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald Herve

    2013-07-01

    The nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and in vivo metabolizable energy supply of Mucuna pruriens whole pods fed to growing Pelibuey lambs was investigated. Eight Pelibuey sheep housed in metabolic crates were fed increasing levels of Mucuna pruriens pods: 0 (control), 100 (Mucuna100), 200 (Mucuna200) and 300 (Mucuna300) g/kg dry matter. A quadratic (pMucuna100 and Mucuna200 treatments. Increasing M. pruriens in the diets had no effect (p>0.05) on DM and GE apparent digestibility (pmucuna pod level. This effect was accompanied by a quadratic effect (pMucuna100 and Mucuna200 treatments. Urine-N excretion, GE retention and dietary estimated nutrient supply (metabolizable protein and metabolizable energy) were not affected (p>0.05). DM, N and GE apparent digestibility coefficient of M. pruriens whole pods obtained through multiple regression equations were 0.692, 0.457, 0.654 respectively. In vivo DE and ME content of mucuna whole pod were estimated in 11.0 and 9.7 MJ/kg DM. It was concluded that whole pods from M. pruriens did not affect nutrient utilization when included in an mixed diet up to 200 g/kg DM. This is the first in vivo estimation of mucuna whole pod ME value for ruminants.

  2. RESPON DAN KOPING PASIEN DM POST AMPUTASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candra Kusuma Negara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Penyakit DM merupakan masalah kesehatan yang sangat penting karena berkaitan dengan tingginya kejadian komplikasi dan mortalitas yang tinggi. Bagi kebanyakan orang penyakit DM adalah suatu penyakit yang sangat mengkhawatirkan dan masyarakat sadar akan besarnya potensi bahaya yang ditimbulkannya. Bagi individu yang menderita DM dengan pasca amputasi, kehidupan selanjutnya merupakan babak baru yang penuh tantangan dan perubahan serta akan melalui proses koping terhadap proses perubahan tersebut. Secara umum penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengeksplorasi berbagai pengalaman pasien DM pasca amputasi tentang respon dan koping yang dialaminya. Penelitian ini menggunakan studi fenomenologi. Pengambilan data menggunakan indepth interview pada empat orang partisipan yang dirawat jalan di Poli kaki diabetic RSUD Ulin Banjarmasin yang dilengkapi dengan pedoman wawancara dan informed consent. Metode analisis yang terstruktur dari Creswell menjadi 6 langkah. Terdapat 2 Tema yang ditemukan dalam penelitian ini yaitu berbagai respon post amputasi dan Berbagai koping pasien DM post amputasi. Berbagai respon post amputasi terdiri dari tiga Sub-Tema yaitu: (1 Mengalami hambatan fisik, (2 Mengalami perubahan peran, (3 Mengalami proses berduka, dan Terdapat empat Sub-Tema yang menggambarkan berbagai koping pasien DM post amputasi yaitu: (1 Lebih banyak beribadah, (2 Menerima keadaan, (3 Motivasi yang kuat, (4 Mencari dukungan sosial.

  3. Substituting oat hay or maize silage for portion of alfalfa hay affects growth performance, ruminal fermentation, and nutrient digestibility of weaned calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yang; Zou, XinPing; Li, XiZhi; Guo, Gang; Ji, Peng; Wang, Yan; Li, ShengLi; Wang, YaJing; Cao, ZhiJun

    2018-01-01

    Objective The impact of forage feeding strategy on growth performance, ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestibility in post-weaning calves was investigated. Methods Forty-five female Holstein calves (body weight [BW] = 79.79±0.38 kg) were enrolled in the 35-d study at one week after weaning and randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments. All diets were fed as total mixed ration containing 60% (dry matter [DM] basis) of basal starter feed and 40% (DM basis) of forage, but varied in composition of forage source including i) alfalfa (40% DM, AH); ii) alfalfa hay (26.7% DM)+oat hay (13.3% DM; OH); iii) alfalfa hay (26.7% DM)+corn silage (13.3% DM; WS). Results Dry matter intake was not different among treatment groups (p>0.05). However, BW (pcalves fed AH and OH were greater than WS-fed calves, whereas heart girth was greater in OH-fed calves than those fed AH and WS (pfeeding oat hay to postweaning calves increased crude protein digestibility (pcalves. PMID:28728373

  4. Ultra-processed Food Intake and Obesity: What Really Matters for Health-Processing or Nutrient Content?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Jennifer M; Braga, Bianca; Qin, Bo

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this narrative review was to summarize and critique recent evidence evaluating the association between ultra-processed food intake and obesity. Four of five studies found that higher purchases or consumption of ultra-processed food was associated with overweight/obesity. Additional studies reported relationships between ultra-processed food intake and higher fasting glucose, metabolic syndrome, increases in total and LDL cholesterol, and risk of hypertension. It remains unclear whether associations can be attributed to processing itself or the nutrient content of ultra-processed foods. Only three of nine studies used a prospective design, and the potential for residual confounding was high. Recent research provides fairly consistent support for the association of ultra-processed food intake with obesity and related cardiometabolic outcomes. There is a clear need for further studies, particularly those using longitudinal designs and with sufficient control for confounding, to potentially confirm these findings in different populations and to determine whether ultra-processed food consumption is associated with obesity independent of nutrient content.

  5. Study of seasonal dynamics of sedimentation evacuation of suspended matter, nutrients and pollutants from the surface water layer of the Black Sea during 1992-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, S.B.; Polikarpov, G.G.; Egorov, V.N.; Krivenko, O.V.; Stokozov, N.A.; Zherko, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    A series of regular measurements of sedimentation evacuation of suspended matter, nutrients (carbon, nitrogen) and pollutants (mercury, polychlorided biphenyls) from the surface water layer was carried out with 1-2 month interval between the measurements using 234 Th in the region of western cyclonic circulation of the Black Sea. It allowed to estimate the seasonal dynamics and to obtain average annual values of dientrophication and sedimentational self-purification of the euphotic zone of the Western part of the Black Sea. The parallel measurements of the rates of sedimentation evacuation of suspended organic nitrogen from the euphotic zone, which were performed using 234 Th and determining the so called products of phitoplankton by the absorption of 15 N traced nitrates and ammonium, give practically identical results. 19 refs.; 5 figs

  6. Acúmulo de matéria seca e nutrientes no meloeiro irrigado sob estratégias de manejo da salinidade Accumulation of dry matter and nutrients in irrigated melon under strategies of salimity management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero P. C. Terceiro Neto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de investigar estratégias de uso de água salobra sobre o acúmulo de matéria seca e nutrientes, duas cultivares de melão (Sancho- C1 e Medellín- C2 irrigadas com água de baixa (S1 = 0,61 dS m-1 e alta (S2 = 4,78 dS m-1 salinidade por fase da cultura: S1S1S2S2- T1, S2S1S2S2- T2, S2S2S1S2- T3 (os 1, 2, 3 e 4º termos correspondem, respectivamente, às fases de crescimento, floração, crescimento dos frutos e maturação e colheita e, ainda a irrigação alternada, durante todo o ciclo, com água S1 por 2 dias consecutivos seguido com água S2 por um dia (S12dias + S21dia- T4 e a irrigação com água S2 durante todo o ciclo- T5. Além disto foi utilizada, como testemunha, a irrigação com a mistura de 37% da água S1 e 63% da água S2- T0 (manejo adotado atualmente na fazenda em que o experimento foi conduzido. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados em um esquema de parcelas subdivididas 6 x 2 (manejo da água salina x cultivar com quatro repetições. O acúmulo de fitomassa seca total na parte aérea da cultivar Sancho foi superior ao de Medellín, em todas as estratégias de manejo utilizado; os nutrientes mais absorvidos pelas plantas das duas cultivares foram o cálcio, o potássio e o nitrogênio.A study was carried out aiming to investigate management strategies for use of brackish water in the accumulation of dry matter and nutrients in two cultivars of melon (C1 - Sancho and C2 - MedeLλi n irrigated with low (S1 = 0.61 dS m-1 and high (S2 = 4.78 dS m-1 salinity water in different phases of crop: S1S1S2S2 - T1, S2S1S2S2 - T2, S2S2S1S2 - T3. The 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th term correspond, respectively, to different phases - initial growth, flowering, fruit maturation and harvest. Alternate irrigation during the crop cycle, two days of consecutive application with S1 water followed by one day with S2 water (S1 2 days + S2 1day - T4 and irrigation with

  7. Attenuation of bulk organic matter, nutrients (N and P), and pathogen indicators during soil passage: Effect of temperature and redox conditions in simulated soil aquifer treatment (SAT)

    KAUST Repository

    Abel, Chol D T

    2012-07-22

    Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) is a costeffective natural wastewater treatment and reuse technology. It is an environmentally friendly technology that does not require chemical usage and is applicable to both developing and developed countries. However, the presence of organic matter, nutrients, and pathogens poses a major health threat to the population exposed to partially treated wastewater or reclaimed water through SAT. Laboratory-based soil column and batch experiments simulating SAT were conducted to examine the influence of temperature variation and oxidation-reduction (redox) conditions on removal of bulk organic matter, nutrients, and indicator microorganisms using primary effluent. While an average dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal of 17.7 % was achieved in soil columns at 5 °C, removal at higher temperatures increased by 10 % increments with increase in temperature by 5 °C over the range of 15 to 25 °C. Furthermore, soil column and batch experiments conducted under different redox conditions revealed higher DOC removal in aerobic (oxic) experiments compared to anoxic experiments. Aerobic soil columns exhibited DOC removal 15 % higher than that achieved in the anoxic columns, while aerobic batch showed DOC removal 7.8 % higher than the corresponding anoxic batch experiments. Ammonium-nitrogen removal greater than 99 % was observed at 20 and 25 °C, while 89.7 % was removed at 15 °C, but the removal substantially decreased to 8.8 % at 5 °C. While ammonium-nitrogen was attenuated by 99.9 % in aerobic batch reactors carried out at room temperature, anoxic experiments under similar conditions revealed 12.1 % ammonium-nitrogen reduction, corresponding to increase in nitrate-nitrogen and decrease in sulfate concentration. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012.

  8. Organic matter iron and nutrient transport and nature of dissolved organic matter in the drainage basin of a boreal humic river in northern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, K.

    1994-01-01

    Organic carbon and iron transport into the Gulf of Bothnia and the seasonal changes in the nature of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were studied in 1983 and 1984 at the mouth of the River Kiiminkijoki, which crosses an area of minerotrophic mires in northern Finland. Organic and inorganic transport within the drainage basin was studied in the summer and autumn of 1985 and 1986. The results indicate that the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is mainly of terrestrial origin, leaching mostly from peatlands. The DOC concentrations decrease under low flow conditions. The proportion of drifting algae as a particulate organic carbon (POC) source seems to increase in summer. The changes in the ratio of Fe/DOC, the colour of the DOM and the ratio of Fe/DOC, the colour of the DOM and the ratio of fluorescence to DOC with discharge give indications of the origin, formation, nature and fate of the DOM in the river water. Temperature-dependent microbiological processes in the formation and sedimentation of Fe-organic colloids seem to be important. Estimates are given for the amounts and transport rates of organic carbon and Fe discharged into the Gulf of Bothnia by river. High apparent molecular weight (HAMW) organic colloids are important for the organic, Fe and P transport in the basin. The DOM in the water consists mainly of fulvic acids, although humic acids are also important. The results indicate an increase in the mobilization of HAMW Fe-organic colloids in the peatlands following drainage and peat mining. The transport of inorganic nitrogen from the peatlands in the area and in the river is increasing due to peat mining. The changes in the transport of organic matter, Fe and P are less marked

  9. Nutrient contents of the fresh pulps and dried pulp cakes of vitellaria paradoxa of Gulu District, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oryema, Christine; Oryem-Origa, Hannington; Roos, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn locally known as ‘Yaa’ in Acholi is a valuable edible indigenous wild fruit in Gulu District, northern Uganda. It is a multipurpose fruit tree and highly favoured by the inhabitants of this district. Its fruit pulps are eaten when fresh and/or made into cakes and dried....... This study determined the nutrient compositions of the fresh pulps and dried pulp cakes of V. paradoxa. Laboratory analyses were undertaken to determine the micro and macro nutrients in the samples on fresh (FM) and dry matter (DM) basis following standard procedures and protocols. The potassium, sodium...

  10. Biomass and nutrient distribution in an age series of eucalyptus hybrid plantation in Tamil Nadu. I. Distribution of organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negi, J D.S.; Sharma, S C

    1985-12-01

    The distribution of organic matter in an age series of Eucalyptus hybrid plantation in Tamil Nadu has been discussed. It was observed that (i) the rotation age for E. hybrid can be fixed at 7 years where the Mean Annual Production (MAP) is at the maximum, (ii) Pollachi seems to be comparatively better site for E. hybrid planting, presumably due to higher leaf efficiency (III) to increase the productivity in a coppiced crop thinning is essential as the lower stand density give a better chance for high leaf production and consequently higher biomass. 7 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  11. Estimation of nutrients and organic matter in Korean swine slurry using multiple regression analysis of physical and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Arumuganainar; Choi, Hong Lim

    2011-10-01

    Swine waste land application has increased due to organic fertilization, but excess application in an arable system can cause environmental risk. Therefore, in situ characterizations of such resources are important prior to application. To explore this, 41 swine slurry samples were collected from Korea, and wide differences were observed in the physico-biochemical properties. However, significant (Phydrometer, EC meter, drying oven and pH meter were found useful to estimate Mn, Fe, Ca, K, Al, Na, N and 5-day biochemical oxygen demands (BOD₅) at improved R² values of 0.83, 0.82, 0.77, 0.75, 0.67, 0.47, 0.88 and 0.70, respectively. The results from this study suggest that multiple property regressions can facilitate the prediction of micronutrients and organic matter much better than a single property regression for livestock waste. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Processing of humic-rich riverine dissolved organic matter by estuarine bacteria: effects of predegradation and inorganic nutrients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmala, E.; Autio, R.; Kaartokallio, H.

    2014-01-01

    The bioavailability of predegraded dissolved organic matter (DOM) from a humic-rich, boreal river to estuarine bacteria from the Baltic Sea was studied in 39-day bioassays. The river waters had been exposed to various degrees of bacterial degradation by storing them between 0 and 465 days in dark...... prior to the bioassay. The resulting predegraded DOM was inoculated with estuarine bacteria and the subsequent changes in DOM quantity and quality measured. During the incubations, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and oxygen concentrations decreased, indicating heterotrophic activity. Coloured DOM...... was degraded less than DOC, indicating a selective utilization of DOM, and humic-like fluorescence components increased during the incubations. The amount of DOC degraded was not affected by the length of DOM predegradation. The percentage of bioavailable DOC (%BDOC) was higher in experiment units with added...

  13. Microbial enzyme activity, nutrient uptake and nutrient limitation in forested streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian H. Hill; Frank H. McCormick; Bret C. Harvey; Sherri L. Johnson; Melvin L. Warren; Colleen M. Elonen

    2010-01-01

    The flow of organic matter and nutrients from catchments into the streams draining them and the biogeochemical transformations of organic matter and nutrients along flow paths are fundamental processes instreams (Hynes,1975; Fisher, Sponseller & Heffernan, 2004). Microbial biofilms are often the primary interface for organic matter and nutrient uptake and...

  14. Nutrient Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Content of Whole Pods Fed to Growing Pelibuey Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Loyra-Tzab

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and in vivo metabolizable energy supply of Mucuna pruriens whole pods fed to growing Pelibuey lambs was investigated. Eight Pelibuey sheep housed in metabolic crates were fed increasing levels of Mucuna pruriens pods: 0 (control, 100 (Mucuna100, 200 (Mucuna200 and 300 (Mucuna300 g/kg dry matter. A quadratic (p0.05 on DM and GE apparent digestibility (p0.05. DM, N and GE apparent digestibility coefficient of M. pruriens whole pods obtained through multiple regression equations were 0.692, 0.457, 0.654 respectively. In vivo DE and ME content of mucuna whole pod were estimated in 11.0 and 9.7 MJ/kg DM. It was concluded that whole pods from M. pruriens did not affect nutrient utilization when included in an mixed diet up to 200 g/kg DM. This is the first in vivo estimation of mucuna whole pod ME value for ruminants.

  15. Nutrient dynamics and oceanographic features in the central Namibian upwelling region as reflected in δ15N-signals of suspended matter and surface sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Meisel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the modern situation of the northern Benguela Upwelling, directing particular attention to the shelf region off central Namibia (21 to 24° S. At the centre of the investigation is the comparison of δ15N-records in surface sediments (δ15Nsediment with suspended particulate matter (δ15NSPM from the surface ocean. In addition to that, water column profiles (including hydrographic data provide an insight into changes of δ15NSPM with depth and elucidate potential offsets between δ15NSPM and δ15Nsediment. The parallel spatial trend of δ15Nsediment and surface ocean δ15NSPM shows that secondary processes are not so pronounced as to obliterate the signal generated in the surface waters. Highest δ15N-signatures are found right off the coast where water temperatures are lowest. Concomitantly high productivity rates and low bottom oxygen suggest the upwelling of denitrified source waters. With increasing distance offshore, δ15N declines unexpectedly, reaching a minimum above the shelf break. Beyond that, the trend reverses to "normal" with δ15N-signals continuously increasing towards the mesopelagic ocean. The decrease in δ15Nsediment and surface ocean δ15NSPM with increasing distance to the coast disagrees with the concept of Rayleigh fractionation kinetics, viz. the progressive 15N-enrichment of the nitrate pool as it is gradually used up by phytoplankton growth. On the basis of the available evidence, the downward trend of δ15N results from decreased relative nitrate consumption, resting on a combination of reduced primary production and the existence of an ulterior source of nutrients. Nutrient replenishment seems to occur via an additional upwelling front at the edge of the shelf as well as tapping of subsurface nitrate through sufficiently deep penetration of wind- and wave-induced mixing over large areas of the shelf. Both mechanisms are considered capable of working against the expected nutrient drawdown (i.e. 15

  16. Complementarity of DM searches in a consistent simplified model: the case of Z′

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, Thomas; Katz, Andrey; Morgante, Enrico; Racco, Davide; Rameez, Mohamed; Riotto, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the constraints from direct and indirect detection on fermionic Majorana Dark Matter (DM). Because the interaction with the Standard Model (SM) particles is spin-dependent, a priori the constraints that one gets from neutrino telescopes, the LHC, direct and indirect detection experiments are comparable. We study the complementarity of these searches in a particular example, in which a heavy Z ′ mediates the interactions between the SM and the DM. We find that for heavy dark matter indirect detection provides the strongest bounds on this scenario, while IceCube bounds are typically stronger than those from direct detection. The LHC constraints are dominant for smaller dark matter masses. These light masses are less motivated by thermal relic abundance considerations. We show that the dominant annihilation channels of the light DM in the Sun and the Galactic Center are either bb̄ or tt̄, while the heavy DM annihilation is completely dominated by Zh channel. The latter produces a hard neutrino spectrum which has not been previously analyzed. We study the neutrino spectrum yielded by DM and recast IceCube constraints to allow proper comparison with constraints from direct and indirect detection experiments and LHC exclusions.

  17. The Role of Soil Organic Matter, Nutrients, and Microbial Community Structure on the Performance of Microbial Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney-Varga, J. N.; Dunaj, S. J.; Vallino, J. J.; Hines, M. E.; Gay, M.; Kobyljanec, C.

    2011-12-01

    communities, while the quality of available organic matter may have played a significant role in supporting high performing microbial communities.

  18. Pengendalian status gizi, kadar glukosa darah, dan tekanan darah melalui terapi gizi medis pada pasien diabetes mellitus (DM tipe 2 rawat jalan di RSU Mataram NTB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaema Suhaema

    2010-11-01

    Conclusion: Intake of nutrient, nutrition status, blood glucose level and blood pressure of type 2 DM patients that got MNT was more controllable than of those that got conventional nutrition counseling.

  19. Produção de matéria seca e absorção de nutrientes pelo milho em razão da saturação por bases e da adubação potássica Dry matter yield and nutrient uptake in corn plants as a function of potassic fertilization and of basis soil saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO ANDREOTTI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido em condições de casa de vegetação, com o objetivo de avaliar a resposta do milho à adubação potássica e à saturação do solo por bases, na produção de matéria seca e na absorção de nutrientes. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 3x2x4, constituindo-se de três solos (Areia Quartzosa, Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro e Latossolo Roxo, dois valores de saturação por bases (40% e 70 % e quatro teores de K no solo (0,5, 1,5, 3,0 e 6,0 mmol c dm-3. Para a calagem, foi utilizada mistura de carbonato de cálcio + carbonato de magnésio (PRNT = 103,3 % na proporção de 4:1. A adubação básica constou de 200 mg kg-1 de N, 200 mg kg-1 de P e 5 mg kg-1 de Zn por vaso de 30 L, sendo o N parcelado em 2,48 g (83,7 mg kg-1 na semeadura e o restante em duas coberturas aos 25 e 40 dias após a emergência das plântulas (DAE. As doses de K utilizadas foram de 0, 3,62, 7,24 e 14,48 g de KCl por vaso. A semeadura foi realizada em 4/3/97, utilizando-se o milho cv. Zêneca 8392, mantendo-se uma planta/vaso durante 60 DAE. O K proporciona ganhos de matéria seca até teores de 1,5 mmol c dm-3 no solo. O aumento dos teores de K no solo resultam em queda na concentração de Ca e Mg na matéria seca do milho. A elevação da saturação por bases e respectivo aumento dos teores de Ca e Mg no solo reduzem a absorção de K pelo milho.The purpose of this research was to study dry matter yield and nutrients uptake by corn plants as a function of potassic fertilization and of soil basis saturation. An experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions, using an early single hybrid corn Zêneca 8392 grown in 30 L pots, tested with three types of soil (Quartzpsamment and two alic Dark-Red Latosol - Haplorthox, with two levels of basis saturation (40 and 70 % and four levels of potassium content (0.5, 1.5, 3.0 and 6.0 mmol c dm-3. A completely random design with four

  20. Nutrient Release, Plant Nutrition, and Potassium Leaching from Polymer-Coated Fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Bley

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The increase in food consumption and limitations in food production areas requires improved fertilizer efficiency. Slow- or controlled-release fertilizers are an alternative for synchronizing nutrient availability with the plant demands, reducing losses to the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of polymer-coated KCl compared with conventional KCl. The products were incubated in soil under controlled conditions to evaluate the time required for nutrient release. A greenhouse experiment was performed with corn plants in pots with loamy sand- or clay-textured soil types to evaluate plant nutrition and losses due to leaching. The K application rates were 0, 18, 36, and 54 mg dm-3. The pots were irrigated, and the percolated liquid was collected. The plants were harvested 30 days after sowing to quantify dry matter (DM and its K content. In the incubation study, the K release from the coated fertilizer was found to be 42 % over 154 days. The data were fit to a linear function from which a period of 315 days was estimated as required for the release of 75 % of the nutrient. Meanwhile, conventional KCl releases 85 % of the K nutrient in the first 48h. In the cultivation of plants in pots, the coating reduced K losses due to leaching in the loamy sand soil; however, only the application rate of 54 mg dm-3 promoted DM production equivalent to conventional KCl. It is possible that the need for K in the early stages of corn development was not met by a coated KCl.

  1. Intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of sheep fed diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Oliveira Maia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils on intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês sheep. Four rumen-cannulated animals of 90.2±11.4 kg average body weight were assigned to a 4 × 4 latin square. Animals remained individually in cages for the metabolism assay and were fed diets containing roughage at 500 g/kg and concentrate based on ground corn and soybean meal also at 500 g/kg. No oil was added to the control diet, whereas the others had canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg (DM basis. There was no difference for the intake of DM and nutrients, except for ether extract, which was greater when animals received oil. The digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates and neutral detergent fiber were not changed; however, the addition of oil increased the ether extract digestibility. The values of total digestible nutrients (TDN, g/kg of DM, digestible energy (DE, Mcal/kg of DM, TDN intake and DE intake also did not change with the addition of lipids. Concerning the ruminal constituents, the addition of vegetable oils reduced the concentrations of acetate, butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids. Adding canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg in diets with 500 g roughage/kg and 500 g concentrate/kg does not impair the intake or digestibility of nutrients in sheep, although it reduces the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in the rumen.

  2. Instantaneous transport of salt, nutrients, suspended matter and chlorophyll-a in the tropical estuarine system of Santos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleyci A. O. Moser

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of the polluted São Vicente and Santos estuarine channels to the eutrophication of Santos bay was assessed through the quantification of instantaneous transport of salt, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN and phosphate, organic and inorganic matter (OSM and ISM and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a, during dry (austral winter- August/ 1999 and rainy (austral summer- January/2000 seasons. Samplings were carried out during spring and neap tides, in flood and ebb phases, in two transversal sections at the mouths of the São Vicente and Santos channels. Instantaneous transport values generally indicated importation of salt to the estuarine channels, exportation of DIN to the bay, mainly as N-NH4, at a maximum rate of 1155.1 g s-1 during the rainy season; importation of phosphate during the dry season (maximum of 385 g s-1 and exportation of ISM, OSM and Chl-a during periods of greater freshwater discharge. These results demonstrate the great contribution made by the Santos and São Vicente estuaries to the eutrophication of Santos bay, especially in the rainy season.A contribuição dos canais estuarinos de Santos e São Vicente para a eutrofização da baía de Santos foi avaliada quantificando-se o transporte instantâneo de sal, fosfato e nitrogênio inorgânico dissolvido (NID, material em suspensão orgânico (MSO e inorgânico (MSI e clorofila-a, durante a estação seca (inverno austral- Agosto/1999 e chuvosa (verão austral- Janeiro/ 2000. As amostragens foram realizadas em períodos de sizígia e quadratura, durante as marés enchentes e vazantes, nas secções transversais das bocas dos canais de São Vicente e Santos. Os valores de transporte instantâneo obtidos durante o período de amostragem indicaram exportação de NID, principalmente sobre a forma de N-NH4 (valor máximo de 1155,1 g s-1 na estação chuvosa; importação de fosfato durante a estação seca (máximo de 385,6 g s-1 e exportação de MSI, MSO e clorofila-a em per

  3. Template Composite Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drach, Vincent; Hietanen, Ari; Pica, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    We present a non perturbative study of SU(2) gauge theory with two fundamental Dirac flavours. We discuss how the model can be used as a template for composite Dark Matter (DM). We estimate one particular interaction of the DM candidate with the Standard Model : the interaction through photon...

  4. Complementarity of DM Searches in a Consistent Simplified Model: the Case of Z'

    CERN Document Server

    Jacques, Thomas; Morgante, Enrico; Racco, Davide; Rameez, Mohamed; Riotto, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the constraints from direct and indirect detection on fermionic Majorana Dark Matter (DM). Because the interaction with the Standard Model (SM) particles is spin-dependent, a priori the constraints that one gets from neutrino telescopes, the LHC and direct detection experiments are comparable. We study the complementarity of these searches in a particular example, in which a heavy $Z'$ mediates the interactions between the SM and the DM. We find that in most cases IceCube provides the strongest bounds on this scenario, while the LHC constraints are only meaningful for smaller dark matter masses. These light masses are less motivated by thermal relic abundance considerations. We show that the dominant annihilation channels of the light DM in the Sun are either $b \\bar b$ or $t \\bar t$, while the heavy DM annihilation is completely dominated by $Zh$ channel. The latter produces a hard neutrino spectrum which has not been previously analyzed. We study the neutrino spectrum yielded by DM and recast Ice...

  5. Sedimentary records of δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 15}N and organic matter accumulation in lakes receiving nutrient-rich mine waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widerlund, Anders, E-mail: Anders.Widerlund@ltu.se; Chlot, Sara; Öhlander, Björn

    2014-07-01

    Organic C and total N concentrations, C/N ratios, δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 13}C values in {sup 210}Pb-dated sediment cores were used to reconstruct historical changes in organic matter (OM) accumulation in three Swedish lakes receiving nutrient-rich mine waters. Ammonium-nitrate-based explosives and sodium cyanide (NaCN) used in gold extraction were the major N sources, while lesser amounts of P originated from apatite and flotation chemicals. The software IsoSource was used to model the relative contribution of soil, terrestrial and littoral vegetation, and phytoplankton detritus in the lake sediments. In one lake the IsoSource modelling failed, suggesting the presence of additional, unknown OM sources. In two of the lakes sedimentary detritus of littoral vegetation and phytoplankton had increased by 15–20% and 20–35%, respectively, since ∼ 1950, when N- and P-rich mine waters began to reach the lakes. Today, phytoplankton is the dominating OM component in these lake sediments, which appears to be a eutrophication effect related to mining operations. Changes in the N isotopic composition of biota, lake water, and sediments related to the use of ammonium-nitrate-based explosives and NaCN were evident in the two studied systems. However, N isotope signals in the receiving waters (δ{sup 15}N ∼ + 9‰ to + 19‰) were clearly shifted from the primary signal in explosives (δ{sup 15}N–NO{sub 3} = + 3.4 ± 0.3‰; δ{sup 15}N–NH{sub 4} = − 8.0 ± 0.3‰) and NaCN (δ{sup 15}N = + 1.1 ± 0.5‰), and direct tracing of the primary N isotope signals in mining chemicals was not possible in the receiving waters. Systems where mine waters with a well known discharge history are a major point source of N with well-defined isotopic composition should, however, be suitable for further studies of processes controlling N isotope signatures and their transformation in aquatic systems receiving mine waters. - Highlights: • Historical mining-related changes in organic

  6. Effects of nutrient omission in Caesalpinia echinata plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Valiengo Valeri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth, the morphological alterations and the mineral composition of brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata plants caused by mineral nutrients omission in a green house experiment. The experimental units were distributed in the green house according to a completely random design. The treatments, each repeated five times, were the following : check (natural soil, complete (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Mn, and Zn and a complete solution but for the omission of one of the nutrients in parenthesis. Each plot was represented by a plant growing in a 7 dm3 vase filled with Quartzarenic Neosol. The analyzed variables were the following: visual nutritional deficiency symptoms, plant height, stem diameter, shoot dry matter, stem, branches and leaves included, and leaf nutrients level. The omission of nitrogen limited plant growth in height and shoot biomass production. The first visual deficiency symptoms were those due to N omission followed by those caused by P, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, and Mn omissions. Later on the K and B deficiency symptoms became visible. The omission of a nutrient always caused its level in the leaves to be significantly lower than that found when it was not omitted.

  7. Nutrient uptake and biomass accumulation for eleven different field crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. HAKALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil hemp (Cannabis sativa L., quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., false flax (Camelina sativa (L. Crantz, caraway (Carum carvi L., dyer’s woad (Isatis tinctoria L., nettle (Urtica dioica L., reed canary grass (RCG (Phalaris arundinacea L., buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, linseed (Linum usitatissimum L., timothy (Phleum pratense L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. were grown under uniform conditions in pots containing well fertilised loam soil. Dry matter (DM accumulation was measured repeatedly, and contents of minerals N, P, K, Ca and Mg at maturity. Annual crops accumulated above-ground biomass faster than perennials, while perennials had higher DM accumulation rates below ground. Seeds had high concentrations of N and P, while green biomass had high concentrations of K and Ca. Stems and roots had low concentrations of minerals. Concentrations of K and P were high in quinoa and caraway, and that of P in buckwheat. Hemp and nettle had high Ca concentrations, and quinoa had high Mg concentration. N and P were efficiently harvested with seed, Ca and K with the whole biomass. Perennials could prevent soil erosion and add carbon to the soil in the long term, while annuals compete better with weeds and prevent erosion during early growth. Nutrient balances in a field could be modified and nutrient leaching reduced by careful selection of the crop and management practices.;

  8. The influence of castanhão reservoir on nutrient and suspended matter transport during rainy season in the ephemeral Jaguaribe river (CE, Brazil Influência do açude Castanhão no transporte de nutrientes e materiais em suspensão durante a estação chuvosa no intermitente rio Jaguaribe (CE, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM. Molisani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of nutrient and suspended matter concentrations and loads entering and leaving the Castanhão reservoir during the rainy season were carried out to assess the influence of this large reservoir on land-sea fluvial transport in the ephemeral Jaguaribe river basin. Spatial variation indicated statistically significant attenuation of concentrations only for total phosphorous and suspended matter across the reservoir. Strong retention of nutrients and suspended matter loads by the reservoir was observed with average trapping efficiency of 89% for dissolved silicon, 98% of soluble reactive phosphorus, 71% for ammonium, 87% for total nitrogen, 98% for total phosphorus and 97% for suspended matter compared to the reservoir inflow. The dam operational procedure defined by the ephemeral conditions of the river reduced water releases compared to reservoir inflow and induced strong retention of nutrient and suspended matter loads within the reservoir when fluvial transfer occurs in this semiarid watershed.Medidas de concentrações e fluxos de nutrientes e material particulado em suspensão de entrada e saída do Açude Castanhão foram efetuadas para determinar a influência de um grande reservatório no transporte fluvial entre o continente e o oceano na bacia hidrográfica intermitente do Rio Jaguaribe. A variação espacial indicou uma atenuação estatisticamente significativa ao longo do reservatório somente para as concentrações de fósforo total e material particulado em suspensão. Os resultados indicam uma forte retenção de nutrientes e do material particulado em suspensão com eficiências de retenção de 89% para sílica dissolvida, 98% para fósforo solúvel reativo, 71% para amônia, 87% para nitrogênio total, 98% para fósforo total e 97% para o material particulado em suspensão em relação aos fluxos de entrada no reservatório. A rotina de operação da barragem definida pela condição intermitente do Rio Jaguaribe

  9. Dynamics of the diffusive DM-DE interaction – Dynamical system approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haba, Zbigniew [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, Plac Maxa Borna 9, 50-204 Wrocław (Poland); Stachowski, Aleksander; Szydłowski, Marek, E-mail: zhab@ift.uni.wroc.pl, E-mail: aleksander.stachowski@uj.edu.pl, E-mail: marek.szydlowski@uj.edu.pl [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, Orla 171, 30-244 Krakow (Poland)

    2016-07-01

    We discuss dynamics of a model of an energy transfer between dark energy (DE) and dark matter (DM) . The energy transfer is determined by a non-conservation law resulting from a diffusion of dark matter in an environment of dark energy. The relativistic invariance defines the diffusion in a unique way. The system can contain baryonic matter and radiation which do not interact with the dark sector. We treat the Friedman equation and the conservation laws as a closed dynamical system. The dynamics of the model is examined using the dynamical systems methods for demonstration how solutions depend on initial conditions. We also fit the model parameters using astronomical observation: SNIa, H ( z ), BAO and Alcock-Paczynski test. We show that the model with diffuse DM-DE is consistent with the data.

  10. Effects of dietary protein level on nutrients digestibility and reproductive performance of female mink (Neovison vison during gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingkui Jiang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether nutrient digestibility and reproductive performance of pregnant mink (Neovison vison were affected by different dietary protein levels. One hundred and twenty female mink were randomly assigned to four groups, receiving diets of fresh material with different protein levels. The dietary protein levels, expressed as percentage of dry matter (DM, were 32, 36, 40 and 44% respectively. These values corresponded to average 320, 360, 400 and 440 g protein/kg DM, respectively. Results were as follows. All of crude protein digestibility, nitrogen (N intake, N retention increased along with dietary protein level increasing. Low protein level (32% significantly reduced the above indicators (P < 0.05. DM digestibility and ether extract digestibility were not affected by dietary protein level. Results of mated females, barren females, kids per litter, live born kids per mated female, birth survival rate, and birth weight showed that mink achieved optimal reproductive performance when dietary protein level was 36%. In conclusion, dietary protein was anticipated to significantly influence some nutrients' utilization. Adopting the appropriate dietary protein level allow better reproduction performance. The most preferable reproductive performance was achieved when diet contained 275.5 g digestible protein per kg DM for female mink in gestation.

  11. Effect of feeding cassava bioethanol waste on nutrient intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in growing goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherdthong, Anusorn; Pornjantuek, Boonserm; Wachirapakorn, Chalong

    2016-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of various levels of cassava bioethanol waste (CBW) on nutrient intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolites in growing goats. Twelve crossbred, male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) growing goats with initial body weight (BW) of 20±3 kg were randomly assigned according to a completely randomized design (CRD). The dietary treatments were total mixed ration (TMR) containing various levels of CBW at 0, 10, and 20 % dry matter (DM). CBW contained crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid detergent lignin (ADL) at 11, 69, 47, and 23 % DM, respectively. The TMR diets were offered ad libitum and contained CP at 15 % DM. Inclusion of CBW at 10 % DM in TMR did not alter feed intake (g DM and g/kg BW(0.75)) and CP intake when compared to the control fed group (0 % CBW). Total OM intake was lower in the 20 % CBW group than in the others (P  0.05) whereas when 20 % CBW was incorporated to diet, intermediate digestibility coefficients were decreased. Average ruminal pH values ranged from 6-7. Rumen NH3-N and PUN concentration at 0, 3, and 6 h post-feeding were not significantly different among treatments (P > 0.05). Thus, inclusion of 10 % CBW in TMR diets does not adversely affect nutrient intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolite in fattening goats, and CBW may be effectively used as an alternative roughage source in the diets of goats.

  12. Cytokines, Type 2 DM and the Metabolic Syndrome | Ogbera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    comparable in the DM subjects with and without the Mets and also comparable in obese DM and non obese DM subjects. Of the Mets defining criteria, waist circumference (WC) and Triglyceride (TG) were found to be significantly associated with only two of the studied cytokines. The correlation coefficient and p values of ...

  13. The effects of increasing garlic powder and monensin supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood parameters of growing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour, A; Foroozandeh Shahraki, A D; Tabeidian, S A; Nasrollahi, S M; Yang, W Z

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing garlic powder and monensin supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood metabolites of growing calves. Forty Holstein calves (BW = 100 ± 11 kg) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (n = 10) in a complete randomized design. Experimental treatments consisted of the following: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet supplemented with 0.0003% of dietary dry matter (DM) sodium monensin, (iii) low level of garlic powder (Low-GAR; 0.5% of dietary DM) and (iv) high level of garlic powder (High-GAR; 1% of dietary DM). DM intake (DMI) and DM digestibility were (p calves supplemented with Low-GAR had a similar DMI to the control calves and similar DM digestibility to the control and monensin groups. The digestibility of other nutrients were not affected by the treatments. Although supplementing monensin relative to Low-GAR increased the DMI (p calves, which were higher than the control and High-GAR groups (p feed conversion ratio was improved in the Low-GAR group versus other treatment groups (p calves fed the Low-GAR showed an improved FCR and blood metabolites without changing the DMI and nutrient digestibility. It suggests that garlic powder could be used as an alternative to monensin for growing calves under the current feeding conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Nutrient requirements and low-cost balanced diets, based on seasonally available local feedstuffs, for local pigs on smallholder farms in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Natalie Ann; Dewey, Catherine Elizabeth; Thomas, Lian Francesca; Lukuyu, Ben; Grace, Delia; de Lange, Cornelis

    2016-02-01

    Growth performance of pigs on smallholder farms in the tropics is low. Lack of feedstuffs, seasonal feed shortages, and feeding nutritionally unbalanced diets contribute to slow growth. Low-cost balanced diets are needed to improve pig performance. In this study, we estimated the nutrient requirements of local pigs on smallholder farms in Kenya and developed balanced low-cost diets using seasonally available local feedstuffs. Diets were formulated to provide pigs with 80 % of the nutrient density in corn and soybean meal-based (reference) diets to minimize the cost per unit of energy and other nutrients. Estimated requirements for starting and growing pigs (8 to 35 kg body weight) were as follows: digestible energy (DE) 2960 kcal/kg of dry matter (DM), standardized ileal digestibility (SID) lysine 5.8 g/kg of DM, calcium 2.8 g/kg of DM, standardized total tract digestible (STTD) phosphorous 1.4 g/kg of DM, and crude protein 85 g/kg of DM. Nutrient requirements of local pigs on smallholder farms in Kenya were lower than those of exotic breed pigs raised in commercial settings. Seasonally available local feedstuffs were used to develop low-cost balanced diets. Twenty-two diets are presented based on season, cost, and feedstuff availability. This study has broad applicability as a case study of an approach that could be applied in other tropical regions in which smallholder pig keeping is practiced and where local feedstuffs for pigs are available seasonally.

  15. Nutrient digestibility and ruminal characteristics of buffaloes and bovine fed additived sugar cane silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.U. Cecato

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated nutrients total digestibility (TD and dry matter (DM intake, pH and NH3 ruminal concentration in buffaloes and bovine, fed sugar cane silages treated with Lactobacillus buchneri (SSL, plus 10% - cassava by-product meal (SSLC, plus 10% - soybean hulls (SSLS or plus 1% - urea (SSLU. The experimental design was a double 4x4 Latin squares with a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement. There was no interaction between species x treatment for evaluated parameters except for TD of CP, NDF and ADF. The soybean hulls addition increased (P<0.05 TD of DM, OM and total carbohydrate (TC while the urea addition reduced (P<0.05 DM intake and TD of DM, OM, TC and no fiber carbohydrate (NFC. Buffaloes showed the highest (P<0.05 TD of CP with SSL and the highest TD of NDF and ADF with SSLS. Bovines showed the highest (P<0.05 TD of CP with the SSL and SSLS; the last increased TD of NDF and ADF. The rumen pH in buffalo was higher than in cattle (6.62 vs. 6.48, respectively. The NH3 ruminal concentration did not differ between species and SSLU treatment presented the highest values (12.9 mg / 100 mL.

  16. MATÉRIA SECA E ABSORÇÃO DE NUTRIENTES EM FUNÇÃO DO ESPAÇAMENTO E DA DENSIDADE DE SEMEADURA EM ARROZ DE TERRA ALTA DRY MATTER AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE OF DRYLAND RICE RELATED TO ROW SPACING AND PLANT POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi instalado um experimento em condições de campo, em um Latossolo Vermelho escuro, epi-eutrófico, textura argilosa, em Selvíria-MS, com arroz de sequeiro cv. IAC 201, estudando-se três espaçamentos entre fileiras (30, 40 e 50 cm e três densidades de semeadura (100, 150 e 200 sementes viáveis/m2. Foram avaliadas a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea no momento do florescimento e determinados os teores e quantidades de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S absorvidos, assim como a eficiência de utilização de nutrientes. A redução do espaçamento entre fileiras aumentou a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e a quantidade de nutrientes absorvidos. A variação da densidade de semeadura não afetou os parâmetros estudados. A redução do espaçamento entre fileiras proporcionou maior eficiência de utilização do Ca e diminuiu a do N e Mg. Os teores de nutrientes na matéria seca da parte aérea não foram afetados pela variação do espaçamento entre fileiras.A field experiment was conducted in a clayey Dark Red Latosol in Selviria, MS, Brazil, to study the effect of three row spacings (30, 40 and 50 cm and three seed densities (100, 150 and 200 viable seeds/m2 on plant dry matter yield, macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S uptake at flowering, and the nutrient use efficiency. A decrease in row spacing led to an increase in shoot dry matter production and nutrient uptake. There was no effect of plant densities on dry matter or nutrient uptake. The decrease in row spacing allowed a higher Ca use efficiency, but not for N and Mg. The concentration of the macronutrients in the shoots was not affected by spacing.

  17. Growth and nutrient accumulation in mycorrhized papaya seedlings cultivated in a phosphorus-fertilized substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dácio Jerônimo de Almeida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The indiscriminate use of mineral fertilizers in papaya orchards has increased production costs, and the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is a promising alternative to reduce such expenses. Therefore, the present research aimed at studying the efficiency of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on dry matter and nutrient accumulation in Sunrise Solo papaya seedlings, by applying doses of P2O5 (triple superphosphate that are harmful to the symbiosis. The experiment was carried out in a protected environment and was set up in a randomized block design with four replications, and consisted of four P2O5 doses (0, 672, 1386 and 2100 mg dm-3, three mycorrhizal fungi species (Gigaspora margarita, Entrophospora colombiana and Scutellospora heterogama and the control treatment (mycorrhiza-free. Shoot and root dry matter as well as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents in leaf and root tissues were assessed. Mycorrhizal inoculation promoted a 30% increase in shoot dry matter in relation to the control treatment. Mycorrhizal fungi promoted increases in leaf and root nitrogen content up to 672 mg dm-3 P2O5. Inoculation of E. colombiana favored the highest gains in root and shoot dry matter. P2O5 fertilization increased foliar and root phosphorus content.

  18. Substituting oat hay or maize silage for portion of alfalfa hay affects growth performance, ruminal fermentation, and nutrient digestibility of weaned calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The impact of forage feeding strategy on growth performance, ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestibility in post-weaning calves was investigated. Methods Forty-five female Holstein calves (body weight [BW] = 79.79±0.38 kg were enrolled in the 35-d study at one week after weaning and randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments. All diets were fed as total mixed ration containing 60% (dry matter [DM] basis of basal starter feed and 40% (DM basis of forage, but varied in composition of forage source including i alfalfa (40% DM, AH; ii alfalfa hay (26.7% DM+oat hay (13.3% DM; OH; iii alfalfa hay (26.7% DM+corn silage (13.3% DM; WS. Results Dry matter intake was not different among treatment groups (p>0.05. However, BW (p<0.05 and average daily gain (p<0.05 of calves fed AH and OH were greater than WS-fed calves, whereas heart girth was greater in OH-fed calves than those fed AH and WS (p<0.05. Ruminal fermentation parameters including proportion of butyric acid, acetated-to-propionate ratio, concentration of total volatile fatty acid, protozoal protein, bacterial protein, and microbial protein in rumen were the highest in OH (p<0.05 and the lowest in WS. Compared with the AH and WS, feeding oat hay to postweaning calves increased crude protein digestibility (p<0.05, and decreased duration of diarrhea (p<0.05 and fecal index (p<0.05. Conclusion Our results suggested that partially replacing alfalfa hay with oat hay improved ruminal fermentation, nitrogen utilization, and reduced incidence of diarrhea in post-weaning dairy calves.

  19. Dark Matter "Collider" from Inelastic Boosted Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doojin; Park, Jong-Chul; Shin, Seodong

    2017-10-20

    We propose a novel dark matter (DM) detection strategy for models with a nonminimal dark sector. The main ingredients in the underlying DM scenario are a boosted DM particle and a heavier dark sector state. The relativistic DM impinged on target material scatters off inelastically to the heavier state, which subsequently decays into DM along with lighter states including visible (standard model) particles. The expected signal event, therefore, accompanies a visible signature by the secondary cascade process associated with a recoiling of the target particle, differing from the typical neutrino signal not involving the secondary signature. We then discuss various kinematic features followed by DM detection prospects at large-volume neutrino detectors with a model framework where a dark gauge boson is the mediator between the standard model particles and DM.

  20. Asymptotically Safe Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting...... searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter....

  1. Laser Boost of a Small Interstellar Ram Jet to Obtain Operational Velocity. Implications for the DM Rocket/Ram Jet Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott Beckwith, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    In other conference research papers, Beckwith obtained a maximum DM mass/energy value of up to 5 TeV, as opposed to 400 GeV for DM, which may mean more convertible power for a dark matter ram jet. The consequences are from assuming that axions are CDM, and KK gravitons are for WDM, then ρWarm-Dark-Matter would dominate not only structure formation in early universe formation, but would also influence the viability of the DM ram jet applications for interstellar travel. The increase in convertible DM mass makes the ram jet a conceivable option. This paper in addition to describing the scientific issues leading to that 5 TeV mass for DM also what are necessary and sufficient laser boost systems which would permit a ram net to become operational.

  2. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing or Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Safwat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM or Moringa oleifera (MOLM leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05 in feed, dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001, meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets.

  3. Dissolved organic matter and lake metabolism: Biogeochemistry and controls of nutrient flux dynamics to fresh waters. Technical progress report, January 1, 1990--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, R.G.

    1992-12-31

    The land-water interface region consists of two major components: the wetland, and the down-gradient adjacent littoral floating-leaved and submersed, macrophyte communities. Because of the importance of very high production and nutrient turnover of attached microbiota, a major emphasis of this investigation was placed upon these biota and their metabolic capacities for assimilation and release of organic compounds and nutrient retention and cycling. Examination of the capacities of wetland littoral communities to regulate fluxes of nutrients and organic compounds often has been limited to input-output analyses. These input-output data are an integral part of these investigations, but most of the research effort concentrated on the biotic and metabolic mechanisms that control fluxes and retention capacities and their effects upon biota in the down-gradient waters. The important regulatory capacities of dissolved organic compounds on enzyme reactivity was examined experimentally and coupled to the wetland-littoral organic carbon flux budgets.

  4. Studies on supplementary desalted mother liquor on digestibility of nutrients, ruminal fermentation, and energy and nitrogen balance in Thai native cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Takashi; Angthong, Wanna; Takeda, Motoharu; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

    2017-09-01

    Four Thai native steers were used to determine the adequate levels of supplementary desalted mother liquor (DML) for energy and nitrogen balances and ruminal fermentation. The crude protein and sodium chloride contents of DML were 25.5% and 60.3% on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. A 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment was conducted by adding different amounts of DML to three experimental diets (T1: 1.1%, T2: 2.2%, T3: 3.4% sodium chloride concentration with supplementary DML on a DM basis) and comparing their effects with those of a control diet (C) containing 1.0% commercial salt on a DM basis. The animals were given the experimental diets and rice straw daily at 1.2% and 0.8% of body weight, respectively, on a DM basis. No significant differences in the apparent digestibility of nutrients were observed among treatments. T3 achieved the lowest nitrogen retention (P < 0.05), followed by C, T2 and T1. The ratios of energy retention to gross energy were higher in T1 and T3 than T2, and that in C was lowest (P < 0.05). Supplementary NaCl concentration at 1% and 2% can be replaced with DML without an adverse effect on the digestibility of nutrients or on the nitrogen and energy retention. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Produção de matéria seca de forragem e acúmulo de nutrientes em pastagem anual de inverno tratada com esterco líquido de suínos Forage dry matter production and nutrient uptake of a hibernal pasture under application of pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Mari Assmann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O Esterco líquido de suínos (ELS pode ser usado como fertilizante orgânico, mas seu uso incorreto pode contaminar o solo e os mananciais de água. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de nutrientes ao solo, através do ELS, sobre a produção de matéria seca (MS e o acúmulo de nutrientes de uma pastagem de aveia branca+azevém (Avena sativa + Lolium multiflorum. Um experimento foi realizado de 2004 a 2006, no campo experimental da UTFPR, em Pato Branco, Paraná, Brasil. O solo era um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico. Diferentes doses (0, 20, 40, 80 e 120m³ ha-1 de ELS foram aplicadas na pastagem, aos 20 e 61 dias após a emergência (DAE da pastagem, em 2004, e aos 30 e 67DAE, em 2005. Outras duas aplicações foram realizadas nas culturas de verão, milho em 2004 e soja em 2005, respectivamente. A maior produção de MS foi obtida com a dose de 120m³ ha-1 de ELS, tanto no primeiro, quanto no segundo ano. A absorção de nutrientes pelas plantas respondeu de forma linear à aplicação de esterco líquido de suínos.The pig slurry can be used as an organic fertilizer but its improper use can contaminate water and soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of nutrient addition to the soil on pasture oat + ryegrass (Avena sativa + Lolium multiflorum dry matter production and nutrient uptake. One experiment was carried out from 2004 to 2006, installed in the experimental farm of UTFPR in Pato Branco, Paraná State, Brazil. The soil was an Oxisol (Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, Brazil systems. Different rates (0, 20, 40, 80 and 120m³ ha-1 of pig slurry were applied in the pasture. The pig slurry applications were performed 20 and 61 days after emergence (DAE of pasture, in 2004, and 30 and 67DAE of pasture in 2005. Another two applications were performed in summer crops, corn in 2004 and soybean in 2005. In both years the rate 120m³ ha-1 of pig slurry resulted in the highest dry matter production

  6. Imperfect Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzagholi, Leila; Vikman, Alexander, E-mail: l.mirzagholi@physik.uni-muenchen.de, E-mail: alexander.vikman@lmu.de [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, Theresienstr. 37, Munich, D-80333 Germany (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    We consider cosmology of the recently introduced mimetic matter with higher derivatives (HD). Without HD this system describes irrotational dust—Dark Matter (DM) as we see it on cosmologically large scales. DM particles correspond to the shift-charges—Noether charges of the shifts in the field space. Higher derivative corrections usually describe a deviation from the thermodynamical equilibrium in the relativistic hydrodynamics. Thus we show that mimetic matter with HD corresponds to an imperfect DM which: i) renormalises the Newton's constant in the Friedmann equations, ii) has zero pressure when there is no extra matter in the universe, iii) survives the inflationary expansion which puts the system on a dynamical attractor with a vanishing shift-charge, iv) perfectly tracks any external matter on this attractor, v) can become the main (and possibly the only) source of DM, provided the shift-symmetry in the HD terms is broken during some small time interval in the radiation domination époque. In the second part of the paper we present a hydrodynamical description of general anisotropic and inhomogeneous configurations of the system. This imperfect mimetic fluid has an energy flow in the field's rest frame. We find that in the Eckart and in the Landau-Lifshitz frames the mimetic fluid possesses nonvanishing vorticity appearing already at the first order in the HD. Thus, the structure formation and gravitational collapse should proceed in a rather different fashion from the simple irrotational DM models.

  7. Imperfect Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzagholi, Leila; Vikman, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We consider cosmology of the recently introduced mimetic matter with higher derivatives (HD). Without HD this system describes irrotational dust—Dark Matter (DM) as we see it on cosmologically large scales. DM particles correspond to the shift-charges—Noether charges of the shifts in the field space. Higher derivative corrections usually describe a deviation from the thermodynamical equilibrium in the relativistic hydrodynamics. Thus we show that mimetic matter with HD corresponds to an imperfect DM which: i) renormalises the Newton's constant in the Friedmann equations, ii) has zero pressure when there is no extra matter in the universe, iii) survives the inflationary expansion which puts the system on a dynamical attractor with a vanishing shift-charge, iv) perfectly tracks any external matter on this attractor, v) can become the main (and possibly the only) source of DM, provided the shift-symmetry in the HD terms is broken during some small time interval in the radiation domination époque. In the second part of the paper we present a hydrodynamical description of general anisotropic and inhomogeneous configurations of the system. This imperfect mimetic fluid has an energy flow in the field's rest frame. We find that in the Eckart and in the Landau-Lifshitz frames the mimetic fluid possesses nonvanishing vorticity appearing already at the first order in the HD. Thus, the structure formation and gravitational collapse should proceed in a rather different fashion from the simple irrotational DM models

  8. Imperfect Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzagholi, Leila; Vikman, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    We consider cosmology of the recently introduced mimetic matter with higher derivatives (HD). Without HD this system describes irrotational dust—Dark Matter (DM) as we see it on cosmologically large scales. DM particles correspond to the shift-charges—Noether charges of the shifts in the field space. Higher derivative corrections usually describe a deviation from the thermodynamical equilibrium in the relativistic hydrodynamics. Thus we show that mimetic matter with HD corresponds to an imperfect DM which: i) renormalises the Newton's constant in the Friedmann equations, ii) has zero pressure when there is no extra matter in the universe, iii) survives the inflationary expansion which puts the system on a dynamical attractor with a vanishing shift-charge, iv) perfectly tracks any external matter on this attractor, v) can become the main (and possibly the only) source of DM, provided the shift-symmetry in the HD terms is broken during some small time interval in the radiation domination époque. In the second part of the paper we present a hydrodynamical description of general anisotropic and inhomogeneous configurations of the system. This imperfect mimetic fluid has an energy flow in the field's rest frame. We find that in the Eckart and in the Landau-Lifshitz frames the mimetic fluid possesses nonvanishing vorticity appearing already at the first order in the HD. Thus, the structure formation and gravitational collapse should proceed in a rather different fashion from the simple irrotational DM models.

  9. Magnitude Differences in Bioactive Compounds, Chemical Functional Groups, Fatty Acid Profiles, Nutrient Degradation and Digestion, Molecular Structure, and Metabolic Characteristics of Protein in Newly Developed Yellow-Seeded and Black-Seeded Canola Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridou, Katerina; Zhang, Xuewei; Vail, Sally; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-06-10

    Recently, new lines of yellow-seeded (CS-Y) and black-seeded canola (CS-B) have been developed with chemical and structural alteration through modern breeding technology. However, no systematic study was found on the bioactive compounds, chemical functional groups, fatty acid profiles, inherent structure, nutrient degradation and absorption, or metabolic characteristics between the newly developed yellow- and black-seeded canola lines. This study aimed to systematically characterize chemical, structural, and nutritional features in these canola lines. The parameters accessed include bioactive compounds and antinutrition factors, chemical functional groups, detailed chemical and nutrient profiles, energy value, nutrient fractions, protein structure, degradation kinetics, intestinal digestion, true intestinal protein supply, and feed milk value. The results showed that the CS-Y line was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in neutral detergent fiber (122 vs 154 g/kg DM), acid detergent fiber (61 vs 99 g/kg DM), lignin (58 vs 77 g/kg DM), nonprotein nitrogen (56 vs 68 g/kg DM), and acid detergent insoluble protein (11 vs 35 g/kg DM) than the CS-B line. There was no difference in fatty acid profiles except C20:1 eicosenoic acid content (omega-9) which was in lower in the CS-Y line (P structure spectral profile, there were no significant differences in functional groups of amides I and II, α helix, and β-sheet structure as well as their ratio between the two new lines, indicating no difference in protein structure makeup and conformation between the two lines. In terms of energy values, there were significant differences in total digestible nutrient (TDN; 149 vs 133 g/kg DM), metabolizable energy (ME; 58 vs 52 MJ/kg DM), and net energy for lactation (NEL; 42 vs 37 MJ/kg DM) between CS-Y and CS-B lines. For in situ rumen degradation kinetics, the two lines differed in soluble fraction (S; 284 vs 341 g/kg CP), potential degradation fraction (D; 672 vs 590 g/kg CP), and effective degraded

  10. Discrete dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Hirsch, M; Peinado, E; Valle, J W F

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new motivation for the stability of dark matter (DM). We suggest that the same non-abelian discrete flavor symmetry which accounts for the observed pattern of neutrino oscillations, spontaneously breaks to a Z2 subgroup which renders DM stable. The simplest scheme leads to a scalar doublet DM potentially detectable in nuclear recoil experiments, inverse neutrino mass hierarchy, hence a neutrinoless double beta decay rate accessible to upcoming searches, while reactor angle equal to zero gives no CP violation in neutrino oscillations.

