WorldWideScience

Sample records for matter development implications

  1. Mapping Gray Matter Development: Implications for Typical Development and Vulnerability to Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogtay, Nitin; Thompson, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have scanned large numbers of children and adolescents repeatedly over time, as their brains develop, tracking volumetric changes in gray and white matter in remarkable detail. Focusing on gray matter changes specifically, here we explain how earlier studies using lobar volumes of specific…

  2. Origin and dynamics of oligodendrocytes in the developing brain : Implications for perinatal white matter injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilborg, Erik; de Theije, Caroline G.M.; van Hal, Maurik; Wagenaar, Nienke; de Vries, Linda S.; Benders, Manon J.; Rowitch, David H; Nijboer, Cora H.

    2018-01-01

    Infants born prematurely are at high risk to develop white matter injury (WMI), due to exposure to hypoxic and/or inflammatory insults. Such perinatal insults negatively impact the maturation of oligodendrocytes (OLs), thereby causing deficits in myelination. To elucidate the precise pathophysiology

  3. Implications of dark matter free streaming in the early Universe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diamanti, R.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, we link astrophysics and particle physics aspects in order to study the implications of the nature and properties of different types of dark matter candidates on the observable Universe. The main property which connects the different works on which this manuscript is based is

  4. Cosmological implications of Dark Matter bound states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitridate, Andrea [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126, Pisa (Italy); Redi, Michele; Smirnov, Juri [INFN, Sezione di Firenze, and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Strumia, Alessandro, E-mail: andrea.mitridate@gmail.com, E-mail: michele.redi@fi.infn.it, E-mail: juri.smirnov@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: alessandro.strumia@cern.ch [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Pisa and INFN, Pisa (Italy)

    2017-05-01

    We present generic formulæ for computing how Sommerfeld corrections together with bound-state formation affects the thermal abundance of Dark Matter with non-abelian gauge interactions. We consider DM as a fermion 3plet (wino) or 5plet under SU(2) {sub L} . In the latter case bound states raise to 11.5 TeV the DM mass required to reproduce the cosmological DM abundance and give indirect detection signals such as (for this mass) a dominant γ-line around 70 GeV. Furthermore, we consider DM co-annihilating with a colored particle, such as a squark or a gluino, finding that bound state effects are especially relevant in the latter case.

  5. Implications of LHC searches for Higgs-portal dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djouadi, Abdelhak; Lebedev, Oleg; Mambrini, Yann; Quevillon, Jeremie

    2011-12-01

    The search for the a Standard Model Higgs boson at the LHC is reaching a critical stage as the possible mass range for the particle has become extremely narrow and some signal at a mass of about 125 GeV is starting to emerge. We study the implications of these LHC Higgs searches for Higgs-portal models of dark matter in a rather model independent way. Their impact on the cosmological relic density and on the direct detection rates are studied in the context of generic scalar, vector and fermionic thermal dark matter particles. Assuming a sufficiently small invisible Higgs decay branching ratio, we find that current data, in particular from the XENON experiment, essentially exclude fermionic dark matter as well as light, i.e. with masses below ∼ 60 GeV, scalar and vector dark matter particles. Possible observation of these particles at the planned upgrade of the XENON experiment as well in collider searches is discussed. (orig.)

  6. Simulated Milky Way analogues: implications for dark matter direct searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgnia, Nassim; Calore, Francesca; Schaller, Matthieu; Lovell, Mark; Bertone, Gianfranco; Frenk, Carlos S.; Crain, Robert A.; Navarro, Julio F.; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2016-05-01

    We study the implications of galaxy formation on dark matter direct detection using high resolution hydrodynamic simulations of Milky Way-like galaxies simulated within the EAGLE and APOSTLE projects. We identify Milky Way analogues that satisfy observational constraints on the Milky Way rotation curve and total stellar mass. We then extract the dark matter density and velocity distribution in the Solar neighbourhood for this set of Milky Way analogues, and use them to analyse the results of current direct detection experiments. For most Milky Way analogues, the event rates in direct detection experiments obtained from the best fit Maxwellian distribution (with peak speed of 223-289 km/s) are similar to those obtained directly from the simulations. As a consequence, the allowed regions and exclusion limits set by direct detection experiments in the dark matter mass and spin-independent cross section plane shift by a few GeV compared to the Standard Halo Model, at low dark matter masses. For each dark matter mass, the halo-to-halo variation of the local dark matter density results in an overall shift of the allowed regions and exclusion limits for the cross section. However, the compatibility of the possible hints for a dark matter signal from DAMA and CDMS-Si and null results from LUX and SuperCDMS is not improved.

  7. Cognitive Implications of Deep Gray Matter Iron in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, E; Kmech, J A; Cobzas, D; Sun, H; Seres, P; Blevins, G; Wilman, A H

    2017-05-01

    Deep gray matter iron accumulation is increasingly recognized in association with multiple sclerosis and can be measured in vivo with MR imaging. The cognitive implications of this pathology are not well-understood, especially vis-à-vis deep gray matter atrophy. Our aim was to investigate the relationships between cognition and deep gray matter iron in MS by using 2 MR imaging-based iron-susceptibility measures. Forty patients with multiple sclerosis (relapsing-remitting, n = 16; progressive, n = 24) and 27 healthy controls were imaged at 4.7T by using the transverse relaxation rate and quantitative susceptibility mapping. The transverse relaxation rate and quantitative susceptibility mapping values and volumes (atrophy) of the caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and thalamus were determined by multiatlas segmentation. Cognition was assessed with the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests. Relationships between cognition and deep gray matter iron were examined by hierarchic regressions. Compared with controls, patients showed reduced memory ( P processing speed ( P = .02) and smaller putamen ( P deep gray matter iron accumulation in the current multiple sclerosis cohort. Atrophy and iron accumulation in deep gray matter both have negative but separable relationships to cognition in multiple sclerosis. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  8. Molecular characterization of macrophyte-derived dissolved organic matters and their implications for lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical properties of whole organic matter (OM) and its dissolved organic matter (DOM) fraction from six dominant macrophytes in Lake Dianchi were comparatively characterized, and their environmental implications were discussed. Significant differences in chemical composition of the OM samples were...

  9. Gravitino, dark matter candidate and implications for big bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailly, S.

    2008-11-01

    The Standard Model of particle physics was developed in the seventies. Despite many experimental successes, it presents many problems that can only be solved with models beyond the Standard Model. Supersymmetry is an interesting candidate, postulating a new symmetry between fermions and bosons. This model can also have interesting applications in cosmology. It offers potentially good candidates for dark matter, what represents 25% of the energy density of the Universe, and its nature is unknown. Another cosmological problem is the lithium problems in Big Bang Nucleosynthesis describing the production of light elements in the first seconds of the Universe. The lithium abundance predicted by the theory is inconsistent with observations. I study a scenario in which a supersymmetric particle, the gravitino, is the candidate for dark matter and the production of this particle through the decay of other supersymmetric particles may solve the lithium problems. (author)

  10. Health implications of hydropower development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, A.K.

    1982-01-01

    Hydropower development had been neglected in many countries during the past few decades, but the situation dramatically changed during the 1970s owing to the constantly increasing costs of electricity generation by fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. Currently, hydroelectric generation accounts for approximately 23% of total global electricity supply. Much of the hydropower potential in developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America still remains to be exploited. Like any other source of energy, hydropower development has several health impacts. Conceptually, health implications of hydropower development can be divided into two broad categories: short-term and long-term problems. Short-term health impacts occur during the planning, construction and immediate post-construction phases, whereas long-term impacts stem from the presence of large man-made lakes, development of extensive canal systems, alteration of the ecosystem of the area, and changing socio-economic conditions. Longer-term impacts are further classified into two categories: introduction of new diseases and/or intensification of existing ones due to the improvements of the habitats of disease-carrying vectors, and health problems arising from resettlement of the people whose homes and land-holdings are inundated by the reservoirs. All these impacts are discussed in detail. Health impacts of hydropower developments have not yet been studied extensively. It is often implicitly assumed that health impacts of major dams are minor compared with other social and environmental impacts. Future studies could possibly reverse this assumption. (author)

  11. Implications of the DAMA and CRESST experiments for mirror matter-type dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foot, R.

    2004-01-01

    Mirror atoms are expected to be a significant component of the galactic dark matter halo if mirror matter is identified with the nonbaryonic dark matter in the Universe. Mirror matter can interact with ordinary matter via gravity and via the photon-mirror photon kinetic mixing interaction--causing mirror charged particles to couple to ordinary photons with an effective electric charge εe. This means that the nuclei of mirror atoms can elastically scatter off the nuclei of ordinary atoms, leading to nuclear recoils, which can be detected in existing dark matter experiments. We show that the dark matter experiments most sensitive to this type of dark matter candidate (via the nuclear recoil signature) are the DAMA/NaI and CRESST/Sapphire experiments. Furthermore, we show that the impressive annual modulation signal obtained by the DAMA/NaI experiment can be explained by mirror matter-type dark matter for vertical bar ε vertical bar ∼5x10 -9 and is supported by DAMA's absolute rate measurement as well as the CRESST/Sapphire data. This value of vertical bar ε vertical bar is consistent with the value obtained from various solar system anomalies including the Pioneer spacecraft anomaly, anomalous meteorite events and lack of small craters on the asteroid Eros. It is also consistent with standard big bang nucleosynthesis

  12. Implication of collider experiments for detecting cold dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednyakov, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    Investigation of Minimal Supersymmetry Standard Model shows, that any discovery with high-energy colliders at least one supersymmetric particle would strongly enhance importance of very accurate experiments. which search for lightest supersymmetric neutralinos as cold dark matter particles. Form other side, non-observations of any signal of cold dark matter in such experiments would force us to change strategy of searching for, for instance, light charged Higgs bosons at high energies [ru

  13. Light dark matter in NMSSM and implication on Higgs phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Junjie; Hikasa, Ken-ichi; Wang Wenyu; Yang Jinmin

    2011-01-01

    For the experimental search of neutralino dark matter, it is important to know its allowed mass and scattering cross section with the nucleon. In order to figure out how light a neutralino dark matter can be predicted in low energy supersymmetry, we scan over the parameter space of the NMSSM (next-to-minimal supersymmetric model), assuming all the relevant soft mass parameters to be below TeV scale. We find that in the parameter space allowed by current experiments the neutralino dark matter can be as light as a few GeV and its scattering rate off the nucleon can reach the sensitivity of XENON100 and CoGeNT. As a result, a sizable parameter space is excluded by the current XENON100 and CoGeNT data (the plausible CoGeNT dark matter signal can also be explained). The future 6000 kg-days exposure of XENON100 will further explore (but cannot completely cover) the remained parameter space. Moreover, we find that in such a light dark matter scenario a light CP-even or CP-odd Higgs boson must be present to satisfy the measured dark matter relic density. Consequently, the SM-like Higgs boson h SM may decay predominantly into a pair of light Higgs bosons or a pair of neutralinos so that the conventional decays like h SM →γγ is much suppressed.

  14. Dark matter implications of the WMAP-Planck Haze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, Andrey E.; Pierpaoli, Elena; Gaskins, Jennifer M.; Pietrobon, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Gamma rays and microwave observations of the Galactic Center and surrounding areas indicate the presence of anomalous emission, whose origin remains ambiguous. The possibility of dark matter annihilation explaining both signals through prompt emission at gamma rays and secondary emission at microwave frequencies from interactions of high-energy electrons produced in annihilation with the Galactic magnetic fields has attracted much interest in recent years. We investigate the dark matter interpretation of the Galactic Center gamma-ray excess by searching for the associated synchrotron emission in the WMAP and Planck microwave data. Considering various magnetic field and cosmic-ray propagation models, we predict the synchrotron emission due to dark matter annihilation in our Galaxy, and compare it with the WMAP and Planck data at 23–70 GHz. In addition to standard microwave foregrounds, we separately model the microwave counterpart to the Fermi Bubbles and the signal due to dark matter annihilation, and use component separation techniques to extract the signal associated with each template from the total emission. We confirm the presence of the Haze at the level of ≈7% of the total sky intensity at 23 GHz in our chosen region of interest, with a harder spectrum (I ∼ ν −0.8 ) than the synchrotron from regular cosmic-ray electrons. The data do not show a strong preference towards fitting the Haze by either the Bubbles or dark matter emission only. Inclusion of both components provides a better fit with a dark matter contribution to the Haze emission of ≈20% at 23 GHz, however, due to significant uncertainties in foreground modeling, we do not consider this a clear detection of a dark matter signal. We set robust upper limits on the annihilation cross section by ignoring foregrounds, and also report best-fit dark matter annihilation parameters obtained from a complete template analysis. We conclude that the WMAP and Planck data are consistent with a dark

  15. Dark matter implications of the WMAP-Planck Haze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorov, Andrey E.; Pierpaoli, Elena [University of Southern California, 3620 McClintock Ave., SGM 408, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Gaskins, Jennifer M. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Pietrobon, Davide, E-mail: egorov@usc.edu, E-mail: jgaskins@uva.nl, E-mail: pierpaol@usc.edu, E-mail: daddeptr@gmail.com [University of California, Berkeley, Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Rd, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Gamma rays and microwave observations of the Galactic Center and surrounding areas indicate the presence of anomalous emission, whose origin remains ambiguous. The possibility of dark matter annihilation explaining both signals through prompt emission at gamma rays and secondary emission at microwave frequencies from interactions of high-energy electrons produced in annihilation with the Galactic magnetic fields has attracted much interest in recent years. We investigate the dark matter interpretation of the Galactic Center gamma-ray excess by searching for the associated synchrotron emission in the WMAP and Planck microwave data. Considering various magnetic field and cosmic-ray propagation models, we predict the synchrotron emission due to dark matter annihilation in our Galaxy, and compare it with the WMAP and Planck data at 23–70 GHz. In addition to standard microwave foregrounds, we separately model the microwave counterpart to the Fermi Bubbles and the signal due to dark matter annihilation, and use component separation techniques to extract the signal associated with each template from the total emission. We confirm the presence of the Haze at the level of ≈7% of the total sky intensity at 23 GHz in our chosen region of interest, with a harder spectrum (I ∼ ν{sup −0.8}) than the synchrotron from regular cosmic-ray electrons. The data do not show a strong preference towards fitting the Haze by either the Bubbles or dark matter emission only. Inclusion of both components provides a better fit with a dark matter contribution to the Haze emission of ≈20% at 23 GHz, however, due to significant uncertainties in foreground modeling, we do not consider this a clear detection of a dark matter signal. We set robust upper limits on the annihilation cross section by ignoring foregrounds, and also report best-fit dark matter annihilation parameters obtained from a complete template analysis. We conclude that the WMAP and Planck data are consistent with a

  16. Understanding Music's Therapeutic Efficacy with Implications for Why Music Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thram, Diane

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I focus on how attention to music's therapeutic efficacy is important to the praxial music education philosophy espoused by Elliott and Silverman. I note, despite the use of the term praxis from Aristotle's philosophy dating back to antiquity, there is no mention in Music Matters 2 of what historical evidence tells us about how…

  17. Implications of LHC results for theories of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tait, T.M.P.

    2014-01-01

    This write-up covers an invited talk prepared for the Rencontres de Blois particle physics conference in 2012. It provides some theoretical thoughts regarding searches for new phenomena at high energy colliders, with some specific reference to signatures including missing transverse momentum, which provide natural probes of the nature of dark matter. Some discussion of how these searches complement those performed in direct and indirect detection experiments is included. (author)

  18. White matter volume changes in people who develop psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterfang, Mark; McGuire, Philip K; Yung, Alison R; Phillips, Lisa J; Velakoulis, Dennis; Wood, Stephen J; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T; Brewer, Warrick; Soulsby, Bridget; Desmond, Patricia; McGorry, Patrick D; Pantelis, Christos

    2008-09-01

    Grey matter changes have been described in individuals who are pre- and peri-psychotic, but it is unclear if these changes are accompanied by changes in white matter structures. To determine whether changes in white matter occur prior to and with the transition to psychosis in individuals who are pre-psychotic who had previously demonstrated grey matter reductions in frontotemporal regions. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine regional white matter volume in 75 people with prodromal symptoms. A subset of the original group (n=21) were rescanned at 12-18 months to determine white matter volume changes. Participants were retrospectively categorised according to whether they had or had not developed psychosis at follow-up. Comparison of the baseline MRI data from these two subgroups revealed that individuals who later developed psychosis had larger volumes of white matter in the frontal lobe, particularly in the left hemisphere. Longitudinal comparison of data in individuals who developed psychosis revealed a reduction in white matter volume in the region of the left fronto-occipital fasciculus. Participants who had not developed psychosis showed no reductions in white matter volume but increases in a region subjacent to the right inferior parietal lobule. The reduction in volume of white matter near the left fronto-occipital fasciculus may reflect a change in this tract in association with the onset of frank psychosis.

  19. Implications of Neutrino Oscillations on the Dark-Matter World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, W-Y. Pauchy, E-mail: wyhwang@phys.ntu.edu.tw

    2014-01-15

    According to my own belief that “The God wouldn't create a world that is so boring that a particle knows only the very feeble weak interaction.”, maybe we underestimate the roles of neutrinos. We note that right-handed neutrinos play no roles, or don't exist, in the minimal Standard Model. We discuss the language to write down an extended Standard Model - using renormalizable quantum field theory as the language; to start with a certain set of basic units under a certain gauge group; in fact, to use the three right-handed neutrinos to initiate the family gauge group SU{sub f}(3). Specifically we use the left-handed and right-handed spinors to form the basic units together with SU{sub c}(3)×SU{sub L}(2)×U(1)×SU{sub f}(3) as the gauge group. The dark-matter SU{sub f}(3) world couples with the lepton world, but not with the quark world. Amazingly enough, the space of the Standard-Model Higgs Φ(1,2), the family Higgs triplet Φ(3, 1), and the neutral part of the mixed family Higgs Φ{sup 0}(3,2) undergoes the spontaneous symmetry breaking, i.e. the Standard-Model Higgs mechanism and the “project-out” family Higgs mechanism, to give rise to the weak bosons W{sup ±} and Z{sup 0}, one Standard-Model Higgs, the eight massive family gauge bosons, and the remaining four massive neutral family Higgs particles, and nothing more. Thus, the roles of neutrinos in this extended Standard Model are extremely interesting in connection with the dark-matter world.

  20. Implications of Neutrino Oscillations on the Dark-Matter World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, W.-Y. Pauchy

    2014-01-01

    According to my own belief that "The God wouldn't create a world that is so boring that a particle knows only the very feeble weak interaction.", maybe we underestimate the roles of neutrinos. We note that right-handed neutrinos play no roles, or don't exist, in the minimal Standard Model. We discuss the language to write down an extended Standard Model - using renormalizable quantum field theory as the language; to start with a certain set of basic units under a certain gauge group; in fact, to use the three right-handed neutrinos to initiate the family gauge group SUf (3). Specifically we use the left-handed and right-handed spinors to form the basic units together with SUc (3) × SUL (2) × U (1) × SUf (3) as the gauge group. The dark-matter SUf (3) world couples with the lepton world, but not with the quark world. Amazingly enough, the space of the Standard-Model Higgs Φ (1 , 2), the family Higgs triplet Φ(3, 1), and the neutral part of the mixed family Higgs Φ0 (3 , 2) undergoes the spontaneous symmetry breaking, i.e. the Standard-Model Higgs mechanism and the "project-out" family Higgs mechanism, to give rise to the weak bosons W± and Z0, one Standard-Model Higgs, the eight massive family gauge bosons, and the remaining four massive neutral family Higgs particles, and nothing more. Thus, the roles of neutrinos in this extended Standard Model are extremely interesting in connection with the dark-matter world.

  1. Recent developments in dark matter searches

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    results from indirect and direct detection dark matter search experiments is given. .... Such particles can be very light but still be CDM since their interaction was so extremely weak that they could not thermalize in the early Universe. ..... was caused by the report of two events in the signal region, the first time direct detection.

  2. Insecurity and national economic development implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insecurity and national economic development implications for Nigeria's vision 20: 2020. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review ... These social menace trigger off a worrisome sense of insecurity that challenge Nigeria's efforts towards national economic development and consequently its vision ...

  3. Does ethical membership matter? Moral identification and its organizational implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Douglas R; Chang, Young K; Shao, Ruodan

    2015-05-01

    This research meaningfully connects the literatures on identification and business ethics by proposing the new construct of moral identification. Moral identification is defined here as the perception of oneness or belongingness associated with an organization that exhibits ethical traits (e.g., care, kindness, and compassion), which also involves a deliberate concern of the membership with an ethical organization. Integrating social identity theory with theory on the moral self, this research examines an overall theoretical model where moral identification plays a significant role in explaining employee attraction, motivation, and retention (i.e., 3 components of the overall theoretical framework). These components were examined separately in 3 empirical studies and findings from these studies first revealed that moral identification explained why job seekers with strong (vs. weak) moral identities were more attracted to a socially responsible organization (Study 1). Second, moral identification was associated with lower employee unethical proorganizational behavior (Study 2). Finally, moral identification was negatively related to employees' turnover intentions. Organizations' legal compliance moderated this relation such that it was stronger when organizations have higher (vs. lower) levels of legal compliance (Study 3). Taken together, these studies suggest that moral identification offers new insights in explaining both potential and current employees' behaviors when morality is contextually relevant and subjectively meaningful. Theoretical contributions and practical implications are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Globalisation; Its Implications and Consequences for Developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to look at the concept of globalisations and analyse its implications and consequences for developing nations in Africa. It is premised on the general perception that globalisations is a positive and powerful force for the improved material well-being of humankind, that would aid the developing countries ...

  5. Equality Matters: The Critical Implications of Precisely Defining Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Valerie; Walkowiak, Temple; Cain, Chris; Lee, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    Equality is such an important concept for children to develop. In this article it is argued that a precise definition is needed to ensure that students are provided with a consistent "picture" of what it is that equality really means.

  6. Recent Developments in Supersymmetric and Hidden Sector Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, Daniel; Liu Zuowei; Nath, Pran

    2008-01-01

    New results which correlate SUSY dark matter with LHC signals are presented, and a brief review of recent developments in supersymmetric and hidden sector dark matter is given. It is shown that the direct detection of dark matter is very sensitive to the hierarchical SUSY sparticle spectrum and the spectrum is very useful in distinguishing models. It is shown that the prospects of the discovery of neutralino dark matter are very bright on the 'Chargino Wall' due to a copious number of model points on the Wall, where the NLSP is the Chargino, and the spin independent neutralino-proton cross section is maintained at high values in the 10 -44 cm 2 range for neutralino masses up to ∼850 GeV. It is also shown that the direct detection of dark matter along with lepton plus jet signatures and missing energy provide dual, and often complementary, probes of supersymmetry. Finally, we discuss an out of the box possibility for dark matter, which includes dark matter from the hidden sector, which could either consist of extra weakly interacting dark matter (a Stino XWIMP), or milli-charged dark matter arising from the Stueckelberg extensions of the MSSM or the SM.

  7. Telomeres: Implications for Cancer Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aina Bernal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres facilitate the protection of natural ends of chromosomes from constitutive exposure to the DNA damage response (DDR. This is most likely achieved by a lariat structure that hides the linear telomeric DNA through protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. The telomere shortening associated with DNA replication in the absence of a compensatory mechanism culminates in unmasked telomeres. Then, the subsequent activation of the DDR will define the fate of cells according to the functionality of cell cycle checkpoints. Dysfunctional telomeres can suppress cancer development by engaging replicative senescence or apoptotic pathways, but they can also promote tumour initiation. Studies in telomere dynamics and karyotype analysis underpin telomere crisis as a key event driving genomic instability. Significant attainment of telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT-pathway to maintain telomere length may be permissive and required for clonal evolution of genomically-unstable cells during progression to malignancy. We summarise current knowledge of the role of telomeres in the maintenance of chromosomal stability and carcinogenesis.

  8. Development of the Adolescent Brain: Implications for Executive Function and Social Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Choudhury, Suparna

    2006-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of considerable development at the level of behaviour, cognition and the brain. This article reviews histological and brain imaging studies that have demonstrated specific changes in neural architecture during puberty and adolescence, outlining trajectories of grey and white matter development. The implications of brain…

  9. Cultural Implications of Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiranpruk, Chaiskran

    A discussion of the cultural effects of economic and, by extension, human resource development in Southeast Asia looks at short- and long-term implications. It is suggested that in the short term, increased competition will affect distribution of wealth, which can promote materialism and corruption. The introduction of labor-saving technology may…

  10. Software development: do good manners matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Destefanis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A successful software project is the result of a complex process involving, above all, people. Developers are the key factors for the success of a software development process, not merely as executors of tasks, but as protagonists and core of the whole development process. This paper investigates social aspects among developers working on software projects developed with the support of Agile tools. We studied 22 open-source software projects developed using the Agile board of the JIRA repository. All comments committed by developers involved in the projects were analyzed and we explored whether the politeness of comments affected the number of developers involved and the time required to fix any given issue. Our results showed that the level of politeness in the communication process among developers does have an effect on the time required to fix issues and, in the majority of the analysed projects, it had a positive correlation with attractiveness of the project to both active and potential developers. The more polite developers were, the less time it took to fix an issue.

  11. Nuclear pasta in hot dense matter and its implications for neutrino scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggero, Alessandro; Margueron, Jérôme; Roberts, Luke F.; Reddy, Sanjay

    2018-04-01

    The abundance of large clusters of nucleons in neutron-rich matter at subnuclear density is found to be greatly reduced by finite-temperature effects when matter is close to β equilibrium, compared to the case where the electron fraction is fixed at Ye>0.1 , as often considered in the literature. Large nuclei and exotic nonspherical nuclear configurations called pasta, favored in the vicinity of the transition to uniform matter at T =0 , dissolve at a relatively low temperature Tu as protons leak out of nuclei and pasta. For matter at β equilibrium with a negligible neutrino chemical potential we find that Tuβ≃4 ±1 MeV for realistic equations of state. This is lower than the maximum temperature Tmaxβ≃9 ±1 MeV at which nuclei can coexist with a gas of nucleons and can be explained by a change in the nature of the transition to uniform matter called retrograde condensation. An important new finding is that coherent neutrino scattering from nuclei and pasta makes a modest contribution to the opacity under the conditions encountered in supernovas and neutron star mergers. This is because large nuclear clusters dissolve at most relevant temperatures, and at lower temperatures, when clusters are present, Coulomb correlations between them suppress coherent neutrino scattering off individual clusters. Implications for neutrino signals from galactic supernovas are briefly discussed.

  12. Youth development in India: does poverty matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Bijaya Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the differentials in youth development patterns determined by the economic condition of the household in India. The wealth index is used to glean youth development differentials in the different economic categories of the household. The findings suggest that youth from the bottom 20 per cent (poorest) of households are deprived in education, employment, labour force and are not working currently compared to youth from the middle and rich households. The states differ in yo...

  13. Developing software is not an easy matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Cardrige

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Why is it so difficult to learn to develop software? This question has been trying to answer for a long time, but has not yet found a solution to this issue. Moreover, it tends to confuse development with programming, and this also creates problems to elucidate the question. In an era in which urgently required improve the quality, and reliability, and safety of software it becomes urgent to potentiate or develop skills and abilities in professionals to meet these needs. But students are not interested in making careers involving these concepts, they prefer other less demanding and easier to achieve a certification. This article attempts to answer the question and present some suggestions for overcoming this difficulty.

  14. White Matter Volume Predicts Language Development in Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Caitlin K; Asaro, Lisa A; Akhondi-Asl, Alireza; Kussman, Barry D; Rivkin, Michael J; Bellinger, David C; Warfield, Simon K; Wypij, David; Newburger, Jane W; Soul, Janet S

    2017-02-01

    To determine whether brain volume is reduced at 1 year of age and whether these volumes are associated with neurodevelopment in biventricular congenital heart disease (CHD) repaired in infancy. Infants with biventricular CHD (n = 48) underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurodevelopmental testing with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II and the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories at 1 year of age. A multitemplate based probabilistic segmentation algorithm was applied to volumetric MRI data. We compared volumes with those of 13 healthy control infants of comparable ages. In the group with CHD, we measured Spearman correlations between neurodevelopmental outcomes and the residuals from linear regression of the volumes on corrected chronological age at MRI and sex. Compared with controls, infants with CHD had reductions of 54 mL in total brain (P = .009), 40 mL in cerebral white matter (P Development-II scores but did correlate positively with MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory language development. Infants with biventricular CHD show total brain volume reductions at 1 year of age, driven by differences in cerebral white matter. White matter volume correlates with language development, but not broader developmental indices. These findings suggest that abnormalities in white matter development detected months after corrective heart surgery may contribute to language impairment. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00006183. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Early dynamics of white matter deficits in children developing dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderauwera, Jolijn; Wouters, Jan; Vandermosten, Maaike; Ghesquière, Pol

    2017-10-01

    Neural anomalies have been demonstrated in dyslexia. Recent studies in pre-readers at risk for dyslexia and in pre-readers developing poor reading suggest that these anomalies might be a cause of their reading impairment. Our study goes one step further by exploring the neurodevelopmental trajectory of white matter anomalies in pre-readers with and without a familial risk for dyslexia (n=61) of whom a strictly selected sample develops dyslexia later on (n=15). We collected longitudinal diffusion MRI and behavioural data until grade 3. The results provide evidence that children with dyslexia exhibit pre-reading white matter anomalies in left and right long segment of the arcuate fasciculus (AF), with predictive power of the left segment above traditional cognitive measures and familial risk. Whereas white matter differences in the left AF seem most strongly related to the development of dyslexia, differences in the left IFOF and in the right AF seem driven by both familial risk and later reading ability. Moreover, differences in the left AF appeared to be dynamic. This study supports and expands recent insights into the neural basis of dyslexia, pointing towards pre-reading anomalies related to dyslexia, as well as underpinning the dynamic character of white matter. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Promoting biofuels: Implications for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Joerg; Thielmann, Sascha

    2008-01-01

    Interest in biofuels is growing worldwide as concerns about the security of energy supply and climate change are moving into the focus of policy makers. With the exception of bioethanol from Brazil, however, production costs of biofuels are typically much higher than those of fossil fuels. As a result, promotion measures such as tax exemptions or blending quotas are indispensable for ascertaining substantial biofuel demand. With particular focus on developing countries, this paper discusses the economic justification of biofuel promotion instruments and investigates their implications. Based on data from India and Tanzania, we find that substantial biofuel usage induces significant financial costs. Furthermore, acreage availability is a binding natural limitation that could also lead to conflicts with food production. Yet, if carefully implemented under the appropriate conditions, biofuel programs might present opportunities for certain developing countries

  17. The development of children's inhibition: Does parenting matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Roskam, I.; Stievenart, Marie; Meunier, J.-C.; Noël, M.-P.

    2014-01-01

    Whereas a large body of research has investigated the maturation of inhibition in relation to the prefrontal cortex, far less research has been devoted to environmental factors that could contribute to inhibition improvement. The aim of the current study was to test whether and to what extent parenting matters for inhibition development from 2 to 8. years of age. Data were collected from 421 families, with 348 mother-child dyads and 342 father-child dyads participating. Children's inhibition ...

  18. Cosmic Ray Experiments and the Implications for Indirect Detection of Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John W.; Ormes, Jonathan F.; Streitmatter, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Detection of cosmic-ray antiprotons was first reported by Golden et al. in 1979 and their existence was firmly established by the BESS and IMAX collaborations in the early 1990s. Increasingly precise measurements of the antiproton spectrum, most recently from BESS-Polar and PAMELA, have made it an important tool for investigating cosmic-ray transport in the galaxy and heliosphere and for constraining dark-matter models. The history of antiproton measurements will be briefly reviewed. The current status will be discussed, focusing on the results of BESS-Polar II and their implications for the possibility of antiprotons from primordial black hole evaporation. The current results of the BESS-Polar II antihelium search are also presented.

  19. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosinski, Lauren P; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N; Harrington, Michael G; Christensen, Trace A; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2015-12-01

    White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical.

  20. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren P. Klosinski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical.

  1. The effects of puberty on white matter development in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Lara; Goddings, Anne-Lise; Whitaker, Kirstie J; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Viner, Russell M

    2015-02-01

    Neuroimaging studies demonstrate considerable changes in white matter volume and microstructure during adolescence. Most studies have focused on age-related effects, whilst puberty-related changes are not well understood. Using diffusion tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics, we investigated the effects of pubertal status on white matter mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) in 61 males aged 12.7-16.0 years. Participants were grouped into early-mid puberty (≤Tanner Stage 3 in pubic hair and gonadal development; n=22) and late-post puberty (≥Tanner Stage 4 in pubic hair or gonadal development; n=39). Salivary levels of pubertal hormones (testosterone, DHEA and oestradiol) were also measured. Pubertal stage was significantly related to MD in diverse white matter regions. No relationship was observed between pubertal status and FA. Regression modelling of MD in the significant regions demonstrated that an interaction model incorporating puberty, age and puberty×age best explained our findings. In addition, testosterone was correlated with MD in these pubertally significant regions. No relationship was observed between oestradiol or DHEA and MD. In conclusion, pubertal status was significantly related to MD, but not FA, and this relationship cannot be explained by changes in chronological age alone. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Markov chain Monte Carlo exploration of minimal supergravity with implications for dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltz, Edward A.; Gondolo, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    We explore the full parameter space of Minimal Supergravity (mSUGRA), allowing all four continuous parameters (the scalar mass m 0 , the gaugino mass m 1/2 , the trilinear coupling A 0 , and the ratio of Higgs vacuum expectation values tan β) to vary freely. We apply current accelerator constraints on sparticle and Higgs masses, and on the b→sγ branching ratio, and discuss the impact of the constraints on g μ -2. To study dark matter, we apply the WMAP constraint on the cold dark matter density. We develop Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques to explore the parameter regions consistent with WMAP, finding them to be considerably superior to previously used methods for exploring supersymmetric parameter spaces. Finally, we study the reach of current and future direct detection experiments in light of the WMAP constraint. (author)

  3. Markov Chain Monte Carlo Exploration of Minimal Supergravity with Implications for Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltz, E

    2004-01-01

    We explore the full parameter space of Minimal Supergravity (mSUGRA), allowing all four continuous parameters (the scalar mass m 0 , the gaugino mass m 1/2 , the trilinear coupling A 0 , and the ratio of Higgs vacuum expectation values tan β) to vary freely. We apply current accelerator constraints on sparticle and Higgs masses, and on the b → sγ branching ratio, and discuss the impact of the constraints on g μ -2. To study dark matter, we apply the WMAP constraint on the cold dark matter density. We develop Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques to explore the parameter regions consistent with WMAP, finding them to be considerably superior to previously used methods for exploring supersymmetric parameter spaces. Finally, we study the reach of current and future direct detection experiments in light of the WMAP constraint

  4. Boosted dark matter and its implications for the features in IceCube HESE data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Atri [Space sciences, Technologies and Astrophysics Research (STAR) Institute, Université de Liège, Bât. B5a, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Gandhi, Raj; Gupta, Aritra [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad-211019 (India); Mukhopadhyay, Satyanarayan, E-mail: A.Bhattacharya@ulg.ac.be, E-mail: raj@hri.res.in, E-mail: aritra@hri.res.in, E-mail: satya@pitt.edu [PITT-PACC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We study the implications of the premise that any new, relativistic, highly energetic neutral particle that interacts with quarks and gluons would create cascade-like events in the IceCube (IC) detector. Such events would be observationally indistinguishable from neutral current deep-inelastic (DIS) scattering events due to neutrinos. Consequently, one reason for deviations, breaks or excesses in the expected astrophysical power-law neutrino spectrum could be the flux of such a particle. Motivated by features in the recent 1347-day IceCube high energy starting event (HESE) data, we focus on particular boosted dark matter (χ) related realizations of this premise. Here, χ is assumed to be much lighter than, and the result of, the slow decay of a massive scalar (φ ) which constitutes a major fraction of the Universe's dark matter (DM) . We show that this hypothesis, coupled with a standard power-law astrophysical neutrino flux is capable of providing very good fits to the present data, along with a possible explanation of other features in the HESE sample. These features include a) the paucity of events beyond ∼ 2 PeV b) a spectral feature resembling a dip or a spectral change in the 400 TeV–1 PeV region and c) an excess in the 50−100 TeV region. We consider two different boosted DM scenarios, and determine the allowed mass ranges and couplings for four different types of mediators (scalar, pseudoscalar, vector and axial-vector) which could connect the standard and dark sectors.We consider constraints from gamma-ray observations and collider searches. We find that the gamma-ray observations provide the most restrictive constraints, disfavouring the 1σ allowed parameter space from IC fits, while still being consistent with the 3σ allowed region. We also test our proposal and its implications against the (statistically independent) sample of six year through-going muon track data recently released by IceCube.

  5. Poverty and Brain Development in Children: Implications for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dike, Victor E.

    2017-01-01

    Debates on the effect of poverty on brain development in children and its implications for learning have been raging for decades. Research suggests that poverty affects brain development in children and that the implications for learning are more compelling today given the attention the issue has attracted. For instance, studies in the fields of…

  6. Epigenetic regulation during fetal femur development: DNA methylation matters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C de Andrés

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications are heritable changes in gene expression without changes in DNA sequence. DNA methylation has been implicated in the control of several cellular processes including differentiation, gene regulation, development, genomic imprinting and X-chromosome inactivation. Methylated cytosine residues at CpG dinucleotides are commonly associated with gene repression; conversely, strategic loss of methylation during development could lead to activation of lineage-specific genes. Evidence is emerging that bone development and growth are programmed; although, interestingly, bone is constantly remodelled throughout life. Using human embryonic stem cells, human fetal bone cells (HFBCs, adult chondrocytes and STRO-1(+ marrow stromal cells from human bone marrow, we have examined a spectrum of developmental stages of femur development and the role of DNA methylation therein. Using pyrosequencing methodology we analysed the status of methylation of genes implicated in bone biology; furthermore, we correlated these methylation levels with gene expression levels using qRT-PCR and protein distribution during fetal development evaluated using immunohistochemistry. We found that during fetal femur development DNA methylation inversely correlates with expression of genes including iNOS (NOS2 and COL9A1, but not catabolic genes including MMP13 and IL1B. Furthermore, significant demethylation was evident in the osteocalcin promoter between the fetal and adult developmental stages. Increased TET1 expression and decreased expression of DNA (cytosine-5--methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1 in adult chondrocytes compared to HFBCs could contribute to the loss of methylation observed during fetal development. HFBC multipotency confirms these cells to be an ideal developmental system for investigation of DNA methylation regulation. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the role of epigenetic regulation, specifically DNA methylation, in bone development

  7. The phase-space structure of a dark-matter halo: Implications for dark-matter direct detection experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmi, Amina; White, Simon D.M.; Springel, Volker

    2002-01-01

    We study the phase-space structure of a dark-matter halo formed in a high resolution simulation of a ΛCDM cosmology. Our goal is to quantify how much substructure is left over from the inhomogeneous growth of the halo, and how it may affect the signal in experiments aimed at detecting the dark matter particles directly. If we focus on the equivalent of 'solar vicinity', we find that the dark matter is smoothly distributed in space. The probability of detecting particles bound within dense lumps of individual mass less than 10 7 M · h -1 is small, less than 10 -2 . The velocity ellipsoid in the solar neighborhood deviates only slightly from a multivariate Gaussian, and can be thought of as a superposition of thousands of kinematically cold streams. The motions of the most energetic particles are, however, strongly clumped and highly anisotropic. We conclude that experiments may safely assume a smooth multivariate Gaussian distribution to represent the kinematics of dark-matter particles in the solar neighborhood. Experiments sensitive to the direction of motion of the incident particles could exploit the expected anisotropy to learn about the recent merging history of our Galaxy

  8. Development Implications of Liberalization of Trade in Services ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Development Implications of Liberalization of Trade in Services ... disseminated by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). ... The Honourable Chrystia Freeland, Minister of International Trade, announced a ...