  11. Effect of boron and zinc fertilization on white oats grown in soil with average content of these nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Dalazen Castagnara

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of fertilization with zinc or boron on the growth and dry matter production, nutritional value and accumulation of nutrients in white oats. The study comprised two experiments conducted in glasshouses, the first consisting of the application of four doses of zinc (0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/dm³ in the form of zinc sulphate (20% Zn, and the second consisting of the application of four doses of boron (0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/dm³ in the form of Borax (11% B. The experimental design in each case was a randomized block design, with five replicates. Fertilization with zinc and boron increased the growth of white oats, but had no significant effect on the nutritional value of the forage. Higher levels of absorption and accumulation of nutrients in plant tissues were observed following the application of boron and zinc at rates of up to 0.60 mg/dm³ of soil.

  12. Konfirmasi spesifitas GAD65 terhadap anti-GAD65 pada tikus DM dan pasien DM tipe 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulanni’a Aulanni’a

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65 from bovine brain has been studied to obtain basic knowledge and diagnosis and prediction of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM patients. The importance of GAD65 in DM diagnosis based on its patogenesis. One of the autoimmune marker that can be used to detect beta-pancreas destruction in Diabetes Type I is the antibody to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65. Most of the pre-diabetic patients indicate the reactive autoantibody to GAD65. For early detection of anti-GAD65 in the serum of the patient, human recombinat GAD65 has been succeed to be used. However this is not economical, therefore, it is necessary to find the alternative source of cheaper GAD65. The aim of this research is to develop an early detection kit of Type 1 DM based on antibody- GAD65, since the longest patient suffering from DM has higher probability to be complicated, especially for uncured patients. The anti- GAD65 antibodies induced by anti-GAD65 synthetized and labelled by alkaline phosphatase can be used as reagent detection early DM patients. The ten patients of DM as samples (positive of anti-GAD65 and five rats of DM were positive with western blott technique using reagents as result of this research. It can be concluded, GAD65 enzyme isolated from bovine brain induced anti-GAD65 production and have possibilities to be packaged in a diagnostic kit for patient pre DM.

  13. Dry matter production and nutrient accumulation after successive crops of lettuce, tomato, rice, and andropogongrass in a substrate with zeolite Produção de matéria seca e acúmulo de nutrientes após cultivos sucessivos com alface, tomate, arroz e capim andropogon em substrato com zeólita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto C. de Campos Bernardi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are hydrated crystalline aluminosilicate minerals of natural occurrence, structured in rigid third dimension net that can be used as slow release plant-nutrient source. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of plant growth substrate under zeolite application, enriched with N, P and K, on dry matter yield and on nutrient contents in consecutive crops of lettuce, tomato, rice, and andropogon grass. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, with 3 kg pots with an inert substrate, evaluated in a randomized block design with three replications. Treatments consisted of four types of enrichment of concentrated natural zeolite: concentrated zeolite (Z only, zeolite + KNO3 (ZNK, zeolite + K2HPO4 (ZPK and zeolite + H3PO4 + apatite (ZP, and a control grown in substrate fertilized with a zeolite-free nutrient solution. Four levels of enriched zeolite were tested: 20, 40, 80, and 160 g/pot. Four successive crops were grown on the same substrate in each pot: lettuce, tomato, rice, and andropogon grass. Results indicated that N, P and K enriched zeolite was an adequate slow-release nutrient source for plants. The total dry matter production of above-ground biomass of four successive crops followed a descending order: ZP > ZPK > ZNK > Z.Zeólitas são minerais aluminossilicatos cristalinos hidratados de ocorrência natural, estruturados em redes cristalinas tridimensionais rígidas que podem ser usados como fonte de liberação lenta de nutrientes para as plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de zeólita enriquecida com N, P e K ao substrato de cultivo sobre a produção de matéria seca e o acúmulo de nutrientes pelas culturas sucessivas de alface, de tomate, de arroz e de capim-andropogon. O experimento foi conduzido em vasos em casa de vegetação, em vasos contendo 3 kg de substrato inerte. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. A zeólita natural

  14. Effects of Feeding Corn-lablab Bean Mixture Silages on Nutrient Apparent Digestibility and Performance of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Qu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of corn-lablab bean mixture silages relative to corn silages. The effects of feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages on nutrient apparent digestibility and milk production of dairy cows in northern China were also investigated. Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to determine the ruminal digestion kinetics and ruminal nutrient degradability of corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups of 30 cows each. Two diets were formulated with a 59:41 forage: concentrate ratio. Corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages constituted 39.3% of the forage in each diet, with Chinese wildrye hay constituting the remaining 60.7%. Corn-lablab bean mixture silages had higher lactic acid, acetic acid, dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ash, Ca, ether extract concentrations and ruminal nutrient degradability than monoculture corn silage (p<0.05. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF concentrations of corn-lablab bean mixture silages were lower than those of corn silage (p<0.05. The digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF for cows fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was higher than for those fed corn silage (p<0.05. Feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield and milk protein of dairy cows when compared with feeding corn silage (p<0.05. The economic benefit for cow fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was 8.43 yuan/day/cow higher than that for that fed corn silage. In conclusion, corn-lablab bean mixture improved the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of silage compared with monoculture corn. In this study, feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield, milk protein and nutrient apparent digestibility of dairy cows compared with corn silage in northern China.

  15. 593 NUTRIENT VALUE AND IN VITRO GAS PRODUCTION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    matter (DM) of boiled water treated wild cocoyam (BWTAWC) and DM in cold ... increase in ruminant population in the recent times. The AIBs are now ... altitude 200 - 300 m above sea level; mean temperature of 25 - 29 ºC and the average .... Boiling process drastically reduced the saponin than soaking in ordinary water.

  16. Some aspects of nutrient chemistry of the Caribbean Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajendran, A; DileepKumar, M.; Khan, A.A; Knight, D.; O'Reilly, A; Yen, I.C.; Wagh, A; Desai, B.N.

    waters showed a decrease up to 110 mu mol.dm sup(-3) at around 400 m. Within the euphotic zone considerable amounts of oxygen (30-60 mu mol.dm sup(-3)) were utilized for organic matter degradation, even within the euphotic zone. Two nitrate maxima, one...

  17. Influence of Wheat and Maize Starch on Fermentation in the Rumen, Duodenal Nutrient Flow and Nutrient Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Šimko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of feeding diets with different starch sources on fermentation in the rumen, duodenal nutrient flow and nutrient digestibility. The basis of the diets was maize silage and alfalfa hay supplemented with wheat meal in diet W, or maize meal in diet M. The experiment was performed on four Black-Spotted bulls with mean live weight of 525 kg, which were fed twice daily at 06.30 and 18.30 h. Experimental animals were fitted with ruminal fistulae and duodenal T-shaped cannulae. Cr2O3 was used as a marker of nutrient flow to the duodenum. Rations were formulated so that the ratio of starch to crude fibre (CF was 2.1:1 and the percentage of CF was maintained at 17% (DM. Duodenal chymus was collected at 2-h time intervals. Starch origin significantly affected ruminal fermentation. Concentration of propionic, butyric and lactic acid was higher with wheat than with maize meal. When the maize meal was the source of starch there was a significantly higher flow of fat, CF, nitrogen-free extract, and starch into duodenum. Differences in duodenal flow of crude protein were not significant across the starch sources. Intake of wheat meal or maize meal increased duodenal flow relative to intake by 33% or 42 % respectively. The apparent digestibility of dry matter (76 ± 2%, crude protein (67 ± 0.9%, CF (64 ± 1.9%, nitrogen-free extract (82 ± 1.5% and organic matter (76 ± 1.3% was significantly higher by offering wheat meal.

  18. Acúmulo e repartição da matéria seca da planta de pepino tipo conserva sob três doses de nutrientes minerais Dry matter accumulation and distribution of pickling cucumber plants under three mineral nutrient levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Nicasio Rodríguez Espínola

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se o efeito de três doses de nutrientes minerais sobre o acúmulo e distribuição da matéria seca da planta de pepino tipo conserva, híbrido Crispina. As plantas foram cultivadas em sacolas plásticas com 4,6kg de substrato composto por uma mistura de 40% de casca de arroz e 60% de solo, no interior de uma estufa de polietileno, na primavera de 1998 e no verão de 1999. Foi empregado um delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com três repetições e 15 plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por três níveis múltiplos de uma dose padrão de nutrientes aplicada para cada planta, contendo N-P-K-Ca e Mg nas quantidades de 0,8-0,12-0,8-0,46-0,086g.pl-1, com 0,33m de solução de micronutrientes e 0,07m de quelato de ferro. Os níveis corresponderam às quantidades de 50%, 100% e 150% da dose padrão, denominados de tratamentos T1, T2 e T3, respectivamente, aplicados semanalmente através da fertirrigação em todas as plantas de uma mesma parcela. Determinou-se a matéria seca dos diferentes órgãos da parte aérea da planta a intervalos semanais. Houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos no acúmulo da matéria seca, nos dois experimentos. A maior fração foi alocada para os frutos, atingindo o valor mais elevado de 0,64 na primavera. Concluiu-se que a distribuição da matéria seca desse material vegetal não é constante, sofrendo interações com as variáveis do ambiente.It was determined the effect of three mineral nutrient levels on dry matter accumulation and distribution of pickling cucumber plants, hybrid Crispina, grown inside a polyethylene greenhouse, in spring 1998 and in summer 1999. Planting was made in bags filled with 4.6kg of a substrate mixture composed by 40% rice husks and 60% soil. A randomized block experimental design was used, with three replications and15 plants per plot. A reference nutrient dose was supplied weekly to each one of the plants, with the following composition

  19. The effect of sensory-nutrient congruency on food intake after repeated exposure: do texture and/or energy density matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, P S

    2014-09-01

    Sensory properties guide the amount that people eat. In particular, food texture plays an important role in a food's 'expected satiation', which in turn affects the food-related decision making process. One hypothesis is that incongruent pairing of a textural cue with a post-ingestive outcome compromises this process, leading to poor energy compensation. Several studies examined the effect of both energy density and sensory characteristics (i.e. increased creaminess and thickness) on expectations, subjective appetite and food intake. To add to this literature, a re-analysis of data assessed whether the effect of sensory-nutrient pairings on energy intake compensation persisted after repeated exposure to a food. In this cross-over design, 27 participants consumed two preloads with 'congruent' (low-energy/liquid; high-energy/semi-solid) and two preloads with 'incongruent' (low-energy/semi-solid; high-energy/liquid) texture-nutrient combinations for nine subsequent meals, during which ad libitum intake was measured. Intake at first exposure did not differ between the low-energy (280±150kcal) and high-energy preloads (292±183kcal) in the incongruent conditions. By contrast, it was greater after the low-energy (332±203kcal) than after the high-energy (236±132kcal) preload in the congruent conditions (energy∗incongruent/congruent, p=0.04). Post-exposure, this pattern changed: intake depended on the energy density of the preloads in all conditions, and was greater after low-energy preloads (day∗energy∗incongruent/congruent-interaction for breakfast: p=0.02). Thus, manipulating the sensory properties of a food influenced energy compensation and meal size, but only at initial exposure. Repeated exposure 'corrected' the initial lack of compensation observed in conditions with incongruent sensory-nutrient pairings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of rumen-protected γ-aminobutyric acid on performance and nutrient digestibility in heat-stressed dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J B; Bu, D P; Wang, J Q; Sun, X Z; Pan, L; Zhou, L Y; Liu, W

    2014-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of rumen-protected γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on performance and nutrient digestibility in heat-stressed dairy cows. Sixty Holstein dairy cows (141±15 d in milk, 35.9±4.3kg of milk/d, and parity 2.0±1.1) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments according to a completely randomized block design. Treatments consisted of 0 (control), 40, 80, or 120mg of true GABA/kg of dry matter (DM). The trial lasted 10wk. The average temperature-humidity indices at 0700, 1400, and 2200h were 78.4, 80.2, and 78.7, respectively. Rectal temperatures decreased linearly at 0700, 1400, and 2200h with increasing GABA concentration. Supplementation of GABA had no effect on respiration rates at any time point. Dry matter intake, energy-corrected milk, 4% fat-corrected milk, and milk fat yield tended to increase linearly with increasing GABA concentration. Supplementation of GABA affected, in a quadratic manner, milk protein and lactose concentrations, and milk protein yield, and the peak values were reached at a dose of 40mg of GABA/kg. Milk urea nitrogen concentration responded quadratically. Total solids content increased linearly with increasing GABA concentration. Supplementation of GABA had no effect on milk yield, lactose production, total solids, milk fat concentration, somatic cell score, or feed efficiency. Apparent total-tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were similar among treatments. These results indicate that rumen-protected GABA supplementation to dairy cows can alleviate heat stress by reducing rectal temperature, increase DM intake and milk production, and improve milk composition. The appropriate supplemental GABA level for heat-stressed dairy cows is 40mg/kg of DM. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 1015 PTT Segment MEMS DM Development, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology has the potential to create deformable mirrors (DM) with more than 10^4 actuators with size, weight, and power...

  2. Picometer-Resolution MEMS Segmented DM, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology has the potential to create deformable mirrors (DM) with 10^4 actuators that have size, weight, and power...

  3. Picometer-Resolution MEMS Segmented DM, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology has the potential to create deformable mirrors (DM) with 10^4 actuators that have size, weight, and power...

  4. The Effects of Different Energy and Protein Ratio to Sheep’s Nutrient Intake and Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The objective of this research was to study the effects of different energy and protein ratio towards sheep’s nutrient intake and digestibility. Twenty four male sheep’s, 6 – 7 months old with initial average live weight 13+1.56 kg, coefficient variant11.78% were used in this research. The complete feed ration which consisted of King Grass (Pennisetum purpureum, soybean powder, rice bran, dried cassava and molasses was used in this research. Protein content on each component was 10, 12 and 14% and total digestible nutrients (TDN 60 and 65%, respectively. Dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM intake, DM and OM digestibility were studied in this research. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was employed to analyze the data. Test of Small Difference (P<0.05 was then carried out if significant different occurred. The research results showed that Dry matter and OM ration intake showed significant different among treatments (P<0.05. The highest DM intake was obtained at crude protein (CP 14% and TDN 65% i.e. 695.54 g while the lowest value was CP 14% and TDN 65% i.e. 462.11 g. Thus different DM and OM intake were caused by different ration ingredients composition. Dry matter and OM ration digestibility were not show

  5. Dipolar dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masso, Eduard; Mohanty, Subhendra; Rao, Soumya

    2009-01-01

    If dark matter (DM) has nonzero direct or transition, electric or magnetic dipole moment then it can scatter nucleons electromagnetically in direct detection experiments. Using the results from experiments like XENON, CDMS, DAMA, and COGENT, we put bounds on the electric and magnetic dipole moments of DM. If DM consists of Dirac fermions with direct dipole moments, then DM of mass less than 10 GeV is consistent with the DAMA signal and with null results of other experiments. If on the other hand DM consists of Majorana fermions then they can have only nonzero transition moments between different mass eigenstates. We find that Majorana fermions with masses 38 χ < or approx. 100-200 GeV and mass splitting of the order of (150-200) keV can explain the DAMA signal and the null observations from other experiments and in addition give the observed relic density of DM by dipole-mediated annihilation. The absence of the heavier DM state in the present Universe can be explained by dipole-mediated radiative decay. This parameter space for the mass and for dipole moments is allowed by limits from L3 but may have observable signals at LHC.

  6. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safwat, A M; Sarmiento-Franco, L; Santos-Ricalde, R H; Nieves, D; Sandoval-Castro, C A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera (MOLM) leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average) were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05) in feed, dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF) intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001), meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets.

  7. Absorption and nutrient concentration in apple (Pyrus mains L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Trani, P.E.; Haag, H.P.; Sarruge, J.R.; Dechen, A.R.; Catani, CB

    1981-01-01

    In order to obtain the following informations: a) dry matter production and extraction of nutrients by the fruits at different ages; b) dry matter production and extraction of nutrient by the leaves and "trunk + branches" collected at the flowering stage; c) dry matter production and export of nutrients by pruning (leaves and branches) at the begining dormant stage; A trial was conducted on Latossolo Vermelho Escuro Orto group (Orthox) at Buri, São Paulo State, Brazil. The material was collec...

  8. Consumption, nutrient digestibility and lactation performance of dairy cows fed soybeans in different forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria de Vasconcelos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Twelve Holstein cows were given diets containing soybean supplied in different ways in order to identify possible changes in lactation performance and evaluate the economic feasibility of the diets. The diets included: soybean meal only (SM-control; raw soybean (RaS; roasted soybean (RoS and soybean meal plus 5% urea (SMU. The forage consisted of corn silage. We analyzed the dry matter intake, milk production and collected milk samples. To estimate digestibility, we collected six samples of feces over a period of six consecutive days. The intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC did not differ among treatments. On the other hand, crude protein (CP intake was influenced by the diets, and the highest mean values of ether extract (EE were found with the RaS and RoS diets. The intake of total digestible nutrients (TDN was lower in the RaS and RoS diets compared to the control diet. DM, OM, CP, EE, and NDF digestibility were not affected by the different diets, while NFCs were reduced in the RoS diet and TDN decreased with both the RaS and RoS diets. There were also no differences observed across diets for total milk production, production corrected to 3.5% fat, diet efficiency, or milk per kilogram of dry matter and/or crude protein. We conclude that raw and roasted soybeans as well as concentrate plus 5% urea in dry matter may be used instead of soybean meal as feed for high-producing cows, without affecting milk production and composition. We also observed that the SMU diet was the least costly.

  9. Data set on the effects of conifer control and slash burning on soil carbon, total N, organic matter and extractable micro-nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D. Bates

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conifer control in sagebrush steppe of the western United States causes various levels of site disturbance influencing vegetation recovery and resource availability. The data set presented in this article include growing season availability of soil micronutrients and levels of total soil carbon, organic matter, and N spanning a six year period following western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis spp. occidentalis reduction by mechanical cutting and prescribed fire of western juniper woodlands in southeast Oregon. These data can be useful to further evaluate the impacts of conifer woodland reduction to soil resources in sagebrush steppe plant communities.

  10. CONSTRAINT ON LIGHT DIPOLE DARK MATTER FROM HELIOSEISMOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Ilídio [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofísica, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Kadota, Kenji [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Silk, Joseph, E-mail: ilidio.lopes@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: ilopes@uevora.pt, E-mail: kadota.kenji@f.nagoya-u.jp, E-mail: silk@astro.ox.ac.uk [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2014-01-10

    We investigate the effects of a magnetic dipole moment of asymmetric dark matter (DM) in the evolution of the Sun. The dipole interaction can lead to a sizable DM scattering cross section even for light DM, and asymmetric DM can lead to a large DM number density in the Sun. We find that solar model precision tests, using as diagnostic the sound speed profile obtained from helioseismology data, exclude dipolar DM particles with a mass larger than 4.3 GeV and magnetic dipole moment larger than 1.6 × 10{sup –17} e cm.

  11. Effects of polymer coated slow-release urea on ruminal fermentation and nutrient total tract digestion of beef steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gardinal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of polymer coated slow-release urea (SRU in high-forage diets of beef steers on nutrient intake and digestibility, ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, and energy balance. Eight 24-mo-old rumen-fistulated castrated Nellore steers (average body weight = 418.0±40.0 kg were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Animals were randomly distributed to receive one of the following diets: no urea inclusion; 1.0% inclusion of feed grade urea in the diet (dry matter [DM] basis; 1.0% inclusion of slow-release urea 1 in the diet (DM basis; and 1.0% inclusion of slow-release urea 2 in the diet (DM basis. Slow-release urea 2 had a similar composition to that of slow-release urea 1 and differed in that it contained 2.95% sulfur. A high-forage diet was provided (75% of total DM and corn silage was used as the forage source. Diets with urea had increased crude protein (CP intake, and CP and total digestible nutrients total tract digestion. Urea sources increased ruminal concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and acetate, and decreased butyrate concentrations. The polymer coated urea did not alter ruminal fermentation when compared with feed grade urea. Diets did not affect the energy balance of steers. Feed grade urea presented greater microbial protein synthesis than polymer coated slow-release urea. The partial replacement of soybean meal by 1% slow-release urea in a diet with 75% forage does not improve ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis, and shows similar results as feeding feed grade urea to beef steers.

  12. Testing Lorentz invariance of dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Blas, Diego; Sibiryakov, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    We study the possibility to constrain deviations from Lorentz invariance in dark matter (DM) with cosmological observations. Breaking of Lorentz invariance generically introduces new light gravitational degrees of freedom, which we represent through a dynamical timelike vector field. If DM does not obey Lorentz invariance, it couples to this vector field. We find that this coupling affects the inertial mass of small DM halos which no longer satisfy the equivalence principle. For large enough lumps of DM we identify a (chameleon) mechanism that restores the inertial mass to its standard value. As a consequence, the dynamics of gravitational clustering are modified. Two prominent effects are a scale dependent enhancement in the growth of large scale structure and a scale dependent bias between DM and baryon density perturbations. The comparison with the measured linear matter power spectrum in principle allows to bound the departure from Lorentz invariance of DM at the per cent level.

  13. Testing Lorentz invariance of dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blas, Diego [Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Ivanov, Mikhail M.; Sibiryakov, Sergey, E-mail: diego.blas@cern.ch, E-mail: mm.ivanov@physics.msu.ru, E-mail: sibir@inr.ac.ru [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Vorobjevy Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-01

    We study the possibility to constrain deviations from Lorentz invariance in dark matter (DM) with cosmological observations. Breaking of Lorentz invariance generically introduces new light gravitational degrees of freedom, which we represent through a dynamical timelike vector field. If DM does not obey Lorentz invariance, it couples to this vector field. We find that this coupling affects the inertial mass of small DM halos which no longer satisfy the equivalence principle. For large enough lumps of DM we identify a (chameleon) mechanism that restores the inertial mass to its standard value. As a consequence, the dynamics of gravitational clustering are modified. Two prominent effects are a scale dependent enhancement in the growth of large scale structure and a scale dependent bias between DM and baryon density perturbations. The comparison with the measured linear matter power spectrum in principle allows to bound the departure from Lorentz invariance of DM at the per cent level.

  14. Beyond the Fe-P-redox connection: preferential regeneration of phosphorus from organic matter as a key control on Baltic Sea nutrient cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jilbert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of regeneration and burial of phosphorus (P in the Baltic Sea are strongly dependent on redox conditions. Redox varies spatially along water depth gradients and temporally in response to the seasonal cycle and multidecadal hydrographic variability. Alongside the well-documented link between iron oxyhydroxide dissolution and release of P from Baltic Sea sediments, we show that preferential remineralization of P with respect to carbon (C and nitrogen (N during degradation of organic matter plays a key role in determining the surplus of bioavailable P in the water column. Preferential remineralization of P takes place both in the water column and upper sediments and its rate is shown to be redox-dependent, increasing as reducing conditions become more severe at greater water-depth in the deep basins. Existing Redfield-based biogeochemical models of the Baltic may therefore underestimate the imbalance between N and P availability for primary production, and hence the vulnerability of the Baltic to sustained eutrophication via the fixation of atmospheric N. However, burial of organic P is also shown to increase during multidecadal intervals of expanded hypoxia, due to higher net burial rates of organic matter around the margins of the deep basins. Such intervals may be characterized by basin-scale acceleration of all fluxes within the P cycle, including productivity, regeneration and burial, sustained by the relative accessibility of the water column P pool beneath a shallow halocline.

  15. MANGROVE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS AND CORAL REEFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the consequences of the declining global cover of mangroves due to anthropogenic disturbance necessitates consideration of how mangrove-derived nutrients contribute to threatened coral reef systems. We sampled potential sources of organic matter and a suite of sessi...

  16. The Dionaea muscipula ammonium channel DmAMT1 provides NH₄⁺ uptake associated with Venus flytrap's prey digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, Sönke; Krol, Elzbieta; Kreuzer, Ines; Kruse, Jörg; Karl, Franziska; von Rüden, Martin; Escalante-Perez, Maria; Müller, Thomas; Rennenberg, Heinz; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Neher, Erwin; Hedrich, Rainer

    2013-09-09

    Ammonium transporter (AMT/MEP/Rh) superfamily members mediate ammonium uptake and retrieval. This pivotal transport system is conserved among all living organisms. For plants, nitrogen represents a macronutrient available in the soil as ammonium, nitrate, and organic nitrogen compounds. Plants living on extremely nutrient-poor soils have developed a number of adaptation mechanisms, including a carnivorous lifestyle. This study addresses the molecular nature, function, and regulation of prey-derived ammonium uptake in the Venus flytrap, Dionaea muscipula, one of the fastest active carnivores. The Dionaea muscipula ammonium transporter DmAMT1 was localized in gland complexes where its expression was upregulated upon secretion. These clusters of cells decorating the inner trap surface are engaged in (1) secretion of an acidic digestive enzyme cocktail and (2) uptake of prey-derived nutrients. Voltage clamp of Xenopus oocytes expressing DmAMT1 and membrane potential recordings with DmAMT1-expressing Dionaea glands were used to monitor and compare electrophysiological properties of DmAMT1 in vitro and in planta. DmAMT1 exhibited the hallmark biophysical properties of a NH4(+)-selective channel. At depolarized membrane potentials (Vm = 0), the Km (3.2 ± 0.3 mM) indicated a low affinity of DmAMT1 for ammonium that increased systematically with negative going voltages. Upon hyperpolarization to, e.g., -200 mV, a Km of 0.14 ± 0.015 mM documents the voltage-dependent shift of DmAMT1 into a NH4(+) transport system of high affinity. We suggest that regulation of glandular DmAMT1 and membrane potential readjustments of the endocrine cells provide for effective adaptation to varying, prey-derived ammonium sources. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Senam efektif Menurunkan Kadar Gula Darah Pasien DM Tipe 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jati Ekawati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is one of the major threats to human health in the 21st century. Indonesia's own country with diabetes mellitus was ranked the world's fourth largest with 8.6% of the total prevalence of diabetes sufferers after India, China, and the United States. Factors that influence diabetes include; 1 age, 2 Obesity, 3 Family History, and 4 ethnic group. There are four pillars of prevention in Indonesia which is applied to the diabetes to control blood sugar levels, namely: 1 diet, 2 Physical Exercise, 3 medications, and 4 Health Education. Objective: To determine the effect of physical exercises Gymnastic DM administration and Gymnastic Senior to decrease blood sugar levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Method: This study is a quantitative study with this type of study without a comparison group quasy experiments. The design of the study is a pretest-posttest one group design. Number of samples used were 41 respondents from the participants calisthenics DM in the psychiatric hospital. Prof. dr. Soerojo Magelang. Analysis of the data used is the analysis bivariabel univariabel and analysis using statistical models Paired sample t-tests with significance level α = 0.05. Result: There was a decrease in blood sugar levels after exercise DM for 3 times a week for 2 weeks, an average of 64.780 mg/dl. T count value obtained at 13.624 with a p-value 0.000 <0.05, means that there are significant differences in blood sugar levels before and after doing gymnastic DM and Gymnastic Senior. Conclusion: The provision of physical training exercises conducted by DM DM participants calisthenics in Prof. RSJ. Dr. Soerojo Magelang for 3 times a week for 2 weeks can lower blood sugar levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  18. Molecular mechanisms in DM1 - a focus on foci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersson, Olof Joakim; Aagaard, Lars; Jensen, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    -expanded RNA remains in the nuclear compartment, while in dividing cells such as fibroblasts a considerable fraction of the mutant RNA reaches the cytoplasm, consistent with findings that both nuclear and cytoplasmic events are mis-regulated in DM1. Recent evidence suggests that the nuclear aggregates......, or ribonuclear foci, are more dynamic than previously anticipated and regulated by several proteins, including RNA helicases. In this review, we focus on the homeostasis of DMPK mRNA foci and discuss how their dynamic regulation may affect disease-causing mechanisms in DM1...

  19. Evading direct dark matter detection in Higgs portal models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcadi, Giorgio [Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Gross, Christian, E-mail: christian.gross@helsinki.fi [Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Lebedev, Oleg [Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Pokorski, Stefan [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, PL-02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Toma, Takashi [Physik-Department T30d, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-06-10

    Many models of Higgs portal Dark Matter (DM) find themselves under pressure from increasingly tight direct detection constraints. In the framework of gauge field DM, we study how such bounds can be relaxed while retaining the thermal WIMP paradigm. When the hidden sector gauge symmetry is broken via the Higgs mechanism, the hidden sector generally contains unstable states which are lighter than dark matter. These states provide DM with an efficient annihilation channel. As a result, the DM relic abundance and the direct detection limits are controlled by different parameters, and the two can easily be reconciled. This simple setup realizes the idea of “secluded” dark matter naturally.

  20. Flavoured Dark Matter moving left

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Monika; Das, Satrajit; Kast, Simon

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the phenomenology of a simplified model of flavoured Dark Matter (DM), with a dark fermionic flavour triplet coupling to the left-handed SU(2) L quark doublets via a scalar mediator. The DM-quark coupling matrix is assumed to constitute the only new source of flavour and CP violation, following the hypothesis of Dark Minimal Flavour Violation. We analyse the constraints from LHC searches, from meson mixing data in the K, D, and B d,s meson systems, from thermal DM freeze-out, and from direct detection experiments. Our combined analysis shows that while the experimental constraints are similar to the DMFV models with DM coupling to right-handed quarks, the multitude of couplings between DM and the SM quark sector resulting from the SU(2) L structure implies a richer phenomenology and significantly alters the resulting impact on the viable parameter space.

  1. Unblinding the dark matter blind spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Tao; Kling, Felix

    2017-01-01

    The dark matter (DM) blind spots in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) refer to the parameter regions where the couplings of the DM particles to the Z-boson or the Higgs boson are almost zero, leading to vanishingly small signals for the DM direct detections. In this paper, we carry out comprehensive analyses for the DM searches under the blind-spot scenarios in MSSM. Guided by the requirement of acceptable DM relic abundance, we explore the complementary coverage for the theory parameters at the LHC, the projection for the future underground DM direct searches, and the indirect searches from the relic DM annihilation into photons and neutrinos. We find that (i) the spin-independent (SI) blind spots may be rescued by the spin-dependent (SD) direct detection in the future underground experiments, and possibly by the indirect DM detections from IceCube and SuperK neutrino experiments; (ii) the detection of gamma rays from Fermi-LAT may not reach the desirable sensitivity for searching for the DM blind-spot regions; (iii) the SUSY searches at the LHC will substantially extend the discovery region for the blind-spot parameters. As a result, the dark matter blind spots thus may be unblinded with the collective efforts in future DM searches.

  2. Nutritive value and nutrient digestibility of ensiled mango by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Sruamsiri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Mango canning by-products (seed and peel together with ensiled mango peel were subjected to analysis of dry matter (DM, ash, crude protein (CP, crude fibre (CF, ether extract (EE, nitrogen-free extract (NFE, gross energy (GE, neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF. In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD, ADF (IVADFD and NDF (IVNDFD was determined after digesting the by-products in buffered rumen fluid for 24 or 48 h in an incubator. CP content in peel, seed and peel silage is 4.68, 4.19 and 5.27% respectively. As expected, mango seed has a higher fibre content than mango peel and peel silage as indicated by NDF (53.01 vs 25.87 and 27.56% respectively and ADF (31.02 vs 19.14 and 17.68% respectively. However, mango seed also has greater GE than mango peel and peel silage (4,070 vs 3,827 and 3,984 kcal/g DM respectively, probably due partly to its high fat content.Four head of male native cattle were used to determine nutrient digestibility of ensiled mango by-products by randomly allowing them to receive ensiled mango peel with rice straw (EMPR and different levels of Leucaena leaves. Treatments consisted of: 1 ensiled mango peel + rice straw (90:10; 2 ensiled mango peel + rice straw + Leucaena leaves (85:10:5; 3 ensiled mango peel + rice straw + Leucaena leaves (80:10:10; and 4 ensiled mango peel + rice straw + Leucaena leaves (75:10:15. Addition of Leucaena leaves to silage increased apparent digestibility of DM (53.84, 55.43, 59.04 and 58.69% for the four formulations above respectively, probably because of increasing amounts of CP from Leucaena leaves, resulting in greater digestibility of NDF (39.11, 44.47, 47.12 and 43.32% for the four formulations above respectively. Total digestible nutrients (TDN and digestible energy (DE showed the same trends as apparent digestibility of DM.

  3. Semiautomatic estimation of breast density with DM-Scan software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Gómez, I; Casals El Busto, M; Antón Guirao, J; Ruiz Perales, F; Llobet Azpitarte, R

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the reproducibility of the calculation of breast density with DM-Scan software, which is based on the semiautomatic segmentation of fibroglandular tissue, and to compare it with the reproducibility of estimation by visual inspection. The study included 655 direct digital mammograms acquired using craniocaudal projections. Three experienced radiologists analyzed the density of the mammograms using DM-Scan, and the inter- and intra-observer agreement between pairs of radiologists for the Boyd and BI-RADS® scales were calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient. The Kappa index was used to compare the inter- and intra-observer agreements with those obtained previously for visual inspection in the same set of images. For visual inspection, the mean interobserver agreement was 0,876 (95% CI: 0,873-0,879) on the Boyd scale and 0,823 (95% CI: 0,818-0,829) on the BI-RADS® scale. The mean intraobserver agreement was 0,813 (95% CI: 0,796-0,829) on the Boyd scale and 0,770 (95% CI: 0,742-0,797) on the BI-RADS® scale. For DM-Scan, the mean inter- and intra-observer agreement was 0,92, considerably higher than the agreement for visual inspection. The semiautomatic calculation of breast density using DM-Scan software is more reliable and reproducible than visual estimation and reduces the subjectivity and variability in determining breast density. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Nutrient utilisation and methane emissions in Sahiwal calves differing in residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vimlesh C; Mahesh, Munnurpal S; Mohini, Madhu; Datt, Chander; Nampoothiri, Vinu M

    2014-01-01

    The presented study aimed at investigating the residual feed intake (RFI) of Sahiwal calves, nutrient utilisation as affected by RFI and its relationship with methane (CH4) emissions and some blood metabolites. Eighteen male Sahiwal calves (10-18 months of age; mean body weight 133 kg) were fed ad libitum with a total mixed ration. After calculating RFI for individual calves (-0.40 to +0.34 kg DM/d), they were divided into three groups with low, medium and high RFI, respectively. Dry matter intake (DMI) was higher (p feed conversion ratio were similar among the groups. With exception of glucose, concentrations of all measured blood metabolites were higher in Group High RFI (p feed efficiency and less CH4 production were observed in Group Low RFI, it was concluded that RFI can be used as a measure of feed efficiency, which has a potential to select Sahiwal calves for lowered CH4 emissions.

  5. Technical evaluation of a tank-connected food waste disposer system for biogas production and nutrient recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, Å; Bernstad Saraiva, A; Magnusson, N; Bissmont, M

    2017-07-01

    In this study, a tank-connected food waste disposer system with the objective to optimise biogas production and nutrient recovery from food waste in Malmö was evaluated. The project investigated the source-separation ratio of food waste through waste composition analyses, determined the potential biogas production in ground food waste, analysed the organic matter content and the limiting components in ground food waste and analysed outlet samples to calculate food waste losses from the separation tank. It can be concluded that the tank-connected food waste disposer system in Malmö can be used for energy recovery and optimisation of biogas production. The organic content of the collected waste is very high and contains a lot of energy rich fat and protein, and the methane potential is high. The results showed that approximately 38% of the food waste dry matter is collected in the tank. The remaining food waste is either found in residual waste (34% of the dry matter) or passes the tank and goes through the outlet to the sewer (28%). The relatively high dry matter content in the collected fraction (3-5% DM) indicates that the separation tank can thicken the waste substantially. The potential for nutrient recovery is rather limited considering the tank content. Only small fractions of the phosphorus (15%) and nitrogen (21%) are recyclable by the collected waste in the tank. The quality of the outlet indicates a satisfactory separation of particulate organic matter and fat. The organic content and nutrients, which are in dissolved form, cannot be retained in the tank and are rather led to the sewage via the outlet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dark matter in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persic, M.; Salucci, P.

    1990-01-01

    The Tully-Fisher relation is used to probe dark matter (DM) in the optical regions of spiral galaxies. By establishing it at several different isophotal radii in an appropriate sample of 58 galaxies with good B-band photometry and rotation curves, it is shown that some of its attributes (such as scatter, residuals, nonlinearity, and bias) dramatically decrease moving from the disk edge inward. This behavior challenges any mass model which assumes no DM or a luminosity-independent DM mass fraction interior to the optical radius of spiral galaxies. 58 refs

  7. Excreção de matéria orgânica dissolvida por populações fitoplanctônicas marinhas em bioensaios com nutrientes The excretion of dissolved organic matter by natural phytoplankton populations in bioassays with nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Augusto Henriques Vieira

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram efetuadas várias medidas de excreção de matéria orgânica dissolvida (MOD, utilizando-se populações naturais de fitoplâncton, provenientes da Enseada do Flamengo - litoral Norte do Estado de São Paulo - e enriquecidas artificialmente com nutrientes. A quantidade absoluta da MOD excretada, de um modo geral, acompanhou a quantidade de carbono total assimilado. Entretanto, nas populações com deficiência de nitrogênio, ocorreu um aumento das taxas relativas de excreção, não só devido à diminuição da assimilação total de carbono, mas, efetivamente, tambem ao aumento da quantidade absoluta de MOD excretada.Measurements of excreted dissolved organic matter (DOM were carried out twice (in simmer and winter using natural phytoplankton populations from "Enseada do Flamengo" (Lot. 23° 30'S-Long. 045°069'W and enriched artificially with nutrients. The bioassays were carried out inoculating samples of an integral sea water in ten liters flasks, incubated "in situ". Measures were taken in populations growing in: integral " f " media, "f" - N, "f" - P, "f" - (H + P, "f" - (Vit. + Metal traces, and in a control without enrichment. The absolute amount of excreted DOM generally followed the quantity of total carbon assimilated. In the meantime, with the populations with nitrogen deficiency occurred an increase of relatives rates of excretion, not only due to the total carbon assimilation diminution, but effectively also to the absolute increase of the quantity of excreted DOM.

  8. Interacting dark matter disguised as warm dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, Celine; Riazuelo, Alain; Hansen, Steen H.; Schaeffer, Richard

    2002-01-01

    We explore some of the consequences of dark-matter-photon interactions on structure formation, focusing on the evolution of cosmological perturbations and performing both an analytical and a numerical study. We compute the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and matter power spectrum in this class of models. We find, as the main result, that when dark matter and photons are coupled, dark matter perturbations can experience a new damping regime in addition to the usual collisional Silk damping effect. Such dark matter particles (having quite large photon interactions) behave like cold dark matter or warm dark matter as far as the cosmic microwave background anisotropies or matter power spectrum are concerned, respectively. These dark-matter-photon interactions leave specific imprints at sufficiently small scales on both of these two spectra, which may allow us to put new constraints on the acceptable photon-dark-matter interactions. Under the conservative assumption that the abundance of 10 12 M · galaxies is correctly given by the cold dark matter, and without any knowledge of the abundance of smaller objects, we obtain the limit on the ratio of the dark-matter-photon cross section to the dark matter mass σ γ-DM /m DM -6 σ Th /(100 GeV)≅6x10 -33 cm 2 GeV -1

  9. The search for Dark Matter in our galaxy; Suche nach Dunkler Materie in unserer Galaxie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eitel, K. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Boer, W. de [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik

    2007-07-01

    The matter content in galaxies like the Milky Way as well as in the entire Universe is dominated by Dark Matter (DM). The nature of this DM is one of the great enigmas of modern astroparticle physics. A promising candidate for this DM is a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP). DM can then be detected directly via rare elastic collisions of WIMPs with atomic nuclei in a well shielded underground detector or via the decay products from the annihilation of two WIMPs. Energetic gamma rays in cosmic radiation might therefore indicate an indirect signal of DM particles in our galaxy. We present two experimental approaches to search for WIMP Dark Matter. (orig.)

  10. Charged composite scalar dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkin, Reuven; Ruhdorfer, Maximilian; Salvioni, Ennio; Weiler, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    We consider a composite model where both the Higgs and a complex scalar χ, which is the dark matter (DM) candidate, arise as light pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons (pNGBs) from a strongly coupled sector with TeV scale confinement. The global symmetry structure is SO(7)/SO(6), and the DM is charged under an exact U(1)DM ⊂ SO(6) that ensures its stability. Depending on whether the χ shift symmetry is respected or broken by the coupling of the top quark to the strong sector, the DM can be much lighter than the Higgs or have a weak-scale mass. Here we focus primarily on the latter possibility. We introduce the lowest-lying composite resonances and impose calculability of the scalar potential via generalized Weinberg sum rules. Compared to previous analyses of pNGB DM, the computation of the relic density is improved by fully accounting for the effects of the fermionic top partners. This plays a crucial role in relaxing the tension with the current DM direct detection constraints. The spectrum of resonances contains exotic top partners charged under the U(1)DM, whose LHC phenomenology is analyzed. We identify a region of parameters with f = 1.4 TeV and 200 GeV ≲ m χ ≲ 400 GeV that satisfies all existing bounds. This DM candidate will be tested by XENON1T in the near future.

  11. Effect of exercise on apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and faecal recovery of ADL and TiO2 in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafstra, F J W C; van Doorn, D A; Schonewille, J T; Roelfsema, E; Westermann, C M; Dansen, O; Jacobs, M; Lee, J-Y; Spronck, E A; Blok, M C; Hendriks, W H

    2018-03-07

    Exercise and physical training are known to affect gastrointestinal function and digestibility in horses and can lead to inaccurate estimates of nutrient and energy digestibility when markers are used. The effect of exercise on apparent nutrient digestibility and faecal recoveries of ADL and TiO2 was studied in six Welsh pony geldings subjected to either a low- (LI) or high-intensity (HI) exercise regime according to a cross-over design. Ponies performing LI exercise were walked once per day for 45 min in a horse walker (5 km/h) for 47 consecutive days. Ponies submitted to HI exercise were gradually trained for the same 47 days according a standardized protocol. Throughout the experiment, the ponies received a fixed level of feed and the daily rations consisted of 4.7 kg DM of grass hay and 0.95 kg DM of concentrate. The diet was supplemented with minerals, vitamins and TiO2 (3.0 g Ti/day). Total tract digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM), CP, crude fat, NDF, ADF, starch, sugar and energy was determined with the total faeces collection (TFC) method. In addition, DM and OM digestibility was estimated using internal ADL and the externally supplemented Ti as markers. Urine was collected on the final 2 days of each experimental period. Exercise did not affect apparent digestibility of CP, crude fat, starch and sugar. Digestibility of DM (DMD), OM (OMD), ADF and NDF tended to be lower and DE was decreased when ponies received the HI exercise regime. For all treatments combined, mean faecal recoveries of ADL and Ti were 87.8±1.7% and 99.3±1.7%, respectively. Ti was not detected in the urine, indicating that intestinal integrity was maintained with exercise. Dry matter digestibility estimated with the TFC, ADL and Ti for ponies subjected to LI exercise were 66.3%, 60.3% and 64.8%, respectively, while DMD for HI ponies were 64.2%, 60.3% and 65.2%, respectively. In conclusion, physical exercise has an influence on the GE digestibility of the feed in ponies provided

  12. Extended micro objects as dark matter particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belotsky, K.; Rubin, S.; Svadkovsky, I.

    2017-05-01

    Models of various forms of composite dark matter (DM) predicted by particle theory and the DM constituents formed by gravity that are not reduced to new elementary particle candidates are discussed. Main attention is paid to a gravitational origin of the DM. The influence of extended mass spectrum of primordial black holes on observational limits is considered. It is shown that non-uniformly deformed extra space can be considered as point-like masses which possess only gravitational interaction with each other and with the ordinary particles. The recently discussed six-dimensional stable wormholes could contribute to the DM. The contribution of dark atoms is also considered.

  13. Decaying Dark Matter at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    We discuss a few scenarios with decaying Dark Matter and their prospect for detection at the LHC. First we present a simple minimal scenario, where Dark Matter is produced from the decay of a heavier colored or EW charged scalar via the FIMP or SuperWIMP mechanisms, then we discuss supersymmetric scenarios with RPV and gravitino DM, in particular a scenario allowing for simultaneous generation of DM and baryogenesis at a (relatively) low scale.

  14. Effect of supplementation of lecithin and carnitine on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in pigs fed high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathy Saseendran

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of dietary supplementation of lecithin and carnitine on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in pigs fed high-fat diet. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 weaned female large white Yorkshire piglets of 2 months of age were selected and randomly divided into three groups allotted to three dietary treatments, T1 - Control ration as per the National Research Council nutrient requirement, T2 - Control ration plus 5% fat, and T3 - T2 plus 0.5% lecithin plus 150 mg/kg carnitine. The total dry matter (DM intake, fortnightly body weight of each individual animal was recorded. Digestibility trial was conducted toward the end of the experiment to determine the digestibility coefficient of various nutrients. Results: There was a significant improvement (p0.05 among the three treatments on average daily gain, feed conversion efficiency, and nutrient digestibility during the overall period. Conclusion: It was concluded that the dietary inclusion of animal fat at 5% level or animal fat along with lecithin (0.5% and carnitine (150 mg/kg improved the growth performance in pigs than non-supplemented group and from the economic point of view, dietary incorporation of animal fat at 5% would be beneficial for improving growth in pigs without dietary modifiers.

  15. Effects of traditional Chinese medicine formula on ruminal fermentation, enzyme activities and nutrient digestibility of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi; Song, Zhen-Hui; Cao, Li-Ting; Wang, Yong; Zhou, Wen-Zhang; Zhou, Pei; Zuo, Fu-Yuan

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate effects of traditional Chinese medicine formula (TCMF) combined with several herbs on ruminal fermentation, enzyme activities and nutrient digestibility. Twenty finishing bulls were assigned to control or different TCMFs (Yufeisan-1, -2, -3; 2.5% dry matter (DM) in concentrate). Results showed that DM intake was higher (P < 0.05) in the Yufeisan-3 group than others. Compared to control, apparent digestibility of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were increased (P < 0.05) by Yufeisan-3. No changes were observed in ruminal pH, concentrations of ammonia-N, microbial crude protein and total volatile fatty acid, whereas ratio of acetate to propionate was lower (P < 0.05) and propionate proportion tended to be higher (P < 0.1) in three TCMFs than control. Ruminal xylanase (P = 0.061) and carboxymethylcellulase (P < 0.05) activities were higher in Yufeisan-3 than control. No changes were observed in abundance of total bacteria, fungi and protozoa, whereas Fibrobacter succinogenes (P = 0.062) and Ruminococcus flavefaciens (P < 0.05) were increased and total methanogens was reduced (P = 0.069) by Yufeisan-3 compared to control. Yufeisan-3 improved nutrient digestibility and ruminal enzyme activity, and modified fermentation and microbial community, maybe due to the presence of Herba agastaches, Cortex phellodendri and Gypsum fibrosum. © 2018 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Distinguishing Dark Matter Stabilization Symmetries at Hadron Colliders with Mass Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Heejoo

    2017-01-01

    Cosmological and astrophysical observations, yet all gravitational, suggest that there exists stable matter, so-called dark matter (DM), in our universe, which is exerting gravity but hardly detectable in relevant experiments. The stability of DM indicates that DM needs to be either massless or protected by a new symmetry (henceforth called DM stabilizing symmetry) preventing its decay. It turns out that cosmological consideration suggests that massless particles be unlikely to constitute a dominant portion of the DM, motivating DM candidates with a sizable mass. While a massive particle, in general, may decay into lighter particles, the charge conservation associated with the symmetry ensures the stability of DM. There is a tremendous amount of effort in the search for DM candidates and it also comprises collider experiments. DM is, by definition, hard to be detected at colliders such as the LHC. So, its existence may be inferred from (visible) Standard Model (SM) particles emitted from a decay chain of a...

  17. Effects of different levels of urea supplementation on nutrient intake and growth performance in growing camels fed roughage based complete pellet diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntiranyibagira Emmanuel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of urea in camels has beneficial and negative effects. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of different levels of urea supplementation on nutrients intake, digestibility, growth performance, feed efficiency and economics in growing camels fed roughage based complete pellet diets. In the present study, eighteen growing camels with an average live body weight of 306.17 ± 2.05 kg were randomly assigned in three treatments: T1 = roughage complete pellet diet without urea, T2 = T1 plus 1% urea, and T3 = T1 plus 2% urea. The results showed that the urea supplementation significantly affected average daily feed and nutrient intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and acid detergent fiber (ADF (P  0.05. Similarly, digestion coefficient of DM, CP, ether extract (EE, crude fiber (CF and ADF was influenced by increasing urea level (P  0.05. The intake of digestive nutrients was similar among all treatment groups. Total body live weight gain and average daily gain were significantly higher in urea supplemented groups (P < 0.05 than in the control group. The supplementation of urea at 1% in low quality roughage complete pellet diets significantly improved (P < 0.05 the feed efficiency. In conclusion, these results indicated that the incorporation of urea at 1% in roughage based complete pellet diets could positively improve nutrients intake, digestibility, growth performance and feed conversion efficiency of growing camels.

  18. Hyperuricaemia and the metabolic syndrome in type 2 DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbera Anthonia O

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated serum uric acid levels (SUA have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome (MetS and are often reported to be higher in females than in males. The aim of this report is to determine the prevalence and clinical correlates of hyperuricaemia and also to evaluate associations with the MetS in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in people with type 2 DM in Lagos, Nigeria. Hyperuricaemia was defined by cut-off values of > 7 mg/dl for men and > 6 mg/dl for women. The diagnosis of MetS was made using the new definition by the American Heart Association and other related bodies. Clinical and biochemical parameters were compared between subjects with hyperuricaemia and normouricaemia. Statistical analysis included usage of Student's t test, Pearson correlation coefficients, multivariate regression analysis and chi square. Results 601 patients with type 2 DM aged between 34-91 years were recruited for the study. The prevalence rates of hyperuricaemia and the MetS were 25% and 60% respectively. The frequency of occurrence of hyperuricaemia was comparable in both genders (59% vs 41%, p = 0.3. Although, the prevalence of the MetS in subjects with hyperuricaemia and normouricaemia was comparable (61 vs 56%, p = 0.1, a higher proportion of hyperuricaemic subjects had 3 or more components of the Mets compared with normouricaemic subjects. Possible predictors of hyperuricaemia include central obesity, smoking and elevated serum triglycerides (TG. SUA levels were found to be positively and significantly associated with serum TG (r = 0.2, p = 0.0001 and total cholesterol (r = 13, p = 0.001. Conclusion The prevalence of hyperuricaemia in subjects with type 2 DM is comparable in both genders and possible predictors of hyperuricaemia are potentially modifiable. SUA is positively and significantly associated with serum TG and total

  19. Identifying Bank Frauds Using CRISP-DM and Decision Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Carneiro da Rocha; Rafael Timóteo de Sousa Júnior

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to evaluate the use of techniques of decision trees, in conjunction with the managementmodel CRISP-DM, to help in the prevention of bank fraud. This article offers a study on decision trees, animportant concept in the field of artificial intelligence. The study is focused on discussing how these treesare able to assist in the decision making process of identifying frauds by the analysis of informationregarding bank transactions. This information is captured with the use of t...

  20. Focal plane based wavefront sensing with random DM probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluzhnik, Eugene; Sirbu, Dan; Belikov, Ruslan; Bendek, Eduardo; Dudinov, Vladimir N.

    2017-09-01

    An internal coronagraph with an adaptive optical system for wavefront control is being considered for direct imaging of exoplanets with upcoming space missions and concepts, including WFIRST, HabEx, LUVOIR, EXCEDE and ACESat. The main technical challenge associated with direct imaging of exoplanets is to control of both diffracted and scattered light from the star so that even a dim planetary companion can be imaged. For a deformable mirror (DM) to create a dark hole with 10-10 contrast in the image plane, wavefront errors must be accurately measured on the science focal plane detector to ensure a common optical path. We present here a method that uses a set of random phase probes applied to the DM to obtain a high accuracy wavefront estimate even for a dynamically changing optical system. The presented numerical simulations and experimental results show low noise sensitivity, high reliability, and robustness of the proposed approach. The method does not use any additional optics or complex calibration procedures and can be used during the calibration stage of any direct imaging mission. It can also be used in any optical experiment that uses a DM as an active optical element in the layout.

  1. Asymmetric Dark Matter and Dark Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Blennow, Mattias; Mena, Olga; Redondo, Javier; Serra, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric Dark Matter (ADM) models invoke a particle-antiparticle asymmetry, similar to the one observed in the Baryon sector, to account for the Dark Matter (DM) abundance. Both asymmetries are usually generated by the same mechanism and generally related, thus predicting DM masses around 5 GeV in order to obtain the correct density. The main challenge for successful models is to ensure efficient annihilation of the thermally produced symmetric component of such a light DM candidate without violating constraints from collider or direct searches. A common way to overcome this involves a light mediator, into which DM can efficiently annihilate and which subsequently decays into Standard Model particles. Here we explore the scenario where the light mediator decays instead into lighter degrees of freedom in the dark sector that act as radiation in the early Universe. While this assumption makes indirect DM searches challenging, it leads to signals of extra radiation at BBN and CMB. Under certain conditions, pre...

  2. Nutrient accumulation at the initial growth of pitaya plants according to phosphorus fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Amato Moreira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge about the amount of nutrient uptake in pitaya plants helps the balanced fertilizer recommendation for the crop, providing adequate nutrition and contributing to the maximum expression of this species potential. This research was carried out in order to evaluate the growth, nutrient accumulation and efficiency of absorption, transportation and use of P by pitaya according to phosphorus fertilization. A randomized blocks design was used, with five doses of P (0 mg dm-3, 20 mg dm-3, 40 mg dm-3, 80 mg dm-3 and 160 mg dm-3 incorporated into the soil, with four replications, three pots per plot and one cutting per pot. Differences in the nutrient accumulation of all doses were evident in the pitaya shoots and roots, as well as in the efficiency of absorption, transport and use of P, according to phosphorus fertilization. The nutrient accumulation in the pitaya roots was ranked in the following order: N > K > Ca > S > P > Mg > Fe > Mn > Zn > B ≥ Cu. For the shoots, the order was: K > N > Ca > S > Mg > P > Mn > Fe > Zn > B ≥ Cu. The initial growth of pitaya plants was maximum with 81 mg dm-3 of P, in a Red-Yellow Dystrophic Latosol. The application of 44-67 mg dm3 of P to the soil promoted the highest accumulation of macro and micronutrients in the pitaya.

  3. PENGARUH PENDIDIKAN KESEHATAN TENTANG DIET DM TERHADAP PENINGKATAN PENGETAHUAN KELUARGA PENDERITA DM DI KELURAHAN BANYURADEN KECAMATAN GAMPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Nurrohmad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:The number of people with diabetes mellitus in the world in 2030 is expected to114%.Families can be a very influential factor in determining treatment program diabetes mellitus. Knowledge ofdiabetes mellitus family owned very necessary to improve the health status of the family, asa family shouldgive good attention and care to the family members of people with diabetes mellitus.Objective:To determine the effectivity of health education about diabetes mellitus dietary to improving ofknowledge in family with DM disease in the banyuraden district.Method:This research Design is Pre Experimental with pretest-posttest control group design. The Sampleswas choosen by purposive sampling technique, family with diabetes mellitus disease in Banyuraden,Gamping District of Sleman as much as 36 respondent. The research instrument was used questionnaireand it was analyzed byIndependent Sample t-test.Results: level of knowledge family with diabetes mellitus disease about diabetes mellitus dietary onintervention and control group before given health education mayoritas is 55.6% less. After 7 days the levelof knowledge intervention group became 66.7%, and control group is enough 72.2%. The results ofindependent sample t-test test between intervention and control group design shown that p-value = 0.000.Conclusion:There is an effectivity of health education about DM dietary to improving of knowledge in familywith DM disease in the banyuraden district gamping.

  4. Effects of inclusion level on nutrient digestibility and energy content of wheat middlings and soya bean meal for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Piao, Xiangshu; Liu, Ling; Li, Defa

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of inclusion level of wheat middlings and soya bean meal on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and chemical components of these ingredients in growing pigs. Furthermore, the effects of the inclusion level on their contents of digestible energy (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) were also determined by the difference method. In Experiment 1, six diets were fed to 36 growing pigs according to a completely randomised design. The basal diet was a corn-soya bean meal diet while the other five diets contained 9.6%, 19.2%, 28.8%, 38.4% or 48.0% of wheat middlings added at the expense of corn and soya bean meal. The measured digestibility of energy and most nutrients of wheat middlings increased (p soya bean meal (22.2% and 33.6%). The content of DE in soya bean meal did not differ at 22.2% and 33.6% inclusion levels (16.2 and 16.3 MJ/kg DM, respectively), but the digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter and carbohydrates was increased at a higher inclusion level (p soya bean meal and wheat middlings was affected by their dietary inclusion levels. For soya bean meal, the estimated energy contents was independent of its inclusion level, but not for wheat middlings. Therefore, the inclusion level of wheat middlings has to be considered for estimating their energy value.