  9. Transnational Education: Current Developments and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianxin

    2009-01-01

    Ever since the transnational education trend took off since the 1980s, transnational education has come to bearing political, economic and cultural implications. Different approaches have been formulated to achieve specific policy objectives by both importing and exporting countries. Such approaches demonstrate a four dimensional composition,…

  10. methanization of organic matters. Guide for project developers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-02-01

    This document aims at informing potential project developers (farmers, local communities, industrials) all along the creation of a methanization unit. It precisely indicates administrative procedures required to complete a project. It first presents some generalities about methanization (matters and their performance, methanization cycle, biogas), describes methanization processes (dry and humid), and valorisation processes (co-generation, hot water production, gas injection into the public network), presents digestate characteristics, and discusses benefits and drawbacks of methanization. The different steps of a project management are then analysed. Additional procedures are indicated, and risks and traps of methanization projects are highlighted. The document comes along with a large number of appendices which can be documents released by professional or public bodies

  11. The development of children's inhibition: does parenting matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Stievenart, Marie; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Noël, Marie-Pascale

    2014-06-01

    Whereas a large body of research has investigated the maturation of inhibition in relation to the prefrontal cortex, far less research has been devoted to environmental factors that could contribute to inhibition improvement. The aim of the current study was to test whether and to what extent parenting matters for inhibition development from 2 to 8years of age. Data were collected from 421 families, with 348 mother-child dyads and 342 father-child dyads participating. Children's inhibition capacities and parenting behaviors were assessed in a three-wave longitudinal data collection. The main analyses examined the impact of parenting on the development of children's inhibition capacities. They were conducted using a multilevel modeling (MLM) framework. The results lead to the conclusion that both mothers and fathers contribute through their child-rearing behavior to their children's executive functioning, even when controlling for age-related improvement (maturation) and important covariates such as gender, verbal IQ, and place of enrollment. More significant relations between children's inhibition development and parenting were displayed for mothers than for fathers. More precisely, parenting behaviors that involve higher monitoring, lower discipline, inconsistency and negative controlling, and a positive parenting style are associated with good development of inhibition capacities in children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. As if Kyoto mattered: The clean development mechanism and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher Zegras, P.

    2007-01-01

    Transportation is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the most rapidly growing anthropogenic source. In the future, the developing world will account for the largest share of transport GHG increases. Four basic components drive transportation energy consumption and GHG emissions: activities (A), mode share (S), fuel intensity (I) and fuel choice (F) (ASIF). Currently, the Kyoto Protocol's clean development mechanism (CDM) serves as the main international market-based tool designed to reduce GHG emissions from the developing world. Theoretically, the CDM has the dual purpose of helping developing countries achieve 'sustainable development' goals and industrialized countries meet their Kyoto emissions reduction commitments. This paper reviews overall CDM activities and transportation CDM activities to date and then presents findings from three case studies of transportation CDM possibilities examined with the ASIF framework in Santiago de Chile. The analysis suggests that bus technology switch (I) provides a fairly good project fit for the CDM, while options aimed at inducing mode share (S) to bicycle, or modifying travel demand via land use changes (ASI) face considerable challenges. The implications of the findings for the CDM and the 'post-Kyoto' world are discussed

  13. Satirical drama, political corruption and development implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Satirical drama, political corruption and development implications for Nigeria: a reflection on Ola Rotimi's Our husband has gone mad again. ... The corrupt tendencies of this select few, which come in various forms, have ... from 32 Countries:.

  14. Expertise development in the professions; Implications for teaching and assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, Els

    2011-01-01

    Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2011, 30 August - 3 September). Expertise development in the professions; Implications for teaching and assessment. Paper presented at the bi-annual EARLI conferences, Exeter, UK.

  15. Cosmological implications of a dark matter self-interaction energy density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiele, Rainer; Boeckel, Tillmann; Schaffner-Bielich, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    We investigate cosmological constraints on an energy density contribution of elastic dark matter self-interactions characterized by the mass of the exchange particle m SI and coupling constant α SI . Because of the expansion behavior in a Robertson-Walker metric we investigate self-interacting dark matter that is warm in the case of thermal relics. The scaling behavior of dark matter self-interaction energy density (ρ SI ∝a -6 ) shows that it can be the dominant contribution (only) in the very early universe. Thus its impact on primordial nucleosynthesis is used to restrict the interaction strength m SI /√(α SI ), which we find to be at least as strong as the strong interaction. Furthermore we explore dark matter decoupling in a self-interaction dominated universe, which is done for the self-interacting warm dark matter as well as for collisionless cold dark matter in a two component scenario. We find that strong dark matter self-interactions do not contradict superweak inelastic interactions between self-interacting dark matter and baryonic matter (σ A SIDM weak ) and that the natural scale of collisionless cold dark matter decoupling exceeds the weak scale (σ A CDM >σ weak ) and depends linearly on the particle mass. Finally structure formation analysis reveals a linear growing solution during self-interaction domination (δ∝a); however, only noncosmological scales are enhanced.

  16. Local Energy Matters: Solar Development in Duluth, Minnesota Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slick, Jodi Lyn [Ecolibrium3

    2018-03-30

    The Local Energy Matters project advanced solar deployment in the City of Duluth, MN- a cold-climate community of 86,000. At the beginning of the project, Duluth had 254.57 kW installed solar capacity with an average cost of $5.04/watt installed in 2014. The project worked with cross-sector stakeholders to benchmark the current market, implement best practices for solar deployment and soft cost reduction, develop pilot deployment programs in residential rooftop, community solar, and commercial/industrial sectors, work with the City of Duluth to determine appropriate sites for utility scale developments, and demonstrate solar pus storage. Over the three years of the project, Duluth’s installed residential and commercial solar capacity grew by 344% to 875.9 kW with an additional 702 kW solar garden capacity subscribed by Duluth residents, businesses, and institutions. Installation costs dropped 48% over this timeframe to $4.08/watt installed (exclusive of solar garden construction). This report documents the process used to identify levers for increased solar installation and cost reductions in a nascent cold-climate solar market.

  17. Destination image: Origins, Developments and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Dominique Ferreira Lopes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, tourism has become one of the main sectors of the global economy, not only because of its contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP of different countries, but also because of the employment it generates. Since 2009, however, the results of tourism have been severely affected by the economic and financial crisis and it is now essential to analyze the key elements of tourist consumer behavior. In this context, the image that a destination transmits to the market becomes one of the elements which influence tourists the most when choosing a tourist destination. The authors therefore aim to identify the main elements that characterize the image of a tourist destination, as well as their implications for the management of tourist destinations.

  18. Sleep spindling and fluid intelligence across adolescent development: sex matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert eBódizs

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Evidence supports the intricate relationship between sleep electroencephalogram (EEG spindling and cognitive abilities in children and adults. Although sleep EEG changes during adolescence index fundamental brain reorganization, a detailed analysis of sleep spindling and the spindle-intelligence relationship was not yet provided for adolescents. Therefore, adolescent development of sleep spindle oscillations were studied in a home polysomnographic study focusing on the effects of chronological age and developmentally acquired overall mental efficiency (fluid IQ with sex as a potential modulating factor. Subjects were 24 healthy adolescents (12 males with an age range of 15–22 years (mean: 18 years and fluid IQ of 91-126 (mean: 104.12, Raven Progressive Matrices Test. Slow spindles (SSs and fast spindles (FSs were analyzed in 21 EEG derivations by using the individual adjustment method. A significant age-dependent increase in average FS density (r = .57; p = .005 was found. Moreover, fluid IQ correlated with FS density (r = .43; p = .04 and amplitude (r = .41; p = .049. The latter effects were entirely driven by particularly reliable FS-IQ correlations in females [r = .80 (p = .002 and r = .67 (p = .012, for density and amplitude, respectively]. Region-specific analyses revealed that these correlations peak in the fronto-central regions. The control of the age-dependence of FS measures and IQ scores did not considerably reduce the spindle-IQ correlations with respect to FS density. The only positive spindle-index of fluid IQ in males turned out to be the frequency of FSs (r = .60, p = .04. Increases in FS density during adolescence may index reshaped structural connectivity related to white matter maturation in the late developing human brain. The continued development over this age range of cognitive functions is indexed by specific measures of sleep spindling unravelling gender differences in adolescent brain maturation and perhaps cognitive

  19. The baryonic Tully-Fisher relation and its implication for dark matter halos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trachternach, C.; de Blok, W. J. G.; McGaugh, S. S.; van der Hulst, J. M.; Dettmar, R. -J.

    2009-01-01

    Context. The baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTF) is a fundamental relation between baryonic mass and maximum rotation velocity. It can be used to estimate distances, as well as to constrain the properties of dark matter and its relation with the visible matter. Aims. In this paper, we explore if

  20. Reheating effects in the matter power spectrum and implications for substructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickcek, Adrienne L.; Sigurdson, Kris

    2011-01-01

    The thermal and expansion history of the Universe before big bang nucleosynthesis is unknown. We investigate the evolution of cosmological perturbations through the transition from an early matter era to radiation domination. We treat reheating as the perturbative decay of an oscillating scalar field into relativistic plasma and cold dark matter. After reheating, we find that subhorizon perturbations in the decay-produced dark matter density are significantly enhanced, while subhorizon radiation perturbations are instead suppressed. If dark matter originates in the radiation bath after reheating, this suppression may be the primary cutoff in the matter power spectrum. Conversely, for dark matter produced nonthermally from scalar decay, enhanced perturbations can drive structure formation during the cosmic dark ages and dramatically increase the abundance of compact substructures. For low reheat temperatures, we find that as much as 50% of all dark matter is in microhalos with M > or approx. 0.1M + at z≅100, compared to a fraction of ∼10 -10 in the standard case. In this scenario, ultradense substructures may constitute a large fraction of dark matter in galaxies today.

  1. Ultra Light Axionic Dark Matter: Galactic Halos and Implications for Observations with Pulsar Timing Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Martino, Ivan; Broadhurst, Tom; Tye, S.-H. Henry; Chiueh, Tzihong; Shive, Hsi-Yu; Lazkoz, Ruth

    2018-01-01

    The cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm successfully explains the cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshifts. However, it fails when probing the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way's dwarf galaxy satellites. Moreover, the lack of experimental detection of Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) favors alternative candidates such as light axionic dark matter that naturally arise in string theory. Cosmological N-body simulations have shown that axionic dark matter forms a solitonic core of size of ≃ 150 pc in the innermost region of the galactic halos. The oscillating scalar field associated to the axionic dark matter halo produces an oscillating gravitational potential that induces a time dilation of the pulse arrival time of ≃ 400 ns/(m_B/10^{-22} eV) for pulsar within such a solitonic core. Over the whole galaxy, the averaged predicted signal may be detectable with current and forthcoming pulsar timing array telescopes.

  2. A Subject Matter Expert View of Curriculum Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, M. P.; Anderson, R. B.; Edgar, L. A.; Gaither, T. A.; Vaughan, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    In 2015, NASA selected for funding the PLANETS project: Planetary Learning that Advances the Nexus of Engineering, Technology, and Science. The PLANETS partnership develops planetary science and engineering curricula for out of classroom time (OST) education settings. This partnership is between planetary science Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) at the US Geological Survey (USGS), curriculum developers at the Boston Museum of Science (MOS) Engineering is Everywhere (EiE), science and engineering teacher professional development experts at Northern Arizona University (NAU) Center for Science Teaching and Learning (CSTL), and OST teacher networks across the world. For the 2016 and 2017 Fiscal Years, our focus was on creating science material for two OST modules designed for middle school students. We have begun development of a third module for elementary school students. The first model teaches about the science and engineering of the availability of water in the Solar System, finding accessible water, evaluating it for quality, treating it for impurities, initial use, a cycle of greywater treatment and re-use, and final treatment of blackwater. This module is described in more detail in the abstract by L. Edgar et al., Water in the Solar System: The Development of Science Education Curriculum Focused on Planetary Exploration (233008) The second module involves the science and engineering of remote sensing in planetary exploration. This includes discussion and activities related to the electromagnetic spectrum, spectroscopy and various remote sensing systems and techniques. In these activities and discussions, we include observation and measurement techniques and tools as well as collection and use of specific data of interest to scientists. This module is described in more detail in the abstract by R. Anderson et al., Remote Sensing Mars Landing Sites: An Out-of-School Time Planetary Science Education Activity for Middle School Students (232683) The third module

  3. Practical implications of rapid development methodologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gerber, A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available as the acceleration of the system development phases through an iterative construction approach. These methodologies also claim to manage the changing nature of requirements. However, during the development of large and complex systems by a small and technically...

  4. Understanding the Development Implications of Online Outsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Malik , Fareesa; Nicholson , Brian; Heeks , Richard

    2017-01-01

    Part 10: Global Sourcing and Development; International audience; Online outsourcing (OO) involves global outsourcing of tasks from clients to freelancers via platforms such as Upwork, Guru, Freelancer and Fiverr. Governments and donor agencies in several developing countries are currently starting OO training initiatives to enable access to digital livelihoods for marginalised groups such as youth and women. However, little is known about the impact of these initiatives and in response this ...

  5. Biomass Burning Smoke Climatology of the United States: Implications for Particulate Matter Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulfus, Aaron S; Nair, Udaysankar; Jaffe, Daniel; Christopher, Sundar A; Goodrick, Scott

    2017-10-17

    We utilize the NOAA Hazard Mapping System smoke product for the period of 2005 to 2016 to develop climatology of smoke occurrence over the Continental United States (CONUS) region and to study the impact of wildland fires on particulate matter air quality at the surface. Our results indicate that smoke is most frequently found over the Great Plains and western states during the summer months. Other hotspots of smoke occurrence are found over state and national parks in the southeast during winter and spring, in the Gulf of Mexico southwards of the Texas and Louisiana coastline during spring season and along the Mississippi River Delta during the fall season. A substantial portion (20%) of the 24 h federal standard for particulate pollution exceedance events in the CONUS region occur when smoke is present. If the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations continue to reduce anthropogenic emissions, wildland fire emissions will become the major contributor to particulate pollution and exceedance events. In this context, we show that HMS smoke product is a valuable tool for analysis of exceptional events caused by wildland fires and our results indicate that these tools can be valuable for policy and decision makers.

  6. Impacts of particulate matter pollution on plants: Implications for environmental biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is one of the serious problems world is facing in recent Anthropocene era of rapid industrialization and urbanization. Specifically particulate matter (PM) pollution represents a threat to both the environment and human health. The changed ambient environment due to the PM pollutant in urban areas has exerted a profound influence on the morphological, biochemical and physiological status of plants and its responses. Taking into account the characteristics of the vegetation (wide distribution, greater contact area etc.) it turns out to be an effective indicator of the overall impact of PM pollution and harmful effects of PM pollution on vegetation have been reviewed in the present paper, covering an extensive span of 1960 to March 2016. The present review critically describes the impact of PM pollution and its constituents (e.g. heavy metals and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons) on the morphological attributes such as leaf area, leaf number, stomata structure, flowering, growth and reproduction as well as biochemical parameters such as pigment content, enzymes, ascorbic acid, protein, sugar and physiological aspect such as pH and Relative water content. Further, the paper provides a brief overview on the impact of PM on biodiversity and climate change. Moreover, the review emphasizes the genotoxic impacts of PM on plants. Finally, on the basis of such studies tolerant plants as potent biomonitors with high Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and Air Pollution Index (API) can be screened and may be recommended for green belt development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sleep spindling and fluid intelligence across adolescent development: sex matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bódizs, Róbert; Gombos, Ferenc; Ujma, Péter P; Kovács, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    Evidence supports the intricate relationship between sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) spindling and cognitive abilities in children and adults. Although sleep EEG changes during adolescence index fundamental brain reorganization, a detailed analysis of sleep spindling and the spindle-intelligence relationship was not yet provided for adolescents. Therefore, adolescent development of sleep spindle oscillations were studied in a home polysomnographic study focusing on the effects of chronological age and developmentally acquired overall mental efficiency (fluid IQ) with sex as a potential modulating factor. Subjects were 24 healthy adolescents (12 males) with an age range of 15-22 years (mean: 18 years) and fluid IQ of 91-126 (mean: 104.12, Raven Progressive Matrices Test). Slow spindles (SSs) and fast spindles (FSs) were analyzed in 21 EEG derivations by using the individual adjustment method (IAM). A significant age-dependent increase in average FS density (r = 0.57; p = 0.005) was found. Moreover, fluid IQ correlated with FS density (r = 0.43; p = 0.04) and amplitude (r = 0.41; p = 0.049). The latter effects were entirely driven by particularly reliable FS-IQ correlations in females [r = 0.80 (p = 0.002) and r = 0.67 (p = 0.012), for density and amplitude, respectively]. Region-specific analyses revealed that these correlations peak in the fronto-central regions. The control of the age-dependence of FS measures and IQ scores did not considerably reduce the spindle-IQ correlations with respect to FS density. The only positive spindle-index of fluid IQ in males turned out to be the frequency of FSs (r = 0.60, p = 0.04). Increases in FS density during adolescence may index reshaped structural connectivity related to white matter maturation in the late developing human brain. The continued development over this age range of cognitive functions is indexed by specific measures of sleep spindling unraveling gender differences in adolescent brain maturation and perhaps

  8. Isotopic composition of nitrate and particulate organic matter in a pristine dam reservoir of western India: Implications for biogeochemical processes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bardhan, P.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Karapurkar, S.G.; Shenoy, D.M.; Kurian, S.; Naik, H.

    , 767–779, 2017 www.biogeosciences.net/14/767/2017/ doi:10.5194/bg-14-767-2017 © Author(s) 2017. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Isotopic composition of nitrate and particulate organic matter in a pristine dam reservoir of western India: implications... basis. Samples for nitrate isotopic measurements were col- lected from 2011. The facility for nitrate isotope analysis was Biogeosciences, 14, 767–779, 2017 www.biogeosciences.net/14/767/2017/ P. Bardhan et al.: Isotopic composition of nitrate and POM...

  9. On the implications of development for moral education | Udokang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the concept of development and the implication it has for moral education. While using the word “development” in its general understanding as change from one stage to the other, it went beyond this to the psychological. It alludes that in terms of moral education, development is not just any behaviour ...

  10. Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study--"Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention"--was to explore and describe the perceptions and beliefs of Salvadoran mothers of low socioeconomic status regarding the language development of their young children in order to identify cultural variations in…

  11. Feminist Identity Development: Implications for Feminist Therapy with Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Kathleen; Rickard, Kathryn M.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses implications of the Downing and Roush (1985) feminist identity development model for feminist therapy with women. Describes potential pitfalls of feminist therapy and emergent issues at subsequent stages of client's identity development. Proposes research agenda for hypothesis testing of model when applied to therapy with women clients.…

  12. Implications for Sustainable Economic Development in Nigeria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper therefore examines the role of psychological empowerment in development of entrepreneurship among women. It is acknowledged that one major problem of underdevelopment in Nigeria is the issue of unemployment, especially among willing and employable Nigerians. Women have also been seen as very ...

  13. Issues in Political Development: Implications for Counsellors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two research questions guided the study. Questionnaire was used for data collection. The data collected were analyzed using mean scores. The findings revealed. that some impediments to political development include; Religious intolerance, poor leadership, structural imbalance, moral decadence, political instability, and ...

  14. Asymmetry of the Brain: Development and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duboc, Véronique; Dufourcq, Pascale; Blader, Patrick; Roussigné, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Although the left and right hemispheres of our brains develop with a high degree of symmetry at both the anatomical and functional levels, it has become clear that subtle structural differences exist between the two sides and that each is dominant in processing specific cognitive tasks. As the result of evolutionary conservation or convergence, lateralization of the brain is found in both vertebrates and invertebrates, suggesting that it provides significant fitness for animal life. This widespread feature of hemispheric specialization has allowed the emergence of model systems to study its development and, in some cases, to link anatomical asymmetries to brain function and behavior. Here, we present some of what is known about brain asymmetry in humans and model organisms as well as what is known about the impact of environmental and genetic factors on brain asymmetry development. We specifically highlight the progress made in understanding the development of epithalamic asymmetries in zebrafish and how this model provides an exciting opportunity to address brain asymmetry at different levels of complexity.

  15. Disturbance of Soil Organic Matter and Nitrogen Dynamics: Implications for Soil and Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-30

    Elliott, E.T., 1992. Particulate soil organic- matter changes across a grassland cultivation sequence. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 56, 777–783. Dale, V.H...C.A., Elliott, E.T., 1992. Particulate soil organic-matter changes across a grassland cultivation sequence. Soil Science Society of America Journal...1645-1650. Van Straalen, N.M. 1997. How to measure no effect. 2. Threshold effects in ecotoxicology . Environmetrics 8: 249-253. Verburg, P.S.J

  16. Gestational age at birth and brain white matter development in term-born infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies on infants/children born preterm have shown that adequate gestational length is critical for brain white matter development. Less is known regarding how variations in gestational age at birth in term infants/children affect white matter development, which was evaluated in this study. Using d...

  17. Regional Competitiveness and Its Implications for Development

    OpenAIRE

    Daryono Soebagyo; Triyono Triyono; Yuli Tri Cahyono

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify regional competitiveness in some areas of Central Java. Regional competitiveness became one of the issues in regional development policy since the enactment of local autonomy.Measurement of regional competitiveness has been mostly done through ranking as a benchmark the competitiveness of the region. Mapping regional competitiveness in Indonesia has been made to all counties and cities, which shows the competitiveness ranking of each region. Competitivenes...

  18. Private health insurance: implications for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William

    2005-02-01

    Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage.

  19. National environmental plan, development and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto Martinez, Elias

    1996-01-01

    The causes of the environmental deterioration are analyzed in Colombia, one of them is the based on their economic development related with the inadequate exploitation of the natural resources, since very few they made it in a rational way, what has taken us to a permanent behavior, which it is necessary to modify but to modify it has to arrive to a change of attitude. It also refers to the supposition of a limited existence of the natural resources and the actions that should be carried out

  20. Business development - the function, research propositions, and managerial implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe

    and executives from high-tech firms and venture capitalists in North America, Asia, and Europe to provide a foundation for future research. Business development is an emerging staff function providing an added level of sophistication to the firms' overall strategic management with interesting performance...... implications. The business development function is typically found in progressive firms especially within high-tech industries, but is argued to become critical for all types of firms across industries wishing to grow and accumulate wealth. Research propositions and managerial implications are discussed....

  1. Quantifying Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying Matter explains how scientists learned to measure matter and quantify some of its most fascinating and useful properties. It presents many of the most important intellectual achievements and technical developments that led to the scientific interpretation of substance. Complete with full-color photographs, this exciting new volume describes the basic characteristics and properties of matter. Chapters include:. -Exploring the Nature of Matter. -The Origin of Matter. -The Search for Substance. -Quantifying Matter During the Scientific Revolution. -Understanding Matter's Electromagnet

  2. Motives Matter: Motives for Playing Pokémon Go and Implications for Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chia-Chen; Liu, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Mobile games such as Pokémon Go have become a major form of entertainment, and yet little is known about why people play the games and how their motives associate with well-being. Although literature on motives for playing video and online games is informative, the findings may not reflect the full spectrum of mobile gaming motives due to some unique affordances of mobile games (e.g., mobility). To catch up with the evolving gaming context, a popular mobile game, Pokémon Go, was taken as an example to explore individuals' mobile gaming motives. A Pokémon Go Motive Scale was developed. Seven motives were identified through factor analyses based on survey data from 262 Pokémon Go players (45 percent women; M age  = 30.71, standard deviation = 7.77): Exercise, Fun, Escapism, Nostalgia, Friendship Maintenance, Relationship Initiation, and Achievement. Both Fun and Friendship Maintenance were positive correlates of well-being, whereas Escapism and Nostalgia were negative correlates. Relationship Initiation was associated with both better and poorer well-being. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  3. Words matter: implications of semantics and imagery in framing animal-welfare issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croney, Candace C

    2010-01-01

    As criticisms of contemporary farm-animal production escalate, scholars have begun to scrutinize the imagery and linguistic techniques used to frame animal issues and their implications. Pro-animal rights groups typically present animal use as unnecessary, oppressive, and exploitive and adopt themes of compassion and protection to engage the public. In contrast, anti-animal rights groups represent animal use as necessary for human benefit and often situate animal and human interests as being incompatible. Overly simplistic, polarized representations of animal issues therefore emerge. Several analyses, however, have indicated that the discourse on farm-animal production fails to either make a compelling ethical argument for animal agriculture or address the ethical concerns raised by animal-rights activists. Proponents of animal agriculture are argued to consistently misrepresent animal production practices and portray animals as inanimate objects, reflecting lack of genuine concern for animal suffering or welfare. Thus far, the veterinary community has escaped this level of scrutiny. However, veterinarians are often viewed as being connected to animal agriculture. As veterinarians strive to assume leadership in animal welfare, it is useful for the profession to recognize that, as is the case for members of the animal sciences and industries, some aspects of its discourse may contradict its professed values and beliefs about animal care and welfare. Analysis of this discourse affords the opportunity to more effectively engage with the public on animal-welfare issues and to develop a compelling narrative of the role of animals in an increasingly urban society.

  4. Understanding adolescent development: implications for driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Daniel P

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) programs has significantly improved the crash and fatality rates of novice teen drivers, but these rates remain unacceptably high. A review of adolescent development research was undertaken to identify potential areas of improvement. Research support for GDL was found to be strong, particularly regarding early acquisition of expertise in driving safety (beyond driving skill), and to limitations that reduce opportunities for distraction. GDL regimes are highly variable, and no US jurisdictions have implemented optimal regimes. Expanding and improving GDL to enhance acquisition of expertise and self-regulation are indicated for implementation and for applied research. Driver training that effectively incorporates safety goals along with driving skill is another target. The insurance industry will benefit from further GDL enhancements. Benefits may accrue to improved driver training, improved simulation devices during training, and automated safety feedback instrumentation.

  5. Platform development: implications for portfolio management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård

    2007-01-01

    " The challenge of implementing industrial platforms in practice can be described as a configuration problem caused by a considerable number of variables, which often have contradictory influences on the total performance of the firm. Consequently, the specific platform decisions become extremely...... complex, possibly increasing the strategic risks for the firm. This paper reports preliminary findings on platform management process at LEGO, a Danish toy company. Specifically, we report the process of applying games combined with simulations and workshops in the platform development. We also propose...... a framework, based on the portfolio management thinking to evaluate the degree of modularity embedded in a given platform and to which extent it is aligned with other platforms."...

  6. Energy and economic development (environmental implications)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorzoli, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    An examination, for developed countries, of significant correlations among economic growth, electric energy intensity and elasticity, per capita values of gross national product and greenhouse gas emissions, indicates notable possibilities for a healthier global environment with increased world-wide diffusion of clean and rational energy use technologies coupled with substantial economic growth. This scenario, however, is contrasted by worrisome doubts as to the chances for a successful outcome of recently proposed tenable growth policies when it is pointed out that forecasts, based on current demographic trends, call for a doubling of the world population in the near future. The foreseen unrestrained population explosion, leading to an unprecedented proliferation in the use of fossil fuels, now appears to represent the most serious threat to the global environment

  7. Toxicological Implications of Released Particulate Matter during Thermal Decomposition of Nano-Enabled Thermoplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Wright, Christa; Singh, Dilpreet; Demokritou, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Nano-enabled thermoplastics are part of the growing market of nano-enabled products (NEPs) that have vast utility in several industries and consumer goods. The use and disposal of NEPs at their end of life has raised concerns about the potential release of constituent engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) during thermal decomposition and their impact on environmental health and safety. To investigate this issue, industrially relevant nano-enabled thermoplastics including polyurethane, polycarbonate, and polypropylene containing carbon nanotubes (0.1 and 3% w/v, respectively), polyethylene containing nanoscale iron oxide (5% w/v), and ethylene vinyl acetate containing nanoscale titania (2 and 5% w/v) along with their pure thermoplastic matrices were thermally decomposed using the recently developed lab based Integrated Exposure Generation System (INEXS). The life cycle released particulate matter (called LCPM) was monitored using real time instrumentation, size fractionated, sampled, extracted and prepared for toxicological analysis using primary small airway epithelial cells to assess potential toxicological effects. Various cellular assays were used to assess reactive oxygen species and total glutathione as measurements of oxidative stress along with mitochondrial function, cellular viability, and DNA damage. By comparing toxicological profiles of LCPM released from polymer only (control) with nano-enabled LCPM, potential nanofiller effects due to the use of ENMs were determined. We observed associations between NEP properties such as the percent nanofiller loading, host matrix, and nanofiller chemical composition and the physico-chemical properties of released LCPM, which were linked to biological outcomes. More specifically, an increase in percent nanofiller loading promoted a toxicological response independent of increasing LCPM dose. Importantly, differences in host matrix and nanofiller composition were shown to enhance biological activity and toxicity of LCPM

  8. Implications of supersymmetry for FNAL, LEP2, future colliders, and dark matter searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    A combination of better understanding of the theory, and the implications of recent data, have led to significant progress in understanding the opportunities for finding superpartners and the light Higgs boson of supersymmetry. (author)

  9. Implications of unitarity and gauge invariance for simplified dark matter models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlhoefer, Felix; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Schwetz, Thomas; Vogl, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We show that simplified models used to describe the interactions of dark matter with Standard Model particles do not in general respect gauge invariance and that perturbative unitarity may be violated in large regions of the parameter space. The modifications necessary to cure these inconsistencies may imply a much richer phenomenology and lead to stringent constraints on the model. We illustrate these observations by considering the simplified model of a fermionic dark matter particle and a vector mediator. Imposing gauge invariance then leads to strong constraints from dilepton resonance searches and electroweak precision tests. Furthermore, the new states required to restore perturbative unitarity can mix with Standard Model states and mediate interactions between the dark and the visible sector, leading to new experimental signatures such as invisible Higgs decays. The resulting constraints are typically stronger than the ‘classic’ constraints on DM simplified models such as monojet searches and make it difficult to avoid thermal overproduction of dark matter.

  10. Searching gamma-ray bursts for gravitational lensing echoes - Implications for compact dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroff, R. J.; Norris, J. P.; Wickramasinghe, W. A. D. T.; Horack, J. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.; Wilson, R. B.; Paciesas, W. S.

    1993-01-01

    The first available 44 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on board the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory have been inspected for echo signals following shortly after the main signal. No significant echoes have been found. Echoes would have been expected were the GRBs distant enough and the universe populated with a sufficient density of compact objects composing the dark matter. Constraints on dark matter abundance and GRB redshifts from the present data are presented and discussed. Based on these preliminary results, a universe filled to critical density of compact objects between 10 exp 6.5 and 10 exp 8.1 solar masses are now marginally excluded, or the most likely cosmological distance paradigm for GRBs is not correct. We expect future constraints to be able either to test currently popular cosmological dark matter paradigms or to indicate that GRBs do not lie at cosmological distances.

  11. Implications of unitarity and gauge invariance for simplified dark matter models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlhoefer, Felix; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Schwetz, Thomas; Vogl, Stefan; Stockholm Univ.

    2015-10-01

    We show that simplified models used to describe the interactions of dark matter with Standard Model particles do not in general respect gauge invariance and that perturbative unitarity may be violated in large regions of the parameter space. The modifications necessary to cure these inconsistencies may imply a much richer phenomenology and lead to stringent constraints on the model. We illustrate these observations by considering the simplified model of a fermionic dark matter particle and a vector mediator. Imposing gauge invariance then leads to strong constraints from dilepton resonance searches and electroweak precision tests. Furthermore, the new states required to restore perturbative unitarity can mix with Standard Model states and mediate interactions between the dark and the visible sector, leading to new experimental signatures such as invisible Higgs decays. The resulting constraints are typically stronger than the 'classic' constraints on DM simplified models such as monojet searches and make it difficult to avoid thermal overproduction of dark matter.

  12. Modelling the transport of suspended particulate matter by the Rhone River plume (France). Implications for pollutant dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perianez, R.

    2005-01-01

    A model to simulate the transport of suspended particulate matter by the Rhone River plume has been developed. The model solves the 3D hydrodynamic equations, including baroclinic terms and a 1-equation turbulence model, and the suspended matter equations including advection/diffusion of particles, settling and deposition. Four particle classes are considered simultaneously according to observations in the Rhone. Computed currents, salinity and particle distributions are, in general, in good agreement with observations or previous calculations. The model also provides sedimentation rates and the distribution of different particle classes over the sea bed. It has been found that high sedimentation rates close to the river mouth are due to coarse particles that sink rapidly. Computed sedimentation rates are also similar to those derived from observations. The model has been applied to simulate the transport of radionuclides by the plume, since suspended matter is the main vector for them. The radionuclide transport model, previously described and validated, includes exchanges of radionuclides between water, suspended matter and bottom sediment described in terms of kinetic rates. A new feature is the explicit inclusion of the dependence of kinetic rates upon salinity. The model has been applied to 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu. Results are, in general, in good agreement with observations. - A model has been developed to simulate transport of suspended particulate matter in the Rhone River plume

  13. Relational Aggression, Victimization, and Language Development: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Godleski, Stephanie A.

    2007-01-01

    This review explores the development of relational aggression and relational victimization among peers, with specific emphasis on clinical implications for speech-language pathologists. Developmental manifestations of relational aggression and victimization are reviewed from early childhood through emerging adulthood. The concurrent and…

  14. Some Instructional Implications from a Mathematical Model of Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierkiewicz, Diane B.

    Cognitive development and various educational implications are discussed in terms of Donald Saari's model of the interaction of a learner and the enviroment and the constraints imposed by the inefficiency of the learner's cognitive system. Saari proposed a hierarchical system of cognitive structures such that the relationships between structures…

  15. Diagnosing Organization-Environment "Fit": Implications for Organization Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarro, John J.

    1974-01-01

    This article has attempted to: (1) describe several dimensions of organization-environment fit; (2) describe some concepts which can be used in diagnosing the degree to which a school system's organization matches the demands and needs of its environment; (3) present some implications of such a diagnosis for OD [organizational development]…

  16. New advances in cystic fibrosis - implications for developing countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New advances in cystic fibrosis - implications for developing countries. Heather J Zar, Eric Bateman, Michelle Ramsay. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM.

  17. Development trends of white matter connectivity in the first years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Pew-Thian; Fan, Yong; Chen, Yasheng; Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2011-01-01

    The human brain is organized into a collection of interacting networks with specialized functions to support various cognitive functions. Recent research has reached a consensus that the brain manifests small-world topology, which implicates both global and local efficiency at minimal wiring costs, and also modular organization, which indicates functional segregation and specialization. However, the important questions of how and when the small-world topology and modular organization come into existence remain largely unanswered. Taking a graph theoretic approach, we attempt to shed light on this matter by an in vivo study, using diffusion tensor imaging based fiber tractography, on 39 healthy pediatric subjects with longitudinal data collected at average ages of 2 weeks, 1 year, and 2 years. Our results indicate that the small-world architecture exists at birth with efficiency that increases in later stages of development. In addition, we found that the networks are broad scale in nature, signifying the existence of pivotal connection hubs and resilience of the brain network to random and targeted attacks. We also observed, with development, that the brain network seems to evolve progressively from a local, predominantly proximity based, connectivity pattern to a more distributed, predominantly functional based, connectivity pattern. These observations suggest that the brain in the early years of life has relatively efficient systems that may solve similar information processing problems, but in divergent ways.

  18. Development trends of white matter connectivity in the first years of life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pew-Thian Yap

    Full Text Available The human brain is organized into a collection of interacting networks with specialized functions to support various cognitive functions. Recent research has reached a consensus that the brain manifests small-world topology, which implicates both global and local efficiency at minimal wiring costs, and also modular organization, which indicates functional segregation and specialization. However, the important questions of how and when the small-world topology and modular organization come into existence remain largely unanswered. Taking a graph theoretic approach, we attempt to shed light on this matter by an in vivo study, using diffusion tensor imaging based fiber tractography, on 39 healthy pediatric subjects with longitudinal data collected at average ages of 2 weeks, 1 year, and 2 years. Our results indicate that the small-world architecture exists at birth with efficiency that increases in later stages of development. In addition, we found that the networks are broad scale in nature, signifying the existence of pivotal connection hubs and resilience of the brain network to random and targeted attacks. We also observed, with development, that the brain network seems to evolve progressively from a local, predominantly proximity based, connectivity pattern to a more distributed, predominantly functional based, connectivity pattern. These observations suggest that the brain in the early years of life has relatively efficient systems that may solve similar information processing problems, but in divergent ways.

  19. Dark matter annihilation into four-body final states and implications for the AMS antiproton excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steven J.; Dutta, Bhaskar; Strigari, Louis E.

    2018-01-01

    We consider dark matter annihilation into a general set of final states of standard model particles, including two-body and four-body final states that result from the decay of intermediate states. For dark matter masses ˜10 - 105 GeV , we use updated data from Planck and from high gamma-ray experiments such as Fermi-LAT, MAGIC, and VERITAS to constrain the annihilation cross section for each final state. The Planck constraints are the most stringent over the entire mass range for annihilation into light leptons, and the Fermi-LAT constraints are the most stringent for four-body final states up to masses ˜104 GeV . We consider these constraints in light of the recent AMS antiproton results, and show that for light mediators it is possible to explain the AMS data with dark matter, and remain consistent with Fermi-LAT Inner Galaxy measurements, for mχ˜60 - 100 GeV mass dark matter and mediator masses mϕ/mχ≲1 .

  20. Seasonal pathways of organic matter within the Avilés submarine canyon: Foodweb implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero-Romero, S.; Molina-Ramírez, A.; Höfer, J.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Rumín-Caparrós, A.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Canals, M.; Acuña, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    The transport and fate of organic matter (OM) sources within the Avilés submarine canyon (Cantabrian Sea, Southern Bay of Biscay) were studied using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios. The isotopic composition of settling particles and deep bottom sediments closely resembled that of surface

  1. Searches for vector-like quarks at future colliders and implications for composite Higgs models with dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chala, Mikael; Gröber, Ramona; Spannowsky, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Many composite Higgs models predict the existence of vector-like quarks with masses outside the reach of the LHC, e.g. m Q ≳ 2 TeV, in particular if these models contain a dark matter candidate. In such models the mass of the new resonances is bounded from above to satisfy the constraint from the observed relic density. We therefore develop new strategies to search for vector-like quarks at a future 100 TeV collider and evaluate what masses and interactions can be probed. We find that masses as large as ˜ 6.4 (˜9) TeV can be tested if the fermionic resonances decay into Standard Model (dark matter) particles. We also discuss the complementarity of dark matter searches, showing that most of the parameter space can be closed. On balance, this study motivates further the consideration of a higher-energy hadron collider for a next generation of facilities.

  2. Implications of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) mechanism of amplification of neutrino oscillations in matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langacker, P.; Petcov, S.T.; Steigman, G.; Toshev, S.

    1987-01-01

    Mikheyev and Smirnov have recently proposed a novel and plausible solution of the solar neutrino problem, based on the resonant amplification of the neutrino oscillations in matter. We comment on several aspects of this mechanism. (i) For the values of neutrino masses and mixing angles predicted by the seesaw model of grand unified theories, the MSW effect may take place naturally in the Sun, leading to a considerable reduction of the flux of solar electron neutrinos, with the dominant transition being ν e →ν τ (rather than ν e →ν μ ). (ii) Oscillations between the ordinary neutrinos (ν e ,ν μ ,ν τ ) can affect primordial nucleosynthesis, but the effect is small (i.e., the abundance of 4 He is predicted to change by less than 1.3x10 -3 ). (iii) A comparison of some of the general properties of neutrino oscillations in matter and in vacuum is given. (orig.)

  3. Cross-correlation of weak lensing and gamma rays: implications for the nature of dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tröster, Tilman; Camera, Stefano; Fornasa, Mattia; Regis, Marco; van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Ando, Shin'ichiro; Bilicki, Maciej; Erben, Thomas; Fornengo, Nicolao; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hoekstra, Henk; Kuijken, Konrad; Viola, Massimo

    2017-05-01

    We measure the cross-correlation between Fermi gamma-ray photons and over 1000 deg2 of weak lensing data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS), the Red Cluster Sequence Lensing Survey (RCSLenS), and the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS). We present the first measurement of tomographic weak lensing cross-correlations and the first application of spectral binning to cross-correlations between gamma rays and weak lensing. The measurements are performed using an angular power spectrum estimator while the covariance is estimated using an analytical prescription. We verify the accuracy of our covariance estimate by comparing it to two internal covariance estimators. Based on the non-detection of a cross-correlation signal, we derive constraints on weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter. We compute exclusion limits on the dark matter annihilation cross-section , decay rate Γdec and particle mass mDM. We find that in the absence of a cross-correlation signal, tomography does not significantly improve the constraining power of the analysis. Assuming a strong contribution to the gamma-ray flux due to small-scale clustering of dark matter and accounting for known astrophysical sources of gamma rays, we exclude the thermal relic cross-section for particle masses of mDM ≲ 20 GeV.

  4. Developing Entrepreneurial Resilience: Implications for Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin; Wang, Jia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Leadership development has attracted much research attention within the human resource development (HRD) community. However, little scholarly effort has been made to study a special group of leaders--entrepreneurs. This paper aims to fill in this knowledge gap by taking a close look at entrepreneurial resilience, a key ability of…

  5. Size Matters: The Effect of the Scramble for Africa on Informal Institutions and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Dimico, Arcangelo

    2013-01-01

    We argue that the partition of ethnic groups following the Scramble for Africa does not itself matter for development in Africa. It matters only when the partitioned groups are relatively small because small groups lack political representation which may promote ethnic mobilization and foster support for informal (rather than formal) institutions which then may affect development. Furthermore, the analysis of data from the Afrobarometer shows that the persistence of informal/tribal institutio...

  6. Gravitino dark matter in the CMSSM and implications for leptogenesis and the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roszkowski, Leszek; Austri, Roberto Ruiz de; Choi, Ki-Young

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of the CMSSM we study the gravitino as the lightest supersymmetric particle and the dominant component of cold dark matter in the Universe. We include both a thermal contribution to its relic abundance from scatterings in the plasma and a non-thermal one from neutralino or stau decays after freeze-out. In general both contributions can be important, although in different regions of the parameter space. We further include constraints from BBN on electromagnetic and hadronic showers, from the CMB blackbody spectrum and from collider and non-collider SUSY searches. The region where the neutralino is the next-to-lightest superpartner is severely constrained by a conservative bound from excessive electromagnetic showers and probably basically excluded by the bound from hadronic showers, while the stau case remains mostly allowed. In both regions the constraint from CMB is often important or even dominant. In the stau case, for the assumed reasonable ranges of soft SUSY breaking parameters, we find regions where the gravitino abundance is in agreement with the range inferred from CMB studies, provided that, in many cases, a reheating temperature T R is large, T R ∼ 10 9 GeV. On the other side, we find an upper bound T R ∼ 9 GeV. Less conservative bounds from BBN or an improvement in measuring the CMB spectrum would provide a dramatic squeeze on the whole scenario, in particular it would strongly disfavor the largest values of T R ∼ 10 9 GeV. The regions favored by the gravitino dark matter scenario are very different from standard regions corresponding to the neutralino dark matter, and will be partly probed at the LHC

  7. Dark matter and dark energy interactions: theoretical challenges, cosmological implications and observational signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B; Abdalla, E; Atrio-Barandela, F; Pavón, D

    2016-09-01

    Models where dark matter and dark energy interact with each other have been proposed to solve the coincidence problem. We review the motivations underlying the need to introduce such interaction, its influence on the background dynamics and how it modifies the evolution of linear perturbations. We test models using the most recent observational data and we find that the interaction is compatible with the current astronomical and cosmological data. Finally, we describe the forthcoming data sets from current and future facilities that are being constructed or designed that will allow a clearer understanding of the physics of the dark sector.

  8. Particulate Matter and Gaseous Pollutions in Three Metropolises along the Chinese Yangtze River: Situation and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Mao; Zhang, Xiaolin; Yin, Yan

    2018-05-28

    The situation of criteria atmospheric pollutants, including particulate matter and trace gases (SO₂, NO₂, CO and O₃), over three metropolises (Chongqing, Wuhan, and Nanjing), representing the upstream, midstream and downstream portions of the Yangtze River Basin from September 2015 to August 2016 were analyzed. The maximum annual mean PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations were 61.3 and 102.7 μg/m³ in Wuhan, while highest annual average gaseous pollutions occurred in Nanjing, with 49.6 and 22.9 ppb for 8 h O₃ and NO₂, respectively. Compared to a few years ago, SO₂ and CO mass concentrations have dropped to well below the qualification standards, and the O₃ and NO₂ concentrations basically meet the requirements though occasionally is still high. In contrary, about 13%, 25%, 22% for PM 2.5 , and 4%, 17%, 15% for PM 10 exceed the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standard (CAAQS) Grade II. Particulate matter, especially PM 2.5 , is the most frequent major pollutant to poor air quality with 73%, 64% and 88% accounting for substandard days. Mean PM 2.5 concentrations on PM 2.5 episode days are 2⁻3 times greater than non-episode days. On the basis of calculation of PM 2.5 /PM 10 and PM 2.5 /CO ratios, the enhanced particulate matter pollution on episode days is closely related to secondary aerosol production. Except for O₃, the remaining five pollutants exhibit analogous seasonal patterns, with the highest magnitude in winter and lowest in summer. The results of back trajectories show that air pollution displays synergistic effects on local emissions and long range transport. O₃ commonly demonstrated negative correlations with other pollutants, especially during winter, while moderate to strong positive correlation between particulate matter and NO₂, SO₂, CO were seen. Compared to pollutant substandard ratios over three megacities in eastern China (Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou), the situation in our studied second-tier cities are also severe. The

  9. Magnetization of neutron star matter and implications in physics of soft gamma repeaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondratyev, V N [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-01-01

    The magnetization of neutron star matter is considered within the thermodynamic formalism. The quantization effects are demonstrated to result in sharp abrupt magnetic field dependence of nuclide magnetic moments. Accounting for inter-nuclide magnetic coupling we show that such anomalies give rise to erratic jumps in magnetotransport of neutron star crusts. The properties of such a noise are favorably compared with burst statistics of Soft Gamma Repeaters. PACS: 97.60.Jd, 21.10.Dr, 26.60.+c, 95.30.Ky. (author)

  10. Global change-driven effects on dissolved organic matter composition: Implications for food webs of northern lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Irena F; Bergström, Ann-Kristin; Trick, Charles G; Grimm, Nancy B; Hessen, Dag O; Karlsson, Jan; Kidd, Karen A; Kritzberg, Emma; McKnight, Diane M; Freeman, Erika C; Senar, Oscar E; Andersson, Agneta; Ask, Jenny; Berggren, Martin; Cherif, Mehdi; Giesler, Reiner; Hotchkiss, Erin R; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Palta, Monica M; Vrede, Tobias; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A

    2018-03-15

    Northern ecosystems are experiencing some of the most dramatic impacts of global change on Earth. Rising temperatures, hydrological intensification, changes in atmospheric acid deposition and associated acidification recovery, and changes in vegetative cover are resulting in fundamental changes in terrestrial-aquatic biogeochemical linkages. The effects of global change are readily observed in alterations in the supply of dissolved organic matter (DOM)-the messenger between terrestrial and lake ecosystems-with potentially profound effects on the structure and function of lakes. Northern terrestrial ecosystems contain substantial stores of organic matter and filter or funnel DOM, affecting the timing and magnitude of DOM delivery to surface waters. This terrestrial DOM is processed in streams, rivers, and lakes, ultimately shifting its composition, stoichiometry, and bioavailability. Here, we explore the potential consequences of these global change-driven effects for lake food webs at northern latitudes. Notably, we provide evidence that increased allochthonous DOM supply to lakes is overwhelming increased autochthonous DOM supply that potentially results from earlier ice-out and a longer growing season. Furthermore, we assess the potential implications of this shift for the nutritional quality of autotrophs in terms of their stoichiometry, fatty acid composition, toxin production, and methylmercury concentration, and therefore, contaminant transfer through the food web. We conclude that global change in northern regions leads not only to reduced primary productivity but also to nutritionally poorer lake food webs, with discernible consequences for the trophic web to fish and humans. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The Galactic Isotropic γ-ray Background and Implications for Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sheldon S.; Kwa, Anna; Kaplinghat, Manoj

    2018-06-01

    We present an analysis of the radial angular profile of the galacto-isotropic (GI) γ-ray flux-the statistically uniform flux in angular annuli centred on the Galactic centre. Two different approaches are used to measure the GI flux profile in 85 months of Fermi-LAT data: the BDS statistical method which identifies spatial correlations, and a new Poisson ordered-pixel method which identifies non-Poisson contributions. Both methods produce similar GI flux profiles. The GI flux profile is well-described by an existing model of bremsstrahlung, π0 production, inverse Compton scattering, and the isotropic background. Discrepancies with data in our full-sky model are not present in the GI component, and are therefore due to mis-modelling of the non-GI emission. Dark matter annihilation constraints based solely on the observed GI profile are close to the thermal WIMP cross section below 100 GeV, for fixed models of the dark matter density profile and astrophysical γ-ray foregrounds. Refined measurements of the GI profile are expected to improve these constraints by a factor of a few.

  12. Fine-tuning implications for complementary dark matter and LHC SUSY searches

    CERN Document Server

    Cassel, S; Kraml, S; Lessa, A; Ross, G G

    2011-01-01

    The requirement that SUSY should solve the hierarchy problem without undue fine-tuning imposes severe constraints on the new supersymmetric states. With the MSSM spectrum and soft SUSY breaking originating from universal scalar and gaugino masses at the Grand Unification scale, we show that the low-fine-tuned regions fall into two classes that will require complementary collider and dark matter searches to explore in the near future. The first class has relatively light gluinos or squarks which should be found by the LHC in its first run. We identify the multijet plus E_T^miss signal as the optimal channel and determine the discovery potential in the first run. The second class has heavier gluinos and squarks but the LSP has a significant Higgsino component and should be seen by the next generation of direct dark matter detection experiments. The combined information from the 7 TeV LHC run and the next generation of direct detection experiments can test almost all of the CMSSM parameter space consistent with ...

  13. Interfacial interactions between Skeletonema costatum extracellular organic matter and metal oxides: Implications for ceramic membrane filtration

    KAUST Repository

    Zaouri, Noor A

    2017-03-21

    In the current study, the interfacial interactions between the high molecular weight (HMW) compounds of Skeletonema costatum (SKC) extracellular organic matter (EOM) and ZrO2 or Al2O3, were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). HMW SKC-EOM was rigorously characterized and described as a hydrophilic organic compound mainly comprised of polysaccharide-like structures. Lipids and proteins were also observed, although in lower abundance. HMW SKC-EOM displayed attractive forces during approaching (i.e., leading to jump-to-contact events) and adhesion forces during retracting regime to both metal oxides at all solution conditions tested, where electrostatics and hydrogen bonding were suggested as dominant interacting mechanisms. However, the magnitude of these forces was significantly higher on ZrO2 surfaces, irrespective of cation type (Na+ or Ca2+) or concentration. Interestingly, while HMW SKC-EOM interacting forces to Al2O3 were practically insensitive to solution chemistry, the interactions between ZrO2 and HMW SKC-EOM increased with increasing cation concentration in solution. The structure, and lower charge, hydrophilicity, and density of hydroxyl groups on ZrO2 surface would play a key role on favoring zirconia associations with HMW SKC-EOM. The current results contribute to advance our fundamental understanding of Algogenic Organic Matter (AOM) interfacial interactions with metal oxides (i.e., AOM membrane fouling), and would highly assist in the proper selection of membrane material during episodic algal blooms.

  14. Dissolved organic matter in the Florida everglades: Implications for ecosystem restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, G.R.; Gilmour, C.C.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Orem, W.

    2011-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the Florida Everglades controls a number of environmental processes important for ecosystem function including the absorption of light, mineral dissolution/precipitation, transport of hydrophobic compounds (e.g., pesticides), and the transport and reactivity of metals, such as mercury. Proposed attempts to return the Everglades to more natural flow conditions will result in changes to the present transport of DOM from the Everglades Agricultural Area and the northern conservation areas to Florida Bay. In part, the restoration plan calls for increasing water flow throughout the Everglades by removing some of the manmade barriers to flow in place today. The land- and water-use practices associated with the plan will likely result in changes in the quality, quantity, and reactivity of DOM throughout the greater Everglades ecosystem. The authors discuss the factors controlling DOM concentrations and chemistry, present distribution of DOM throughout the Everglades, the potential effects of DOM on key water-quality issues, and the potential utility of dissolved organic matter as an indicator of success of restoration efforts. Copyright ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  15. Interfacial interactions between Skeletonema costatum extracellular organic matter and metal oxides: Implications for ceramic membrane filtration

    KAUST Repository

    Zaouri, Noor A.; Gutierrez, Leonardo; Dramas, Laure; Garces, Daniel; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, the interfacial interactions between the high molecular weight (HMW) compounds of Skeletonema costatum (SKC) extracellular organic matter (EOM) and ZrO2 or Al2O3, were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). HMW SKC-EOM was rigorously characterized and described as a hydrophilic organic compound mainly comprised of polysaccharide-like structures. Lipids and proteins were also observed, although in lower abundance. HMW SKC-EOM displayed attractive forces during approaching (i.e., leading to jump-to-contact events) and adhesion forces during retracting regime to both metal oxides at all solution conditions tested, where electrostatics and hydrogen bonding were suggested as dominant interacting mechanisms. However, the magnitude of these forces was significantly higher on ZrO2 surfaces, irrespective of cation type (Na+ or Ca2+) or concentration. Interestingly, while HMW SKC-EOM interacting forces to Al2O3 were practically insensitive to solution chemistry, the interactions between ZrO2 and HMW SKC-EOM increased with increasing cation concentration in solution. The structure, and lower charge, hydrophilicity, and density of hydroxyl groups on ZrO2 surface would play a key role on favoring zirconia associations with HMW SKC-EOM. The current results contribute to advance our fundamental understanding of Algogenic Organic Matter (AOM) interfacial interactions with metal oxides (i.e., AOM membrane fouling), and would highly assist in the proper selection of membrane material during episodic algal blooms.

  16. Recovered Alcoholics and Career Development: Implications for Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie; Mercer, Frances; Iodice, Jody D.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents three issues regarding alcoholism, recovery, and career development. First, alcoholism is a disease that creates health and wellness problems for those it afflicts. It also impacts individual and workplace productivity. Second, alcoholism has a persistent stigmatization. As a result, those alcoholics who are in recovery face…

  17. White-matter tract abnormalities and antisocial behavior: A systematic review of diffusion tensor imaging studies across development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Waller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antisocial behavior (AB, including aggression, violence, and theft, is thought be underpinned by abnormal functioning in networks of the brain critical to emotion processing, behavioral control, and reward-related learning. To better understand the abnormal functioning of these networks, research has begun to investigate the structural connections between brain regions implicated in AB using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, which assesses white-matter tract microstructure. This systematic review integrates findings from 22 studies that examined the relationship between white-matter microstructure and AB across development. In contrast to a prior hypothesis that AB is associated with greater diffusivity specifically in the uncinate fasciculus, findings suggest that adult AB is associated with greater diffusivity across a range of white-matter tracts, including the uncinate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, cingulum, corticospinal tract, thalamic radiations, and corpus callosum. The pattern of findings among youth studies was inconclusive with both higher and lower diffusivity found across association, commissural, and projection and thalamic tracts.

  18. Diffusion-tensor MR imaging of gray and white matter development during normal human brain maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Pratik; Miller, Jeffrey H; Shimony, Joshua S; Philip, Joseph V; Nehra, Deepika; Snyder, Abraham Z; Conturo, Thomas E; Neil, Jeffrey J; McKinstry, Robert C

    2002-10-01

    Conventional MR imaging findings of human brain development are thought to result from decreasing water content, increasing macromolecular concentration, and myelination. We use diffusion-tensor MR imaging to test theoretical models that incorporate hypotheses regarding how these maturational processes influence water diffusion in developing gray and white matter. Experimental data were derived from diffusion-tensor imaging of 167 participants, ages 31 gestational weeks to 11 postnatal years. An isotropic diffusion model was applied to the gray matter of the basal ganglia and thalamus. A model that assumes changes in the magnitude of diffusion while maintaining cylindrically symmetric anisotropy was applied to the white matter of the corpus callosum and internal capsule. Deviations of the diffusion tensor from the ideal model predictions, due to measurement noise, were estimated by using Monte Carlo simulations. Developing gray matter of the basal ganglia and developing white matter of the internal capsule and corpus callosum largely conformed to theory, with only small departures from model predictions in older children. However, data from the thalamus substantially diverged from predicted values, with progressively larger deviations from the model with increasing participant age. Changes in water diffusion during maturation of central gray and white matter structures can largely be explained by theoretical models incorporating simple assumptions regarding the influence of brain water content and myelination, although deviations from theory increase as the brain matures. Diffusion-tensor MR imaging is a powerful method for studying the process of brain development, with both scientific and clinical applications.

  19. Women Education and Economic Development in Kenya: Implications for Curriculum Development and Implementation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syomwene, Anne; Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the relationship between women education and sustainable economic development in Kenya and its implications for curriculum development and implementation processes. The argument advanced in this paper is that the solution to the development problems in Kenya and other developing nations lies on women education.…

  20. Development of the Cell Population in the Brain White Matter of Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigaard, Rasmus Krarup; Kjær, Majken; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2014-01-01

    While brain gray matter is primarily associated with sensorimotor processing and cognition, white matter modulates the distribution of action potentials, coordinates communication between different brain regions, and acts as a relay for input/output signals. Previous studies have described......, and microglia) in the cerebral white matter of 9 infants aged 0-33 months, using design-based stereological methods to obtain quantitative data about brain development. There were linear increases with age in the numbers of oligodendrocytes (7-28 billion) and astrocytes (1.5-6.7 billion) during the first 3...

  1. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of cerebral white matter development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, Daniela.; Prayer, Lucas

    2003-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) has become a sensitive tool to monitor white matter development. Different applications of diffusion-weighted techniques provide information about premyelinating, myelinating, and postmyelinating states of white matter maturation. Mirroring maturational processes on the cellular level, DWI has to be regarded as a morphological method as well as a functional instrument, giving insight into molecular processes during the formation of axons and myelin sheets and into the steric arrangement of white matter tracts the formation of which is strongly influenced by their function

  2. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of cerebral white matter development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela. E-mail: daniela.prayer@univie.ac.at; Prayer, Lucas

    2003-03-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) has become a sensitive tool to monitor white matter development. Different applications of diffusion-weighted techniques provide information about premyelinating, myelinating, and postmyelinating states of white matter maturation. Mirroring maturational processes on the cellular level, DWI has to be regarded as a morphological method as well as a functional instrument, giving insight into molecular processes during the formation of axons and myelin sheets and into the steric arrangement of white matter tracts the formation of which is strongly influenced by their function.

  3. On finite density effects on cosmic reheating and moduli decay and implications for Dark Matter production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drewes, Marco

    2014-01-01

    We study the damping of an oscillating scalar field in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime by perturbative processes, taking into account the back-reaction of the plasma of decay products on the damping rate. The scalar field may be identified with the inflaton, in which case this process resembles the reheating of the universe after inflation. It can also model a modulus that dominates the energy density of the universe at later times. We find that the finite density corrections to the damping rate can have a drastic effect on the thermal history and considerably increase both, the maximal temperature in the early universe and the reheating temperature at the onset of the radiation dominated era. As a result the abundance of some Dark Matter candidates may be considerably larger than previously estimated. We give improved analytic estimates for the maximal and the reheating temperatures and confirm them numerically in a simple model

  4. Why Closely Coupled Work Matters in Global Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Eskild

    2014-01-01

    We report on an ethnographic study of an offshore global software development project between Danish and Philippine developers in a Danish company called GlobalSoft. We investigate why the IT- developers chose to engage in more closely coupled work as the project progressed and argue that closely...

  5. Interfacial interactions between Skeletonema costatum extracellular organic matter and metal oxides: Implications for ceramic membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaouri, Noor; Gutierrez, Leonardo; Dramas, Laure; Garces, Daniel; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2017-06-01

    In the current study, the interfacial interactions between the high molecular weight (HMW) compounds of Skeletonema costatum (SKC) extracellular organic matter (EOM) and ZrO 2 or Al 2 O 3 , were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). HMW SKC-EOM was rigorously characterized and described as a hydrophilic organic compound mainly comprised of polysaccharide-like structures. Lipids and proteins were also observed, although in lower abundance. HMW SKC-EOM displayed attractive forces during approaching (i.e., leading to jump-to-contact events) and adhesion forces during retracting regime to both metal oxides at all solution conditions tested, where electrostatics and hydrogen bonding were suggested as dominant interacting mechanisms. However, the magnitude of these forces was significantly higher on ZrO 2 surfaces, irrespective of cation type (Na + or Ca 2+ ) or concentration. Interestingly, while HMW SKC-EOM interacting forces to Al 2 O 3 were practically insensitive to solution chemistry, the interactions between ZrO 2 and HMW SKC-EOM increased with increasing cation concentration in solution. The structure, and lower charge, hydrophilicity, and density of hydroxyl groups on ZrO 2 surface would play a key role on favoring zirconia associations with HMW SKC-EOM. The current results contribute to advance our fundamental understanding of Algogenic Organic Matter (AOM) interfacial interactions with metal oxides (i.e., AOM membrane fouling), and would highly assist in the proper selection of membrane material during episodic algal blooms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Implication of POC/234Th ratios in oceanic particulate matter. An approach to particle aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Katumi

    2003-01-01

    234 Th has been widely applied as a tracer of particulate organic carbon (POC) fluxes in the upper ocean. Fundamental to this approach is the determination of 234 Th fluxes from water column measurements of the 234 Th- 238 U disequilibria, and the conversion of 234 Th flux to POC export, using the measured POC/ 234 Th ratio on particles. As such, POC/ 234 Th ratios are one of the most critical factors in quantifying the carbon export flux in ocean interior when using this approach. However, the POC/ 234 Th ratios show significant temporal and spatial variations, but cannot be predicted at this time. therefore, it is important to elucidate factors controlling the variations of the POC/ 234 Th ratios. To achieve this purpose, we should understand the chemical interactions between POC and 234 Th. In the open ocean, POC/ 234 Th ratios have been determined together with other oceanographic parameters. We examined here the relationship between POC/ 234 Th and primary production. The POC/ 234 Th ratios were linearly related to logarithmic values of primary production. Taken into account the complexation between surface ligand on particulate organic matter (POM) and 234 Th, a complexation model suggests that the size of particles adsorbing 234 Th is related to primary production; in the equatorial Pacific, the size of particles adsorbing 234 Th apparently decreases with increasing primary production, whereas opposite phenomenon occurs in the North Atlantic. Since the POC/ 234 Th ratios were determined in filtered particulate matter, this finding suggests that aggregation of small particles would be dominant in the equatorial Pacific, which can be explained by a chemical aggregation model. (author)

  7. Heterochronicity of white matter development and aging explains regional patient control differences in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochunov, Peter; Ganjgahi, Habib; Winkler, Anderson; Kelly, Sinead; Shukla, Dinesh K; Du, Xiaoming; Jahanshad, Neda; Rowland, Laura; Sampath, Hemalatha; Patel, Binish; O'Donnell, Patricio; Xie, Zhiyong; Paciga, Sara A; Schubert, Christian R; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Guohao; Thompson, Paul M; Nichols, Thomas E; Hong, L Elliot

    2016-12-01

    Altered brain connectivity is implicated in the development and clinical burden of schizophrenia. Relative to matched controls, schizophrenia patients show (1) a global and regional reduction in the integrity of the brain's white matter (WM), assessed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fractional anisotropy (FA), and (2) accelerated age-related decline in FA values. In the largest mega-analysis to date, we tested if differences in the trajectories of WM tract development influenced patient-control differences in FA. We also assessed if specific tracts showed exacerbated decline with aging. Three cohorts of schizophrenia patients (total n = 177) and controls (total n = 249; age = 18-61 years) were ascertained with three 3T Siemens MRI scanners. Whole-brain and regional FA values were extracted using ENIGMA-DTI protocols. Statistics were evaluated using mega- and meta-analyses to detect effects of diagnosis and age-by-diagnosis interactions. In mega-analysis of whole-brain averaged FA, schizophrenia patients had lower FA (P = 10 -11 ) and faster age-related decline in FA (P = 0.02) compared with controls. Tract-specific heterochronicity measures, that is, abnormal rates of adolescent maturation and aging explained approximately 50% of the regional variance effects of diagnosis and age-by-diagnosis interaction in patients. Interactive, three-dimensional visualization of the results is available at www.enigma-viewer.org. WM tracts that mature later in life appeared more sensitive to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and were more susceptible to faster age-related decline in FA values. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4673-4688, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Smartphone Applications - Idea sourcing, and app development: Implications for firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Vigar-Ellis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the dramatic increase in smartphone usage and the consequent increase in applications (apps for these smartphones, organisations are constantly looking for new apps to offer customers as well as employees.  Information Systems (IS departments of organisations have traditionally been tasked with the acquisition and/or development of such information technologies within organisations.  This research aimed to determine from IS managers, the smartphone app usage in firms, the sources of app ideas and the locations for app development.  It also investigated various aspects of the success or otherwise of the development process.  Results indicate that while most ideas for apps currently come from IS and marketing departments within the organisation, and development of apps is also done mainly within the organisation , these development strategies are not necessarily the most effective.  Managerial implications are discussed.

  9. Nitrogen deficiency in maize. I. Effects on crop growth, development, dry matter partitioning, and kernel set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhart, S.A.; Andrade, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    Variations in N availability affect growth and development of maize (Zea mays L.) and may lead to changes in crop physiological conditions at flowering and in kernel set. The objectives of this study were (i) to establish the effect of N availability on crop development, crop radiation interception, radiation use efficiency, and dry matter partitioning; and (ii) to study the relationship between kernel number and crop growth at flowering and between kernel number and crop N accumulation at flowering. Three experiments with a commercial hybrid (DK636) were carried out under field conditions at the INTA Balcarce Experimental Station, Argentina, without water limitations. The treatments consisted of different radiation levels, obtained by shading, combined with different levels of N availability obtained by the addition of N fertilizer or organic matter to immobilize N. Nitrogen deficiencies delayed both vegetative and reproductive phenological development, slightly reduced leaf emergence rate, and strongly diminished leaf expansion rate and leaf area duration. Nitrogen deficiencies reduced radiation interception as much as radiation use efficiency and their effects on the ear dry mater/total dry matter ratio at harvest were associated with crop growth rate reductions at flowering. Dry matter partitioning to reproductive sinks at flowering and the ear dry matter/total dry matter ratio at harvest were reduced by N shortages. Significant relationships between kernel number and N accumulation rate or crop growth rate at flowering were fitted by linear + plateau functions with thresholds above which kernel number and grain yield did not increase

  10. On the matter of synovial fluid lubrication: implications for Metal-on-Metal hip tribology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myant, Connor; Cann, Philippa

    2014-06-01

    Artificial articular joints present an interesting, and difficult, tribological problem. These bearing contacts undergo complex transient loading and multi axes kinematic cycles, over extremely long periods of time (>10 years). Despite extensive research, wear of the bearing surfaces, particularly metal-metal hips, remains a major problem. Comparatively little is known about the prevailing lubrication mechanism in artificial joints which is a serious gap in our knowledge as this determines film formation and hence wear. In this paper we review the accepted lubrication models for artificial hips and present a new concept to explain film formation with synovial fluid. This model, recently proposed by the authors, suggests that interfacial film formation is determined by rheological changes local to the contact and is driven by aggregation of synovial fluid proteins. The implications of this new mechanism for the tribological performance of new implant designs and the effect of patient synovial fluid properties are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Net foreign asset (com)position : Does financial development matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Robert; de Haan, Jakob

    We investigate the relationship between a country's domestic financial development and the (composition of its) net foreign asset position using a pooled mean group estimator and data for 50 countries for the 1970-2007 period. The results show that financial development reduces a country's long-run

  12. GUT models at current and future hadron colliders and implications to dark matter searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcadi, Giorgio; Lindner, Manfred; Mambrini, Yann; Pierre, Mathias; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.

    2017-08-01

    Grand Unified Theories (GUT) offer an elegant and unified description of electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions at high energy scales. A phenomenological and exciting possibility to grasp GUT is to search for TeV scale observables arising from Abelian groups embedded in GUT constructions. That said, we use dilepton data (ee and μμ) that has been proven to be a golden channel for a wide variety of new phenomena expected in theories beyond the Standard Model to probe GUT-inspired models. Since heavy dilepton resonances feature high signal selection efficiencies and relatively well-understood backgrounds, stringent and reliable bounds can be placed on the mass of the Z‧ gauge boson arising in such theories. In this work, we obtain 95% C.L. limits on the Z‧ mass for several GUT-models using current and future proton-proton colliders with √{ s} = 13 TeV , 33 TeV ,and 100 TeV, and put them into perspective with dark matter searches in light of the next generation of direct detection experiments.

  13. Carbon monoxide photoproduction: implications for photoreactivity of Arctic permafrost-derived soil dissolved organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun; Xie, Huixiang; Guo, Laodong; Song, Guisheng

    2014-08-19

    Apparent quantum yields of carbon monoxide (CO) photoproduction (AQY(CO)) for permafrost-derived soil dissolved organic matter (SDOM) from the Yukon River Basin and Alaska coast were determined to examine the dependences of AQY(CO) on temperature, ionic strength, pH, and SDOM concentration. SDOM from different locations and soil depths all exhibited similar AQY(CO) spectra irrespective of soil age. AQY(CO) increased by 68% for a 20 °C warming, decreased by 25% from ionic strength 0 to 0.7 mol L(-1), and dropped by 25-38% from pH 4 to 8. These effects combined together could reduce AQY(CO) by up to 72% when SDOM transits from terrestrial environemnts to open-ocean conditions during summer in the Arctic. A Michaelis-Menten kinetics characterized the influence of SDOM dilution on AQY(CO) with a very low substrate half-saturation concentration. Generalized global-scale relationships between AQY(CO) and salinity and absorbance demostrate that the CO-based photoreactivity of ancient permaforst SDOM is comparable to that of modern riverine DOM and that the effects of the physicochemical variables revealed here alone could account for the seaward decline of AQY(CO) observed in diverse estuarine and coastal water bodies.

  14. The Fermi Galactic Center GeV Excess and Implications for Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Kinard Lab of Physics, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Albert, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Atwood, W. B. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Baldini, L. [Università di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bissaldi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Bonino, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bregeon, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier, CNRS/IN2P3, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Bruel, P. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Collaboration: (The Fermi LAT Collaboration); and others

    2017-05-01

    The region around the Galactic Center (GC) is now well established to be brighter at energies of a few GeV than what is expected from conventional models of diffuse gamma-ray emission and catalogs of known gamma-ray sources. We study the GeV excess using 6.5 yr of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We characterize the uncertainty of the GC excess spectrum and morphology due to uncertainties in cosmic-ray source distributions and propagation, uncertainties in the distribution of interstellar gas in the Milky Way, and uncertainties due to a potential contribution from the Fermi bubbles. We also evaluate uncertainties in the excess properties due to resolved point sources of gamma rays. The GC is of particular interest, as it would be expected to have the brightest signal from annihilation of weakly interacting massive dark matter (DM) particles. However, control regions along the Galactic plane, where a DM signal is not expected, show excesses of similar amplitude relative to the local background. Based on the magnitude of the systematic uncertainties, we conservatively report upper limits for the annihilation cross-section as a function of particle mass and annihilation channel.

  15. White Matter Correlates of Musical Anhedonia: Implications for Evolution of Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psyche Loui

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent theoretical advances in the evolution of music posit that affective communication is an evolutionary function of music through which the mind and brain are transformed. A rigorous test of this view should entail examining the neuroanatomical mechanisms for affective communication of music, specifically by comparing individual differences in the general population with a special population who lacks specific affective responses to music. Here we compare white matter connectivity in BW, a case with severe musical anhedonia, with a large sample of control subjects who exhibit normal variability in reward sensitivity to music. We show for the first time that structural connectivity within the reward system can predict individual differences in musical reward in a large population, but specific patterns in connectivity between auditory and reward systems are special in an extreme case of specific musical anhedonia. Results support and extend the Mixed Origins of Music theory by identifying multiple neural pathways through which music might operate as an affective signaling system.

  16. GUT models at current and future hadron colliders and implications to dark matter searches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Arcadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Grand Unified Theories (GUT offer an elegant and unified description of electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions at high energy scales. A phenomenological and exciting possibility to grasp GUT is to search for TeV scale observables arising from Abelian groups embedded in GUT constructions. That said, we use dilepton data (ee and μμ that has been proven to be a golden channel for a wide variety of new phenomena expected in theories beyond the Standard Model to probe GUT-inspired models. Since heavy dilepton resonances feature high signal selection efficiencies and relatively well-understood backgrounds, stringent and reliable bounds can be placed on the mass of the Z′ gauge boson arising in such theories. In this work, we obtain 95% C.L. limits on the Z′ mass for several GUT-models using current and future proton–proton colliders with s=13 TeV,33 TeV,and100 TeV, and put them into perspective with dark matter searches in light of the next generation of direct detection experiments.

  17. Characterization of Natural Organic Matter in Alluvial Aquifer Sediments: Approaches and Implications for Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, P. M.; Nico, P. S.; Hao, Z.; Gilbert, B.; Tfaily, M. M.; Devadoss, J.

    2015-12-01

    Sediment-associated natural organic matter (NOM) is an extremely complex assemblage of organic molecules with a wide range of sizes, functional groups, and structures, which is intricately associated with mineral particles. The chemical nature of NOM may control its' reactivity towards metals, minerals, enzymes, and bacteria. Organic carbon concentrations in subsurface sediments are typically much lower than in surface soils, posing a distinct challenge for characterization. In this study, we investigated NOM associated with shallow alluvial aquifer sediments in a floodplain of the Colorado River. Total organic carbon (TOC) contents in these subsurface sediments are typically around 0.1%, but can range from 0.03% up to approximately 1.5%. Even at the typical TOC values of 0.1%, the mass of sediment-associated OC is approximately 5000 times higher than the mass of dissolved OC, representing a large pool of carbon that may potentially be mobilized or degraded under changing environmental conditions. Sediment-associated OC is much older than both the depositional age of the alluvial sediments and dissolved OC in the groundwater, indicating that the vast majority of NOM was sequestered by the sediment long before it was deposited in the floodplain. We have characterized the sediment-bound NOM from two locations within the floodplain with differing physical and geochemical properties. One location has relatively low organic carbon (mineral association across different biogeochemical regimes and assess the potential reactivity of various NOM pools.

  18. Seasonal pathways of organic matter within the Avilés submarine canyon: Food web implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Romero, Sonia; Molina-Ramírez, Axayacatl; Höfer, Juan; Duineveld, Gerard; Rumín-Caparrós, Aitor; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Canals, Miquel; Acuña, José Luis

    2016-11-01

    The transport and fate of organic matter (OM) sources within the Avilés submarine canyon (Cantabrian Sea, Southern Bay of Biscay) were studied using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios. The isotopic composition of settling particles and deep bottom sediments closely resembled that of surface particulate OM, and there were no marked differences in the isotopic composition of settling particles inside and outside of the AC. This indicates that the Avilés Canyon (AC) receives inputs of sinking OM mostly from the upper water column and less through advective near-bottom down-canyon transport. Sinking OM fluxes are of marine and terrestrial origin in proportions which vary seasonally. Analysis of δ13C in the canyon fauna indicates a dependence on OM mainly produced by marine phytoplankton. A tight coupling of isotopic signatures between pelagic organisms and benthic suspension feeders reflects an active biological vertical transport of OM from the surface to the deep-sea. The food web presented seasonal variations in the trophic niche width and the amplitude of the primary carbon sources, reflecting seasonality in the availability of fresh particulate OM. Those seasonal changes are larger for benthic organisms of lower trophic levels.