  5. Rumen fermentation and nutrient flow to the omasum in Holstein cows fed extruded canola seeds treated with or without lignosulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallacy Barbacena Rosa dos Santos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Four multiparous Holstein cows averaging 548 kg of body weight and 74 d in lactation were used in a Latin square design with four 21-d experimental periods to determine effects of feeding extruded versus non-extruded canola seed, with or without 50 g/kg lignosulfonate on rumen fermentation, nutrient flow to the omasum, and degradability of dry matter (DM and N of each diet. The DM effective degradability increased with extrusion and lignosulfonate treatment had no effect. The effective degradability of N was similar between diets. Lignosulfonate treatment of extruded versus non-extruded canola seeds decreased ruminal and total tract apparent digestibility of organic matter. The lowest apparent ruminal and highest intestinal digestibilities of protein, expressed as a percentage of N intake were observed for cows fed extruded canola seeds without lignosulfonate. Lignosulfonate treatment and extrusion had no effect on pH and concentrations of ammonia N and volatile fatty acids in the rumen. Results suggest that extruded canola seed untreated with formaldehyde may stimulate efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and is an effective means of increasing the availability of protein in the small intestine without affecting the total tract apparent digestibility of protein.

  6. Assessment of algae meal as a ruminant feedstuff: Nutrient digestibility in sheep as a model species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, R S; Van Emon, M L; Loy, D D; Hansen, S L

    2015-11-01

    Heterotrophic microalgae combined with soyhulls forms an algae meal (ALG), which contains partially deoiled microalgae (PDM; 57% DM basis) and soyhulls (43%). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of PDM and ALG on lamb digestibility. In Exp. 1, 8 wethers (23.02 ± 0.54 kg) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to determine the effect of the PDM portion of ALG on total tract nutrient digestibility. Diets included a soyhull-based control (CON; 53% soyhulls), 10% PDM from ALG, 20% PDM from ALG (PDM20), and 30% PDM from ALG. Dry matter and OM intake and fecal DM and OM output were similar ( ≥ 0.11) between CON- and ALG-fed lambs. Urine output linearly increased ( = 0.02) as PDM increased in diets. Dry matter, OM, NDF, and ADF digestibility linearly decreased ( digestibility did not differ ( = 0.24) between CON- and PDM-fed lambs. Nitrogen digestibility and N retention linearly decreased ( ≤ 0.05) as PDM increased in the diet. In Exp. 2, to determine the effects of ALG on diet and nutrient digestibility and N retention, 10 whiteface cross wethers (33.71 ± 0.55 kg) were used in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square. Diets included a cracked corn-based control (CORN), 15% ALG, 30% ALG, 45% ALG (ALG45), and 60% ALG (ALG60). Dry matter and OM digestibility linearly ( Digestibility of NDF and ADF were lesser ( ≤ 0.03) for CORN-fed sheep than for ALG-fed sheep and linearly ( ≤ 0.03) increased as ALG increased in the diet. Ether extract digestibility was lesser ( = 0.002) for CORN than ALG, with a linear ( = 0.002) increase as ALG inclusion increased. There was a cubic ( = 0.03) effect for N digestibility with ALG45 and ALG60 being lesser and CORN being greater than all other treatments. Retention of N and plasma urea N concentration did not differ ( ≥ 0.22) between CORN and ALG. Nonfibrous carbohydrate digestibility linearly ( digestible than soyhulls in ruminants, and differences in N retention in Exp. 1 may suggest an effect on growth in lambs

  7. Nutrient utilisation, growth performance and blood metabolites in Murrah buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vijay K; Kundu, Shivlal S; Prusty, Sonali; Datt, Chander; Kumar, Muneendra

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilisation between buffalo calves with low and high residual feed intake (RFI) by comparing feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth traits and blood metabolites. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves (aged 4-6 months; 70 ± 1.0 kg body weight) were fed ad libitum with a total mixed ration for 120 d. Based on linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body size, calves were assigned into low and high RFI groups. The RFI varied from -0.33 to +0.28 kg DM/d with an average RFI of -0.14 and 0.14 kg DM/d in low and high RFI calves, respectively. Calves had a mean DMI of 1.9 and 2.4 kg/d and an ADG of 0.5 and 0.6 kg/d in low and high RFI groups, respectively. Low RFI calves ate 19.0% less DM each day and required significantly less metabolisable energy for maintenance compared with high RFI calves (12.5 vs. 16.7 MJ/d). Nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance did not differ among low and high RFI calves. In more efficient animals (low RFI calves) higher (p calves are more efficient in feed utilisation and the differences in blood metabolites are probably due to differences in feed intake and body metabolism.

  8. Early phase glucagon and insulin secretory abnormalities, but not incretin secretion, are similarly responsible for hyperglycemia after ingestion of nutrients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yabe, Daisuke; Kuroe, Akira; Watanabe, Koin

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Hypersecretion of glucagon and reduced insulin secretion both contribute to hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, the relative contributions of impaired glucagon and insulin secretions in glucose excursions at the various stages of T2DM development remain to be determined. METHODS...... secretions but not incretin secretion are involved in hyperglycemia after ingestion of nutrients in T2DM of even a short duration....

  9. Growth and Nutrient Utilization in Kids Fed Expander-extruded Complete Feed Pellets Containing Red Gram ( Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Reddy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A growth and digestibility study was conducted using Osmanabadi goat male kids by feeding complete diets in the form of mash or expander extruded pellets containing different levels of red gram (Cajanus cajan straw (RGS. Two iso-nitrogenous complete diets were prepared by incorporating RGS at 35% and 50% levels. Half the quantity of each complete mash feed was then converted into pellets through expander extruder processing. Thirty two kids of 4 to 5 months age were divided into four groups of eight each and were fed for 150 d with four experimental diets (T1: mash with 35% RGS, T2: mash with 50% RGS, T3: pellets with 35% RGS and T4: pellets with 50% RGS. Pelleting of complete diets significantly (p<0.001 increased the voluntary feed intake (671.45 vs 426.28 g/d at both levels of RGS in the feeds. Average daily gain (ADG, g/d also increased significantly (p<0.001 from 48.79 in kids fed mash diet to 71.29 in those fed with pelleted diets. Feed conversion efficiency (dry matter (DM intake: weight gain was comparable among all the treatment groups. Digestibility of nutrients was not affected by pelleting of the feeds whereas, increasing the level of inclusion of RGS in feeds from 35% to 50% decreased (p<0.05 the digestibility of DM and crude protein (CP resulting in lower (p<0.001 metabolizable energy (ME content (MJ/kg DM in feeds with 50% RGS (7.93 vs 8.75. Daily intake (MJ/kg BW−0.75 of ME decreased (p<0.05 in feeds containing 50% RGS while pelleting of feeds increased (p<0.05 the intake of DM, CP, digestible crude protein (DCP and ME. It is inferred that expander extruder pelleting can efficiently utilize RGS up to 50% level in complete diets for growing goat kids.

  10. On the interpretation of dark matter self-interactions in Abell 3827

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahlhoefer, Felix; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Kummer, Janis

    2015-01-01

    Self-interactions of dark matter (DM) particles can potentially lead to an observable separation between the DM halo and the stars of a galaxy moving through a region of large DM density. Such a separation has recently been observed in a galaxy falling into the core of the galaxy cluster Abell 3827...

  11. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of biomasses having a high dry matter (DM) content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    that the biomasses are subjected to mechanical forces, primarily shear and tear forces. Furthermore, the present invention relates to the further utilization of such processed biomasses, e.g. for subsequent fermentation into bio-ethanol, bio-gas, specialty carbohydrates for food and fees as well as carbon feedstock...... for processing into plastics and chemicals....

  12. Maintaining adequate nutrient supply - Principles, decision-support tools, and best management practices [Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert B. Harrison; Douglas A. Maguire; Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining adequate nutrient supply to maintain or enhance tree vigor and forest growth requires conservation of topsoil and soil organic matter. Sometimes nutrient amendments are also required to supplement inherent nutrient-pool limitations or replenish nutrients removed in harvested material. The goal is to maintain the productive potential of the soil and, when...

  13. High saturated-fat and low-fibre intake: a comparative analysis of nutrient intake in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Breen, C; Ryan, M; McNulty, B; Gibney, M J; Canavan, R; O'Shea, D

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of dietary modification, as a cornerstone of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) management, is to optimise metabolic control and overall health. This study describes food and nutrient intake in a sample of adults with T2DM, and compares this to recommendations, and to intake in age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and social-class matched adults without T2DM. Design: A cross-sectional analysis of food and nutrient intake in 124 T2DM individuals (64% male; age 57.4±5.6 years, BMI 32.5±5.8 kg...

  14. Santa Inês sheep supplementation on urochloa grass pasture during the dry season: intake, nutrient digestibility and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Presídio Almeida

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the effect of concentrate supplementation, formulated with different ingredients (Mesquite pod meal, sorghum meal or wheat meal and mineral supplementation on performance, intake and digestibility of nutrients in Santa Inês lambs grazing on urochloa grass during the dry season. Twenty-four uncastrated weaned Santa Inês sheep, with average body weight (BW 20±2 kg with an average of 120 days of age were used in the assay. The experiment lasted 75 days. The animals grazing deferred Urochloa grass (Urochloa mosambicensis (Hack Daudy were distributed into four treatments consisting of mineral supplementation provided ad libitum and concentrated supplements containing mesquite pod meal, sorghum meal or wheat meal, supplied 10 g /kg BW on dry matter basis. The intakes of dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP were affected by the intake of concentrate supplement, regardless of the ingredients used in the supplements, compared with the mineral supplementation treatment, since the consumption of forage was reduced in 30% with mesquite pod meal supplement, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake was not affected in relation to treatments. The digestibility of DM and CP were higher for treatments with supplements, and NDF digestibility did not differ between treatments. A significant difference was observed in the values of average daily gain for the treatments with concentrate supplementation compared with the one of mineral supplementation. The supplementation with concentrate in grazing enables improvement of performance, intake and digestibility of nutrients regardless of the ingredient used in the supplement.

  15. Effect of ensiling process of total mixed ration on fermentation profile, nutrient loss and in situ ruminal degradation characteristics of diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

    2017-01-01

    This experiment aimed to determine the changes in chemical composition, fermentation profile, in situ disappearance characteristics, and nutrient losses of ensiled total mixed ration (TMR) containing steam-flaked corn or brown rice (BR) during storage. TMRs for dairy cows, containing either steam-flaked corn or BR at 31.9% with 15.2% rye silage, 40.5% alfalfa silage, 5.0% beet pulp and 7.0% soybean meal, were prepared (dry matter (DM) basis). Each TMR was placed in a plastic drum silo, stored at 23°C in an air-conditioned room and sampled 0, 7, 14, 30, 90 and 210 days after preparation. In both grain sources, the fermentation products increased, while DM and starch storage losses increased and starch content greatly decreased during storage. The rapidly degradable fraction and effective ruminal degradability of DM, crude protein and starch increased during storage. These changes of dietary characteristics were large during 30 days of storage, but small after 90 days of storage. Replacing corn with BR led to increased fermentation products, starch loss and effective ruminal degradability of the ensiled TMR. These results indicate that the ensiling process of TMR changes the dietary characteristics and replacing corn with BR in TMR had a large impact on these dietary characteristics. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Black hole genesis of dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Olivier; March-Russell, John; Petrossian-Byrne, Rudin; Tillim, Hannah

    2018-04-01

    We present a purely gravitational infra-red-calculable production mechanism for dark matter (DM) . The source of both the DM relic abundance and the hot Standard Model (SM) plasma is a primordial density of micro black holes (BHs), which evaporate via Hawking emission into both the dark and SM sectors. The mechanism has four qualitatively different regimes depending upon whether the BH evaporation is 'fast' or 'slow' relative to the initial Hubble rate, and whether the mass of the DM particle is 'light' or 'heavy' compared to the initial BH temperature. For each of these regimes we calculate the DM yield, Y, as a function of the initial state and DM mass and spin. In the 'slow' regime Y depends on only the initial BH mass over a wide range of initial conditions, including scenarios where the BHs are a small fraction of the initial energy density. The DM is produced with a highly non-thermal energy spectrum, leading in the 'light' DM mass regime (~260 eV and above depending on DM spin) to a strong constraint from free-streaming, but also possible observational signatures in structure formation in the spin 3/2 and 2 cases. The 'heavy' regime (~1.2 × 108 GeV to MPl depending on spin) is free of these constraints and provides new possibilities for DM detection. In all cases there is a dark radiation component predicted.

  17. Evidence of dark matter from biological observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zioutas, K.

    1990-01-01

    In accordance with the generally accepted properties of dark matter (DM) candidates, the probability of their interaction with living matter must be equal to that for inorganic matter, and the expected effects might be unique and provide the etiology related to the appearance of several biological phenomena having sometimes fatal late effects. Although collisions with DM are rare, the charged secondaries (recoiling atoms) are expected to be high linear energy transfer particles favouring the highest relative biological effectiveness values for this, as yet invisible, part of the natural background radiation. A few cases are given, where a correlation between DM interaction and phenomena in living matter might already exist, or can show up in existing data: biorhythms with periodicities identical to known cosmic frequencies are explainable with gravitationally clustered DM around the sun, the moon, the earth, etc. The observed arrhythmia, when biological probes are moved (in airplanes, satellites, etc.) support this idea strongly. It is also proposed to implement some of the biological properties and processes (such as element composition and chemical reactions) in future DM detectors in order to improve their sensitivity. The interdisciplinary feedback is bidirectional: huge DM detectors could be used in attempt to understand enigmatic biological behaviour. (orig.)

  18. Method of Multiobject Detecting and Tracking Based on DM643

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitao Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The technology of moving objects detection has become an important research subject for its extensive application prospect. In this paper, it is presented that interframe difference algorithm and background difference algorithm are combined to update the background. The algorithm can deal with the flaw of background difference algorithm. The mathematical morphology method is employed to denoise the image, which may be helpful to improve the accuracy of the detection. The Pyramid algorithm is used to compress each frame data of video sequence. Then, the detecting and tracking of moving objects are tested on the hardware platform (DM643 and the software frame (RF5. The running speed is about 3 times faster than before. The result shows that the accuracy demanded by the detection is met. This method can provide a useful reference for similar application.

  19. Intergalactic medium heating by dark matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripamonti, E.; Mapelli, M.; Ferrara, A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: We derive the evolution of the energy deposition in the intergalactic medium (IGM) by dark matter (DM) decays/annihilations for both sterile neutrinos and light dark matter (LDM) particles. At z > 200 sterile neutrinos transfer a fraction f_abs~0.5 of their rest mass energy into the IGM;

  20. Nutrient cycling strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.

    1995-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews pathways by which plants can influence the nutrient cycle, and thereby the nutrient supply of themselves and of their competitors. Higher or lower internal nutrient use efficiency positively feeds back into the nutrient cycle, and helps to increase or decrease soil

  1. Effects of inclusion of graded amounts of soya bean hulls on feed intake, chewing activity and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, H; Rezayazdi, K; Nikkhah, A

    2014-06-01

    Twelve multiparous Holstein dairy cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square changeover design to evaluate the effects of graded inclusion of soya bean hulls (SHs) in replacement of diet forages at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% of dietary dry matter (DM) basis on peNDF > 8 and peNDF > 1.18 contents of diets and their resulting effects on chewing activity, nutrient digestibility and milk production of dairy cattle. The control diet contained 50% forage, 50% concentrate and no SH. In the other three diets, SH was substituted for alfalfa hay, corn silage and wheat bran to supply 10%, 20% and 30% of the dietary DM. Increasing SH concentration in the diets resulted in decreasing concentrations of forage neutral detergent fibre (NDF), physically effective NDF (peNDF) and mean particle size (p 1.18 when SH was included in the diets (p 8 among the diets and that these differences are better reflected in terms of DMI, chewing activity and nutrient digestibility, but not in rumen pH. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Effect of dietary nitrate level on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olijhoek, D W; Hellwing, A L F; Brask, M; Weisbjerg, M R; Højberg, O; Larsen, M K; Dijkstra, J; Erlandsen, E J; Lund, P

    2016-08-01

    Nitrate may lower methane production in ruminants by competing with methanogenesis for available hydrogen in the rumen. This study evaluated the effect of 4 levels of dietary nitrate addition on enteric methane production, hydrogen emission, feed intake, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and blood methemoglobin. In a 4×4 Latin square design 4 lactating Danish Holstein dairy cows fitted with rumen, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were assigned to 4 calcium ammonium nitrate addition levels: control, low, medium, and high [0, 5.3, 13.6, and 21.1g of nitrate/kg of dry matter (DM), respectively]. Diets were made isonitrogenous by replacing urea. Cows were fed ad libitum and, after a 6-d period of gradual introduction of nitrate, adapted to the corn-silage-based total mixed ration (forage:concentrate ratio 50:50 on DM basis) for 16d before sampling. Digesta content from duodenum, ileum, and feces, and rumen liquid were collected, after which methane production and hydrogen emissions were measured in respiration chambers. Methane production [L/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)] linearly decreased with increasing nitrate concentrations compared with the control, corresponding to a reduction of 6, 13, and 23% for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively. Methane production was lowered with apparent efficiencies (measured methane reduction relative to potential methane reduction) of 82.3, 71.9, and 79.4% for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively. Addition of nitrate increased hydrogen emissions (L/kg of DMI) quadratically by a factor of 2.5, 3.4, and 3.0 (as L/kg of DMI) for the low, medium, and high diets, respectively, compared with the control. Blood methemoglobin levels and nitrate concentrations in milk and urine increased with increasing nitrate intake, but did not constitute a threat for animal health and human food safety. Microbial crude protein synthesis and efficiency were unaffected. Total volatile fatty acid

  3. Tratamento de esgotos sanitários em sistemas reatores UASB/wetlands construídas de fluxo horizontal: eficiência e estabilidade de remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes Domestic wastewater treatment in UASB-horizontal flow constructed wetlands systems: organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Calijuri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresentou os resultados de um estudo realizado durante 19 meses sobre o comportamento de wetlands construídas na remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes, em unidades em escala piloto de fluxo horizontal, subsuperficial e superficial, com tempo de detenção hidráulica entre 1,3 a 5,3 dias, operando como pós-tratamento de efluentes de reatores UASB (esgotos sanitários. A remoção de matéria orgânica e de sólidos mostrou-se elevada e estável, com eficiências médias de 70, 80 e 60% para SST, DBO5 e DQO, respectivamente. A remoção de nutrientes, após início promissor, mostrou-se instável e aparentemente influenciada pela temperatura. O sistema de tratamento revelou elevado potencial de remoção de coliformes, embora com variações relativamente amplas ao longo do período de operação: ≈ 2 log10 de remoção de coliformes totais e 2-4 log10 de remoção de Escherichia coli.This work presented the results of a 19-month study on the performance of constructed wetlands in terms of organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal in pilot scale unities with horizontal, subsurface and surface flow, with hydraulic retention time from 1.3 to 5.3 days, as post-treatment of UASB effluents (domestic wastewater. Organic matter and solids were effectively and consistently removed, with average values of 70, 80 and 60% for TSS, BOD5 and COD, respectively. Nutrients removal, after a promising start up, became unstable and apparently influenced by temperature. The treatment system has also shown high potential to remove coliforms, although with relatively wide variations over the study period: ≈ 2 log10 reduction of total coliforms and 2-4 log10 reduction of Escherichia coli.

  4. T-1020 NaI crystal test for DM-Ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Reina; Heeger, Karsten; Pierpoint, Zachary; Pettus, Walter; Broerman, Benjamin; Hilgenberg, Chris; Webber, David

    2011-01-01

    This is a memorandum of understanding between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experiments of the NaI Crystal Test for DM-Ice from the University of Wisconsin who have committed to participate in detector tests to be carried out during the 2011-2012 Fermilab Neutrino program. The memorandum is intended primarily for the purpose of recording expectations for budget estimates and work allocations for Fermilab, the funding agencies and the participating institutions. It reflects an arrangement that currently is satisfactory to the parties; however, it is recognized and anticipated that changing circumstances of the evolving research program will necessitate revisions. The parties agree to modify this memorandum to reflect such required adjustments. Actual contractual obligations will be set forth in separate documents. The DM-Ice collaboration is designing a sodium-iodide (NaI) based detector for a direct dark matter search. The detectors should have low readout noise and background levels to carry out a sensitive search. A 17-kg version of the experiment is running at the South Pole, 2500 m deep in the Antarctic ice, and a large scale experiment is currently being designed. One of the keys to the success of the experiment is to have a good understanding of the background levels intrinsic in the NaI detectors. To measure the background level, the detectors have to be shielded against cosmic rays. The lead shielding used for DAMIC in the Minos Underground Areas is a well-suited location for this test since it offers enough overburden to shield against cosmic rays, lead shielding, and experimental infrastructure. The goal of the test is to assess the background levels in the detector and to assess the characteristics of phosphorescence induced by muons and 100 keV-3 MeV gamma rays.

  5. Nutrient addition modifies phosphatase activities along an altitudinal gradient in a tropical montane forest in Southern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla eDietrich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric nutrient deposition and climate change are expected to endanger the diversity of tropical forest ecosystems. Nitrogen (N deposition might influence nutrient fluxes beyond the N cycle by a concomitant increased demand for other nutritional elements such as phosphorus (P. Organisms might respond to the increased P demand by enhanced activity of enzymes involved in releasing inorganic P from organic matter (OM. Our aims were to assess the effect of i climate shifts (approximated by an altitudinal gradient, and ii nutrient addition (N, P, N+P on phosphatase activity (PA in organic layer and mineral soil of a tropical montane rainforest in Southern Ecuador. A nutrient manipulation experiment (NUMEX was set up along an altitudinal gradient (1000, 2000, and 3000 m a.s.l.. We determined PA and inorganic and total P concentrations. PA at 1000 m was significantly lower (mean ± standard error: 48 ± 20 µmol p-NP g-1 dm h-1 as compared to 2000 m and 3000 m (119 ± 11 and 137 ± 19, respectively. One explanation might be that very rapid decomposition of OM at 1000 m results in very thin organic layers reducing the stabilization of enzymes and thus, resulting in leaching loss of enzymes under the humid tropical climate. We found no effect of N addition on PA neither in the organic layer nor in mineral soil, probably because of the low nutrient addition rates that showed ambiguous results so far on productivity measures as a proxy for P demand. In the organic layers of P and N+P treatments, we found decreased PA and increased concentrations of inorganic P. This indicates that the surplus of inorganic P reduced the biosynthesis of phosphatase enzymes. PA in megadiverse montane rainforests is likely to be unaffected by increased atmospheric N deposition but reduced upon atmospheric P deposition.

  6. Evaluation of feed value of a by-product of pickled radish for ruminants: analyses of nutrient composition, storage stability, and in vitro ruminal fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Seoyoung; Sohn, Keun-Nam; Seo, Seongwon

    2016-01-01

    By-products of pickled radish (BPR) are considered food waste. Approximately 300 g/kg of the total mass of raw materials becomes BPR. Production of pickled radish has grown continuously and is presently about 40,000 metric tons annually in Korea. The objective of the present study was thus to explore the possibility of using BPR as a ruminant feed ingredient. BPR contained a large amount of moisture (more than 800 g/kg) and ash, and comprised mostly sodium (103 g/kg DM) and chloride (142 g/kg DM). On a dry matter basis, the crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) levels in BPR were 75 g/kg and 7 g/kg, respectively. The total digestible nutrient (TDN) level was 527 g/kg and the major portion of digestible nutrients was carbohydrate; 88 % organic matter (OM) was carbohydrate and 65 % of total carbohydrate was soluble or degradable fiber. The coefficient of variation (CV) of nutrient contents among production batches ranged from 4.65 to 33.83 %. The smallest CV was observed in OM, and the largest, in EE. The variation in CP content was relatively small (10.11 %). The storage stability test revealed that storage of BPR at 20 °C (room temperature) might not cause spoilage for 4 d, and possibly longer. If BPR is refrigerated, spoilage can be deferred for 21 d and longer. The in vitro ruminal fermentation study showed that substitution of annual ryegrass straw with BPR improved ruminal fermentation, as evidenced by an increase in VFA concentration, DM degradability, and total gas production. The major portion of nutrients in BPR is soluble or degradable fiber that can be easily fermented in the rumen without adverse effects, to provide energy to ruminant animals. Although its high sodium chloride content needs to be considered when formulating a ration, BPR can be successfully used as a feed ingredient in a ruminant diet, particularly if it is one component of a total mixed ration.

  7. DARK MATTER ADMIXED TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, S.-C.; Chu, M.-C.; Lin, L.-M.

    2015-01-01

    We perform two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations for the thermonuclear explosion of Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs with dark matter (DM) cores in Newtonian gravity. We include a 19-isotope nuclear reaction network and make use of the pure turbulent deflagration model as the explosion mechanism in our simulations. Our numerical results show that the general properties of the explosion depend quite sensitively on the mass of the DM core M DM : a larger M DM generally leads to a weaker explosion and a lower mass of synthesized iron-peaked elements. In particular, the total mass of produced can drop from about 0.3 to 0.03 M ⊙ as M DM increases from 0.01 to 0.03 M ⊙ . We have also constructed the bolometric light curves obtained from our simulations and found that our results match well with the observational data of sub-luminous Type Ia supernovae

  8. Gamma-rays from decaying dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertone, G. [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Inst. d' Astrophysique; Buchmueller, W.; Covi, L.; Ibarra, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    We study the prospects for detecting gamma-rays from decaying Dark Matter (DM), focusing in particular on gravitino DM in R-parity breaking vacua. Given the substantially different angular distribution of the predicted gamma-ray signal with respect to the case of annihilating DM, and the relatively poor (of order 0.1 ) angular resolution of gamma-ray detectors, the best strategy for detection is in this case to look for an exotic contribution to the gamma-ray flux at high galactic latitudes, where the decaying DM contribution would resemble an astrophysical extragalactic component, similar to the one inferred by EGRET observations. Upcoming experiments such as GLAST and AMS-02 may identify this exotic contribution and discriminate it from astrophysical sources, or place significant constraints on the mass and lifetime of DM particles. (orig.)

  9. Direct detection of dark matter bound to the Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catena, Riccardo; Kouvaris, Chris

    2017-01-01

    We study the properties and direct detection prospects of an as of yet neglected population of dark matter (DM) particles moving in orbits gravitationally bound to the Earth. This DM population is expected to form via scattering by nuclei in the Earth's interior. We compute fluxes and nuclear...

  10. Impact of dark matter decays and annihilations on structure formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mapelli, M.; Ripamonti, E.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: We derived the evolution of the energy deposition in the intergalactic medium (IGM) by different decaying (or annihilating) dark matter (DM) candidates. Heavy annihilating DM particles (with mass larger than a few GeV) have no influence on reionization and heating, even if we assume that

  11. Impact of dark matter on reionization and heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mapelli, M.; Ripamonti, E.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: We derived the evolution of the energy deposition in the intergalactic medium (IGM) by different decaying (or annihilating) dark matter (DM) candidates. Heavy annihilating DM particles (with mass larger than a few GeV) have no influence on reionization and heating, even if we assume that

  12. Studying dark matter using weak gravitational lensing : from galaxies to the cosmic web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Of all the mass in our Universe, 80% is thought to consist of a hypothetical and invisible substance called dark matter (DM). So far, all observations of DM are based on its gravitational interaction, either through the dynamics of normal (baryonic) matter or through the deflection of light.

  13. Dark Matter searches with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The presence of a non-baryonic Dark Matter (DM) component in the Universe is inferred from the observation of its gravitational interaction. If DM interacts non-gravitationally with the Standard Model, it could be produced at the LHC, escaping the detector and leaving missing transverse momentum (MET) as a signature. Recent results from the ATLAS detector will be presented, based on events with large MET accompanied by a variety of other objects.

  14. Characterizing Higgs portal dark matter models at the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamon, Teruki [Texas A and M University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, College Station, TX (United States); Ko, P.; Li, Jinmian [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, School of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    We study the dark matter (DM) discovery prospect and its spin discrimination in the theoretical framework of gauge invariant and renormalizable Higgs portal DM models at the ILC with √(s) = 500 GeV. In such models, the DM pair is produced in association with a Z boson. In the case of the singlet scalar DM, the mediator is just the SM Higgs boson, whereas for the fermion or vector DM there is an additional singlet scalar mediator that mixes with the SM Higgs boson, which produces significant observable differences. After careful investigation of the signal and backgrounds both at parton level and at detector level, we find the signal with hadronically decaying Z boson provides a better search sensitivity than the signal with leptonically decaying Z boson. Taking the fermion DM model as a benchmark scenario, when the DM-mediator coupling g{sub χ} is relatively small, the DM signals are discoverable only for benchmark points with relatively light scalar mediator H{sub 2}. The spin discriminating from scalar DM is always promising, while it is difficult to discriminate from vector DM. As for g{sub χ} approaching the perturbative limit, benchmark points with the mediator H{sub 2} in the full mass region of interest are discoverable. The spin discriminating aspects from both the scalar and the fermion DM are quite promising. (orig.)

  15. Pulse shape analysis for germanium detectors used in DM searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, I.R.; Drukier, A.K.; Welsh, D.J.; Klimenko, A.A.; Osetrov, S.B.; Smolnikov, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    Progress in Ge detector technology has resulted in ultralow backgrounds of less than 0.3 countskeV -1 kg -1 d -1 at energies between 6 and 9keV and from 12 to 20keV. Between 4 and 6keV it is less than 2 countskeV -1 kg -1 d -1 . Coupled with good energy resolution, 0.4keV FWHM at 10keV, this allows searches for DM particles with m≥qslant8GeV/c 2 .Electromagnetic interference (EMI) and acoustical pick-up are the main sources of background in the best Ge detectors. A PC-based on-line pulse shape analysis system is presented which permits rejection of large fraction of the EMI/acoustical background. The hardware uses a low cost, commercially available digital storage oscilloscope (DSO). The software consists of about 40000 lines of code in Pascal and assembly language. We tested this system using a low radioactive background Ge-system at the Baksan observatory. For low energy events (<100keV) this system permits improvement in the background by about 20-30%. ((orig.))

  16. Marsh Soil Responses to Nutrients: Belowground Structural and Organic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal marsh responses to nutrient enrichment apparently depend upon soil matrix and whether the system is primarily biogenic or minerogenic. Deteriorating organic rich marshes (Jamaica Bay, NY) receiving wastewater effluent had lower belowground biomass, organic matter, and soi...

  17. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  18. DM100 AND DM1200 MELTER TESTING WITH HIGH WASTE LOADING GLASS FORMULATIONS FOR HANFORD HIGH-ALUMINUM HLW STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; PEGG IL; JOSEPH I

    2009-12-30

    This Test Plan describes work to support the development and testing of high waste loading glass formulations that achieve high glass melting rates for Hanford high aluminum high level waste (HLW). In particular, the present testing is designed to evaluate the effect of using low activity waste (LAW) waste streams as a source of sodium in place ofchemical additives, sugar or cellulose as a reductant, boehmite as an aluminum source, and further enhancements to waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work will include preparation and characterization of crucible melts in support of subsequent DuraMelter 100 (DM 100) tests designed to examine the effects of enhanced glass formulations, glass processing temperature, incorporation of the LAW waste stream as a sodium source, type of organic reductant, and feed solids content on waste processing rate and product quality. Also included is a confirmatory test on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200) with a composition selected from those tested on the DM100. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of River Protection (ORP) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same waste composition. This Test Plan is prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is about 12,500. This estimate is based upon the inventory ofthe tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat

  19. Asymmetric Dark Matter and Dark Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blennow, Mattias; Martinez, Enrique Fernandez; Mena, Olga; Redondo, Javier; Serra, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric Dark Matter (ADM) models invoke a particle-antiparticle asymmetry, similar to the one observed in the Baryon sector, to account for the Dark Matter (DM) abundance. Both asymmetries are usually generated by the same mechanism and generally related, thus predicting DM masses around 5 GeV in order to obtain the correct density. The main challenge for successful models is to ensure efficient annihilation of the thermally produced symmetric component of such a light DM candidate without violating constraints from collider or direct searches. A common way to overcome this involves a light mediator, into which DM can efficiently annihilate and which subsequently decays into Standard Model particles. Here we explore the scenario where the light mediator decays instead into lighter degrees of freedom in the dark sector that act as radiation in the early Universe. While this assumption makes indirect DM searches challenging, it leads to signals of extra radiation at BBN and CMB. Under certain conditions, precise measurements of the number of relativistic species, such as those expected from the Planck satellite, can provide information on the structure of the dark sector. We also discuss the constraints of the interactions between DM and Dark Radiation from their imprint in the matter power spectrum

  20. Apparent nutrient digestibility and performance of Heterobranchus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients is a useful tool for fish diet formulation, which gives the right estimation of growth, thereby reducing waste products. The ADCs of crude protein, energy and dry matter of processed earthworm, Libyodrilus violaceus meal by Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings ...

  1. Probing dark matter self-interaction in the Sun with IceCube-PINGU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chian-Shu; Lee, Fei-Fan; Lin, Guey-Lin; Lin, Yen-Hsun

    2014-01-01

    We study the capture, annihilation and evaporation of dark matter (DM) inside the Sun. It has been shown that the DM self-interaction can increase the DM number inside the Sun. We demonstrate that this enhancement becomes more significant in the regime of small DM mass, given a fixed DM self-interaction cross section. This leads to the enhancement of neutrino flux from DM annihilation. On the other hand, for DM mass as low as as a few GeVs, not only the DM-nuclei scatterings can cause the DM evaporation, DM self-interaction also provides non-negligible contributions to this effect. Consequently, the critical mass for DM evaporation (typically 3 ∼ 4 GeV without the DM self-interaction) can be slightly increased. We discuss the prospect of detecting DM self-interaction in IceCube-PINGU using the annihilation channels χχ → τ + τ - , νν-bar as examples. The PINGU sensitivities to DM self-interaction cross section σ χχ are estimated for track and cascade events

  2. Nutrients and temperature additively increase stream microbial respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. P. Manning; Amy D. Rosemond; Vladislav Gulis; Jonathan P. Benstead; John S. Kominoski

    2017-01-01

    Rising temperatures and nutrient enrichment are co‐occurring global‐change drivers that stimulate microbial respiration of detrital carbon, but nutrient effects on the temperature dependence of respiration in aquatic ecosystems remain uncertain. We measured respiration rates associated with leaf litter, wood, and fine benthic organic matter (FBOM) across...

  3. Distribution of nutrients in the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De; Naqvi, S.W.A; Reddy, C.V.G.

    and low nutrient concentrations increased in thickness from north to south. The intermediate water layer was marked by a steep rise of nutrients associated with oxygen minimum suggesting active decomposition of organic matter.N:P in the upper 75 m...

  4. Small Molecules that Enhance the Catalytic Efficiency of HLA-DM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, M.; Moradi, B.; Seth, N.; Xing, X.; Cuny, G.; Stein, R.; Wucherpfenning, K.

    2006-01-01

    HLA-DM (DM) plays a critical role in Ag presentation to CD4 T cells by catalyzing the exchange of peptides bound to MHC class II molecules. Large lateral surfaces involved in the DM:HLA-DR (DR) interaction have been defined, but the mechanism of catalysis is not understood. In this study, we describe four small molecules that accelerate DM-catalyzed peptide exchange. Mechanistic studies demonstrate that these small molecules substantially enhance the catalytic efficiency of DM, indicating that they make the transition state of the DM:DR/peptide complex energetically more favorable. These compounds fall into two functional classes: two compounds are active only in the presence of DM, and binding data for one show a direct interaction with DM. The remaining two compounds have partial activity in the absence of DM, suggesting that they may act at the interface between DM and DR/peptide. A hydrophobic ridge in the DMβ1 domain was implicated in the catalysis of peptide exchange because the activity of three of these enhancers was substantially reduced by point mutations in this area

  5. Search for Dark Matter produced in association with bottom quarks

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This note describes a search for Dark Matter (DM) produced in association with b quarks, using a dataset of $2.17~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ of data collected by the CMS experiment in $\\sqrt{s}=13~\\mathrm{TeV}$ proton-proton collisions at LHC. This analysis is sensitive also to DM production processes in association with top quarks. Results are reported as upper limits on the cross section for the b quark and top quark associated production independently, and interpreted within simplified models in terms of the coupling between the mediator and the DM candidate, for different mediator and DM candidate masses.

  6. Dark matter as a weakly coupled dark baryon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitridate, Andrea; Redi, Michele; Smirnov, Juri; Strumia, Alessandro

    2017-10-01

    Dark Matter might be an accidentally stable baryon of a new confining gauge interaction. We extend previous studies exploring the possibility that the DM is made of dark quarks heavier than the dark confinement scale. The resulting phenomenology contains new unusual elements: a two-stage DM cosmology (freeze-out followed by dark condensation), a large DM annihilation cross section through recombination of dark quarks (allowing to fit the positron excess). Light dark glue-balls are relatively long lived and give extra cosmological effects; DM itself can remain radioactive.

  7. Late kinetic decoupling of light magnetic dipole dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondolo, Paolo; Kadota, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    We study the kinetic decoupling of light (≲10 GeV) magnetic dipole dark matter (DM). We find that present bounds from collider, direct DM searches, and structure formation allow magnetic dipole DM to remain in thermal equilibrium with the early universe plasma until as late as the electron-positron annihilation epoch. This late kinetic decoupling leads to a minimal mass for the earliest dark protohalos of thousands of solar masses, in contrast to the conventional weak scale DM scenario where they are of order 10 −6 solar masses.

  8. Asymmetric Dark Matter Models and the LHC Diphoton Excess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads T.; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of dark matter (DM) and the origin of the baryon asymmetry are persistent indications that the SM is incomplete. More recently, the ATLAS and CMS experiments have observed an excess of diphoton events with invariant mass of about 750 GeV. One interpretation of this excess is decays...... have for models of asymmetric DM that attempt to account for the similarity of the dark and visible matter abundances....

  9. High saturated-fat and low-fibre intake: a comparative analysis of nutrient intake in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Breen, C

    2014-02-01

    The aim of dietary modification, as a cornerstone of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) management, is to optimise metabolic control and overall health. This study describes food and nutrient intake in a sample of adults with T2DM, and compares this to recommendations, and to intake in age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and social-class matched adults without T2DM.

  10. Nutrient additions to mitigate for loss of Pacific salmon: consequences for stream biofilm and nutrient dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcarelli, Amy M.; Baxter, Colden V.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Mitigation activities designed to supplement nutrient and organic matter inputs to streams experiencing decline or loss of Pacific salmon typically presuppose that an important pathway by which salmon nutrients are moved to fish (anadromous and/or resident) is via nutrient incorporation by biofilms and subsequent bottom-up stimulation of biofilm production, which is nutrient-limited in many ecosystems where salmon returns have declined. Our objective was to quantify the magnitude of nutrient incorporation and biofilm dynamics that underpin this indirect pathway in response to experimental additions of salmon carcasses and pelletized fish meal (a.k.a., salmon carcass analogs) to 500-m reaches of central Idaho streams over three years. Biofilm standing crops increased 2–8-fold and incorporated marine-derived nutrients (measured using 15N and 13C) in the month following treatment, but these responses did not persist year-to-year. Biofilms were nitrogen (N) limited before treatments, and remained N limited in analog, but not carcass-treated reaches. Despite these biofilm responses, in the month following treatment total N load was equal to 33–47% of the N added to the treated reaches, and N spiraling measurements suggested that as much as 20%, but more likely 2–3% of added N was taken up by microbes. Design of biologically and cost-effective strategies for nutrient addition will require understanding the rates at which stream microbes take up nutrients and the downstream distance traveled by exported nutrients.

  11. Detecting Boosted Dark Matter from the Sun with Large Volume Neutrino Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Joshua; /SLAC; Cui, Yanou; /Perimeter Inst. Theor. Phys.; Zhao, Yue; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2015-04-02

    We study novel scenarios where thermal dark matter (DM) can be efficiently captured in the Sun and annihilate into boosted dark matter. In models with semi-annihilating DM, where DM has a non-minimal stabilization symmetry, or in models with a multi-component DM sector, annihilations of DM can give rise to stable dark sector particles with moderate Lorentz boosts. We investigate both of these possibilities, presenting concrete models as proofs of concept. Both scenarios can yield viable thermal relic DM with masses O(1)-O(100) GeV. Taking advantage of the energetic proton recoils that arise when the boosted DM scatters off matter, we propose a detection strategy which uses large volume terrestrial detectors, such as those designed to detect neutrinos or proton decays. In particular, we propose a search for proton tracks pointing towards the Sun. We focus on signals at Cherenkov-radiation-based detectors such as Super-Kamiokande (SK) and its upgrade Hyper-Kamiokande (HK). We find that with spin-dependent scattering as the dominant DM-nucleus interaction at low energies, boosted DM can leave detectable signals at SK or HK, with sensitivity comparable to DM direct detection experiments while being consistent with current constraints. Our study provides a new search path for DM sectors with non-minimal structure.

  12. Soluble organic nutrient fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Qualls; Bruce L. Haines; Wayne Swank

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives in this study were (i) compare fluxes of the dissolved organic nutrients dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DON, and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in a clearcut area and an adjacent mature reference area. (ii) determine whether concentrations of dissolved organic nutrients or inorganic nutrients were greater in clearcut areas than in reference areas,...

  13. Bagaço de mandioca na ensilagem do capim-elefante: qualidade das silagens e digestibilidade dos nutrientes Cassava bagasse in elephant grass ensilage: quality of the silage and digestibility of the nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.F. Silva

    2007-06-01

    silage with four different levels of cassava bagasse plus balanced concentrate, with four repetitions per treatment. Silages quality, diet nutrients intake and nutrients digestibility of the silages and total diets were evaluated. Cassava bagasse increased the dry matter (DM content, of the silages preserving them with a pH varying from 3.85 to 4.07 and N-NH3/NT ratio from 6.2 to 7.85. Daily dry matter and crude protein (CP mean intakes did not differ among the treatments (P>0.05. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF mean intakes showed a decreasing linear behavior (P0.05 for DM (DMD, NDF (NDFD and ADF digestibility (ADFD. The total digestible nutrients (TDN of the silages were similar in all the treatments. The CP (CPD, ether extract (EED and non-fiber carbohydrates digestibility (NFCD of the silages decreased linearly (P0.05 in DMD, CPD, NDFD, ADFD, EED, NFCD and TDN among the experimental diets. The 5% cassava bagasse addition to its elephant grass silage was satisfactory to preservation resulting in good digestibility of the elephant grass silage.

  14. X-ray lines from dark matter: the good, the bad, and the unlikely

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, Mads T.; Sannino, Francesco; Shoemaker, Ian M.; Svendsen, Ole, E-mail: frandsen@cp3-origins.net, E-mail: sannino@cp3-origins.net, E-mail: shoemaker@cp3-origins.net, E-mail: svendsen@cp3-origins.net [CP" 3-Origins and Danish Institute for Advanced Study DIAS, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2014-05-01

    We consider three classes of dark matter (DM) models to account for the recently observed 3.5 keV line: metastable excited state DM, annihilating DM, and decaying DM. We study two examples of metastable excited state DM. The first, millicharged composite DM, has both inelasticity and photon emission built in, but with a very constrained parameter space. In the second example, up-scattering and decay come from separate sectors and is thus less constrained. The decay of the excited state can potentially be detectable at direct detection experiments. However we find that CMB constraints are at the border of excluding this as an interpretation of the DAMA signal. The annihilating DM interpretation of the X-ray line is found to be in mild tension with CMB constraints. Lastly, a generalized version of decaying DM can account for the data with a lifetime exceeding the age of the Universe for masses ∼<10{sup 6} GeV.

  15. CP violating scalar Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero-Cid, A.; Hernández-Sánchez, J.; Keus, V.; King, S. F.; Moretti, S.; Rojas, D.; Sokołowska, D.

    2016-12-01

    We study an extension of the Standard Model (SM) in which two copies of the SM scalar SU(2) doublet which do not acquire a Vacuum Expectation Value (VEV), and hence are inert, are added to the scalar sector. We allow for CP-violation in the inert sector, where the lightest inert state is protected from decaying to SM particles through the conservation of a Z 2 symmetry. The lightest neutral particle from the inert sector, which has a mixed CP-charge due to CP-violation, is hence a Dark Matter (DM) candidate. We discuss the new regions of DM relic density opened up by CP-violation, and compare our results to the CP-conserving limit and the Inert Doublet Model (IDM). We constrain the parameter space of the CP-violating model using recent results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and DM direct and indirect detection experiments.

  16. Dark matter (energy) may be indistinguishable from modified gravity (MOND)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaram, C.

    For Newtonian dynamics to hold over galactic scales, large amounts of dark matter (DM) are required which would dominate cosmic structures. Accounting for the strong observational evidence that the universe is accelerating requires the presence of an unknown dark energy (DE) component constituting about 70% of the matter. Several ingenious ongoing experiments to detect the DM particles have so far led to negative results. Moreover, the comparable proportions of the DM and DE at the present epoch appear unnatural and not predicted by any theory. For these reasons, alternative ideas like MOND and modification of gravity or general relativity over cosmic scales have been proposed. It is shown in this paper that these alternate ideas may not be easily distinguishable from the usual DM or DE hypotheses. Specific examples are given to illustrate this point that the modified theories are special cases of a generalized DM paradigm.

  17. Constraining Non-thermal and Thermal properties of Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupal eDev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe the evolution of Dark Matter (DM abundance from the very onset of its creation from inflaton decay under the assumption of an instantaneous reheating. Based on the initial conditions such as the inflaton mass and its decay branching ratio to the DM species, the reheating temperature, and the mass and interaction rate of the DM with the thermal bath, the DM particles can either thermalize (fully/partially with the primordial bath or remain non-thermal throughout their evolution history. In the thermal case, the final abundance is set by the standard freeze-out mechanism for large annihilation rates, irrespective of the initial conditions. For smaller annihilation rates, it can be set by the freeze-in mechanism which also does not depend on the initial abundance, provided it is small to begin with. For even smaller interaction rates, the DM decouples while being non-thermal, and the relic abundance will be essentially set by the initial conditions. We put model-independent constraints on the DM mass and annihilation rate from over-abundance by exactly solving the relevant Boltzmann equations, and identify the thermal freeze-out, freeze-in and non-thermal regions of the allowed parameter space. We highlight a generic fact that inflaton decay to DM inevitably leads to an overclosure of the Universe for a large range of DM parameter space, and thus poses a stringent constraint that must be taken into account while constructing models of DM. For the thermal DM region, we also show the complementary constraints from indirect DM search experiments, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Cosmic Microwave Background, Planck measurements, and theoretical limits due to the unitarity of S-matrix. For the non-thermal DM scenario, we show the allowed parameter space in terms of the inflaton and DM masses for a given reheating temperature, and compute the comoving free-streaming length to identify the hot, warm and cold DM regimes.

  18. Murværk opmuret med vådmørtler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg

    dmørtler benyttes i størstedelen af det murede nybyggeri. Egenskaberne af murværk opmuret med vådmørtel er i dag kun mangelfuldt dokumenteret. Denne rapport beskriver en metode til bedre dokumentation af de styrkemæssige egenskaber ved murværk opmuret med vådmørtel. Første del af rapporten genn...

  19. Ensiling Characteristics and the In situ Nutrient Degradability of a By-product Feed-based Silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y I; Oh, Y K; Park, K K; Kwak, W S

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the ensiling characteristics and the in situ degradability of a by-product feed (BF)-based silage. Before ensilation, the BF-based mixture was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial inoculant on a wet basis and ensiled for up to 4 weeks. The BF-based silage contained on average 39.3% moisture, 13.4% crude protein (CP), and 52.2% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), 49% total digestible nutrient, and 37.8% physically effective NDF1.18 on a dry matter (DM) basis. Ensiling the BF-based silage for up to 4 weeks affected (p<0.01) the chemical composition to a small extent, increased (p<0.05) the lactic acid and NH3-N content, and decreased (p<0.05) both the total bacterial and lactic acid bacterial counts from 10(9) to 10(8) cfu/g when compared to that before ensiling. These parameters indicated that the silage was fermented and stored well during the 4-week ensiling period. Compared with rice or ryegrass straws, the BF-based silage had a higher (p<0.05) water-soluble and filterable fraction, a lower insoluble degradable DM and CP fraction (p<0.05), a lower digestible NDF (p<0.05) fraction, a higher (p<0.05) DM and CP disappearance and degradability rate, and a lower (p<0.05) NDF disappearance and degradability rate. These results indicated that cheap, good-quality BF-based roughage could be produced by ensiling SMS, RPB, rice bran, and a minimal amount of straw.

  20. Dark matter electron anisotropy. A universal upper limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borriello, Enrico; Maccione, Luca; Cuoco, Alessandro

    2010-12-01

    Indirect searches of particle Dark Matter (DM) with high energy Cosmic Rays (CR) are affected by large uncertainties, coming both from the DM side, and from poor understanding of the astrophysical backgrounds. We show that, on the contrary, the DM intrinsic degree of anisotropy in the arrival directions of high energy CR electrons and positrons does not suffer from these unknowns. Furthermore, if contributions from possible local sources are neglected, the intrinsic DM anisotropy sets the maximum degree of total anisotropy. As a consequence, if some anisotropy larger than the DM upper bound is detected, its origin could not be ascribed to DM, and would constitute an unambiguous evidence for the presence of astrophysical local discrete sources of high energy electrons and positrons. The Fermi-LAT will be able to probe such scenarios in the next years. (orig.)

  1. Milk production and nutrient digestibility responses to increasing levels of stearic acid supplementation of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerman, J P; de Souza, J; Lock, A L

    2017-04-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the dose-response effects of a stearic acid (C18:0)-enriched supplement on nutrient digestibility, production responses, and the maximum amount of C18:0 that can be incorporated into the milk fat of dairy cows. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 32; 145 ± 66 d in milk) with a wide range in milk yield (30 to 70 kg/d) were blocked by milk yield and assigned to replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares. Treatments were diets supplemented with a C18:0-enriched supplement (SA; 93% C18:0) at 0, 0.80, 1.50, or 2.30% of diet dry matter (DM). Periods were 21 d with the final 5 d used for data and sample collection. Dry matter intake increased linearly as SA supplementation increased. Supplementation of SA had no effect on the yield of milk or milk components. Due to the increase in DM intake, SA linearly reduced the ratio of energy-corrected milk to DM intake. Supplementation of SA did not affect body weight. Increasing SA reduced digestibility of 16-carbon, 18-carbon, and total fatty acids (FA), with the reduction in digestibility of 18-carbon FA being approximately 30 percentage units from the 0.0 to 2.30% SA supplemented diets. Supplementation of SA linearly increased concentrations of preformed milk fatty acids (FA) but did not affect the yield of preformed milk FA. Yields of C18:0 plus cis-9 C18:1 were increased by SA supplementation; however, the increase from 0 to 2.3% SA was only 16 g/d. The concentration and yield of de novo and 16-carbon milk FA were unaffected by SA supplementation. In conclusion, increasing doses of SA decreased FA digestibility and had little effect on production parameters. Although SA increased the yield of C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1 in milk fat, it had no overall effect on milk fat yield. The lack of production responses to a C18:0-enriched fat supplement was most likely associated with the marked decrease in FA digestibility. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  2. Effect of feeding level on ileal and total tract digestibility of nutrients and energy from soybean meal-based diets for piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerke, M; Mosenthin, R; Jezierny, D; Sauer, N; Piepho, H-P; Messerschmidt, U; Eklund, M

    2014-12-01

    A total of 36 piglets with an initial body weight (BW) of 5.6 ± 0.7 kg, fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum, were used to evaluate the effect of three graded feeding levels (50, 75 or 100 g/kg BW(0.75) day) on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N) and energy, and on ATTD of organic matter (OM), ether extracts (EE), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and digestible (DE), metabolisable (ME) and net energy (NE) content in soybean meal (SBM)-casein-cornstarch-based diets. The AID of DM, N and energy and ATTD of NDF, ADF and EE in the diets were not affected (p > 0.05) by the feed intake (FI) level. There was a small decrease in ATTD of DM, N (CP), OM, ash and energy, and in DE, ME and NE content in the diets (p digestibility values, and for estimating urinary endogenous N loss. High variability in estimates of ileal endogenous N loss and total tract endogenous losses of N, EE and ash reflects great variation in individual endogenous losses between animals. Estimation of true total tract digestibility of N, EE and ash by regression analysis was affected by their decrease in ATTD with increasing FI level, as estimates for true digestibility were lower compared to their apparent values. The present results suggest that FI level can affect both apparent and true total tract nutrient digestibility in piglets. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Hypothetical Dark Matter/Axion rockets: What can be said about Dark Matter in terms of space physics propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckwith, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses dark matter (DM) particle candidates from non-supersymmetry (SUSY) processes and explores how a DM candidate particle in the 100-400 GeV range could be created. Thrust from DM particles is also proposed for Photon rocket and Axion rockets. It would use a magnetic field to convert DM particles to near photonlike particles in a chamber to create thrust from the discharge of the near-photon-like particles. The presence of DM particles would suggest that thrust from the emerging near-photon-like particle would be greater than with conventional photon rockets. This amplifies and improves on an 'axion rocket ramjet' for interstellar travel. It is assumed that the same methodology used in an axion ramjet could be used with DM, with perhaps greater thrust/power conversion efficiencies.

  4. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feike Auke Dijkstra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. These interactive effects may be of particular relevance in understanding the sustained increase in plant growth and nutrient supply in response to a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. We examined how these interactions were affected by elevated CO2 in two similar semiarid grassland field studies. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming enhanced the release of nitrogen (N through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in one study, but not in the other. We postulate that rhizosphere priming may enhance N supply to plants in systems that are N limited, but that rhizosphere priming may not occur in systems that are phosphorus (P limited. Under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for mobilisation of P, rather than for decomposition of SOM. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils.

  5. Multipartite interacting scalar dark matter in the light of updated LUX data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Subhaditya; Ghosh, Purusottam; Poulose, Poulose, E-mail: subhab@iitg.ernet.in, E-mail: p.ghosh@iitg.ernet.in, E-mail: poulose@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India)

    2017-04-01

    We explore constraints on multipartite dark matter (DM) framework composed of singlet scalar DM interacting with the Standard Model (SM) through Higgs portal coupling. We compute relic density and direct search constraints including the updated LUX bound for two component scenario with non-zero interactions between two DM components in Z{sub 2} × Z{sub 2}{sup '} framework in comparison with the one having O(2) symmetry. We point out availability of a significantly large region of parameter space of such a multipartite model with DM-DM interactions.

  6. SIGNATURES OF DARK MATTER BURNING IN NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanellas, Jordi; Lopes, IlIdio

    2011-01-01

    In order to characterize how dark matter (DM) annihilation inside stars changes the aspect of a stellar cluster, we computed the evolution until the ignition of the He burning of stars from 0.7 M sun to 3.5 M sun within halos of DM with different characteristics. We found that, when a cluster is surrounded by a dense DM halo, the positions of the cluster' stars in the H-R diagram have a brighter and hotter turnoff point than in the classical scenario without DM, therefore giving the cluster a younger appearance. The high DM densities required to produce these effects are expected only in very specific locations, such as near the center of our Galaxy. In particular, if DM is formed by the 8 GeV weakly interacting massive particles recently invoked to reconcile the results from direct detection experiments, then this signature is predicted for halos of DM with a density ρ χ = 3 x 10 5 GeV cm -3 . A DM density gradient inside the stellar cluster would result in a broader main sequence, turnoff, and red giant branch regions. Moreover, we found that for very high DM halo densities the bottom of the isochrones in the H-R diagram rises to higher luminosities, leading to a characteristic signature on the stellar cluster. We argue that this signature could be used to indirectly probe the presence of DM particles in the location of a cluster.

  7. Twin Higgs Asymmetric Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García García, Isabel; Lasenby, Robert; March-Russell, John

    2015-09-18

    We study asymmetric dark matter (ADM) in the context of the minimal (fraternal) twin Higgs solution to the little hierarchy problem, with a twin sector with gauged SU(3)^{'}×SU(2)^{'}, a twin Higgs doublet, and only third-generation twin fermions. Naturalness requires the QCD^{'} scale Λ_{QCD}^{'}≃0.5-20  GeV, and that t^{'} is heavy. We focus on the light b^{'} quark regime, m_{b^{'}}≲Λ_{QCD}^{'}, where QCD^{'} is characterized by a single scale Λ_{QCD}^{'} with no light pions. A twin baryon number asymmetry leads to a successful dark matter (DM) candidate: the spin-3/2 twin baryon, Δ^{'}∼b^{'}b^{'}b^{'}, with a dynamically determined mass (∼5Λ_{QCD}^{'}) in the preferred range for the DM-to-baryon ratio Ω_{DM}/Ω_{baryon}≃5. Gauging the U(1)^{'} group leads to twin atoms (Δ^{'}-τ^{'}[over ¯] bound states) that are successful ADM candidates in significant regions of parameter space, sometimes with observable changes to DM halo properties. Direct detection signatures satisfy current bounds, at times modified by dark form factors.

  8. Nutrient management for rice production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Chandra, D.; Nanda, P.; Singh, S.S.; Singh, S.R.; Ghorai, A.K.

    2002-06-01

    The nutrient removed by the crops far exceeds the amounts replenished through fertilizer, causing a much greater strain on the native soil reserves. The situation is further aggravated in countries like India, where sub-optimal fertilizer used by the farmers is a common phenomenon rather than an exception. The total consumption of nutrients of all crops in India, even though reached 15 million tons in 1997, remains much below the estimated nutrient removal of 25 million tons (Swarup and Goneshamurthy, 1998). The gap between nutrient removal supplied through fertilizer has widened further in 2000 to 34 million tons of plant nutrients from the soil against an estimated fertilizer availability of 18 million tons (Singh and Dwivedi, 1996). Nitrogen is the nutrient which limits the most the rice production worldwide. In Asia, where more than 90 percent of the world's rice is produced, about 60 percent of the N fertilizer consumed is used on rice (Stangel and De Dutta, 1985). Conjunctive use of organic material along with fertilizer has been proved an efficient source of nitrogen. Organic residue recycling is becoming an increasingly important aspect of environmentally sound sustainable agriculture. Returning residues like green manure to the soil is necessary for maintaining soil organic matter, which is important for favourable soil structure, soil water retention and soil microbial flora and fauna activities. Use of organic manures in conjunction or as an alternative to chemical fertilizer is receiving attention. Green manure, addition to some extent, helps not only in enhancing the yield but also in improving the physical and chemical nature of soils. The excessive application of chemical fertilizers made it imperative that a part of inorganic fertilizer may be substituted with the recycling of organic wastes. Organic manure has been recorded to enhance the efficiency and reduce the requirement of chemical fertilizers. Partial nitrogen substitution through organic

  9. Comparative experimental and theoretical investigations of the DM neutron moisture probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølgaard, Povl Lebeck; Haahr, Vagner

    1967-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of the Danish produced DM subsurface moisture probe have been carried out at the Research Establishment Risö, and the results obtained are presented in this paper. The DM probe contains an Am-Be fast neutron source and has a glass scintillator containing...

  10. Hypertension and related risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: During the study it was found out that 61.2%of DM patients had hypertension, 56.4% obesity, 33.5% hypercholesterolemia and 38.9% hypertriglyceredemia. In the study, hypertension was associated with age, sex, type of DM, body mass index (BMI) and hypertriglyceredemia. Conclusion: The study found out that ...

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus paracasei DmW181, a Bacterium Isolated from Wild Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, Austin J.; Walters, Amber; Carroll, Courtney; Newell, Peter D.; Chaston, John M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus paracasei DmW181, an anaerobic bacterium isolate from wild Drosophila flies, is reported here. Strain DmW181 possesses genes for sialic acid and mannose metabolism. The assembled genome is 3,201,429?bp, with 3,454 predicted genes.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus paracasei DmW181, a Bacterium Isolated from Wild Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Austin J; Walters, Amber; Carroll, Courtney; Newell, Peter D; Chaston, John M

    2017-07-06

    The draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus paracasei DmW181, an anaerobic bacterium isolate from wild Drosophila flies, is reported here. Strain DmW181 possesses genes for sialic acid and mannose metabolism. The assembled genome is 3,201,429 bp, with 3,454 predicted genes. Copyright © 2017 Hammer et al.

  13. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus complications among palestinians with T2DM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu Al-Halaweh, Ahmad; Davidovitch, Nadav; Almdal, Thomas Peter

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the prevalence of microvascular and macrovascular complications of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) among Palestinians. METHODS: 1308 diagnosed T2DM attending four main Primary Health Care Clinics on the Southern West Bank of Palestine examined by a Mobile Diabetes Clinic team. All diabetes...

  14. Simplified models of mixed dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Clifford; Sanford, David

    2014-01-01

    We explore simplified models of mixed dark matter (DM), defined here to be a stable relic composed of a singlet and an electroweak charged state. Our setup describes a broad spectrum of thermal DM candidates that can naturally accommodate the observed DM abundance but are subject to substantial constraints from current and upcoming direct detection experiments. We identify ''blind spots'' at which the DM-Higgs coupling is identically zero, thus nullifying direct detection constraints on spin independent scattering. Furthermore, we characterize the fine-tuning in mixing angles, i.e. well-tempering, required for thermal freeze-out to accommodate the observed abundance. Present and projected limits from LUX and XENON1T force many thermal relic models into blind spot tuning, well-tempering, or both. This simplified model framework generalizes bino-Higgsino DM in the MSSM, singlino-Higgsino DM in the NMSSM, and scalar DM candidates that appear in models of extended Higgs sectors

  15. Particle dark matter: A multimessenger endeavour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, M.

    2017-01-01

    The search for dark matter (DM) as a new, yet undiscovered, particle is explored through a complex host of different signals, from collider to direct and indirect searches. A special focus is dedicated to the latter ones, covering the full electromagnetic spectrum (from radio to gamma-rays), charged cosmic-rays and neutrinos. The expected DM signals are by definition faint, but the possibility to exploit a wide-field investigation offers promising prospects. In this brief review, I summarize the state-of-the-art in the search for particle DM signals, exploring some new ideas that are emerging in the effort of the scientific community to understand the elusive nature of DM.

  16. Cosmological implications of Dark Matter bound states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitridate, Andrea [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126, Pisa (Italy); Redi, Michele; Smirnov, Juri [INFN, Sezione di Firenze, and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Strumia, Alessandro, E-mail: andrea.mitridate@gmail.com, E-mail: michele.redi@fi.infn.it, E-mail: juri.smirnov@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: alessandro.strumia@cern.ch [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Pisa and INFN, Pisa (Italy)

    2017-05-01

    We present generic formulæ for computing how Sommerfeld corrections together with bound-state formation affects the thermal abundance of Dark Matter with non-abelian gauge interactions. We consider DM as a fermion 3plet (wino) or 5plet under SU(2) {sub L} . In the latter case bound states raise to 11.5 TeV the DM mass required to reproduce the cosmological DM abundance and give indirect detection signals such as (for this mass) a dominant γ-line around 70 GeV. Furthermore, we consider DM co-annihilating with a colored particle, such as a squark or a gluino, finding that bound state effects are especially relevant in the latter case.

  17. Interference effects of two scalar boson propagators on the LHC search for the singlet fermion DM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, P., E-mail: pko@kias.re.kr; Li, Jinmian, E-mail: jmli@kias.re.kr

    2017-02-10

    A gauge invariant UV-completion for singlet fermion DM interacting with the standard model (SM) particles involves a new singlet scalar. Therefore the model contains two scalar mediators, mixtures of the SM Higgs boson and a singlet scalar boson. Collider phenomenology of the interference effect between these two scalar propagators is studied in this work. This interference effect can be either constructive or destructive in the DM production cross section depending on both singlet scalar and DM masses, and it will soften the final state jets in the full mass region. Applying the CMS mono-jet search to our model, we find the interference effect plays a very important role in the DM search sensitivity, and the DM production cross section of our model is more than one order of magnitude below the LHC sensitivity at current stage.

  18. Evaluation of the effect of different wheats and xylanase supplementation on performance, nutrient and energy utilisation in broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma González-Ortiz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance, nutrient utilisation and energy metabolism of broiler chicks fed 8 different wheat samples, supplemented or not with xylanase. Seven-hundred sixty eight male broilers (1-day-old were distributed to 16 experimental treatments (6 replicates per treatment. The treatments were in a factorial arrangement with 8 different wheats and 2 levels of xylanase (0 or 16,000 BXU/kg. The predicted apparent metabolisable energy (AME of the wheat samples ranged from 13.0 to 13.9 MJ/kg and all diets were formulated to contain the same amount of wheat. Body weight gain (BWG and feed intake (FI were measured at 21 d, as was jejunal digesta viscosity, and feed conversion ratio (FCR calculated. On day 24, one representative bird per pen was selected to calculate whole body energetics. At 21 d, 3 chicks per replicate were randomly allocated to metabolism cages for energy and nutrient utilisation determinations, and were continued on the experimental diets until 24-d-old. No interactions were observed for any performance response variables, ileal nutrient utilisation or digesta viscosity. Xylanase improved BWG and reduced FCR and digesta viscosity (P < 0.05. Wheat influenced dry matter (DM utilisation and xylanase increased ileal digestible energy (P = 0.04. Xylanase also improved (P < 0.05 DM and nitrogen retention. Apparent metabolisable energy and AME corrected for nitrogen (AMEn were subject to an interaction whereby wheats 2 and 6, which returned the lowest AME and AMEn values, responded to xylanase supplementation and the remainder did not. Net energy for production and the efficiency of energy use for production were not influenced by xylanase, but were affected by wheat (P < 0.05. Despite the significant differences between wheats with regards to their nutrient utilisation and energy metabolism in birds, xylanase removed this variance and resulted in more homogeneous performance.

  19. Effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule) meal on growth performance and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig (Zovawk) of Mizoram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalthansanga, James; Samanta, A K

    2015-07-01

    This study was planned to investigate the effect of feeding different levels of chayote (Sechium edule) meal by replacing standard concentrate mixture (CM) on the growth parameters such as feed intake, body weight gain, average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR), and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig of Mizoram. Twenty-four growing indigenous pigs (Zovawk) were used to study the effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule) meal (fruits and leaves at the ratio 4:1) on growth performance and nutrient utilization. They were allocated randomly into 4 treatment groups (G1, G2, G3, and G4). Chayote meal was used to replace standard CM (pig grower ration) at 0% (G1), 20% (G2), 30% (G3), and 40% (G4). During the feeding trial of 90 days, it was found that the dry matter (DM) intake decreased as the level of chayote meal increased. For G1, G2, G3, and G4, the ADG (kg) was 0.24±0.04, 0.23±0.03, 0.18±0.02, and 0.18±0.02, respectively, and the feed conversion efficiency was 5.42±0.44, 4.93±0.17, 5.38±0.05, and 5.74±0.53, respectively. However, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) among the different treatment groups in respect to ADG and FCR. At the end of the feeding trial, digestibility trial was conducted to study the effect of feeding chayote meal in the digestibility of the different nutrients by the experimental animals. From the digestibility trial, it was revealed that the digestibility coefficient of DM, crude protein, and crude fiber were also similar (p>0.05), although the ether extract digestibility in G1 was significantly low (pChayote meal could safely replace the standard grower ration up to 40% in the diet of growing local pigs without causing any adverse effects on growth and nutrient utilization.

  20. Effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule meal on growth performance and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig (Zovawk of Mizoram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lalthansanga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was planned to investigate the effect of feeding different levels of chayote (Sechium edule meal by replacing standard concentrate mixture (CM on the growth parameters such as feed intake, body weight gain, average daily gain (ADG and feed conversion ratio (FCR, and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig of Mizoram. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four growing indigenous pigs (Zovawk were used to study the effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule meal (fruits and leaves at the ratio 4:1 on growth performance and nutrient utilization. They were allocated randomly into 4 treatment groups (G1, G2, G3, and G4. Chayote meal was used to replace standard CM (pig grower ration at 0% (G1, 20% (G2, 30% (G3, and 40% (G4. Results: During the feeding trial of 90 days, it was found that the dry matter (DM intake decreased as the level of chayote meal increased. For G1, G2, G3, and G4, the ADG (kg was 0.24±0.04, 0.23±0.03, 0.18±0.02, and 0.18±0.02, respectively, and the feed conversion efficiency was 5.42±0.44, 4.93±0.17, 5.38±0.05, and 5.74±0.53, respectively. However, there was no significant difference (p>0.05 among the different treatment groups in respect to ADG and FCR. At the end of the feeding trial, digestibility trial was conducted to study the effect of feeding chayote meal in the digestibility of the different nutrients by the experimental animals. From the digestibility trial, it was revealed that the digestibility coefficient of DM, crude protein, and crude fiber were also similar (p>0.05, although the ether extract digestibility in G1 was significantly low (p<0.01 as compared to G2, G3, and G4. Conclusion: Chayote meal could safely replace the standard grower ration up to 40% in the diet of growing local pigs without causing any adverse effects on growth and nutrient utilization.

  1. Intake, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in lactating dairy cows fed diets containing sunflower cakeConsumo, digestibilidade dos nutrientes e balanço de nitrogênio em vacas leiteiras alimentadas com dietas contendo torta de girassol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzânia Sales Pereira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of sunflower cake (SC inclusion in the diets of lactating dairy cows on dry matter (DM intake, the apparent digestibility of dietary nutrients and nitrogen balance. Eight Holstein-Zebu cows with a milk yield of 20 ± 2 kg/day were allotted to a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design, where were tested the effects of four levels of SC inclusion (0, 7, 14 and 21% of DM basis. Tifton-85 (Cynodon dactylon hay was used as roughage in a 60:40 roughage:concentrate ratio. The SC inclusion had no effect on dry matter, crude protein, organic matter (OM or total carbohydrate (TC intake (kg/day. However, a quadratic effect (P O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de inclusão de torta de girassol (TG na dieta de vacas em lactação sobre o consumo de matéria seca (MS, digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes da dieta e balanço de nitrogênio. Oito vacas Girolanda com produção diária de leite de 20 ± 2 kg/dia foram distribuídas em delineamento em quadrado latino duplo 4x4, em que foram testados os efeitos de quatro níveis de inclusão da TG (0, 7, 14 e 21% MS. Foi utilizado o feno de Tifton-85 (Cynodon dactylon como volumoso em uma relação volumoso:concentrado de 60:40. A inclusão de TG não afetou o consumo (kg/dia de MS, proteína bruta, matéria orgânica (OM e carboidratos totais (CT. Entretanto, foi observado efeito quadrático (P < 0,05 no consumo (kg/dia de fibra em detergente neutro e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF. Não houve efeito da inclusão de TG na digestibilidade de MO, CT e CNF, assim como para o balanço de nitrogênio. Foi observado efeito linear para o nitrogênio endógeno basal (g/dia. A torta de girassol pode ser recomendada como um ingrediente de rações para vacas em lactação.

  2. Diagnosis of the nutrient compositional space of fruit crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léon-Étienne Parent

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tissue analysis is a useful tool for the nutrient management of fruit orchards. The mineral composition of diagnostic tissues expressed as nutrient concentration on a dry weight basis has long been used to assess the status of 'pure' nutrients. When nutrients are mixed and interact in plant tissues, their proportions or concentrations change relatively to each other as a result of synergism, antagonism, or neutrality, hence producing resonance within the closed space of tissue composition. Ternary diagrams and nutrient ratios are early representations of interacting nutrients in the compositional space. Dual and multiple interactions were integrated by the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS into nutrient indexes and by Compositional Nutrient Diagnosis into centered log ratios (CND-clr. DRIS has some computational flaws such as using a dry matter index that is not a part as well as nutrient products (e.g. NxCa instead of ratios. DRIS and CND-clr integrate all possible nutrient interactions without defining an ad hoc interactive model. They diagnose D components while D-1 could be diagnosed in the D-compositional Hilbert space. The isometric log ratio (ilr coordinates overcome these problems using orthonormal binary nutrient partitions instead of dual ratios. In this study, it is presented a nutrient interactive model as well as computation methods for DRIS and CND-clr and CND-ilr coordinates (CND-ilr using leaf analytical data from an experimental apple orchard in Southwestern Quebec, Canada. It was computed the Aitchison and Mahalanobis distances across ilr coordinates as measures of nutrient imbalance. The effect of changing nutrient concentrations on ilr coordinates are simulated to identify the ones contributing the most to nutrient imbalance.

  3. Direct and Indirect Dark Matter Detection in Gauge Theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Farinaldo [Federal Univ. of Paraba (Brazil)

    2013-01-01

    The Dark matter (DM) problem constitutes a key question at the interface among Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology. The observational data which have been accumulated in the last years point to an existence of non baryonic amount of DM. Since the Standard Model (SM) does not provide any candidate for such non-baryonic DM, the evidence of DM is a major indication for new physics beyond the SM. We will study in this work one of the most popular DM candidates, the so called WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) from a direct and indirect detection perspective. In order to approach the direct and indirect dection of DM in the context of Particle Physics in a more pedagogic way, we will begin our discussion talking about a minimal extension of the SM. Later we will work on the subject in a 3-3-1 model. Next, we will study the role of WIMPs in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Lastly, we will look for indirect DM signals in the center of our galaxy using the NASA Satellite, called Fermi-LAT. Through a comprehensive analysis of the data events observed by Fermi-LAT and some background models, we will constrain the dark matter annihilation cross section for several annihilation channels and dark matter halo profiles.

  4. Dark matter as the signal of grand unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadastik, Mario; Kannike, Kristjan; Raidal, Martti

    2009-01-01

    We argue that the existence of dark matter (DM) is a possible consequence of grand unification (GUT) symmetry breaking. In GUTs like SO(10), discrete Z 2 matter parity (-1) 3(B-L) survives despite broken B-L, and group theory uniquely determines that the only possible Z 2 -odd matter multiplets belong to representation 16. We construct the minimal nonsupersymmetric SO(10) model containing one scalar 16 for DM and study its predictions below M G . We find that electroweak symmetry breaking occurs radiatively due to DM couplings to the standard model Higgs boson. For thermal relic DM the mass range M DM ∼O(0.1-1) TeV is predicted by model perturbativity up to M G . For M DM ∼O(1) TeV to explain the observed cosmic ray anomalies with DM decays, there exists a lower bound on the spin-independent direct detection cross section within the reach of planned experiments.

  5. Supersymmetry, Dark Matter and the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tata, Xerxes

    2010-01-01

    The conceptually simplest scenario for dark matter (DM) is that it is a stable thermal relic from standard Big Bang cosmology, in many SUSY models the lightest neutralino. The relic density determination selects special regions in SUSY model parameter space with concomitant implications for collider physics, dark matter searches and low energy measurements. By studying various one-parameter extensions of the much-studied mSUGRA model (where we relax the untested universality assumptions) constructed to be in accord with the measured relic density, we show that these implications are in general model-dependent, so that LHC and DM measurements will provide clues to how sparticles acquire their masses. We point out some relatively robust implications for LHC and DM searches and conclude with an outlook for the future.

  6. Exploring dark matter microphysics with galaxy surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escudero, Miguel; Mena, Olga [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC-Universitat de València, Apartado de Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Vincent, Aaron C.; Wilkinson, Ryan J.; Boehm, Céline, E-mail: miguel.Escudero@uv.es, E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es, E-mail: aaron.vincent@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: ryan.wilkinson@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: c.m.boehm@durham.ac.uk [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology (IPPP), Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-01

    We use present cosmological observations and forecasts of future experiments to illustrate the power of large-scale structure (LSS) surveys in probing dark matter (DM) microphysics and unveiling potential deviations from the standard ΛCDM scenario. To quantify this statement, we focus on an extension of ΛCDM with DM-neutrino scattering, which leaves a distinctive imprint on the angular and matter power spectra. After finding that future CMB experiments (such as COrE+) will not significantly improve the constraints set by the Planck satellite, we show that the next generation of galaxy clustering surveys (such as DESI) could play a leading role in constraining alternative cosmologies and even have the potential to make a discovery. Typically we find that DESI would be an order of magnitude more sensitive to DM interactions than Planck, thus probing effects that until now have only been accessible via N-body simulations.

  7. The dark matter density in the solar neighborhood reconsidered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, W. de; Weber, M., E-mail: wim.de.boer@kit.edu, E-mail: mj.weber@kit.edu [Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), P.O. Box 6980, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-04-01

    The peculiar dip in the outer rotation curve at a distance of 9 kpc, which was recently confirmed by precise measurements with the VERA VLBI array in Japan, suggests donut-like substructures in the dark matter (DM) halo, since spherical or elliptical distributions will not cause a dip. Additionally, such a donut-like DM structure seems to be required by the dip in the gas flaring of the disk. In this paper we consider the impact of such DM substructure in the disk on the rotation curve, the gas flaring, the local DM density and the local surface density. A global fit shows that the rotation curve is best described by an NFW DM profile complemented by two donut-like DM substructures at radii of 4.2 and 12.4 kpc, which coincide with the local dust ring and the Monocerus ring of stars, respectively. Both regions have been suggested as regions with tidal streams from ''shredded'' satellites, thus enhancing the plausibility for additional DM. If real, the radial extensions of these nearby ringlike structures enhance the local dark matter density by a factor of four to about 1.3±0.3 GeV/cm{sup 3}. We find that i) this higher DM density is perfectly consistent with the local gravitational potential determining the surface density and ii) the s-shaped gas flaring is explained. Such a possible enhancement of the local DM density is of great interest for direct DM searches and the ringlike structure would change the directional dependence of gamma rays for indirect DM searches.

  8. Light Readout for a 1 ton Liquid Argon Dark Matter Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Boccone, Vittorio; Baudis, Laura; Otyugova, Polina; Regenfus, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Evidence for dark matter (DM) has been reported using astronomical observations in systems such as the Bullet cluster. Weakly interactive massive particles (WIMPs), in particular the lightest neutralino, are the most popular DM candidates within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). Many groups in the world are focussing their attention on the direct detection of DM in the laboratory. The detectors should have large target masses and excellent noise rejection capabilities because of the small cross section between DM and ordinary matter (σWIMP−nucleon < 4 · 10−8 pb). Noble liquids are today considered to be one of the best options for large-size DM experiments, as they have a relatively low ionization energy, good scintillation properties and long electron lifetime. Moreover noble liquid detectors are easily scalable to large masses. This thesis deals with the development of a large (1 ton) LAr WIMP detector (ArDM) which could measure simultaneously light and charge from the scintilla...

  9. Variación espacial y temporal de las masas de agua, nutrientes y sedimentación de la materia orgánica e inorgánica en la bahía Mejillones del sur (23° S, Chile Spatial and temporal variability of water masses, nutrients and sedimentation of organic and inorganic matter, in Mejillones del sur bay (23° S, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICIO CERDA

    2010-01-01

    temporal variability of physical-chemical properties and sedimentation rates of particulate matter of the water column at a fixed station set within Bahía de Mejillones del Sur, during the austral summer of 2003-2004. The water column was generally characterized by warmer oxygen-rich surface waters, marked stratification gradients between about 10 to 20 m depths and by colder, denser and sub-oxic upwelling waters from 30 m depths to the bottom throughout studied period. The bay was governed by three different water masses: the Surface Sub-Tropical Waters (SSTW, Sub-Antarctic Waters (SAAW and the Equatorial Sub-Surface Waters (ESSW. The surface waters exhibited a clear alternation between weak and short (three to eight days upwelling events and longer (29 days periods of stratification. During the weak upwelling events and at the onset of the stratification periods, sub-oxic to micro-oxic conditions prevailed with elevated nutrient concentrations at the 10 to 15 m depth layer. The variability of oxygen saturation levéis and of the dissolved inorganic nutrients nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and silicic acid (Si, as well as the behavior of the N:P and Si:NID ratios, indicated the important combined effects of internal recycling of the organic matter in the surface water column and of the contribution of allochthonous nutrients from upwelled bottom waters. The fortnightly variability of the total flux of particulate material collected in sediment traps in the bay suggest that material deposition from the water column is governed by the alternation of upwelling and stratification events. In addition, the sediment traps registered nitrogen impoverishment with increasing depths, suggesting that remineralisation processes affected the settling of particles and the denitrification of the oxydo-reducting deeper waters of the bay.

  10. Determination of Plant-Available Nutrients in Two Wood Ashes: the Influence of Combustion Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perná, Ivana; Ochecová, P.; Száková, J.; Hanzlíček, Tomáš; Tlustoš, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 47, 13/14 (2016), 1664-1674 ISSN 0010-3624 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI102A207 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : combustion condition * crystal phases * fertilizer * plant-available nutrients * wood ash Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling Impact factor: 0.589, year: 2016

  11. Níveis de proteína bruta em dietas para bovinos de corte: consumo e digestibilidades total e parcial dos nutrientes Crude protein levels in diets of beef cattle: intake and apparent total tract, intestinal, and ruminal digestibilities of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Andréa Borges Cavalcante

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os consumos e as digestibilidades total e parcial dos nutrientes em novilhos Holandês x Zebu recebendo dietas contendo quatro níveis de proteína bruta (10,5; 12; 13,5 e 15% de PB na matéria seca, constituídas de 65% de feno de capim-tifton 85 e 35% de concentrado. Foram utilizados quatro animais castrados, fistulados no rúmen e abomaso, com peso vivo médio inicial de 487,3 kg, distribuídos em um quadrado latino 4 x 4. Cada período experimental teve duração de 20 dias - 10 para adaptação às dietas, seis para coletas de amostras de fezes e digestas de abomaso, um para a coleta de líquido ruminal, um para a coleta total de urina, em 24 horas, e dois para a coleta de conteúdo ruminal. Para determinação da excreção fecal, utilizou-se o óxido crômico como indicador. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT não foram influenciados pelos níveis de proteína bruta (PB das dietas, mas os consumos de PB aumentaram e os de extrato etéreo (EE e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF reduziram com o incremento de PB das dietas. As digestibilidades aparentes totais da MS, MO e PB aumentaram linearmente com a concentração protéica das dietas. As digestibilidades aparentes ruminal e intestinal dos nutrientes não foram afetadas pelos níveis de PB das dietas, com exceção à digestibilidade intestinal da PB, que aumentou 2,77 unidades para cada percentual de PB acrescentado à dieta.The objective of this trial was to study the effects of different dietary levels of crude protein (CP on intake and apparent total tract, intestinal, and ruminal digestibilities of nutrients in Holstein x Zebu steers. The diets contained [dry matter (DM basis]: 10.5, 12, 13.5, or 15% of CP and a forage (Tifton 85:concentrate ratio of 65:35. Four castrated animals averaging 487.3 kg of body weight at the beginning of the trial and fitted with both abomasum and

  12. Characterization of nutrient deficiency in Hancornia speciosa Gomes seedlings by omitting micronutrients from the nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layara Alexandre Bessa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Mangaba tree is a fruit tree belonging to the Apocynaceae family and is native to Brazil. The production of seedlings of this species is limited by a lack of technical and nutritional expertise. To address this deficiency, this study aimed to characterize the visual symptoms of micronutrient deficiency and to assess growth and leaf nutrient accumulation in H. speciosa seedlings supplied with nutrient solutions that lack individual micronutrients. H. speciosa plants were grown in nutrient solution in a greenhouse according to a randomized block design, with four replicates. The treatments consisted of a group receiving complete nutrient solution and groups treated with a nutrient solution lacking one of the following micronutrients: boron (B, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, and molybdenum (Mo. The visual symptoms of nutrient deficiency were generally easy to characterize. Dry matter production was affected by the omission of micronutrients, and the treatment lacking Fe most limited the stem length, stem diameter, root length, and number of leaves in H. speciosa seedlings as well as the dry weight of leaves, the total dry weight, and the relative growth in H. speciosa plants. The micronutrient contents of H. speciosa leaves from plants receiving the complete nutrient solution treatment were, in decreasing order, Fe>Mn>Cu>Zn>B.

  13. Heterologous expression of the antimyotoxic protein DM64 in Pichia pastoris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Martins Vieira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Snakebite envenomation is a neglected condition that constitutes a public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries, including Brazil. Interestingly, some animals are resistant to snake envenomation due to the presence of inhibitory glycoproteins in their serum that target toxic venom components. DM64 is an acidic glycoprotein isolated from Didelphis aurita (opossum serum that has been characterized as an inhibitor of the myotoxicity induced by bothropic toxins bearing phospholipase A2 (PLA2 structures. This antitoxic protein can serve as an excellent starting template for the design of novel therapeutics against snakebite envenomation, particularly venom-induced local tissue damage. Therefore, the aim of this work was to produce a recombinant DM64 (rDM64 in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris and to compare its biological properties with those of native DM64. Yeast fermentation in the presence of Pefabloc, a serine protease inhibitor, stimulated cell growth (~1.5-fold, increased the rDM64 production yield approximately 10-fold and significantly reduced the susceptibility of rDM64 to proteolytic degradation. P. pastoris fermentation products were identified by mass spectrometry and Western blotting. The heterologous protein was efficiently purified from the culture medium by affinity chromatography (with immobilized PLA2 myotoxin and/or an ion exchange column. Although both native and recombinant DM64 exhibit different glycosylation patterns, they show very similar electrophoretic mobilities after PNGase F treatment. rDM64 formed a noncovalent complex with myotoxin II (Lys49-PLA2 from Bothrops asper and displayed biological activity that was similar to that of native DM64, inhibiting the cytotoxicity of myotoxin II by 92% at a 1:1 molar ratio.

  14. Dm5-HT2B: Pharmacological Characterization of the Fifth Serotonin Receptor Subtype of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Blenau

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT is an important regulator of physiological and behavioral processes in both protostomes (e.g., insects and deuterostomes (e.g., mammals. In insects, serotonin has been found to modulate the heart rate and to control secretory processes, development, circadian rhythms, aggressive behavior, as well as to contribute to learning and memory. Serotonin exerts its activity by binding to and activating specific membrane receptors. The clear majority of these receptors belong to the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. In Drosophila melanogaster, a total of five genes have been identified coding for 5-HT receptors. From this family of proteins, four have been pharmacologically examined in greater detail, so far. While Dm5-HT1A, Dm5-HT1B, and Dm5-HT7 couple to cAMP signaling cascades, the Dm5-HT2A receptor leads to Ca2+ signaling in an inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent manner. Based on sequence similarity to homologous genes in other insects, a fifth D. melanogaster gene was uncovered coding for a Dm5-HT2B receptor. Knowledge about this receptor’s pharmacological properties is very limited. This is quite surprising because Dm5-HT2B has been attributed to distinct physiological functions based on genetic interference with its gene expression. Mutations were described reducing the response of the larval heart to 5-HT, and specific knockdown of Dm5-HT2B mRNA in hemocytes resulted in a higher susceptibility of the flies to bacterial infection. To gain deeper understanding of Dm5-HT2B’s pharmacology, we evaluated the receptor’s response to a series of established 5-HT receptor agonists and antagonists in a functional cell-based assay. Metoclopramide and mianserin were identified as two potent antagonists that may allow pharmacological interference with Dm5-HT2B signaling in vitro and in vivo.

  15. Dm5-HT2B: Pharmacological Characterization of the Fifth Serotonin Receptor Subtype of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blenau, Wolfgang; Daniel, Stöppler; Balfanz, Sabine; Thamm, Markus; Baumann, Arnd

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an important regulator of physiological and behavioral processes in both protostomes (e.g., insects) and deuterostomes (e.g., mammals). In insects, serotonin has been found to modulate the heart rate and to control secretory processes, development, circadian rhythms, aggressive behavior, as well as to contribute to learning and memory. Serotonin exerts its activity by binding to and activating specific membrane receptors. The clear majority of these receptors belong to the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. In Drosophila melanogaster , a total of five genes have been identified coding for 5-HT receptors. From this family of proteins, four have been pharmacologically examined in greater detail, so far. While Dm5-HT 1A , Dm5-HT 1B , and Dm5-HT 7 couple to cAMP signaling cascades, the Dm5-HT 2A receptor leads to Ca 2+ signaling in an inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent manner. Based on sequence similarity to homologous genes in other insects, a fifth D. melanogaster gene was uncovered coding for a Dm5-HT 2B receptor. Knowledge about this receptor's pharmacological properties is very limited. This is quite surprising because Dm5-HT 2B has been attributed to distinct physiological functions based on genetic interference with its gene expression. Mutations were described reducing the response of the larval heart to 5-HT, and specific knockdown of Dm5-HT 2B mRNA in hemocytes resulted in a higher susceptibility of the flies to bacterial infection. To gain deeper understanding of Dm5-HT 2B 's pharmacology, we evaluated the receptor's response to a series of established 5-HT receptor agonists and antagonists in a functional cell-based assay. Metoclopramide and mianserin were identified as two potent antagonists that may allow pharmacological interference with Dm5-HT 2B signaling in vitro and in vivo .

  16. Singlet fermionic dark matter with Veltman conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yeong Gyun; Lee, Kang Young; Nam, Soo-hyeon

    2018-01-01

    We reexamine a renormalizable model of a fermionic dark matter with a gauge singlet Dirac fermion and a real singlet scalar which can ameliorate the scalar mass hierarchy problem of the Standard Model (SM). Our model setup is the minimal extension of the SM for which a realistic dark matter (DM) candidate is provided and the cancellation of one-loop quadratic divergence to the scalar masses can be achieved by the Veltman condition (VC) simultaneously. This model extension, although renormaliz...

  17. Particle dark matter - A theorist's perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ture of the dark matter (DM) in the Universe, from the point of view of particle ... they must be electrically and (preferably) color neutral. .... in the general MssM and in two unification-based models: the constrained MssM ..... multi-TeV range.

  18. Quantifying Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying Matter explains how scientists learned to measure matter and quantify some of its most fascinating and useful properties. It presents many of the most important intellectual achievements and technical developments that led to the scientific interpretation of substance. Complete with full-color photographs, this exciting new volume describes the basic characteristics and properties of matter. Chapters include:. -Exploring the Nature of Matter. -The Origin of Matter. -The Search for Substance. -Quantifying Matter During the Scientific Revolution. -Understanding Matter's Electromagnet

  19. Cosmological axion and a quark nugget dark matter model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shuailiang; Liang, Xunyu; Zhitnitsky, Ariel

    2018-02-01

    We study a dark matter (DM) model offering a very natural explanation of two (naively unrelated) problems in cosmology: the observed relation ΩDM˜Ωvisible and the observed asymmetry between matter and antimatter in the Universe, known as the "baryogenesis" problem. In this framework, both types of matter (dark and visible) have the same QCD origin, form at the same QCD epoch, and are proportional to one and the same dimensional parameter of the system, ΛQCD, which explains how these two naively distinct problems could be intimately related, and could be solved simultaneously within the same framework. More specifically, the DM in this model is composed by two different ingredients: the (well-studied) DM axions and the (less-studied) quark nuggets made of matter or antimatter. We focus on the quantitative analysis of the relation between these two distinct components contributing to the dark sector of the theory determined by ΩDM≡[ΩDM(nuggets)+ΩDM(axion)] . We argue that the nuggets' DM component always traces the visible matter density, i.e., ΩDM(nuggets)˜Ωvisible , and this feature is not sensitive to the parameters of the system such as the axion mass ma or the misalignment angle θ0. It should be contrasted with conventional axion production mechanisms due to the misalignment when ΩDM(axion) is highly sensitive to the axion mass ma and the initial misalignment angle θ0. We also discuss the constraints on this model related to the inflationary scale HI, nonobservation of the isocurvature perturbations and the tensor modes. We also comment on some constraints related to various axion search experiments.

  20. PPPC 4 DMν: a Poor Particle Physicist Cookbook for Neutrinos from Dark Matter annihilations in the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baratella, Pietro; Cirelli, Marco; Hektor, Andi; Pata, Joosep; Piibeleht, Morten; Strumia, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    We provide ingredients and recipes for computing neutrino signals of TeV-scale Dark Matter (DM) annihilations in the Sun. For each annihilation channel and DM mass we present the energy spectra of neutrinos at production, including: state-of-the-art energy losses of primary particles in solar matter, secondary neutrinos, electroweak radiation. We then present the spectra after propagation to the Earth, including (vacuum and matter) flavor oscillations and interactions in solar matter. We also provide a numerical computation of the capture rate of DM particles in the Sun. These results are available in numerical form http://www.marcocirelli.net/PPPC4DMID.html

  1. PPPC 4 DMν: a Poor Particle Physicist Cookbook for Neutrinos from Dark Matter annihilations in the Sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratella, Pietro [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, Pisa, 56126 (Italy); Cirelli, Marco [Institut de Physique Théorique, CNRS URA 2306 and CEA-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, 91191 (France); Hektor, Andi; Pata, Joosep; Piibeleht, Morten; Strumia, Alessandro, E-mail: pietro.baratella@sissa.it, E-mail: marco.cirelli@cea.fr, E-mail: andi.hektor@cern.ch, E-mail: joosep.pata@cern.ch, E-mail: morten.piibeleht@cern.ch, E-mail: alessandro.strumia@cern.ch [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Ravala 10, Tallinn (Estonia)

    2014-03-01

    We provide ingredients and recipes for computing neutrino signals of TeV-scale Dark Matter (DM) annihilations in the Sun. For each annihilation channel and DM mass we present the energy spectra of neutrinos at production, including: state-of-the-art energy losses of primary particles in solar matter, secondary neutrinos, electroweak radiation. We then present the spectra after propagation to the Earth, including (vacuum and matter) flavor oscillations and interactions in solar matter. We also provide a numerical computation of the capture rate of DM particles in the Sun. These results are available in numerical form.

  2. PPPC 4 DMν: a Poor Particle Physicist Cookbook for Neutrinos from Dark Matter annihilations in the Sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratella, Pietro [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, Pisa, 56126 (Italy); Cirelli, Marco [Institut de Physique Théorique, CNRS URA 2306 & CEA-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, 91191 (France); Hektor, Andi [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Ravala 10, Tallinn (Estonia); Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, Helsinki, FI-00014 (Finland); Pata, Joosep; Piibeleht, Morten [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Ravala 10, Tallinn (Estonia); Strumia, Alessandro [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Ravala 10, Tallinn (Estonia); Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Pisa and INFN, Largo Buonarroti 2, Pisa (Italy)

    2014-03-27

    We provide ingredients and recipes for computing neutrino signals of TeV-scale Dark Matter (DM) annihilations in the Sun. For each annihilation channel and DM mass we present the energy spectra of neutrinos at production, including: state-of-the-art energy losses of primary particles in solar matter, secondary neutrinos, electroweak radiation. We then present the spectra after propagation to the Earth, including (vacuum and matter) flavor oscillations and interactions in solar matter. We also provide a numerical computation of the capture rate of DM particles in the Sun. These results are available in numerical form http://www.marcocirelli.net/PPPC4DMID.html.

  3. C-Peptide Is Independently Associated with an Increased Risk of Coronary Artery Disease in T2DM Subjects: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingshu Wang

    Full Text Available C-peptide has been reported to be a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients, whereas its role in coronary artery disease (CAD has not been clarified, especially in diabetics with differing body mass indices (BMIs.This cross-sectional study included 501 patients with T2DM. First, all subjects were divided into the following two groups: CAD and non-CAD. Then, binary logistic regression was used to determine the risk factors for CAD for all patients. To clarify the role of obesity, we re-divided all subjects into two additional groups (obese and non-obese based on BMI. Finally, binary logistic regression was used to determine the risk factors for CAD for each weight group.The patients with CAD showed a higher BMI and fasting C-peptide level in addition to an increased prevalence of traditional risk factors for CAD, such as hypertension, insulin resistance, higher cholesterol, cysteine-C (Cys-C and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. Logistic regression analysis showed that fasting C-peptide (OR=1.513, p=0.005, insulin treatment (OR=1.832, p=0.027 hypertension (OR=1.987, p=0.016 and hyperlipidemia (OR=4.159, p<0.001 significantly increased the risk of clinical CAD in the T2DM patients independent of age, gender, diabetes duration, smoking and alcohol statuses, fasting insulin and glucose, hypoglycemic episodes, UA and eGFR. Additionally, in both of the obese (OR=1.488, p=0.049 and non-obese (OR=1.686, p=0.037 DM groups, C-peptide was associated with an increased risk of CAD after multiple adjustments.C-peptide is associated with an increased CAD risk in T2DM patients, no matter whether they are obese or not.

  4. Studies on the s_dm.t=f verb form in Classical Egyptian

    OpenAIRE

    Zonhoven, Ludovicus Martinus Johannes

    1997-01-01

    This study is devoted to some synchronic aspects of the sDm.t=f verb form, primarily its meaning and uses in Classical Egyptian. In the introduction some attention is paid to the history of the studies of the form and its origin, an aspect which will receive no further consideration. In accordance with present common opinion the sDm.t=f is here considered to belong to the suffix conjugation. Ch. I is primarily concerned with the active Dr sDm.t=f construction, but begins with a general introd...

  5. Cancellation Mechanism for Dark-Matter-Nucleon Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Christian; Lebedev, Oleg; Toma, Takashi

    2017-11-10

    We consider a simple Higgs portal dark-matter model, where the standard model is supplemented with a complex scalar whose imaginary part plays the role of weakly interacting massive particle dark matter (DM). We show that the direct DM detection cross section vanishes at the tree level and zero momentum transfer due to a cancellation by virtue of a softly broken symmetry. This cancellation is operative for any mediator masses. As a result, our electroweak-scale dark matter satisfies all of the phenomenological constraints quite naturally.

  6. CONSUMO DE NUTRIENTES E BALANÇO HÍDRICO EM EQUINOS RECEBENDO DIETAS COM DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE INCLUSÃO DE FENO DE ALFAFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONIR BUENO RIBEIRO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutrients intake and water balance of horses in maintenance, fed with conventional hay. Six male horses with an average age of nine years and live weight of 361.16 ± 12 kg were used, in a latin square design (6x6, housed inmetabolism cages. The treatments were FTT: 1 00% Hay of Tifton, FTO: 80% Hay of Tifton + 20% Hay of Alfalfa, FTS: 60% Hay of Tifton + 40% Hay of Alfalfa, FTQ: 40% Hay of Tifton + 60% Hay ofAlfalfa, FTV: 20% Hay of Tifton + 80% Hay of Alfalfa, FAT: 1 00% Hay of Alfalfa. The quantities of food provided were 2.25% of BW in order to obtain surplus. To determine the water intake, drinkers with water supply ad libitum were used. The intakes of DM, CP, EE and MM increased (P ≤ 0.05as alfalfa hay amount was increased in the diets, indicating that these elements are related to the diets chemical composition. Similarly, NDF and ADF intake decreased (P ≤ 0.05 as alfalfa hay was increased in the diets. The values of water intake and excretion wereinfluenced by the chemical composition of the diet, influencing water intake in function of the dry matter (liters/ kg of DM and the water balance. Regarding water intake and excretion, the animals were in positive water balance in all treatments. The FTT treatment had a lower urinary and fecal excretion of water compared to the othertreatments.

  7. Cambios en la composición bioquímica y su aplicabilidad en el uso de follajes verdes como fuente de materia orgánica y nutrimentos en sistemas agroforestales Biochemical Changes and their Application for Green Manure use, as Organic Matter and Nutrient Source, in Agroforestry Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argüello Arias Heliodoro

    1995-12-01

    humidity and soil microorganisms; as well as direct benelits like organic matter and nutrients. However, some farmers do not adopt this technology due the apparent scarcity of the green
    manure sources in their farms, ignoring the fact that some species, present in their farms or close to them, can fill their requirements. In other situation, when the farmer already is using green manure, in most cases, he ignores if the used material is able to release the organic matter and nutrients, matching the crop requirements, during the season growth. In this way, the goal could be that the farmer be able to apply both, the curve of the crop nutrient requirements, and the curve of the green manure nutrient release, to achieve the best crop performance. In both of the described situations it
    is important to have an indicator to choose a green manure source. Today it is possible to know the decomposition and mineralization rates and dynamies, through expensive, in time and money, besides of very complex experiments. In consecuence practicaliy no farmers are interested in doing them. This research tested the most important decomposition
    indicators, reported by the literature, through the decomposition and nutrient release process observed in the foliage of eight common species from the Colombian Midlands. The foundings of this research suggest that for the tested species the lignine/nitrogen ratio is the most robust indicator predicting the decomposition rate.

  8. Constraining Dark Matter using Mono-X, Dijet, and Dilepton Final States with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Tolley, Emma; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Weakly-coupled TeV-scale particles may mediate interactions between dark matter (DM) and Standard Model (SM) particles. DM production at colliders may be evident in “mono-X” topologies, and mediator production in in dijet and dilepton events. The latest results obtained by the ATLAS experiment are presented and interpreted following the LHC DM WG guidelines, with particular focus on the complementarity between different collider searches as well as direct detection experiments.

  9. Dark matter physics, flavor physics and LHC constraints in the dark matter model with a bottom partner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Tomohiro [Institute for Advanced Research, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe,Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kawamura, Junichiro [Department of Physics, Waseda University,Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Okawa, Shohei [Department of Physics, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Omura, Yuji [Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe,Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2017-03-10

    In the scenario that dark matter (DM) is a weakly interacting massive particle, there are many possibilities of the interactions with the Standard Model (SM) particles to achieve the relic density of DM. In this paper, we consider a simple DM model where the DM candidate is a complex scalar boson. The model contains a new complex gauge singlet scalar boson and a new fermion whose gauge charge is the same as the right-handed down-type quark. We dub the new fermion the bottom partner. These new particles have Yukawa interactions with the SM down-type quarks. The DM candidate interacts with the SM particles through the Yukawa interactions. The Yukawa interactions are not only relevant to the annihilation process of the DM but also contribute to the flavor physics, such as the ΔF=2 processes. In addition, the flavor alignment of the Yukawa couplings is related to the decay modes of the bottom partner, and thus we can find the explicit correlations among the physical observables in DM physics, flavor physics, and the signals at the LHC. We survey the ΔF=2 processes based on the numerical analyses of the thermal relic density, the direct detection of the DM, and the current LHC bounds. We investigate the perturbative bound on the Yukawa coupling as well. A Study of a fermionic DM model with extra scalar quarks is also given for comparison.

  10. Utilization of Bioslurry on Maize Hydroponic Fodder as a Corn Silage Supplement on Nutrient Digestibility and Milk Production of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Nugroho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to study the effect of addition of 7% DM maize hydroponic fodder (MHF in corn silage on digestibility and milk production of dairy cows. The experiment used a completely randomized block design with two treatments, and four replications. The treatments were dairy cows fed with grass (Pennisetum purpureum, corn silage, and concentrate (R0, and dairy cows fed with grass (P. purpureum, corn silage, concentrate, and MHF (R1. This research used eight dairy cows with initial average milk production of 13.01±2.96 L/d. MHF was produced in a hydroponic system using bioslurry as a fertilizer enriched with mineral fertilizer. Variables observed were chemical composition of bioslurry, nutrient content of ration, daily dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, Total Digestible Nutrient (TDN, and Digestible Energy (DE. Data were analyzed with ANOVA, except for milk production using ANCOVA. Supplementation of MHF resulted a higher total dry matter intake on R1 than R0 (P<0.05, 12.99±0.063 kg/head/d, and 11.98±0.295 kg/head/d, respectively. The digestibility of nutrients were not affected by the addition of MHF. Energy consumption in R1 was also higher than R0 (P<0.05, 49.95±0.36 Mkal/kg, and 46.11±0.54 Mkal/kg, respectively. Supplementation of MHF also increased nitrogen consumption, R1 was higher than R0 (P<0.05, 318.3±2.3 g/head/d, and 295.9±3.5 g/head/d, respectively, and could maintain the persistency of milk production at the end of lactation. It can be concluded that supplementation of MHF in corn silage can increase dry matter intake, energy consumption, and nitrogen consumption, also can maintain nutrient digestibility and maintain persistency of milk production during late lactation of dairy cows.

  11. Nutrient Induced Type 2 and Chemical Induced Type 1 Experimental Diabetes Differently Modulate Gastric GLP-1 Receptor Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Bloch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available T2DM patients demonstrate reduced GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R expression in their gastric glands. Whether induced T2DM and T1DM differently affect the gastric GLP-1R expression is not known. This study assessed extrapancreatic GLP-1R system in glandular stomach of rodents with different types of experimental diabetes. T2DM and T1DM were induced in Psammomys obesus (PO by high-energy (HE diet and by streptozotocin (STZ in Sprague Dawly (SD rats, respectively. GLP-1R expression was determined in glandular stomach by RT PCR and immunohistomorphological analysis. The mRNA expression and cellular association of the GLP-1R in principal glands were similar in control PO and SD rats. However, nutrient and chemical induced diabetes resulted in opposite alterations of glandular GLP-1R expression. Diabetic PO demonstrated increased GLP-1R mRNA expression, intensity of cellular GLP-1R immunostaining, and frequency of GLP-1R positive cells in the neck area of principal glands compared with controls. In contrast, SD diabetic rats demonstrated decreased GLP-1 mRNA, cellular GLP-1R immunoreactivity, and frequency of GLP-1R immunoreactive cells in the neck area compared with controls. In conclusion, nutrient and chemical induced experimental diabetes result in distinct opposite alterations of GLP-1R expression in glandular stomach. These results suggest that induced T1DM and T2DM may differently modulate GLP-1R system in enteropancreatic axis.

  12. The Drosophila DmGluRA is required for social interaction and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P. Schoenfeld

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs have well established roles in cognition andsocial behavior in mammals. Whether or not these roles have been conserved throughoutevolution from invertebrate species is less clear. Mammals have 8 mGluRs whereasDrosophila have a single DmGluRA, which has both Gi and Gq coupled signalingactivity. We have utilized Drosophila to examine the role of DmGluRA in social behaviorand various phases of memory. We have found that flies that are homozygous orheterozygous for loss of function mutations of DmGluRA have impaired social behaviorin male Drosophila. Futhermore, flies that are homozygous or heterozygous for loss offunction mutations of DmGluRA have impaired learning during training, immediate recallmemory, short-term memory and long-term memory as young adults. This workdemonstrates a role for metabotropic glutamate receptor activity in both social behaviorand memory in Drosophila.

  13. Evaluation of new alternatives in wastewater treatment plants based on dynamic modelling and life cycle assessment (DM-LCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisinella de Faria, A B; Spérandio, M; Ahmadi, A; Tiruta-Barna, L

    2015-11-01

    With a view to quantifying the energy and environmental advantages of Urine Source-Separation (USS) combined with different treatment processes, five wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) scenarios were compared to a reference scenario using Dynamic Modelling (DM) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), and an integrated DM-LCA framework was thus developed. Dynamic simulations were carried out in BioWin(®) in order to obtain a realistic evaluation of the dynamic behaviour and performance of plants under perturbation. LCA calculations were performed within Umberto(®) using the Ecoinvent database. A Python™ interface was used to integrate and convert simulation data and to introduce them into Umberto(®) to achieve a complete LCA evaluation comprising foreground and background processes. Comparisons between steady-state and dynamic simulations revealed the importance of considering dynamic aspects such as nutrient and flow peaks. The results of the evaluation highlighted the potential of the USS scenario for nutrient recovery whereas the Enhanced Primary Clarification (EPC) scenario gave increased biogas production and also notably decreased aeration consumption, leading to a positive energy balance. Both USS and EPC scenarios also showed increased stability of plant operation, with smaller daily averages of total nitrogen and phosphorus. In this context, USS and EPC results demonstrated that the coupled USS + EPC scenario and its combinations with agricultural spreading of N-rich effluent and nitritation/anaerobic deammonification could present an energy-positive balance with respectively 27% and 33% lower energy requirements and an increase in biogas production of 23%, compared to the reference scenario. The coupled scenarios also presented lesser environmental impacts (reduction of 31% and 39% in total endpoint impacts) along with effluent quality well within the specified limits. The marked environmental performance (reduction of global warming) when nitrogen is used

  14. Characterizing dark matter interacting with extra charged leptons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barducci, D.; Deandrea, A.; Moretti, S.; Panizzi, L.; Prager, H.

    2018-04-01

    In the context of a simplified leptophilic dark matter (DM) scenario where the mediator is a new charged fermion carrying leptonic quantum number and the DM candidate is either scalar or vector, the complementarity of different bounds is analyzed. In this framework, the extra lepton and DM are odd under a Z2 symmetry, and hence the leptonic mediator can only interact with the DM state and Standard Model leptons of various flavors. We show that there is the possibility to characterize the DM spin (scalar or vector), as well as the nature of the mediator, through a combined analysis of cosmological, flavor and collider data. We present an explicit numerical analysis for a set of benchmarks points of the viable parameter space of our scenario.

  15. Fermionic dark matter in a simple t-channel model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Ashok; Kumar, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    We consider a fermionic dark matter (DM) particle in renormalizable Standard Model (SM) gauge interactions in a simple t-channel model. The DM particle interactions with SM fermions is through the exchange of scalar and vector mediators which carry colour or lepton number. In the case of coloured mediators considered in this study, we find that if the DM is thermally produced and accounts for the observed relic density almost the entire parameter space is ruled out by the direct detection observations. The bounds from the monojet plus missing energy searches at the Large Hadron Collider are less stringent in this case. In contrast for the case of Majorana DM, we obtain strong bounds from the monojet searches which rule out DM particles of mass less than about a few hundred GeV for both the scalar and vector mediators.

  16. INFLUÊNCIA DE HÚMUS DE MINHOCA E DE ESTERCO DE GADO NA CONCENTRAÇÃO FOLIAR DE NUTRIENTES E NA PRODUÇÃO DE MANGA 'TOMMY ATKINS' EFFECT OF EARTHWORM EXCREMENTS AND CATTLE MANURE ON LEAF NUTRIENT CONCENTRATION AND ON THE PRODUCTION OF MANGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVI JOSÉ SILVA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da aplicação de húmus de minhoca e de esterco de gado na concentração foliar de nutrientes e na produção de manga 'Tommy Atkins', conduziu-se um experimento na empresa Meta Export Agrícola Ltda, no período de 1996 a 1999. Os tratamentos resultaram da combinação fatorial de três fontes (húmus de minhoca - HM, esterco de gado - EG e mistura de HM + EG e cinco doses de matéria orgânica (0;20; 40; 60 e 80 dm³/planta. Os tratamentos foram aplicados, anualmente, no mês de janeiro, e as avaliações foram realizadas nas safras de 1997, 1998 e 1999. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre a concentração foliar de nutrientes. Os teores de nitrogênio nas folhas mostraram-se bastante elevados, e a concentração de cálcio apresentou-se muito baixa. Não houve diferença entre as fontes, nem entre as doses de matéria orgânica durante o período de estudo. Houve um crescimento na produção ao longo das safras, devido ao aumento na idade das plantas.Concurrent studies on the benefits of earthworm excrements and of cattle manure on leaf nutrient concentration and on the production of mango (Mangifera indica, variety Tommy Atkins, were conducted at Meta Export Agrícola Ltda, from 1996 to 1999. The treatments consisted of a factorial combination among three sources (earthworm excrements -- HM, cattle manure -- EG and a mixture of HM + EG and five levels of organic matter (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 dm³/plant. The treatments were applied annually always in January. The evaluations were carried out on growing season of 1997, 1998 and 1999. There was no effect of treatments on leaf nutrient concentration. The traits of nitrogen in the leaves were high and the concentration of calcium was low. There was neither difference among sources, nor among the levels of organic matter in the three years of study. There was an increase in production in all growing seasons, because of plant age.

  17. Serum metabonomics of NAFLD plus T2DM based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Li, Chunlong; Liu, Liyan; Guo, Fuchuan; Li, Songtao; Huang, Lina; Sun, Changhao; Feng, Rennan

    2016-09-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a main liver disease around the world, is closely associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and other metabolic diseases. The objective of this study is to identify distinct metabolites of NAFLD patients with or without T2DM. We used a biomarker-discovery population to find distinct metabolites of NAFLD patients with or without T2DM. Then, a validation population was applied to test the model of the biomarker-discovery population. All the individuals received anthropometric and common biochemical measurements. The metabolic data were analyzed by multivariable statistical analyses using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight-tandem mass spectrometry. There were 7, 7, 2 metabolites in the positive electrospray ionization (ESI(+)) mode, which were identified between groups from both the biomarker-discovery and validation population. The NAFLD group showed higher concentrations of oleamide, l-phenylalanine, l-proline, bilirubin, l-palmitoylcarnitine, and PC (20:5) and a lower concentration of Lyso-PAF C-18 than those of control. Compared with the control group, the NAFLD+T2DM group displayed higher oleamide, l-leucine, LysoPC (14:0), bilirubin, tetradecenoylcarnitine, linoleyl carnitine, and tetradecadiencarnitine in serum. Tetradecenoylcarnitine and tetradecadiencarnitine were more elevated in patients with NAFLD+T2DM than in the NAFLD group. Serum metabonomic analyses displayed great metabolic changes in patients with NAFLD and NAFLD plus T2DM. Our study is beneficial in providing a further view into the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of NAFLD and NAFLD plus T2DM, which might be useful for the prevention and therapy of NAFLD and NAFLD plus T2DM. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of a Fasciola gigantica protein carrying two DM9 domains reveals cellular relocalization property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadungsil, Wansika; Smooker, Peter M; Vichasri-Grams, Suksiri; Grams, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    Even at the present age of whole-organism analysis, e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, the biological roles of many proteins remain unresolved. Classified among the proteins of unknown function is a family of proteins harboring repeats of the DM9 domain, a 60-75 amino acids motif first described in a small number of Drosophila melanogaster proteins. Proteins may carry two or more DM9 domains either in combination with other domains or as their sole constituent. Here we have characterized a 16.8 kDa Fasciola gigantica protein comprising two tandem repeated DM9 domains (FgDM9-1). The protein was located in the parenchyma of the immature and mature parasite and consequently it was not detected in the ES product of the parasite but only in the whole worm extract. Interestingly, extraction with SDS yielded a substantially higher amount of the protein suggesting association with insoluble cell components. In Sf9 insect cells a heterologously expressed EGFP-FgDM9-1 chimera showed cell-wide distribution but relocated to vesicle-like structures in the cytoplasm after stimulating cellular stress by bacteria, heat shock or chloroquine. These structures did not colocalize with the markers of endocytosis/phagocytosis ubiquitin, RAB7, GABARAP. The same behavior was noted for Aedes aegypti PRS1, a homologous mosquito DM9 protein as a positive control while EGFP did not exhibit such relocation in the insect cells. Cross-linking experiments on soluble recombinant FgDM9-1 indicated that the protein can undergo specific oligomerization. It is speculated that proteins carrying the DM9 domain have a role in vesicular transport in flatworms and insects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The clinical significance of serum Leptin in the pathogenesis of 2DM and obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunyu; Lu Kuan; Gao Yanyan

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between serum Leptin ad insulin, body fat distribution and testosterone in 2-DM patients. Methods: The fasting blood serum Leptin and insulin levels in 65 2DM patients and 42 controls were measured by radioimmunoassay. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue volume (ASF) and abdominal visceral adipose tissue volume (AVF) were measured by spiral CT SSD soft-ware in 32 2DM patients. The authors also measured the Leptin before and 2h after a 75 g OGTT in 34 2DM patients and fasting plasma testosterone in 30 2DM males. Results: DM group and normal group had equal number of females and were matched in BMI. Baseline plasma Leptin concentrations were not significantly different between the groups (P 14 mmol/L) had lower Leptin levels (P < 0.05). Sex, BMI, ASF were important factors contributing to the serum Leptin. The Leptin concentrations were significantly positively correlated with BMI (r 0.57, P0.0001), ASF(r = 0.67 P0.025) and insulin (r = 0.47, P0.0013) and was negative correlated with the serum testosterone (r = -0.061, P0.025). Conclusion: There were no abnormal Leptin levels in 2DM implies, suggesting that Leptin might not be the main causing factor in 2DM. The poorly metabolic controlled patients might have lack of Leptin. The lower Leptin levels in men might be caused by testosterone, sex BMI, ASF were important factors contributing to the serum Leptin levels

  20. Hubungan Lama Menderita DM dengan Perilaku Perawatan Kaki secara Mandiri untuk Mencegah Ulkus Diabetikum

    OpenAIRE

    Apriliyasari, Renny Wulan

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) atau yang biasa disebut kencing manis merupakan suatu kelompok penyakit metabolik dengan karakteristik gula darah melebihi nilai normal. Data dari Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Pati jumlah penderita DM meningkat, dengan rata-rata pada 2 tahun 2008-2009 sebanyak 1950 orang. Hasil survey di RSUD RAA Soewondo Pati, penyakit diabetes mellitus menempati peringkat pertama penyakit rawat jalan 2013 dengan 3893 total kunjungan atau sebesar 4,83%. Salah satu hal penting pada pasien ...