  19. Quantitative ultrasonography of the periventricular white and grey matter of the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaart, R A; Thijssen, J M; Rotteveel, J J; Valckx, F M; van Geemen, A J

    1999-05-01

    This study addresses the value of operator-independent computer processing of ultrasonograms of the developing brain. With this aim, routine cranial ultrasonograms obtained from 39 term and preterm infants without clinical or sonographic evidence of brain damage were analyzed by five observers. The procedure, respectively, included: 1. the definition of four regions of interest (ROI), one white matter and one grey matter area on each side of the brain; 2. digitization of the sonogram data within these ROIs; 3. correction for the equipment settings, using data from a tissue-mimicking phantom as a reference; and 4. calculation of four sonogram characteristics (i.e., mean echo level, MEAN, signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, and axial and lateral correlation, CORAX and CORLAT, of the echo level co-occurrence matrix). Significant differences between both sides of the brain or a significant influence of ROI size were not found. The interobserver spread was considerable, but less than the intersubject spread. Two sonogram characteristics seemed strongly correlated in white and grey matter (CORAX and CORLAT) and another only in white matter (SNR with CORAX and CORLAT). MEAN seemed not to be correlated with any other characteristic. Furthermore, it was found that maturation equally decreases white and grey matter MEAN and, thus, hardly affects the ratio between the two. An effect on the other sonogram characteristics was only found in the white matter (i.e., an increase of SNR and a decrease of CORAX and CORLAT). Except for MEAN, the grey matter sonogram characteristics seem hardly affected by maturation. In view of these findings, we conclude that quantitative ultrasonography reveals white and grey matter maturation and, furthermore, provides a conceptional-age-independent reference (MEAN white:grey matter ratio) that might be found to facilitate the detection of pathologic brain alterations.

  20. Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada Mining Matters: A Model of Effective Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymers, L.; Heenan, S.

    2009-05-01

    Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada Mining Matters is a charitable organization whose mandate is to bring the wonders of Canada's geology and mineral resources to students, educators and industry. The organization provides current information about rocks, minerals, metals, and mining and offers exceptional educational resources, developed by teachers and for teachers that meet Junior, Intermediate and Senior Provincial Earth Science and Geography curriculum expectations. Since 1994, Mining Matters has reached more than 400,000 educators, students, industry representatives, and Aboriginal Youth through Earth Science resources. At the time of the program's inception, members of the Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada (PDAC) realized that their mining and mineral industry expertise could be of help to teachers and students. Consulting experts in education, government, and business, and the PDAC worked together to develop the first Mining Matters Earth Science curriculum kit for Grades 6 and 7 teachers in Ontario. PDAC Mining Matters became the official educational arm of the Association and a charitable organization in 1997. Since then, the organization has partnered with government, industry, and educators to develop bilingual Earth science teaching units for Grades 4 and 7, and senior High School. The teaching units consist of kits that contain curriculum correlated lesson plans, inform bulletins, genuine data sets, rock and mineral samples, equipment and additional instructional resources. Mining Matters offers instructional development workshops for the purposes of training pre-service and in- service educators to use our teaching units in the classroom. The workshops are meant to provide teachers with the knowledge and confidence they need to successfully employ the units in the classroom. Formal mechanisms for resource and workshop evaluations are in place. Overwhelmingly teacher feedback is positive, describing the excellence

  1. Implications of the Fermi-LAT Pass 8 Galactic Center excess on supersymmetric dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, Abraham; van Beekveld, Melissa; Caron, Sascha; Gómez-Vargas, Germán A.; Hendriks, Luc; Ruiz de Austri, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    The Fermi Collaboration has recently updated their analysis of gamma rays from the center of the Galaxy. They reconfirm the presence of an unexplained emission feature which is most prominent in the region of 1–10 GeV, known as the Galactic Center GeV excess (GCE). Although the GCE is now firmly detected, an interpretation of this emission as a signal of self-annihilating dark matter (DM) particles is not unambiguously possible due to systematic effects in the gamma-ray modeling estimated in the Galactic Plane. In this paper we build a covariance matrix, collecting different systematic uncertainties investigated in the Fermi Collaboration's paper that affect the GCE spectrum. We show that models where part of the GCE is due to annihilating DM is still consistent with the new data. We also re-evaluate the parameter space regions of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) that can contribute dominantly to the GCE via neutralino DM annihilation. All recent constraints from DM direct detection experiments such as PICO, LUX, PandaX and Xenon1T, limits on the annihilation cross section from dwarf spheroidal galaxies and the Large Hadron Collider limits are considered in this analysis. Due to a slight shift in the energy spectrum of the GC excess with respect to the previous Fermi analysis, and the recent limits from direct detection experiments, we find a slightly shifted parameter region of the MSSM, compared to our previous analysis, that is consistent with the GCE. Neutralinos with a mass between 85–220 GeV can describe the excess via annihilation into a pair of W-bosons or top quarks. Remarkably, there are models with low fine-tuning among the regions that we have found. The complete set of solutions will be probed by upcoming direct detection experiments and with dedicated searches in the upcoming data of the Large Hadron Collider.

  2. Corruption and Development in Nigeria: Matters Arising | Felix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the link between corruption and development, using a contextual analysis of the Nigerian experience from Independence (1960) to this present day (2010). It conceptualizes corruption as “putrefaction, tainting, debasement, perversion or venality, spoiling, destruction of purity or falling away from ...

  3. Does Infrastructure Matter In Tourism Development? Seetanah B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kpo

    sound infrastructure in promoting tourism development in the island. The networks ... as an interesting case whereby the effect of infrastructure on tourist arrivals into .... Gearing et al (1974) study the case of Turkey as a tourist destination and find that ... et al (2000) in discussing the case of Sun Lost City, South Africa, and ...

  4. Economic Disparities in Middle Childhood Development: Does Income Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    A large literature has documented the influence of family economic resources on child development, yet income's effects in middle childhood have been understudied. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,551), the author examined the influence of family income in early and middle childhood on academic skills and…

  5. Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einasto J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available I give a review of the development of the concept of dark matter. The dark matter story passed through several stages from a minor observational puzzle to a major challenge for theory of elementary particles. Modern data suggest that dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, and that it consists of some unknown non-baryonic particles. Dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, thus properties of dark matter particles determine the structure of the cosmic web.

  6. Cognitive Development of Toddlers: Does Parental Stimulation Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Prahbhjot; Menon, Jagadeesh; Bharti, Bhavneet; Sidhu, Manjit

    2018-02-01

    To examine the impact of quality of early stimulation on cognitive functioning of toddlers living in a developing country. The developmental functioning of 150 toddlers in the age range of 12-30 mo (53% boys; Mean = 1.76 y, SD = 0.48) was assessed by the mental developmental index of the Developmental Assessment Scale for Indian Infants (DASII). The StimQ questionnaire- toddler version was used to measure cognitive stimulation at home. The questionnaire consists of four subscales including availability of learning materials (ALM), reading activities (READ), parent involvement in developmental activities (PIDA), and parent verbal responsivity (PVR). Multivariate regression analysis was used to predict cognitive scores using demographic (age of child), socio-economic status (SES) (income, parental education), and home environment (subscale scores of StimQ) as independent variables. Mean Mental Development Index (MDI) score was 91.5 (SD = 13.41), nearly one-fifth (17.3%) of the toddlers had MDI scores less than 80 (cognitive delay). Children with cognitive delay, relative to typically developing (TD, MDI score ≥ 80) cohort of toddlers, had significantly lower scores on all the subscales of StimQ and the total StimQ score. Despite the overall paucity of learning materials available to toddlers, typical developing toddlers were significantly more likely to have access to symbolic toys (P = 0.004), art materials (P = 0.032), adaptive/fine motor toys (P = 0.018), and life size toys (P = 0.036). Multivariate regression analysis results indicated that controlling for confounding socio-economic status variables, higher parental involvement in developmental activities (PIDA score) and higher parental verbal responsivity (PVR score) emerged as significant predictors of higher MDI scores and explained 34% of variance in MDI scores (F = 23.66, P = 0.001). Disparities in child development emerge fairly early and these differences are not

  7. Why bacteria matter in animal development and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraune, Sebastian; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2010-07-01

    While largely studied because of their harmful effects on human health, there is growing appreciation that bacteria are important partners for invertebrates and vertebrates, including man. Epithelia in metazoans do not only select their microbiota; a coevolved consortium of microbes enables both invertebrates and vertebrates to expand the range of diet supply, to shape the complex immune system and to control pathogenic bacteria. Microbes in zebrafish and mice regulate gut epithelial homeostasis. In a squid, microbes control the development of the symbiotic light organ. These discoveries point to a key role for bacteria in any metazoan existence, and imply that beneficial bacteria-host interactions should be considered an integral part of development and evolution.

  8. When Mothers' Work Matters for Youths' Daily Time Use: Implications of Evening and Weekend Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; Davis, Kelly D; McHale, Susan M; Kelly, Erin L; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Crouter, Ann C

    2017-08-01

    Drawing upon the work-home resources model, this study examined the implications of mothers' evening and weekend shifts for youths' time with mother, alone, and hanging out with peers unsupervised, with attention to both the amount and day-to-day consistency of time use. Data came from 173 mothers who worked in the long-term care industry and their youths who provided daily diaries. Multilevel modeling revealed that youths whose mothers worked more evening shifts on average spent less time with their mothers compared to youths whose mothers worked fewer evening shifts. Youths whose mothers worked more weekend shifts, however, spent more time with their mothers and exhibited less consistency in their time in all three activity domains compared to youths whose mothers worked fewer weekend shifts. Girls, not boys, spent less time alone on days when mothers worked weekend shifts than on days with standard shifts. Older but not younger adolescents spent more time hanging out with friends on evening and weekend shift days, and their unsupervised peer time was less consistent across days when mothers worked more evening shifts. These effects adjusted for sociodemographic and day characteristics, including school day, number of children in the household, mothers' marital status and work hours, and time with fathers. Our results illuminate the importance of the timing and day of mothers' work for youths' daily activities. Future interventions should consider how to increase mothers' resources to deal with constraints on parenting due to their work during nonstandard hours, with attention to child gender and age.

  9. DCDC2 polymorphism is associated with left temporoparietal gray and white matter structures during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darki, Fahimeh; Peyrard-Janvid, Myriam; Matsson, Hans; Kere, Juha; Klingberg, Torkel

    2014-10-22

    Three genes, DYX1C1, DCDC2, and KIAA0319, have been previously associated with dyslexia, neuronal migration, and ciliary function. Three polymorphisms within these genes, rs3743204 (DYX1C1), rs793842 (DCDC2), and rs6935076 (KIAA0319) have also been linked to normal variability of left temporoparietal white matter volume connecting the middle temporal cortex to the angular and supramarginal gyri. Here, we assessed whether these polymorphisms are also related to the cortical thickness of the associated regions during childhood development using a longitudinal dataset of 76 randomly selected children and young adults who were scanned up to three times each, 2 years apart. rs793842 in DCDC2 was significantly associated with the thickness of left angular and supramarginal gyri as well as the left lateral occipital cortex. The cortex was significantly thicker for T-allele carriers, who also had lower white matter volume and lower reading comprehension scores. There was a negative correlation between white matter volume and cortical thickness, but only white matter volume predicted reading comprehension 2 years after scanning. These results show how normal variability in reading comprehension is related to gene, white matter volume, and cortical thickness in the inferior parietal lobe. Possibly, the variability of gray and white matter structures could both be related to the role of DCDC2 in ciliary function, which affects both neuronal migration and axonal outgrowth. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3414455-08$15.00/0.

  10. Historical trend of nuclear matter calculation and its recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohno, Michio

    2006-01-01

    He guide line to understand nuclear properties on the basis of nuclear force was started in the 1950's by the Brueckner theory. The theory established the fundamental framework to formulate the picture to consider both the two nucleon and tensor correlations as well as Pauli effect inside the nuclei. In the 1960's the theory was developed to obtain ground state energy on the perturbation many-body theory. The growth and refinement of the Brueckner theory in the 1970's and after are overviewed and the computer code developments in the 1980's are mentioned. Concerning the many-body correlation problem Italian group has calculated up to three-body correlations in the Brueckner theory. At present, effective interaction nuclear theory is coming into a new level and actively studied by the introduction of low momentum interaction based on the renormalization group theory, by full application of the coupled cluster method, by the application of Skyrme Hartree-Fock method in wide range and by the reconsideration of the energy density functional method in relation to the relativistic mean field method. Owing to the recent remarkable progress of computers, calculations which were impossible to be executed in old days are now done rather easily. (S. Funahashi)

  11. Attention and Regional Gray Matter Development in Very Preterm Children at Age 12 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Rachel E; Melzer, Tracy R; Bora, Samudragupta; Watts, Richard; Woodward, Lianne J

    2017-08-01

    This study examines the selective, sustained, and executive attention abilities of very preterm (VPT) born children in relation to concurrent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of regional gray matter development at age 12 years. A regional cohort of 110 VPT (≤32 weeks gestation) and 113 full term (FT) born children were assessed at corrected age 12 years on the Test of Everyday Attention-Children. They also had a structural MRI scan that was subsequently analyzed using voxel-based morphometry to quantify regional between-group differences in cerebral gray matter development, which were then related to attention measures using multivariate methods. VPT children obtained similar selective (p=.85), but poorer sustained (p=.02) and executive attention (p=.01) scores than FT children. VPT children were also characterized by reduced gray matter in the bilateral parietal, temporal, prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices, bilateral thalami, and left hippocampus; and increased gray matter in the occipital and anterior cingulate cortices (family-wise error-corrected pregional gray matter development appear to contribute, at least in part, to the poorer attentional performance of VPT children at school age. (JINS, 2017, 23, 539-550).

  12. Advancing the Practice of CRCs: Why Professional Development Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Prikhidko, Alena; Kolb, H Robert

    2018-01-01

    Clinical research coordinators (CRCs) assume critical responsibilities central to the success of the research team. The complexity of their role requires essential professional qualifications. One barrier to professionalization, however, has been the inconsistent, or absent, competency-based training. This study explored participants' perceptions of training experiences designed to prepare them for the national certification exam. Focus group methodology was used to document their experiences. The findings showed that sustainable mentoring relationships developed, participant confidence levels increased, and anxiety about performance capacity diminished. Cognitive reframing of the work environment and CRC roles was facilitated by training that fostered sharing and social reinforcement of professional and personal identities. Findings from this study suggest that access to meaningful training and quality instruction supports the professionalization of CRCs.

  13. Developments in clinical trials: a Pharma Matters report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, A; Nuskey, B; Rabasseda, X; Arias, E

    2014-08-01

    As the pharmaceutical industry strives to meet the ever-increasing complexity of drug development, new technology in clinical trials has become a beacon of hope. With big data comes the promise of accelerated patient recruitment, real-time monitoring of clinical trials, bioinformatics empowerment of quicker phase progression, and the overwhelming benefits of precision medicine for select trials. Risk-based monitoring stands to benefit as well. With a strengthening focus on centralized data by the FDA and industry's transformative initiative, TransCelerate, a new era in trial risk mitigation has begun. The traditional method of intensive on-site monitoring is becoming a thing of the past as statistical, real-time analysis of site and trial-wide data provides the means to monitor with greater efficiency and effectiveness from afar. However, when it comes to big data, there are challenges that lie ahead. Patient privacy, commercial investment protection, technology woes and data variability are all limitations to be met with considerable thought. At the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology this year, clinical trials on psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and other skin diseases were discussed in detail. This review of clinical research reports on novel therapies for psoriasis and atopic dermatitis reveals the impact of these diseases and the drug candidates that have been successful in phase II and III studies. Data-focused highlights of novel dermatological trials, as well as real-life big data approaches and an insight on the new methodology of risk-based monitoring, are all discussed in this edition of Developments in Clinical Trials. Copyright 2014 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  14. Public health implications of urban air pollution in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwela, D H [World Health Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    Exposure to air pollution is an almost inescapable part of urban life throughout the world. Ambient air pollutant levels in urban areas are generally a reflection of emissions. For sulphur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter and lead, ambient concentrations are declining in the industrialized western countries. For nitrogen dioxide, ambient levels in cities are generally constant, or slightly increasing. For carbon dioxide, they are variable, declining where controls are being applied. In a substantial number of cities, particularly in developing countries, WHO guidelines are being often exceeded for the compounds mentioned. Given the rate at which these cities are growing, the air pollution situation will probably worsen if environmental control measures are not implemented. As a consequence, the health and well-being of urban residents will further deteriorate with high ambient air pollutant concentrations causing increased mortality, morbidity, deficits on pulmonary functions and cardiovascular and neurobehavioural effects. (author)

  15. Public health implications of urban air pollution in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwela, D.H. [World Health Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Exposure to air pollution is an almost inescapable part of urban life throughout the world. Ambient air pollutant levels in urban areas are generally a reflection of emissions. For sulphur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter and lead, ambient concentrations are declining in the industrialized western countries. For nitrogen dioxide, ambient levels in cities are generally constant, or slightly increasing. For carbon dioxide, they are variable, declining where controls are being applied. In a substantial number of cities, particularly in developing countries, WHO guidelines are being often exceeded for the compounds mentioned. Given the rate at which these cities are growing, the air pollution situation will probably worsen if environmental control measures are not implemented. As a consequence, the health and well-being of urban residents will further deteriorate with high ambient air pollutant concentrations causing increased mortality, morbidity, deficits on pulmonary functions and cardiovascular and neurobehavioural effects. (author)

  16. Model-independent implications of the e±, p-bar cosmic ray spectra on properties of Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirelli, M.; Kadastik, M.; Raidal, M.; Strumia, A.

    2009-01-01

    Taking into account spins, we classify all two-body non-relativistic Dark Matter annihilation channels to the allowed polarization states of Standard Model particles, computing the energy spectra of the stable final-state particles relevant for indirect DM detection. We study the DM masses, annihilation channels and cross sections that can reproduce the PAMELA indications of an e + excess consistently with the PAMELA p-bar data and the ATIC/PPB-BETS e + +e - data. From the PAMELA data alone, two solutions emerge: (i) either the DM particles that annihilate into W,Z,h must be heavier than about 10 TeV or (ii) the DM must annihilate only into leptons. Thus in both cases a DM particle compatible with the PAMELA excess seems to have quite unexpected properties. The solution (ii) implies a peak in the e + +e - energy spectrum, which, indeed, seems to appear in the ATIC/PPB-BETS data around 700 GeV. If upcoming data from ATIC-4 and GLAST confirm this feature, this would point to a O(1) TeV DM annihilating only into leptons. Otherwise the solution (i) would be favored. We comment on the implications of these results for DM models, direct DM detection and colliders as well as on the possibility of an astrophysical origin of the excess

  17. Embedding the DFSZ-axino in mSUGRA with R-parity violation and its implications for dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poletanovic, Branislav

    2010-12-15

    We embed the DFSZ axion in supersymmetry with broken R-parity. As Supersymmetry provides hundreds of free parameters we restrict ourselves to the lepton-number violating scenario in minimal supergravity models with baryon-triality B{sub 3}. In such models the axino is the lightest supersymmetric particle, it is not stable and its mass is kept to be a free parameter. The axino mixes with the three neutrinos and four neutralinos to form eight mass eigenstates. We introduce an appropiate notation, present briefly the full Langrangian and all axino interactions. This also induces a modification of the renormalization group equations which we compute. Based on this preliminary work we calculate all two- and three-body axino decays to Standard Model particles, e.g. leptons and mesons. Depending on the origin of the R-parity operator and the mass of the axino we obtain different final state combinations. Taking this into account we study the corresponding decay widths and branching ratios as a function of the superymmetric unification scale parameters as well as the axino mass. We then in particular focus on the implications for axino cold dark matter. We concentrate on the axino energy density in the light of the WMAP data. These analyses are performed in detail at the benchmark point SPS1a. Representative examples are also chosen for benchmark points SPS2 and SPS4. From this we offer a more general conclusion to other benchmark scenarios. (orig.)

  18. WHY DO LOGISTICS AND TRANSPORT MATTER FOR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedelescu-Ionescu Daniela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In face of the challenges of global competition, business firms are concentrating more on the needs of customers and seeking ways to reduce costs, improve quality and meet the ever-rising expectation of their customers. To these ends, many of them have identified logistics as an area to build cost and service advantages. Logistical activities have always been vital to organizations, and therefore business logistics and supply chain management represents a synthesis of many concepts, principles, and methods from the more traditional areas of production, purchasing, transportation, economics, as well as from the disciplines of applied mathematics, and organizational behaviour. It concentrates on important activities of management such as planning, organizing, and controlling, and also on a three-way relationship of related transportation, inventory, and location strategies, which are at the heart of good logistics planning and decision making. Selecting a good logistics strategy may yield a competitive advantage. Transportation provides the flow of materials, products and persons between production facilities, warehouses, distribution centers, terminals and customer locations. The progress in techniques and management principles improves the moving load, delivery speed, service quality, operation costs, the usage of facilities and energy saving. A strong system needs a clear frame of logistics and a proper transport implements and techniques to link the producing procedures. The transportation takes a crucial part in the management of logistic. Without well-developed transportation systems, logistics could not bring its advantages into full play. A good transport system in logistics activities could provide better logistics efficiency, reduce operation cost, and promote service quality. The process determines the efficiency of moving products and energy saving. Improvements in transportation and logistics make valuable contribution to production

  19. The trajectory of gray matter development in Broca’s area is abnormal in people who stutter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deryk Scott Beal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition and mastery of speech-motor control requires years of practice spanning the course of development. People who stutter often perform poorly on speech-motor tasks thereby calling into question their ability to establish the stable neural motor programs required for masterful speech-motor control. There is evidence to support the assertion that these neural motor programs are represented in the posterior part of Broca’s area, specifically the left pars opercularis. Consequently, various theories of stuttering causation posit that the disorder is related to a breakdown in the formation of the neural motor programs for speech early in development and that this breakdown is maintained throughout life. To date, no study has examined the potential neurodevelopmental signatures of the disorder across pediatric and adult populations. The current study aimed to fill this gap in our knowledge. We hypothesized that the developmental trajectory of cortical thickness in people who stutter would differ across the lifespan in the left pars opercularis relative to a group of control participants. We collected structural magnetic resonance images from 116 males (55 people who stutter ranging in age from 6 to 48 years old. Differences in cortical thickness across ages and between patients and controls were investigated in 30 brain regions previously implicated in speech-motor control. An interaction between age and group was found for the left pars opercularis only. In people who stutter, the pars opercularis did not demonstrate the typical maturational pattern of gradual gray matter thinning with age across the lifespan that we observed in control participants. In contrast, the developmental trajectory of gray matter thickness in other regions of interest within the neural network for speech-motor control was similar for both groups. Our findings indicate that the developmental trajectory of gray matter in left pars opercularis is abnormal in

  20. Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Developments: Implications for Clinical Assessment in Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccia, Angela Hein; Meulenbroek, Peter; Turkstra, Lyn S.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of significant physical, social, and emotional developments, accompanied by changes in cognitive and language skills. Underlying these are significant developments in brain structures and functions including changes in cortical and subcortical gray matter and white matter tracts. Among the brain regions that develop during…

  1. What Matters in the Finance-Growth Nexus of Developed Economies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Marc Steffen; Udoieva, Iuliia A.

    growth and mitigate economic risk. We find no such effect for private bond markets and private credit volume. Overall, our results suggest that financial sector “structure” matters for economic development of advanced economies highlighting the importance of addressing financial structure gaps....

  2. Source apportionment of particulate matter in Chinese megacities: the implication for emission control strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ru-Jin; Elser, Miriam; Wang, Qiyuan Wang; Bozzetti, Carlo; Wolf, Robert; Wang, Yichen; Ni, Haiyan; Wang, Meng; Ho, Kin-Fai; Han, Yongming; Dällenbach, Kaspar; Canonaco, Francesco; Slowik, Jay; El Haddad, Imad; Baltensperger, Urs; Cao, Junji; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2015-04-01

    The rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries has led to an increase in air pollution, along a similar trajectory to that previously experienced by the developed nations. In China, particulate pollution is a serious environmental problem that is influencing air quality, regional and global climates, and human health. A quantitative understanding of these effects has proven extremely challenging due to spatial and temporal variability in the sources of aerosols and their precursors, the complexity of particle composition, and uncertainties associated with the atmospheric aging of existing particles (Pöschl 2005; Hallquist et al., 2009; Huang et al., 2014). Nowadays the average PM2.5 concentrations in China are approximately one to two orders of magnitude higher than those observed in urban areas in the US and European countries (Cao 2012). This has forced the Chinese government to announce its first national environmental standard for PM2.5 in 2012 and to make highly ambitious plans for emission control. The Chinese aim to reduce the PM2.5 concentrations by up to 25% of the 2012 levels by 2017, backed by 277 billion investments from the central government. To achieve this ambitious aim, a better understanding of the aerosol composition, sources, and atmospheric processing is required. In this study, we present the results from intensive field measurement campaigns carried out in Chinese megacities in 2013/2014. The sources of PM2.5 and the organic aerosol (OA) were investigated by applying the multi-linear engine (ME-2) receptor model (Canonaco et al., 2013) to a comprehensive dataset. Primary sources including vehicle emissions, biomass burning, coal burning, and dust-related emissions were identified and quantified. The contributions from secondary aerosol formation processes to total PM2.5 mass and OA mass were evaluated. Detailed results will be presented and discussed. References Cao, J. J. (2012) J. Earth Environ., 3, 1030

  3. Spatial and temporal variation in suspended sediment, organic matter, and turbidity in a Minnesota prairie river: implications for TMDLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Christian F; Brooks, Kenneth N; Heneley, Daniel; Magner, Joseph A

    2010-06-01

    The Minnesota River Basin (MRB), situated in the prairie pothole region of the Upper Midwest, contributes excessive sediment and nutrient loads to the Upper Mississippi River. Over 330 stream channels in the MRB are listed as impaired by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, with turbidity levels exceeding water quality standards in much of the basin. Addressing turbidity impairment requires an understanding of pollutant sources that drive turbidity, which was the focus of this study. Suspended volatile solids (SVS), total suspended solids (TSS), and turbidity were measured over two sampling seasons at ten monitoring stations in Elm Creek, a turbidity impaired tributary in the MRB. Turbidity levels exceeded the Minnesota standard of 25 nephelometric units in 73% of Elm Creek samples. Turbidity and TSS were correlated (r (2) = 0.76), yet they varied with discharge and season. High levels of turbidity occurred during periods of high stream flow (May-June) because of excessive suspended inorganic sediment from watershed runoff, stream bank, and channel contributions. Both turbidity and TSS increased exponentially downstream with increasing stream power, bank height, and bluff erosion. However, organic matter discharged from wetlands and eutrophic lakes elevated SVS levels and stream turbidity in late summer when flows were low. SVS concentrations reached maxima at lake outlets (50 mg/l) in August. Relying on turbidity measurements alone fails to identify the cause of water quality impairment whether from suspended inorganic sediment or organic matter. Therefore, developing mitigation measures requires monitoring of both TSS and SVS from upstream to downstream reaches.

  4. Compound-specific C- and H-isotope compositions of enclosed organic matter in carbonate rocks: Implications for source identification of sedimentary organic matter and paleoenvironmental reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Yongqiang; Wang Yanmei; Wang Yongquan; Xu Shiping

    2007-01-01

    The Bohai Bay Basin is one of the most important oil-producing provinces in China. Molecular organic geochemical characteristics of Lower Paleozoic source rocks in this area have been investigated by analyzing chemical and isotopic compositions of solvent extracts and acid-released organic matter from the Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks in the Jiyang Sub-basin of the Bohai Bay Basin. The results indicate that enclosed organic matter in carbonate rocks has not been recognizably altered by post-depositional processes. Two end-member compositions are suggested for early organic matter trapped in the Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks: (1) a source dominated by aquatic organisms and deposited in a relatively deep marine environment and (2) a relatively high saline, evaporative marine depositional environment. In contrast, chemical and isotopic compositions of solvent extracts from these Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks are relatively complicated, not only inheriting original characteristics of their precursors, but also overprinted by various post-depositional alterations, such as thermal maturation, biodegradation and mixing. Therefore, the integration of both organic matter characteristics can provide more useful information on the origin of organic matter present in carbonate rocks and the environments of their deposition

  5. Compound-specific C- and H-isotope compositions of enclosed organic matter in carbonate rocks: Implications for source identification of sedimentary organic matter and paleoenvironmental reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong Yongqiang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)], E-mail: xiongyq@gig.ac.cn; Wang Yanmei; Wang Yongquan; Xu Shiping [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2007-11-15

    The Bohai Bay Basin is one of the most important oil-producing provinces in China. Molecular organic geochemical characteristics of Lower Paleozoic source rocks in this area have been investigated by analyzing chemical and isotopic compositions of solvent extracts and acid-released organic matter from the Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks in the Jiyang Sub-basin of the Bohai Bay Basin. The results indicate that enclosed organic matter in carbonate rocks has not been recognizably altered by post-depositional processes. Two end-member compositions are suggested for early organic matter trapped in the Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks: (1) a source dominated by aquatic organisms and deposited in a relatively deep marine environment and (2) a relatively high saline, evaporative marine depositional environment. In contrast, chemical and isotopic compositions of solvent extracts from these Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks are relatively complicated, not only inheriting original characteristics of their precursors, but also overprinted by various post-depositional alterations, such as thermal maturation, biodegradation and mixing. Therefore, the integration of both organic matter characteristics can provide more useful information on the origin of organic matter present in carbonate rocks and the environments of their deposition.

  6. Sustainable development, demography and sexual and reproductive health: inseparable linkages and their policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The greatest challenge today is to meet the needs of current and future generations, of a large and growing world population, without imposing catastrophic pressures on the natural environment. Meeting this challenge depends on decisive policy changes in three areas: more inclusive economic growth, greener economic growth, and population policies. This article focuses on efforts to address and harness demographic changes for sustainable development, which are largely outside the purview of the current debate. Efforts to this end must be based on the recognition that demographic changes are the cumulative result of individual choices and opportunities, and that demographic changes are best addressed through policies that enlarge these choices and opportunities, with a focus on ensuring unrestricted and universal access to sexual and reproductive health information and services, empowering women to fully participate in social, economic and political life, and investing in the education of the younger generation beyond the primary level. The article provides a strong argument for why the Programme of Action that was agreed at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) 20 years ago continues to hold important implications and lessons for the formulation of the post-2015 development agenda, which is expected to supersede the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of early institutionalization and foster care on long-term white matter development: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Johanna; Zhu, Tong; Stamoulis, Catherine; Fox, Nathan A; Zeanah, Charles; Nelson, Charles A

    2015-03-01

    radiata and external capsule [right FA, β = 0.01 (P = .03); left FA, β = 0.01 (P = .03); RD, β = -0.01 (P = .01); MD, β = -0.01 (P = .03)]), and sensory processing (medial lemniscus [AD, β = -0.02 (P = .045); MD, β = -0.01 (P = .04)] and retrolenticular internal capsule [FA, β = -0.01 (P = .002); RD, β = 0.01 (P = .003); MD, β = 0.01 (P = .04)]). Follow-up analyses revealed that early intervention promoted more normative white matter development among previously neglected children who entered foster care. Results suggest that removal from conditions of neglect in early life and entry into a high-quality family environment can support more normative trajectories of white matter growth. Our findings have implications for public health and policy efforts designed to promote normative brain development among vulnerable children. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00747396.

  8. Innovations in coaching and mentoring: implications for nurse leadership development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielden, Sandra L; Davidson, Marilyn J; Sutherland, Valerie J

    2009-05-01

    This longitudinal study sought to examine ways in which coaching and mentoring relationships impact on the professional development of nurses in terms of career and leadership behaviours, and evaluating the differences and similarities between those coaching and mentoring relationships. According to the UK government, leadership in nursing is essential to the improvement of service delivery, and the development and training of all nurses is vital in achieving effective change. A coaching and mentoring programme was used to explore the comparative advantages of these two approaches for the leadership development of nurses in acute, primary care and mental health settings. A longitudinal in-depth study was conducted to measure differences and similarities between the mentoring and coaching process as a result of a six-month coaching/mentoring programme. Five nurses from six UK Health Care Trusts were allocated to a coaching group (n = 15) or a mentoring group (n = 15), these were coached or mentored by a member of the senior directorate from their own Trust. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected at three time points (T1 = baseline, T2 = 4 months and T3 = 9 months) using semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. While mentoring was perceived to be 'support' and coaching was described as 'action', descriptions of the actual process and content were quite similar. However, while both groups reported significant development in terms of career development, leadership skills and capabilities, mentees reported the highest level of development with significantly higher scores in eight areas of leadership and management and in three areas of career impact. Implications for nurses and health services are discussed.

  9. A logo-leadership intervention: Implications for leadership development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Scholtz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Logo-leadership development challenges leaders to move beyond financial or individual gain to accepting leadership as a calling. Research purpose: The objective of the study was to ascertain whether an intervention embedded in the life and teachings of logo-therapist Viktor Frankl affects the way aspiring leaders construct leadership in terms of meaning (logo-leadership. Motivation for the study: A consideration of Frankl’s life gives rise to the question of whether aspiring leaders can learn from and use his life teachings as an inspiration in the discovery of meaning for themselves as leaders. Research approach, design and method: Participants comprised 20 students registered for an MCom degree at a South African metropolitan university. The research process involved three phases: (1 a pre-intervention questionnaire, (2 an appreciative inquiry intervention and (3 a post-intervention questionnaire. Framework analysis and a comparative method were used to analyse the data. Main findings: A meaning-centred leadership development intervention may impact the leadership role orientation of aspiring leaders, changing it from a predominantly career orientation to a calling. However, this effect largely occurred on an explicit (extrinsic level. Managerial implications: Organisations that wish to develop logo-leadership may consider using the life teachings and work of Frankl as a development tool. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes theoretically to a relatively new development within the field of Frankl’s logotherapy, leadership with meaning (logo-leadership. On apractical level, this study introduced the concept of logo-leadership for leadership development and suggests that leadership may be influenced by exposure to a leadership intervention.

  10. The development of human visual cortex and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu CR

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Caitlin R Siu,1 Kathryn M Murphy1,2 1McMaster Integrative Neuroscience Discovery and Study (MiNDS Program, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 2Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Abstract: The primary visual cortex (V1 is the first cortical area that processes visual information. Normal development of V1 depends on binocular vision during the critical period, and age-related losses of vision are linked with neurobiological changes in V1. Animal studies have provided important details about the neurobiological mechanisms in V1 that support normal vision or are changed by visual diseases. There is very little information, however, about those neurobiological mechanisms in human V1. That lack of information has hampered the translation of biologically inspired treatments from preclinical models to effective clinical treatments. We have studied human V1 to characterize the expression of neurobiological mechanisms that regulate visual perception and neuroplasticity. We have identified five stages of development for human V1 that start in infancy and continue across the life span. Here, we describe these stages, compare them with visual and anatomical milestones, and discuss implications for translating treatments for visual disorders that depend on neuroplasticity of V1 function. Keywords: development, human visual cortex, amblyopia, synaptic plasticity, glutamatergic, GABAergic, receptors

  11. A Review of Particulate Matter and Health: Focus on Developing Countries.

    OpenAIRE

    L. Panyacosit

    2000-01-01

    The burden of ill human health attributable to particulate air pollution is a critical problem of growing concern. In developing countries it is not uncommon to experience today the same particulate matter levels that characterized the devastating "London fog episodes" of the 1950s which resulted in over 4000 cases of premature mortality and countless cases of exacerbated morbidity related health endpoints. This literature review gives an overview of the situation in developing countries...

  12. Allochthonous subsidies of organic matter across a lake-river-fjord landscape in the Chilean Patagonia: Implications for marine zooplankton in inner fjord areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Cristian A.; Martinez, Rodrigo A.; San Martin, Valeska; Aguayo, Mauricio; Silva, Nelson; Torres, Rodrigo

    2011-03-01

    Ecosystems can act as both sources and sinks of allochthonous nutrients and organic matter. In this sense, fjord ecosystems are a typical interface and buffer zone between freshwater systems, glaciated continents, and the coastal ocean. In order to evaluate the potential sources and composition of organic matter across fjord ecosystems, we characterized particulate organic matter along a lake-river-fjord corridor in the Chilean Patagonia using stable isotope (δ 13C) and lipid (fatty acid composition) biomarker analyses. Furthermore, estimates of zooplankton carbon ingestion rates and measurements of δ 13C and δ 15N in zooplankton (copepods) were used to evaluate the implications of allochthonous subsidies for copepods inhabiting inner fjord areas. Our results showed that riverine freshwater flows contributed an important amount of dissolved silicon but, scarce nitrate and phosphate to the brackish surface layer of the fjord ecosystem. Isotopic signatures of particulate organic matter from lakes and rivers were distinct from their counterparts in oceanic influenced stations. Terrestrial allochthonous sources could support around 68-86% of the particulate organic carbon in the river plume and glacier melting areas, whereas fatty acid concentrations were maximal in the surface waters of the Pascua and Baker river plumes. Estimates of carbon ingestion rates and δ 13C in copepods from the river plume areas indicated that terrestrial carbon could account for a significant percentage of the copepod body carbon (20-50%) during periods of food limitation. Particulate organic matter from the Pascua River showed a greater allochthonous contribution of terrigenous/vascular plant sources. Rivers may provide fjord ecosystems with allochthonous contributions from different sources because of the distinct vegetation coverage and land use along each river's watershed. These observations have significant implications for the management of local riverine areas in the context of

  13. Development and nationwide scale-up of Climate Matters, a localized climate change education program delivered by TV weathercasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, H. M.; Maibach, E.