  1. No signs of soil organic matter accumulation and of changes in nutrient (N-P) limitation during tropical secondary forest succession in the wet tropics of Southwest Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanek, Wolfgang; Oberdorfer, Sarah; Oberleitner, Florian; Hietz, Peter; Dullinger, Stefan; Zehetner, Franz

    2017-04-01

    Secondary forests comprise large tracts of the tropical land area, due to ongoing changes in land-use, including selective logging and agricultural land abandonment. Recent meta-analyses demonstrated that temperature and precipitation are key drivers of forest ecosystem recovery, particularly of soil organic carbon (SOC) build-up, where losses of SOC after deforestation and cultivation (and its recovery after abandonment) were largest in the wet tropical lowlands. However, wet lowland tropical chronosequences are strongly underrepresented (4000 mm) and the large variance in this group may be explained by soil type and soil nutrients. Moreover strong effects of (and changes in) nutrient limitation, with an intermittent change from P to N limitation of plant production in young tropical secondary forests, have been identified in a few studies. For this study we established a tropical secondary forest chronosequence, identifying old pastures (>40 years), young to old secondary forests (1-55 years) and old-growth forests based on aerial photographs and satellite images dating from the 1960s to the 2010s in SW Costa Rica, a region where mean annual temperature is 27°C and mean annual precipitation between 5000 and 6000 mm. Soil samples were taken incrementally to 45 cm depth, sieved and soils and roots collected and analysed. Bulk density decreased and SOC content increased from pastures to secondary forests and old-growth forests, with the net effect on soil C stocks (between 63 and 92 Mg ha-1 (0-45 cm)) being neutral. SOC stocks were generally high, due to high fine root densities and associated high root inputs to mineral soils in pastures and forests. SOC showed relatively slow turnover times, based on root and soil delta13C values, with turnover times of 120 and 210 years in topsoils and subsoils, indicating strong stabilization of SOM due to mineral binding and high aggregate stability (>80%). At the same time we found no change in soil N and P availability, but

  2. Compatibility of a dark matter discovery at XENONnT or LZ with the WIMP thermal production mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, Riccardo; Conrad, Jan; Krauss, Martin B.

    2018-05-01

    The discovery of dark matter (DM) at XENONnT or LZ would place constraints on DM particle mass and coupling constants. It is interesting to ask when these constraints can be compatible with the DM thermal production mechanism. We address this question within the most general set of renormalizable models that preserve Lorentz and gauge symmetry, and that extend the standard model by one DM candidate of mass mDM and one particle of mass Mmed mediating DM-quark interactions. Our analysis divides into two parts. First, we postulate that XENONnT/LZ has detected μS˜O (100 ) signal events, and use this input to calculate the DM relic density, ΩDMh2. Then, we identify the regions in the Mmed-ΩDMh2 plane which are compatible with the observed signal and with current CMB data. We find that for most of the models considered here, O (100 ) signal events at XENONnT/LZ and the DM thermal production are only compatible for resonant DM annihilations, i.e. for Mmed≃2 mDM. In this case, XENONnT/LZ would be able to simultaneously measure mDM and Mmed. We also discuss the dependence of our results on mDM, μS and the DM spin, and provide analytic expressions for annihilation cross sections and mediator decay widths for all models considered in this study.

  3. Naturalness of MSSM dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, María Eugenia [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo,São Paulo SP 05508-900 (Brazil); Casas, J. Alberto [Instituto de Física Teórica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Delgado, Antonio [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame,Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Robles, Sandra [Instituto de Física Teórica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Austri, Roberto Ruiz de [Instituto de Física Corpuscular,IFIC-UV/CSIC, Valencia (Spain)

    2016-08-08

    There exists a vast literature examining the electroweak (EW) fine-tuning problem in supersymmetric scenarios, but little concerned with the dark matter (DM) one, which should be combined with the former. In this paper, we study this problem in an, as much as possible, exhaustive and rigorous way. We have considered the MSSM framework, assuming that the LSP is the lightest neutralino, χ{sub 1}{sup 0}, and exploring the various possibilities for the mass and composition of χ{sub 1}{sup 0}, as well as different mechanisms for annihilation of the DM particles in the early Universe (well-tempered neutralinos, funnels and co-annihilation scenarios). We also present a discussion about the statistical meaning of the fine-tuning and how it should be computed for the DM abundance, and combined with the EW fine-tuning. The results are very robust and model-independent and favour some scenarios (like the h-funnel when M{sub χ{sub 1{sup 0}}} is not too close to m{sub h}/2) with respect to others (such as the pure wino case). These features should be taken into account when one explores “natural SUSY” scenarios and their possible signatures at the LHC and in DM detection experiments.

  4. Millicharge or decay: a critical take on Minimal Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobile, Eugenio Del [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei”, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Nardecchia, Marco [DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Panci, Paolo [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, Paris 75014 (France)

    2016-04-26

    Minimal Dark Matter (MDM) is a theoretical framework highly appreciated for its minimality and yet its predictivity. Of the two only viable candidates singled out in the original analysis, the scalar eptaplet has been found to decay too quickly to be around today, while the fermionic quintuplet is now being probed by indirect Dark Matter (DM) searches. It is therefore timely to critically review the MDM paradigm, possibly pointing out generalizations of this framework. We propose and explore two distinct directions. One is to abandon the assumption of DM electric neutrality in favor of absolutely stable, millicharged DM candidates which are part of SU(2){sub L} multiplets with integer isospin. Another possibility is to lower the cutoff of the model, which was originally fixed at the Planck scale, to allow for DM decays. We find new viable MDM candidates and study their phenomenology in detail.

  5. The DiskMass Survey : IV. The Dark-matter-dominated Galaxy UGC 463

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westfall, Kyle B.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Andersen, David R.; Martinsson, Thomas P. K.; Swaters, Robert A.; Schechtman-Rook, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed and unique mass budget for the high surface brightness galaxy UGC 463, showing it is dominated by dark matter (DM) at radii beyond one scale length (h(R)) and has a baryonic-to-DM mass ratio of approximately 1:3 within 4.2h(R). Assuming a constant scale height (h(z); calculated

  6. The DiskMass Survey. IV. The Dark-matter-dominated Galaxy UGC 463

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westfall, Kyle B.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Andersen, David R.; Martinsson, Thomas P. K.; Swaters, Robert A.; Schechtman-Rook, Andrew

    We present a detailed and unique mass budget for the high surface brightness galaxy UGC 463, showing it is dominated by dark matter (DM) at radii beyond one scale length (hR ) and has a baryonic-to-DM mass ratio of approximately 1:3 within 4.2hR . Assuming a constant scale height (hz ; calculated

  7. A two-component dark matter model with real singlet scalars ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-05

    Jan 5, 2016 ... We propose a two-component dark matter (DM) model, each component of which is a real singlet scalar, to explain results from both direct and indirect detection experiments. We put the constraints on the model parameters from theoretical bounds, PLANCK relic density results and direct DM experiments.

  8. Signatures of Earth-scattering in the direct detection of Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavanagh, Bradley J.; Catena, Riccardo; Kouvaris, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Direct detection experiments search for the interactions of Dark Matter (DM) particles with nuclei in terrestrial detectors. But if these interactions are sufficiently strong, DM particles may scatter in the Earth, affecting their distribution in the lab. We present a new analytic calculation...

  9. Digestibility Nutrient Contents on Acacia Seyal, Balanities Aegyptiaca and Chloris Gayana Hay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiliti, J.K

    2002-01-01

    A study was carried to determine the nutrients and their digestibility in Acacia seyal and Balanities aegyptiaca legume browses and compared with Chloris gayana hay. Samples were taken from these two leguminous forages at Mogotio and Emining divisions of Koibatek district and fed to sheep in a change over design. The sheep were housed in individual pens and fitted with faecal collection bags. They were fed and faeces collected twice daily. An adaptation period of 14 days, Faecal collection of 7 days and changeover of 10 days were enforced. Nutrients analysed for during digestibility included DM, OM, CP, NDF, Hemicellulose and Cellulose. The nutrients compositions were 651, 916, 112, 370, 339, 59 and 84; 665, 920, 152, 443, 341, 89 and 80, 845, 924, 68, 730, 463, 57, and 76 for DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF, and ash in Acacia seal, Balanities aegyptiaca and Chloris gayana hay. The in vivio digestibility results were different (p<0.05) for all nutrients. The digestibilities of DM, OM, CP NDF, Hemicellulose and Cellulose in Acacia seyal, Balanities aegyptiaca and Chloris gayana hay were 54.7, 66.5, 32.8, 40.3, 51.7, and 82.7; 48.5, 58.9, 67.4, 36.9, 36.3, and 40.6 and 48.1, 50.4, 41.7, 53.7, 63.0 and 62.3% respectively. The two legume forages had nutrients that had higher digestibility than hay except for fibre

  10. Little composite dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkin, Reuven; Perez, Gilad; Weiler, Andreas

    2018-02-01

    We examine the dark matter phenomenology of a composite electroweak singlet state. This singlet belongs to the Goldstone sector of a well-motivated extension of the Littlest Higgs with T-parity. A viable parameter space, consistent with the observed dark matter relic abundance as well as with the various collider, electroweak precision and dark matter direct detection experimental constraints is found for this scenario. T-parity implies a rich LHC phenomenology, which forms an interesting interplay between conventional natural SUSY type of signals involving third generation quarks and missing energy, from stop-like particle production and decay, and composite Higgs type of signals involving third generation quarks associated with Higgs and electroweak gauge boson, from vector-like top-partners production and decay. The composite features of the dark matter phenomenology allows the composite singlet to produce the correct relic abundance while interacting weakly with the Higgs via the usual Higgs portal coupling λ _{ {DM}}˜ O(1%), thus evading direct detection.

  11. Little composite dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balkin, Reuven; Weiler, Andreas [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, First Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Perez, Gilad [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Rehovot (Israel)

    2018-02-15

    We examine the dark matter phenomenology of a composite electroweak singlet state. This singlet belongs to the Goldstone sector of a well-motivated extension of the Littlest Higgs with T-parity. A viable parameter space, consistent with the observed dark matter relic abundance as well as with the various collider, electroweak precision and dark matter direct detection experimental constraints is found for this scenario. T-parity implies a rich LHC phenomenology, which forms an interesting interplay between conventional natural SUSY type of signals involving third generation quarks and missing energy, from stop-like particle production and decay, and composite Higgs type of signals involving third generation quarks associated with Higgs and electroweak gauge boson, from vector-like top-partners production and decay. The composite features of the dark matter phenomenology allows the composite singlet to produce the correct relic abundance while interacting weakly with the Higgs via the usual Higgs portal coupling λ{sub DM} ∝ O(1%), thus evading direct detection. (orig.)

  12. Dark matter "transporting" mechanism explaining positron excesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doojin; Park, Jong-Chul; Shin, Seodong

    2018-04-01

    We propose a novel mechanism to explain the positron excesses, which are observed by satellite-based telescopes including PAMELA and AMS-02, in dark matter (DM) scenarios. The novelty behind the proposal is that it makes direct use of DM around the Galactic Center where DM populates most densely, allowing us to avoid tensions from cosmological and astrophysical measurements. The key ingredients of this mechanism include DM annihilation into unstable states with a very long laboratory-frame life time and their "retarded" decay near the Earth to electron-positron pair(s) possibly with other (in)visible particles. We argue that this sort of explanation is not in conflict with relevant constraints from big bang nucleosynthesis and cosmic microwave background. Regarding the resultant positron spectrum, we provide a generalized source term in the associated diffusion equation, which can be readily applicable to any type of two-"stage" DM scenarios wherein production of Standard Model particles occurs at completely different places from those of DM annihilation. We then conduct a data analysis with the recent AMS-02 data to validate our proposal.

  13. Light mediators in dark matter direct detections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tai; Miao, Sen; Zhou, Yu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    In an extended effective operator framework, we investigate in detail the effects of light mediators on the event spectra of dark matter (DM)-nucleus scatterings. The presence of light mediators changes the interpretation of the current experimental data, especially the determination of DM particle mass. We show by analytic and numerical illustrations that in general for all the operators relevant to spin-independent scatterings, the DM particle mass allowed by a given set of experimental data increases significantly when the mediator particle becomes lighter. For instance, in the case of CDMS-II-Si experiment, the allowed DM particle mass can reach ∼50 (100) GeV at 68% (90%) confidence level, which is much larger than ∼10 GeV in the case with contact interactions. The increase of DM particle mass saturates when the mediator mass is below O(10) MeV. The upper limits from other experiments such as SuperCDMS, CDMSlite, CDEX, XENON10/100, LUX, PandaX etc. all tend to be weaker toward high DM mass regions. In a combined analysis, we show that the presence of light mediators can partially relax the tension in the current results of CDMS-II-Si, SuperCDMS and LUX

  14. Searching for dark matter at colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, Francois [IN2P3/CNRS et Universite Paris-Sud 11 Centre Scientifique d' Orsay, Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, Orsay (France); Arcadi, Giorgio; Mambrini, Yann [Universite Paris-Sud, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Orsay (France)

    2015-04-01

    Dark Matter (DM) detection prospects at future e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders are reviewed under the assumption that DM particles are fermions of the Majorana or Dirac type. Although the discussion is quite general, one will keep in mind the recently proposed candidate based on an excess of energetic photons observed in the center of our Galaxy with the Fermi-LAT satellite. In the first part we will assume that DM interactions are mediated by vector bosons, Z or Z'. In the case of Z-boson Direct Detection limits force only axial couplings with the DM. This solution can be naturally accommodated by Majorana DM but is disfavored by the GC excess. Viable scenarios can be instead found in the case of Z' mediator. These scenarios can be tested at e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders through ISR events, e{sup +}e{sup -} → XX + γ. A sensitive background reduction can be achieved by using highly polarized beams. In the second part scalar particles, in particular Higgs particles, have been considered as mediators. The case of the SM Higgs mediator is excluded by limits on the invisible branching ratio of the Higgs. On the contrary particularly interesting is the case in which the DM interactions are mediated by the pseudoscalar state A in two Higgs-doublet model scenarios. In this last case the main collider signature is e{sup +}e{sup -} → HA, H → hh, A → XX. (orig.)

  15. Searching for dark matter at colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Francois; Arcadi, Giorgio; Mambrini, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Dark Matter (DM) detection prospects at future e + e - colliders are reviewed under the assumption that DM particles are fermions of the Majorana or Dirac type. Although the discussion is quite general, one will keep in mind the recently proposed candidate based on an excess of energetic photons observed in the center of our Galaxy with the Fermi-LAT satellite. In the first part we will assume that DM interactions are mediated by vector bosons, Z or Z'. In the case of Z-boson Direct Detection limits force only axial couplings with the DM. This solution can be naturally accommodated by Majorana DM but is disfavored by the GC excess. Viable scenarios can be instead found in the case of Z' mediator. These scenarios can be tested at e + e - colliders through ISR events, e + e - → XX + γ. A sensitive background reduction can be achieved by using highly polarized beams. In the second part scalar particles, in particular Higgs particles, have been considered as mediators. The case of the SM Higgs mediator is excluded by limits on the invisible branching ratio of the Higgs. On the contrary particularly interesting is the case in which the DM interactions are mediated by the pseudoscalar state A in two Higgs-doublet model scenarios. In this last case the main collider signature is e + e - → HA, H → hh, A → XX. (orig.)

  16. Decaying fermionic dark matter search with CALET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Torii, S. [Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 169-8555 (Japan); Motz, H. [International Center for Science and Engineering Programs, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 169-8555 (Japan); Asaoka, Y., E-mail: saptashwab@ruri.waseda.jp, E-mail: motz@aoni.waseda.jp, E-mail: torii.shoji@waseda.jp, E-mail: yoichi.asaoka@aoni.waseda.jp [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 169-8555 (Japan)

    2017-08-01

    The ISS-based CALET (CALorimetric Electron Telescope) detector can play an important role in indirect search for Dark Matter (DM), measuring the electron+positron flux in the TeV region for the first time directly. With its fine energy resolution of approximately 2% and good proton rejection ratio (1:10{sup 5}) it has the potential to search for fine structures in the Cosmic Ray (CR) electron spectrum. In this context we discuss the ability of CALET to discern between signals originating from astrophysical sources and DM decay. We fit a parametrization of the local interstellar electron and positron spectra to current measurements, with either a pulsar or 3-body decay of fermionic DM as the extra source causing the positron excess. The expected CALET data for scenarios in which DM decay explains the excess are calculated and analyzed. The signal from this particular 3-body DM decay which can explain the recent measurements from the AMS−02 experiment is shown to be distinguishable from a single pulsar source causing the positron excess by 5 years of observation with CALET, based on the shape of the spectrum. We also study the constraints from diffuse γ-ray data on this DM-only explanation of the positron excess and show that especially for the possibly remaining parameter space a clearly identifiable signature in the CR electron spectrum exists.

  17. Nutritive composition of soybean by-products and nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Sruamsiri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Soybean by-products (soybean germ, soybean milk residue, soybean hull, soybean pod husk and soybean stem were subjected to proximate analysis, and in vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD, ADF (IVADFD and NDF (IVNDFD were determined after digesting the by-products in buffered rumen fluid for 24 or 48 h in 2 ANKOMII Daisy Incubators using Completely Randomised Design. Four native cattle (body weight 210 + 13.5 kg were used to determine nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk. They were randomly assigned by Cross-over Design to receive two roughage sources, i.e. guinea grass and guinea grass + soybean pod husk (60:40 DM basis, in two experimental periods. Guinea grass was harvested on the 35th day after the first cut of the year and used as green forage. Total collection method was used to determine the digestibility coefficients and digestibility by difference was used to calculate nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk.The nutritive composition showed that soybean germ was highest in CP content (42.27% of DM and EE content (5.07% of DM but lowest in NDF and ADF content (20.09 and 21.53% of DM respectively. The average CP content of soybean straw, soybean stem and soybean pod husk was low (4.91, 4.67 and 5.04% respectively, while ADF content was high (42.76, 38.01 and 42.08% respectively. In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD, ADF (IVADFD and NDF (IVNDFD showed that all of them, except soybean stem, can be used as cattle feed, e.g. as supplemented feed or admixture in concentrate feed. Digestibility coefficients of guinea grass were higher in CP, CF and EE when compared to the other groups. The apparent digestibility of CP and CF were highly different (P0.05. The digestibility of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, CF, NFE, NDF and ADF of soybean pod husk were 53.81 + 4.3, 59.69 + 4.6, 42.38 + 3.8, 30.71 + 3.2, 50.74 + 4.3, 75.26 + 4.0, 45.78 + 3.7 and 30.53 + 4.2 % respectively. Soybean pod husk was higher in total digestible nutrients (TDN (51.87 + 3.3 vs

  18. Comparative evaluation of average glandular dose and breast cancer detection between single-view digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) plus single-view digital mammography (DM) and two-view DM: correlation with breast thickness and density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sung Ui; Chang, Jung Min; Bae, Min Sun; Lee, Su Hyun; Cho, Nariya; Seo, Mirinae; Kim, Won Hwa; Moon, Woo Kyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    To compare the average glandular dose (AGD) and diagnostic performance of mediolateral oblique (MLO) digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) plus cranio-caudal (CC) digital mammography (DM) with two-view DM, and to evaluate the correlation of AGD with breast thickness and density. MLO and CC DM and DBT images of both breasts were obtained in 149 subjects. AGDs of DBT and DM per exposure were recorded, and their correlation with breast thickness and density were evaluated. Paired data of MLO DBT plus CC DM and two-view DM were reviewed for presence of malignancy in a jack-knife alternative free-response ROC (JAFROC) method. The AGDs of both DBT and DM, and differences in AGD between DBT and DM (ΔAGD), were correlated with breast thickness and density. The average JAFROC figure of merit (FOM) was significantly higher on the combined technique than two-view DM (P = 0.005). In dense breasts, the FOM and sensitivity of the combined technique was higher than that of two-view DM (P = 0.003) with small ΔAGD. MLO DBT plus CC DM provided higher diagnostic performance than two-view DM in dense breasts with a small increase in AGD. (orig.)

  19. Comparative evaluation of average glandular dose and breast cancer detection between single-view digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) plus single-view digital mammography (DM) and two-view DM: correlation with breast thickness and density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sung Ui; Chang, Jung Min; Bae, Min Sun; Lee, Su Hyun; Cho, Nariya; Seo, Mirinae; Kim, Won Hwa; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2015-01-01

    To compare the average glandular dose (AGD) and diagnostic performance of mediolateral oblique (MLO) digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) plus cranio-caudal (CC) digital mammography (DM) with two-view DM, and to evaluate the correlation of AGD with breast thickness and density. MLO and CC DM and DBT images of both breasts were obtained in 149 subjects. AGDs of DBT and DM per exposure were recorded, and their correlation with breast thickness and density were evaluated. Paired data of MLO DBT plus CC DM and two-view DM were reviewed for presence of malignancy in a jack-knife alternative free-response ROC (JAFROC) method. The AGDs of both DBT and DM, and differences in AGD between DBT and DM (ΔAGD), were correlated with breast thickness and density. The average JAFROC figure of merit (FOM) was significantly higher on the combined technique than two-view DM (P = 0.005). In dense breasts, the FOM and sensitivity of the combined technique was higher than that of two-view DM (P = 0.003) with small ΔAGD. MLO DBT plus CC DM provided higher diagnostic performance than two-view DM in dense breasts with a small increase in AGD. (orig.)

  20. The chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean IVDMD of maize residues obtained by means of a whole plant maize harvester was found to be relatively high (IVDMD = 55.6±7.0%) while the crude protein (CP) (46±10 g/kg dry matter (DM)) and phosphorus (P) (1.2±0.5 g/kg DM) concentrations were below the maintenance requirement for dry gestating beef ...

  1. Self-interacting dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavromatos, Nick E.; Argüelles, Carlos R.; Ruffini, Remo; Rueda, Jorge A.

    Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) is a hypothetical form of dark matter (DM), characterized by relatively strong (compared to the weak interaction strength) self-interactions (SIs), which has been proposed to resolve a number of issues concerning tensions between simulations and observations at the galactic or smaller scales. We review here some recent developments discussed at the 14th Marcel Grossmann Meeting (MG14), paying particular attention to restrictions on the SIDM (total) cross-section from using novel observables in merging galactic structures, as well as the rôle of SIDM on the Milky Way halo and its central region. We report on some interesting particle-physics inspired SIDM models that were discussed at MG14, namely the glueball DM, and a right-handed neutrino DM (with mass of a few tens of keV, that may exist in minimal extensions of the standard model (SM)), interacting among themselves via vector bosons mediators in the dark sector. A detailed phenomenology of the latter model on galactic scales, as well as the potential role of the right handed neutrinos in alleviating some of the small-scale cosmology problems, namely the discrepancies between observations and numerical simulations within standard ΛCDM and ΛWDM cosmologies are reported.

  2. Collider study on the loop-induced dark matter mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Yuhsin, E-mail: yhtsai@umd.edu [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2016-06-21

    Collider experiments are one of the most promising ways to constrain Dark Matter (DM) interactions. For DM couplings involving light mediators, especially for the loop-mediated interactions, a meaningful interpretation of the results requires to go beyond effective field theory. In this note we discuss the study of the magnetic dipole interacting DM, focusing on a model with anarchic dark flavor structure. By including the momentum-dependent form factors that mediate the coupling – given by the Dark Penguin – in collider processes, we study bounds from monophoton, diphoton, and non-pointing photon searches at the LHC. We also compare our results to constraints from the direct detection experiments.

  3. Prospects for indirect detection of frozen-in dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikinheimo, Matti; Tenkanen, Tommi; Tuominen, Kimmo

    2018-03-01

    We study observational consequences arising from dark matter (DM) of nonthermal origin, produced by dark freeze-out from a hidden sector heat bath. We assume this heat bath was populated by feebly coupled mediator particles, produced via a Higgs portal interaction with the Standard Model (SM). The dark sector then attained internal equilibrium with a characteristic temperature different from the SM photon temperature. We find that even if the coupling between the DM and the SM sectors is very weak, the scenario allows for indirect observational signals. We show how the expected strength of these signals depends on the temperature of the hidden sector at DM freeze-out.

  4. Particle dark matter signal in DAMA/LIBRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabei, R.; Belli, P.; Di Marco, A.; Montecchia, F.; Cappella, F.; D'Angelo, A.; Incicchitti, A.; Prosperi, D.; Cerulli, R.; Dai, C.J.; He, H.L.; Ma, X.H.; Sheng, X.D.; Wang, R.G.; Ye, Z.P.

    2012-01-01

    The DAMA/LIBRA experiment, running at LNGS, has a sensitive mass of about 250 kg highly radiopure NaI(Tl) and it is mainly devoted to the investigation of Dark Matter (DM) particles in the Galactic halo by exploiting the model independent DM annual modulation signature. The present DAMA/LIBRA experiment and the former DAMA/NaI one have released so far results corresponding to a total exposure of 1.17 ton×yr over 13 annual cycles. They provide a model independent evidence of the presence of DM particles in the galactic halo at 8.9σ C.L.

  5. Collider study on the loop-induced dark matter mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Yuhsin

    2016-01-01

    Collider experiments are one of the most promising ways to constrain Dark Matter (DM) interactions. For DM couplings involving light mediators, especially for the loop-mediated interactions, a meaningful interpretation of the results requires to go beyond effective field theory. In this note we discuss the study of the magnetic dipole interacting DM, focusing on a model with anarchic dark flavor structure. By including the momentum-dependent form factors that mediate the coupling – given by the Dark Penguin – in collider processes, we study bounds from monophoton, diphoton, and non-pointing photon searches at the LHC. We also compare our results to constraints from the direct detection experiments.

  6. Soil organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The nature, content and behaviour of the organic matter, or humus, in soil are factors of fundamental importance for soil productivity and the development of optimum conditions for growth of crops under diverse temperate, tropical and arid climatic conditions. In the recent symposium on soil organic matter studies - as in the two preceding ones in 1963 and 1969 - due consideration was given to studies involving the use of radioactive and stable isotopes. However, the latest symposium was a departure from previous efforts in that non-isotopic approaches to research on soil organic matter were included. A number of papers dealt with the behaviour and functions of organic matter and suggested improved management practices, the use of which would contribute to increasing agricultural production. Other papers discussed the turnover of plant residues, the release of plant nutrients through the biodegradation of organic compounds, the nitrogen economy and the dynamics of transformation of organic forms of nitrogen. In addition, consideration was given to studies on the biochemical transformation of organic matter, characterization of humic acids, carbon-14 dating and the development of modern techniques and their impact on soil organic matter research

  7. Cycling downwards - dissolved organic matter in soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, K.; Kalbitz, K.

    2012-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter has been recognized as mobile, thus crucial to translocation of metals, pollutants but also of nutrients in soil. We present a conceptual model of the vertical movement of dissolved organic matter with soil water, which deviates from the view of a chromatographic stripping

  8. Dark matter study of NGC 5055

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ungku Ferwani Salwa Ungku; Hashim, Norsiah; Abidin, Zamri Zainal

    2013-05-01

    This paper is about rediscovering dark matter (DM) in galaxies before the year 1970. It is an Italy-Malaysia Astroproject (SISSA-Radio Cosmology Research group), introducing to the field of DM. Investigations about the rotation curve (RC) of NGC 5055 or the Sunflower Galaxy at that time showed that there was a distinct possibility that they had the knowledge and also the theory of gravitation to initiate the study of dark matter. NGC 5055 was chosen because of its good kinematical and photometric data. Information of the surface brightness of this spiral galaxy will determine the disk length scale, RD. Using this RD and by fitting the RC data of NGC 5055 with the velocity profile of the Freeman's disk, we look at the results to conclude whether there are signs of dark matter in the Sunflower Galaxy.

  9. Induction of dexamethasone (DM) of histidine decarboxylase (HDC) in mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, A.; Imanishi, N.; Nakayama, T.; Asano, M.; Tomita, K.

    1986-01-01

    Effects of glucocorticoids on HDC in cultured mouse mastocytoma P-815 cells and rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) were investigated to explore the role of steroids in inflammatory tissues. DM (1 nM to 10 μM) significantly elevated the histamine content and HDC activity of P-815 cells (37 0 C, 24 hrs), accompanying with a growth retardation of the cells by about 40%. In contrast to histamine, serotonin levels of P-815 cells were decreased by treatment with DM. However, DM had no significant effects on the activities of various enzymes other than HDC present in granules or membrane of P-815 cells. DM-induced increases of histamine and HDC activity were completely suppressed by the addition of cycloheximide and actinomycin D. P-815 cells were found to have the binding sites for 3 H-DM in the cytosol (Kd=2.2 nM, 450 sites/cell) and in the nuclei (Kd=0.1 nM, 39 sites/nucleus). Purified HDC from P-815 cells was identified to be an isozyme of mast cell type enzyme (MW=110K, pI=5.4). In contrast, the basal histamine level of cultured RPMC was not affected by treatment of DM, which suppressed histamine release activity induced by DNP-ascaris antiserum by 40%-50%. Histamine-depleted RPMC after degranulation partially recovered histamine level by 50%-60% in the presence of DM. These results showed that glucocorticoids specifically stimulated histamine formation with the increased de novo synthesis of HDC in mast cells

  10. Brain gray matter structural network in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuhiko Sugiyama

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate abnormalities in structural covariance network constructed from gray matter volume in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1 patients by using graph theoretical analysis for further clarification of the underlying mechanisms of central nervous system involvement. Twenty-eight DM1 patients (4 childhood onset, 10 juvenile onset, 14 adult onset, excluding three cases from 31 consecutive patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging in a certain period, and 28 age- and sex- matched healthy control subjects were included in this study. The normalized gray matter images of both groups were subjected to voxel based morphometry (VBM and Graph Analysis Toolbox for graph theoretical analysis. VBM revealed extensive gray matter atrophy in DM1 patients, including cortical and subcortical structures. On graph theoretical analysis, there were no significant differences between DM1 and control groups in terms of the global measures of connectivity. Betweenness centrality was increased in several regions including the left fusiform gyrus, whereas it was decreased in the right striatum. The absence of significant differences between the groups in global network measurements on graph theoretical analysis is consistent with the fact that the general cognitive function is preserved in DM1 patients. In DM1 patients, increased connectivity in the left fusiform gyrus and decreased connectivity in the right striatum might be associated with impairment in face perception and theory of mind, and schizotypal-paranoid personality traits, respectively.

  11. Searches for Dark Matter with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Cora; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Dark matter searches carried out with the ATLAS experiment with Run 2 data are summarised and presented. Interpretations focus on simplified models where the dark matter particles are produced via the exchange of a heavy new mediator. The results of different analyses are combined as an exclusion in the plane m_DM vs M_med. Exclusion limits are also compared with direct dark matter search experiments.

  12. Consumo, digestibilidade dos nutrientes e parâmetros ruminais em bovinos alimentados com silagem de capim-mombaça Intake, digestibilities of the nutrients, and ruminal variables in cattle fed Mombaça-grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R. Vieira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo, a digestibilidade aparente total e parcial dos nutrientes, o pH e a concentração de amônia ruminal em bovinos alimentados com silagem de capim-mombaça e concentrado nas seguintes proporções: 80:20, 65:35, 50:50 e 35:65, com base na matéria seca. Foram utilizados quatro animais Holandês x Zebu, com peso corporal médio inicial de 229kg, canulados no rúmen e abomaso, e distribuídos em quadrado latino 4x4. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE e carboidratos totais (CHOT, expressos em kg/dia, e a digestibilidade parcial dos carboidratos não fibrosos (CNF apresentaram comportamento linear crescente, com resposta platô nos níveis de concentrado de 54,1; 54,8; 52,9; 62,2; 55,2 e 52,7%. O consumo dos demais nutrientes, exceto da fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, e as digestibilidades aparente total de MS, MO e CNF e a parcial de MO aumentaram linearmente com o incremento do concentrado nas dietas. Não foram encontradas diferenças no consumo e nas digestibilidades aparente total e parcial da FDN. Para concentração de amônia e pH ruminal, observou-se efeito quadrático de tempo de amostragem, com valores máximos de 24,76mg/dL e 6,53 em 2,8 e 3,5 horas após a alimentação, respectivamente.Intake; total and partial digestibilities of nutrients; and ruminal pH and ammonia concentration were evaluated in beef cattle fed Mombaça-grass silage and concentrate at the following proportions: 80:20, 65:35, 50:50, and 35:65, in the dry matter basis. Four Holstein x Zebu steers, with average live weight of 229kg, fitted with ruminal and abomasal canullae, were used. The animals were allotted in a 4x4 latin square design. The intakes of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, and total carbohydrates (kg/day, as well the partials digestibilities of non fibrous carbohydrates (NFC increased linearly with plateau at the concentrate

  13. A lower bound on the mass of dark matter particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyarsky, Alexey; Ruchayskiy, Oleg; Iakubovskyi, Dmytro

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the bounds on the mass of Dark Matter (DM) particles, coming from the analysis of DM phase-space distribution in dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). After reviewing the existing approaches, we choose two methods to derive such a bound. The first one depends on the information about the current phase space distribution of DM particles only, while the second one uses both the initial and final distributions. We discuss the recent data on dSphs as well as astronomical uncertainties in relevant parameters. As an application, we present lower bounds on the mass of DM particles, coming from various dSphs, using both methods. The model-independent bound holds for any type of fermionic DM. Stronger, model-dependent bounds are quoted for several DM models (thermal relics, non-resonantly and resonantly produced sterile neutrinos, etc.). The latter bounds rely on the assumption that baryonic feedback cannot significantly increase the maximum of a distribution function of DM particles. For the scenario in which all the DM is made of sterile neutrinos produced via non-resonant mixing with the active neutrinos (NRP) this gives m NRP > 1.7 keV. Combining these results in their most conservative form with the X-ray bounds of DM decay lines, we conclude that the NRP scenario remains allowed in a very narrow parameter window only. This conclusion is independent of the results of the Lyman-α analysis. The DM model in which sterile neutrinos are resonantly produced in the presence of lepton asymmetry remains viable. Within the minimal neutrino extension of the Standard Model (the νMSM), both mass and the mixing angle of the DM sterile neutrino are bounded from above and below, which suggests the possibility for its experimental search

  14. Effect of Nutrient Supply on Chemical and Energetic Characteristics of Fiber Sorghum Biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciria, P.; Gonzalez, E.; Negro, M. J.; Solano, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of the present work, is to study the effect of the addition of different nutrients and irrigation doses on the chemical and energetic characteristics of the Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench ssp. bicolor biomass. The effect of compost addition is compared with the mineral fertilisation in two different irrigation doses . The experimental parcel, is located at CIEMAT-CEDER (Soria), at 1000 m above sea level, with a extremely weather and a loam sandy soil texture. The results obtained in the tested conditions show: a) the average biomass productivity was 9.81 d.m./ha, and no significant differences between treatments were observed. b) Mean values of the proximate analysis were 72.6 volatile matter, 6.2% ashes and 21.2 % fixed carbon. The volatile matter increases (1.1 %) and the ashes decreases (1.4 %) for the highest irrigation dose both in plots with no addition and in plots amended with compost. c) The N, S and Cl contents decreases for the highest irrigation dose in the same cases above mentioned. Mean values of the elemental analysis were: 45.0 % C, 6.3 % H, 1.4 % N, 0.15 % S and 0.49 % Cl. d) The average High Heating Value was 18071 kJ/kg d.m. and no significant differences between treatments were observed e) For the highest irrigation doses, a reduction in the K 2 O, P 2 O 5 , Mg and Si content, and a increase in the Al, Fe and Ti in ashes were detected. (Author) 13 refs

  15. Dark matter and exotic neutrino interactions in direct detection searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertuzzo, Enrico [Departamento de Física Matemática, Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo,R. do Matão 1371, CEP. 05508-090, São Paulo (Brazil); Deppisch, Frank F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London,London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Kulkarni, Suchita [Institut für Hochenergiephysik, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften,Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Wien (Austria); Gonzalez, Yuber F. Perez; Funchal, Renata Zukanovich [Departamento de Física Matemática, Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo,R. do Matão 1371, CEP. 05508-090, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-04-12

    We investigate the effect of new physics interacting with both Dark Matter (DM) and neutrinos at DM direct detection experiments. Working within a simplified model formalism, we consider vector and scalar mediators to determine the scattering of DM as well as the modified scattering of solar neutrinos off nuclei. Using existing data from LUX as well as the expected sensitivity of LUX-ZEPLIN and DARWIN, we set limits on the couplings of the mediators to quarks, neutrinos and DM. Given the current limits, we also assess the true DM discovery potential of direct detection experiments under the presence of exotic neutrino interactions. In the case of a vector mediator, we show that the DM discovery reach of future experiments is affected for DM masses m{sub χ}≲10 GeV or DM scattering cross sections σ{sub χ}≲10{sup −47} cm{sup 2}. On the other hand, a scalar mediator will not affect the discovery reach appreciably.

  16. Nutrient synchrony in preruminant calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2006-01-01

    In animal nutrition, the nutrient composition of the daily feed supply is composed to match the nutrient requirements for the desired performance. The time of nutrient availability within a day is usually considered not to affect the fate of nutrients. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate effects

  17. Total tract nutrient digestion and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets containing different levels of whole raw soya beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, B C; de Freitas Júnior, J E; Takiya, C S; de Araújo, A P C; Santos, M C B; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Vendramini, T H A; Rennó, F P

    2015-12-01

    Whole oilseeds such as soya beans have been utilized in dairy rations to supply additional fat and protein. However, antinutritional components contained in soya beans, such as trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins (lectins) may alter digestibility of nutrients and consequently affect animal performance. The objective of the present experiment was to quantify the effect of different levels of whole raw soya beans in diets of dairy cows on nutrient intake, total tract digestion, nutrient balances and milk yield and composition. Sixteen mid to late-lactation cows (228 ± 20 days in milk; mean ± SD) were used in four replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to treatments: control (without soya beans addition; CO), WS9, WS18 and WS27, with addition of 9%, 18% and 27% of whole raw soya bean in diet on a dry matter (DM) basis respectively. All diets contained identical forage and concentrate components and consisted of maize silage and concentrate based on ground corn and soya beans at a ratio of 60:40. There were no differences in OM, CP, NDF and NEL intakes (kg/day and MJ/day) among the treatments (p > 0.05). However, DM and NFC intakes were negatively affected (p = 0.04 and p raw soya beans for EE (p raw soya beans. However, the nutritive characteristics of excreted grains were not altered. Milk (kg), milk lactose (kg) and protein (kg) yield decreased linearly (p milk fat content (%) increased linearly (p raw soya beans inclusion. Increasing addition of whole raw soya beans affected milk fatty acid profile with a linear decrease of cis-9-trans 11CLA and total saturated FA; and linear increase of total unsaturated and C18:3 FA. Energy balance was positively affected (p = 0.03) by whole raw soya beans as well as efficiency of NEL milk/DE intake (p = 0.02). Nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis were not affected by whole raw soya

  18. Searches for Dark Matter in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Alpigiani, Cristiano; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Although the existence of Dark Matter (DM) is well established by many astronomical measurements, its nature still remains one of the unsolved puzzles of particles physics. The unprecedented energy reached by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has allowed exploration of previously unaccessible kinematic regimes in the search for new phenomena. An overview of most recent searches for dark matter with the ATLAS detector at LHC is presented and the interpretation of the results in terms of effective field theory and simplified models is discussed. The exclusion limits set by the ATLAS searches are compared to the constraints from direct dark matter detection experiments.

  19. Novel dark matter phenomenology at colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardlow, Kyle Patrick

    While a suitable candidate particle for dark matter (DM) has yet to be discovered, it is possible one will be found by experiments currently investigating physics on the weak scale. If discovered on that energy scale, the dark matter will likely be producible in significant quantities at colliders like the LHC, allowing the properties of and underlying physical model characterizing the dark matter to be precisely determined. I assume that the dark matter will be produced as one of the decay products of a new massive resonance related to physics beyond the Standard Model, and using the energy distributions of the associated visible decay products, develop techniques for determining the symmetry protecting these potential dark matter candidates from decaying into lighter Standard Model (SM) particles and to simultaneously measure the masses of both the dark matter candidate and the particle from which it decays.

  20. Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einasto J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available I give a review of the development of the concept of dark matter. The dark matter story passed through several stages from a minor observational puzzle to a major challenge for theory of elementary particles. Modern data suggest that dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, and that it consists of some unknown non-baryonic particles. Dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, thus properties of dark matter particles determine the structure of the cosmic web.

  1. Asymmetric dark matter: residual annihilations and self-interactions arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Baldes, Iason; Panci, Paolo; Petraki, Kalliopi; Sala, Filippo; Taoso, Marco

    Dark matter (DM) coupled to light mediators has been invoked to resolve the putative discrepancies between collisionless cold DM and galactic structure observations. However, $\\gamma$-ray searches and the CMB strongly constrain such scenarios. To ease the tension, we consider asymmetric DM. We show that, contrary to the common lore, detectable annihilations occur even for large asymmetries, and derive bounds from the CMB, $\\gamma$-ray, neutrino and antiproton searches. We then identify the viable space for self-interacting DM. Direct detection does not exclude this scenario, but provides a way to test it.

  2. Digestion of energy and nutrients in Svalbard reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Staaland

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding trials with 5 male Svalbard reindeer, Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus Vrolik were conducted at the Man and the Biosphere (MAB Research Station in Adventdalen, Svalbard. Five different diets were used, 1: commercial reindeer food, (RF-71, 2: a mixture of locally harvested grasses and sedges (mainly Dupontia pelligera and Eriphorum scheusczeri, 3: a pure moss (Pleurozium scheberi diet, 4: a lichen diet using the dominant Svalbard species Cetraria delisei, and 5: a mixed diet of RF-71, moss (P. schreberi and lichens (mainly Cladonia alpestris and Cladonia rangiferina. When fed the RF-71 diet the digestibility by Svalbard and Norwegian reindeer were similar with respect to dry matter (DM 75 v 74% and crude protein (CP 74 v 70% as were the availabilities of P (72 v 76% a and Ca (18 v 36% in the diet. The mixture of grasses and sedges was highly digestible with respect to DM ((66,5% but had low availabilities of Ca (12%, Mg (10% and P (-11%. DM digestibility of the lichen C delisei was low (33% however this lichen could constitute a good source of Ca. Moss palatability was very low (174-252 g or 9-13g/kg 0 75 intake daily. DM, CP and energy digestibilities, respectively 48, 53 and 49%, and the availabilities of P (66% and Ca (20% were indicative that they could add to the energy and protein intake while contributing significantly to nutrient balance of Svalbard reindeer when present in a mixed diet.Fordøyelse av energi og næringsstoffer hos Svalbard-rein.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Ved MAB-stasjonen i Adventdalen på Svalbard ble det utført foringsforsøk med fem voksne bukker av Svalbardrein, Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus Vrolik. Det ble nyttet fem forskjellige forty per, 1: pelletert reinfor, RF71, 2: en blanding av gras og siv høstet i Adventdalen (vesentlig Dupontia pelligera og Eriophorum scheuchzeri, 3: en ren mosediett (Pleurozium schreberi, 4: lav av den vanlige Svalbard -arten, Cetraria delisei, 5: en blandet diett av RF

  3. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Hepatic Tissue of T2DM Rhesus Macaque

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    Tingfu Du

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a metabolic disorder that severely affects human health, but the pathogenesis of the disease remains unknown. The high-fat/high-sucrose diets combined with streptozotocin- (STZ- induced nonhuman primate animal model of diabetes are a valuable research source of T2DM. Here, we present a study of a STZ rhesus macaque model of T2DM that utilizes quantitative iTRAQ-based proteomic method. We compared the protein profiles in the liver of STZ-treated macaques as well as age-matched healthy controls. We identified 171 proteins differentially expressed in the STZ-treated groups, about 70 of which were documented as diabetes-related gene in previous studies. Pathway analyses indicated that the biological functions of differentially expressed proteins were related to glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, fatty acid metabolism, complements, and coagulation cascades. Expression change in tryptophan metabolism pathway was also found in this study which may be associations with diabetes. This study is the first to explore genome-wide protein expression in hepatic tissue of diabetes macaque model using HPLC-Q-TOF/MS technology. In addition to providing potential T2DM biomarkers, this quantitative proteomic study may also shed insights regarding the molecular pathogenesis of T2DM.

  4. Replacing single-view mediolateral oblique (MLO) digital mammography (DM) with synthesized mammography (SM) with digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) images: Comparison of the diagnostic performance and radiation dose with two-view DM with or without MLO-DBT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyo-Jin [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Jung Min, E-mail: imchangjm@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joongyub [Medical Research Collaborating Center, Biomedical Research Institution, Seoul National University Hospital, 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Sung Eun; Shin, Sung Ui [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won Hwa [Department of Radiology, Kyungpook National University Hospital, 41944 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Min Sun [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University College Medical Research Center, 03080 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic performance and radiation dose of single view cranio-caudal (CC) digital mammography (DM) plus mediolateral oblique (MLO) digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) combined with synthesized mammography (SM) in comparison with two-view DM with or without DBT. Material and methods: This study was approved by our institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from 130 women. Paired two-view DM and single MLO-DBT with SM images were acquired, and four independent retrospective reading sessions of different combinations of DM, SM and DBT were performed for the presence of malignant tumors using jackknife alternative free-response receiver operator curve (JAFROC) methods. The diagnostic performances and average glandular dose (AGD) were compared between different combinations of DM, SM and DBT. Results: Of 159 lesions in 130 patients, 27 were malignant. When using MLO-DBT with SM instead of MLO-DM, a significantly higher sensitivity (P = 0.016) and specificity (P = 0.012) were noted than with two-view DM, and comparable figure of merit (FOM), sensitivity, and specificity to two-view DM with DBT were noted. The mean AGD of CC-DM plus MLO-DBT with SM was 5.78mGy ± 1.06 per patient, which was significantly lower than that with two-view DM with MLO-DBT (8.45mGy ± 1.32; P <0.001) and slightly higher than that with two-view DM (5.30mGy ± 0.63). Conclusions: The combined use of CC-DM plus MLO-DBT with SM showed higher sensitivity and specificity to two-view DM with a smaller AGD increment and comparable diagnostic performance to that of two-view DM with MLO-DBT with a significantly lower mean AGD.

  5. Effects of citrus pulp, fish by-product and Bacillus subtilis fermentation biomass on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and fecal microflora of weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hyun Suk; Ingale, Santosh Laxman; Lee, Su Hyup; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Kwon, Ill Kyong; Kim, Young Hwa; Chae, Byung Jo

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with citrus pulp, fish by-product, and Bacillus subtilis fermentation biomass on the growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, and fecal microflora of weanling pigs. A total of 180 weaned piglets (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) were randomly allotted to three treatments on the basis of body weight (BW). There were six replicate pens in each treatment with 10 piglets per pen. Dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal-based basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 2.5, and 5.0% citrus pulp, fish by-product, and B. subtilis fermentation biomass. The isocaloric and isoproteineous experimental diets were fed in mash form in two phases (d 0 ~ 14, phase I and d 15 ~ 28, phase II). Dietary treatments had significant linear effects on gain to feed ratio (G:F) in all periods, whereas significant linear effects on ATTD of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), and ash were only observed in phase I. Piglets fed diet supplemented with 5.0% citrus pulp, fish by-product, and B. subtilis fermentation biomass showed greater (p by-product and B. subtilis fermentation biomass showed greater (p by-product, and B. subtilis fermentation biomass has the potential to improve the feed efficiency, nutrient digestibility, and fecal microflora of weanling pigs.

  6. Crescimento , produção de matéria seca e acúmulo de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S na parte aérea de mudas de andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl. cultivadas em solo de várzea, em função de diferentes doses de fósforo Growth, dry matter yield and N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S accumulation in andiroba seedling shoots (Carapa guianensis Aubl. cultivated in lowland soil, in function of phosphorus doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Sílvio Caires Neves

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes doses de fósforo no crescimento e produção de matéria seca e acúmulo de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S na parte aérea de mudas de andiroba, cultivadas em solo de várzea, foi conduzido um experimento em casa de vegetação, no Departamento de Ciências do Solo (DCS da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com cinco repetições e quatro doses de fósforo (0, 150, 300 e 450 mg dm-3 de P. Foram avaliados diâmetro do caule (mm, altura de plantas (cm, matéria seca de raiz, caule, folha e total (g planta-1. A partir dos teores dos elementos, determinou-se o acúmulo dos nutrientes com base na matéria seca. A máxima resposta física da planta de andiroba à adubação fosfatada foi obtida na faixa de 239 a 265 mg dm-3 de P. O máximo acúmulo de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S foi atingido com as doses de 254; 287,5; 244,5; 254; 241; e 275 mg dm-3 de P, respectivamente. Os elementos em estudo que mais acumularam na parte aérea das mudas de andiroba seguem a seguinte ordem decrescente: N > Ca > K > Mg > S > P.To evaluate the effect of phosphorus application on growth, dry matter yield and N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S accumulation in "andiroba" seedling shoots, cultivated in lowland soil, an experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Soil Science Department (DCS of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with five replications and four phosphorus doses (0, 150, 300 and 450 mg dm-3 of P. Stem diameter (mm, plant height (cm, root dry matter, stem, leafs and total (g plant-1 were evaluated and the accumulation of the nutrients based on dry matter was determined. The maximum physical response of andiroba to phosphorus was obtained between 239 to 265 mg dm-3 of P. The maximum accumulation of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S was observed with the doses 254, 287,5, 244,5, 254, 241 and 275 mg dm-3 of P, respectively

  7. Effect of supplementation with protein differ for rumen degradability on milk production and nutrients utilization in early lactating Sahiwal cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talat N. Pasha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Early lactating Sahiwal cows (n=24 of approximately similar yield and lactation were selected and randomly divided into four groups of six cows in each. These groups were fed ad libitum four iso- energetic and iso- proteic diets with different rumen undegradable protein (RUP sources: diet A 30% RUP, diet B 40% RUP, diet C 50% RUP and diet D 60% RUP in a completely randomized design. Among nutrients intake, dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP intake was significantly (P<0.01 different, while neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF intakes were similar across four diets. DM, CP and NDF digestibility were also different (P<0.05 except, NDF digestibility. Whole milk yield (kg/d and 4% fat corrected milk (FCM (kg/d, fat (g/d and protein (g/d was found maximum on diet B, followed by diet A. Not significant differences were found in fat, solid not fat (SNF, protein, lactose, salts and total solids percentage across all diet except SNF, lactose and salts percentages which were significantly lower (P<0.05 on diet D. Nitrogen intake, balance and utilization were statistically similar across all diets however, nitrogen excretion in milk (g/d and percentage of intake and urine (percentage of intake were significantly different across diets. Nitrogen intake and output varied (P<0.01 across all diets. Nitrogen balance and its utilization were maximum (P<0.001 on diet B, while other diets showed not significant differences among themselves. Based on presenting findings, it is concluded that feed intake, digestibility and production performance was maximum in early lactating Sahiwal cows when fed 40% rumen undegradable protein in total mixed ration based diet.

  8. The Application of Isotope Techniques in Nutrient Assessment and Management in Riverine Systems. Present and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, M.; Newman, B. D. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Isotope Hydrology Section, Vienna (Austria); Hadwen, W. L. [Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University - Nathan Campus, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Rogers, K. [National Isotope Center, GNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Mayer, B. [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Hein, T. [Wasser Cluster Lunz, Interuniversitary Center for Aquatic Research, Lunz-See, and University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology and Aquatic Ecosystem Management, Vienna (Austria); Stellato, L. [Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental Heritage (CIRCE), Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Caserta (Italy); Ohte, N. [Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Mclaughlin, K. [Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, Costa Mesa, California (United States)

    2013-05-15

    A variety of sources contribute to nutrients in rivers and nutrients may subsequently take various pathways and undergo different transformation processes. We first review representative types of isotopes and the roles of isotope techniques that have been or could be used for nutrient assessment and management. We then present technical, financial and logistical matters to be considered in selecting appropriate isotope techniques for nutrient assessment and management. Lastly we propose several approaches on the application of isotope techniques to make more effective the studies and management of nutrients in rivers in the near future. (author)

  9. SGLT-2 Inhibitors: Are They a Promising Treatment Option in T2DM Patients with NAFLD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Patoulias

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sodium glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2 inhibitors are a class of antidiabetics, recently approved for the treatment of patients with T2DM. They feature cardioprotective and renoprotective action, while they exert beneficial effects on metabolic parameters. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a frequent co-morbidity in diabetic patients. Its prevalence reaches up to 70%. Since there is no specific treatment approved for NAFLD, both experimental and clinical studies have been recently conducted highlighting the efficacy and safety of SGLT-2 inhibitors mainly in animal models and secondarily in patients with T2DM and NAFLD. This class of antidiabetics seems very attractive, improving both glycemic control and liver function tests, while inhibiting NAFLD progression. However, further investigation is required to establish them as a first-line treatment option in T2DM patients with NAFLD, after thorough assessment of their efficacy and safety in clinical practice.

  10. Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites in bulls fed rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites were determined in rumen - cannulated bulls fed rice straw or straw supplemented with urea, groundnut hay or cotton seed cake. Total dry matter intake (DMI) ranged from 7.55 Lo 8.29kg/d or 3.66 to 4.04% of liveweight and from 6.48 to 7. 21 kg/d for organic matter.

  11. The subtropical nutrient spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, William J.; Doney, Scott C.

    2003-12-01

    We present an extended series of observations and more comprehensive analysis of a tracer-based measure of new production in the Sargasso Sea near Bermuda using the 3He flux gauge technique. The estimated annually averaged nitrate flux of 0.84 ± 0.26 mol m-2 yr-1 constitutes only that nitrate physically transported to the euphotic zone, not nitrogen from biological sources (e.g., nitrogen fixation or zooplankton migration). We show that the flux estimate is quantitatively consistent with other observations, including decade timescale evolution of the 3H + 3He inventory in the main thermocline and export production estimates. However, we argue that the flux cannot be supplied in the long term by local diapycnal or isopycnal processes. These considerations lead us to propose a three-dimensional pathway whereby nutrients remineralized within the main thermocline are returned to the seasonally accessible layers within the subtropical gyre. We describe this mechanism, which we call "the nutrient spiral," as a sequence of steps where (1) nutrient-rich thermocline waters are entrained into the Gulf Stream, (2) enhanced diapycnal mixing moves nutrients upward onto lighter densities, (3) detrainment and enhanced isopycnal mixing injects these waters into the seasonally accessible layer of the gyre recirculation region, and (4) the nutrients become available to biota via eddy heaving and wintertime convection. The spiral is closed when nutrients are utilized, exported, and then remineralized within the thermocline. We present evidence regarding the characteristics of the spiral and discuss some implications of its operation within the biogeochemical cycle of the subtropical ocean.

  12. Plant insecticide L-canavanine repels Drosophila via the insect orphan GPCR DmX.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Mitri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available For all animals, the taste sense is crucial to detect and avoid ingesting toxic molecules. Many toxins are synthesized by plants as a defense mechanism against insect predation. One example of such a natural toxic molecule is L-canavanine, a nonprotein amino acid found in the seeds of many legumes. Whether and how insects are informed that some plants contain L-canavanine remains to be elucidated. In insects, the taste sense relies on gustatory receptors forming the gustatory receptor (Gr family. Gr proteins display highly divergent sequences, suggesting that they could cover the entire range of tastants. However, one cannot exclude the possibility of evolutionarily independent taste receptors. Here, we show that L-canavanine is not only toxic, but is also a repellent for Drosophila. Using a pharmacogenetic approach, we find that flies sense food containing this poison by the DmX receptor. DmXR is an insect orphan G-protein-coupled receptor that has partially diverged in its ligand binding pocket from the metabotropic glutamate receptor family. Blockade of DmXR function with an antagonist lowers the repulsive effect of L-canavanine. In addition, disruption of the DmXR encoding gene, called mangetout (mtt, suppresses the L-canavanine repellent effect. To avoid the ingestion of L-canavanine, DmXR expression is required in bitter-sensitive gustatory receptor neurons, where it triggers the premature retraction of the proboscis, thus leading to the end of food searching. These findings show that the DmX receptor, which does not belong to the Gr family, fulfills a gustatory function necessary to avoid eating a natural toxin.

  13. Effects of dietary forage-to-concentrate ratio on nutrient digestibility and enteric methane production in growing goats ( and Sika deer (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjun Na

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of forage-to-concentrate (F:C ratio on the nutrient digestibility and enteric methane (CH4 emission in growing goats and Sika deer. Methods Three male growing goats (body weight [BW] = 19.0±0.7 kg and three male growing deer (BW = 19.3±1.2 kg were respectively allotted to a 3×3 Latin square design with an adaptation period of 7 d and a data collection period of 3 d. Respiration-metabolism chambers were used for measuring the enteric CH4 emission. Treatments of low (25:75, moderate (50:50, and high (73:27 F:C ratios were given to both goats and Sika deer. Results Dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility decreased linearly with increasing F:C ratio in both goats and Sika deer. In both goats and Sika deer, the CH4 emissions expressed as g/d, g/kg BW0.75, % of gross energy intake, g/kg DM intake (DMI, and g/kg OM intake (OMI decreased linearly as the F:C ratio increased, however, the CH4 emissions expressed as g/kg digested DMI and OMI were not affected by the F:C ratio. Eight equations were derived for predicting the enteric CH4 emission from goats and Sika deer. For goat, equation 1 was found to be of the highest accuracy: CH4 (g/d = 3.36+4.71×DMI (kg/d−0.0036×neutral detergent fiber concentrate (NDFC, g/kg+0.01563×dry matter digestibility (DMD, g/kg−0.0108×neutral detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD, g/kg. For Sika deer, equation 5 was found to be of the highest accuracy: CH4 (g/d = 66.3+27.7×DMI (kg/d−5.91×NDFC (g/kg−7.11× DMD (g/kg+0.0809×NDFD (g/kg. Conclusion Digested nutrient intake could be considered when determining the CH4 generation factor in goats and Sika deer. Finally, the enteric CH4 prediction model for goats and Sika deer were estimated.

  14. EFFECT OF UREA-MOLASSES BLOCK SUPPLEMENTATION ON NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY AND INTAKE OF AMMONIATED MAIZE STOVERS IN COW -CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Usman Faizi, M.M. Siddiqui and G. Habib

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in a 4x4 Latin square design with four cow-calves {Holstein Friesian, aged' 6-8 months to investigate the effect of supplementing molasses-urea block {MUB to untreated or ammoniated maize stovers on feed intake and in viva digestibility of nutrients. Each period consisted of 10 days adaptation, followed by five days data collection. The four diets were untreated maize stovers {Diet A, untreated maize stovers with MUB {Diet B, ammoniated maize stovers {Diet 'C and ammoniated maize stovers with MUB {Diet D. Daily consumption of maize stovers and total feed by the calves were higher {P< 0.01 on the diets containing ammoniated maize stovers than those containing untreated maize stovers. Ammoniation increased the intake of maize stovers by 61 %. Supplementary feeding of MUB did not change the daily intake of both untreated and ammoniated maize stovers. Calves receiving untreated maize stovers consumed more MUB {P< 0.01 than those given ammoniated maize stovers {496.40 vs 180.20g DM/d. Daily water consumption was affected {P< 0.01 by diets and was lowest on Diet A. Calves receiving ammoniated maize stovers consumed more water than those given untreated maize stovers. MUB increased {P<0.01 the water consumption only on untreated maize stovers. Mean water consumption was 13.93, 15.91, 15.07 and 15.60 lit/d on diet A, B, C and D, respectively. In vivo digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein were Influenced {P<0.01 by diet composition. I Among the four diets, dry matter digestibility was minimum (P< 0.01 on Diet A and remained the same on diets B, C and D {55.82, 58.02 and 58.14%, respectively. Organic matter and crude protein digestibility were higher in the claves receiving ammoniated maize stovers. Supplementation of MUB increased (P< 0.01 the digestibility of all the three nutrients in untreated maize stovers but did not affect the digestibility of ammoniated maize stovers. The results demonstrated

  15. The combined effect of the T2DM susceptibility genes is an important risk factor for T2DM in non-obese Japanese: a population based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamakawa-Kobayashi Kimiko

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder. Recently, several genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified many novel susceptibility loci for T2DM, and indicated that there are common genetic causes contributing to the susceptibility to T2DM in multiple populations worldwide. In addition, clinical and epidemiological studies have indicated that obesity is a major risk factor for T2DM. However, the prevalence of obesity varies among the various ethnic groups. We aimed to determine the combined effects of these susceptibility loci and obesity/overweight for development of T2DM in the Japanese. Methods Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in or near 17 susceptibility loci for T2DM, identified through GWAS in Caucasian and Asian populations, were genotyped in 333 cases with T2DM and 417 control subjects. Results We confirmed that the cumulative number of risk alleles based on 17 susceptibility loci for T2DM was an important risk factor in the development of T2DM in Japanese population (P P P = 0.88 for trend. Conclusions Our findings indicate that there is an etiological heterogeneity of T2DM between obese/overweight and non-obese subjects.

  16. Hidden U (1 ) gauge symmetry realizing a neutrinophilic two-Higgs-doublet model with dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Takaaki; Okada, Hiroshi

    2018-04-01

    We propose a neutrinophilic two-Higgs-doublet model with hidden local U (1 ) symmetry, where active neutrinos are Dirac type, and a fermionic dark matter (DM) candidate is naturally induced as a result of remnant symmetry even after the spontaneous symmetry breaking. In addition, a physical Goldstone boson arises as a consequence of two types of gauge singlet bosons and contributes to the DM phenomenologies as well as an additional neutral gauge boson. Then, we analyze the relic density of DM within the safe range of direct detection searches and show the allowed region of dark matter mass.

  17. Signatures of Earth-scattering in the direct detection of Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavanagh, Bradley J.; Catena, Riccardo; Kouvaris, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Direct detection experiments search for the interactions of Dark Matter (DM) particles with nuclei in terrestrial detectors. But if these interactions are sufficiently strong, DM particles may scatter in the Earth, affecting their distribution in the lab. We present a new analytic calculation...... of this 'Earth-scattering' effect in the regime where DM particles scatter at most once before reaching the detector. We perform the calculation self-consistently, taking into account not only those particles which are scattered away from the detector, but also those particles which are deflected towards...... the detector. Taking into account a realistic model of the Earth and allowing for a range of DM-nucleon interactions, we present the EarthShadow code, which we make publicly available, for calculating the DM velocity distribution after Earth-scattering. Focusing on low-mass DM, we find that Earth...

  18. Seasonality of nutrients in leaves and fruits of apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachtigall Gilmar Ribeiro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient accumulation curves of apple trees are good indicators of plant nutrient demand for each developmental stage. They are also a useful tool to evaluate orchard nutritional status and to estimate the amount of soil nutrient removal. This research aimed at evaluating the seasonality of nutrients in commercial apple orchards during the agricultural years of 1999, 2000, and 2001. Therefore, apple tree leaves and fruits of three cultivars 'Gala', 'Golden Delicious' and 'Fuji' were weekly collected and evaluated for fresh and dry matter, fruit diameter and macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca and Mg and micronutrient (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn concentrations. Leaf and fruit sampling started one or two weeks after full bloom, depending on the cultivar, and ended at fruit harvest or four weeks later (in the case of leaf sampling. In general, leaf concentrations of N, P, K, Cu, and B decreased; Ca increased; and Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn did vary significantly along the plant vegetative cycle. In fruits, the initial nutrient concentrations decreased quickly, undergoing slow and continuous decreases and then remaining almost constant until the end of fruit maturation, indicating nutrient dilution, once the total nutrient accumulation increased gradually with fruit growth. Potassium was the nutrient present in highest quantities in apple tree fruits and thus, the most removed from the soil.

  19. Níveis críticos de boro no solo e na planta para cultivo de mudas de maracujazeiro-amarelo Boron application the nutricional status and dry matter production of passion fruit cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato de Melo Prado

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a aplicação de boro ao substrato de produção de mudas de maracujazeiro-amarelo, para o estabelecimento dos níveis críticos do B no solo e na planta. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. As doses de boro, na forma de ácido bórico, foram: 0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75 e 1,0 mg de B dm-3 de solo. As mudas receberam doses de N, P, K e Zn, de 300; 450; 150 e 5 mg dm-3, respectivamente, sendo o N e o K parcelados em três vezes (15; 30 e 45 dias após o plantio. O experimento foi conduzido em condições de casa de vegetação, em vasos com 2 dm-3 de substrato de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Após 70 dias do plantio, foram avaliados: o diâmetro do caule, a altura da planta, o número de folhas e a matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, bem como os teores de macro e micronutrientes. As mudas de maracujazeiro responderam à aplicação de boro em substrato com baixa concentração (0,06 mg dm-3, extraído com água quente. O maior desenvolvimento das plantas esteve associado à dose próxima de 0,5 mg de B dm-3 e à concentração de 0,4 mg de B dm-3 no substrato e um teor de 22 mg de B kg-1 na parte aérea.It was objectified to evaluate the application of boron to the substratum of production of yellow passion fruit cuttings, for the establishment of the critical levels of the B in the soil and the plant. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with 5 treatments and 4 replications. The doses of boron were: 0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75 and 1,00 mg dm-3 of B. All the plants received doses of N, P, K and Zn of 300; 100; 150 and 5,0 mg dm-3, respectively. The experiment was lead in vases with 2.0 dm³ of substratum of a Typic Haplorthox. After 70 days of the sowing were evaluated: height, leave numeric, dry matter, nutritional status of plants and soil nutrients. The passion fruit plant seedlings answered to the boron application in soil with low concentration of

  20. Solar Extreme UV radiation and quark nugget dark matter model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitnitsky, Ariel

    2017-10-01

    We advocate the idea that the surprising emission of extreme ultra violet (EUV) radiation and soft x-rays from the Sun are powered externally by incident dark matter (DM) particles. The energy and the spectral shape of this otherwise unexpected solar irradiation is estimated within the quark nugget dark matter model. This model was originally invented as a natural explanation of the observed ratio Ωdark ~ Ωvisible when the DM and visible matter densities assume the same order of magnitude values. This generic consequence of the model is a result of the common origin of both types of matter which are formed during the same QCD transition and both proportional to the same fundamental dimensional parameter ΛQCD. We also present arguments suggesting that the transient brightening-like "nanoflares" in the Sun may be related to the annihilation events which inevitably occur in the solar atmosphere within this dark matter scenario.

  1. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  2. Late gestational nutrient restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Nørgaard, Peder

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 50% nutrient restriction during the last 6 weeks of gestation on twin-pregnant ewes' plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acid, ß-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, IGF-1 and leptin concentrations and the effects on lamb birth weight and ewes' lactation performance. Plasma...

  3. Sourcing dark matter and dark energy from α-attractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Swagat S.; Sahni, Varun; Shtanov, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    In [1], Kallosh and Linde drew attention to a new family of superconformal inflationary potentials, subsequently called α-attractors [2]. The α-attractor family can interpolate between a large class of inflationary models. It also has an important theoretical underpinning within the framework of supergravity. We demonstrate that the α-attractors have an even wider appeal since they may describe dark matter and perhaps even dark energy. The dark matter associated with the α-attractors, which we call α-dark matterDM), shares many of the attractive features of fuzzy dark matter, with V (φ) = ½ m 2 φ 2 , while having none of its drawbacks. Like fuzzy dark matter, αDM can have a large Jeans length which could resolve the cusp-core and substructure problems faced by standard cold dark matter. αDM also has an appealing tracker property which enables it to converge to the late-time dark matter asymptote, ( w ) ≅ 0, from a wide range of initial conditions. It thus avoids the enormous fine-tuning problems faced by the m 2 φ 2 potential in describing dark matter.

  4. Sourcing dark matter and dark energy from α-attractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Swagat S.; Sahni, Varun [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Shtanov, Yuri, E-mail: swagat@iucaa.in, E-mail: varun@iucaa.in, E-mail: shtanov@bitp.kiev.ua [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev 03680 (Ukraine)

    2017-06-01

    In [1], Kallosh and Linde drew attention to a new family of superconformal inflationary potentials, subsequently called α-attractors [2]. The α-attractor family can interpolate between a large class of inflationary models. It also has an important theoretical underpinning within the framework of supergravity. We demonstrate that the α-attractors have an even wider appeal since they may describe dark matter and perhaps even dark energy. The dark matter associated with the α-attractors, which we call α-dark matterDM), shares many of the attractive features of fuzzy dark matter, with V (φ) = ½ m {sup 2}φ{sup 2}, while having none of its drawbacks. Like fuzzy dark matter, αDM can have a large Jeans length which could resolve the cusp-core and substructure problems faced by standard cold dark matter. αDM also has an appealing tracker property which enables it to converge to the late-time dark matter asymptote, ( w ) ≅ 0, from a wide range of initial conditions. It thus avoids the enormous fine-tuning problems faced by the m {sup 2}φ{sup 2} potential in describing dark matter.

  5. Disponibilidade de nutrientes e teor de matéria orgânica em função de sistemas de cultivo e de manejo de solo Nutrient availability and organic matter content as affected by cropping systems and soil management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pereira dos Santos

    2003-06-01

    complete block design, with split-plots and three replicates, was used. The main field plots (4 x 90m were formed by soil management systems, while the subplots (4 x 10m consisted of crop systems. The pH and concentration of exchangeable Al, exchangeable Ca + Mg, soil organic matter, extractable P, and exchangeable K were affected by soil management and cropping systems. Higher contents of soil organic matter, extractable P, and exchangeable K were observed in the 0-5cm layer for the conservation tillage systems (minimum tillage and no-tillage, as compared to the conventional tillage systems (disk plow and moldboard plow. The values of soil organic matter, P, and K were higher in the 0-5 cm layer, when compared to the ones observed in the 15-20cm layer, in all soil management and cropping systems.

  6. Uptake of macro- and micro-nutrients into leaf, woody, and root tissue of Populus after irrigation with landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Adam H. Wiese; Bart T. Sexton; Richard B. Hall

    2008-01-01

    Information about macro- and micro-nutrient uptake and distribution into tissues of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate helps to maximize biomass production and understand impacts of leachate chemistry on tree health. We irrigated eight Populus clones (NC 13460, NCI4O18, NC14104, NC14106, DM115, DN5, NM2, NM6) with fertilized (N, P, K) well...

  7. Secretion of glucagon-like peptide-2 responds to nutrient intake but not glucose provision in milk-fed calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, J.J.; Morrison, S.Y.; Hosseinni, A.

    2016-01-01

    concentrations in plasma and intestinal development in Holstein calves. In the first experiment, 48 newborn calves were assigned to 12 treatments (n = 4) corresponding to the factorial combination of 4 milk feeding amounts [1.75, 1.32, 0.88, and 0.44% of body weight (BW) as dry matter (DM)] and 3 oral...... fashion to milk intake but not to glucose supplementation, even at milk consumption levels of only 0.4% of BW as DM....

  8. Constraints on Dark Matter Interactions with Standard Model Particles from Cosmic Microwave Background Spectral Distortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Chluba, Jens; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2015-08-14

    We propose a new method to constrain elastic scattering between dark matter (DM) and standard model particles in the early Universe. Direct or indirect thermal coupling of nonrelativistic DM with photons leads to a heat sink for the latter. This results in spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the amplitude of which can be as large as a few times the DM-to-photon-number ratio. We compute CMB spectral distortions due to DM-proton, DM-electron, and DM-photon scattering for generic energy-dependent cross sections and DM mass m_{χ}≳1 keV. Using Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer measurements, we set constraints on the cross sections for m_{χ}≲0.1 MeV. In particular, for energy-independent scattering we obtain σ_{DM-proton}≲10^{-24} cm^{2} (keV/m_{χ})^{1/2}, σ_{DM-electron}≲10^{-27} cm^{2} (keV/m_{χ})^{1/2}, and σ_{DM-photon}≲10^{-39} cm^{2} (m_{χ}/keV). An experiment with the characteristics of the Primordial Inflation Explorer would extend the regime of sensitivity up to masses m_{χ}~1 GeV.

  9. Antiprotons from dark matter annihilation in the Galaxy. Astrophysical uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evoli, Carmelo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). National Astronomical Observatories; Cholis, Ilias; Ullio, Piero [SISSA, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Grasso, Dario [INFN, Sezione di Pisa (Italy); Maccione, Luca [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    The latest years have seen steady progresses in WIMP dark matter (DM) searches, with hints of possible signals suggested by both direct and indirect detection experiments. Antiprotons can play a key role validating those interpretations since they are copiously produced by WIMP annihilations in the Galactic halo, and the secondary antiproton background produced by Cosmic Ray (CR) interactions is predicted with fair accuracy and matches the observed spectrum very well. Using the publicly available numerical DRAGON code, we reconsider antiprotons as a tool to constrain DM models discussing its power and limitations. We provide updated constraints on a wide class of annihilating DM models by comparing our predictions against the most up-to-date anti p measurements, taking also into account the latest spectral information on the p, He and other CR nuclei fluxes. Doing that, we probe carefully the uncertainties associated to both secondary and DM originated antiprotons, by using a variety of distinctively different assumptions for the propagation of CRs and for the DM distribution in the Galaxy. We find that the impact of the astrophysical uncertainties on constraining the DM properties can be much stronger, up to a factor of {proportional_to}50, than the one due to uncertainties on the DM distribution ({proportional_to}2-6). Remarkably, even reducing the uncertainties on the propagation parameters derived by local observables, non-local effects can still change DM model constraints even by 50%. Nevertheless, current anti p data place tight constraints on DM models, excluding some of those suggested in connection with indirect and direct searches. Finally we discuss the power of upcoming CR spectral data from the AMS-02 observatory to drastically reduce the uncertainties discussed in this paper and estimate the expected sensitivity of this instrument to some sets of DM models. (orig.)

  10. Probing the nature of Dark Matter with the SKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colafrancesco, S.; Regis, M.; Marchegiani, P.; Beck, G.; Beck, R.; Zechlin, H.; Lobanov, A.; Horns, D.

    2015-04-01

    Dark Matter (DM) is a fundamental ingredient of our Universe and of structure formation, and yet its nature is elusive to astrophysical probes. Information on the nature and physical properties of the WIMP (neutralino) DM (the leading candidate for a cosmologically relevant DM) can be obtained by studying the astrophysical signals of their annihilation/decay. Among the various e.m. signals, secondary electrons produced by neutralino annihilation generate synchrotron emission in the magnetized atmosphere of galaxy clusters and galaxies which could be observed as a diffuse radio emission (halo or haze) centered on the DM halo. A deep search for DM radio emission with SKA in local dwarf galaxies, galaxy regions with low star formation and galaxy clusters (with offset DM-baryonic distribution, like e.g. the Bullet cluster) can be very effective in constraining the neutralino mass, composition and annihilation cross-section. For the case of a dwarf galaxy, like e.g. Draco, the constraints on the DM annihilation cross-section obtainable with SKA1-MID will be at least a factor $\\sim 10^3$ more stringent than the limits obtained by Fermi-LAT in the $\\gamma$-rays. These limits scale with the value of the B field, and the SKA will have the capability to determine simultaneously both the magnetic field in the DM-dominated structures and the DM particle properties. The optimal frequency band for detecting the DM-induced radio emission is around $\\sim 1$ GHz, with the SKA1-MID Band 1 and 4 important to probe the synchrotron spectral curvature at low-$\

  11. Collider, direct and indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, Howard; Park, Eun-Kyung; Tata, Xerxes

    2009-01-01

    We present an overview of supersymmetry (SUSY) searches, both at collider experiments and via searches for dark matter (DM). We focus on three DM possibilities in the SUSY context: the thermally produced neutralino, a mixture of axion and axino, and the gravitino, and compare and contrast signals that may be expected at colliders, in direct detection (DD) experiments searching of DM relics left over from the Big Bang, and indirect detection (ID) experiments designed to detect the products of DM annihilations within the solar interior or galactic halo. Detection of DM particles using multiple strategies provides complementary information that may shed light on the new physics associated with the DM sector. In contrast to the minimal supergravity (mSUGRA) model where the measured cold DM relic density restricts us to special regions mostly on the edge of the m 0 -m 1/2 plane, the entire parameter plane becomes allowed if the universality assumption is relaxed in models with just one additional parameter. Then, thermally produced neutralinos with a well-tempered mix of wino, bino and higgsino components, or with a mass adjusted so that their annihilation in the early Universe is Higgs-resonance-enhanced, can be the DM. Well-tempered neutralinos typically yield heightened rates for DD and ID experiments compared with generic predictions from mSUGRA. If instead DM consists of axinos (possibly together with axions) or gravitinos, then there exists the possibility of detection of quasi-stable next-to-lightest SUSY particles at colliding beam experiments, with especially striking consequences if the next-lightest-supersymmetric-particle (NLSP) is charged, but no DD or ID detection. The exception for mixed axion/axino DM is that DD of axions may be possible.

  12. Speech Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina

    2011-01-01

    About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....

  13. Memory Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Memory Matters KidsHealth / For Kids / Memory Matters What's in ... of your complex and multitalented brain. What Is Memory? When an event happens, when you learn something, ...

  14. Mass Loss and Nutrient Release through Leaching in Tectona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tectona grandis and Theobroma cacao are common plantation tree crops planted to replace natural forest in Nigeria because of their faster growth rate and economic values. The changes in land use have marked effects on the soil nutrients and organic matter stock, thereby affecting physical, chemical properties and soil ...

  15. Performance and Nutrient Digestibility of West African Dwarf goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the performance and nutrient digestibility of twenty (20) growing West African Dwarf bucks, aged 4-6 months weighing between 6.50 9.00kg were fed varying levels of Gmelina arborea leaves and Panicum maximum as a basal diet for 56 days. The results showed that dry matter ...

  16. THE EFFECT OF ROCK PHOSPHATE ON SOIL NUTRIENT DYNAM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    INTRODUCTION. With the current ..... Table 4: Effect of treatment on dynamics of total nitrogen (%) from. 2004 to 2007 ..... areas in Ghana and constant plant nutrient up- take by the crop. ... maintenance of high organic matter levels in the top soil is ... productivity. The pH of the soil ..... and iron oxides of Oxisols from Ghana.

  17. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on nutrient concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on nutrient concentrations in plantain ( Musa spp.) ... Fruit parameters measured were fruit weight, edible proportion and pulp dry matter content; also, the concentrations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in fruits were determined.

  18. On the singular set of harmonic maps into DM-complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Daskalopoulos, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    The authors prove that the singular set of a harmonic map from a smooth Riemammian domain to a Riemannian DM-complex is of Hausdorff codimension at least two. They also explore monotonicity formulas and an order gap theorem for approximately harmonic maps. These regularity results have applications to rigidity problems examined in subsequent articles.

  19. DISCOVERY OF LOW DM FAST RADIO TRANSIENTS: GEMINGA PULSAR CAUGHT IN THE ACT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maan, Yogesh

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of several energetic radio bursts at 34 MHz, using the Gauribidanur radio telescope. The radio bursts exhibit two important properties associated with the propagation of astronomical signals through the interstellar medium: (i) frequency dependent dispersive delays across the observing bandwidth and (ii) Faraday rotation of the plane of linear polarization. These bursts sample a range of dispersion measures (DM; 1.4–3.6 pc cm −3 ) and show DM-variation at timescales of the order of a minute. Using groups of bursts having a consistent DM, we show that the bursts have originated from the radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsar Geminga. Detection of these bursts supports the existence of occasional radio emission from Geminga. The rare occurrence of these bursts, and the short timescale variation in their DM (if really caused by the intervening medium or the pulsar magnetosphere), might provide clues as to why the pulsar has not been detected in earlier sensitive searches. We present details of the observations and search procedure used to discover these bursts, a detailed analysis of their properties, and evidences of these bursts being associated with Geminga pulsar, and briefly discuss the possible emission mechanism of these bursts

  20. MIMO-OFDM WDM PON with DM-VCSEL for femtocells application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binti Othman, Maisara; Deng, Lei; Pang, Xiaodan

    2011-01-01

    We report on experimental demonstration of 2x2 MIMO-OFDM 5.6-GHz radio over fiber signaling over 20 km WDM-PON with directly modulated (DM) VCSELs for femtocells application. MIMO-OFDM algorithms effectively compensate for impairments in the wireless link. Error-free signal demodulation of 64...

  1. Effect of DM Actuator Errors on the WFIRST/AFTA Coronagraph Contrast Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidick, Erkin; Shi, Fang

    2015-01-01

    The WFIRST/AFTA 2.4 m space telescope currently under study includes a stellar coronagraph for the imaging and the spectral characterization of extrasolar planets. The coronagraph employs two sequential deformable mirrors (DMs) to compensate for phase and amplitude errors in creating dark holes. DMs are critical elements in high contrast coronagraphs, requiring precision and stability measured in picometers to enable detection of Earth-like exoplanets. Working with a low-order wavefront-sensor the DM that is conjugate to a pupil can also be used to correct low-order wavefront drift during a scientific observation. However, not all actuators in a DM have the same gain. When using such a DM in low-order wavefront sensing and control subsystem, the actuator gain errors introduce high-spatial frequency errors to the DM surface and thus worsen the contrast performance of the coronagraph. We have investigated the effects of actuator gain errors and the actuator command digitization errors on the contrast performance of the coronagraph through modeling and simulations, and will present our results in this paper.

  2. DISCOVERY OF LOW DM FAST RADIO TRANSIENTS: GEMINGA PULSAR CAUGHT IN THE ACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maan, Yogesh, E-mail: ymaan@ncra.tifr.res.in [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Pune 411007 (India)

    2015-12-20

    We report the discovery of several energetic radio bursts at 34 MHz, using the Gauribidanur radio telescope. The radio bursts exhibit two important properties associated with the propagation of astronomical signals through the interstellar medium: (i) frequency dependent dispersive delays across the observing bandwidth and (ii) Faraday rotation of the plane of linear polarization. These bursts sample a range of dispersion measures (DM; 1.4–3.6 pc cm{sup −3}) and show DM-variation at timescales of the order of a minute. Using groups of bursts having a consistent DM, we show that the bursts have originated from the radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsar Geminga. Detection of these bursts supports the existence of occasional radio emission from Geminga. The rare occurrence of these bursts, and the short timescale variation in their DM (if really caused by the intervening medium or the pulsar magnetosphere), might provide clues as to why the pulsar has not been detected in earlier sensitive searches. We present details of the observations and search procedure used to discover these bursts, a detailed analysis of their properties, and evidences of these bursts being associated with Geminga pulsar, and briefly discuss the possible emission mechanism of these bursts.

  3. Studies on the s_dm.t=f verb form in Classical Egyptian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonhoven, Ludovicus Martinus Johannes

    1997-01-01

    This study is devoted to some synchronic aspects of the sDm.t=f verb form, primarily its meaning and uses in Classical Egyptian. In the introduction some attention is paid to the history of the studies of the form and its origin, an aspect which will receive no further consideration. In accordance

  4. The Argon Dark Matter Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2071720

    2009-01-01

    The ArDM experiment, a 1 ton liquid argon TPC/Calorimeter, is designed for the detection of dark matter particles which can scatter off the spinless argon nucleus, producing nuclear recoils. These events will be discerned by their light to charge ratio, as well as the time structure of the scintillation light. The experiment is presently under construction and commissioning on surface at CERN. Cryogenic operation and light detection performance was recently confirmed in a test run of the full 1 ton liquid argon target under purely calorimetric operation and with a prototype light readout system. This note describes the experimental concept, the main detector components and presents some first results.

  5. Treatment of Source-Separated Blackwater: A Decentralized Strategy for Nutrient Recovery towards a Circular Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Melesse Eshetu Moges; Daniel Todt; Arve Heistad

    2018-01-01

    Using a filter medium for organic matter removal and nutrient recovery from blackwater treatment is a novel concept and has not been investigated sufficiently to date. This paper demonstrates a combined blackwater treatment and nutrient-recovery strategy and establishes mechanisms for a more dependable source of plant nutrients aiming at a circular economy. Source-separated blackwater from a student dormitory was used as feedstock for a sludge blanket anaerobic-baffled reactor. The effluent f...

  6. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    What You See Ain't What. You Got, Resonance, Vol.4,. No.9,1999. Dark Matter. 2. Dark Matter in the Universe. Bikram Phookun and Biman Nath. In Part 11 of this article we learnt that there are compelling evidences from dynamics of spiral galaxies, like our own, that there must be non-luminous matter in them. In this.

  7. Management of newly diagnosed type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Kenneth C; Silverstein, Janet; Moore, Kelly R; Prazar, Greg E; Raymer, Terry; Shiffman, Richard N; Springer, Shelley C; Thaker, Vidhu V; Anderson, Meaghan; Spann, Stephen J; Flinn, Susan K

    2013-02-01

    Over the past 3 decades, the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically in North America, ushering in a variety of health problems, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which previously was not typically seen until much later in life. The rapid emergence of childhood T2DM poses challenges to many physicians who find themselves generally ill-equipped to treat adult diseases encountered in children. This clinical practice guideline was developed to provide evidence-based recommendations on managing 10- to 18-year-old patients in whom T2DM has been diagnosed. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) convened a Subcommittee on Management of T2DM in Children and Adolescents with the support of the American Diabetes Association, the Pediatric Endocrine Society, the American Academy of Family Physicians, and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association). These groups collaborated to develop an evidence report that served as a major source of information for these practice guideline recommendations. The guideline emphasizes the use of management modalities that have been shown to affect clinical outcomes in this pediatric population. Recommendations are made for situations in which either insulin or metformin is the preferred first-line treatment of children and adolescents with T2DM. The recommendations suggest integrating lifestyle modifications (ie, diet and exercise) in concert with medication rather than as an isolated initial treatment approach. Guidelines for frequency of monitoring hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and finger-stick blood glucose (BG) concentrations are presented. Decisions were made on the basis of a systematic grading of the quality of evidence and strength of recommendation. The clinical practice guideline underwent peer review before it was approved by the AAP. This clinical practice guideline is not intended to replace clinical judgment or establish a protocol for the care of all children with T2

  8. Improving Lowland Rice (O. sativa L. cv. MR219 Plant Growth Variables, Nutrients Uptake, and Nutrients Recovery Using Crude Humic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Palanivell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High cation exchange capacity and organic matter content of crude humic substances from compost could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea and to as well improve rice growth and soil chemical properties for efficient nutrients utilization in lowland rice cultivation. Close-dynamic air flow system was used to determine the effects of crude humic substances on ammonia volatilization. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of crude humic substances on rice plant growth, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties using an acid soil mixed with three rates of crude humic substances (20, 40, and 60 g pot−1. Standard procedures were used to evaluate rice plant dry matter production, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties. Application of crude humic substances increased ammonia volatilization. However, the lowest rate of crude humic substances (20 g pot−1 significantly improved total dry matter, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil nutrients availability compared with crude humic substances (40 and 60 g pot−1 and the normal fertilization. Apart from improving growth of rice plants, crude humic substances can be used to ameliorate acid soils in rice cultivation. The findings of this study are being validated in our ongoing field trials.

  9. Improving Lowland Rice (O. sativa L. cv. MR219) Plant Growth Variables, Nutrients Uptake, and Nutrients Recovery Using Crude Humic Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivell, Perumal; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Ab Majid, Nik Muhamad; Jalloh, Mohamadu Boyie; Susilawati, Kasim

    2015-01-01

    High cation exchange capacity and organic matter content of crude humic substances from compost could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea and to as well improve rice growth and soil chemical properties for efficient nutrients utilization in lowland rice cultivation. Close-dynamic air flow system was used to determine the effects of crude humic substances on ammonia volatilization. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of crude humic substances on rice plant growth, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties using an acid soil mixed with three rates of crude humic substances (20, 40, and 60 g pot(-1)). Standard procedures were used to evaluate rice plant dry matter production, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties. Application of crude humic substances increased ammonia volatilization. However, the lowest rate of crude humic substances (20 g pot(-1)) significantly improved total dry matter, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil nutrients availability compared with crude humic substances (40 and 60 g pot(-1)) and the normal fertilization. Apart from improving growth of rice plants, crude humic substances can be used to ameliorate acid soils in rice cultivation. The findings of this study are being validated in our ongoing field trials.

  10. Particle Dark Matter Searches Outside the Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Marco; Xia, Jun-Qing; Cuoco, Alessandro; Branchini, Enzo; Fornengo, Nicolao; Viel, Matteo

    2015-06-01

    If dark matter (DM) is composed by particles which are nongravitationally coupled to ordinary matter, their annihilations or decays in cosmic structures can result in detectable radiation. We show that the most powerful technique to detect a particle DM signal outside the Local Group is to study the angular cross-correlation of nongravitational signals with low-redshift gravitational probes. This method allows us to enhance the signal to noise from the regions of the Universe where the DM-induced emission is preferentially generated. We demonstrate the power of this approach by focusing on GeV-TeV DM and on the recent cross-correlation analysis between the 2MASS galaxy catalogue and the Fermi-LAT γ -ray maps. We show that this technique is more sensitive than other extragalactic γ -ray probes, such as the energy spectrum and angular autocorrelation of the extragalactic background, and emission from clusters of galaxies. Intriguingly, we find that the measured cross-correlation can be well fitted by a DM component, with a thermal annihilation cross section and mass between 10 and 100 GeV, depending on the small-scale DM properties and γ -ray production mechanism. This solicits further data collection and dedicated analyses.

  11. Limits of effective nutrient management in dairy farming: analyses of experimental farm De Marke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, K.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: nutrient management, dairy, prototyping, organic matter, soil fertility, nitrogen, phosphor.

    Intensive dairy production in the Netherlands is associated with high farm nutrient (N and P) inputs and high losses to the environment. The Dutch government and the dairy sector

  12. Effect of salinity on growth, water use and nutrient use in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Hooijdonk, van J.

    1999-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants were grown at five soil salinity levels (1, 2, 4, 9 and 13 dS m-1) to analyse the effects on growth, dry matter partitioning, leaf expansion and water and nutrient use. Salinity was varied by proportionally changing the concentration of all macro nutrients. When

  13. TREX-DM: a low-background Micromegas-based TPC for low-mass WIMP detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguaz, F.J.; Garza, J.G.; Castel, J.F.; Cebrian, S.; Dafni, T.; Garcia, J.A.; Irastorza, I.G.; Lagraba, A.; Luzon, G.; Peiro, A. [Universidad de Zaragoza, Grupo de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Zaragoza (Spain); Aznar, F. [Universidad de Zaragoza, Grupo de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Zaragoza (Spain); Universidad de Zaragoza, Centro Universitario de la Defensa, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    If Dark Matter is made of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) with masses below ∝20 GeV, the corresponding nuclear recoils in mainstream WIMP experiments are of energies too close, or below, the experimental threshold. Gas Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) can be operated with a variety of target elements, offer good tracking capabilities and, on account of the amplification in gas, very low thresholds are achievable. Recent advances in electronics and in novel radiopure TPC readouts, especially micro-mesh gas structure (Micromegas), are improving the scalability and low-background prospects of gaseous TPCs. Here we present TREX-DM, a prototype to test the concept of a Micromegas-based TPC to search for low-mass WIMPs. The detector is designed to host an active mass of ∝0.300 kg of Ar at 10 bar, or alternatively ∝0.160 kg of Ne at 10 bar, with an energy threshold below 0.4 keVee, and is fully built with radiopure materials. We will describe the detector in detail, the results from the commissioning phase on surface, as well as a preliminary background model. The anticipated sensitivity of this technique may go beyond current experimental limits for WIMPs of masses of 2-8 GeV. (orig.)

  14. Decaying dark matter and the PAMELA anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Tran, David

    2009-01-01

    Astrophysical and cosmological observations do not require the dark matter particles to be absolutely stable. If they are indeed unstable, their decay into positrons might occur at a sufficiently large rate to allow the indirect detection of dark matter through an anomalous contribution to the cosmic positron flux. In this paper we discuss the implications of the excess in the positron fraction recently reported by the PAMELA collaboration for the scenario of decaying dark matter. To this end, we have performed a model-independent analysis of possible signatures by studying various decay channels in the case of both a fermionic and a scalar dark matter particle. We find that the steep rise in the positron fraction measured by PAMELA at energies larger than 10 GeV can naturally be accommodated in several realizations of the decaying dark matter scenario. The data point toward a rather heavy dark matter particle, m DM ∼> 300 GeV, which preferentially decays directly into first or second generation charged leptons with a lifetime τ DM ∼ 10 26 s

  15. Higgs naturalness and dark matter stability by scale invariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Guo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Extending the spacetime symmetries of standard model (SM by scale invariance (SI may address the Higgs naturalness problem. In this article we attempt to embed accidental dark matter (DM into SISM, requiring that the symmetry protecting DM stability is accidental due to the model structure rather than imposed by hand. In this framework, if the light SM-like Higgs boson is the pseudo Goldstone boson of SI spontaneously breaking, we can even pine down the model, two-Higgs-doublets plus a real singlet: The singlet is the DM candidate and the extra Higgs doublet triggers electroweak symmetry breaking via the Coleman–Weinberg mechanism; Moreover, it dominates DM dynamics. We study spontaneously breaking of SI using the Gillard–Weinberg approach and find that the second doublet should acquire vacuum expectation value near the weak scale. Moreover, its components should acquire masses around 380 GeV except for a light CP-odd Higgs boson. Based on these features, we explore viable ways to achieve the correct relic density of DM, facing stringent constraints from direct detections of DM. For instance, DM annihilates into bb¯ near the SM-like Higgs boson pole, or into a pair of CP-odd Higgs boson with mass above that pole.

  16. Constraints on dark matter annihilation from CMB observations before Planck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Honorez, Laura [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and The International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Mena, Olga; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Vincent, Aaron C., E-mail: llopezho@vub.ac.be, E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es, E-mail: sergio.palomares.ruiz@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: vincent@ific.uv.es [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC-Universitat de València, Apartado de Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    We compute the bounds on the dark matter (DM) annihilation cross section using the most recent Cosmic Microwave Background measurements from WMAP9, SPT'11 and ACT'10. We consider DM with mass in the MeV–TeV range annihilating 100% into either an e{sup +}e{sup −} or a μ{sup +}μ{sup −} pair. We consider a realistic energy deposition model, which includes the dependence on the redshift, DM mass and annihilation channel. We exclude the canonical thermal relic abundance cross section ((σv) = 3 × 10{sup −26}cm{sup 3}s{sup −1}) for DM masses below 30 GeV and 15 GeV for the e{sup +}e{sup −} and μ{sup +}μ{sup −} channels, respectively. A priori, DM annihilating in halos could also modify the reionization history of the Universe at late times. We implement a realistic halo model taken from results of state-of-the-art N-body simulations and consider a mixed reionization mechanism, consisting on reionization from DM as well as from first stars. We find that the constraints on DM annihilation remain unchanged, even when large uncertainties on the halo model parameters are considered.

  17. Excited Dark Matter versus PAMELA/Fermi

    CERN Document Server

    Cline, James M

    2010-01-01

    Excitation of multicomponent dark matter in the galactic center has been proposed as the source of low-energy positrons that produce the excess 511 keV gamma rays that have been observed by INTEGRAL. Such models have also been promoted to explain excess high-energy electrons/positrons observed by the PAMELA, Fermi/LAT and H.E.S.S. experiments. We investigate whether one model can simultaneously fit all three anomalies, in addition to further constraints from inverse Compton scattering by the high-energy leptons. We find models that fit both the 511 keV and PAMELA excesses at dark matter masses M < 400 GeV, but not the Fermi lepton excess. The conflict arises because a more cuspy DM halo profile is needed to match the observed 511 keV signal than is compatible with inverse Compton constraints at larger DM masses.

  18. Lining bunker walls with oxygen barrier film reduces nutrient losses in corn silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, L M; Dos Santos, J P; Casagrande, D R; Ávila, C L S; Lara, M S; Bernardes, T F

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate 2 systems for covering corn silage in bunker silos. The first system consisted of a sheet of 45-μm-thick oxygen barrier film (OB, polyethylene + ethylene-vinyl alcohol) placed along the length of the sidewall before filling. After filling, the excess film was pulled over the wall on top of the silage, and a sheet of polyethylene was placed on top. The second system involved using a standard sheet (ST) of 180-μm-thick polyethylene film. Eight commercial bunker silos were divided into 2 parts lengthwise so that one-half of the silo was covered with OB and the other half with a ST system. During the filling, 3 net bags with chopped corn were buried in the central part (halfway between the top and bottom of the silo) of the bunkers (CCOR) in 3 sections 10 m apart. After filling, 18 net bags (9 per covering system) were buried 40 cm below the top surface of the 3 sections. These bags were placed at 3 distances from the bunker walls (0 to 50 cm, 51 to 100 cm, and 101 to 150 cm). During unloading, the bags were removed from the silos to determine the dry matter (DM) losses, fermentation end products, and nutritive value. The Milk2006 spreadsheet was used to estimate milk per tonne of DM. The model included the fixed effect of treatment (7 different locations in the bunker) and the random effect of the silo. Two contrasts were tested to compare silages in the top laterals (shoulders) with that in the CCOR (CCOR vs. OB and CCOR vs. ST). Three contrasts compared the corresponding distances of the silage covered by the 2 systems (OB50 vs. ST50, OB100 vs. ST100 and OB150 vs. ST150). Variables were analyzed with the PROC MIXED procedure of the SAS at the 5% level. The OB method produced well-fermented silages, which were similar to CCOR, whereas the OB system showed less lactic acid and greater pH and mold counts compared with CCOR. The ST method had 116.2 kg of milk/t less than the CCOR, as the OB system and the CCOR were similar

  19. Higgsino-like dark matter from sneutrino late decays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal D. Medina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider Higgsino-like dark matter (DM in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM with additional right-handed neutrino chiral superfields, and propose a new non-thermal way of generating the right amount of relic DM via sneutrino late decays. Due to the large DM annihilation cross-section, decays must occur at lower temperatures than the freeze-out temperature Td≪TF,χ˜10∼μ/25, implying a mostly right-handed lightest sneutrino with very small Yukawa interactions. In that context, the right amount of Higgsino-like DM relic density can be accounted for if sneutrinos are produced via thermal freeze-in in the early Universe.

  20. arXiv Dark Matter Effects On Neutron Star Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Kannike, Kristjan; Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti; Vaskonen, Ville

    2018-06-14

    We study possible effects of a dark matter (DM) core on the maximum mass of a neutron star (NS), on the mass-radius relation and on the NS tidal deformability parameter $\\Lambda$. We show that all these quantities would in general be reduced in the presence of a DM core. In particular, our calculations indicate that the presence of a DM core with a mass fraction $\\sim 5\\%$ could affect significantly the interpretation of these NS data as constraints on the nuclear equation of state (EOS), potentially excluding some EOS models on the basis of the measured mass of PSR J0348+0432, while allowing other EOS models to become consistent with the LIGO/Virgo upper limit on $\\Lambda$. Specific scenarios for generating such DM cores are explored in an Appendix.

  1. How to save the WIMP. Global analysis of a dark matter model with two s-channel mediators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerr, Michael; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Schwetz, Thomas; Vogl, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    A reliable comparison of different dark matter (DM) searches requires models that satisfy certain consistency requirements like gauge invariance and perturbative unitarity. As a well-motivated example, we study two-mediator DM (2MDM). The model is based on a spontaneously broken U(1)"' gauge symmetry and contains a Majorana DM particle as well as two s-channel mediators, one vector (the Z"') and one scalar (the dark Higgs). We perform a global scan over the parameters of the model assuming that the DM relic density is obtained by thermal freeze-out in the early Universe and imposing a large set of constraints: direct and indirect DM searches, monojet, dijet and dilepton searches at colliders, Higgs observables, electroweak precision tests and perturbative unitarity. We conclude that thermal DM is only allowed either close to an s-channel resonance or if at least one mediator is lighter than the DM particle. In these cases a thermal DM abundance can be obtained although DM couplings to the Standard Model are tiny. Interestingly, we find that vector-mediated DM-nucleon scattering leads to relevant constraints despite the velocity-suppressed cross section, and that indirect detection can be important if DM annihilations into both mediators are kinematically allowed.

  2. The Effects of Admixed Dark Matter on Accretion Induced Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Shing-Chi; Chu, Ming-Chung; Lin, Lap-Ming; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    About 90% mass of matter in the universe is dark matter (DM) and most of its properties remain poorly constrained since it does not interact with electromagnetic and strong forces. To constrain the properties of DM, studying its effects on stellar objects is one of the methods. In [Leung et al., Phys. Rev. D 87, 123506 (2013); Leung et al., Astrophys. J. 812, 110 (2015)] we have shown that the dark matter admixture can significantly lower the Chandrasekhar mass of a white dwarf and also its corresponding explosion as a Type Ia supernova (SNe Ia). This type of objects may explain some observed sub-luminous SNe Ia. Depending on their stellar evolution path and interactions with companion stars, such objects can also undergo a direct collapse to form neutron stars (NSs) instead of explosion. Here we present results of one-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations of a NS with admixed DM. The DM is assumed to be asymmetric and in the form of an ideal degenerate Fermi gas. We study how the admixture of DM affects the collapse dynamics, its neutrino signals and the properties of the proto-NS. Possible observational signals are also discussed.

  3. Growth and nutrient absorption by Raisa tomato cultivar grown in hydroponic system/ Crescimento e marcha de absorção de nutrientes em tomateiro cultivar Raísa cultivado em sistema hidropônico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Bernardes Cecílio Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The production and quality of tomatoes has increased with the emergence of new genotypes and cropping systems such as hydroponics, however, there are few studies on the nutrition of plants. The objective was to evaluate the growth and motion of absorption of nutrients by Raisa tomato cultivar, grown in hydroponic system. The experimental design was randomized blocks with eight treatments consisting of the times of sampling: 15, 25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75 and 85 days after transplanting (DAT and five replications. The tomato seedlings were transplanted to pots of 8 dm3 (on 31-03-2008, filled with the base substrate of coconut fiber, constantly irrigated with Hoagland and Arnon nutrient solution. During the experimental period and focuses on the development of plants and dry leaves, stems, fruits and roots. The dry matter accumulation of leaves and roots of tomato cultivar Raisa was relatively faster than the national stem and fruit, over cultivation, with predominance of dry fruits (45% on the leaves (27%, the stem (24% and roots (3% at the end of the cycle. The accumulation of nutrients and micronutrients by the tomato cultivar Raisa was fit with linear increase throughout the cultivation, except for Mn which was quadratic. Most of the tomato nutritional requirement for nutrients was K, N and Ca and micronutrients was Fe, Zn and Mn.A produção e a qualidade do tomate têm aumentado com o surgimento de novos genótipos e sistemas de cultivo como o hidropônico, entretanto, são poucas as pesquisas sobre a nutrição das plantas. Assim, a presente pesquisa teve o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento e a marcha de absorção de nutrientes pelo tomateiro cultivar Raísa, cultivado em sistema hidropônico. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos casualizados com oito tratamentos constituídos pelas épocas de amostragem: 15; 25; 35; 45; 55; 65; 75 e 85 dias após o transplante (DAT e cinco repetições. As mudas de tomateiro foram transplantas

  4. Nutrients in the nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Niphong, Rachel; Ferguson, Richard B.; Palm, Cheryl; Osmond, Deanna L.; Baron, Jill S.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer has enabled modern agriculture to greatly improve human nutrition during the twentieth century, but it has also created unintended human health and environmental pollution challenges for the twenty-first century. Averaged globally, about half of the fertilizer-N applied to farms is removed with the crops, while the other half remains in the soil or is lost from farmers’ fields, resulting in water and air pollution. As human population continues to grow and food security improves in the developing world, the dual development goals of producing more nutritious food with low pollution will require both technological and socio-economic innovations in agriculture. Two case studies presented here, one in sub-Saharan Africa and the other in Midwestern United States, demonstrate how management of nutrients, water, and energy is inextricably linked in both small-scale and large-scale food production, and that science-based solutions to improve the efficiency of nutrient use can optimize food production while minimizing pollution. To achieve the needed large increases in nutrient use efficiency, however, technological developments must be accompanied by policies that recognize the complex economic and social factors affecting farmer decision-making and national policy priorities. Farmers need access to affordable nutrient supplies and support information, and the costs of improving efficiencies and avoiding pollution may need to be shared by society through innovative policies. Success will require interdisciplinary partnerships across public and private sectors, including farmers, private sector crop advisors, commodity supply chains, government agencies, university research and extension, and consumers.

  5. Interactions between temperature and nutrients across levels of ecological organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Wyatt F; Hood, James M; Benstead, Jonathan P; Huryn, Alexander D; Nelson, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Temperature and nutrient availability play key roles in controlling the pathways and rates at which energy and materials move through ecosystems. These factors have also changed dramatically on Earth over the past century as human activities have intensified. Although significant effort has been devoted to understanding the role of temperature and nutrients in isolation, less is known about how these two factors interact to influence ecological processes. Recent advances in ecological stoichiometry and metabolic ecology provide a useful framework for making progress in this area, but conceptual synthesis and review are needed to help catalyze additional research. Here, we examine known and potential interactions between temperature and nutrients from a variety of physiological, community, and ecosystem perspectives. We first review patterns at the level of the individual, focusing on four traits--growth, respiration, body size, and elemental content--that should theoretically govern how temperature and nutrients interact to influence higher levels of biological organization. We next explore the interactive effects of temperature and nutrients on populations, communities, and food webs by synthesizing information related to community size spectra, biomass distributions, and elemental composition. We use metabolic theory to make predictions about how population-level secondary production should respond to interactions between temperature and resource supply, setting up qualitative predictions about the flows of energy and materials through metazoan food webs. Last, we examine how temperature-nutrient interactions influence processes at the whole-ecosystem level, focusing on apparent vs. intrinsic activation energies of ecosystem processes, how to represent temperature-nutrient interactions in ecosystem models, and patterns with respect to nutrient uptake and organic matter decomposition. We conclude that a better understanding of interactions between temperature and

  6. Crescimento e absorção de nutrientes por mudas de freijó (Cordia goeldiana huber em função de doses de fósforo e de zinco Growth and nutrient absorption in brazilian walnut (Cordia goeldiana huber seedlings as a function of phosphorus and zinc levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rodrigues Fernandes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar a influência da relação do fósforo com o zinco sobre o crescimento, teor e conteúdo de nutrientes em plantas de freijó (Cordia goeldiana Huber. Utilizaram-se amostras de um Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro, da camada de 0 - 20 cm de profundidade do campus da Universidade Federal de Lavras, que apresentava 1 mg de P (Mehlich 1 e 0,9 mg de Zn por dm³ de solo. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 x 3, sendo quatro doses de P (0, 150, 300 e 450 mg dm-3 e 3 de Zn (0, 5 e 10 mg dm-3, com quatro repetições. Aos 12 meses após o plantio, foram colhidas as plantas e a matéria seca das folhas, caules e raízes, moídas separadamente, para as determinações químicas. A aplicação do fósforo promoveu aumento no crescimento das mudas e nos teores e conteúdos de P nas diferentes partes da planta de freijó e provocou redução nos teores de zinco nas folhas. Nas raízes, na presença de doses de zinco a interação do fósforo com o zinco reduziu o teor de zinco. As doses de zinco proporcionaram aumentos tanto no teor quanto no conteúdo deste nas folhas e raízes diminuíram os conteúdos de P nas folhas e caules das plantas. O efeito sobre os demais macronutrientes foi variado em função da parte da planta analisada.The objective of this work was to study the influence of the zinc-phosphorus relationship on the growth, content and accumulation of nutrients in Brazilian walnut (Cordia goeldiana Huber. Samples of Dark-Red Latosol, 0 - 20 cm depth, from the campus of the Federal University of Lavras, with 1 mg P (Mehlich 1 and 0.9 mg Zn per dm³ soil. The experiment was arranged in a complete randomized factorial design 4 x 3, with 4 P doses (0; 150; 300 and 450 mg dm-3 and 3 Zn doses (0; 5 and 10 mg dm-3, with 4 repetitions. At 12 months after planting, plants were harvested, and dry matter of shoots, roots and leaves were ground separately for chemical analysis

  7. Two variants on T2DM susceptible gene HHEX are associated with CRC risk in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Liu, Jian-Ping; Gao, Chang; Xiong, Ying-Ying; Li, Min; Wang, Ya-Ping; Su, Yan-Wei; Lin, Mei; Jiang, An-Li; Xiong, Ling-Fan; Xie, Yan; Feng, Jue-Ping

    2016-05-17

    Increasing amounts of evidence has demonstrated that T2DM (Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus) patients have increased susceptibility to CRC (colorectal cancer). As HHEX is a recognized susceptibility gene in T2DM, this work was focused on two SNPs in HHEX, rs1111875 and rs7923837, to study their association with CRC. T2DM patients without CRC (T2DM-only, n=300), T2DM with CRC (T2DM/CRC, n=135), cancer-free controls (Control, n=570), and CRC without T2DM (CRC-only, n=642) cases were enrolled. DNA samples were extracted from the peripheral blood leukocytes of the patients and sequenced by direct sequencing. The χ2 test was used to compare categorical data. We found that in T2DM patients, rs1111875 but not the rs7923837 in HHEX gene was associated with the occurrence of CRC (p= 0.006). for rs1111875, TC/CC patients had an increased risk of CRC (p=0.019, OR=1.592, 95%CI=1.046-2.423). Moreover, our results also indicated that the two variants of HEEX gene could be risk factors for CRC in general population, independent on T2DM (pCRC was observed in TC or TC/CC than CC individuals (pCRC risk was observed in AG, GG, and AG/GG than AA individuals (pCRC susceptibility. Risk effects and the functional impact of these polymorphisms need further validation.

  8. Trends in nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathwaite, A.L.; Johnes, P.J.; Peters, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    The roles of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) as key nutrients determining the trophic status of water bodies are examined, and evidence reviewed for trends in concentrations of N and P species which occur in freshwaters, primarily in northern temperate environments. Data are reported for water bodies undergoing eutrophication and acidification, especially water bodies receiving increased nitrogen inputs through the atmospheric deposition of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Nutrient loading on groundwaters and surface freshwaters is assessed with respect to causes and rates of (change, relative rates of change for N and P, and implications of change for the future management of lakes, rivers and groundwaters. In particular, the nature and emphasis of studies for N species and P fractions in lakes versus rivers and groundwaters are contrasted. This review paper primarily focuses on results from North America and Europe, particularly for the UK where a wide range of data sets exists. Few nutrient loading data have been published on water bodies in less developed countries; however, some of the available data are presented to provide a global perspective. In general, N and P concentrations have increased dramatically (>20 times background concentrations) in many areas and causes vary considerably, ranging from urbanization to changes in agricultural practices.

  9. The Effect of Dietary Replacement of Ordinary Rice with Red Yeast Rice on Nutrient Utilization, Enteric Methane Emission and Rumen Archaeal Diversity in Goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Z Wang

    Full Text Available Twenty castrated Boer crossbred goats were used in the present study with two treatments to examine the effect of dietary replacement of ordinary rice with red yeast rice on nutrient utilization, enteric methane emission and ruminal archaea structure and composition. Two treatment diets contained (DM basis 70.0% of forage, 21.8% of concentrates and 8.2% of either ordinary rice (control or red yeast rice (RYR. Nutrient utilization was measured and enteric methane emissions were determined in respiration chambers. Results showed that RYR had significantly lower digestibility of N and organic matter compared to control group. However, feeding red yeast rice did not affect N retention as g/d or a proportion of N intake, and reduced heat production as MJ/d or as a proportion of metabolizable energy intake, thus leading to a higher proportion of metabolizable energy intake to be retained in body tissue. RYR also had significantly lower methane emissions either as g/d, or as a proportion of feed intake. Although feeding red yeast rice had no negative effect on any rumen fermentation variables, it decreased serum contents of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. In the present study, 75616 archaeal sequences were generated and clustered into 2364 Operational Taxonomic Units. At the genus level, the predominant archaea in the rumen of goats was Methanobrevibacter, which was significantly inhibited with the supplementation of red yeast rice. In conclusion, red yeast rice is a potential feed ingredient for mitigation of enteric methane emissions of goats. However, caution should be taken when it is used because it may inhibit the digestibility of some nutrients. Further studies are required to evaluate its potential with different diets and animal species, as well as its effects on animal health and food safety.

  10. The nature of dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillov, A.A. [Institute for Applied Mathematics and Cybernetics, 10 Uljanova Str., Nizhny Novgorod 603005 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: ka98@mail.ru

    2006-01-19

    The observed strong dark-to-luminous matter coupling [F. Donato, et al., astro-ph/0403206, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., submitted for publication; G. Gentile, et al., Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 351 (2004) 903; D.T.F. Weldrake, et al., Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 340 (2003) 12; W.J.G. de Blok, A. Bosma, Astron. Astrophys. 385 (2002) 816; O. Gerhard, et al., Astrophys. J. 121 (2001) 1936; A. Borriello, et al., Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 341 (2003) 1109] suggests the existence of a some functional relation between visible and DM sources which leads to biased Einstein equations. We show that such a bias appears in the case when the topological structure of the actual Universe at very large distances does not match properly that of the Friedman space. We introduce a bias operator {rho}{sub DM}=B-bar {rho}{sub vis} and show that the simple bias function b=1/(4{pi}r{sub 0}r{sup 2}){theta}(r-r{sub max}) (the kernel of B-bar ) allows to account for all the variety of observed DM halos in astrophysical systems. In galaxies such a bias forms the cored DM distribution with the radius R{sub C}{approx}R{sub opt} (which explains the recently observed strong correlation between R{sub C} and R{sub opt} [F. Donato, et al., astro-ph/0403206, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., submitted for publication]), while for a point source it produces the logarithmic correction to the Newton's potential (which explains the observed flat rotation curves in spirals). Finally, we show that in the theory suggested the galaxy formation process leads to a specific variation with time of all interaction constants and, in particular, of the fine structure constant.

  11. Search for Light Dark Matter Produced in a Proton Beam Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Remington Tyler [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Cosmological observations indicate that our universe contains dark matter (DM), yet we have no measurements of its microscopic properties. Whereas the gravitational interaction of DM is well understood, its interaction with the Standard Model is not. Direct detection experiments, the current standard, search for a nuclear recoil interaction and have a low-mass sensitivity edge of order 1 GeV. A path to detect DM with mass below 1 GeV is the use of accelerators producing boosted low-mass DM. Using neutrino detectors to search for low-mass DM is logical due to the similarity of the DM and neutrino signatures in the detector. The MiniBooNE experiment, located at Fermilab on the Booster Neutrino Beamline, has produced the first proton beam-dump light DM search results. Using dark matter scattering from nucleons 90% confidence limits were set over a large parameter space and, to allow tests of other theories, a model independent DM rate was extracted.

  12. Apoastron shift constraints on dark matter distribution at the Galactic Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, A. F.; Nucita, A. A.; De Paolis, F.; Ingrosso, G.

    2007-01-01

    The existence of dark matter (DM) at scales of a few parsecs down to ≅10 -5 pc around the centers of galaxies and, in particular, in the Galactic Center region has been considered in the literature. Under the assumption that such a DM clump, principally constituted by nonbaryonic matter (like weakly interacting massive particles) does exist at the center of our galaxy, the study of the γ-ray emission from the Galactic Center region allows us to constrain both the mass and the size of this DM sphere. Further constraints on the DM distribution parameters may be derived by observations of bright infrared stars around the Galactic Center. Hall and Gondolo [J. Hall and P. Gondolo, Phys. Rev. D 74, 063511 (2006)] used estimates of the enclosed mass obtained in various ways and tabulated by Ghez et al. [A. M. Ghez et al., Astron. Nachr. 324, 527 (2003); A. M. Ghez et al., Astrophys. J. 620, 744 (2005)]. Moreover, if a DM cusp does exist around the Galactic Center it could modify the trajectories of stars moving around it in a sensible way depending on the DM mass distribution. Here, we discuss the constraints that can be obtained with the orbit analysis of stars (as S2 and S16) moving inside the DM concentration with the present and next generations of large telescopes. In particular, consideration of the S2 star apoastron shift may allow improving limits on the DM mass and size

  13. Mesquite pod meal in sheep diet: intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edileusa de Jesus do Santos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight Santa Ines sheep were assigned to two 4 x 4 Latin squares, to evaluate the effects of replacing elephant grass silage with different levels of mesquite pod meal (MDM (15, 30 and 45% DM on intake, apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, total carbohydrates (TC and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC and the nitrogen balance. There was a linear increase (p < 0.05 in the intake of DM, OM, CP, ADF, NDF, NFC and TC according to the addition of MPM to the diet. The digestibility of DM, OM and CP increased (p < 0.05 with the addition of MDM. We observed a positive linear effect (p < 0.05 for the nitrogen intake. The addition of mesquite pod meal up to 45% increased the intake of DM, NDF, ADF, CP, OM, NFC and TC but reduced the digestibility of EE and NDF. MPM at 30 and 45% propitiated a positive nitrogen balance.