    2016-12-01

    Most Americans view climate change as a threat that is distant in space (i.e., not here), time (i.e., not now), and species (i.e., not us). TV weathercasters are ideally positioned to educate Americans about the current and projected impacts of climate change in their community: they have tremendous reach, are trusted sources of climate information, and are highly skilled science communicators. In 2009, we learned that many weathercasters were potentially interested in reporting on climate change, but few actually were, citing significant barriers including a lack of time to prepare and air stories, and lack of access to high quality content. To test the premise that TV weathercasters can be effective climate educators - if supported with high quality localized climate communication content - in 2010 George Mason University, Climate Central and WLTX-TV (Columbia, SC) developed and pilot-tested Climate Matters, a series of short on-air (and online) segments about the local impacts of climate change, delivered by the station's chief meteorologist. During the first year, more than a dozen stories aired. To formally evaluate Climate Matters, we conducted pre- and post-test surveys of local TV news viewers in Columbia. After one year, WLTX viewers had developed a more science-based understanding of climate change than viewers of other local news stations, confirming our premise that when TV weathercasters report on the local implications of climate change, their viewers learn. Through a series of expansions, including the addition of important new partners - AMS, NASA, NOAA & Yale University - Climate Matters has become a comprehensive nationwide climate communication resource program for American TV weathercasters. As of March 2016, a network of 313 local weathercasters nationwide (at 202 stations in 111 media markets) are participating in the program, receiving new content on a weekly basis. This presentation will review the theoretical basis of the program, detail

  14. Experimental developments in relativistic heavy-ion collisions published between Quark Matter 2002 and the beginning of Quark Matter 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmick, Thomas K

    2004-01-01

    The Quark Matter conference is the 'meeting of record' for the field of relativistic heavy-ion physics. Each such conference is filled with exciting new data frequently presented to the world for the first time. However, the field also makes significant progress during the 18 months between Quark Matter conferences. Such progress is summarized in a single talk near the beginning of the conference and sets the stage for the newest data and discoveries. This paper is the experimental summary of selected results published in journals and presented at conferences between the end of QM2002 and the beginning of QM2004

  15. Bifurcation in epigenetics: Implications in development, proliferation, and diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Cells often exhibit different and stable phenotypes from the same DNA sequence. Robustness and plasticity of such cellular states are controlled by diverse transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms, among them the modification of biochemical marks on chromatin. Here, we develop a stochastic model that describes the dynamics of epigenetic marks along a given DNA region. Through mathematical analysis, we show the emergence of bistable and persistent epigenetic states from the cooperative recruitment of modifying enzymes. We also find that the dynamical system exhibits a critical point and displays, in the presence of asymmetries in recruitment, a bifurcation diagram with hysteresis. These results have deep implications for our understanding of epigenetic regulation. In particular, our study allows one to reconcile within the same formalism the robust maintenance of epigenetic identity observed in differentiated cells, the epigenetic plasticity of pluripotent cells during differentiation, and the effects of epigenetic misregulation in diseases. Moreover, it suggests a possible mechanism for developmental transitions where the system is shifted close to the critical point to benefit from high susceptibility to developmental cues.

  16. Implications for Effective Child Development System in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Child Rights Campaign and the Nigerian Family: Implications for Effective Child .... of socialization like: day-care centres, schools, peer groups, video bars, recreational parks and new social media have taken over this role. The outcome is that ...

  17. Intellectual disability in Africa: implications for research and service development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Judith Anne; McConkey, Roy; Adnams, Colleen

    2013-09-01

    Although intellectual disability (ID) is probably the largest impairment grouping on the African continent, few indigenous research and evaluation studies have been undertaken. This article is an initial attempt to relate service delivery issues to an African research agenda. We critically analysed the available literature, drawing on academic publications and those of non-governmental agencies. In this process we identified several key issues for further investigation, namely: understanding ID in African contexts, access to education and health care, the provision of appropriate assistance and support, and income generation. We relate our analysis to the recommendations made in the World Report on Disability but with a specific focus on ID in Africa. The need for mainstreaming and prioritising ID in non-disability related and across impairment programmes is highlighted. We note the importance of families and emphasise the need to draw on informal and traditional forms of care and participation. The need for reliable research evidence to support practice is highlighted. We conclude with a call to action by and on behalf of individuals with ID to be included in the development priorities of the continent. Implications for Rehabilitation Service provision for people with intellectual disabilities in Africa is not always well served by insights obtained from western research agendas. Appropriate and effective rehabilitation requires an understanding of the context and the environment in which the disabled person operates. Indigenous research into the provision of support to families and the inclusion of persons with intellectual disability into mainstream programmes as well as disability specific provision is recommended.

  18. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF COLOURED DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER (CDOM) IN NARRAGANSETT BAY, RI: IMPLICATIONS FOR PHYTOPLANKTON IN COASTAL WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    One indicator of health in estuarine and coastal ecosystems is the ability of local waters to transmit sunlight to planktonic, macrophytic, and other submerged vegetation for photosynthesis. The concentration of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is a primary factor affecti...

  19. Measurements of mechanical anisotropy in brain tissue and implications for transversely isotropic material models of white matter

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yuan; Okamoto, Ruth J.; Namani, Ravi; Genin, Guy M.; Bayly, Philip V.

    2013-01-01

    White matter in the brain is structurally anisotropic, consisting largely of bundles of aligned, myelin-sheathed axonal fibers. White matter is believed to be mechanically anisotropic as well. Specifically, transverse isotropy is expected locally, with the plane of isotropy normal to the local mean fiber direction. Suitable material models involve strain energy density functions that depend on the I4 and I5 pseudo-invariants of the Cauchy–Green strain tensor to account for the effects of rela...

  20. Development of a Low Background Environment for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, Angela Jane [British Columbia U.

    1996-01-01

    A major problem currently facing astrophysics and cosmology is the question of dark matter. Although there is little doubt about the existence of dark matter, there is considerable uncertainty about the abundance and nature of this matter. One possibility is that dark matter consists of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), such as the lightest stable particle in supersymmetry models. Direct detection experiments look for nuclear recoils from WIMPs scattering in a detector. The first generation of direct detection experiments were ultimately limited by radioactive backgrounds. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) is a direct detection experiment based on novel particle detectors operated at millikelvin temperatures that provide intrinsic background rejection. This capability, however, is not 100% effective. Therefore a low background environment is essential to the experiment. To create such an environment, all possible background sources have been extensively studied both by measuring the background contribution from muons, photons and neutrons and by performing detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the photon and neutron backgrounds. The results of this investigation, as discussed in this thesis, have influenced all aspects of the CDMS experiment. The initial site for the CDMS experiment is the Stanford Underground Facility. The relatively high muon flux at this site due to its shallow depth was balanced against the convenience of a local site with the unlimited access necessary for operating a complicated cryogenic system and developing new detector technology. The cryostat used to house the detectors was designed to accommodate the extensive shielding necessary to reduce the ambient backgrounds to acceptable levels and to minimize the amount of radioactive contamination near the detectors. Simulations and measurements of the local backgrounds led to a layered shield design that consists primarily of plastic scintillators to veto muons, lead and copper

  1. Fluorescence quantum yields of natural organic matter and organic compounds: Implications for the fluorescence-based interpretation of organic matter composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wünsch, Urban; Murphy, Kathleen R.; Stedmon, Colin

    2015-01-01

    to more than 200 modeled spectra (PARAFAC components) in the OpenFluor database. Apparent matches, based on spectral similarity, were subsequently evaluated using molar fluorescence and absorbance. Five organic compounds were potential matches with PARAFAC components from 16 studies; however, the ability......Absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy are economical tools for tracing the supply, turnover and fate of dissolved organic matter (DOM). The colored and fluorescent fractions of DOM (CDOM and FDOM, respectively) are linked by the apparent fluorescence quantum yield (AQY) of DOM, which reflects...... the likelihood that chromophores emit fluorescence after absorbing light. Compared to the number of studies investigating CDOM and FDOM, few studies have systematically investigated AQY spectra for DOM, and linked them to fluorescence quantum yields (Φ) of organic compounds. To offer a standardized approach...

  2. Lantana camara invasion in urban forests of an Indo–Burma hotspot region and its ecosustainable management implication through biomonitoring of particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed in urban forests of Aizawl, Mizoram, north east India falling under an Indo–Burma hot spot region of existing ecological relevance and pristine environment. The phytosociolology of invasive weeds has been studied, showing that Lantana camara was the most dominant invasive weed. Further, the air quality studies revealed high suspended particulate matter as well as respirable suspended particulate matter in the ambient air of Aizawl. Biomonitoring through plant leaves has been recognized as a recent thrust area in the field of particulate matter science. We aimed to investigate whether L. camara leaves may act as a biomonitoring tool hence allowing its sustainable management. The quantity of respirable suspended particulate matter and suspended particulate matter at four different sites were much higher than the prescribed limits of Central Pollution Control Board of India during the summer and winter seasons. The dust deposition of L. camara leaves was 1.01 mg/cm2 and, pertaining to the biochemical parameters: pH was 7.49; relative water content 73.74%; total chlorophyll 1.91 mg/g; ascorbic acid 7.06 mg/g; sugar 0.16 mg/g; protein 0.67 mg/g; catalase 30.76 U/mg protein; peroxidase 0.16 U/mg protein; and air pollution tolerance index was 12.91. L. camara was observed in the good category in anticipated performance index, which shows the tolerant and conditioning capacity of air pollution. Therefore, the present study recommends the use of L. camara as biomonitor that may further have sustainable management implications for an invasive plant.

  3. Environment, Biology, and Culture: Implications for Adolescent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    1996-01-01

    Introduces this special theme issue examining the roles of socialization, biology, and culture as they affect adaptive and maladaptive developmental outcomes. Problems of adolescence addressed include antisocial behavior, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, low achievement, and eating problems. Considers factors implicated in successful…

  4. Local Citation Analysis of Graduate Biology Theses: Collection Development Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura Newton

    2011-01-01

    This paper will focus on the citation analysis of graduate masters theses from Carleton University's Biology Department with implications for library collection management decisions. Twenty-five masters theses were studied to determine citation types and percentages, ranking of journals by frequency of citation and by number of authors citing, and…

  5. Implications of population growth for Nigeria's development | Fan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's population that was 16 million in 1911 is about 140 million today. Attention invariably turns to the implications of this growth to the qualities of life for her inhabitants. The paper notes that high birth rate, low death rate and migration are the sources of the high population growth in Nigeria. The population then ...

  6. Implications of sustainable development considerations for comparability across NDCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, G.; Edmonds, J.; Calvin, K. V.; Hartin, C.; McJeon, H. C.; Clarke, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Paris Agreement delegates the establishment of national climate goals to individual governments through the nationally determined contributions (NDCs). Because of the absence of a commonly agreed burden-sharing scheme within the Agreement, assessments of comparability of mitigation efforts were and will continue to be important aspects of international climate change negotiations, as domestic decision-makers are interested in knowing whether other countries undertake comparable levels of effort in reducing emissions. At the same time, there are well-recognized relationships between mitigation and other national priorities, including the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This raises a question about how the linkages of such goals to mitigation might influence comparability assessments. This is an important issue, because countries are expected to include not only perceptions of comparability in the context of climate mitigation, but also relationships of mitigation with the broader SDGs. We use GCAM, a global integrated assessment model that tracks the interactions across economic, energy, agricultural and land-use systems for 32 geopolitical regions under one consistent framework to illustrate the relationships between the NDCs and a subset of the broader SDGs. We study the implications of considering these relationships for comparability assessments. The relationships between mitigation and the broader SDGs are rather complex because of the interconnected nature of human and Earth systems requiring the use of integrated tools such as GCAM that simultaneously track interactions across various human and Earth systems. Our analysis highlights that while some SDG measures are enhanced by the implementation of NDCs, others are degraded. In addition, the NDCs can have effects that extend beyond national boundaries to affect international SDGs and in some instances, also carry global impact. Finally, the distributions of effort across NDCs based on conventional

  7. Stories Matter: Conceptual Challenges in the Development of Oral History Database Building Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Jessee

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Stories Matter is new oral history database building software designed by an interdisciplinary team of oral historians and a software engineer affiliated with the Centre for Oral History and Digital Storytelling at Concordia University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It encourages a shift away from transcription, enabling oral historians to continue to interact with their interviews in an efficient manner without compromising the greater life history context of their interviewees. This article addresses some of the conceptual challenges that arose when developing this software. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs110119

  8. Measurements of mechanical anisotropy in brain tissue and implications for transversely isotropic material models of white matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuan; Okamoto, Ruth J.; Namani, Ravi; Genin, Guy M.; Bayly, Philip V.

    2013-01-01

    White matter in the brain is structurally anisotropic, consisting largely of bundles of aligned, myelin-sheathed axonal fibers. White matter is believed to be mechanically anisotropic as well. Specifically, transverse isotropy is expected locally, with the plane of isotropy normal to the local mean fiber direction. Suitable material models involve strain energy density functions that depend on the I4 and I5 pseudo-invariants of the Cauchy–Green strain tensor to account for the effects of relatively stiff fibers. The pseudo-invariant I4 is the square of the stretch ratio in the fiber direction; I5 contains contributions of shear strain in planes parallel to the fiber axis. Most, if not all, published models of white matter depend on I4 but not on I5. Here, we explore the small strain limits of these models in the context of experimental measurements that probe these dependencies. Models in which strain energy depends on I4 but not I5 can capture differences in Young’s (tensile) moduli, but will not exhibit differences in shear moduli for loading parallel and normal to the mean direction of axons. We show experimentally, using a combination of shear and asymmetric indentation tests, that white matter does exhibit such differences in both tensile and shear moduli. Indentation tests were interpreted through inverse fitting of finite element models in the limit of small strains. Results highlight that: (1) hyperelastic models of transversely isotropic tissues such as white matter should include contributions of both the I4 and I5 strain pseudo-invariants; and (2) behavior in the small strain regime can usefully guide the choice and initial parameterization of more general material models of white matter. PMID:23680651

  9. Blocked, delayed, or obstructed: What causes poor white matter development in intrauterine growth restricted infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolcos, Mary; Petratos, Steven; Hirst, Jonathan J; Wong, Flora; Spencer, Sarah J; Azhan, Aminath; Emery, Ben; Walker, David W

    2017-07-01

    Poor white matter development in intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) babies remains a major, untreated problem in neonatology. New therapies, guided by an understanding of the mechanisms that underlie normal and abnormal oligodendrocyte development and myelin formation, are required. Much of our knowledge of the mechanisms that underlie impaired myelination come from studies in adult demyelinating disease, preterm brain injury, or experimental models of hypoxia-ischemia. However, relatively less is known for IUGR which is surprising because IUGR is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity, second only to premature birth. IUGR is also a significant risk factor for the later development of cerebral palsy, and is a greater risk compared to some of the more traditionally researched antecedents - asphyxia and inflammation. Recent evidence suggests that the white matter injury and reduced myelination in the brains of some preterm babies is due to impaired maturation of oligodendrocytes thereby resulting in the reduced capacity to synthesize myelin. Therefore, it is not surprising that the hypomyelination observable in the central nervous system of IUGR infants has similarly lead to investigations identifying a delay or blockade in the progress of maturation of oligodendrocytes in these infants. This review will discuss current ideas thought to account for the poor myelination often present in the neonate's brain following IUGR, and discuss novel interventions that are promising as treatments that promote oligodendrocyte maturation, and thereby repair the myelination deficits that otherwise persist into infancy and childhood and lead to neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiative bound-state formation in unbroken perturbative non-Abelian theories and implications for dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Harz, Julia; Petraki, Kalliopi

    2018-01-01

    We compute the cross-sections for the radiative capture of non-relativistic particles into bound states, in unbroken perturbative non-Abelian theories. We find that the formation of bound states via emission of a gauge boson can be significant for a variety of dark matter models that feature non-Abelian long-range interactions, including multi-TeV scale WIMPs and dark matter co-annihilating with coloured partners. Our results disagree with previous computations, on the relative sign of the Ab...

  11. North Korea's nuclear weapons development. Implications for future policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    This essay assesses North Korea's long-standing quest for nuclear weapons; alternative strategies for inhibiting Pyongyang's weapons development; and the potential implications for regional security and nonproliferation should the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) retain and enhance its weapons programs. North Korea's pursuit of a nuclear weapons capability has long provoked heated debate among policy makers and research analysts about the purposes of engagement with the North, reflecting the repeated frustrations in efforts to negotiate Korean denuclearization. These debates reflect widely divergent views of the North Korean regime; its sustainability as an autonomous political, economic, and military system; and the potential consequences of continued nuclear development in this isolated, highly idiosyncratic state. These questions assume additional salience as North Korea approaches a leadership succession for only the second time in its six-decade history. The effort to inhibit North Korea's pursuit of nuclear weapons is among the longest running and least successful sagas in international security and non-proliferation policy of the past quarter century. In early 2010, Pyongyang claims a rudimentary nuclear capability by possession of weaponized plutonium, the conduct of two nuclear tests, and advances in the production of enriched uranium as an alternative means of fissile material production, though the latter step is nominally justified as a source for reactor fuel. North Korea defends its pursuit of a nuclear deterrent to counter what Pyongyang deems existential threats posed by the United States.Despite the resumption of high-level diplomatic contact between Washington and Pyongyang in late 2009, realization of a non-nuclear Korean Peninsula remains a very remote prospect. The DPRK insists that a peace agreement between the U.S. and North Korea and hence the cessation of 'hostile DPRK-U.S. relations' are necessary before any consideration of

  12. Linear systems solvers - recent developments and implications for lattice computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frommer, A.

    1996-01-01

    We review the numerical analysis' understanding of Krylov subspace methods for solving (non-hermitian) systems of equations and discuss its implications for lattice gauge theory computations using the example of the Wilson fermion matrix. Our thesis is that mature methods like QMR, BiCGStab or restarted GMRES are close to optimal for the Wilson fermion matrix. Consequently, preconditioning appears to be the crucial issue for further improvements. (orig.)

  13. Neurobehavioural methods, effects and prevention: workers' human rights are why the field matters for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, L

    2009-11-01

    Little research into neurobehavioural methods and effects occurs in developing countries, where established neurotoxic chemicals continue to pose significant occupational and environmental burdens, and where agents newly identified as neurotoxic are also widespread. Much of the morbidity and mortality associated with neurotoxic agents remains hidden in developing countries as a result of poor case detection, lack of skilled personnel, facilities and equipment for diagnosis, inadequate information systems, limited resources for research and significant competing causes of ill-health, such as HIV/AIDS and malaria. Placing the problem in a human rights context enables researchers and scientists in developing countries to make a strong case for why the field of neurobehavioural methods and effects matters because there are numerous international human rights commitments that make occupational and environmental health and safety a human rights obligation.

  14. Sources of plant-derived carbon and stability of organic matter in soil: Implications for global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Crow; Kate Lajtha; Timothy R. Filley; Chris Swanston; Richard D. Bowden; Bruce A. Caldwell

    2009-01-01

    Alterations in forest productivity and changes in the relative proportion of above- and belowground biomass may have nonlinear effects on soil organic matter (SOM) storage. To study the influence of plant litter inputs on SOM accumulation, the Detritus Input Removal and Transfer (DIRT) Experiment continuously alters above- and belowground plant inputs to soil by a...

  15. Ecological network analysis for economic systems: growth and development and implications for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiali; Ulanowicz, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of growth and development is an important issue in economics, because these phenomena are closely related to sustainability. We address growth and development from a network perspective in which economic systems are represented as flow networks and analyzed using ecological network analysis (ENA). The Beijing economic system is used as a case study and 11 input-output (I-O) tables for 1985-2010 are converted into currency networks. ENA is used to calculate system-level indices to quantify the growth and development of Beijing. The contributions of each direct flow toward growth and development in 2010 are calculated and their implications for sustainable development are discussed. The results show that during 1985-2010, growth was the main attribute of the Beijing economic system. Although the system grew exponentially, its development fluctuated within only a small range. The results suggest that system ascendency should be increased in order to favor more sustainable development. Ascendency can be augmented in two ways: (1) strengthen those pathways with positive contributions to increasing ascendency and (2) weaken those with negative effects.

  16. Prenatal and adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke modulates the development of white matter microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Leslie K; Picciotto, Marina R; Heath, Christopher J; Frost, Stephen J; Tsou, Kristen A; Dwan, Rita A; Jackowski, Marcel P; Constable, Robert T; Mencl, W Einar

    2007-12-05

    Prenatal exposure to maternal smoking has been linked to cognitive and auditory processing deficits in offspring. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that exposure to nicotine disrupts neurodevelopment during gestation and adolescence, possibly by disrupting the trophic effects of acetylcholine. Given recent clinical and preclinical work suggesting that neurocircuits that support auditory processing may be particularly vulnerable to developmental disruption by nicotine, we examined white matter microstructure in 67 adolescent smokers and nonsmokers with and without prenatal exposure to maternal smoking. The groups did not differ in age, educational attainment, IQ, years of parent education, or symptoms of inattention. Diffusion tensor anisotropy and anatomical magnetic resonance images were acquired, and auditory attention was assessed, in all subjects. Both prenatal exposure and adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke was associated with increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in anterior cortical white matter. Adolescent smoking was also associated with increased FA of regions of the internal capsule that contain auditory thalamocortical and corticofugal fibers. FA of the posterior limb of the left internal capsule was positively correlated with reaction time during performance of an auditory attention task in smokers but not in nonsmokers. Development of anterior cortical and internal capsule fibers may be particularly vulnerable to disruption in cholinergic signaling induced by nicotine in tobacco smoke. Nicotine-induced disruption of the development of auditory corticofugal fibers may interfere with the ability of these fibers to modulate ascending auditory signals, leading to greater noise and reduced efficiency of neurocircuitry that supports auditory processing.

  17. Particulate matter air pollution exposure: role in the development and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean H Ling

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sean H Ling, Stephan F van EedenJames Hogg iCAPTURE Centre for Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Research and Heart and Lung Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Due to the rapid urbanization of the world population, a better understanding of the detrimental effects of exposure to urban air pollution on chronic lung disease is necessary. Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter (PM air pollution causes exacerbations of pre-existing lung conditions, such as, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. However, little is known whether a chronic, low-grade exposure to ambient PM can cause the development and progression of COPD. The deposition of PM in the respiratory tract depends predominantly on the size of the particles, with larger particles deposited in the upper and larger airways and smaller particles penetrating deep into the alveolar spaces. Ineffective clearance of this PM from the airways could cause particle retention in lung tissues, resulting in a chronic, low-grade inflammatory response that may be pathogenetically important in both the exacerbation, as well as, the progression of lung disease. This review focuses on the adverse effects of exposure to ambient PM air pollution on the exacerbation, progression, and development of COPD.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, particulate matter, air pollution, alveolar macrophage

  18. 29th Workshop on Recent Developments in Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed Matter Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Thirty years ago, because of the dramatic increase in the power and utility of computer simulations, The University of Georgia formed the first institutional unit devoted to the application of simulations in research and teaching: The Center for Simulational Physics. Then, as the international simulations community expanded further, we sensed the need for a meeting place for both experienced simulators and newcomers to discuss inventive algorithms and recent results in an environment that promoted lively discussion. As a consequence, the Center for Simulational Physics established an annual workshop series on Recent Developments in Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed Matter Physics. This year's highly interactive workshop was the 29th in the series marking our efforts to promote high quality research in simulational physics. The continued interest shown by the scientific community amply demonstrates the useful purpose that these meetings have served. The latest workshop was held at The University of Georgia from February 22-26, 2016. It served to mark the 30 th Anniversary of the founding of the Center for Simulational Physics. In addition, during this Workshop we celebrated the 60 th birthday of our esteemed colleague Prof. H.-Bernd Schuttler. Bernd has not only contributed to the understanding of strongly correlated electron system, but has made seminal contributions to systems biology through the introduction of modern methods of computational physics. These Proceedings provide a “status report” on a number of important topics. This on-line “volume” is published with the goal of timely dissemination of the material to a wider audience. This program was supported in part by the President's Venture Fund through the generous gifts of the University of Georgia Partners and other donors. We also wish to offer thanks to the Office of the Vice-President for Research, the Franklin College of Arts and Sciences, and the IBM Corporation for partial

  19. Financial development and economic growth in Ghana: Does the measure of financial development matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Adu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the long-run growth effects of financial development in Ghana. We find that the growth effect of financial development is sensitive to the choice of proxy. Both the credit to the private sector as ratios to GDP and total domestic credit are conducive for growth, while broad money stock to GDP ratio is not growth-inducing. The indexes created from principal component analysis confirmed the sensitivity of the effect to the choice of proxy. The findings here suggest that whether financial development is good or bad for growth depends on the indicator used to proxy for financial development.

  20. Perspectives on the Present State and Future of Higher Education Faculty Development in Kazakhstan: Implications for National Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitova, Dinara

    2016-01-01

    The article aims at examining the present state of higher education faculty development in Kazakhstan in the context of multidimensional nationwide development reforms and exploring implications for the National Human Resource Development of the country. For the purpose of this research, theoretical human resource development (HRD) and…

  1. Accelerated cerebral white matter development in preterm infants: a voxel-based morphometry study with diffusion tensor MR imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giménez, Mónica; Miranda, Maria J; Born, A Peter

    2008-01-01

    stratum. While some earlier findings in preterm infants have suggested developmental delays, the results of this study are more consistent with accelerated white matter development, possibly as a result of increased sensorimotor stimulation in the extrauterine environment. These results are the first...... to suggest that the increased intensity of stimulation associated with preterm birth may advance the process of white matter maturation in the human brain. Questions remain about whether these findings reflect acceleration of the process of white matter maturation generally, or localized alterations induced...

  2. Early phosphorus nutrition, mycorrhizae development, dry matter partitioning and yield of maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavito, M.E.; Miller, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    to a mycorrhizal mycelium network (no-tillage treatments). Maize yield and harvest index were lower after cropping With canola. The yield for conventional tillage was higher than that for no-tillage but the harvest index was lower. The hypothesis was supported at early stages of maize growth by the effect...... was used with previous crop (Zea mays L.-maize and Brassica napus L.-canola), tillage practices (no-tillage or conventional tillage) and P fertilization (5 levels) as factors chosen to modify mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages of maize. Previous cropping with canola resulted in decreased......We conducted a field experiment to test the hypothesis that improved phosphorus nutrition occurs in maize plants with rapid arbuscular (AM) mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages and that this also is reflected in dry matter allocation and final yield. A split-split plot design...

  3. Baryonic matter and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We summarize recent developments in identifying the ground state of dense baryonic matter and beyond. The topics include deconfinement from baryonic matter to quark matter, a diquark mixture, topological effect coupled with chirality and density, and inhomogeneous chiral condensates.

  4. Absorption features of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and tracing implication for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in Changjiang Estuary, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, X. Y.; Chen, X.; Deng, H.; Du, Y.; Jin, H. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) represents the light absorbing fraction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Studies have shown that the optical properties of CDOM can be used to infer the distribution and diffusion characteristics of DOC in the estuary and coastal zone. The inversion of DOC concentrations from remote sensing has been implemented in certain regions. In this study we investigate the potential of tracing DOC from CDOM by the measure...

  5. Development of the liquid level meters for the PandaX dark matter detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jie; Gong Haowei; Lin Qing; Ni Kaixuan; Wei Yuehuan; Xiao Mengjiao; Xiao Xiang; Zhao Li; Tan Andi

    2014-01-01

    The two-phase xenon detector is at the frontier of dark matter direct search. This kind of detector uses liquid xenon as the sensitive target and is operated in two-phase (liquid/gas) mode, where the liquid level needs to be monitored and controlled in sub-millimeter precision. In this paper, we present a detailed design and study of two kinds of level meters for the PandaX dark matter detector. The long level meter is used to monitor the overall liquid level while short level meters are used to monitor the inclination of the detector. These level meters are cylindrical capacitors that are custom-made from two concentric metal tubes. Their capacitance values are read out by a universal transducer interface chip and are recorded by the PandaX slow control system. We present the developments that lead to level meters with long-term stability and sub-millimeter precision. Fluctuations (standard deviations) of less than 0.02 mm for the short level meters and less than 0.2 mm for the long level meter were achieved during a few days of test operation. (authors)

  6. White Matter Tracts Connected to the Medial Temporal Lobe Support the Development of Mnemonic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendelken, Carter; Lee, Joshua K; Pospisil, Jacqueline; Sastre, Marcos; Ross, Julia M; Bunge, Silvia A; Ghetti, Simona

    2015-09-01

    One of the most important factors driving the development of memory during childhood is mnemonic control, or the capacity to initiate and maintain the processes that guide encoding and retrieval operations. The ability to selectively attend to and encode relevant stimuli is a particularly useful form of mnemonic control, and is one that undergoes marked improvement over childhood. We hypothesized that structural integrity of white matter tracts, in particular those connecting medial temporal lobe memory regions to other cortical areas, and/or those connecting frontal and parietal control regions, should contribute to successful mnemonic control. To test this hypothesis, we examined the relationship between structural integrity of selected white matter tracts and an experimental measure of mnemonic control, involving enhancement of memory by attention at encoding, in 116 children aged 7-11 and 25 young adults. We observed a positive relationship between integrity of uncinate fasciculus and mnemonic enhancement across age groups. In adults, but not in children, we also observed an association between mnemonic enhancement and integrity of ventral cingulum bundle and ventral fornix/fimbria. Integrity of fronto-parietal tracts, including dorsal cingulum and superior longitudinal fasciculus, was unrelated to mnemonic enhancement. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Three Theories of Psychological Development; Implications for Children's Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, James M.; McIver, F. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    A slide-tape series developed for introduction of developmental and learning theories in freshman dental curriculum is described. Theories of social-emotional development, cognitive development, and theories of conditioning and observational learning are included. (MSE)

  8. Tidal capture of a primordial black hole by a neutron star: implications for constraints on dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pani, Paolo [CENTRA, Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, Lisboa, 1049 Portugal (Portugal); Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: paolo.pani@tecnico.ulisboa.pt, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    In a close encounter with a neutron star, a primordial black hole can get gravitationally captured by depositing a considerable amount of energy into nonradial stellar modes of very high angular number l. If the neutron-star equation of state is sufficiently stiff, we show that the total energy loss in the point-particle approximation is formally divergent. Various mechanisms — including viscosity, finite-size effects and the elasticity of the crust — can damp high-l modes and regularize the total energy loss. Within a short time, the black hole is trapped inside the star and disrupts it by rapid accretion. Estimating these effects, we predict that the existence of old neutron stars in regions where the dark-matter density ρ{sub DM}∼>10{sup 2}(σ/km s{sup −1}) GeV cm{sup −3} (where σ is the dark-matter velocity dispersion) limits the abundance of primordial black holes in the mass range 10{sup 17} g∼matter constituent.

  9. The “geotoxicology” of airborne particulate matter: implications for public health, public policy, and environmental security (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Morman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    Exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) have been documented and hypothesized as the cause of a wide variety of adverse health effects. Most attention has focused on potential health effects of occupational and environmental exposures to many types of anthropogenic PM, such as mineral dusts or combustion byproducts of fossil fuels. However, geogenic PM (produced from the Earth by natural processes) and geoanthropogenic PM (produced from natural sources but modified by human activities) are also increasingly of concern as potential agents of toxicity and disease, via both environmental and occupational exposures. Geotoxicology can be defined as the study of the toxicological characteristics and potential health effects of geogenic and geoanthropogenic earth materials. Acute exposures to high PM concentrations are associated with exacerbated asthma, other pulmonary inflammatory responses, cardiovascular problems, and other issues. Some diseases can result from inhalation of dust-borne pathogens. PM can contain bioaccessible (readily dissolved in the body’s fluids) contaminants that, if absorbed in sufficient doses, can trigger toxicity. Acutely bioreactive PM, such as alkaline wildfire ash or acidic volcanic fog, can trigger acute irritation or damage of the respiratory tract, eyes, and skin. Biodurable PM such as asbestos fibers and crystalline silica are poorly cleared by lung macrophages, do not readily dissolve in the fluids lining the lungs, and can therefore persist in the lungs for decades. In sufficient dose, pneumoconioses can result from exposure to biodurable minerals, and chronic fluid-mineral reactions in the body (such as redox cycling and formation of free radicals) are thought to help promote cancers such as lung cancer and (in the case of asbestos) mesothelioma. Many key research questions remain, such as the exact mechanisms by which many types of PM cause disease, or the levels of exposure above which various types of PM begin to pose a

  10. The Legal Implications for the Navigation Development of Bystroye Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tache Bocaniala

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available On May 11, 2004, Ukraine began the construction of the Danube - Black Sea Channel (Chilia and Bystroe river branch in the Danube Delta. The project, which had economic, political and even military interests, has been questioned since the formation of national and international environmental organizations (of both countries, which are likely to cause significant negative transboundary impact on the Danube Delta ecosystem. We conclude that, in defiance of the bilateralagreements with the Romanian and the international ones, Ukraine continued its works to complete the project, applying the policy of the complete fact. In this document we intend to highlight anumber of legal implications of the problem and the current international context as well, favorable for directing the demarche to a correct resolution.

  11. Do Methods Matter in Global Leadership Development? Testing the Global Leadership Development Ecosystem Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jennie L.

    2018-01-01

    As world communication, technology, and trade become increasingly integrated through globalization, multinational corporations seek employees with global leadership skills. However, the demand for these skills currently outweighs the supply. Given the rarity of globally ready leaders, global competency development should be emphasized in business…

  12. Relationship between mathematics teacher subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge and professional development needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd; Chinnappan, Mohan; Saad, Noor Shah

    2017-05-01

    Two key variables emerged from the literature review is that Specific Matter Knowledge [SMK] and Pedagogical Content Knowledge [PCK] can influence the mathematics teachers' Professional Development [PD] needs. However, the key variables of SMK and PCK that were being investigated were not defined clearly. Empirical evidence that support relationship between SMK and PD and PCK and PD were not verified. In addition, how does PCK mediate SMK and PD is not clear and somewhat lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between primary mathematics teacher's SMK, PCK and PD needs. Results of path analysis with SmartPLS indicated that the direct effect of SMK on PD was mediated via PCK. This data provide support for the claim that PD programs for future teachers of primary mathematics should be driven by a more nuanced understanding of the link between SMK and PCK.

  13. A search for gamma-ray imprints of annihilating dark matter in the galaxy, and the astrophysical implications of ultra-light fundamental vector bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zechlin, Hannes-Sebastian

    2013-12-01

    Standard Model extensions imply new elementary particles that can lead to specific astrophysical signatures. In particular, weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) can constitute the unknown non-luminous cold dark matter, which contributes approximately 84% to the matter content of the Universe. Annihilation or decay of WIMPs may lead to high-energy gamma-rays. In this thesis, new methods of searching for gamma-ray signals from annihilating dark matter are developed and applied. Moreover, astrophysical imprints of new ultra-light hidden U(1) gauge bosons in radio data are investigated. Hierarchical structure formation predicts a variety of smaller bound dark matter sub-halos in Milky-Way-like galactic hosts. It is shown that the Fermi-LAT is sufficiently sensitive for detecting up to a few nearby dark matter subhalos in terms of faint gamma-ray sources with a moderate angular extent. Searches in the first and second Fermi-LAT source catalogs reveal about ten candidate sources each. To discriminate the source candidates from conventional astrophysical objects, an analysis for spectral, spatial, positional, and temporal gamma-ray properties using 3.5 years of Fermi-LAT data is carried out. In addition, a multi-wavelength analysis of archival data or follow-up observations in the radio, infrared, optical, UV, X-ray, high-energy, and very-high energy gamma-ray bands is carried out. The broad-band spectra of all promising candidates are compatible with AGN, in particular high-energy peaked BL-Lac type objects (HBLs). Dark matter annihilation can contribute to the small-scale angular anisotropy spectrum of the diffuse gamma-ray background (DGB). The detection capabilities of currently operating imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes and the planned Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) are studied. With CTA, a relative gamma-ray contribution from annihilating dark matter of 10% to the extragalactic DGB can be resolved via angular anisotropies. In terms of the dark

  14. Stages of Teachers' Careers: Implications for Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Judith; And Others

    This monograph on the development of teachers' careers synthesizes researchers' prescriptions for early-, mid-, and late-career professional development; and describes successful programs that demonstrate sensitivity to the stages of teachers' growth. The first chapter, "Teachers' Career Development," reviews current adult- and career-stage…

  15. Direct detection of WIMPs: implications of a self-consistent truncated isothermal model of the Milky Way's dark matter halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Soumini; Bhattacharjee, Pijushpani; Cowsik, Ramanath

    2010-09-01

    Direct detection of Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) candidates of Dark Matter (DM) is studied within the context of a self-consistent truncated isothermal model of the finite-size dark halo of the Galaxy. The halo model, based on the ``King model'' of the phase space distribution function of collisionless DM particles, takes into account the modifications of the phase-space structure of the halo due to the gravitational influence of the observed visible matter in a self-consistent manner. The parameters of the halo model are determined by a fit to a recently determined circular rotation curve of the Galaxy that extends up to ~ 60 kpc. Unlike in the Standard Halo Model (SHM) customarily used in the analysis of the results of WIMP direct detection experiments, the velocity distribution of the WIMPs in our model is non-Maxwellian with a cut-off at a maximum velocity that is self-consistently determined by the model itself. For our halo model that provides the best fit to the rotation curve data, the 90% C.L. upper limit on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section from the recent results of the CDMS-II experiment, for example, is ~ 5.3 × 10-8 pb at a WIMP mass of ~ 71 GeV. We also find, using the original 2-bin annual modulation amplitude data on the nuclear recoil event rate seen in the DAMA experiment, that there exists a range of small WIMP masses, typically ~ 2-16 GeV, within which DAMA collaboration's claimed annual modulation signal purportedly due to WIMPs is compatible with the null results of other experiments. These results, based as they are on a self-consistent model of the dark matter halo of the Galaxy, strengthen the possibility of low-mass (lsim10 GeV) WIMPs as a candidate for dark matter as indicated by several earlier studies performed within the context of the SHM. A more rigorous analysis using DAMA bins over smaller intervals should be able to better constrain the ``DAMA regions'' in the WIMP parameter space within the context of

  16. Current status of RTO development and its implications for Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDougall, M. [Powerex Corp., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This presentation includes a corporate review of Powerex, a review of Order 2000, and the current status of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) efforts regarding Regional Transmission Operators (RTOs). Other topics of discussion include FERC's standard market design, an update of RTO West and implications for Canada. Powerex was incorporated in 1988 as a wholly-owned subsidiary of BC Hydro. British Columbia-based Powerex's heaviest trading is along the western-most states and Alberta, but it is slowly expanding into central and eastern markets. It evolved by selling and buying power at the United States Border. It received US FERC power marketing authorization in 1997 and has since seen sales jump from C$165 million to C$5.4 billion. Currently, the majority of power supply is from utilities other than BC Hydro. The presentation addresses issues such as the Federal Power Act, PUHCA and PURPA, and the 1992 Energy Policy Act which deals with expanded access to the power grid. Power Pool restructuring and FERC orders 888/889 are also discussed. 2 figs.