  14. Evaluation of in vitro gas production and nutrient digestibility of complete diets supplemented with different levels of thermotolerant yeast in Nellore rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Harikrishna

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the present study was to know the effect of dietary supplementation of varied levels of thermotolerant yeast to determine best levels for sheep diets by in vitro gas production. An in vivo study on Nellore rams was used for further evaluation of diets with three best levels of yeast (obtained from in vitro data to determine diet with optimum yeast level for growing lambs by assessing nutrient digestibility, plane of nutrition and nitrogen balance. Materials and methods: A complete diet was formulated and supplemented with five levels (0 g/kg (D ; 1 g/kg (D ; 2 g/kg 1 2 (D ; 3 g/kg (D ; 4 g/kg (D and 5 g/kg (D of thermotolerant yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, OBV-9 @ 5x108 cfu/g to 3 4 5 6 determine best levels for sheep diets by IVGP technique. An in vivo study was conducted on Nellore rams (39.75 0.24 kg body weight, aged 3 years in a 4 x 4 latin square design for further evaluation of diets with three best yeast levels based on in vitro data, to determine optimum yeast level for diets of growing lambs by assessing nutrient digestibility, plane of nutrition and nitrogen balance. The rams were housed individually in metabolic cages that allowed separation of urine and faeces to evaluate digestibility of nutrients and N balance. Animals were given 10 days adaptation period followed by 7-day collection period, feed intake and refusals were recorded. During the digestibility and N balance study, feed, refusals and faeces were analyzed for dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM and crude protein (CP as per AOAC, USA, while fibre fractions like neutral detergent fibre (aNDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF were analyzed. Data were analyzed as per the procedures suggested by Snedecor, G. W. and Cochran, W. G. (1994 and the difference between treatment means was tested for significance by Duncan's multiple-range and F Test. Results: Higher (P<0.01 IVGP volumes, in vitro organic matter degradability, metabolizable energy (ME and total

  15. Dark Matter in γ lines: Galactic Center vs. dwarf galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefranc, Valentin; Moulin, Emmanuel [DRF/Irfu, Service de Physique des Particules, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Panci, Paolo; Silk, Joseph [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, Paris 75014 (France); Sala, Filippo, E-mail: valentin.lefranc@cea.fr, E-mail: emmanuel.moulin@cea.fr, E-mail: panci@iap.fr, E-mail: fsala@lpthe.jussieu.fr, E-mail: silk@iap.fr [LPTHE, UMR 7589 CNRS, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252, Paris (France)

    2016-09-01

    We provide CTA sensitivities to Dark Matter (DM) annihilation in γ-ray lines, from the observation of the Galactic Center (GC) as well as, for the first time, of dwarf Spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). We compare the GC reach with that of dSphs as a function of a putative core radius of the DM distribution, which is itself poorly known. We find that the currently best dSph candidates constitute a more promising target than the GC, for core radii of one to a few kpc. We use the most recent instrument response functions and background estimations by CTA, on top of which we add the diffuse photon component. Our analysis is of particular interest for TeV-scale electroweak multiplets as DM candidates, such as the supersymmetric Wino and the Minimal Dark Matter fiveplet, whose predictions we compare with our projected sensitivities.

  16. The effects of increased phosphorus application on shoot dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... important to understand how crops with different root architecture would ... while in soils rich in organic matter, it is present as organic ... Plants take up most of the required nutrient elements ... MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  17. Resistance to Downy Mildew in Lettuce 'La Brillante' is Conferred by Dm50 Gene and Multiple QTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simko, Ivan; Ochoa, Oswaldo E; Pel, Mathieu A; Tsuchida, Cayla; Font I Forcada, Carolina; Hayes, Ryan J; Truco, Maria-Jose; Antonise, Rudie; Galeano, Carlos H; Michelmore, Richard W

    2015-09-01

    Many cultivars of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) are susceptible to downy mildew, a nearly globally ubiquitous disease caused by Bremia lactucae. We previously determined that Batavia type cultivar 'La Brillante' has a high level of field resistance to the disease in California. Testing of a mapping population developed from a cross between 'Salinas 88' and La Brillante in multiple field and laboratory experiments revealed that at least five loci conferred resistance in La Brillante. The presence of a new dominant resistance gene (designated Dm50) that confers complete resistance to specific isolates was detected in laboratory tests of seedlings inoculated with multiple diverse isolates. Dm50 is located in the major resistance cluster on linkage group 2 that contains at least eight major, dominant Dm genes conferring resistance to downy mildew. However, this Dm gene is ineffective against the isolates of B. lactucae prevalent in the field in California and the Netherlands. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) located at the Dm50 chromosomal region (qDM2.2) was detected, though, when the amount of disease was evaluated a month before plants reached harvest maturity. Four additional QTL for resistance to B. lactucae were identified on linkage groups 4 (qDM4.1 and qDM4.2), 7 (qDM7.1), and 9 (qDM9.2). The largest effect was associated with qDM7.1 (up to 32.9% of the total phenotypic variance) that determined resistance in multiple field experiments. Markers identified in the present study will facilitate introduction of these resistance loci into commercial cultivars of lettuce.

  18. Decoherence as a way to measure extremely soft collisions with dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, C. Jess; Yavin, Itay

    2017-07-01

    A new frontier in the search for dark matter (DM) is based on the idea of detecting the decoherence caused by DM scattering against a mesoscopic superposition of normal matter. Such superpositions are uniquely sensitive to very small momentum transfers from new particles and forces, especially DM with a mass below 100 MeV. Here we investigate what sorts of dark sectors are inaccessible with existing methods but would induce noticeable decoherence in the next generation of matter interferometers. We show that very soft but medium range (0.1 nm - 1 μ m ) elastic interactions between nuclei and DM are particularly suitable. We construct toy models for such interactions, discuss existing constraints, and delineate the expected sensitivity of forthcoming experiments. The first hints of DM in these devices would appear as small variations in the anomalous decoherence rate with a period of one sidereal day. This is a generic signature of interstellar sources of decoherence, clearly distinguishing it from terrestrial backgrounds. The OTIMA experiment under development in Vienna will begin to probe Earth-thermalizing DM once sidereal variations in the background decoherence rate are pushed below one part in a hundred for superposed 5-nm gold nanoparticles. The proposals by Bateman et al. and Geraci et al. could be similarly sensitive although they would require at least a month of data taking. DM that is absorbed or elastically reflected by the Earth, and so avoids a greenhouse density enhancement, would not be detectable by those three experiments. On the other hand, the aggressive proposals of the MAQRO collaboration and Pino et al. would immediately open up many orders of magnitude in DM mass, interaction range, and coupling strength, regardless of how DM behaves in bulk matter.

  19. D matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiu, Gary; Wang Liantao

    2004-01-01

    We study the properties and phenomenology of particlelike states originating from D branes whose spatial dimensions are all compactified. They are nonperturbative states in string theory and we refer to them as D matter. In contrast to other nonperturbative objects such as 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles, D-matter states could have perturbative couplings among themselves and with ordinary matter. The lightest D particle (LDP) could be stable because it is the lightest state carrying certain (integer or discrete) quantum numbers. Depending on the string scale, they could be cold dark matter candidates with properties similar to that of WIMPs or wimpzillas. The spectrum of excited states of D matter exhibits an interesting pattern which could be distinguished from that of Kaluza-Klein modes, winding states, and string resonances. We speculate about possible signatures of D matter from ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and colliders

  20. Reducing crude protein and rumen degradable protein with a constant concentration of rumen undegradable protein in the diet of dairy cows: Production performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen efficiency, and blood metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami-Yekdangi, M; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Khan, M A; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-02-01

    The goals of ruminant protein nutrition are to provide adequate amounts of RDP for optimal ruminal efficiency and to obtain the desired animal productivity with a minimum amount of dietary CP. The aim of the present study was to examine effects of decreasing dietary protein by decreasing RDP with the optimum concentration of RUP on production performance, nutrient digestibility, N retention, rumen fermentation parameters, and blood metabolites in high-producing Holstein cows in early lactation. Nine multiparous lactating cows (second parities, averaging 50 ± 12 d in milk and milk yield of 48 ± 5 kg/d) were used in a triplicate 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 rations: 1) a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 16.4% CP (10.9% RDP based on DM), 2) a TMR containing 15.6% CP (10% RDP), and 3) a TMR containing 14.8% CP (9.3% RDP). The level of RUP was constant at 5.5% DM across the treatments. All diets were calculated to supply a postruminal lysine to methionine ratio of about 3:1. Dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, 4% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk were not significantly affected by decreasing dietary CP and RDP levels. Cows fed 16.4% CP diets had greater ( RUP and fecal N excretion (g/d) did not change. Apparent digestibility of nutrients, ruminal pH, and NH-N concentration were not affected with decreasing dietary CP and RDP levels. Apparent N efficiency increased, and RDP N intake and predicted urine N output decreased with decreased concentration of dietary CP and RDP in the diets ( RUP.

  1. Role of miRNAs in Epicardial Adipose Tissue in CAD Patients with T2DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT is identified as an atypical fat depot surrounding the heart with a putative role in the involvement of metabolic disorders, including obesity, type-2 diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis. We profiled miRNAs in EAT of metabolic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM versus metabolically healthy patients by microarray. Compared to metabolically healthy patients, we identified forty-two miRNAs that are differentially expressed in patients with CAD and T2DM from Xinjiang, China. Eleven miRNAs were selected as potential novel miRNAs according to P value and fold change. Then the potential novel miRNAs targeted genes were predicted via TargetScan, PicTar, and miRTarbase, and the function of the target genes was predicted via Gene Ontology (GO analysis while the enriched KEGG pathway analyses of the miRNAs targeted genes were performed by bioinformatics software DAVID. Then protein-protein interaction networks of the targeted gene were conducted by online software STRING. Finally, using microarray, bioinformatics approaches revealed the possible molecular mechanisms pathogenesis of CAD and T2DM. A total of 11 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and among them, hsa-miR-4687-3p drew specific attention. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that insulin signaling pathway is the central way involved in the progression of metabolic disorders. Conclusions. The current findings support the fact that miRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders in EAT of CAD patients with T2DM, and validation of the results of these miRNAs by independent and prospective study is certainly warranted.

  2. Ekologický marketing ve společnosti DM drogeriemarkt

    OpenAIRE

    Bakalářová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The Bachelor's thesis entitled Green Marketing in DM drogeriemarkt company deals with the analysis of a new marketing approach/attitude also known as an environmental or green marketing, which has become very popular. The two preliminary chapters of my bachelor thesis are devoted to theoretical explanations, terms and definitions on the basis we can more develop it to a deeper description of marketing terms. The following part introduces a green marketing itself from it's definition through h...

  3. Sensitive limits on the abundance of cold water vapor in the DM Tauri protoplanetary disk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergin, E. A.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Brinch, C.; Fogel, J.; Yildiz, U. A.; Kristensen, L. E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Bell, T. A.; Blake, G.A.; Cernicharo, J.; Dominik, C.; Lis, D.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Panic, O.; Pearson, J. C.; Bachiller, R.; Baudry, A.; Benedettini, M.; Benz, A. O.; Bjerkeli, P.; Bontemps, S.; Braine, J.; Bruderer, S.; Caselli, P.; Codella, C.; Daniel, F.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Doty, S. D.; Encrenaz, P.; Fich, M.; Fuente, A.; Giannini, T.; Goicoechea, J. R.; de Graauw, Th.; Helmich, F.; Herczeg, G. J.; Herpin, F.; Jacq, T.; Johnstone, D.; Jorgensen, J. K.; Larsson, B.; Liseau, R.; Marseille, M.; Mc Coey, C.; Nisini, B.; Olberg, M.; Parise, B.; Plume, R.; Risacher, C.; Santiago-Garcia, J.; Saraceno, P.; Shipman, R.; Tafalla, M.; van Kempen, T. A.; Visser, R.; Wampfler, S. F.; Wyrowski, F.; van der Tak, F.; Jellema, W.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Hartogh, P.; Stuetzki, J.; Szczerba, R.

    2010-01-01

    We performed a sensitive search for the ground-state emission lines of ortho-and para-water vapor in the DM Tau protoplanetary disk using the Herschel/HIFI instrument. No strong lines are detected down to 3 sigma levels in 0.5 km s(-1) channels of 4.2 mK for the 1(10)-1(01) line and 12.6 mK for the

  4. Integrated nutrients management for 'desi' cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qazi, M.A.; Akram, M.; Ahmad, N.; Khattak, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Intensive cropping with no return of crop residues and other organic inputs result in the loss of soil organic matter (SOM) and nutrient supply in (Desi) cotton-wheat cropping system in Pakistan. For appraisal of problem and finding solution to sustainability, we evaluated six treatments comprised of two fertilizer doses and three management techniques over a period of three years (2003-05) monitoring their effects on seed cotton yield and soil fertility. The techniques included chemical fertilizers, municipal solid waste manure (MSWM) integrated with chemical fertilizers in 1:4 ratios with, and without pesticides. The results revealed that cotton yields. Were enhanced by 19% due to site-specific fertilizer dose over conventional dose. Ignoring weeds control by means of herbicided application resulted in 5% decrease of seed cotton yield in IPNM technique positive effect of MSWM integration was noted on soil test phosphorus and SOM. Site-specific fertilizer application and integrated plant nutrient management by MSWM proved their suitability as the techniques not only improve soil quality in terms of sustained levels of organic matter and phosphorus but also provide a safe way of waste disposal. (author)

  5. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S. S.; Bennett, C. L.

    1995-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Astrophysics conference in Maryland, organized by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland. The topics covered included low mass stars as dark matter, dark matter in galaxies and clusters, cosmic microwave background anisotropy, cold and hot dark matter, and the large scale distribution and motions of galaxies. There were eighty five papers presented. Out of these, 10 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  6. PROFIL URINALISIS PENGGUNAAN IMUNAX PADA PASIEN DIABETES MELITUS (DM RAWAT JALAN DI RSU PKU MUHAMMADIYAH BANTUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a metabolic disease characterized by the onset of hyperglycemia due to secretion disorders, as well as resistance of insulin. Chronic hyperglycemic and other DM metabolic disorders will cause tissue and organ damage, such as the eyes, kidneys and vascular system. Some studies show that immunax (MBJH: minyak biji jinten hitam has antidibetic benefits. This study aims to determine the description of urinalysis and proteinuria in DM patients who get immunax. The study design was randomized controlled trial. MBJH is given in 2 dosage levels, 2x1 soft capsule and 2x2 soft capsul given for 20 days on the subject. Urine data taken before and after administration of immunax preparations. The results showed that based on sex, age, education, occupation, marital status and the type of therapy used there was no significant difference in the characteristics and types of therapy used by the study subjects (patients at risk of metabolic syndrome between the treatment groups and the placebo group. The result of urinalysis test showed that there was no difference of urinalysis image in the three groups. The conclusion of this study was that there was no significant effect (p value> 0,05 on immunax (MBJH on the urinalysis profile in patients with metabolic syndrome risk, both dose 2x1, 2x2, and control group

  7. Polyuria with the Concurrent manifestation of Central Diabetes Insipidus (CDI) & Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun-Jong; Kim, Jae-Ha; Yi, Joo-Hark; Han, Sang-Woong; Kim, Ho-Jung

    2012-12-01

    We report a rare case of the concurrent manifestation of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). A 56 year-old man was diagnosed as a type 2 DM on the basis of hyperglycemia with polyuria and polydipsia at a local clinic two months ago and started an oral hypoglycemic medication, but resulted in no symptomatic improvement at all. Upon admission to the university hospital, the patient's initial fasting blood sugar level was 140 mg/dL, and he showed polydipsic and polyuric conditions more than 8 L urine/day. Despite the hyperglycemia controlled with metformin and diet, his symptoms persisted. Further investigations including water deprivation test confirmed the coexisting CDI of unknown origin, and the patient's symptoms including an intense thirst were markedly improved by desmopressin nasal spray (10 µg/day). The possibility of a common origin of CDI and type 2 DM is raised in a review of the few relevant adult cases in the literature.

  8. Protective mechanisms against oxidative stress and angiopathy in young patients with diabetes type 1 (DM1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroumani, Nikolitsa; Partsalaki, Ioanna; Lamari, Fotini; Dettoraki, Athina; Gil, Andrea Paola Rojas; Karvela, Alexia; Kostopoulou, Eirini; Spiliotis, Bessie E

    2013-01-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) via their receptor, RAGE, are involved in diabetic angiopathy. Soluble RAGE, an inhibitor of this axis, is formed by enzymatic catalysis (sRAGE) or alternative splicing (esRAGE). Malondialdehyde (MDA) is an oxidative stress marker, and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) is an anti-oxidant capacity marker. In isolated mononuclear blood cells from 110 DM1-patients (P) and 124 controls (C) (4-29 years) RAGE mRNA (g) and protein expression (pe) were measured by RT-PCR and Western immunoblotting, respectively. Plasma levels of CML (AGEs) and sRAGE were measured by ELISA, MDA by flurometry and FRAP according to 'Benzie and Strain'. P showed: (i) higher g of RAGE, especially in p>13 years of age and >5 years DM1, (ii) increased pe of esRAGE in DM1>5 years and (iii) increased FRAP and MDA. The increased esRAGE and FRAP with increased levels of CML and MDA possibly reflects a protective response against the formation of diabetic complications in these young diabetic patients.

  9. Effect of Exercise on Psychological Well-being in T2DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Najafipoor

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM experience health problems including psychiatric and psychological complications that influence their general health. Since exercise has an additional effect on psychological improvement, we aimed to establish the role of exercise as improvement of psychological problems. Methods: 80 subjects with T2DM were assigned to take exercise for 90 minutes per session, 3 times a week for a period of 4 months. They answered the GHQ-12 questionnaire before and after the study project. Results: Questionnaires were scored by Likert model and entered the statistical analysis. Our findings demonstrate a significant decrease in the mean GHQ-12 scores. [13.39 ± 5.89 to 8.52 ± 5.12 (p < 0.001]. Factor analysis by Graetz's three-factor model suggests that factor I (anxiety and depression associates with more improvement than the other factors.Conclusion: Exercise improves psychological distress in T2DM and results in improved well-being.

  10. Insulin initiation and intensification in patients with T2DM for the primary care physician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Jeff UngerCatalina Research Institute, Chino, CA, USAAbstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is characterized by both insulin resistance and inadequate insulin secretion. All patients with the disease require treatment to achieve and maintain the target glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C level of 6.5%–7%. Pharmacological management of T2DM typically begins with the introduction of oral medications, and the majority of patients require exogenous insulin therapy at some point in time. Primary care physicians play an essential role in the management of T2DM since they often initiate insulin therapy and intensify regimens over time as needed. Although insulin therapy is prescribed on an individualized basis, treatment usually begins with basal insulin added to a background therapy of oral agents. Prandial insulin injections may be added if glycemic targets are not achieved. Treatments may be intensified over time using patient-friendly titration algorithms. The goal of insulin intensification within the primary care setting is to minimize patients' exposure to chronic hyperglycemia and weight gain, and reduce patients' risk of hypoglycemia, while achieving individualized fasting, postprandial, and A1C targets. Simplified treatment protocols and insulin delivery devices allow physicians to become efficient prescribers of insulin intensification within the primary care arena.Keywords: diabetes, basal, bolus, regimens, insulin analogs, structured glucose testing

  11. Physico-Mechanical Properties of Coprocessed Excipient MicroceLac® 100 by DM(3) Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haware, Rahul V; Kancharla, Joseph P; Udupa, Aishwarya K; Staton, Scott; Gupta, Mali R; Al-Achi, Antoine; Stagner, William C

    2015-11-01

    To determine the effect of relative humidity (RH) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) on the physico-mechanical properties of coprocessed MacroceLac(®) 100 using 'DM(3)' approach. Effects of RH and 5% w/w HPMC on MacroceLac(®) 100 Compressibility Index (CI) and tablet mechanical strength (TMS) were evaluated by 'DM(3)'. The 'DM(3)' approach evaluates material properties by combining 'design of experiments', material's 'macroscopic' properties, 'molecular' properties, and 'multivariate analysis' tools. A 4X4 full-factorial experimental design was used to study the relationship of MacroceLac(®) 100 molecular properties (moisture content, dehydration, crystallization, fusion enthalpy, and moisture uptake) and macroscopic particle size and shape on CI and TMS. A physical binary mixture (PBM) of similar composition to MacroceLac(®) 100 was also evaluated. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), principle component analysis, and partial least squares (PLS) were used to analyze the data. MANOVA CI ranking was: PBM-HPMC > PBM > MicroceLac(®)100 > MicroceLac(®)100-HPMC (p TMS values were lower than MicroceLac(®)100 and MicroceLac(®)100-HPMC (p TMS. Significant MicroceLac(®)100 changes occurred with % RH exposure affecting performance attributes. HPMC physical addition did not prevent molecular or macroscopic matrix changes.

  12. Anti-listerial Bactericidal Activity of Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 Isolated from Fermented Beverage Marcha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Deeplina; Goyal, Arun

    2013-09-01

    The strain Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 was isolated from fermented beverage Marcha of Sikkim and explored for its antagonistic activity against food-borne pathogens. The cell-free supernatant of L. plantarum DM5 showed antibacterial activity of 6,400 AU/mL in MRS medium (pH 6.0) against the indicator strain Staphylococcus aureus. MRS medium supplemented with 15 g/L of maltose at 37 °C under static condition yielded highest antimicrobial activity (6,400 AU/mL) with 3 % increase in specific activity when compared to 20 g/L glucose. The antimicrobial compound was heat stable (60 min at 100 °C) and was active over a wide pH range. It showed bactericidal effect on S. aureus and Listeria monocytogenes by causing 96 and 98 % of cell lysis, respectively. The cell morphology of the treated S. aureus and L. monocytogenes was completely deformed as revealed by scanning electron microscopy, suggesting the high potential of L. plantarum DM5 as natural preservatives in food industry. The antimicrobial compound was purified by 80 % ammonium sulphate precipitation and showed antimicrobial activity of 12,800 AU/mL with 19-fold purification and a molecular mass of 15.2 kDa, indicating the proteinaceous nature of the compound.

  13. A functional polymorphism of the TNF-α gene that is associated with type 2 DM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susa, Shinji; Daimon, Makoto; Sakabe, Jun-Ichi; Sato, Hidenori; Oizumi, Toshihide; Karasawa, Shigeru; Wada, Kiriko; Jimbu, Yumi; Kameda, Wataru; Emi, Mitsuru; Muramatsu, Masaaki; Kato, Takeo

    2008-01-01

    To examine the association of the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) gene region with type 2 diabetes (DM), 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the region were analyzed. The initial study using a sample set (148 cases vs. 227 controls) showed a significant association of the SNP IVS1G + 123A of the TNF-α gene with DM (p = 0.0056). Multiple logistic regression analysis using an enlarged sample set (225 vs. 716) revealed the significant association of the SNP with DM independently of any clinical traits examined (OR: 1.49, p = 0.014). The functional relevance of the SNP were examined by the electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from the U937 and NIH3T3 cells and luciferase assays in these cells with Simian virus 40 promoter- and TNF-α promoter-reporter gene constructs. The functional analyses showed that YY1 transcription factor bound allele-specifically to the SNP region and, the IVS1 + 123A allele had an increase in luciferase expression compared with the G allele

  14. IMPROVING SELF-CARE INDEPENDENCY OF TYPE 2 DM PATIENTS BASED ON LASALLIAN EDUCATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annastasia Sintia Lamonge

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The specific objectives of this study were: (1 Analyze the effectiveness of Lasallian health education in order to increased knowledge and attitude. (2 Analyze the effectiveness of Lasallian health education in order to increase the self-care independency of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Research design of this study was  Pre-Experiment with target population patients with type 2 DM. 12 participants were recruited in the study with  purposive sampling technique. Bivariate test results of knowledge and attitudes before and after giving the Lasallian health education showed significant results with ρ-value of 0.016 (p-value <ά 0.05. Research result of self-care independency of type 2 diabetic patients in before and after giving Lasallian health education show significant result with ρ-value of 0.001 (p-value <ά 0:01. Transformation of people behavior or habit by a health education program should have three important determinant, there are cognitive,  affective and psychomotor aspects of participants to motivate and increase self-awareness, and adherence of self-care management and improving of quality of life. Keywords: Type 2 DM, Lasallian Health Education, Knowledge, Attitude, Self-care independency.

  15. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, A.; Cotti, U.; De Leon, C. L.; Raya, A; Villasenor, L.

    2008-01-01

    One of the biggest scientific mysteries of our time resides in the identification of the particles that constitute a large fraction of the mass of our Universe, generically known as dark matter. We review the observations and the experimental data that imply the existence of dark matter. We briefly discuss the properties of the two best dark-matter candidate particles and the experimental techniques presently used to try to discover them. Finally, we mention a proposed project that has recently emerged within the Mexican community to look for dark matter

  16. Effects of Brewer’ s Grains on Ruminal Degradation Characteristics and Apparent Digestibilities of Dietary Nutrients%啤酒糟对饲粮养分瘤胃降解特性及表观消化率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨璐玲; 吕永艳; 宋希海; 孙国强

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different supplemental levels of brewer’ s grains ( BSG ) on ruminal degradation characteristics and apparent digestibilities of dietary nutrients. Four healthy Laoshan dairy goats [(40. 0 ±2. 5) kg] with permanent ruminal cannulas were used, and a 4 ×4 Lat-in square design was adopted in this experiment. Based on dry matter ( DM) of a basal diet, goats were sup-plemented with 0, 10%, 15% and 20% BSG, respectively. Ruminal degradation characteristics and apparent digestibilities of dietary nutrients were determined using the methods of nylon bag and endogenous indicator, respectively. The results showed as follows:1) BSG supplemental level had significant effects on ruminal deg-radation rates of nutrients excluding that of crude protein ( CP) at 72 h ( P0 . 05 ) . 2 ) BSG supplemental level had significant effects on nutrient intake ( P0. 05); the supplementation of 15% BSG significantly increased apparent digestibilities of DM, OM, NDF, ADF and CP ( P0 . 05 ) . Considering ruminal degrada-tion characteristics, intake and apparent digestibilities of dietary nutrients, the optimal supplemental level of BSG is 15% in the basal diet ( DM basis) under the conditions of the present experiment.%本试验旨在研究添加不同水平啤酒糟( brewer’ s grains,BSG)对饲粮养分瘤胃降解特性及表观消化率的影响。采用4×4拉丁方设计,选取4头体况良好、体重(40.0±2.5) kg、安装有永久性瘤胃瘘管的崂山奶山羊。在基础饲粮干物质( DM )基础上分别添加0(对照组)、10%、15%、20%的BSG。通过尼龙袋法和内源指示剂法测定饲粮养分的瘤胃降解特性及表观消化率。结果表明:1)BSG添加水平对除粗蛋白质(CP)外的其他养分72 h瘤胃降解率均有显著或极显著的影响(P0.05),显著降低了CP瘤胃有效降解率(P0.05);BSG添加水平为15%时,各养分表观消化率均显著升高( P0.05)。综合考虑饲粮养

  17. Organic matter loading affects lodgepole pine seedling growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaohua; Li, Qinglin; Waterhouse, M J; Armleder, H M

    2012-06-01

    Organic matter plays important roles in returning nutrients to the soil, maintaining forest productivity and creating habitats in forest ecosystems. Forest biomass is in increasing demand for energy production, and organic matter has been considered as a potential supply. Thus, an important management question is how much organic matter should be retained after forest harvesting to maintain forest productivity. To address this question, an experimental trial was established in 1996 to evaluate the responses of lodgepole pine seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments. Four organic matter loading treatments were randomly assigned to each of four homogeneous pine sites: removal of all organic matter on the forest floor, organic matter loading quantity similar to whole-tree-harvesting residuals left on site, organic matter loading quantity similar to stem-only-harvesting residuals, and organic matter loading quantity more similar to what would be found in disease- or insect-killed stands. Our 10-year data showed that height and diameter had 29 and 35 % increase, respectively, comparing the treatment with the most organic matter loading to the treatment with the least organic matter loading. The positive response of seedling growth to organic matter loading may be associated with nutrients and/or microclimate change caused by organic matter, and requires further study. The dynamic response of seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments highlights the importance of long-term studies. Implications of those results on organic matter management are discussed in the context of forest productivity sustainability.

  18. On the evaporation of solar dark matter: spin-independent effective operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Zheng-Liang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,19B Yuquan Road, Beijing, 100049 (China); Wu, Yue-Liang; Yang, Zi-Qing; Zhou, Yu-Feng [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China,CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhong Guan Cun Street 55#, Beijing, 100190 (China)

    2016-09-13

    As a part of the effort to investigate the implications of dark matter (DM)-nucleon effective interactions on the solar DM detection, in this paper we focus on the evaporation of the solar DM for a set of the DM-nucleon spin-independent (SI) effective operators. In order to put the evaluation of the evaporation rate on a more reliable ground, we calculate the non-thermal distribution of the solar DM using the Monte Carlo methods, rather than adopting the Maxwellian approximation. We then specify relevant signal parameter spaces for the solar DM detection for various SI effective operators. Based on the analysis, we determine the minimum DM masses for which the DM-nucleon coupling strengths can be probed from the solar neutrino observations. As an interesting application, our investigation also shows that evaporation effect can not be neglectd in a recent proposal aiming to solve the solar abundance problem by invoking the momentum-dependent asymmetric DM in the Sun.

  19. On the evaporation of solar dark matter: spin-independent effective operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Zheng-Liang; Wu, Yue-Liang; Yang, Zi-Qing; Zhou, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    As a part of the effort to investigate the implications of dark matter (DM)-nucleon effective interactions on the solar DM detection, in this paper we focus on the evaporation of the solar DM for a set of the DM-nucleon spin-independent (SI) effective operators. In order to put the evaluation of the evaporation rate on a more reliable ground, we calculate the non-thermal distribution of the solar DM using the Monte Carlo methods, rather than adopting the Maxwellian approximation. We then specify relevant signal parameter spaces for the solar DM detection for various SI effective operators. Based on the analysis, we determine the minimum DM masses for which the DM-nucleon coupling strengths can be probed from the solar neutrino observations. As an interesting application, our investigation also shows that evaporation effect can not be neglectd in a recent proposal aiming to solve the solar abundance problem by invoking the momentum-dependent asymmetric DM in the Sun.

  20. Searching for dark matter signals in the left-right symmetric gauge model with CP symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Wanlei; Wu Yueliang; Zhou Yufeng

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the singlet scalar dark matter (DM) candidate in a left-right symmetric gauge model with two Higgs bidoublets in which the stabilization of the DM particle is induced by the discrete symmetries P and CP. According to the observed DM abundance, we predict the DM direct and indirect detection cross sections for the DM mass range from 10 to 500 GeV. We show that the DM indirect detection cross section is not sensitive to the light Higgs mixing and Yukawa couplings except for the resonance regions. The predicted spin-independent DM-nucleon elastic scattering cross section is found to be significantly dependent on the above two factors. Our results show that the future DM direct search experiments can cover the most parts of the allowed parameter space. The PAMELA antiproton data can only exclude two very narrow regions in the two Higgs bidoublets model. It is very difficult to detect the DM direct or indirect signals in the resonance regions due to the Breit-Wigner resonance effect.

  1. Inelastic dark matter, non-standard halos and the DAMA/LIBRA results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March-Russell, John; McCabe, Christopher; McCullough, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The DAMA collaboration have claimed to detect particle dark matter (DM) via an annual modulation in their observed recoil event rate. This appears to be in strong disagreement with the null results of other experiments if interpreted in terms of elastic DM scattering, while agreement for a small region of parameter space is possible for inelastic DM (iDM) due to the altered kinematics of the collision. To date most analyses assume a simple galactic halo DM velocity distribution, the Standard Halo Model, but direct experimental support for the SHM is severely lacking and theoretical studies indicate possible significant differences. We investigate the dependence of DAMA and the other direct detection experiments on the local DM velocity distribution, utilizing the results of the Via Lactea and Dark Disc numerical simulations. We also investigate effects of varying the solar circular velocity, the DM escape velocity, and the DAMA quenching factor within experimental limits. Our data set includes the latest ZEPLIN-III results, as well as full publicly available data sets. Due to the more sensitive dependence of the inelastic cross section on the velocity distribution, we find that with Via Lactea the DAMA results can be consistent with all other experiments over an enlarged region of iDM parameter space, with higher mass particles being preferred, while Dark Disc does not lead to an improvement. A definitive test of DAMA for iDM requires heavy element detectors.

  2. Serum lipid profiles, total tract nutrient digestibility, and gastrointestinal tolerance by dogs of α-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, M A; Bauer, L L; Garleb, K A; Fahey, G C; de Godoy, M R C

    2015-05-01

    The objectives were to quantify gastrointestinal tolerance, total tract nutrient digestibility, and serum lipid profiles of dogs as affected by α-cyclodextrin (ACD) supplementation and to validate the accuracy of fat analyses techniques using novel ACD-fat complexes. The ACD was hydrolyzed and free sugars and hydrolyzed monosaccharides were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Known amount of fats were complexed with ACD, and fat content of complexes were determined using the ether extraction and acid-hydrolyzed fat methods. Nine mixed-breed hounds were used in a crossover design with 3 periods of 10 d each, including 6 d for diet adaptation and 4 d for fecal collection. Dogs were fed twice daily a diet with poultry byproduct meal and brewer's rice as the main ingredients, and chromic oxide (0.2%) was included as a digestion marker. Dogs were supplemented with either 0, 3, or 6 g of ACD diluted in 15 mL of water twice per day for a total of 0, 6, and 12 g ACD per day. The ACD had a very low free sugar concentration and, once hydrolyzed, released only glucose, as expected. Average daily food intake, fecal output (DM basis), and fecal scores were not significantly different among treatments. Body weight and condition score and serum triglycerides and cholesterol concentrations remained unaltered throughout the duration of the experiment. Dry matter, OM, and fat digestibility coefficients were lower (P < 0.05) for both treatment groups compared to the control. The acid-hydrolyzed fat method was valid to measure fat that was bound to ACD. Intake of ACD lowered fat digestibility somewhat but not to the extent previously reported, without affecting serum lipid concentrations or outcomes related to tolerance. Therefore, ACD supplementation resulted in a small decrease in fat digestibility, but ACD supplementation might have potential in modifying serum lipid profiles.

  3. Supply of nutrients and productive responses in dairy cows given diets based on restrictively fermented silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. HUHTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to review research which has evaluated the feeding of dairy cows with diets containing large proportions of grass silage. In Finland, milk production systems evolved are based on the use of restrictively fermented silages. Higher potential yields, smaller production risks than with cereal grains, short grazing period and high digestibility of grasses grown in northern latitudes have facilitated this development. Factors affecting nutrient supply from these diets are discussed. Digestibility is determined mainly by the stage of maturity at harvesting and it is not markedly affected by the level of energy and protein supplementation. Intake of grass silage is influenced both by digestibility and fermentation characteristics. Efficiency of microbial synthesis is high in animals given diets based on restrictively fermented silage but rumen fermentation pattern is characterised by low molar proportions of propionate. Production responses to additional concentrate are relatively small, especially when the amount of concentrate exceeds 10 kg day-1. High substitution of silage dry matter (DM, negative associative effects on digestion and partitioning of energy towards body tissues account for small production responses. Protein supplementation has consistently increased milk protein yield but responses do not appear to be related to the level of milk production, silage crude protein content, amount of concentrate or stage of lactation. The new protein evaluation system provides an accurate prediction of protein yield with the typical Finnish dairy cow diets. The high slopes (ca. 0.5 between protein supply and milk protein yield within experiments suggest that protein supply is suboptimal and protein supplements are used with a high efficiency.;

  4. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: T1DM [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term T1DM 名詞 一般 * * * * 1型糖尿病 1ガタトウニョウビョウ イチガタトーニョービョー Thesaurus2015 200906052809193540 C LS51 UNKNOWN_2 T 1 DM

  5. Properties of galactic dark matter: Constraints from astronomical observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, B.; Cowsik, R.

    2013-01-01

    The distributions of normal matter and of dark matter in the Galaxy are coupled to each other as they both move in the common gravitational potential. In order to fully exploit this interplay and to derive the various properties of dark matter relevant to their direct and indirect detection, we have comprehensively reviewed the astronomical observations of the spatial and velocity distributions of the components of normal matter. We then postulate that the phase-space distribution of dark matter follows a lowered-isothermal form and self-consistently solve Poisson's equation to construct several models for the spatial and velocity distributions of dark matter. In this paper, we compute the total gravitational potential of the normal and dark matter components and investigate their consistency with current observations of the rotation curve of the Galaxy and of the spatial and velocity distributions of blue horizontal-branch and blue straggler stars. Even with this demand of consistency, a large number of models with a range of parameters characterizing the dark matter distribution remain. We find that the best choice of parameters, within the range of allowed values for the surface density of the disk 55 M ☉ pc –2 , are the following: the dark matter density at the Galactic center ρ DM, c ≈ 100-250 GeV cm –3 , the local dark matter density ρ DM (R 0 ) ≈ 0.56-0.72 GeV cm –3 , and the rms speed of dark matter particles 〈v DM 2 (R 0 )〉 1/2 ≈490−−550 km s –1 . We also discuss possible astronomical observations that may further limit the range of the allowed models. The predictions of the allowed models for direct and indirect detection will be discussed separately in a companion paper.

  6. Dry matter intake and digestibility of temperate pastures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sorghum grain supplementation on total and forage dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility of wethers and heifers consuming temperate pasture. Twenty four Corriedale x Milchschaf wethers and 24 crossbred heifers fed temperate pasture were non-supplemented or ...

  7. Helioseismology with long-range dark matter-baryon interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, I.; Panci, Paolo; Silk, J.

    2014-01-01

    Assuming the existence of a primordial asymmetry in the dark sector, we study how long-range dark matter (DM)-baryon interactions, induced by the kinetic mixing of a new U(1) gauge boson and a photon, affect the evolution of the Sun and, in turn, the sound speed the profile obtained from...

  8. Muon Flux Limits for Majorana Dark Matter Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belotsky, Konstantin; Khlopov, Maxim; Kouvaris, Christoforos

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the effects of capture of dark matter (DM) particles, with successive annihilations, predicted in the minimal walking technicolor model (MWT) by the Sun and the Earth. We show that the Super-Kamiokande (SK) upper limit on excessive muon flux disfavors the mass interval between 100-200 Ge...

  9. Testing Structure Formation in the Universe via Coupled Matter Fluids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kagoyire

    the universe is dominated by two “dark” components- dark matter. (DM) and dark energy (DE)- that contribute about 26% and 69% respectively to the total cosmic energy budget, raises key questions about the nature of the “dark-sector” and large-scale structure formation (Planck Collaboration XVI, 2014). Motivated by a ...

  10. Supersymmetric dark matter after LHC run 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnaschi, E.A.; Buchmueller, O.; Cavanaugh, R.; Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL

    2015-08-01

    Different mechanisms operate in various regions of the MSSM parameter space to bring the relic density of the lightest neutralino, χ 0 1 , assumed here to be the LSP and thus the Dark Matter (DM) particle, into the range allowed by astrophysics and cosmology. These mechanisms include coannihilation with some nearly-degenerate next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP) such as the lighter stau τ 1 , stop t 1 or chargino χ ± 1 , resonant annihilation via direct-channel heavy Higgs bosons H/A, the light Higgs boson h or the Z boson, and enhanced annihilation via a larger Higgsino component of the LSP in the focus-point region. These mechanisms typically select lower-dimensional subspaces in MSSM scenarios such as the CMSSM, NUHM1, NUHM2 and pMSSM10. We analyze how future LHC and direct DM searches can complement each other in the exploration of the different DM mechanisms within these scenarios. We find that the τ 1 coannihilation regions of the CMSSM, NUHM1, NUHM2 can largely be explored at the LHC via searches for missing E T events and long-lived charged particles, whereas their H/A funnel, focus-point and χ ± 1 coannihilation regions can largely be explored by the LZ and Darwin DM direct detection experiments. We find that the dominant DM mechanism in our pMSSM10 analysis is χ ± 1 coannihilation: parts of its parameter space can be explored by the LHC, and a larger portion by future direct DM searches.

  11. Late decaying 2-component dark matter scenario as an explanation of the AMS-02 positron excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buch, Jatan; Ralegankar, Pranjal; Rentala, Vikram, E-mail: jatan_buch@brown.edu, E-mail: pranjal6@illinois.edu, E-mail: rentala@phy.iitb.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology - Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2017-10-01

    The long standing anomaly in the positron flux as measured by the PAMELA and AMS-02 experiments could potentially be explained by dark matter (DM) annihilations. This scenario typically requires a large 'boost factor' to be consistent with a thermal relic dark matter candidate produced via freeze-out. However, such an explanation is disfavored by constraints from CMB observations on energy deposition during the epoch of recombination. We discuss a scenario called late-decaying two-component dark matter (LD2DM), where the entire DM consists of two semi-degenerate species. Within this framework, the heavier species is produced as a thermal relic in the early universe and decays to the lighter species over cosmological timescales. Consequently, the lighter species becomes the DM which populates the universe today. We show that annihilation of the lighter DM species with an enhanced cross-section, produced via such a non-thermal mechanism, can explain the observed AMS-02 positron flux while avoiding CMB constraints. The observed DM relic density can be correctly reproduced as well with simple s -wave annihilation cross-sections. We demonstrate that the scenario is safe from CMB constraints on late-time energy depositions during the cosmic 'dark ages'. Interestingly, structure formation constraints force us to consider small mass splittings between the two dark matter species. We explore possible cosmological and particle physics signatures in a toy model that realizes this scenario.

  12. Late decaying 2-component dark matter scenario as an explanation of the AMS-02 positron excess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buch, Jatan; Ralegankar, Pranjal; Rentala, Vikram

    2017-01-01

    The long standing anomaly in the positron flux as measured by the PAMELA and AMS-02 experiments could potentially be explained by dark matter (DM) annihilations. This scenario typically requires a large 'boost factor' to be consistent with a thermal relic dark matter candidate produced via freeze-out. However, such an explanation is disfavored by constraints from CMB observations on energy deposition during the epoch of recombination. We discuss a scenario called late-decaying two-component dark matter (LD2DM), where the entire DM consists of two semi-degenerate species. Within this framework, the heavier species is produced as a thermal relic in the early universe and decays to the lighter species over cosmological timescales. Consequently, the lighter species becomes the DM which populates the universe today. We show that annihilation of the lighter DM species with an enhanced cross-section, produced via such a non-thermal mechanism, can explain the observed AMS-02 positron flux while avoiding CMB constraints. The observed DM relic density can be correctly reproduced as well with simple s -wave annihilation cross-sections. We demonstrate that the scenario is safe from CMB constraints on late-time energy depositions during the cosmic 'dark ages'. Interestingly, structure formation constraints force us to consider small mass splittings between the two dark matter species. We explore possible cosmological and particle physics signatures in a toy model that realizes this scenario.

  13. Halo-independent direct detection of momentum-dependent dark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherry, J. F.; Frandsen, M. T.; Shoemaker, I. M.

    2014-01-01

    We show that the momentum dependence of dark matter interactions with nuclei can be probed in direct detection experiments without knowledge of the dark matter velocity distribution. This is one of the few properties of DM microphysics that can be determined with direct detection alone, given...... a signal of dark matter in multiple direct detection experiments with different targets. Long-range interactions arising from the exchange of a light mediator are one example of momentum-dependent DM. For data produced from the exchange of a massless mediator we find for example that the mediator mass can...

  14. Apparent in vivo nutrient digestibility of maize silages in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana PÍŠOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to analyzed coefficients of digestibility of the maize silage nutrients in horse feeding. Horses of Slovak warmblood breed engaged in the research were 2.5 ± 0.5 years old. Horses in boxes without bedding to avoid eating it and excrement contamination were stabled. Horses individually with ad libitum access to water were housed. The boxes with trough for corn silage were equiped. The corn silage contained 362.3 g of dry matter, 74.1 g of crude protein, 27.1 g of crude fat and 948.2 g of organic matter in kg of dry matter. The feed twice a day, in the morning and in the evening was given. The feed intake and leftovers were weighed every day. Excrements immediately after excreting to avoid urine contamination into plastic containers were collected and weighed. The content of nutrients in the feed intake and in the excrements were analysed. In analysed samples the gravimetric dry matter amount by drying at 103 ± 2 °C, crude protein content by Kjeldahl method, fat content by extraction method according to Soxhlett – Henkel, ash content by burning the sample at 530 ± 20 °C in muffle furnace and organic matter content by calculation were determined. Coefficients of apparent digestibility in percent from taken in and excreted nutrients were calculated. In maize silage for horse feeding an average coefficient of digestibility of dry matter 61.94%, of crude protein 56.03%, of crude fat 72.34% and of organic matter 65.19% was found.

  15. Supernova cooling in a dark matter smog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yue

    2014-01-01

    A light hidden gauge boson with kinetic mixing with the usual photon is a popular setup in theories of dark matter. The supernova cooling via radiating the hidden boson is known to put an important constraint on the mixing. I consider the possible role dark matter, which under reasonable assumptions naturally exists inside supernova, can play in the cooling picture. Because the interaction between the hidden gauge boson and DM is likely unsuppressed, even a small number of dark matter compared to protons inside the supernova could dramatically shorten the free streaming length of the hidden boson. A picture of a dark matter “smog” inside the supernova, which substantially relaxes the cooling constraint, is discussed in detail

  16. Supernova cooling in a dark matter smog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yue [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-11-27

    A light hidden gauge boson with kinetic mixing with the usual photon is a popular setup in theories of dark matter. The supernova cooling via radiating the hidden boson is known to put an important constraint on the mixing. I consider the possible role dark matter, which under reasonable assumptions naturally exists inside supernova, can play in the cooling picture. Because the interaction between the hidden gauge boson and DM is likely unsuppressed, even a small number of dark matter compared to protons inside the supernova could dramatically shorten the free streaming length of the hidden boson. A picture of a dark matter “smog” inside the supernova, which substantially relaxes the cooling constraint, is discussed in detail.

  17. Supernova cooling in a dark matter smog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yue, E-mail: yuezhang@theory.caltech.edu [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    A light hidden gauge boson with kinetic mixing with the usual photon is a popular setup in theories of dark matter. The supernova cooling via radiating the hidden boson is known to put an important constraint on the mixing. I consider the possible role dark matter, which under reasonable assumptions naturally exists inside supernova, can play in the cooling picture. Because the interaction between the hidden gauge boson and DM is likely unsuppressed, even a small number of dark matter compared to protons inside the supernova could dramatically shorten the free streaming length of the hidden boson. A picture of a dark matter ''smog'' inside the supernova, which substantially relaxes the cooling constraint, is discussed in detail.

  18. WERF Nutrient Challenge investigates limits of nutrient removal technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethling, J B; Clark, D; Pramanik, A; Stensel, H D; Sandino, J; Tsuchihashi, R

    2010-01-01

    The WERF Nutrient Challenge is a multi-year collaborative research initiative established in 2007 to develop and provide current information about wastewater treatment nutrients (specifically nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater), their characteristics, and bioavailability in aquatic environments to help regulators make informed decisions. The Nutrient Challenge will also provide data on nutrient removal so that treatment facilities can select sustainable, cost-effective methods and technologies to meet permit limits. To meet these goals, the Nutrient Challenge has teamed with a wide array of utilities, agencies, consultants, universities and other researchers and practitioners to collaborate on projects that advance these goals. The Nutrient Challenge is focusing on a different approach to collaborating and leveraging resources (financial and intellectual) on research projects by targeting existing projects and research that correspond with its goals and funding those aspects that the Nutrient Challenge identified as a priority. Because the Nutrient Challenge is focused on collaboration, outreach is an absolutely necessary component of its effectiveness. Through workshops, webinars, a web portal and online compendium, published papers, and conference lectures, the Nutrient Challenge is both presenting important new information, and soliciting new partnerships.

  19. Self-interacting asymmetric dark matter coupled to a light massive dark photon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petraki, Kalliopi; Pearce, Lauren; Kusenko, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Dark matter (DM) with sizeable self-interactions mediated by a light species offers a compelling explanation of the observed galactic substructure; furthermore, the direct coupling between DM and a light particle contributes to the DM annihilation in the early universe. If the DM abundance is due to a dark particle-antiparticle asymmetry, the DM annihilation cross-section can be arbitrarily large, and the coupling of DM to the light species can be significant. We consider the case of asymmetric DM interacting via a light (but not necessarily massless) Abelian gauge vector boson, a dark photon. In the massless dark photon limit, gauge invariance mandates that DM be multicomponent, consisting of positive and negative dark ions of different species which partially bind in neutral dark atoms. We argue that a similar conclusion holds for light dark photons; in particular, we establish that the multi-component and atomic character of DM persists in much of the parameter space where the dark photon is sufficiently light to mediate sizeable DM self-interactions. We discuss the cosmological sequence of events in this scenario, including the dark asymmetry generation, the freeze-out of annihilations, the dark recombination and the phase transition which gives mass to the dark photon. We estimate the effect of self-interactions in DM haloes, taking into account this cosmological history. We place constraints based on the observed ellipticity of large haloes, and identify the regimes where DM self-scattering can affect the dynamics of smaller haloes, bringing theory in better agreement with observations. Moreover, we estimate the cosmological abundance of dark photons in various regimes, and derive pertinent bounds

  20. Emergence of the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation from dark matter-baryon interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famaey, Benoit; Khoury, Justin; Penco, Riccardo

    2018-03-01

    The observed tightness of the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation (MDAR) poses a fine-tuning challenge to current models of galaxy formation. We propose that this relation could arise from collisional interactions between baryons and dark matter (DM) particles, without the need for modification of gravity or ad hoc feedback processes. We assume that these interactions satisfy the following three conditions: (i) the relaxation time of DM particles is comparable to the dynamical time in disk galaxies; (ii) DM exchanges energy with baryons due to elastic collisions; (iii) the product between the baryon-DM cross section and the typical energy exchanged in a collision is inversely proportional to the DM number density. As a proof of principle, we present an example of a particle physics model that gives a DM-baryon cross section with the desired density and velocity dependence. For consistency with direct detection constraints, our DM particles must be either very light (m ll mb) or very heavy (mgg mb), corresponding respectively to heating and cooling of DM by baryons. In both cases, our mechanism applies and an equilibrium configuration can in principle be reached. In this exploratory paper, we focus on the heavy DM/cooling case because it is technically simpler, since the average energy exchanged turns out to be approximately constant throughout galaxies. Under these assumptions, we find that rotationally-supported disk galaxies could naturally settle to equilibrium configurations satisfying a MDAR at all radii without invoking finely tuned feedback processes. We also discuss issues related to the small scale clumpiness of baryons, as well as predictions for pressure-supported systems. We argue in particular that galaxy clusters do not follow the MDAR despite being DM-dominated because they have not reached their equilibrium configuration. Finally, we revisit existing phenomenological, astrophysical and cosmological constraints on baryon-DM interactions in light

  1. Optical Changes in a Eutrophic Estuary During Reduced Nutrient Loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Møller; Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Markager, Stiig

    2014-01-01

    Loss of water clarity is one of the consequences of coastal eutrophication. Efforts have therefore been made to reduce external nutrient loadings of coastal waters. This paper documents improvements to water clarity between 1985 and 2008–2009 at four stations in the microtidal estuary Roskilde...... to 74 % in 1985 to 78 to 85 % in 2008–2009. Overall, efforts to reduce nutrient loading and improve water clarity appeared to have had a larger impact on POM* than on Chl a and colored dissolved organic matter concentrations in the estuary, which can account for the decrease in the scatter...

  2. DM100 AND DM1200 MELTER TESTING WITH HIGH WASTE LOADING FORMULATIONS FOR HANFORD HIGH-ALUMINUM HLW STREAMS, TEST PLAN 09T1690-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Matlack, K.S.; Kot, W.K.; Pegg, I.L.; Joseph, I.

    2009-01-01

    This Test Plan describes work to support the development and testing of high waste loading glass formulations that achieve high glass melting rates for Hanford high aluminum high level waste (HLW). In particular, the present testing is designed to evaluate the effect of using low activity waste (LAW) waste streams as a source of sodium in place ofchemical additives, sugar or cellulose as a reductant, boehmite as an aluminum source, and further enhancements to waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work will include preparation and characterization of crucible melts in support of subsequent DuraMelter 100 (DM 100) tests designed to examine the effects of enhanced glass formulations, glass processing temperature, incorporation of the LAW waste stream as a sodium source, type of organic reductant, and feed solids content on waste processing rate and product quality. Also included is a confirmatory test on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200) with a composition selected from those tested on the DM100. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of River Protection (ORP) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same waste composition. This Test Plan is prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is about 12,500. This estimate is based upon the inventory ofthe tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat transfer and

  3. Subprodutos industriais na ensilagem de capim-elefante para cabras leiteiras: consumo, digestibilidade de nutrientes e produção de leite Industrial by-products in elephant grass silage for dairy goats: intake, nutrient digestibility and milk yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jobel Beserra de Oliveira

    2010-02-01

    : elephant grass silage + concentrate; elephant grass silage containing 15% cassava meal + concentrate; elephant grass silage containing 15% coffee hulls + concentrate; elephant grass silage containing 15% cocoa meal + concentrate. The greatest intakes of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, total carbohydrates (TC, nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC and digestible total nutrients were observed in the animals fed silage containing cassava meal. The greatest intake of ether extract was verified in the silages with cassava meal or coffee hulls. The greatest digestibility values of the DM, OM, EE and TC were obtained in the diet containing elephant grass silage with cassava meal. The NFC digestibility value was similar among diets containing elephant grass silage with cassava meal, coffee hulls and cocoa meal. The neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber digestibility was greater in the silage without additive, with cassava meal or cocoa meal. Greater intake, digestibility coefficients and milk yield were obtained in goats fed elephant grass silage containing cassava meal.

  4. A comparative study on nutrient cycling in wet heathland ecosystems : II. Litter decomposition and nutrient mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendse, Frank; Bobbink, Roland; Rouwenhorst, Gerrit

    1989-03-01

    The concept of the relative nutrient requirement (L n ) that was introduced in the first paper of this series is used to analyse the effects of the dominant plant population on nutrient cycling and nutrient mineralization in wet heathland ecosystems. A distinction is made between the effect that the dominant plant species has on (1) the distribution of nutrients over the plant biomass and the soil compartment of the ecosystem and (2) the recirculation rate of nutrients. The first effect of the dominant plant species can be calculated on the basis of the δ/k ratio (which is the ratio of the relative mortality to the decomposition constant). The second effect can be analysed using the relative nutrient requirement (L n ). The mass loss and the changes in the amounts of N and P in decomposing above-ground and below-ground litter produced by Erica tetralix and Molinia caerulea were measured over three years. The rates of mass loss from both above-ground and below-ground litter of Molinia were higher than those from Erica litter. After an initial leaching phase, litter showed either a net release or a net immobilization of nitrogen or phosphorus that depended on the initial concentrations of these nutrients. At the same sites, mineralization of nitrogen and phosphorus were measured for two years both in communities dominated by Molinia and in communities dominated by Erica. There were no clear differences in the nitrogen mineralization, but in one of the two years, phosphate mineralization in the Molinia-community was significantly higher. On the basis of the theory that was developed, mineralization rates and ratios between amounts of nutrients in plant biomass and in the soil were calculated on the basis of parameters that were independently measured. There was a reasonable agreement between predicted and measured values in the Erica-communities. In the Molinia-communities there were large differences between calculated and measured values, which was explained by the

  5. Sheep numbers required for dry matter digestibility evaluations when fed fresh perennial ryegrass or forage rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuezhao; Krijgsman, Linda; Waghorn, Garry C; Kjestrup, Holly; Koolaard, John; Pacheco, David

    2017-03-01

    Research trials with fresh forages often require accurate and precise measurement of digestibility and variation in digestion between individuals, and the duration of measurement periods needs to be established to ensure reliable data are obtained. The variation is likely to be greater when freshly harvested feeds are given, such as perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) and forage rape ( Brassica napus L.), because the nutrient composition changes over time and in response to weather conditions. Daily feed intake and faeces output data from a digestibility trial with these forages were used to calculate the effects of differing lengths of the measurement period and differing numbers of sheep, on the precision of digestibility, with a view towards development of a protocol. Sixteen lambs aged 8 months and weighing 33 kg at the commencement of the trial were fed either perennial ryegrass or forage rape (8/treatment group) over 2 periods with 35 d between measurements. They had been acclimatised to the diets, having grazed them for 42 d prior to 11 days of indoor measurements. The sheep numbers required for a digestibility trial with different combinations of acclimatisation and measurement period lengths were subsequently calculated for 3 levels of imposed precision upon the estimate of mean dry matter (DM) digestibility. It is recommended that if the standard error of the mean for digestibility is equal to or higher than 5 g/kg DM, and if sheep are already used to a fresh perennial ryegrass or forage rape diet, then a minimum of 6 animals are needed and 4 acclimatisation days being fed individually in metabolic crates followed by 7 days of measurement.

  6. Effect of gamma irradaition on growth and nutrients uptake of sorghum plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleiwa, M.E.; Rabie, M.H.