  17. Current status of RTO development and its implications for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDougall, M.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation includes a corporate review of Powerex, a review of Order 2000, and the current status of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) efforts regarding Regional Transmission Operators (RTOs). Other topics of discussion include FERC's standard market design, an update of RTO West and implications for Canada. Powerex was incorporated in 1988 as a wholly-owned subsidiary of BC Hydro. British Columbia-based Powerex's heaviest trading is along the western-most states and Alberta, but it is slowly expanding into central and eastern markets. It evolved by selling and buying power at the United States Border. It received US FERC power marketing authorization in 1997 and has since seen sales jump from C$165 million to C$5.4 billion. Currently, the majority of power supply is from utilities other than BC Hydro. The presentation addresses issues such as the Federal Power Act, PUHCA and PURPA, and the 1992 Energy Policy Act which deals with expanded access to the power grid. Power Pool restructuring and FERC orders 888/889 are also discussed. 2 figs

  18. Non-linear corrections to the cosmological matter power spectrum and scale-dependent galaxy bias: implications for parameter estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Wong, Yvonne Y Y

    2008-01-01

    We explore and compare the performances of two non-linear correction and scale-dependent biasing models for the extraction of cosmological information from galaxy power spectrum data, especially in the context of beyond-ΛCDM (CDM: cold dark matter) cosmologies. The first model is the well known Q model, first applied in the analysis of Two-degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey data. The second, the P model, is inspired by the halo model, in which non-linear evolution and scale-dependent biasing are encapsulated in a single non-Poisson shot noise term. We find that while the two models perform equally well in providing adequate correction for a range of galaxy clustering data in standard ΛCDM cosmology and in extensions with massive neutrinos, the Q model can give unphysical results in cosmologies containing a subdominant free-streaming dark matter whose temperature depends on the particle mass, e.g., relic thermal axions, unless a suitable prior is imposed on the correction parameter. This last case also exposes the danger of analytic marginalization, a technique sometimes used in the marginalization of nuisance parameters. In contrast, the P model suffers no undesirable effects, and is the recommended non-linear correction model also because of its physical transparency

  19. Non-linear corrections to the cosmological matter power spectrum and scale-dependent galaxy bias: implications for parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2008-07-01

    We explore and compare the performances of two non-linear correction and scale-dependent biasing models for the extraction of cosmological information from galaxy power spectrum data, especially in the context of beyond-ΛCDM (CDM: cold dark matter) cosmologies. The first model is the well known Q model, first applied in the analysis of Two-degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey data. The second, the P model, is inspired by the halo model, in which non-linear evolution and scale-dependent biasing are encapsulated in a single non-Poisson shot noise term. We find that while the two models perform equally well in providing adequate correction for a range of galaxy clustering data in standard ΛCDM cosmology and in extensions with massive neutrinos, the Q model can give unphysical results in cosmologies containing a subdominant free-streaming dark matter whose temperature depends on the particle mass, e.g., relic thermal axions, unless a suitable prior is imposed on the correction parameter. This last case also exposes the danger of analytic marginalization, a technique sometimes used in the marginalization of nuisance parameters. In contrast, the P model suffers no undesirable effects, and is the recommended non-linear correction model also because of its physical transparency.

  20. Simulation of a relativistic heavy ions beam transport in the matter: contribution of the fragmentation process and biological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibnouzahir, M.

    1995-03-01

    The study of relativistic heavy ion collisions permit an approach of the properties of dense and not hadronic matter, and an analysis of the reaction mechanisms. Such studies are also interesting on the biological point of view, since there exist now well defined projects concerning the radiotherapy with high LET particles as neutrons, protons, heavy ions. It is thus necessary to have a good understanding of the processes which occur in the propagation of a relativistic heavy ion beam (E≥ 100 A.MeV) in matter. We have elaborated a three dimensional transport code, using a Monte Carlo method, in order to describe the propagation of Ne and Ar ions in water. Violent nuclear collisions giving fragmentation process have been taken into account by use of the FREESCO program. We have tested the validity of our transport model and we show an important change of the energy deposition at the vicinity of the Bragg peak; such a distortion, due mainly to fragmentation reactions, is of a great interest for biological applications. (author)

  1. Ethanol Neurotoxicity in the Developing Cerebellum: Underlying Mechanisms and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrish Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is the main constituent of alcoholic beverages that exerts toxicity to neuronal development. Ethanol affects synaptogenesis and prevents proper brain development. In humans, synaptogenesis takes place during the third trimester of pregnancy, and in rodents this period corresponds to the initial few weeks of postnatal development. In this period neuronal maturation and differentiation begin and neuronal cells start migrating to their ultimate destinations. Although the neuronal development of all areas of the brain is affected, the cerebellum and cerebellar neurons are more susceptible to the damaging effects of ethanol. Ethanol’s harmful effects include neuronal cell death, impaired differentiation, reduction of neuronal numbers, and weakening of neuronal plasticity. Neuronal development requires many hormones and growth factors such as retinoic acid, nerve growth factors, and cytokines. These factors regulate development and differentiation of neurons by acting through various receptors and their signaling pathways. Ethanol exposure during development impairs neuronal signaling mechanisms mediated by the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptors, the retinoic acid receptors, and by growth factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I, and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF. In combination, these ethanol effects disrupt cellular homeostasis, reduce the survival and migration of neurons, and lead to various developmental defects in the brain. Here we review the signaling mechanisms that are required for proper neuronal development, and how these processes are impaired by ethanol resulting in harmful consequences to brain development.

  2. 75 FR 26822 - In the Matter of: Universal Property Development & Acquisition Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Universal Property Development & Acquisition Corp. (``Universal Property'') because it has not filed any... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] In the Matter of: Universal Property Development & Acquisition Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading May 10, 2010. It appears to the Securities and...

  3. Nursing and health care reform: implications for curriculum development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, M; Lyons, K J; Young, B E

    2000-01-01

    The health care system is undergoing profound changes. Cost containment efforts and restructuring have resulted in cutbacks in registered nurse (RN) positions. These changes are often related to the increased market penetration by managed care companies. To determine how RN graduates perceive these changes and their impact on the delivery of patient care, Healthcare Environment Surveys were mailed to graduates of the classes of 1986 and 1991. Using the Survey's 5-point Likert Scale, we measured the graduates' satisfaction with their salary, quality of supervision they received, opportunities for advancement, recognition for their job, working conditions, the overall job and the changes in their careers over the previous five year period. Our study suggests that the changes in the health care system are having an impact on how health care is being delivered and the way nurses view their jobs. Respondents reported that insurance companies are exerting increased control over patient care and perceive that the quality of patient care is declining. Increased workloads and an increase in the amount of paperwork were reported. Participants perceived that there were fewer jobs available and that job security was decreasing. The percentage of nurses who see job satisfaction as remaining the same or increasing are a majority. However, the relatively high percent of nurses who see job satisfaction as declining should provide a note of warning. The major implications of this study are that the professional nursing curriculum must be modified to include content on communication, organization, legislative/policy skills, and leadership. The nation's health care system is undergoing profound changes. There are numerous forces at work that are effecting the delivery of care and, consequently, the work of health professionals. These forces include significant efforts at cost containment, restructuring and downsizing of hospitals, and the movement of health care delivery out of acute

  4. Teachers as Learners: Implications of Adult Education for Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Effective communication with teachers is a critical element of any successful professional development. Teachers are the foundational component of any educational system. It is vital that adequate attention is focused on appropriate and effective training of these teachers. Ideally, professional development offers a means of collaborative support…

  5. When Research Meets Development: Antecedents and Implications of Transfer Speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, J.; Leten, B.; Vanhaverbeke, W.; Lopez-Vega, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the organization of new product development in large, R&D-intensive firms. In these firms, research and development activities are often separated. Research is conducted in dedicated research projects at specialized research labs. Once research results are achieved by research

  6. Macroeconomic pressures and their implications for business development in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the complex relationships between macroeconomic pressures, savings, investments and business development in Sub-Sahara African countries......The paper discusses the complex relationships between macroeconomic pressures, savings, investments and business development in Sub-Sahara African countries...

  7. Implications of Bilingual Development for Specific Language Impairments in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    The potential impact of bilingualism on children's language development has emerged as a crucial concern for Turkey, but so far it has not been addressed from the point of view of language disorders. This short review examines the potential impact of bilingual language development for language impairments in Turkey, with special emphasis on the…

  8. Implications for a Green Curriculum Application toward Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Elvan; Ertepinar, Hamide; Teksoz, Gaye

    2009-01-01

    The aim of present study was two-fold: (1) to determine university students' familiarity and understandings of "sustainable development", (2) to examine their attitudes toward sustainable development, environmental values, and their behaviors toward sustainable life styles. The data collected by on-line administration of a questionnaire…

  9. The Psychological Development of Adults: Implications for Public Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    This article analyzes the major theories of adult lifespan development, reviews some related research into the influence of various stages of development on job and organizational satisfaction, and identifies some important issues that the adult life cycle raises for public administrators and managers. (Author/CT)

  10. Men's Identity Development: Issues and Implications for Residence Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David A.; Livingston, Wade G.; Havice, Pamela A.; Cawthon, Tony W.

    2012-01-01

    Young men struggle with privilege and oppression in college and university residence halls just as they do in other educational and social contexts. While discussions and research about adolescent and adult identity development continue, little attention has focused on how a male student's identity development can impact residence life cultures on…

  11. Development And Application of Functional Assays For Freshwater Dissolved Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, S.; Tipping, E.; Gondar, D.; Baker, A.

    2006-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural waters participates in many important ecological and geochemical reactions, including acid-base buffering, light absorption, proton binding, binding of heavy metals, organic contaminants, aluminium and radionuclides, adsorption at surfaces, aggregation and photochemical reactivity. We are studying DOM in order to understand and quantify these functional properties, so we can use the knowledge to predict the influence of DOM on the natural freshwater environment. As DOM has no readily identifiable structure, our approach is to measure what it does, rather than what it is. Thus, we have developed a series of 12 standardised, reproducible assays of physico-chemical functions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in freshwaters. The assays provide quantitative information on light absorption, fluorescence, photochemical fading, pH buffering, copper binding, benzo(a)pyrene binding, hydrophilicity and adsorption to alumina. We have collected twenty DOM samples in total, ten samples from a eutrophic lake (Esthwaite Water) and ten samples from three stream waters. A mild isolation method was then used to concentrate the DOM samples for the assay work. When assaying the concentrates, parallel assays were also preformed with Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA), as a quality control standard. Our results showed that; (i) for eleven of the assays, the variability among the twenty DOM samples was significantly (p<0.001) greater than can be explained by analytical error, i.e. by comparison with results from the SRFA quality control; (ii) the functional properties of the DOM from Esthwaite Water are strongly influenced by the seasonally-dependent input of autochthonous DOM, derived from phytoplankton. The autochthonous DOM is less fluorescent, light absorbing, hydrophobic and has a lower acid group content and capacity to be adsorbed onto alumina than terrestrially derived allochthonous DOM; (iii) significant correlations were found between

  12. Effect of Thermal Maturation on n-alkanes and Kerogen in Preserved Organic Matter: Implications for Paleoenvironment Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, O. D.; Longbottom, T. L.; Hockaday, W. C.; Blackaby, E.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the effects of maturity on biomarkers is vital in assessing biomarker reliability in mature sediments. It is well known for n-alkanes that increased maturity shortens chain lengths and decreases the odd over even preference however, the amount of change in these variables has not been determined for different maturities and types of preserved organic matter. For this reason, it is difficult to judge the trustworthiness of even lightly matured samples for paleoenvironment reconstruction. Another complication is the difficulty of accurately determining maturity as many maturity indicators are error-prone or not appropriate at low maturities. Using hydrous pyrolysis, we artificially matured black shale samples with type I (lacustrine) and type II (marine) kerogen to measure changes in n-alkane length and odd over even preference. Whole rock samples underwent hydrous pyrolysis for 72 hours, at 250 °C, 300 °C, 325 °C, 350 °C, and 375 °C to cover a wide maturity range. From the immature and artificially matured samples, the bitumen was extracted and the saturate fraction was separated using column chromatography. The saturate fraction was analyzed for n-alkanes using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Kerogen structural changes were also measured using solid-state 13C NMR to relate changes in n-alkane biomarkers to changes in kerogen structure. Results show that for type I bitumen the n-alkanes did not change at low maturities considered premature in terms of oil generation (<325 °C). The NMR spectra of the type I kerogen support the lack of change, at low maturities no changes in the aliphatic portion (Fal) were observed, however, after 325 °C Fal decreased with increasing maturity. The loss of Fal indicates kerogen contributing hydrocarbons to bitumen that cause changes in n-alkane measurements. The type II kerogen's Fal also decreased with increasing maturity, but unlike the type I kerogen Fal loss started at low maturities. The differences

  13. Some technical implications of Klein's concept of 'premature ego development'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrani, Judith L

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, the author revisits the problem of 'premature ego development' first introduced by Melanie Klein in 1930. She also highlights several developments in post-Kleinian thinking since the publication of that paper, which can be seen as offshoots of or complements to Klein's work. The author proposes a link between this category of precocious development and the absence of the experience of what Bion termed the 'containing object.' She puts forward several technical considerations relevant to analytic work with patients who suffer as a result of early developmental failures and presents various clinical vignettes in order to demonstrate the ways in which these considerations take shape in the analytic setting.

  14. Importance and implications of antibiotic resistance development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of ABR in nature is a complex phenomenon with many ... and other farming practices and closer contact with humans and other farm animals. ... Worryingly, there is lack of knowledge of this situation owing to inadequate ...

  15. Importance and implications of antibiotic resistance development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michaela

    2018-01-24

    Jan 24, 2018 ... would aid in the development of surveillance systems and methods to prevent or .... and alternative production methods to industrialize and optimize food ..... Data on the sales and use of antibiotics in livestock production are ...

  16. The health implications of unconventional natural gas development in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lizhong; Meyerhoefer, Chad; Chou, Shin-Yi

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the health impacts of unconventional natural gas development of Marcellus shale in Pennsylvania between 2001 and 2013 by merging well permit data from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection with a database of all inpatient hospital admissions. After comparing changes in hospitalization rates over time for air pollution-sensitive diseases in counties with unconventional gas wells to changes in hospitalization rates in nonwell counties, we find a significant association between shale gas development and hospitalizations for pneumonia among the elderly, which is consistent with higher levels of air pollution resulting from unconventional natural gas development. We note that the lack of any detectable impact of shale gas development on younger populations may be due to unobserved factors contemporaneous with drilling, such as migration. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Implications for gravitational lensing and the dark matter content in clusters of galaxies from spatially resolved x-ray spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, M.

    1994-01-01

    A simple method for deriving well-behaved temperature solutions to the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium for intracluster media with X-ray imaging observations is presented and applied to a series of generalized models as well as to observations of the Perseus cluster and Abell 2256. In these applications the allowed range in the ratio of nonbaryons to baryons as a function of radius is derived, taking into account the uncertainties and crude spatial resolution of the X-ray spectra and considering a range of physically reasonable mass models with various scale heights. Particular attention is paid to the central regions of the cluster, and it is found that the dark matter can be sufficiently concentrated to be consistent with the high central mass surface densities for moderate-redshift clusters from their gravitational lensing properties.

  18. Dark matter implications of Fermi-LAT measurement of anisotropies in the diffuse gamma-ray background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Vargas, G.A.; Cuoco, A.; Linden, T.; Sánchez-Conde, M.A.; Siegal-Gaskins, J.M.; Delahaye, T.; Fornasa, M.; Komatsu, E.

    2014-01-01

    The detailed origin of the diffuse gamma-ray background is still unknown. However, the contribution of unresolved sources is expected to induce small-scale anisotropies in this emission, which may provide a way to identify and constrain the properties of its contributors. Recent studies have predicted the contributions to the angular power spectrum (APS) from extragalactic and galactic dark matter (DM) annihilation or decay. The Fermi-LAT collaboration reported detection of angular power with a significance larger than 3σ in the energy range from 1 GeV to 10 GeV on 22 months of data (Ackermann et al., 2012 [2]). For these preliminary results the already published Fermi-LAT APS measurements (Ackermann et al., 2012 [2]) are compared to the accurate predictions for DM anisotropies from state-of-the-art cosmological simulations as presented in Fornasa et al. (2013) [1] to derive constraints on different DM candidates

  19. Dark matter implications of Fermi-LAT measurement of anisotropies in the diffuse gamma-ray background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Vargas, G.A., E-mail: germanarturo.gomez@uam.es [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Física Teórica IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049, Madrid (Spain); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. Roma Tor Vergata, Roma (Italy); Cuoco, A. [The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Linden, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Sánchez-Conde, M.A. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Siegal-Gaskins, J.M. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Delahaye, T. [LAPTh, Universit e de Savoie, CNRS, 9 chemin de Bellevue, BP110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France); Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 – CNRS, Universit e Pierre and Marie Curie, 98 bis boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Instituto de Física Teórica IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049, Madrid (Spain); Fornasa, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD Nottingham (United Kingdom); Komatsu, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild Str. 1, 85741 Garching (Germany); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Texas Cosmology Center and the Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); and others

    2014-04-01

    The detailed origin of the diffuse gamma-ray background is still unknown. However, the contribution of unresolved sources is expected to induce small-scale anisotropies in this emission, which may provide a way to identify and constrain the properties of its contributors. Recent studies have predicted the contributions to the angular power spectrum (APS) from extragalactic and galactic dark matter (DM) annihilation or decay. The Fermi-LAT collaboration reported detection of angular power with a significance larger than 3σ in the energy range from 1 GeV to 10 GeV on 22 months of data (Ackermann et al., 2012 [2]). For these preliminary results the already published Fermi-LAT APS measurements (Ackermann et al., 2012 [2]) are compared to the accurate predictions for DM anisotropies from state-of-the-art cosmological simulations as presented in Fornasa et al. (2013) [1] to derive constraints on different DM candidates.

  20. Determination of lead isotopic composition of airborne particulate matter by ICPMS: implications for lead atmospheric emissions in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celo, V.; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, E.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Quadrupole ICPMS was used for determination of trace metal concentrations and lead isotopic composition in fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) collected at selected sites within the Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance network, from February 2005 to February 2007. High enrichment factors indicated that lead is mostly of anthropogenic origin and consequently, the lead isotopic composition is directly related to that of pollution sources. The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios were measured and the results were compared to the isotopic signatures of lead from different sources. Various approaches were used to assess the impact of relevant sources and the meteorological conditions in the occurrence and distribution of lead in Canadian atmospheric aerosols. (author)

  1. Search for gamma-ray spectral lines with the Fermi Large Area Telescope and dark matter implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D’Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Essig, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Inoue, Y.; Izaguirre, E.; Jogler, T.; Kamae, T.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Malyshev, D.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Romani, R. W.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Siegal-Gaskins, J.; Siskind, E. J.; Snyder, A.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.; Zaharijas, G.; Zimmer, S.

    2013-10-22

    Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are a theoretical class of particles that are excellent dark matter candidates. WIMP annihilation or decay may produce essentially monochromatic γ rays detectable by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) against the astrophysical γ -ray emission of the Galaxy. We have searched for spectral lines in the energy range 5–300 GeV using 3.7 years of data, reprocessed with updated instrument calibrations and an improved energy dispersion model compared to the previous Fermi-LAT Collaboration line searches. We searched in five regions selected to optimize sensitivity to different theoretically motivated dark matter density distributions. We did not find any globally significant lines in our a priori search regions and present 95% confidence limits for annihilation cross sections of self-conjugate WIMPs and decay lifetimes. Our most significant fit occurred at 133 GeV in our smallest search region and had a local significance of 3.3 standard deviations, which translates to a global significance of 1.5 standard deviations. We discuss potential systematic effects in this search, and examine the feature at 133 GeV in detail. We find that the use both of reprocessed data and of additional information in the energy dispersion model contributes to the reduction in significance of the linelike feature near 130 GeV relative to significances reported in other works. We also find that the feature is narrower than the LAT energy resolution at the level of 2 to 3 standard deviations, which somewhat disfavors the interpretation of the 133 GeV feature as a real WIMP signal.

  2. Designing eHealth that Matters via a Multidisciplinary Requirements Development Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Velsen, Lex; Wentzel, Jobke; Van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia Ewc

    2013-06-24

    Requirements development is a crucial part of eHealth design. It entails all the activities devoted to requirements identification, the communication of requirements to other developers, and their evaluation. Currently, a requirements development approach geared towards the specifics of the eHealth domain is lacking. This is likely to result in a mismatch between the developed technology and end user characteristics, physical surroundings, and the organizational context of use. It also makes it hard to judge the quality of eHealth design, since it makes it difficult to gear evaluations of eHealth to the main goals it is supposed to serve. In order to facilitate the creation of eHealth that matters, we present a practical, multidisciplinary requirements development approach which is embedded in a holistic design approach for eHealth (the Center for eHealth Research roadmap) that incorporates both human-centered design and business modeling. Our requirements development approach consists of five phases. In the first, preparatory, phase the project team is composed and the overall goal(s) of the eHealth intervention are decided upon. Second, primary end users and other stakeholders are identified by means of audience segmentation techniques and our stakeholder identification method. Third, the designated context of use is mapped and end users are profiled by means of requirements elicitation methods (eg, interviews, focus groups, or observations). Fourth, stakeholder values and eHealth intervention requirements are distilled from data transcripts, which leads to phase five, in which requirements are communicated to other developers using a requirements notation template we developed specifically for the context of eHealth technologies. The end result of our requirements development approach for eHealth interventions is a design document which includes functional and non-functional requirements, a list of stakeholder values, and end user profiles in the form of

  3. Development of Europe's gas hubs: Implications for East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunpeng Shi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gas trading hubs have been initially developed in the US in 1980s, UK in 1990s, more recently in European in the 2000s and mulled in East Asia now. Due to its freshness and diversification in nationality, governance and culture, the European hub experience can offer valuable lessons for East Asia. This paper seeks to advance understanding of gas hub development in Europe and provide lessons for East Asia. The European experience highlights that market liberalization and transition of gas pricing mechanism are necessary in creating the competitive markets that are needed for functional gas hubs. Political will and regulations further safeguard the competition environment needed for hub development. Natural factors, such as significant domestic production and culture could have a significant impact on the hub development and transition of pricing mechanism. In East Asia, the path to gas trading hubs might be more difficult than in Europe but a growing market creates an opportunity to start new terms with new contracts. Nevertheless, East Asian needs to work hard to development its indigenous gas or LNG trading hubs.

  4. Effects of soil organic matter on the development of the microbial polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Zhang, N.; Xue, M.; Lu, S.T.; Tao, S.

    2011-01-01

    The microbial activity in soils was a critical factor governing the degradation of organic micro-pollutants. The present study was conducted to analyze the effects of soil organic matter on the development of degradation potentials for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Most of the degradation kinetics for PAHs by the indigenous microorganisms developed in soils can be fitted with the Logistic growth models. The microbial activities were relatively lower in the soils with the lowest and highest organic matter content, which were likely due to the nutrition limit and PAH sequestration. The microbial activities developed in humic acid (HA) were much higher than those developed in humin, which was demonstrated to be able to sequester organic pollutants stronger. The results suggested that the nutrition support and sequestration were the two major mechanisms, that soil organic matter influenced the development of microbial PAHs degradation potentials. - Research highlights: → PAH degradation kinetics obey Logistic model. → Degradation potentials depend on soil organic carbon content. → Humin inhibits the development of PAH degradation activity. → Nutrition support and sequestration regulate microbial degradation capacity. - Soil organic matter regulated PAH degradation potentials through nutrition support and sequestration.

  5. Dipolar dark matter with massive bigravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchet, Luc; Heisenberg, Lavinia

    2015-01-01

    Massive gravity theories have been developed as viable IR modifications of gravity motivated by dark energy and the problem of the cosmological constant. On the other hand, modified gravity and modified dark matter theories were developed with the aim of solving the problems of standard cold dark matter at galactic scales. Here we propose to adapt the framework of ghost-free massive bigravity theories to reformulate the problem of dark matter at galactic scales. We investigate a promising alternative to dark matter called dipolar dark matter (DDM) in which two different species of dark matter are separately coupled to the two metrics of bigravity and are linked together by an internal vector field. We show that this model successfully reproduces the phenomenology of dark matter at galactic scales (i.e. MOND) as a result of a mechanism of gravitational polarisation. The model is safe in the gravitational sector, but because of the particular couplings of the matter fields and vector field to the metrics, a ghost in the decoupling limit is present in the dark matter sector. However, it might be possible to push the mass of the ghost beyond the strong coupling scale by an appropriate choice of the parameters of the model. Crucial questions to address in future work are the exact mass of the ghost, and the cosmological implications of the model

  6. Product Configuration Systems - Implications for Product Innovation and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    2004-01-01

    configurations. However, costs are but one parameter on which firms compete and firms must continually innovate new and develop existing products. This paper presents original empirical insights on implementation and use of product configuration systems in a number of Danish industrial firms. The paper discusses...... the organisational changes associated with PCS and how this affects product innovation and development. The paper begins by introducing product configuration systems, which are then placed in context to the firm as a process technology which coordinate different processes: product development, order acquisition......Product Configuration Systems (PCS) is a step in the direction of mass customization in the sense that PCS allows a firm to significantly lower the unit cost of configuration. Thus PCS is a valuable technology for lowering operating costs while retaining a high number of possible product...

  7. Traumatic Brain Injuries during Development: Implications for Alcohol Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary M. Weil

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injuries are strongly related to alcohol intoxication as by some estimates half or more of all brain injuries involve at least one intoxicated individual. Additionally, there is mounting evidence that traumatic brain injuries can themselves serve as independent risk factors for the development of alcohol use disorders, particularly when injury occurs during juvenile or adolescent development. Here, we will review the epidemiological and experimental evidence for this phenomenon and discuss potential psychosocial mediators including attenuation of negative affect and impaired decision making as well as neurochemical mediators including disruption in the glutamatergic, GABAergic, and dopaminergic signaling pathways and increases in inflammation.

  8. Indoor particulate matter in developing countries: a case study in Pakistan and potential intervention strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Colbeck, Ian; Ali, Zulfiqar; Ahmad, Shakil

    2013-06-01

    Around three billion people, largely in low and middle income countries, rely on biomass fuels for their household energy needs. The combustion of these fuels generates a range of hazardous indoor air pollutants and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Worldwide, it is responsible for four million deaths. A reduction in indoor smoke can have a significant impact on lives and can help achieve many of the Millennium Developments Goals. This letter presents details of a seasonal variation in particulate matter (PM) concentrations in kitchens using biomass fuels as a result of relocating the cooking space. During the summer, kitchens were moved outdoors and as a result the 24 h average PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fell by 35%, 22% and 24% respectively. However, background concentrations of PM10 within the village increased by 62%. In locations where natural gas was the dominant fuel, the PM concentrations within the kitchen as well as outdoors were considerably lower than those in locations using biomass. These results highlights the importance of ventilation and fuel type for PM levels and suggest that an improved design of cooking spaces would result in enhanced indoor air quality.

  9. Indoor particulate matter in developing countries: a case study in Pakistan and potential intervention strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Colbeck, Ian; Ali, Zulfiqar; Ahmad, Shakil

    2013-01-01

    Around three billion people, largely in low and middle income countries, rely on biomass fuels for their household energy needs. The combustion of these fuels generates a range of hazardous indoor air pollutants and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Worldwide, it is responsible for four million deaths. A reduction in indoor smoke can have a significant impact on lives and can help achieve many of the Millennium Developments Goals. This letter presents details of a seasonal variation in particulate matter (PM) concentrations in kitchens using biomass fuels as a result of relocating the cooking space. During the summer, kitchens were moved outdoors and as a result the 24 h average PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PM 1 fell by 35%, 22% and 24% respectively. However, background concentrations of PM 10 within the village increased by 62%. In locations where natural gas was the dominant fuel, the PM concentrations within the kitchen as well as outdoors were considerably lower than those in locations using biomass. These results highlights the importance of ventilation and fuel type for PM levels and suggest that an improved design of cooking spaces would result in enhanced indoor air quality. (letter)

  10. Inclusive growth versus pro-poor growth: Implications for tourism development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Martine; Messerli, H.R.

    2017-01-01

    Inclusive growth and pro-poor growth are terms embraced but not fully understood in the tourism community. This paper discusses the main concepts of inclusive growth and their implication for tourism development across the developing world. Is inclusive growth simply another term for pro-poor in

  11. Observations of a Working Class Family: Implications for Self-Regulated Learning Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Guardians have been implicated in the development of children's academic self-regulation. In this case study, which involved naturalistic observations and interviews, the everyday practices of a working class family were considered in the context of self-regulated learning development. The family's practices, beliefs, dispositions and home…

  12. The Psychology of Writing Development--And Its Implications for Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews key developmental theories that have been adopted by writing development researchers over the last fifty years. It describes how researchers have translated these theories into definitions of writing development capable of influencing curricular design and interpretations of student writing and explores the implications for…

  13. Public Understanding of Sustainable Development: Some Implications for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, William

    2015-01-01

    A number of recent surveys of public opinion claim that there is now widespread acceptance of the need for sustainable development, and that the general public, through its social and consumer activity is already successfully engaged. However, in all this, the focus has primarily been on individual and family behaviours such as recycling and…

  14. Indigenous Knowledge and Implications for the Sustainable Development Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Giorgia

    2017-01-01

    With the adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the international community committed to address a great number of challenges. Among those emphasised by the SDGs, some are highly relevant for indigenous groups. Education, poverty, access to justice and climate change are only a few of the issues affecting indigenous people's…

  15. Psychosexual Development in Infants and Young Children: Implications for Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2000-01-01

    Discusses preschoolers' interest in and wonder about sexual anatomical differences, and adults' responses to their questions. Presents Freudian stages of psychosexual development, the relationship between sexual identity and gender role, children's preference for single-sex play groups, sex stereotyped toy preferences, and the role of television…

  16. CD 95 mediated apoptosis in embryogenesis: implication in tooth development.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matalová, Eva; Šetková, Jana; Blackburn, J.; Míšek, Ivan; Sharpe, P. T.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 9, 3 (2006), s. 123-128 ISSN 1397-5927 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/04/0101; GA MŠk OC B23.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : fas * embryonic development * odontogenesis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  17. Relational Aggression in School Settings: Definition, Development, Strategies, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Alicia L.; Frey, Andy J.; Walker, Hill M.

    2015-01-01

    Relational aggression (RA) is a nonphysical form of aggression whereby the perpetrator's goal is to inflict or threaten damage to relationships, including harm to the target child's social standing or reputation. This form of aggression may result in long-term psychological harm to victims. This article defines RA, summarizes its development, and…

  18. Organisational Learning in International Joint Ventures: Implications for Management Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrell, Mike; Gloet, Marianne; Wright, Phil

    2002-01-01

    Malaysian and Australian managers enrolled in a training program exhibited differences attributed to national culture in their approaches to learning, influences on management behavior, and ways of knowing. National culture had greater influence on management development and organizational learning than did organizational or systems cultures.…

  19. Implications of Urban Development-Induced Resettlement on Poor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They are moved away from their areas of work, their social networks .... for Urban Development and Urban Good Governance (FDRE 2007) discusses the three pillars ... about their experiences of past practices of resettlement. ..... women and single-headed families, empowering such families to enable them to engage in ...

  20. Soil development on stable landforms and implications for landscape studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Soil development parameters include a wide variety of morphological, chemical, and mineralogical parameters, but some of the best indicators of time and surface stability are derived from field morphology. Over long time-spans, the most common time function for soil development is exponential or logarithmic, in which rates decrease with increasing age. Over shorter time-spans in semi-arid and moister climates, Holocene and Pleistocene soil development functions appear as linear segments, with Holocene rates about 10 to 50 times those of Pleistocene rates. In contrast to significant temporal variation in rates, geographical variation in rates within (a) the southern Great Basin and (b) the east Central Valley of California is on the order of 2 or 3 times. When comparing soil development indices of the semi-arid Great Basin to those of moister central California, Holocene rates are similar, but Pleistocene rates are more than 10 times slower in the Great Basin. In a range of climatic settings, the reasons for declining rates over time are several and are complexly related to erosional history, fluxes in water and dust related to climatic changes, rates of primary mineral dissolution, and intrinsic soil processes. ?? 1990.

  1. Some implications of in situ uranium mining technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.E.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Cole, R.J.; Keller, D.; Mellinger, P.J.; Wallace, R.W.

    1980-09-01

    A technology assessment was initiated in March 1979 of the in-situ uranium mining technology. This report explores the impediments to development and deployment of this technology and evaluates the environmental impacts of a generic in-situ facility. The report is divided into the following sections: introduction, technology description, physical environment, institutional and socioeconomic environment, impact assessment, impediments, and conclusions

  2. EAL Teacher Agency: Implications for Participation in Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Laura; Liyanage, Indika

    2016-01-01

    Teachers construct their practice, education and professional development within two domains of professionalism: sponsored and independent. The association between these two domains, however, is complex; it is overlapping, inseparable and sometimes uneasy. The complexity is further exacerbated by the codependent nature of association between the…

  3. Fatherhood in Kenyan Ethnic Communities: Implication for Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasser, Jon; Fite, Kathleen; Wadende, Akinyi P.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the traditional and evolving constructions of fatherhood in Kenyan society, with an emphasis on fatherhood's impact on child development outcomes. Western influence and increased access to technology have changed the role of the Kenyan father, and in turn affected his role in the family. Special attention is given to…

  4. The development and application of the AstroFit program for complementary dark matter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan Nelly

    2013-02-01

    This doctoral thesis describes the development and application of the AstroFit program. Many studies have shown the existence of dark matter (DM), a mass component that constitutes over eighty percent of the entire matter in the Universe. From historical astrophysical evidence to latest reconstructions with sophisticated methods, the gravitational effect of DM can be shown, but its nature remains unknown. Many theoretical explanations aim at describing DM, for example as weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), within particular frameworks. The majority of these frameworks extend the existing standard model of particle physics (SM), so that new particles are added to the known set of elementary particles. One of these frameworks is the constrained supersymmetric standard model (CMSSM) that naturally introduces a DM candidate in form of the lightest supersymmetric particle(LSP). Searches for DM particles are undertaken in three different ways. First, directly with fixed-target experiments that measure WIMPs coming towards the Earth with nuclei of the target material. Second, indirectly by reconstructing DM signatures in particle spectra of known particles observed with ground-based telescopes, spaceborne satellites or balloon-borne experiments. And third, indirectly via direct production of DM at particle colliders such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and energy reconstructions where missing transverse energy is presumably carried away by the DM particles. Global fit programs used in particle physics, such as Fittino, are designed to fit parameters of theories beyond the SM simultaneously that are in accordance with the experimental and observed data in order to probe models and constrain the parameter space. To explore complementarity in DM research, the AstroFit interface program has been developed to combine all available information from direct and indirect searches for DM as well as collider searches for new physics in such global fits. To demonstrate

  5. The development and application of the AstroFit program for complementary dark matter studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan Nelly

    2013-02-15

    This doctoral thesis describes the development and application of the AstroFit program. Many studies have shown the existence of dark matter (DM), a mass component that constitutes over eighty percent of the entire matter in the Universe. From historical astrophysical evidence to latest reconstructions with sophisticated methods, the gravitational effect of DM can be shown, but its nature remains unknown. Many theoretical explanations aim at describing DM, for example as weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), within particular frameworks. The majority of these frameworks extend the existing standard model of particle physics (SM), so that new particles are added to the known set of elementary particles. One of these frameworks is the constrained supersymmetric standard model (CMSSM) that naturally introduces a DM candidate in form of the lightest supersymmetric particle(LSP). Searches for DM particles are undertaken in three different ways. First, directly with fixed-target experiments that measure WIMPs coming towards the Earth with nuclei of the target material. Second, indirectly by reconstructing DM signatures in particle spectra of known particles observed with ground-based telescopes, spaceborne satellites or balloon-borne experiments. And third, indirectly via direct production of DM at particle colliders such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and energy reconstructions where missing transverse energy is presumably carried away by the DM particles. Global fit programs used in particle physics, such as Fittino, are designed to fit parameters of theories beyond the SM simultaneously that are in accordance with the experimental and observed data in order to probe models and constrain the parameter space. To explore complementarity in DM research, the AstroFit interface program has been developed to combine all available information from direct and indirect searches for DM as well as collider searches for new physics in such global fits. To demonstrate

  6. Current developments in soil organic matter modeling and the expansion of model applications: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Eleanor E; Paustian, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is an important natural resource. It is fundamental to soil and ecosystem functions across a wide range of scales, from site-specific soil fertility and water holding capacity to global biogeochemical cycling. It is also a highly complex material that is sensitive to direct and indirect human impacts. In SOM research, simulation models play an important role by providing a mathematical framework to integrate, examine, and test the understanding of SOM dynamics. Simulation models of SOM are also increasingly used in more ‘applied’ settings to evaluate human impacts on ecosystem function, and to manage SOM for greenhouse gas mitigation, improved soil health, and sustainable use as a natural resource. Within this context, there is a need to maintain a robust connection between scientific developments in SOM modeling approaches and SOM model applications. This need forms the basis of this review. In this review we first provide an overview of SOM modeling, focusing on SOM theory, data-model integration, and model development as evidenced by a quantitative review of SOM literature. Second, we present the landscape of SOM model applications, focusing on examples in climate change policy. We conclude by discussing five areas of recent developments in SOM modeling including: (1) microbial roles in SOM stabilization; (2) modeling SOM saturation kinetics; (3) temperature controls on decomposition; (4) SOM dynamics in deep soil layers; and (5) SOM representation in earth system models. Our aim is to comprehensively connect SOM model development to its applications, revealing knowledge gaps in need of focused interdisciplinary attention and exposing pitfalls that, if avoided, can lead to best use of SOM models to support policy initiatives and sustainable land management solutions. (topical review)

  7. Old and stable soil organic matter is not necessarily chemically recalcitrant: Implications for modeling concepts and temperature sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleber, M.; Nico, P.S.; Plante, A.; Filley, T.; Kramer, M.; Swanston, C.; Sollins, P.

    2010-03-01

    Soil carbon turnover models generally divide soil carbon into pools with varying intrinsic decomposition rates. Although these decomposition rates are modified by factors such as temperature, texture, and moisture, they are rationalized by assuming chemical structure is a primary controller of decomposition. In the current work, we use near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy in combination with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and alkaline cupric oxide (CuO) oxidation to explore this assumption. Specifically, we examined material from the 2.3-2.6 kg L{sup -1} density fraction of three soils of different type (Oxisol, Alfisol, Inceptisol). The density fraction with the youngest {sup 14}C age (Oxisol, 107 years) showed the highest relative abundance of aromatic groups and the lowest O-alkyl C/aromatic C ratio as determined by NEXAFS. Conversely, the fraction with the oldest C (Inceptisol, 680 years) had the lowest relative abundance of aromatic groups and highest O-alkyl C/aromatic C ratio. This sample also had the highest proportion of thermally labile materials as measured by DSC, and the highest ratio of substituted fatty acids to lignin phenols as indicated by CuO oxidation. Therefore, the organic matter of the Inceptisol sample, with a {sup 14}C age associated with 'passive' pools of carbon (680 years), had the largest proportion of easily metabolizable organic molecules with low thermodynamic stability, whereas the organic matter of the much younger Oxisol sample (107 years) had the highest proportion of supposedly stable organic structures considered more difficult to metabolize. Our results demonstrate that C age is not necessarily related to molecular structure or thermodynamic stability, and we suggest that soil carbon models would benefit from viewing turnover rate as codetermined by the interaction between substrates, microbial actors, and abiotic driving variables. Furthermore, assuming that old carbon is composed

  8. Psychosocial implications of disorders of sex development treatment for parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Amy B

    2017-01-01

    Historically, studies of caregivers of children with disorders of sex development (DSD) have been limited. Recent data reveal that parents of young children with DSD report increased stress, anxiety, depression, and decreased quality of life in ways that are similar to parents of children with other types of chronic illnesses. Also similar to other chronic illnesses of childhood, parents of children with DSD exhibit overprotective parenting and perceive their child as being vulnerable. These emotions and behaviors exhibited by parents are concerning as they may limit an affected child's emotional and social development over time. Perhaps, more unique to the situation of DSD is the perceived, or real, child-focused stigma experienced by parents of children with DSD. Interventions to improve parents' psychosocial adaptation to their child's medical condition, including coaching in how to discuss their child's condition in a manner that makes them feel safe and supported, are needed to optimize outcomes for families.