    1994-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out using sandy calcareous soils to study the effects of gamma irradiating doses for sorghum seeds on dry matter yield and elemental uptake. Three cuttings were taken during the experiment every 40 days. Results showed that 4 Kr. dose was the best dose that caused significant higher increase of dry matter yield and nutrients uptake for three cuttings under both types of soil. Gamma irradiation doses at 8 Kr. and above all had an adverse affect on dry matter yield and nutrients uptake, especially under calcareous soil. (author)

  7. On wave dark matter in spiral and barred galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Medina, Luis A.; Matos, Tonatiuh; Bray, Hubert L.

    2015-01-01

    We recover spiral and barred spiral patterns in disk galaxy simulations with a Wave Dark Matter (WDM) background (also known as Scalar Field Dark Matter (SFDM), Ultra-Light Axion (ULA) dark matter, and Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) dark matter). Here we show how the interaction between a baryonic disk and its Dark Matter Halo triggers the formation of spiral structures when the halo is allowed to have a triaxial shape and angular momentum. This is a more realistic picture within the WDM model since a non-spherical rotating halo seems to be more natural. By performing hydrodynamic simulations, along with earlier test particles simulations, we demonstrate another important way in which wave dark matter is consistent with observations. The common existence of bars in these simulations is particularly noteworthy. This may have consequences when trying to obtain information about the dark matter distribution in a galaxy, the mere presence of spiral arms or a bar usually indicates that baryonic matter dominates the central region and therefore observations, like rotation curves, may not tell us what the DM distribution is at the halo center. But here we show that spiral arms and bars can develop in DM dominated galaxies with a central density core without supposing its origin on mechanisms intrinsic to the baryonic matter

  8. New probe of dark-matter properties: gravitational waves from an intermediate-mass black hole embedded in a dark-matter minispike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eda, Kazunari; Itoh, Yousuke; Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Silk, Joseph

    2013-05-31

    An intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) may have a dark-matter (DM) minihalo around it and develop a spiky structure within less than a parsec from the IMBH. When a stellar mass object is captured by the minihalo, it eventually infalls into such an IMBH due to gravitational wave backreaction which in turn could be observed directly by future space-borne gravitational wave experiments such as eLISA and NGO. In this Letter, we show that the gravitational wave (GW) detectability strongly depends on the radial profile of the DM distribution. So if the GW is detected, the power index, that is, the DM density distribution, would be determined very accurately. The DM density distribution obtained would make it clear how the IMBH has evolved from a seed black hole and whether the IMBH has experienced major mergers in the past. Unlike the γ-ray observations of DM annihilation, GW is just sensitive to the radial profile of the DM distribution and even to noninteracting DM. Hence, the effect we demonstrate here can be used as a new and powerful probe into DM properties.

  9. Reduced Nutrient Excretion and Environmental Microbial Load with the Addition of a Combination of Enzymes and Direct-Fed Microbials to the Diet of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MFFM Praes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the effects of the dietary inclusion of an enzyme blend and a direct-fed microbials in broiler diets on litter production and quality. In total, 900 Cobb 500(r broiler chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized design into 4 treatments and 9 replicates of 25 birds each. Broilers were reared from 1 to 42 days of age. The treatments consisted of the following diets: NC: negative control; DFM: NC + 500 ppm of direct-fed microbials product (DFM, containing Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis; ENZ: diet formulated with an enzyme blend (20 ppm phytase, 200 ppm protease and 200 ppm of xylanase; DFM+E: ENZ + DFM. Birds and litter were weighed at the start and end of the rearing period, for litter production and waste ratio (Rw determination. Litter samples were analyzed for dry matter (DM content, total and thermotolerant coliform counts, nutrient composition (nitrogen (N, phosphorous (P and potassium (K, and fiber fraction (neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and lignin. The dietary inclusion of the evaluated additivesdid not influence litter production or Rw; however, ADF (%, NDF (kg and kg/kg DM litter, and total and thermotolerant coliform counts were reduced, and N content increased in the litter. The diets containing enzymes (ENZ and DFM+E reduced litter P content. The addition of exogenous enzymes and their combination with a DFM based on Bacillus spp .Did not affect waste production, and reduced litter microbial load, and the contents of P and insoluble fiber in the litter.

  10. The particulate passage rate, nutrient composition and fermentation characteristics across gastrointestinal tracts in lactating dairy cows fed three different forage source diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B; Gu, F F; Huang, X B; Liu, J X

    2018-04-19

    This study was conducted to investigate the particulate passage rate, nutrient characteristics and fermentation parameters across the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in lactating dairy cows fed cereal straws in comparison with alfalfa hay. Eighteen multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to one of three experimental diets consisting of 55% concentrate, 15% corn silage and 30% different forage sources as follows (% of dry matter [DM]): (i) 23% alfalfa hay and 7% Chinese wild rye hay (AH); (ii) 30% corn stover (CS); and (iii) 30% rice straw (RS). The Cr-mordanted corn silage-neutral detergent fibre was used to estimate the passage flow at week 14. After 14-week feeding, the animals were slaughtered to collect the gastrointestinal digesta. Dietary forage sources had little effect on the fractional passage rates in the rumen (range from 5.05 to 6.25%/hr) or hindgut (range from 4.49 to 5.24%/hr). Total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration in the caecum was highest, followed by the rumen, colon and rectum, and the lowest in the abomasum and duodenum, indicating that the large intestines, especially caecum, are the important positions for carbohydrate degradation. Greater proportion of propionate and butyrate and lower acetate were found in the AH compared to CS or RS in colon, but higher acetate in abomasum was found in the cows fed CS or RS compared to AH. In conclusion, cereal straw diets did not change the particulate passage rate in the rumen and hindgut which might be mainly due to the similar DM intake among these three diets. Different forage source diets significantly changed VFA proportion in the abomasum and colon, indicating the existence of different digestion or absorption rates in these tracts among the experimental diets. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Review on Periphyton as Mediator of Nutrient Transfer in Aquatic Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjya K. Saikia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the studies of aquatic ecology, periphyton has been uncared for despite its vital role in nutrient uptake and transfer to the upper trophic organisms. Being the component of food chain as attached organism it takes part in nutrient cycling in the ecosystem like that of suspended planktonic counterparts. The present review, with an aim to understand the role of periphyton in nutrient transfer from benthic environment to upper trophic level, focuses many aspects of periphyton-nutrient relationship based on available literatures. It also attempts to redefine periphyton, as a part of biofilm, harboring nutrient components like protein, fat and carbohydrate preferably in its extracellular polymeric substance (EPS, cyanobacteria, diatom and other algal communities. In addition to physical processes, nutrient uptake by periphyton is catalyzed by enzymes like Nitrogen Reductase and Alkaline Phosphatase from the environment. This uptake and transfer is further regulated by periphytic C: nutrient (N or P stoichiometry, colonization time, distribution of periphyton cover on sediments and macrophytes, macronutrient concentration, grazing, sloughing, temperature, and advective transport. The Carbon (C sources of periphyton are mainly dissolve organic matter and photosynthetic C that enters into higher trophic levels through predation and transfers as C-rich nutrient components. Despite of emerging interests on utilizing periphyton as nutrient transfer tool in aquatic ecosystem, the major challenges ahead for modern aquatic biologists lies on determining nutrient uptake and transfer rate of periphyton, periphytic growth and simulating nutrient models of periphyton to figure a complete energy cycle in aquatic ecosystem.

  12. Unifying leptogenesis, dark matter and high-energy neutrinos with right-handed neutrino mixing via Higgs portal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, Pasquale Di; Ludl, Patrick Otto [Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC-Universitat de València,Apartado de Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2016-11-21

    We revisit a model in which neutrino masses and mixing are described by a two right-handed (RH) neutrino seesaw scenario, implying a strictly hierarchical light neutrino spectrum. A third decoupled RH neutrino, N{sub DM} with mass M{sub DM}, plays the role of cold dark matter (DM) and is produced by the mixing with a source RH neutrino, N{sub S} with mass M{sub S}, induced by Higgs portal interactions. The same interactions are also responsible for N{sub DM} decays. We discuss in detail the constraints coming from DM abundance and stability conditions showing that in the hierarchical case, for M{sub DM}≫M{sub S}, there is an allowed window on M{sub DM} values necessarily implying a contribution, from DM decays, to the high-energy neutrino flux recently detected by IceCube. We also show how the model can explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe via leptogenesis in the quasi-degenerate limit. In this case, the DM mass should be within the range 300 GeV ≲M{sub S}DM}≲ 10 PeV. We discuss the specific properties of this high-energy neutrino flux and show the predicted event spectrum for two exemplary cases. Although DM decays, with a relatively hard spectrum, cannot account for all the IceCube high-energy data, we illustrate how this extra source of high-energy neutrinos could reasonably explain some potential features in the observed spectrum. In this way, this represents a unified scenario for leptogenesis and DM that could be tested during the next years with more high-energy neutrino events.

  13. Tau flavored dark matter and its impact on tau Yukawa coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Wei [Center for Advanced Quantum Studies, Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875 China (China); Guo, Huai-Ke; Li, Hao-Lin, E-mail: chao@physics.umass.edu, E-mail: huaike@physics.umass.edu, E-mail: haolinli@physics.umass.edu [Amherst Center for Fundamental Interactions, Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, 710 N Pleasant St., Amherst, MA, 01003 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we perform a systematic study of the tau flavored dark matter (DM) model by introducing two kinds of mediators (a scalar doublet and a charged scalar singlet). The electromagnetic properties of the DM, as well as their implications in DM direct detections, are analyzed in detail. The model turns out contributing a significant radiative correction to the tau lepton mass, in addition to loosing the tension between the measured DM relic density and constraints of DM direct detections. The loop corrections can be O(10%) of the total tau mass. Signal rates of the Higgs measurements from the LHC in the h →τ τ and h → γ γ channels, relative to the Standard Model expectations, can be explained in this model.

  14. Gravitational waves as a new probe of Bose–Einstein condensate Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Bhupal Dev

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There exists a class of ultralight Dark Matter (DM models which could give rise to a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC in the early universe and behave as a single coherent wave instead of individual particles in galaxies. We show that a generic BEC-DM halo intervening along the line of sight of a gravitational wave (GW signal could induce an observable change in the speed of GWs, with the effective refractive index depending only on the mass and self-interaction of the constituent DM particles and the GW frequency. Hence, we propose to use the deviation in the speed of GWs as a new probe of the BEC-DM parameter space. With a multi-messenger approach to GW astronomy and/or with extended sensitivity to lower GW frequencies, the entire BEC-DM parameter space can be effectively probed by our new method in the near future.

  15. Effect of feeding Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) root as prebiotic on nutrient utilization, fecal characteristics and serum metabolite profile of captive Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) fed a meat-on-bone diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S K; Das, A; Kullu, S S; Saini, M; Pattanaik, A K; Dutta, N; Sharma, A K

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of incorporating Jerusalem artichoke (JA) as a prebiotic in the diet of Indian leopards (n = 11 adults) fed a meat-on-bone diet. The trial consisted of three periods (A1 , B, and A2 ). Each period comprised 17 days of adaptation and four days of collection. During the control periods (A1 and A2 ), the leopards were fed their normal zoo diets of 2.5-3 kg of buffalo meat-on-bone six days a week without any supplement. During trial B, meat-on-bone diets of the leopards were supplemented with JA at 2% of dietary dry matter (DM). Meat consumption was similar among the treatments. Supplementation of JA decreased the digestibility of crude protein (P < 0.01). Digestibilities of organic matter and ether extract were similar among the treatments. Serum concentrations of urea and triglycerides were lower (P < 0.05) when JA was added to the diet. Incorporation of JA to the basal diet increased fecal concentrations of acetate (P < 0.01), butyrate (P < 0.01), lactate (P < 0.01), Lactobacillus spp., and Bifidobacterium spp. (P < 0.01) with a simultaneous decrease in the concentration of ammonia (P < 0.01), Clostridia spp. (P < 0.01), and fecal pH (P < 0.01). Fecal microbial profiles and hind gut fermentation were improved, without any adverse effects on feed consumption, nutrient utilization, and serum metabolite profiles. Results of this experiment showed that feeding JA at 2% DM in the whole diet could be potentially beneficial for captive Indian leopards fed meat-on-bone diets. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Measuring nutrient spiralling in streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, J D; Elwood, J W; O' Neill, R V; Van Winkle, W

    1981-01-01

    Nutrient cycling in streams involves some downstream transport before the cycle is completed. Thus, the path traveled by a nutrient atom in passing through the cycle can be visualized as a spiral. As an index of the spiralling process, we introduce spiralling length, defined as the average distance associated with one complete cycle of a nutrient atom. This index provides a measure of the utilization of nutrients relative to the available supply from upstream. Using /sup 32/p as a tracer, we estimated a spiralling length of 193 m for phosphorus in a small woodland stream.

  17. Spherical cows in dark matter indirect detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal, Nicolás [Centro de Investigaciones, Universidad Antonio Nariño, Cra 3 Este # 47A-15, Bogotá (Colombia); Necib, Lina; Slatyer, Tracy R., E-mail: nicolas.bernal@uan.edu.co, E-mail: lnecib@mit.edu, E-mail: tslatyer@mit.edu [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Dark matter (DM) halos have long been known to be triaxial, but in studies of possible annihilation and decay signals they are often treated as approximately spherical. In this work, we examine the asymmetry of potential indirect detection signals of DM annihilation and decay, exploiting the large statistics of the hydrodynamic simulation Illustris. We carefully investigate the effects of the baryons on the sphericity of annihilation and decay signals for both the case where the observer is at 8.5 kpc from the center of the halo (exemplified in the case of Milky Way-like halos), and for an observer situated well outside the halo. In the case of Galactic signals, we find that both annihilation and decay signals are expected to be quite symmetric, with axis ratios very different from 1 occurring rarely. In the case of extragalactic signals, while decay signals are still preferentially spherical, the axis ratio for annihilation signals has a much flatter distribution, with elongated profiles appearing frequently. Many of these elongated profiles are due to large subhalos and/or recent mergers. Comparing to gamma-ray emission from the Milky Way and X-ray maps of clusters, we find that the gamma-ray background appears less spherical/more elongated than the expected DM signal from the large majority of halos, and the Galactic gamma ray excess appears very spherical, while the X-ray data would be difficult to distinguish from a DM signal by elongation/sphericity measurements alone.

  18. Direct dark matter search with the CRESST-III experiment - status and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, M.; Angloher, G.; Bento, A.; Bucci, C.; Canonica, L.; Defay, X.; Erb, A.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Ferreiro Iachellini, N.; Gütlein, A.; Gorla, P.; Hauff, D.; Jochum, J.; Kiefer, M.; Kluck, H.; Kraus, H.; Lanfranchi, J.-C.; Loebell, J.; Mancuso, M.; Münster, A.; Pagliarone, C.; Petricca, F.; Potzel, W.; Pröbst, F.; Puig, R.; Reindl, F.; Schäffner, K.; Schieck, J.; Schönert, S.; Seidel, W.; Stahlberg, M.; Stodolsky, L.; Strandhagen, C.; Strauss, R.; Tanzke, A.; Trinh Thi, H. H.; Türkoǧlu, C.; Uffinger, M.; Ulrich, A.; Usherov, I.; Wawoczny, S.; Wüstrich, M.; Zöller, A.

    2017-09-01

    The CRESST-III experiment, located in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS, Italy), aims at the direct detection of dark matter (DM) particles. Scintillating CaWO4 crystals operated as cryogenic detectors are used as target material for DM-nucleus scattering. The simultaneous measurement of the phonon signal from the CaWO4 crystal and of the emitted scintillation light in a separate cryogenic light detector is used to discriminate backgrounds from a possible dark matter signal. The experiment aims to significantly improve the sensitivity for low-mass (≲ 5-10 GeV/c2) DM particles by using optimized detector modules with a nuclear recoil-energy threshold ≲ 100 eV. The current status of the experiment as well as projections of the sensitivity for spin-independent DM-nucleon scattering will be presented.

  19. Effects of dietary protein levels and 2-methylbutyrate on ruminal fermentation, nutrient degradability, bacterial populations and urinary purine derivatives in Simmental steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Liu, Q; Guo, G; Huo, W J; Pei, C X; Zhang, S L; Yang, W Z

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels and 2-methylbutyrate (MB) supplementation on ruminal fermentation, bacterial populations, microbial enzyme activity and urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) in Simmental steers. Eight ruminally cannulated Simmental steers, averaging 18 months of age and 465 ± 8.6 kg of body weight (BW), were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design by a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Low protein (98.5 g CP/kg dry matter [LP] or high protein (128.7 g CP/kg dry matter [HP]) diets were fed with MB supplementation (0 g [MB-] or 16.8 g steer -1  day -1 [MB+]). Steers were fed a total mixed ration with dietary corn straw to concentrate ratio of 50:50 (dry matter [DM] basis). The CP × MB interaction was observed for ruminal total VFA, molar proportions of acetate and propionate, acetate to propionate ratio, ammonia-N, effective degradability of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and CP, microbial enzyme activity, bacterial populations and total PD excretion (p Ruminal pH decreased (p ruminal total VFA concentration increased (p Ruminal ammonia-N content increased (p = .034) with increasing dietary CP level, but decreased (p = .012) with MB supplementation. The effective degradability of NDF and CP increased (p ruminal fermentation, nutrient degradability, microbial enzyme activity, ruminal bacterial populations and microbial protein synthesis improved with increasing dietary CP level or MB supplementation in steers. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Imaging HER2 in response to T-DM1 therapy in breast cancer xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massicano, Adriana Vidal; Aweda, Tolulope; Marqueznostra, Bernadette; El Sayed, Reeta; Beacham, Rebecca; Lapi, Suzanne [University Of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become broadly used for the treatment of cancer because they can be engineered to bind specifically to the target and therefore typically have less toxicity compared to broad spectrum chemotherapies (Jauw YWS, Menke-van der Houven van Oordt CW, Hoekstra OS, et al. Front Pharmacol 2016, 7:1-15). Ado-trastuzumab emtansine (TDM1) is a newly approved HER2 targeted therapy which consists of a cytotoxic agent (DM1) linked to trastuzumab and has shown promising results in patients with HER2 positive metastatic breast cancer (Barok MT, Köninki M, Isola K et al. Breast Cancer Res 2011, 13:1465-5411). Although {sup 18}F-FDG is considered the gold standard in the diagnosis and staging of various types of cancer, it is a relatively non-specific marker (Janjigian YY, Viola-Villegas N, Holland JP, Divilov V, Carlin SD et al. J Nucl Med 2013;54:936-43). Alternatively, {sup 89}Zr-Pertuzumab which binds to a different epitope than trastuzumab on the HER2 receptor has shown high selectively in imaging variations in HER2 expression in breast cancer xenograft models (Marquez BV, Ikotun OF, Zheleznyak A, Wright B et al. Mol Pharm 2014;11:3988-95). Therefore, in this work, we investigated the specificity of {sup 89}Zr-Pertuzumab compared to {sup 18}F-FDG to identify early response to ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) in a breast cancer xenograft model. Methods: Pertuzumab was conjugated top-NCS-Bz-DFO at varying molar ratios and labeled with {sup 89}Zr in different conditions. The optimal conditions were used in further in vitro and in vivo studies. In vivo PET imaging was conducted in nude female mice implanted with 17β-estradiol pellets and inoculated with 1 x 107 BT-474 HER2 positive breast cancer cells. In order to acquire baseline images, mice were injected via tail-vein with 200 μCi of 18F-FDG and imaged after 1 hour. The following day, they were injected with 100 μCi of {sup 89}Zr-Pertuzumab (20 μCi/μg) imaged 5

  1. Amino acid profile of metabolisable protein in lactating dairy cows is affected by dry matter concentration in grass-clover silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2018-01-01

    Our previous study showed that supply of metabolisable protein (MP) to lactating dairy cows increased with increasing dry matter (DM) concentration in grass-clover silage. The aim of this study was to examine how amino acid (AA) profile of MP was affected by silage DM concentration. Eight grass-c...

  2. Nutrient critical levels and availability in soils cultivated with peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth. in Santo Domingo de Los Tsáchilas, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Julio Quezada Crespo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador is the most important exporter of canned peach palm, however, to date ideal soil fertility characteristics for peach palm growers remain unknown. The aim of this research was to determine optimal levels of soil nutrients for the cultivation of peach palm, specifically with regards to soil cation exchange capacity in order to obtain higher yields. We worked with 20 farmsteads and their soils from the province of Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas during the second half of 2014. Fields were evaluated based on a relative yield and extractable (modified Olsen nutrient contents in each soil were determined using regression modeling to determine critical levels of each nutrient and specifically to determine the ideal soil cation exchange capacity under peach palm cultivation. Our analysis established critical levels of soil pH (6.3; OM 6.5%; P 12.3 mg.dm-3; K 0.67 cmol.dm-3 K; Ca 5.1 cmol.dm-3 ; Mg 0.97 cmol.dm-3; and S 7.5 mg.dm-3. The ideal Ca: Mg: K soil cation exchange capacity was determined to be 76:14:10.

  3. Torsion as a dark matter candidate from the Higgs portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Alexander S.; Thomas, Marc C.; Shapiro, Ilya L.

    2017-05-01

    Torsion is a metric-independent component of gravitation, which may provide a more general geometry than the one taking place within general relativity. On the other hand, torsion could lead to interesting phenomenology in both particle physics and cosmology. In the present work it is shown that a torsion field interacting with the SM Higgs doublet and having a negligible coupling to standard model (SM) fermions is protected from decaying by a Z2 symmetry, and therefore becomes a promising dark matter (DM) candidate. This model provides a good motivation for Higgs portal vector DM scenario. We evaluate the DM relic density and explore direct DM detection and collider constraints on this model to understand its consistency with experimental data and establish the most up-to-date limits on its parameter space. We have found in the model when the Higgs boson is only partly responsible for the generation of torsion mass, there is a region of parameter space where torsion contributes 100% to the DM budget of the Universe. Furthermore, we present the first results on the potential of the LHC to probe the parameter space of minimal scenario with Higgs portal vector DM using mono-jet searches and have found that LHC at high luminosity will be sensitive to the substantial part of model parameter space which cannot be probed by other experiments.

  4. Anomaly-free dark matter models are not so simple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Tunney, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    We explore the anomaly-cancellation constraints on simplified dark matter (DM) models with an extra U(1)' gauge boson Z '. We show that, if the Standard Model (SM) fermions are supplemented by a single DM fermion χ that is a singlet of the SM gauge group, and the SM quarks have non-zero U(1)' charges, the SM leptons must also have non-zero U(1)' charges, in which case LHC searches impose strong constraints on the Z ' mass. Moreover, the DM fermion χ must have a vector-like U(1)' coupling. If one requires the DM particle to have a purely axial U(1)' coupling, which would be the case if χ were a Majorana fermion and would reduce the impact of direct DM searches, the simplest possibility is that it is accompanied by one other new singlet fermion, but in this case the U(1)' charges of the SM leptons still do not vanish. This is also true in a range of models with multiple new singlet fermions with identical charges. Searching for a leptophobic model, we then introduce extra fermions that transform non-trivially under the SM gauge group. We find several such models if the DM fermion is accompanied by two or more other new fermions with non-identical charges, which may have interesting experimental signatures. We present benchmark representatives of the various model classes we discuss.

  5. Detecting electron neutrinos from solar dark matter annihilation by JUNO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Wan-Lei

    2016-01-01

    We explore the electron neutrino signals from light dark matter (DM) annihilation in the Sun for the large liquid scintillator detector JUNO. In terms of the spectrum features of three typical DM annihilation channels χχ → νν-bar , τ + τ − , b b-bar , we take two sets of selection conditions to calculate the expected signals and atmospheric neutrino backgrounds based on the Monte Carlo simulation data. Then the JUNO sensitivities to the spin independent DM-nucleon and spin dependent DM-proton cross sections are presented. It is found that the JUNO projected sensitivities are much better than the current spin dependent direct detection experimental limits for the νν-bar and τ + τ − channels. In the spin independent case, the JUNO will give the better sensitivity to the DM-nucleon cross section than the LUX and CDMSlite limits for the νν-bar channel with the DM mass lighter than 6.5 GeV . If the νν-bar or τ + τ − channel is dominant, the future JUNO results are very helpful for us to understand the tension between the DAMA annual modulation signal and other direct detection exclusions

  6. Gravitational wave as probe of superfluid dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Liu, Tong-Bo; Wang, Shao-Jiang

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, superfluid dark matter (SfDM) has become a competitive model of emergent modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) scenario: MOND phenomenons naturally emerge as a derived concept due to an extra force mediated between baryons by phonons as a result of axionlike particles condensed as superfluid at galactic scales; Beyond galactic scales, these axionlike particles behave as normal fluid without phonon-mediated MOND-like force between baryons, therefore SfDM also maintains the usual success of Λ CDM at cosmological scales. In this paper, we use gravitational waves (GWs) to probe the relevant parameter space of SfDM. GWs through Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) could propagate with a speed slightly deviation from the speed-of-light due to the change in the effective refractive index, which depends on the SfDM parameters and GW-source properties. We find that Five hundred meter Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST), Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and International Pulsar Timing Array (IPTA) are the most promising means as GW probe of relevant parameter space of SfDM. Future space-based GW detectors are also capable of probing SfDM if a multimessenger approach is adopted.

  7. Hopanoid-free Methylobacterium extorquens DM4 overproduces carotenoids and has widespread growth impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S Bradley

    Full Text Available Hopanoids are sterol-like membrane lipids widely used as geochemical proxies for bacteria. Currently, the physiological role of hopanoids is not well understood, and this represents one of the major limitations in interpreting the significance of their presence in ancient or contemporary sediments. Previous analyses of mutants lacking hopanoids in a range of bacteria have revealed a range of phenotypes under normal growth conditions, but with most having at least an increased sensitivity to toxins and osmotic stress. We employed hopanoid-free strains of Methylobacterium extorquens DM4, uncovering severe growth defects relative to the wild-type under many tested conditions, including normal growth conditions without additional stressors. Mutants overproduce carotenoids-the other major isoprenoid product of this strain-and show an altered fatty acid profile, pronounced flocculation in liquid media, and lower growth yields than for the wild-type strain. The flocculation phenotype can be mitigated by addition of cellulase to the medium, suggesting a link between the function of hopanoids and the secretion of cellulose in M. extorquens DM4. On solid media, colonies of the hopanoid-free mutant strain were smaller than wild-type, and were more sensitive to osmotic or pH stress, as well as to a variety of toxins. The results for M. extorquens DM4 are consistent with the hypothesis that hopanoids are important for membrane fluidity and lipid packing, but also indicate that the specific physiological processes that require hopanoids vary across bacterial lineages. Our work provides further support to emerging observations that the role of hopanoids in membrane robustness and barrier function may be important across lineages, possibly mediated through an interaction with lipid A in the outer membrane.

  8. Gaseous Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    aseous Matter focuses on the many important discoveries that led to the scientific interpretation of matter in the gaseous state. This new, full-color resource describes the basic characteristics and properties of several important gases, including air, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nature and scope of the science of fluids is discussed in great detail, highlighting the most important scientific principles upon which the field is based. Chapters include:. Gaseous Matter An Initial Perspective. Physical Characteristics of Gases. The Rise of the Science of Gases. Kinetic Theory of

  9. Hidden charged dark matter and chiral dark radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, P.; Nagata, Natsumi; Tang, Yong

    2017-10-01

    In the light of recent possible tensions in the Hubble constant H0 and the structure growth rate σ8 between the Planck and other measurements, we investigate a hidden-charged dark matter (DM) model where DM interacts with hidden chiral fermions, which are charged under the hidden SU(N) and U(1) gauge interactions. The symmetries in this model assure these fermions to be massless. The DM in this model, which is a Dirac fermion and singlet under the hidden SU(N), is also assumed to be charged under the U(1) gauge symmetry, through which it can interact with the chiral fermions. Below the confinement scale of SU(N), the hidden quark condensate spontaneously breaks the U(1) gauge symmetry such that there remains a discrete symmetry, which accounts for the stability of DM. This condensate also breaks a flavor symmetry in this model and Nambu-Goldstone bosons associated with this flavor symmetry appear below the confinement scale. The hidden U(1) gauge boson and hidden quarks/Nambu-Goldstone bosons are components of dark radiation (DR) above/below the confinement scale. These light fields increase the effective number of neutrinos by δNeff ≃ 0.59 above the confinement scale for N = 2, resolving the tension in the measurements of the Hubble constant by Planck and Hubble Space Telescope if the confinement scale is ≲1 eV. DM and DR continuously scatter with each other via the hidden U(1) gauge interaction, which suppresses the matter power spectrum and results in a smaller structure growth rate. The DM sector couples to the Standard Model sector through the exchange of a real singlet scalar mixing with the Higgs boson, which makes it possible to probe our model in DM direct detection experiments. Variants of this model are also discussed, which may offer alternative ways to investigate this scenario.

  10. SERUM GAMMA-GLUTAMYL TRANSFERASE AS A BIOMARKER OF TYPE-2 DM AMONG CIGARETTE SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Suganthy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Smoking is one of the most common addictions of modern times and needs to be studied in a community as a public health issue. Also, smoking is a modifiable risk factor for type-2 DM. The smoking-related diseases share common pathophysiologies of imbalance of systemic oxidants and antioxidant status, increased inflammatory reactions, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. Biochemical assay of serum Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT activity is a low cost and highly sensitive laboratory test. Studies have indicated GGT is moderately elevated before the onset of other traditional risk factors for type-2 DM. So, among hepatic markers, the baseline GGT analysis can be an early risk marker of type 2 diabetes in cigarette smokers has to be studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a case-control study on male cigarette smokers. 57 smokers were studied clinically and biochemically for plasma insulin, glucose and liver enzymes including GGT using standard biochemical methods and compared with 42 age and sex matched non-smokers as controls. RESULTS The mean serum GGT in smokers (25.45 ± 10.8 was increased compared to non-smokers (18.8 ± 5.8. Smokers GGT (r=0.396 and HOMA-IR (r=0.352 showed significant positive association with duration of smoking (p24 IU/L. Regression analysis showed none of the diabetic risk factors were observed to be dependent on GGT including other liver enzymes. Regression analysis showed GGT is not an independent risk factor for DM. Although, the mean fasting blood glucose (91.4 ± 21.3, BMI (26.1 ± 9.3 and HOMA-IR (7.3 ± 2.3 was increased among cigarette smokers with GGT >24 IU/L. CONCLUSION The baseline GGT assay in cigarette smokers might be associated with the proinflammatory status or be a marker of oxidative stress of smoke toxins. Smokers with baseline GGT >24 IU/L develop insulin resistance should be investigated in future longitudinal studies for prediabetes to consider cigarette smoking as an important modifiable

  11. High-contrast coronagraph performance in the presence of DM actuator defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidick, Erkin; Shaklan, Stuart; Cady, Eric

    2015-09-01

    Deformable Mirrors (DMs) are critical elements in high contrast coronagraphs, requiring precision and stability measured in picometers to enable detection of Earth-like exoplanets. Occasionally DM actuators or their associated cables or electronics fail, requiring a wavefront control algorithm to compensate for actuators that may be displaced from their neighbors by hundreds of nanometers. We have carried out experiments on our High-Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) to study the impact of failed actuators in partial fulfilment of the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph optical model validation milestone. We show that the wavefront control algorithm adapts to several broken actuators and maintains dark-hole contrast in broadband light.

  12. High-Contrast Coronagraph Performance in the Presence of DM Actuator Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidick, Erkin; Shaklan, Stuart; Cady, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Deformable Mirrors (DMs) are critical elements in high contrast coronagraphs, requiring precision and stability measured in picometers to enable detection of Earth-like exoplanets. Occasionally DM actuators or their associated cables or electronics fail, requiring a wavefront control algorithm to compensate for actuators that may be displaced from their neighbors by hundreds of nanometers. We have carried out experiments on our High-Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) to study the impact of failed actuators in partial fulfillment of the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph optical model validation milestone. We show that the wavefront control algorithm adapts to several broken actuators and maintains dark-hole contrast in broadband light.

  13. Dry matter production and chemical composition of Massai grass submitted to nitrogen rates and cutting heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Abadia Campos Pereira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in a greenhouse with a 4X4 factorial arrangement randomized block design in order to evaluate the effects of nitrogen rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg dm-3 associated with cutting heights (10, 15, 20 and 25 cm on dry matter production and the chemical composition of Massai grass. The seeding was done in pots with 11 kg of soil. 10 plants were kept per pot, and there were two cuts every 35 days. Nitrogen fertilization was split between the two cuts, where the first N application occurred after the uniformity cut and the second after the first cut. In each cut the plants were separated and weighed for botanical component evaluation: leaf blade and stem + sheath. After this, the samples were homogenized and analysed for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fibre (NDF content. In the first cut, the N fertilization caused a linear increase in DM production of 0.058 g pot-1 per each 1 mg dm-3 of N applied, as well as causing an increase of 0.549% in CP percentage, a 0.0124 pot-1 g increase in CP production and a reduction of 0.055% in NDF. In the second cut, N rates promoted a quadratic effect on DM production. A maximum DM production of 16.48 g pot-1 with 107.27 mg dm-3 of N was observed while CP production content was increased by 0.0092 g pot-1 for each 1 mg dm-3 N applied. In terms of linear responses to DM and PB, as well as the use efficiency calculated for Massai grass, recommended N doses range between 50 and 100 g dm-3.

  14. Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation Parameters, and Production Performance in Response to Dietary Grain Source and Oil Supplement of Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Kargar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction High-producing dairy cows require large amounts of concentrates that are rich in energy and crude protein to meet their nutrient requirements. Cereal grains and oil supplements are commonly used for increasing energy density of diets fed to high-producing dairy cows. Dietary grain source (barley vs. corn and oil supplement (soybean- vs. fish oil resulted in varied dry matter intake and milk production responses in different research studies based on effects on nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation characteristics. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine the effects of, and interactions between, grain source and oil supplement on the feed intake, rumen fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility and lactational performance of Holstein cows. Materials and Methods Eight lactating multiparous Holstein cows (parity = 3.3 ± 1.3 and days in milk = 77 ± 22.1; mean ± SD, were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 25-d periods. Each experimental period consisted of an 18-d diet adaptation period and a 7-d collection period. Cows within a square were assigned randomly to dietary treatments. Cows were blocked into 2 squares of 4 cows each based upon milk production, and days in milk, and within blocks were assigned to 1 of the 4 experimental diets with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: 1 BF = barley-based diet supplemented with fish oil at 2% of dietary DM, 2 BS = barley-based diet supplemented with soybean oil at 2% of dietary DM, 3 CF = corn-based diet supplemented with fish oil at 2% of dietary DM, and 4 CS = corn-based diet supplemented with soybean oil at 2% of dietary DM. The TMR amounts offered and refused were measured daily for each cow and DMI determined daily for each cow. Cows were milked three times daily at 0200, 1000, and 1800 h in a herringbone milking parlor. Milk yield for all cows was recorded and sampled at each milking during the last 7 d of each period. Milk samples were

  15. In vitro activity of DMG-Mino and DMG-DM Dot, two new glycylcyclines, against anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, C E; Lindmark, A; Persson, I

    1993-10-01

    The in vitro activity of DMG-Mino and DMG-DM Dot against 350 anaerobic bacterial strains including anaerobic cocci, Propionibacterium acnes, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium difficile, Bacteroides fragilis, other Bacteroides species and fusobacteria was determined by the agar dilution method. Their activity was compared with that of minocycline, doxycycline, piperacillin, cefoxitin, imipenem, clindamycin and metronidazole. DMG-Mino and DMG-DM Dot and imipenem were the most active agents tested. DMG-Mino and DMG-DM Dot had in vitro activity superior to that of minocycline and doxycycline.

  16. Dark matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark. That is, not only is the night sky dark, but also most of the matter and the energy in the universe is dark. For every atom visible in planets, stars and galaxies today there exists at least five or six times as much 'Dark Matter' in the universe. Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious but pervasive dark matter, which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe. Dark energy remains even more elusive, as we lack candidate fields that emerge from well established physics. I will describe various attempts to measure dark matter by direct and indirect means, and discuss the prospects for progress in unravelling dark energy.

  17. Dirac matter

    CERN Document Server

    Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel

    2017-01-01

    This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...

  18. Direct Detection Phenomenology in Models Where the Products of Dark Matter Annihilation Interact with Nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherry, John F.; Frandsen, Mads T.; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the direct detection phenomenology of a class of dark matter (DM) models in which DM does not directly interact with nuclei, {but rather} the products of its annihilation do. When these annihilation products are very light compared to the DM mass, the scattering in direct detection...... to nuclei, the limit from annihilation to relativistic particles in the Sun can be stronger than that of conventional non-relativistic direct detection by more than three orders of magnitude for masses in a 2-7 GeV window.......We investigate the direct detection phenomenology of a class of dark matter (DM) models in which DM does not directly interact with nuclei, {but rather} the products of its annihilation do. When these annihilation products are very light compared to the DM mass, the scattering in direct detection...... experiments is controlled by relativistic kinematics. This results in a distinctive recoil spectrum, a non-standard and or even absent annual modulation, and the ability to probe DM masses as low as a $\\sim$10 MeV. We use current LUX data to show that experimental sensitivity to thermal relic annihilation...

  19. Characterising dark matter searches at colliders and direct detection experiments: Vector mediators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmueller, Oliver; Dolan, Matthew J.; Malik, Sarah A.; McCabe, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a Minimal Simplified Dark Matter (MSDM) framework to quantitatively characterise dark matter (DM) searches at the LHC. We study two MSDM models where the DM is a Dirac fermion which interacts with a vector and axial-vector mediator. The models are characterised by four parameters: m DM , M med, g DM and g q , the DM and mediator masses, and the mediator couplings to DM and quarks respectively. The MSDM models accurately capture the full event kinematics, and the dependence on all masses and couplings can be systematically studied. The interpretation of mono-jet searches in this framework can be used to establish an equal-footing comparison with direct detection experiments. For theories with a vector mediator, LHC mono-jet searches possess better sensitivity than direct detection searches for light DM masses (≲5 GeV). For axial-vector mediators, LHC and direct detection searches generally probe orthogonal directions in the parameter space. We explore the projected limits of these searches from the ultimate reach of the LHC and multi-ton xenon direct detection experiments, and find that the complementarity of the searches remains. In conclusion, we provide a comparison of limits in the MSDM and effective field theory (EFT) frameworks to highlight the deficiencies of the EFT framework, particularly when exploring the complementarity of mono-jet and direct detection searches

  20. Minimal spin-3/2 dark matter in a simple s-channel model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khojali, Mohammed Omer; Goyal, Ashok; Kumar, Mukesh; Cornell, Alan S. [University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, National Institute for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2017-01-15

    We consider a spin-3/2 fermionic dark matter candidate (DM) interacting with Standard Model fermions through a vector mediator in the s-channel. We find that for pure vector couplings almost the entire parameter space of the DM and mediator mass consistent with the observed relic density is ruled out by the direct detection observations through DM-nucleon elastic scattering cross sections. In contrast, for pure axial-vector coupling, the most stringent constraints are obtained from monojet searches at the Large Hadron Collider. (orig.)

  1. The Nutrient Density of Snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Hess BA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Americans receive almost a quarter of their daily energy from snacks, snacking remains a poorly defined and understood eating occasion. However, there is little dietary guidance about choosing snacks. Families, clinicians, and researchers need a comprehensive approach to assessing their nutritional value. Objective: To quantify and compare the nutrient density of commonly consumed snacks by their overall nutrient profiles using the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF Index 10.3. Methods: NRF Index scores were calculated for the top 3 selling products (based on 2014 market research data in different snack categories. These NRF scores were averaged to provide an overall nutrient-density score for each category. Results: Based on NRF scores, yogurt (55.3, milk (52.5, and fruit (30.1 emerged as the most nutrient-dense snacks. Ice cream (−4.4, pies and cakes (−11.1, and carbonated soft drinks (−17.2 emerged as the most nutrient-poor snacks. Conclusions: The NRF Index is a useful tool for assessing the overall nutritional value of snacks based on nutrients to limit and nutrients to encourage.

  2. Nutrient management in substrate systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    Speaking about nutrient solutions in soilless cultivation, different solutions can be discerned. Originally, in soilless culture only one nutrient solution was taken into account, being the solution in the containers in which the plants were grown. Such solutions were intensively moved by air

  3. Fisheries management under nutrient influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammarlund, Cecilia; Nielsen, Max; Waldo, Staffan

    2018-01-01

    A fisheries management model that identifies the economic optimal management of fisheries under the influence of nutrients is presented. The model starts from the idea that growth in fish biomass increases with increasing availability of nutrients owing to higher food availability up to a peak...

  4. Nutrient solution and substrates for ‘cedro doce’ (Pochota fendleri seedling production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar J. Smiderle

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study assessed the effect of different substrates and addition of nutrient solution on the production of Pochota fendleri seedlings, leaf contents of macro and micronutrients and chlorophyll a and b. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 3 x 2 factorial scheme, with four replicates. The factors were three substrates, with or without addition of nutrient solution, composing six treatments: (T1 = sand; (T2 = soil; (T3 = sand + soil (1:1; (T4 = sand + nutrient solution; (T5 = soil + nutrient solution; (T6 = sand + soil + nutrient solution. Growth characteristics (height, collar diameter, shoot dry matter, root dry matter, root/shoot ratio and total dry matter and contents of macro- and micronutrients and chlorophyll a and b were evaluated. The use of nutrient solution reduces the time to obtain seedlings of Pochota fendleri, and it is important for proper growth and quality of seedlings. The sequence of nutritional requirement presented by Pochota fendleri seedlings in three substrates with addition of nutrient solution follows the descending order: macronutrients (N > Ca > K > Mg > P > S and micronutrients (Fe > Mn > B > Zn > Cu.

  5. Scalar dark matter in the B−L model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodejohann, Werner; Yaguna, Carlos E.

    2015-01-01

    The U(1) B−L extension of the Standard Model requires the existence of right-handed neutrinos and naturally realizes the seesaw mechanism of neutrino mass generation. We study the possibility of explaining the dark matter in this model with an additional scalar field, ϕ DM , that is a singlet of the Standard Model but charged under U(1) B−L . An advantage of this scenario is that the stability of ϕ DM can be guaranteed by appropriately choosing its B−L charge, without the need of an extra ad hoc discrete symmetry. We investigate in detail the dark matter phenomenology of this model. We show that the observed dark matter density can be obtained via gauge or scalar interactions, and that semi-annihilations could play an important role in the latter case. The regions consistent with the dark matter density are determined in each instance and the prospects for detection in future experiments are analyzed. If dark matter annihilations are controlled by the B−L gauge interaction, the mass of the dark matter particle should lie below 5 TeV and its direct detection cross section can be easily probed by XENON1T; if instead they are controlled by scalar interactions, the dark matter mass can be much larger and the detection prospects are less certain. Finally, we show that this scenario can be readily extended to accommodate multiple dark matter particles

  6. DM ORI: A YOUNG STAR OCCULTED BY A DISTURBANCE IN ITS PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Lund, Michael B.; Weintraub, David A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Cargile, Phillip [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Shappee, Benjamin J. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Siverd, Robert J. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Pepper, Joshua [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, 16 Memorial Drive East, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Holoien, Thomas W.-S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); James, David [Cerro Tololo InterAmerican Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Kuhn, Rudolf B. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 (South Africa); Beatty, Thomas G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Prieto, Jose L. [Nucleo de Astronoma de la Facultad de Ingeniera, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago (Chile); Feldman, Daniel M.; Espaillat, Catherine C. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    In some planet formation theories, protoplanets grow gravitationally within a young star’s protoplanetary disk, a signature of which may be a localized disturbance in the disk’s radial and/or vertical structure. Using time-series photometric observations by the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope South project and the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae, combined with archival observations, we present the discovery of two extended dimming events of the young star, DM Ori. This young system faded by ∼1.5 mag from 2000 March to 2002 August and then again in 2013 January until 2014 September (depth ∼1.7 mag). We constrain the duration of the 2000–2002 dimming to be < 860 days, and the event in 2013–2014 to be < 585 days, separated by ∼12.5 years. A model of the spectral energy distribution indicates a large infrared excess consistent with an extensive circumstellar disk. Using basic kinematic arguments, we propose that DM Ori is likely being periodically occulted by a feature (possibly a warp or perturbation) in its circumstellar disk. In this scenario, the occulting feature is located >6 au from the host star, moving at ∼14.6 km s{sup −1} and is ∼4.9 au in width. This localized structure may indicate a disturbance such as that which may be caused by a protoplanet early in its formation.

  7. Data Clustering Menggunakan Metodologi CRISP-DM Untuk Pengenalan Pola Proporsi Pelaksanaan Tridharma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Budiman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of human resources faculty can be reflected from the implementation of productivity and quality Tridharma (education, research, community service  and  supporting  field  activities.  Lecturer  Workload  and Evaluation of  Higher Education  Tridharma  (BKD  and theEPT-PT  aims  to  ensure  the  implementation  of  the  faculty  task  runs  according  to  the  criteria  set  out  in  legislation.  Data  clusteringTridharma  implementation is needed to  get  some  knowledge  of the  pattern of Tridharma  implementation  at  college.  Clustering  as a  data mining  technique  should be  scalable, reliable  and  meet  an  agreed  standard.  CRISP-DM is the standardization of  data mining  is  used  in this study. The results of data clustering found the pattern of proportion of Tridharma  into 3 clusters representing patterns: professionals, managers and teachers.Keywords : Clustering, CRISP-DM, K-Means, Tridharma

  8. A New Approach to the Long-Term Activity Behavior of DM UMa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taş G.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A long-term activity character of DM UMa (K0-1 IV-III, which is one of the most active members of the RS CVn type variables, is examined using the multicolor photometric observations which spread to the time interval between 1980 and 2009. In this work, we present a new approximation for the long-term light and color variation of DM UMa using data obtained by combining our own observations obtained in the Johnson broad-band U,B,V,R filters between the years 1997 and 2008 and data published in literature. Available light and color data were examined for the long-term and seasonal variations using PERIOD04 program. The period analysis of the V-band data reveals the period estimations of 51.2±2.8 years and 15.1±0.7 years superposed on it. The U-B, B-V and V-R colors do not show correlation with the longer period, but they show variations with a period similar to the shorter one, except for B-V color. The amplitude variation also does not exhibit any correlation with the V light and color curves. It is found that the movement of the spot minima phases in years also indicates the migration period of nearly 15 years, similar to the period derived from the analysis of the long-term photometric observations in V-band.

  9. [Functional activity of the modA, gene in Methylobacterium dichloromethanicum DM4].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firsova, Y E; Trotsenko, Y A

    2014-01-01

    The putative METDI2644 (modA2) gene of Methylobacterium dichloromethanicum DM4, present in the 126-kbp chromosomal fragment associated with dichloromethane (DCM) degradation was investigated. While this gene is presumed to encode the periplasmic substrate-binding subunit of the molybdate ABC transporter, its conceptual translation also exhibits similarity to the proteins containing the ostA conservative domain and responsible for resistance of gram-negative bacteria to organic solvents. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed the RNA transcripts of this gene in the cells grown on either DCM or methanol. The mobilizable suicide vector pK18mob was used to obtain a knockout mutant with the METDI2644 gene inactivated by insertion of the gentamycin cassette. The mutant pregrown on methanol exhibited lower growth rate on DCM than the wild-type strain DM4. The difference was not alleviated by addition of sodium molybdate. Our results suggest that the METDI2644 gene product plays a role in cell adaptation to DCM degradation.

  10. The nongravitational interactions of dark matter in colliding galaxy clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, David; Massey, Richard; Kitching, Thomas; Taylor, Andy; Tittley, Eric

    2015-03-27

    Collisions between galaxy clusters provide a test of the nongravitational forces acting on dark matter. Dark matter's lack of deceleration in the "bullet cluster" collision constrained its self-interaction cross section σ(DM)/m dark matter) for long-ranged forces. Using the Chandra and Hubble Space Telescopes, we have now observed 72 collisions, including both major and minor mergers. Combining these measurements statistically, we detect the existence of dark mass at 7.6σ significance. The position of the dark mass has remained closely aligned within 5.8 ± 8.2 kiloparsecs of associated stars, implying a self-interaction cross section σ(DM)/m < 0.47 cm(2)/g (95% CL) and disfavoring some proposed extensions to the standard model. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Disrupted subject-specific gray matter network properties and cognitive dysfunction in type 1 diabetes patients with and without proliferative retinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duinkerken, Eelco; Ijzerman, Richard G.; Klein, Martin; Moll, Annette C.; Snoek, Frank J.; Scheltens, Philip; Pouwels, Petra J. W.; Barkhof, Frederik; Diamant, Michaela; Tijms, Betty M.

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients, especially with concomitant microvascular disease, such as proliferative retinopathy, have an increased risk of cognitive deficits. Local cortical gray matter volume reductions only partially explain these cognitive dysfunctions, possibly because volume

  12. White dwarf stars: cosmic chronometers and dark matter probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaris, Maurizio; Cassisi, Santi

    2018-04-01

    White dwarfs (WD) are the endpoint of the evolution of the large majority of stars formed in our galaxy. In the last two decades observations and theory have improved to a level that makes it possible to employ WD for determining ages of the stellar populations in the disk of the Milky Way and in the nearest star clusters, and constrain the existence and properties of dark matter (DM) candidates. This review is centred on WD models, age-dating, and DM identification methods, recent results and future developments of the field.

  13. Consumo, digestibilidade dos nutrientes, produção e composição do leite de vacas alimentadas com resíduo de cervejaria fermentado - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i1.6990 Nutrient intake and digestibility and milk yield of cows fed with fermented brewer’s grain - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i1.6990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Bublitz

    2009-12-01

    levels in diets did not influence (p > 0.05 nutrient intake. The DC of organic matter (OM, total carbohydrates (TCH, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF were not influenced by levels of FBG (p > 0.05; however, the DC of DM, crude protein (CP and ether extract (EE increased linearly (p 0.05 nutrient intake and production and quality of milk. Thus the FBG can be included until 15% in dairy cow diets without changing nutrient intake and production and quality of milk.

  14. Dry matter content and fruit size affect flavour and texture of novel Actinidia deliciosa genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardozza, Simona; Gamble, Joanna; Axten, Lauren G; Wohlers, Mark W; Clearwater, Michael J; Feng, Jinquan; Harker, F Roger

    2011-03-15

    Previous studies with commercial kiwifruit cultivars have demonstrated that the taste of fruit with higher dry matter content (DM) is more liked by consumers. A unique replicated trial of kiwifruit genotypes (10 high/low DM × small/large-fruited genotypes) has provided an opportunity to consider how the genetic propensity for a kiwifruit to accumulate DM affects fruit flavour and texture. In the present study, eating-ripe fruit from each of the genotypes were assessed using a trained sensory panel and the relationships between these sensory attributes and fresh weight, DM, flesh firmness and soluble solids content (SSC) were explored. The genotypes provided a diversity of flavour and texture attributes, each of which varied in perceived intensity of the sensory experience. High-DM genotypes had higher SSC and were perceived as sweeter than low-DM genotypes. Sweet taste was closely associated with the perception of the tropical flavour and high-DM genotypes were found to have more tropical notes. Fruit size was associated with fruit texture, and small fruit were characterised by a firmer and more fibrous core. Large high-DM fruit were perceived as juicier than those of all other genotypes. Genotypes were perceived differently from one another, and differences in fruit size and DM content were reflected in fruit sensorial properties. This study is unique in demonstrating interactions between fruit size, DM and sensory properties. These findings could be relevant not only to kiwifruit but to fruiting crop breeders in general, because of the demonstrated potential for effects of fruit size and DM content on sweetness, flavour and fruit texture. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. On the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect from dark matter annihilation or decay in galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavalle, Julien; Boehm, Céline; Barthès, Julien

    2010-01-01

    We revisit the prospects for detecting the Sunyaev Zel'dovich (SZ) effect induced by dark matter (DM) annihilation or decay. We show that with standard (or even extreme) assumptions for DM properties, the optical depth associated with relativistic electrons injected from DM annihilation or decay is much smaller than that associated with thermal electrons, when averaged over the angular resolution of current and future experiments. For example, we find: τ DM ∼ 10 −9 −10 −5 (depending on the assumptions) for m χ = 1 GeV and a density profile ρ∝r −1 for a template cluster located at 50 Mpc and observed within an angular resolution of 10'', compared to τ th ∼ 10 −3 −10 −2 . This, together with a full spectral analysis, enables us to demonstrate that, for a template cluster with generic properties, the SZ effect due to DM annihilation or decay is far below the sensitivity of the Planck satellite. This is at variance with previous claims regarding heavier annihilating DM particles. Should DM be made of lighter particles, the current constraints from 511 keV observations on the annihilation cross section or decay rate still prevent a detectable SZ effect. Finally, we show that spatial diffusion sets a core of a few kpc in the electron distribution, even for very cuspy DM profiles, such that improving the angular resolution of the instrument, eg with ALMA, does not necessarily improve the detection potential. We provide useful analytical formulæ parameterized in terms of the DM mass, decay rate or annihilation cross section and DM halo features, that allow quick estimates of the SZ effect induced by any given candidate and any DM halo profile

  16. Constraints on the dark matter annihilation from Fermi-LAT observation of M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhengwei; Yuan, Qiang [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Huang, Xiaoyuan [Physik-Department T30d, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße, Garching, D-85748 Germany (Germany); Xu, Yupeng, E-mail: lizw@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: huangxiaoyuan@gmail.com, E-mail: yuanq@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: xuyp@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing, 100049 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Gamma-ray is a good probe of dark matter (DM) particles in the Universe. We search for the DM annihilation signals in the direction of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) using 7.5 year Fermi-LAT pass 8 data. Similar to Pshirkov et al. (2016), we find that there is residual excess emission from the direction of M31 if only the galactic disk as traced by the far infrared emission is considered. Adding a point-like source will improve the fitting effectively, although additional slight improvements can be found if an extended component such as a uniform disk or two bubbles is added instead. Taking the far infrared disk plus a point source as the background model, we search for the DM annihilation signals in the data. We find that there is strong degeneracy between the emission from the galaxy and that from 10s GeV mass DM annihilation in the main halo with quark final state. However, the required DM annihilation cross section is about 10{sup −25}–10{sup −24} cm{sup 3}s{sup −1}, orders of magnitude larger than the constraints from observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies, indicating a non-DM origin of the emission. If DM subhalos are taken into account, the degeneracy is broken. When considering the enhancement from DM subhalos, the constraints on DM model parameters are comparable to (or slightly weaker than) those from the population of dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We also discuss the inverse Compton scattering component from DM annihilation induced electrons/positrons. For the first time we include an energy dependent template of the inverse Compton emission (i.e., a template cube) in the data analysis to take into account the effect of diffusion of charged particles. We find a significant improvement of the constraints in the high mass range of DM particles after considering the inverse Compton emission.

  17. Baryonic pinching of galactic dark matter halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Michael; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    High resolution cosmological N-body simulations of four galaxy-scale dark matter halos are compared to corresponding N-body/hydrodynamical simulations containing dark matter, stars and gas. The simulations without baryons share features with others described in the literature in that the dark matter density slope continuously decreases towards the center, with a density ρ DM ∝r -1.3±0.2 , at about 1% of the virial radius for our Milky Way sized galaxies. The central cusps in the simulations which also contain baryons steepen significantly, to ρ DM ∝r -1.9±0.2 , with an indication of the inner logarithmic slope converging. Models of adiabatic contraction of dark matter halos due to the central buildup of stellar/gaseous galaxies are examined. The simplest and most commonly used model, by Blumenthal et al., is shown to overestimate the central dark matter density considerably. A modified model proposed by Gnedin et al. is tested and it is shown that, while it is a considerable improvement, it is not perfect. Moreover, it is found that the contraction parameters in their model not only depend on the orbital structure of the dark-matter-only halos but also on the stellar feedback prescription which is most relevant for the baryonic distribution. Implications for dark matter annihilation at the galactic center are discussed and it is found that, although our simulations show a considerable reduced dark matter halo contraction as compared to the Blumenthal et al. model, the fluxes from dark matter annihilation are still expected to be enhanced by at least a factor of a hundred, as compared to dark-matter-only halos. Finally, it is shown that, while dark-matter-only halos are typically prolate, the dark matter halos containing baryons are mildly oblate with minor-to-major axis ratios of c/a=0.73±0.11, with their flattening aligned with the central baryonic disks

  18. The interaction of the antitoxin DM43 with a snake venom metalloproteinase analyzed by mass spectrometry and surface plasmon resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Guilherme D; Salbo, Rune; Jørgensen, Thomas J D

    2012-01-01

    DM43 is a circulating dimeric antitoxin isolated from Didelphis aurita, a South American marsupial naturally immune to snake envenomation. This endogenous inhibitor binds non-covalently to jararhagin, the main hemorrhagic metalloproteinase from Bothrops jararaca snake venom, and efficiently...

  19. Biohydrogen production from desugared molasses (DM) using thermophilic mixed cultures immobilized on heat treated anaerobic sludge granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongjan, Prawit; O-Thong, Sompong; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen production from desugared molasses (DM) was investigated in both batch and continuous reactors using thermophilic mixed cultures enriched from digested manure by load shock (loading with DM concentration of 50.1 g-sugar/L) to suppress methanogens. H2 gas, free of methane, was produced......) and Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum with a relative abundance of 36%, 27%, and 10% of total microorganisms, respectively. This study shows that hydrogen production could be efficiently facilitated by using anaerobic granules as a carrier, where microbes from mixed culture enriched in the DM batch cultivation....... The enriched hydrogen producing mixed culture achieved from the 16.7 g-sugars/L DM batch cultivation was immobilized on heat treated anaerobic sludge granules in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB reactor, operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 h fed with 16.7 g...

  20. Single Crystal Piezoelectric Stack Actuator DM with Integrated Low-Power HVA-Based Driver ASIC, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project aims to develop an innovative batch fabrication technique to create single crystal PMN-PT stack actuator deformable mirrors (DM) at low...