  9. Implications of intelligent, integrated microsystems for product design and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MYERS, DAVID R.; MCWHORTER, PAUL J.

    2000-01-01

    Intelligent, integrated microsystems combine some or all of the functions of sensing, processing information, actuation, and communication within a single integrated package, and preferably upon a single silicon chip. As the elements of these highly integrated solutions interact strongly with each other, the microsystem can be neither designed nor fabricated piecemeal, in contrast to the more familiar assembled products. Driven by technological imperatives, microsystems will best be developed by multi-disciplinary teams, most likely within the flatter, less hierarchical organizations. Standardization of design and process tools around a single, dominant technology will expedite economically viable operation under a common production infrastructure. The production base for intelligent, integrated microsystems has elements in common with the mathematical theory of chaos. Similar to chaos theory, the development of microsystems technology will be strongly dependent on, and optimized to, the initial product requirements that will drive standardization--thereby further rewarding early entrants to integrated microsystem technology

  10. Implications of rural tourism and agritourism in sustainable rural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia-Lorena Cut-Lupulescu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Romania shows: a variety of historical cultural values ​​- folk art, ethnography, folklore, traditions, historical artifacts - a natural harmoniously combined with a varied and picturesque landscape background. All these are facets of Romanian rural tourism in particular. Occurred and developed by the various forms of relief since the time of the Thracian-Dacian, Romanian rural settlements kept and still keeps in good measure ancient customs and traditions, a rich and varied folklore, ethnography and folk original elements that can be travel exploited in a strategy for the organization and development of rural tourism. Rural tourism in our country always practical, but spontaneous, sporadic, random, and mostly unorganized form of manifestation is the beginning of the '20s and '30s, the casual visitor accommodation citizens of rural settlements.

  11. Policy implications in developing a land use management information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landini, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    The current land use map for the city of Los Angeles was developed by the guesstimation process and provides single stage information for each level in the critical geographical hierarchy for land use planning management. Processing and incorporation of LANDSAT data in the land use information system requires special funding; however, computergraphic maps are able to provide a viable information system for city planning and management.

  12. Implications of learning theory for developing programs to decrease overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutelle, Kerri N; Bouton, Mark E

    2015-10-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with medical and psychological comorbidities, and interventions targeting overeating could be pragmatic and have a significant impact on weight. Calorically dense foods are easily available, variable, and tasty which allows for effective opportunities to learn to associate behaviors and cues in the environment with food through fundamental conditioning processes, resulting in measurable psychological and physiological food cue reactivity in vulnerable children. Basic research suggests that initial learning is difficult to erase, and that it is vulnerable to a number of phenomena that will allow the original learning to re-emerge after it is suppressed or replaced. These processes may help explain why it may be difficult to change food cue reactivity and overeating over the long term. Extinction theory may be used to develop effective cue-exposure treatments to decrease food cue reactivity through inhibitory learning, although these processes are complex and require an integral understanding of the theory and individual differences. Additionally, learning theory can be used to develop other interventions that may prove to be useful. Through an integration of learning theory, basic and translational research, it may be possible to develop interventions that can decrease the urges to overeat, and improve the weight status of children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Leadership theory: implications for developing dental surgeons in primary care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcocks, S

    2011-02-12

    The development of leadership in healthcare has been seen as important in recent years, particularly at the clinical level. There have been various specific initiatives focusing on the development of leadership for doctors, nurses and other health care professions: for example, a leadership competency framework for doctors, the LEO programme and the RCN clinical leadership programme for nurses. The NHS has set up a Leadership Council to coordinate further developments. However, there has not been the same focus in dentistry, although the recent review of NHS dental services (Steele review) has proposed a need for leadership initiatives in NHS dentistry as a medium-term action. Central to this will be a need to focus on the leadership role for dental surgeons. Leadership is all the more important in dentistry, given the change of government and the policy of retrenchment, major public sector reform, the emergence of new organisations such as new commissioning consortia, possible changes to the dental contract, new ways of working, and changes to the profession such as the requirements for the revalidation of dental surgeons. The question is: which leadership theory or approach is best for dental surgeons working in primary care? This paper builds on earlier work exploring this question in relation to doctors generally, and GPs, in particular, and planned work on nurses. It will seek to address this question in relation to dental surgeons working in primary care.

  14. Personality traits and chronic disease: implications for adult personality development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; Zonderman, Alan B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    Personality traits have been associated with chronic disease. Less is known about the longitudinal relation between personality and disease and whether chronic disease is associated with changes in personality. Method. Participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 2,008) completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and a standard medical interview at regularly scheduled visits; the Charlson Comorbidity Index, a weighted sum of 19 serious diseases, was derived from this interview. Using data from 6,685 visits, we tested whether personality increased risk of disease and whether disease was associated with personality change. Measured concurrently, neuroticism and conscientiousness were associated with greater disease burden. The impulsiveness facet of neuroticism was the strongest predictor of developing disease across the follow-up period: For every standard deviation increase in impulsiveness, there was a 26% increased risk of developing disease and a 36% increased risk of getting more ill. Personality traits changed only modestly with disease: As participants developed chronic illnesses, they became more conservative (decreased openness). Discussion. This research indicates that personality traits confer risk for disease, in part, through health-risk behaviors. These traits, however, were relatively resistant to the effect of serious disease.

  15. Developments in clinical neuropsychology: implications for school psychological services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Michael J; Scott, Albert J

    2011-01-01

    According to the 2000 Report of the Surgeon General's Conference on Children's Mental Health, a significant percentage of children and adolescents have emotional or behavioral problems serious enough to merit a mental health diagnosis. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 reemphasized the schools' importance in supporting cognitive and behavioral development in students, particularly those identified with learning problems. In this article, we examine the growing specialty of clinical neuropsychology and provide suggestions for integrating this field into school-based psychological services. This article provides a review of the neuropsychological bases for many childhood learning disorders and addresses how school psychologists can work with clinical neuropsychologists to better address the needs of exceptional children through neuropsychological testing. There is substantial neurological evidence for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder as well as disorders of reading, language, and mathematics. Close collaborative partnerships between clinical neuropsychologists and school psychologists will help develop assessment protocols that are likely to result in more effective intervention services for students with neuropsychological conditions. Schools are being asked to support the physical, cognitive, and emotional development in students, particularly those identified with chronic physical and mental health challenges. Dissatisfaction with minimal screenings, the growing awareness of the neurology of learning disorders, and the passage of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 obliges all school-based mental health providers to consider how to fully integrate the tools of clinical neuropsychology into school-based psychological services. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  16. Nigerian population growth and its implications for economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, A O

    1990-12-01

    The population of Nigeria is growing at a rate of 3.75%/year indicating a doubling of the population every 22 years. Demographers estimated the population to be 91,178,000 in 1985. Even though population density is high (288 people/square mile), it is not equally distributed. It is highest in the south and southwest urban areas such as Lagos (1045 people/square mile) and lowest in the northeast (75 people/square mile). Moreover rural-urban migration is growing. A major reason for rural-urban migration is the dual nature of the economy in Nigeria. In urban areas, economic development brings about higher standards of living, but, in rural areas, a subsistence economy predominates. This coupled with rapid population growth results in small or no growth in per capita income. Only if the government were to integrate redistribution policies into complete economic development plans should it consider redistributing the population. It should stress rural development (e.g., incentives for firms to set up in rural areas). Further it should move some government offices to rural areas. The government also needs to adopt population policies encouraging the lowering of fertility levels. If it were to provide education through the secondary and prevocational education level free of charge, educated women will lower their fertility. Sex education should be included in the curriculum. Further the government must play an active role in family planning programs, especially educating rural women about family planning. It should also use the mass media to promote small family size, but it should not dictate family size. It also needs to recognize that population growth puts much pressure on the environment. For example, population growth causes soil erosion, nutrient exhaustion, rapid deforestation, and other problems which render the land unusable for agriculture.

  17. Understanding parenting in Manitoba First nations: implications for program development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eni, Rachel; Rowe, Gladys

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study introduced the "Manitoba First Nation Strengthening Families Maternal Child Health Pilot Project" program and evaluation methodologies. The study provided a knowledge base for programmers, evaluators, and communities to develop relevant health promotion, prevention, and intervention programming to assist in meeting health needs of pregnant women and young families. Sixty-five open-ended, semistructured interviews were completed in 13 communities. Data analysis was through grounded theory. Three major themes emerged from the data: interpersonal support and relationships; socioeconomic factors; and community initiatives. Complex structural, historical events compromise parenting; capacity and resilience are supported through informal and formal health and social supports.

  18. Near field communication recent developments and library implications

    CERN Document Server

    McHugh, Sheli

    2014-01-01

    Near Field Communication is a radio frequency technology that allows objects, such as mobile phones, computers, tags, or posters, to exchange information wirelessly across a small distance. This report on the progress of Near Field Communication reviews the features and functionality of the technology and summarizes the broad spectrum of its current and anticipated applications. We explore the development of NFC technology in recent years, introduce the major stakeholders in the NFC ecosystem, and project its movement toward mainstream adoption. Several examples of early implementation of NFC

  19. Increased Screen Time: Implications for Early Childhood Development and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radesky, Jenny S; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2016-10-01

    The authors review trends in adoption of new digital technologies (eg, mobile and interactive media) by families with young children (ages 0-8 years), continued use of television and video games, and the evidence for learning from digital versus hands-on play. The authors also discuss continued concerns about health and developmental/behavioral risks of excessive media use for child cognitive, language, literacy, and social-emotional development. This evidence is then applied to clinical care in terms of the screening questions providers can use, tools available to providers and parents, and changes in anticipatory guidance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of a model for predicting the dry matter production of mulberry [Morus alba] based on meteorological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, K.; Ito, D.

    1999-01-01

    It is necessary to predict mulberry growth and yield precisely at any time during the growing period, since mulberry trees are cut anytime along with the increase of the frequency of silkworm rearing per year. Therefore, in this study, attempts were made to develop a model to predict the dry matter production in mulberry fields with standard density with the cooperation of the prefectural experimental stations of Ibaraki, Tochigi, Gunma, Saitama, Tokyo and Gifu. To construct the model, we conducted three experiments. In the first year, we estimated the dry weight of mulberry new shoots based on the length and base width. Logarithm of leaf dry weight of a new shoot was regressed linearly on the logarithm of the product of length and base width. Stem dry weight was estimated with a linear regression of the logarithm on the logarithm of the product of length and base square width. In the next year, we evaluated the maximal effective radiation (Smax) of mulberry, over which mulberry cannot use radiation to produce dry matter. This experiment included shaded and control (non-shaded) plots, and the difference between these plots was analyzed. Shading treatment decreased the dry matter production, but did not affect the radiation conversion efficiency. Shoot dry matter production increased almost proportionally with intercepted radiation except for the later growth periods. Therefore, no Smax was revealed in mulberry fields with standard density. The effect of temperature and growth stage on the radiation conversion efficiency was investigated last year. Relation of temperature and radiation conversion efficiency was not clear for shoot dry matter production. However, there was a positive relation for stem dry mater production. Although the efficiency decreased with mulberry growth for leaf dry matter production, it increased at the early growth stage and decreased at the late stage for stem dry matter production

  1. A search for low-mass dark matter with the cryogenic dark matter search and the development of highly multiplexed phonon-mediated particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, David Craig [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    A wide variety of astrophysical observations indicate that approximately 85% of the matter in the universe is nonbaryonic and nonluminous. Understanding the nature of this "dark matter" is one of the most important outstanding questions in cosmology. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are a leading candidate for dark matter since they would be thermally produced in the early universe in the correct abundance to account for the observed relic density of dark matter. If WIMPs account for the dark matter, then rare interactions from relic WIMPs should be observable in terrestrial detectors. Recently, unexplained excess events in the DAMA/LIBRA, CoGeNT, and CRESST-II experiments have been interpreted as evidence of scattering from WIMPs with masses ~10 GeV and spin-independent scattering cross sections of 10-41-10-40 cm2. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II) attempts to identify WIMP interactions using an array of cryogenic germanium and silicon particle detectors located at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in northern Minnesota. In this dissertation, data taken by CDMS II are reanalyzed using a 2 keV recoil energy threshold to increase the sensitivity to WIMPs with masses ~10 GeV. These data disfavor an explanation for the DAMA/LIBRA, CoGeNT, and CRESST-II results in terms of spin-independent elastic scattering of WIMPs with masses ≲12 GeV, under standard assumptions. At the time of publication, they provided the strongest constraints on spin-independent elastic scattering from 5-9 GeV, ruling out previously unexplored parameter space. To detect WIMPs or exclude the remaining parameter space favored by the most popular models will ultimately require detectors with target masses ≳1 ton, requiring an increase in mass by more than two orders of magnitude over CDMS II. For cryogenic detectors such as CDMS, scaling to such large target masses will require individual detector elements to be fabricated more quickly and cheaply, while

  2. Superball dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kusenko, A

    1999-01-01

    Supersymmetric models predict a natural dark-matter candidate, stable baryonic Q-balls. They could be copiously produced in the early Universe as a by-product of the Affleck-Dine baryogenesis. I review the cosmological and astrophysical implications, methods of detection, and the present limits on this form of dark matter.

  3. Smoking and the Developing Brain : Altered White Matter Microstructure in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Healthy Controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, Hanneke; Groenman, Annabeth P.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Luman, Marjolein; Greven, Corina U.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    Brain white matter (WM) tracts, playing a vital role in the communication between brain regions, undergo important maturational changes during adolescence and young adulthood, a critical period for the development of nicotine dependence. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated

  4. 75 FR 69717 - In the Matter of: Edentify, Inc., Embryo Development Corp., Enclaves Group, Inc., Energytec, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] In the Matter of: Edentify, Inc., Embryo Development Corp., Enclaves Group, Inc., Energytec, Inc., Enesco Group, Inc., Entertainment Is Us, Inc... Commission that there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Embryo...

  5. Altered Development of White Matter in Youth at High Familial Risk for Bipolar Disorder: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versace, Amelia; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Romero, Soledad; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study white matter (WM) development in youth at high familial risk for bipolar disorder (BD). WM alterations are reported in youth and adults with BD. WM undergoes important maturational changes in adolescence. Age-related changes in WM microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging with tract-based spatial statistics in healthy…

  6. Developing Pre-Service Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge of Electromagnetism by Integrating Concept Maps and Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Nadaraj

    2015-01-01

    This case study explored the development of two pre-service teachers' subject matter knowledge (SMK) of electromagnetism while integrating the use of concept maps (CM) and collaborative learning (CL) strategies. The study aimed at capturing how these pre-service teachers' SMK in electromagnetism was enhanced after having been taught SMK in a…

  7. Clumpy cold dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph; Stebbins, Albert

    1993-01-01

    A study is conducted of cold dark matter (CDM) models in which clumpiness will inhere, using cosmic strings and textures suited to galaxy formation. CDM clumps of 10 million solar mass/cu pc density are generated at about z(eq) redshift, with a sizable fraction surviving. Observable implications encompass dark matter cores in globular clusters and in galactic nuclei. Results from terrestrial dark matter detection experiments may be affected by clumpiness in the Galactic halo.

  8. A SIMPLE Bubble Chamber for Dark Matter Searches: Testing and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, A.R.; Fernandes, A.C.; Marques, J.G.; Kling, A. [C2TN, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 - km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela, LRS (Portugal); Felizardo, M.; Girard, T.A. [Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003, Lisbon (Portugal); Lazaro, I. [Laboratoire Souterrain a Bas Bruit, UMS 3538 UNS/UAPV/CNRS, 84400 Rustrel-Pays d' Apt (France); Puibasset, J. [Centre de Recherche sur la Matiere Divisee CNRS et Universite d' Orleans, 45071 Orleans, 02 (France)

    2015-07-01

    SIMPLE (Superheated Instrument for Massive Particle Experiments) is one of only three experiments worldwide in search of evidence of astroparticle dark matter (WIMPs) using halocarbon-loaded superheated liquid (SHL) detectors. The 2012 Phase II SIMPLE measurements yielded the most restrictive exclusion contour in the spin-dependent (SD) sector of WIMP-proton interactions from a direct search experiment at the time, overlapping for the first time results previously obtained only indirectly [1]. In order to remain competitive with other experiments in the field, the next phase measurement requires larger exposure over shorter observation times with significantly improved neutron shielding. To increase exposure, SIMPLE plans, as a first step, to replace its superheated droplet detectors (SDDs), each containing an active mass of about 15 g of halocarbon, with bubble chambers capable of holding up to 20 kg of active halocarbon mass. We report on the development of the first 1 kg halocarbon SIMPLE bubble chamber prototype, including chamber recompression system design and testing and initial acoustic detection of bubble formation. (authors)

  9. Interaction of Natural Organic Matter with Layered Minerals: Recent Developments in Computational Methods at the Nanoscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery A. Greathouse

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of mineral surfaces in the adsorption, transport, formation, and degradation of natural organic matter (NOM in the biosphere remains an active research area owing to the difficulties in identifying proper working models of both NOM and mineral phases present in the environment. The variety of aqueous chemistries encountered in the subsurface (e.g., oxic vs. anoxic, variable pH further complicate this field of study. Recently, the advent of nanoscale probes such as X-ray adsorption spectroscopy and surface vibrational spectroscopy applied to study such complicated interfacial systems have enabled new insight into NOM-mineral interfaces. Additionally, due to increasing capabilities in computational chemistry, it is now possible to simulate molecular processes of NOM at multiple scales, from quantum methods for electron transfer to classical methods for folding and adsorption of macroparticles. In this review, we present recent developments in interfacial properties of NOM adsorbed on mineral surfaces from a computational point of view that is informed by recent experiments.

  10. Some implications of in situ uranium mining technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.E.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Cole, R.J.; Keller, D.; Mellinger, P.J.; Wallace, R.W.

    1980-09-01

    The assessment indicates that there do not appear to be any significant demonstrated negative environmental impacts. Moreover, the impacts of in situ mining compare favorably with those impacts expected from conventional mining techniques. Exposure to radioactive elements is less, atmospheric emissions of radioactive and nonradioactive materials are generally less and socioeconomic impacts are decreased. In fact, because of the generally small and unskilled labor forces associated with in-situ mining, development has provided much needed economic stimulus to economically depressed areas of Texas. There are still, however, several areas of unknowns and several areas of inadequate information that will need to be addressed before a complete quantification evaluation of impacts can be made. These areas include levels of radon emissions and groundwater restoration methods and impacts. Several issues mostly relating to the interaction of industry with state and Federal regulators need to be addressed

  11. The Development of Bimodal Bilingualism: Implications for Linguistic Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo-Martin, Diane; de Quadros, Ronice Müller; Pichler, Deborah Chen

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of linguistic phenomena contribute to our understanding of the architecture of the human linguistic system. In this paper we present a proposal dubbed Language Synthesis to capture bilingual phenomena including code-switching and 'transfer' as automatic consequences of the addition of a second language, using basic concepts of Minimalism and Distributed Morphology. Bimodal bilinguals, who use a sign language and a spoken language, provide a new type of evidence regarding possible bilingual phenomena, namely code-blending, the simultaneous production of (aspects of) a message in both speech and sign. We argue that code-blending also follows naturally once a second articulatory interface is added to the model. Several different types of code-blending are discussed in connection to the predictions of the Synthesis model. Our primary data come from children developing as bimodal bilinguals, but our proposal is intended to capture a wide range of bilingual effects across any language pair.

  12. Brief Report: Do Peer Relationships Matter to Vietnamese Adolescents' and Young Adults' Development of Identity? Towards a Working Theory of Identity Development in a Changing Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong; Cohen, Edward; Hines, Alice

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, using data from the first nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of more than 7000 Vietnamese adolescents, we explore how peers, compared to family, matter to Vietnamese adolescents' development of their independent identity as an adult. We use future hopes and aspirations as proxies for identity development, arguing that…

  13. How secondary school students conceptualize infrared radiation-matter interaction? Findings from a research study and implications for an instructional design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández, María Isabel; Ríos, Raquel; Pintó, Roser

    2015-01-01

    This study has been carried out within the REVIR scenario, which is a project promoting that secondary school students have access to a computerized laboratory at the Faculty of Education of our university and work in small groups during four hours with specific instructional material. One of the laboratory sessions included in the REVIR project deals with IR radiation-matter interaction, and is addressed to post-compulsory secondary students (16–18 year-old students). Within this framework, we have conducted a research study to analyse students’ conceptualizations of the processes or mechanisms that take place in IR radiation-matter interaction (energy transfer, selective absorption), and its effects at a macroscopic level (temperature increase) and at a molecular level (vibration). For data collection, a question was posed to all students at the end of each REVIR session, asking students to relate what was described in an article about the application of an IR laser for acne treatment to what they had learnt throughout the session. The analysis of the 67 students’ answers to that question revealed that many students explained the effects of the IR laser in vague terms, often repeating information included in the article, without explaining absorption of IR radiation in terms of energy. In consecutive versions of the instructional material, more oriented application questions were added after the article and explicit discussion around synthesis and exploratory (of students’ previous ideas) questions was carried out during the session. From the analysis of 49 and 119 students’ answers in consecutive later versions, we found that the introduction of these changes resulted in a greater number of students’ descriptions in macroscopic and microscopic terms, and a lower number of answers simply repeating information extracted from the reading. Furthermore, more students explicitly explained absorption in terms of energy associated to IR light. Implications

  14. Dynamics of dissolved organic matter in riverine sediments affected by weir impoundments: Production, benthic flux, and environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meilian; Kim, Sung-Han; Jung, Heon-Jae; Hyun, Jung-Ho; Choi, Jung Hyun; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Huh, In-Ae; Hur, Jin

    2017-09-15

    In order to understand the characteristics and dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the sediment of rivers affected by impoundments, we examined the vertical profiles and the benthic fluxes of DOM in four different core sediments located at upstream sites of weirs in major rivers of South Korea. In three out of four sites, exponential accumulation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with depth was observed with the signature of seasonal variability. Except for the site displaying a below-detection limit of Fe(II), the general accumulation trends of DOC with depth was concurrent with the increases of Fe(II) and NH 4 + and the decrease of PO 4 3- , signifying a close linkage of the DOM dynamics with anaerobic respiration via iron reduction, an important early diagenesis pathway. The estimated benthic fluxes from the cores revealed that the sediments likely serve as DOC, chromophoric DOM (CDOM), and fluorescent DOM (FDOM) sources to the overlying water. The benthic effluxes based on DOC were comparable to the ranges previously reported in lake and coastal areas, and those of CDOM and FDOM showed even higher levels. These findings imply that impoundment-affected river systems would change the DOM composition of the overlying water, ultimately influencing the subsequent water treatment processes such as disinfection byproducts production and membrane fouling. A simple mass balance model indicated that the impoundment-affected river sediments may operate as a net carbon sink in the environments due to a greater extent of sedimentation compared to the estimated benthic efflux and sediment biological respiration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dissolved organic matter composition of winter flow in the Yukon River basin: Implications of permafrost thaw and increased groundwater discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Jonathan A.; Aiken, George R.; Walvoord, Michelle Ann; Butler, Kenna D.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater discharge to rivers has increased in recent decades across the circumpolar region and has been attributed to thawing permafrost in arctic and subarctic watersheds. Permafrost-driven changes in groundwater discharge will alter the flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in rivers, yet little is known about the chemical composition and reactivity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) of groundwater in permafrost settings. Here, we characterize DOM composition of winter flow in 60 rivers and streams of the Yukon River basin to evaluate the biogeochemical consequences of enhanced groundwater discharge associated with permafrost thaw. DOC concentration of winter flow averaged 3.9 ± 0.5 mg C L−1, yet was highly variable across basins (ranging from 20 mg C L−1). In comparison to the summer-autumn period, DOM composition of winter flow had lower aromaticity (as indicated by specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm, or SUVA254), lower hydrophobic acid content, and a higher proportion of hydrophilic compounds (HPI). Fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis indicated enrichment of protein-like fluorophores in some, but not all, winter flow samples. The ratio of DOC to dissolved organic nitrogen, an indicator of DOM biodegradability, was positively correlated with SUVA254 and negatively correlated with the percentage of protein-like compounds. Using a simple two-pool mixing model, we evaluate possible changes in DOM during the summer-autumn period across a range of conditions reflecting possible increases in groundwater discharge. Across three watersheds, we consistently observed decreases in DOC concentration and SUVA254 and increases in HPI with increasing groundwater discharge. Spatial patterns in DOM composition of winter flow appear to reflect differences in the relative contributions of groundwater from suprapermafrost and subpermafrost aquifers across watersheds. Our findings call for more explicit consideration of DOC loss and stabilization

  16. Effects of natural organic matter on PCB-activated carbon sorption kinetics: implications for sediment capping applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairey, Julian L; Wahman, David G; Lowry, Gregory V

    2010-01-01

    In situ capping of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sediments with a layer of activated carbon has been proposed, but several questions remain regarding the long-term effectiveness of this remediation strategy. Here, we assess the degree to which kinetic limitations, size exclusion effects, and electrostatic repulsions impaired PCB sorption to activated carbon. Sorption of 11 PCB congeners with activated carbon was studied in fixed bed reactors with organic-free water (OFW) and Suwannee River natural organic matter (SR-NOM), made by reconstituting freeze-dried SR-NOM at a concentration of 10 mg L(-1) as carbon. In the OFW test, no PCBs were detected in the column effluent over the 390-d study, indicating that PCB-activated carbon equilibrium sorption capacities may be achieved before breakthrough even at the relatively high hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 3.1 m h(-1). However, in the SR-NOM fixed-bed test, partial PCB breakthrough occurred over the entire 320-d test (HLRs of 3.1-, 1.5-, and 0.8 m h(-1)). Simulations from a modified pore and surface diffusion model indicated that external (film diffusion) mass transfer was the dominant rate-limiting step but that internal (pore diffusion) mass transfer limitations were also present. The external mass transfer limitation was likely caused by formation of PCB-NOM complexes that reduced PCB sorption through a combination of (i) increased film diffusion resistance; (ii) size exclusion effects; and (iii) electrostatic repulsive forces between the PCBs and the NOM-coated activated carbon. However, the seepage velocities in the SR-NOM fixed bed test were about 1000 times higher than would be expected in a sediment cap. Therefore, additional studies are needed to assess whether the mass transfer limitations described here would be likely to manifest themselves at the lower seepage velocities observed in practice.

  17. The influence of forestry activity on the structure of dissolved organic matter in lakes: Implications for mercury photoreactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Driscoll, N.J.; Siciliano, S.D.; Peak, D.; Carignan, R.; Lean, D.R.S.

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that dissolved organic matter (DOM) increases in lakes associated with forestry activity but characterization of the DOM structure is incomplete. Twenty-three lakes with a wide range of forestry activities located in central Quebec, Canada were sampled and analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, DOC fluorescence, and ultra violet-visible (UV-VIS) absorption spectra. The results show that DOC increases (as does the associated DOC fluorescence) with increased logging (slope = 0.122, r 2 = 0.581, p 2 = 0.308, p -2 , r 2 = 0.331, p 13 C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13 C NMR) analysis. XANES analysis of functional groups in the four concentrated samples shows that there are significant differences in reduced sulphur between the samples, however there was no clear relationship with forestry activity in the associated catchment. XRD data showed the presence of amorphous sulphide minerals associated with the DOM concentrate that may be important sites for mercury binding. The 13 C NMR spectra of these samples show that the percentage of carbon present in carboxylic functional groups increases with increasing logging. Such structures are important for binding photo-reducible mercury and their presence may limit mercury photo-reduction and volatilization. We propose a mechanism by which increased logging leads to increased carboxylic groups in DOM and thereby increased weak binding of photo-reducible mercury. These results, in part, explain the decrease in dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) production rates with increased logging found in our previous work

  18. Animal Models for Influenza Viruses: Implications for Universal Vaccine Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Margine

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population. Depending on the virulence of the influenza virus strain, as well as the immunological status of the infected individual, the severity of the respiratory disease may range from sub-clinical or mild symptoms to severe pneumonia that can sometimes lead to death. Vaccines remain the primary public health measure in reducing the influenza burden. Though the first influenza vaccine preparation was licensed more than 60 years ago, current research efforts seek to develop novel vaccination strategies with improved immunogenicity, effectiveness, and breadth of protection. Animal models of influenza have been essential in facilitating studies aimed at understanding viral factors that affect pathogenesis and contribute to disease or transmission. Among others, mice, ferrets, pigs, and nonhuman primates have been used to study influenza virus infection in vivo, as well as to do pre-clinical testing of novel vaccine approaches. Here we discuss and compare the unique advantages and limitations of each model.

  19. The Bali Agreement: Implications for Development and the WTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bellmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available At the most recent World Trade Organisation (WTO ministerial conference, in December 2013, in Bali, Indonesia, ministers from 160 countries concluded the first multilateral agreement ever negotiated under the auspices of the WTO. After five years of impasse in the moribund Doha Round of trade negotiations, the so-called “Bali package” was enthusiastically welcomed by the world’s governments and international press alike as a critical step towards restoring the credibility of the WTO as a negotiating forum. The centrepiece of the package is without doubt a new agreement on trade facilitation aimed at reducing red tape, and facilitating customs procedures in an effort to cut down the cost of doing business. Other — less far reaching — aspects of the deal focused on food security and a set of issues of particular interest to least developed countries including trade preferences or cotton subsidies. As the dust from the heated Bali negotiations settles, the main challenge for the WTO will now consist in building on this success to re-energise multilateral negotiations and ultimately close the Doha Round. In a world increasingly dominated by regional and bilateral free-trade agreements, members will have to confront the core issues that have divided them for nearly 15 years and find creative solutions to rehabilitate the WTO’s centrality in global trade governance.

  20. Developing Biological ISRU: Implications for Life Support and Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. I.; Allen, C. C.; Garrison, D. H.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Galindo, C.; Mckay, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Main findings: 1) supplementing very dilute media for cultivation of CB with analogs of lunar or Martian regolith effectively supported the proliferation of CB; 2) O2 evolution by siderophilic cyanobacteria cultivated in diluted media but supplemented with iron-rich rocks was higher than O2 evolution by same strain in undiluted medium; 3) preliminary data suggest that organic acids produced by CB are involved in iron-rich mineral dissolution; 4) the CB studied can accumulate iron on and in their cells; 4) sequencing of the cyanobacterium JSC-1 genome revealed that this strain possesses molecular features which make it applicable for the cultivation in special photoreactors on Moon and Mars. Conclusion: As a result of pilot studies, we propose, to develop a concept for semi-closed integrated system that uses CB to extract useful elements to revitalize air and produce valuable biomolecules. Such a system could be the foundation of a self-sustaining extraterrestrial outpost (Hendrickx, De Wever et al., 2005; Handford, 2006). A potential advantage of a cyanobacterial photoreactor placed between LSS and ISRU loops is the possibility of supplying these systems with extracted elements and compounds from the regolith. In addition, waste regolith may be transformed into additional products such as methane, biomass, and organic and inorganic soil enrichment for the cultivation of higher plants.

  1. Implications of human trafficking in Asia: a scoping review of aftercare initiatives centered on economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Meghan A; Barner, John R; Okech, David

    2018-01-01

    The trafficking of persons is one of the most egregious violations of human rights in modern society. Given the disproportionate effects across demographic categories of age and gender, as well as concentrated impacts within the developing world, there is a strong need for research and literature on program effectiveness and appropriate aftercare efforts for those persons whose lives and livelihoods have been impacted by trafficking. The purpose of this article is to provide a scoping review of what is known about effectively helping survivors of human trafficking experiencing lack of economic opportunity and the implications for practice and future research regarding the absence of literature. From over 14,000 initial search results, this article focuses on those initiatives (N = 16) that support economic development of the individual or family after being trafficked. Implications arising from the review for trafficking policy, areas for further research, and implications for practitioners are highlighted and discussed.

  2. Media Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Pötzsch

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution maps materialist advances in media studies. Based on the assumption that matter and materiality constitute significant aspects of communication processes and practices, I introduce four fields of inquiry - technology, political economy, ecology, and the body - and argue that these perspectives enable a more comprehensive understanding of the implications of contemporary technologically afforded forms of interaction. The article shows how each perspective can balance apologetic and apocalyptic approaches to the impact of in particular digital technologies, before it demonstrates the applicability of an integrated framework with reference to the techno-politics of NSA surveillance and the counter-practices of WikiLeaks.

  3. Fertilizer Reduction Policies in Developed Countries: Suitability and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Fang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviewed and analyzed the specific practices, implementation effects and applicable conditions of fertilizer reduction policies in the EU, US and Japan, explored the common laws and general conditions in the formulation of environmental orientation, and pro vided feasible policy recommendations for the formulation of fertilizer reduction policies in China. This study showed that fertilizer reduction policies in each country had their own advantages and disadvantages, and the applicable conditions were different. The EU's command and control policy was applicable to the situation of less farm households and the same agricultural planting type or farm type. The economic in centive policy in the US was applicable to the situation of more farm households, relatively perfect agricultural market system and sensitive price formation mechanism, while the public participation policy in Japan was applicable to regions with more relevant agricultural groups and strong economy. China should learn from each of these policies and make a comprehensive choice in the formulation of fertilizer reduc tion policies. Therefore, China should proceed from improving the agricultural price mechanism and the pollution-free agricultural products certification system as well as encouraging and supporting the development of large scale production units, and then promote the adoption of environmentally friendly technology through the guidance of market mechanism, ensure the effective implementation of environmental stan dards through farmers' integration and improve farmers' environmental awareness through propaganda guidance, so as to ensure the effective implementation of different types(command and control policy, economic incentive policy and public participation policyof fertilizer reduc tion policies.

  4. White-matter development is different in bilingual and monolingual children: a longitudinal DTI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Ghazal Mohades

    Full Text Available Although numerous people grow up speaking more than one language, the impact of bilingualism on brain developing neuroanatomy is still poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether the changes in the mean fractional-anisotropy (MFA of language pathways are different between bilingual and monolingual children. Simultaneous-bilinguals, sequential-bilinguals and monolingual, male and female 10-13 years old children participated in this longitudinal study over a period of two years. We used diffusion tensor tractography to obtain mean fractional-anisotropy values of four language related pathways and one control bundle: 1-left-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus/lIFOF, 2-left-arcuate fasciculus/lAF/lSLF, 3-bundle arising from the anterior part of corpus-callosum and projecting to orbital lobe/AC-OL, 4-fibres emerging from anterior-midbody of corpus-callosum (CC to motor cortices/AMB-PMC, 5- right-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus rIFOF as the control pathway unrelated to language. These values and their rate of change were compared between 3 groups. FA-values did not change significantly over two years for lAF/lSLF and AC-OL. Sequential-bilinguals had the highest degree of change in the MFA value of lIFOF, and AMB-PMC did not present significant group differences. The comparison of MFA of lIFOF yielded a significantly higher FA-value in simultaneous bilinguals compared to monolinguals. These findings acknowledge the existing difference of the development of the semantic processing specific pathway between children with different semantic processing procedure. These also support the hypothesis that age of second language acquisition affects the maturation and myelination of some language specific white-matter pathways.

  5. Opportunities for scientists to influence policy: When does radiation metrology matter in development of national policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coursey, Bert M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate measurements of radiation and radioactivity rarely rise to the level of national policy. The things that matter most to ordinary citizens do not normally include questions of science and technology. Citizens are more often concerned with issues close to home relating to commerce, health, safety, security and the environment. When questions of confidence in measurements arise, they are first directed to the ministry that has responsibilities in that area. When the required uncertainty in field measurements challenges the capability of the regulatory authorities, the National Metrology Institute may be asked to develop transfer standards to enhance the capabilities of the ministry with the mission lead. In this paper, we will consider eight instances over the past nine decades in which questions in radiation and radionuclide metrology in the US did rise to the level that they influenced decisions on national policy. These eight examples share some common threads. Radioactivity and ionizing radiation are useful tools in many disciplines, but can often represent potential or perceived threats to health and public safety. When unforeseen applications of radiation arise, or when environmental radioactivity from natural and man-made sources presents a possible health hazard, the radiation metrologists may be called upon to provide the technical underpinning for policy development. - Highlights: • We review instances in which accurate measurements of radiation influence policy. • Heads of state rely on senior science advisors to frame policy decisions. • Metrologists support federal agencies that have mission leads in different fields. • Metrologists are called on when other agencies lack requisite expertise. • Radionuclide metrologists must recognize and accept challenges

  6. AN APROACH OF LOCAL FINANCIAL AUTONOMY AND IMPLICATION OVER SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena CIGU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Local governments play an important role in sustainable development processes based on their administrative and financial autonomy. Policies and programs undertaken to assure sustainable development by local governments produce benefits for persistence of the knowledge society. This paper will try to highlight the implication of local financial autonomy over sustainable development of local communities in a knowledge society, based especially on local financial autonomy theory approach.

  7. AN APROACH OF LOCAL FINANCIAL AUTONOMY AND IMPLICATION OVER SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY

    OpenAIRE

    Elena CIGU

    2014-01-01

    Local governments play an important role in sustainable development processes based on their administrative and financial autonomy. Policies and programs undertaken to assure sustainable development by local governments produce benefits for persistence of the knowledge society. This paper will try to highlight the implication of local financial autonomy over sustainable development of local communities in a knowledge society, based especially on local financial autonomy theory approach.

  8. A search for gamma-ray imprints of annihilating dark matter in the galaxy, and the astrophysical implications of ultra-light fundamental vector bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zechlin, Hannes-Sebastian

    2013-12-15

    Standard Model extensions imply new elementary particles that can lead to specific astrophysical signatures. In particular, weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) can constitute the unknown non-luminous cold dark matter, which contributes approximately 84% to the matter content of the Universe. Annihilation or decay of WIMPs may lead to high-energy gamma-rays. In this thesis, new methods of searching for gamma-ray signals from annihilating dark matter are developed and applied. Moreover, astrophysical imprints of new ultra-light hidden U(1) gauge bosons in radio data are investigated. Hierarchical structure formation predicts a variety of smaller bound dark matter sub-halos in Milky-Way-like galactic hosts. It is shown that the Fermi-LAT is sufficiently sensitive for detecting up to a few nearby dark matter subhalos in terms of faint gamma-ray sources with a moderate angular extent. Searches in the first and second Fermi-LAT source catalogs reveal about ten candidate sources each. To discriminate the source candidates from conventional astrophysical objects, an analysis for spectral, spatial, positional, and temporal gamma-ray properties using 3.5 years of Fermi-LAT data is carried out. In addition, a multi-wavelength analysis of archival data or follow-up observations in the radio, infrared, optical, UV, X-ray, high-energy, and very-high energy gamma-ray bands is carried out. The broad-band spectra of all promising candidates are compatible with AGN, in particular high-energy peaked BL-Lac type objects (HBLs). Dark matter annihilation can contribute to the small-scale angular anisotropy spectrum of the diffuse gamma-ray background (DGB). The detection capabilities of currently operating imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes and the planned Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) are studied. With CTA, a relative gamma-ray contribution from annihilating dark matter of 10% to the extragalactic DGB can be resolved via angular anisotropies. In terms of the dark

  9. Optical properties and composition changes in chromophoric dissolved organic matter along trophic gradients: Implications for monitoring and assessing lake eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlin; Zhou, Yongqiang; Shi, Kun; Qin, Boqiang; Yao, Xiaolong; Zhang, Yibo

    2017-12-26

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is an important optically active substance in aquatic environments and plays a key role in light attenuation and in the carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus biogeochemical cycles. Although the optical properties, abundance, sources, cycles, compositions and remote sensing estimations of CDOM have been widely reported in different aquatic environments, little is known about the optical properties and composition changes in CDOM along trophic gradients. Therefore, we collected 821 samples from 22 lakes along a trophic gradient (oligotrophic to eutrophic) in China from 2004 to 2015 and determined the CDOM spectral absorption and nutrient concentrations. The total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and chlorophyll a (Chla) concentrations and the Secchi disk depth (SDD) ranged from 0.02 to 24.75 mg/L, 0.002-3.471 mg/L, 0.03-882.66 μg/L, and 0.05-17.30 m, respectively. The trophic state index (TSI) ranged from 1.55 to 98.91 and covered different trophic states, from oligotrophic to hyper-eutrophic. The CDOM absorption coefficient at 254 nm (a(254)) ranged from 1.68 to 92.65 m -1 . Additionally, the CDOM sources and composition parameters, including the spectral slope and relative molecular size value, exhibited a substantial variability from the oligotrophic level to other trophic levels. The natural logarithm value of the CDOM absorption, lna(254), is highly linearly correlated with the TSI (r 2  = 0.92, p 10 m -1 , respectively. The results suggested that the CDOM absorption coefficient a(254) might be a more sensitive single indicator of the trophic state than TN, TP, Chla and SDD. Therefore, we proposed a CDOM absorption coefficient and determined the threshold for defining the trophic state of a lake. Several advantages of measuring and estimating CDOM, including rapid experimental measurements, potential in situ optical sensor measurements and large-spatial-scale remote sensing estimations, make it

  10. Potential sources of hydrogel stabilization of Florida Bay lime mud sediments and implications for organic matter preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louda, J.W.; Loitz, J.W.; Melisiotis, A.; Orem, W.H.

    2004-01-01

    The fine grained carbonate mud sediments of central Florida Bay are resuspended quite easily. However, this disturbance is usually limited to the surficial ('floc') layer, as the underlying sediments appear to be stabilized by an hydrogelation involving the bulk organic matter. That gelation has occurred within these sediments is suggested from their physical behavior and an observed mathematical relationship between the percentages of organic carbon (C org) and water. Specifically, when extruded from a core barrel, the sediment maintains its integrity and has the consistency of a fine spackling compound. However, upon homogenization, as with a stirring rod prior to sieving, these sediments break into two distinct phases, 1/2-2/3 milky water and 1/3-1/2 sediment grains, by volume. The relationship observed between Corg and water was modeled as both linear (% water = (0.0777) Corg + 0.2984, R2 = 0.8664) and logarithmic (% water = 0.2489 Ln Corg + 0.2842, R2 = 0.9455) functions. As this relationship tends to be asymptotic at higher Corg (>3.5% dry)/water values (>60%) and given an higher correlation, the relationship appears better modeled as a logarithmic function. Values of C org from 1.2 to over 6.5%dry wt. and water contents from 30 to over 70%wt. were observed. The calculated intercept revealed that, without organic carbon (viz. hydrogel formation), these carbonates would likely contain only ???30% water by weight ('m' from linear model). This gelation is proposed to involve exopolymeric substances (EPS), likely polysaccharides, derived from diatoms and cyanobacteria of the microphytobenthos. A cyanobacterial-diatomaceous biofilm/mat underlain by purple sulfur bacteria was shown, by pigment based chemotaxonomy, to form the main components of the microphytobenthos. Additional water column detrital biomass, also mainly cyanobacteria and diatoms, is admixed with the living microphytobenthos in a flocculent/nephloid layer above the sediments prior to final

  11. What matters? Assessing and developing inquiry and multivariable reasoning skills in high school chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daftedar Abdelhadi, Raghda Mohamed

    Although the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) present a detailed set of Science and Engineering Practices, a finer grained representation of the underlying skills is lacking in the standards document. Therefore, it has been reported that teachers are facing challenges deciphering and effectively implementing the standards, especially with regards to the Practices. This analytical study assessed the development of high school chemistry students' (N = 41) inquiry, multivariable causal reasoning skills, and metacognition as a mediator for their development. Inquiry tasks based on concepts of element properties of the periodic table as well as reaction kinetics required students to conduct controlled thought experiments, make inferences, and declare predictions of the level of the outcome variable by coordinating the effects of multiple variables. An embedded mixed methods design was utilized for depth and breadth of understanding. Various sources of data were collected including students' written artifacts, audio recordings of in-depth observational groups and interviews. Data analysis was informed by a conceptual framework formulated around the concepts of coordinating theory and evidence, metacognition, and mental models of multivariable causal reasoning. Results of the study indicated positive change towards conducting controlled experimentation, making valid inferences and justifications. Additionally, significant positive correlation between metastrategic and metacognitive competencies, and sophistication of experimental strategies, signified the central role metacognition played. Finally, lack of consistency in indicating effective variables during the multivariable prediction task pointed towards the fragile mental models of multivariable causal reasoning the students had. Implications for teacher education, science education policy as well as classroom research methods are discussed. Finally, recommendations for developing reform-based chemistry

  12. Historical Development of Guidance and Counseling and Implications for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrey, Roger F.

    1977-01-01

    The author traces the development of guidance and counseling from the nineteenth century to the present with implications for the future. The impact of the progressive movement, vocational guidance, industrialization, psychometrics, and Carl Rogers are highlighted. The 1950's are singled out as the decade having the greatest effect on counselors.…

  13. Monitoring and Evaluation of an Early Childhood Development Programme: Implications for Leadership and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Sarah; Papatheodorou, Theodora; James, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The article aims to discuss preliminary findings from a participatory monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework, used in a community-based early childhood development (ECD) programme in KwaZulu-Natal South Africa, and their implications for leadership and management. The purposes of the M&E were for LETCEE, the implementing organization,…

  14. Theory Development and Convergence of Human Resource Fields: Implications for Human Performance Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yonjoo; Yoon, Seung Won

    2010-01-01

    This study examines major theory developments in human resource (HR) fields and discusses implications for human performance technology (HPT). Differentiated HR fields are converging to improve organizational performance through knowledge-based innovations. Ruona and Gibson (2004) made a similar observation and analyzed the historical evolution…

  15. Teacher educators: their identities, sub-identities and implications for professional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swennen, J.M.H.; Jones, K.; Volman, M.L.L.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we address the question: 'What sub-identities of teacher educators emerge from the research literature about teacher educators and what are the implications of the sub-identities for the professional development of teacher educators?' Like other professional identities, the identity

  16. Functional groups show distinct differences in nitrogen cycling during early stand development: implications for forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doug P. Aubrey; David R. Coyle; Mark D. Coleman

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Nutrient acquisition of forest stands is controlled by soil resource availability and belowground production, but tree species are rarely compared in this regard. Here, we examine ecological and management implications of nitrogen (N) dynamics during early forest stand development in productive commercial tree species with narrow (Populus...

  17. Airline network development in Europe and its implications for airport planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouwt, G.

    2007-01-01

    Order by Fax Printer Friendly PDF Brochure Send to Friend Enquire before Buying Hard Copy Airline Network Development in Europe and its Implications for Airport Planning Ashgate Publishing, March 2007, Pages: 300 Description Table of Contents Enquire before Buying Send to a Friend The ongoing

  18. Socio-Cultural Theories of Cognitive Development: Implications for Teaching Theory in the Visual Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Rob

    1989-01-01

    Explicates the socio-cultural developmental theories of Vygotsky and Feuerstein which advocate teacher mediated learning in order to stimulate and accelerate development. Implications for art education include the need for the teacher to become involved in the enculturation of the child into the thinking processes and conceptual organization of…

  19. Water Supply Deficiency and Implications for Rural Development in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkwocha, E. E.

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the marginalization of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria in terms of infrastructural and social services provision. This study examined the water supply deficiency and its general implications for rural development within the region. Data and other study characteristics were extracted from 501 subjects drawn from…

  20. Specific features of the Galician language and implications for speech technology development

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Specific features of the Galician language and implications for speech technology development correspondence: Corresponding author. (Banga, Eduardo Rodriguez) (Banga, Eduardo Rodriguez) Dpto. Filoloxia Galega. Universidade de Santiago. Santiago de Compostela. Spain - (Gonzalez, Manuel Gonzalez) Dpto. Teoria de la Se?al y Comunicaciones. Universidad de Vigo. Vigo. Spain - (Banga, Eduardo Rodriguez) SPAIN (Banga...

  1. The Influnce of Metacognition on Managerial Hiring Decision Making: Implications for Management Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Angela Ewell

    1998-01-01

    THE INFLUENCE OF METACOGNITION ON MANAGERIAL HIRING DECISION MAKING: IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT by Angela Ewell Kumar (ABSTRACT) Cognitive processing has a primary role in decision making. In addition, metacognition, the regulation and knowledge of cognition, affects decision making in a consistent and predictable way. Novices explain situations in a simple way. Novices are more likely to make inappropriate decisions. Research suggests that train...

  2. The Self's Development and Ego Growth: Conceptual Analysis and Implications for Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamachek, Don E.

    1985-01-01

    Self development is conceptualized as surrounded by a series of ego rings that spread out from its center. Erikson's first five psychosocial stages are used as the developmental framework within which self-concept, self-esteem, and ego boundaries are viewed as component parts of the self's growth. Counseling implications are used. (Author/BL)

  3. The influence of model spatial resolution on simulated ozone and fine particulate matter for Europe: implications for health impact assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Sara; Doherty, Ruth M.; Heaviside, Clare; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Macintyre, Helen L.; O'Connor, Fiona M.

    2018-04-01

    We examine the impact of model horizontal resolution on simulated concentrations of surface ozone (O3) and particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5), and the associated health impacts over Europe, using the HadGEM3-UKCA chemistry-climate model to simulate pollutant concentrations at a coarse (˜ 140 km) and a finer (˜ 50 km) resolution. The attributable fraction (AF) of total mortality due to long-term exposure to warm season daily maximum 8 h running mean (MDA8) O3 and annual-average PM2.5 concentrations is then calculated for each European country using pollutant concentrations simulated at each resolution. Our results highlight a seasonal variation in simulated O3 and PM2.5 differences between the two model resolutions in Europe. Compared to the finer resolution results, simulated European O3 concentrations at the coarse resolution are higher on average in winter and spring (˜ 10 and ˜ 6 %, respectively). In contrast, simulated O3 concentrations at the coarse resolution are lower in summer and autumn (˜ -1 and ˜ -4 %, respectively). These differences may be partly explained by differences in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations simulated at the two resolutions. Compared to O3, we find the opposite seasonality in simulated PM2.5 differences between the two resolutions. In winter and spring, simulated PM2.5 concentrations are lower at the coarse compared to the finer resolution (˜ -8 and ˜ -6 %, respectively) but higher in summer and autumn (˜ 29 and ˜ 8 %, respectively). Simulated PM2.5 values are also mostly related to differences in convective rainfall between the two resolutions for all seasons. These differences between the two resolutions exhibit clear spatial patterns for both pollutants that vary by season, and exert a strong influence on country to country variations in estimated AF for the two resolutions. Warm season MDA8 O3 levels are higher in most of southern Europe, but lower in areas of northern and eastern Europe when

  4. Rhetorical meta-language to promote the development of students' writing skills and subject matter understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelger, Susanne; Sigrell, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background: Feedback is one of the most significant factors for students' development of writing skills. For feedback to be successful, however, students and teachers need a common language - a meta-language - for discussing texts. Not least because in science education such a meta-language might contribute to improve writing training and feedback-giving. Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore students' perception of teachers' feedback given on their texts in two genres, and to suggest how writing training and feedback-giving could become more efficient. Sample: In this study were included 44 degree project students in biology and molecular biology, and 21 supervising teachers at a Swedish university. Design and methods: The study concerned students' writing about their degree projects in two genres: scientific writing and popular science writing. The data consisted of documented teacher feedback on the students' popular science texts. It also included students' and teachers' answers to questionnaires about writing and feedback. All data were collected during the spring of 2012. Teachers' feedback, actual and recalled - by students and teachers, respectively - was analysed and compared using the so-called Canons of rhetoric. Results: While the teachers recalled the given feedback as mainly positive, most students recalled only negative feedback. According to the teachers, suggested improvements concerned firstly the content, and secondly the structure of the text. In contrast, the students mentioned language style first, followed by content. Conclusions: The disagreement between students and teachers regarding how and what feedback was given on the students texts confirm the need of improved strategies for writing training and feedback-giving in science education. We suggest that the rhetorical meta-language might play a crucial role in overcoming the difficulties observed in this study. We also discuss how training of writing skills may contribute to

  5. An Educational Perspective of Autism: Implications for Curriculum Development and Personnel Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, Anne M.

    The paper addresses the history and current status of educational provisions for autistic students, discusses the requirements for effective education for this population, and analyzes the implications for teacher education practices. A status report cites lack of structure in programs, non-functional and age-inappropriate curricula, largely…

  6. Getting to the root of the matter: landscape implications of plant-fungal interactions for tree migration in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Hewitt; Alec P. Bennett; Amy L. Breen; Teresa N. Hollingsworth; D. Lee Taylor; F. Stuart Chapin; T. Scott Rupp

    2016-01-01

    Context   Forecasting the expansion of forest into Alaska tundra is critical to predicting regional ecosystem services, including climate feedbacks such as carbon storage. Controls over seedling establishment govern forest development and migration potential. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF), obligate symbionts of all Alaskan tree species, are...

  7. Relationship between baseline white-matter changes and development of late-life depressive symptoms: 3-year results from the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorczuk, A; Firbank, M J; Pantoni, L

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that cerebral white-matter changes and depressive symptoms are linked directly along the causal pathway. We investigated whether baseline severity of cerebral white-matter changes predict longer-term future depressive outcomes in a community sample of non...... volumetrically. Depressive outcomes were assessed in terms of depressive episodes and depressive symptoms, as measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Subjects were clinically reassessed annually for up to 3 years. Regression models were constructed to determine whether baseline severity of white.......09) or incident depression (p=0.08). CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the vascular depression hypothesis and strongly implicate white-matter changes in the pathogenesis of late-life depression. Furthermore, the findings indicate that, over time, part of the relationship between white-matter changes and depression...

  8. Eighteenth Workshop on Recent Developments in Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed Matter Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Landau, David P; Schüttler, Heinz-Bernd; Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed-Matter Physics XVIII

    2006-01-01

    This volume represents a "status report" emanating from presentations made during the 18th Annual Workshop on Computer Simulations Studies in Condensed Matter Physics at the Center for Simulational Physics at the University of Georgia in March 2005. It provides a broad overview of the most recent advances in the field, spanning the range from statistical physics to soft condensed matter and biological systems. Results on nanostructures and materials are included as are several descriptions of advances in quantum simulations and quantum computing as well as.methodological advances.

  9. Public Health Perspectives of Preeclampsia in Developing Countries: Implication for Health System Strengthening

    OpenAIRE

    Kayode O. Osungbade; Olusimbo K. Ige

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Review of public health perspectives of preeclampsia in developing countries and implications for health system strengthening. Methods. Literature from Pubmed (MEDLINE), AJOL, Google Scholar, and Cochrane database were reviewed. Results. The prevalence of preeclampsia in developing countries ranges from 1.8% to 16.7%. Many challenges exist in the prediction, prevention, and management of preeclampsia. Promising prophylactic measures like low-dose aspirin and calcium supplem...

  10. Development of white matter microstructure in relation to verbal and visuospatial working memory-A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogsrud, Stine K; Fjell, Anders M; Tamnes, Christian K; Grydeland, Håkon; Due-Tønnessen, Paulina; Bjørnerud, Atle; Sampaio-Baptista, Cassandra; Andersson, Jesper; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2018-01-01

    Working memory capacity is pivotal for a broad specter of cognitive tasks and develops throughout childhood. This must in part rely on development of neural connections and white matter microstructure maturation, but there is scarce knowledge of specific relations between this and different aspects of working memory. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enables us to study development of brain white matter microstructure. In a longitudinal DTI study of 148 healthy children between 4 and 11 years scanned twice with an on average 1.6 years interval, we characterized change in fractional anisotropy (FA), mean (MD), radial (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD) in 10 major white matter tracts hypothesized to be of importance for working memory. The results showed relationships between change in several tracts and change in visuospatial working memory. Specifically, improvement in visuospatial working memory capacity was significantly associated with decreased MD, RD and AD in inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) and uncinate fasciculus (UF) in the right hemisphere, as well as forceps major (FMaj). No significant relationships were found between change in DTI metrics and change in verbal working memory capacity. These findings yield new knowledge about brain development and corresponding working memory improvements in childhood.

  11. Development of white matter microstructure in relation to verbal and visuospatial working memory—A longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjell, Anders M.; Tamnes, Christian K.; Grydeland, Håkon; Due-Tønnessen, Paulina; Bjørnerud, Atle; Sampaio-Baptista, Cassandra; Andersson, Jesper; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Walhovd, Kristine B.

    2018-01-01

    Working memory capacity is pivotal for a broad specter of cognitive tasks and develops throughout childhood. This must in part rely on development of neural connections and white matter microstructure maturation, but there is scarce knowledge of specific relations between this and different aspects of working memory. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enables us to study development of brain white matter microstructure. In a longitudinal DTI study of 148 healthy children between 4 and 11 years scanned twice with an on average 1.6 years interval, we characterized change in fractional anisotropy (FA), mean (MD), radial (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD) in 10 major white matter tracts hypothesized to be of importance for working memory. The results showed relationships between change in several tracts and change in visuospatial working memory. Specifically, improvement in visuospatial working memory capacity was significantly associated with decreased MD, RD and AD in inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) and uncinate fasciculus (UF) in the right hemisphere, as well as forceps major (FMaj). No significant relationships were found between change in DTI metrics and change in verbal working memory capacity. These findings yield new knowledge about brain development and corresponding working memory improvements in childhood. PMID:29689058

  12. High colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption in surface waters of the central-eastern Arctic Ocean: Implications for biogeochemistry and ocean color algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Araujo, Rafael; Rabe, Benjamin; Peeken, Ilka; Bracher, Astrid

    2018-01-01

    As consequences of global warming sea-ice shrinking, permafrost thawing and changes in fresh water and terrestrial material export have already been reported in the Arctic environment. These processes impact light penetration and primary production. To reach a better understanding of the current status and to provide accurate forecasts Arctic biogeochemical and physical parameters need to be extensively monitored. In this sense, bio-optical properties are useful to be measured due to the applicability of optical instrumentation to autonomous platforms, including satellites. This study characterizes the non-water absorbers and their coupling to hydrographic conditions in the poorly sampled surface waters of the central and eastern Arctic Ocean. Over the entire sampled area colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) dominates the light absorption in surface waters. The distribution of CDOM, phytoplankton and non-algal particles absorption reproduces the hydrographic variability in this region of the Arctic Ocean which suggests a subdivision into five major bio-optical provinces: Laptev Sea Shelf, Laptev Sea, Central Arctic/Transpolar Drift, Beaufort Gyre and Eurasian/Nansen Basin. Evaluating ocean color algorithms commonly applied in the Arctic Ocean shows that global and regionally tuned empirical algorithms provide poor chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) estimates. The semi-analytical algorithms Generalized Inherent Optical Property model (GIOP) and Garver-Siegel-Maritorena (GSM), on the other hand, provide robust estimates of Chl-a and absorption of colored matter. Applying GSM with modifications proposed for the western Arctic Ocean produced reliable information on the absorption by colored matter, and specifically by CDOM. These findings highlight that only semi-analytical ocean color algorithms are able to identify with low uncertainty the distribution of the different optical water constituents in these high CDOM absorbing waters. In addition, a clustering of the Arctic Ocean

  13. Sex differences in abnormal white matter development associated with conduct disorder in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decety, Jean; Yoder, Keith J; Lahey, Benjamin B

    2015-08-30

    Associations between white matter pathway abnormalities and antisocial personality disorder in adults are well replicated, and there is some evidence for an association of white matter abnormalities with conduct disorder (CD) in adolescents. In this study, white matter maturation using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was examined in 110 children aged 10.0 ± 0.8 years selected to vary widely in their numbers of CD symptoms. The results replicated age-related increases in fractional anisotropy (FA) found in previous studies. There was not a significant association between the number of CD symptoms and FA, but CD symptoms were found to be significantly associated with greater axial and radial diffusivity in a broad range of white matter tracts, particularly in girls. In complementary analyses, there were similar significant differences in axial and radial diffusivity between children who met diagnostic criteria for CD and healthy children with no symptoms of CD, particularly in girls. Brain structural abnormalities may contribute to the emergence of CD in childhood, perhaps playing a greater role in girls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Going beyond Input Quantity: "Wh"-Questions Matter for Toddlers' Language and Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Leech, Kathryn A.; Cabrera, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    There are clear associations between the overall quantity of input children are exposed to and their vocabulary acquisition. However, by uncovering specific features of the input that matter, we can better understand the mechanisms involved in vocabulary learning. We examine whether exposure to "wh"-questions, a challenging quality of…

  15. [Effect of leptin on long-term spatial memory of rats with white matter damage in developing brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Er-Cui; Jiang, Li

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the neuroprotective effect of leptin by observing its effect on spatial memory of rats with white matter damage in developing brain. A total of 80 neonatal rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham-operation (n=27), model (n=27) and leptin intervention (n=27). The rats in the model and leptin intervention groups were used to prepare a model of white matter damage in developing brain, and the rats in the leptin intervention group were given leptin (100 μg/kg) diluted with normal saline immediately after modelling for 4 consecutive days. The survival rate of the rats was observed and the change in body weight was monitored. When the rats reached the age of 21 days, the Morris water maze test was used to evaluate spatial memory. There was no significant difference in the survival rate of rats between the three groups (P>0.05). Within 10 days after birth, the leptin intervention group had similar body weight as the sham-operation group and significantly lower body weight than the model group (P0.05). The results of place navigation showed that from the second day of experiment, there was a significant difference in the latency period between the three groups (Pmemory impairment of rats with white matter damage in developing brain. It thus exerts a neuroprotective effect, and is worthy of further research.

  16. Air-quality implications of widespread adoption of cool roofs on ozone and particulate matter in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban-Weiss, G. A.; Lee, S. M.; Katzenstein, A. S.; Carreras-Sospedra, M.; Zhang, X.; Farina, S.; Vahmani, P.; Fine, P.; Epstein, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    The installation of roofing materials with increased solar reflectance (i.e., "cool roofs") can mitigate the urban heat island effect and reduce energy use. In addition, meteorological changes, along with the possibility of enhanced UV reflection from these surfaces, can have complex impacts on ozone and PM2.5 concentrations. We aim to evaluate the air-quality impacts of widespread cool-roof installations prescribed by building energy efficiency standards within the heavily populated and polluted South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) in Southern California. Development of a comprehensive rooftop area database and evaluation of spectral reflectance measurements of roofing materials allows us to predict potential future changes in solar and UV reflectance for simulations using the Weather Research Forecast and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models. Meteorological simulations indicate a decrease in daily maximum temperatures, daily maximum boundary layer heights, and ventilation coefficients throughout the SoCAB upon widespread installation of cool roofs. CMAQ simulations show significant increases in PM2.5 concentrations and policy-relevant design values. Changes in 8-h ozone concentrations depend on the potential change in UV reflectance, ranging from a decrease in population-weighted concentrations when UV reflectance remains unchanged to an increase when changes in UV reflectance are at an upper bound. However, 8-h policy-relevant ozone design values increase in all cases. Although the other benefits of cool roofs could outweigh small air-quality penalties, UV reflectance standards for cool roofing materials could mitigate these negative consequences. Results of this study motivate the careful consideration of future rooftop and pavement solar reflectance modification policies.

  17. Getting to the root of the matter: Landscape implications of plant-fungal interactions for tree migration in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, R. E.; Bennett, A.; Breen, A. L.; Hollingsworth, T. N.; Taylor, D. L.; Chapin, T.; Rupp, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Forecasting change in forest cover across Alaska tundra is critical to predicting regional ecosystem services, including climate feedbacks such as carbon storage. Controls over seedling establishment govern forest development and migration potential. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF), obligate symbionts of all Alaskan tree species, are particularly important to seedling establishment, yet their significance to landscape vegetation change is largely unknown. We used ALFRESCO, a landscape model of wildfire and vegetation dynamics, to explore whether EMF inoculum potential influences patterns of tundra afforestation and associated flammability. Using two downscaled CMIP3 General Circulation Models (ECHAM5 and CCCMA) and a mid-range emissions scenario (A1B) at a 1 km2 resolution, we compared simulated tundra afforestation rates and flammability from four parameterizations of EMF effects on seedling establishment and growth from 2000-2100. Modeling predicted an 8.8-18.2% increase in forest cover from 2000 to 2100. Simulations that explicitly represented landscape variability in EMF inoculum potential showed up to a 2.8% reduction in afforestation due to low inoculum potential limiting seedling growth. This reduction limited fuel availability and thus, cumulative area burned. Regardless of inclusion of EMF effects in simulations, landscape flammability was lower for simulations driven by the wetter and cooler CCCMA model than the warmer and drier ECHAM5 model, while tundra conversion to forest was greater. Results suggest abiotic factors are the primary driver of tree migration. Simulations including EMF effects, a biotic factor, yielded more conservative estimates of landcover change across Alaska that better-matched empirical estimates from the previous century.

  18. Music Preference and the Issues of Social Challenges Among Nigerian Youth: Implications For Moral Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femi Abiodun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Music is central to youth culture. Central to this study is the question: what type of music do youth listen to and why do they listen to such music? Identifying the music preference of the Nigerian youth is the focus of this paper. The aim is to assess some moral challenges that are inherent in the types of music listened to by students in Nigerian tertiary institutions which by implication represent Nigerian youth. Questionnaire was used to find out the type of music most preferred by the students. Findings reveal that the most preferred music by students especially between ages 18 and 25 is the popular music genre and in particular hip pop and fuji music. Textual analyses of some of the music show that they are agents of socialization and cultural identity but most unsuitable for moral development. Implications of this on moral values include developing wrong emotions which may lead to violent life and wrong associations.

  19. Identifying the sociological implications of the main aspects affecting the optimal sporting career development

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Phil. (Sport Management) This study is strengthened by several studies that have indicated that the dualist nature of student-athletes is problematic, as well as the management thereof. The study aimed to identify the sociological implications of the main aspects affecting the optimal sporting career development in athletics (throwers) at University of Johannesburg Sport, and offers recommendations for managing student-athletes. The methods utilized for this study included: i) self-desig...

  20. Technological Developments and their Effects on World Trade: Any Implications for Governments?

    OpenAIRE

    Aykut Kibritcioglu

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes new developments in world trade, technological changes worldwide and their implications for recent theoretical studies in economics. After defining the economic globalization and schematizing its relations with international trade, economic growth and technological change, dramatic increases in world trade in goods, services and financial assets in last decades are statistically documented in Chapter 2. Theoretical studies of economists on international trade and economi...

  1. Implications of newborn amygdala connectivity for fear and cognitive development at 6-months-of-age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Alice M.; Buss, Claudia; Rasmussen, Jerod M.; Rudolph, Marc D.; Demeter, Damion V.; Gilmore, John H.; Styner, Martin; Entringer, Sonja; Wadhwa, Pathik D.; Fair, Damien A.

    2015-01-01

    The first year of life is an important period for emergence of fear in humans. While animal models have revealed developmental changes in amygdala circuitry accompanying emerging fear, human neural systems involved in early fear development remain poorly understood. To increase understanding of the neural foundations of human fear, it is important to consider parallel cognitive development, which may modulate associations between typical development of early fear and subsequent risk for fear-related psychopathology. We, therefore, examined amygdala functional connectivity with rs-fcMRI in 48 neonates (M=3.65 weeks, SD=1.72), and measured fear and cognitive development at 6-months-of-age. Stronger, positive neonatal amygdala connectivity to several regions, including bilateral anterior insula and ventral striatum, was prospectively associated with higher fear at 6-months. Stronger amygdala connectivity to ventral anterior cingulate/anterior medial prefrontal cortex predicted a specific phenotype of higher fear combined with more advanced cognitive development. Overall, findings demonstrate unique profiles of neonatal amygdala functional connectivity related to emerging fear and cognitive development, which may have implications for normative and pathological fear in later years. Consideration of infant fear in the context of cognitive development will likely contribute to a more nuanced understanding of fear, its neural bases, and its implications for future mental health. PMID:26499255

  2. Implications of scientific and technological developments for radiation protection in the next decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.; Stansbury, P.S.; Paretzke, H.

    1993-01-01

    There are scientific and technological developments taking place that will affect the understanding of the interaction of ionizing radiation with matter, the ability to measure the important parameters of ionizing radiation, and the ability to model radioactivity transport, both in the human body and in the environment. This paper focuses on emerging scientific and technological developments that will impact radiation protection in the next decade. Emerging scientific developments included in this paper are new methods and better analytic capabilities in epidemiology, a better understanding of the interactions between ionizing radiation and the various cellular components and more realistic models to describe the uptake, distribution, retention and excretion of radionuclides in humans. Technological developments include instruments to measure radioactivity in the humans and the environment, and better software to calculate doses from these previously measured quantities

  3. Commentary on Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Positive Youth Development With Implications for Intervention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Silvia H; Verma, Suman

    2017-07-01

    There is a growing focus on youth positive development issues among researchers and practitioners around the world. In this special issue of Child Development, each of the international authors provides new perspectives and understanding about youth developmental assets in different cultural settings. The present commentary (a) examines some of the cross-cultural themes that emerge from the four articles by international authors in this issue with implications for positive youth development (PYD) and (b) how intervention science can benefit by incorporating a PYD approach. As evident, youth involved in contexts that provide positive resources from significant others not only were less likely to exhibit negative outcomes, but also were more likely to show evidence of positive development. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  4. The development of guided inquiry-based learning devices on photosynthesis and respiration matter to train science literacy skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choirunnisak; Ibrahim, M.; Yuliani

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a guided inquiry-based learning devices on photosynthesis and respiration matter that are feasible (valid, practical, and effective) to train students’ science literacy. This research used 4D development model and tested on 15 students of biology education 2016 the State University of Surabaya with using one group pretest-posttest design. Learning devices developed include (a) Semester Lesson Plan (b) Lecture Schedule, (c) Student Activity Sheet, (d) Student Textbook, and (e) testability of science literacy. Research data obtained through validation method, observation, test, and questionnaire. The results were analyzed descriptively quantitative and qualitative. The ability of science literacy was analyzed by n-gain. The results of this research showed that (a) learning devices that developed was categorically very valid, (b) learning activities performed very well, (c) student’s science literacy skills improved that was a category as moderate, and (d) students responses were very positively to the learning that already held. Based on the results of the analysis and discussion, it is concluded that the development of guided inquiry-based learning devices on photosynthesis and respiration matter was feasible to train students literacy science skills.

  5. Oral epithelial stem cells – implications in normal development and cancer metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagerakis, Silvana; Pannone, Giuseppe; Zheng, Li; About, Imad; Taqi, Nawar; Nguyen, Nghia P.T.; Matossian, Margarite; McAlpin, Blake; Santoro, Angela; McHugh, Jonathan; Prince, Mark E.; Papagerakis, Petros

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucosa is continuously exposed to environmental forces and has to be constantly renewed. Accordingly, the oral mucosa epithelium contains a large reservoir of epithelial stem cells necessary for tissue homeostasis. Despite considerable scientific advances in stem cell behavior in a number of tissues, fewer studies have been devoted to the stem cells in the oral epithelium. Most of oral mucosa stem cells studies are focused on identifying cancer stem cells (CSC) in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) among other head and neck cancers. OSCCs are the most prevalent epithelial tumors of the head and neck region, marked by their aggressiveness and invasiveness. Due to their highly tumorigenic properties, it has been suggested that CSC may be the critical population of cancer cells in the development of OSCC metastasis. This review presents a brief overview of epithelium stem cells with implications in oral health, and the clinical implications of the CSC concept in OSCC metastatic dissemination. PMID:24803391

  6. Spatial Analysis on Future Housing Markets: Economic Development and Housing Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A coupled projection method combining formal modelling and other statistical techniques was developed to delineate the relationship between economic and social drivers for net new housing allocations. Using the example of employment growth in Tyne and Wear, UK, until 2016, the empirical analysis yields housing projections at the macro- and microspatial levels (e.g., region to subregion to elected ward levels. The results have important implications for the strategic planning of locations for housing and employment, demonstrating both intuitively and quantitatively how local economic developments affect housing demand.

  7. Longitudinal development of hormone levels and grey matter density in 9 and 12-year-old twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Rachel M; Koenis, M M G; Schnack, Hugo G; van Baal, G Caroline; van Soelen, Inge L C; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2015-05-01

    Puberty is characterized by major changes in hormone levels and structural changes in the brain. To what extent these changes are associated and to what extent genes or environmental influences drive such an association is not clear. We acquired circulating levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol and testosterone and magnetic resonance images of the brain from 190 twins at age 9 [9.2 (0.11) years; 99 females/91 males]. This protocol was repeated at age 12 [12.1 (0.26) years] in 125 of these children (59 females/66 males). Using voxel-based morphometry, we tested whether circulating hormone levels are associated with grey matter density in boys and girls in a longitudinal, genetically informative design. In girls, changes in FSH level between the age of 9 and 12 positively associated with changes in grey matter density in areas covering the left hippocampus, left (pre)frontal areas, right cerebellum, and left anterior cingulate and precuneus. This association was mainly driven by environmental factors unique to the individual (i.e. the non-shared environment). In 12-year-old girls, a higher level of circulating estradiol levels was associated with lower grey matter density in frontal and parietal areas. This association was driven by environmental factors shared among the members of a twin pair. These findings show a pattern of physical and brain development going hand in hand.

  8. Normal development of human brain white matter from infancy to early adulthood: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, Satoshi; Matsui, Mie; Tanaka, Chiaki; Uematsu, Akiko; Miura, Kayoko; Kawana, Izumi; Noguchi, Kyo

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which measures the magnitude of anisotropy of water diffusion in white matter, has recently been used to visualize and quantify parameters of neural tracts connecting brain regions. In order to investigate the developmental changes and sex and hemispheric differences of neural fibers in normal white matter, we used DTI to examine 52 healthy humans ranging in age from 2 months to 25 years. We extracted the following tracts of interest (TOIs) using the region of interest method: the corpus callosum (CC), cingulum hippocampus (CGH), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). We measured fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD). Approximate values and changes in growth rates of all DTI parameters at each age were calculated and analyzed using LOESS (locally weighted scatterplot smoothing). We found that for all TOIs, FA increased with age, whereas ADC, AD and RD values decreased with age. The turning point of growth rates was at approximately 6 years. FA in the CC was greater than that in the SLF, ILF and CGH. Moreover, FA, ADC and AD of the splenium of the CC (sCC) were greater than in the genu of the CC (gCC), whereas the RD of the sCC was lower than the RD of the gCC. The FA of right-hemisphere TOIs was significantly greater than that of left-hemisphere TOIs. In infants, growth rates of both FA and RD were larger than those of AD. Our data show that developmental patterns differ by TOIs and myelination along with the development of white matter, which can be mainly expressed as an increase in FA together with a decrease in RD. These findings clarify the long-term normal developmental characteristics of white matter microstructure from infancy to early adulthood. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. The Quality of Relationships in International Development: Institutional and Personal Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Groves

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors explore some of the personal and organisational implications entailed in satisfying the new demands for greater transparency and accountability in development aid. This calls for changes in the relationships among the different actors inthe international development system. The first part of the article focuses on how the groups of people conceive each other and behave, that is, the “personal” dimension of the construction of the relationship. In this sense, one can observe the role that can be played by the individual development agent to support the change in relationships called for by the new development agenda. In the second part, it examines how the people are connected through their organisations, as well as the institutional mechanisms that can hinder the development of quality relationships, and also how they can be transformed in order to better satisfy the needs of the new poverty reduction agenda.

  10. Three-dimensional distribution of organic matter in coastal-deltaic peat : Implications for subsidence and carbon dioxide emissions by human-induced peat oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, K.; Stafleu, J.; Cohen, K. M.; Stouthamer, E.; Busschers, Freek S.; Middelkoop, H.

    2018-01-01

    Human-induced groundwater level lowering in the Holocene coastal-deltaic plain of the Netherlands causes oxidation of peat organic matter, resulting in land subsidence and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Here, a three-dimensional (3D) analysis of the distribution of the remaining peat organic matter

  11. Investigating Climate Compatible Development Outcomes and their Implications for Distributive Justice: Evidence from Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Benjamin T.; Quinn, Claire H.; Stringer, Lindsay C.; Dougill, Andrew J.

    2017-09-01

    Governments and donors are investing in climate compatible development in order to reduce climate and development vulnerabilities. However, the rate at which climate compatible development is being operationalised has outpaced academic enquiry into the concept. Interventions aiming to achieve climate compatible development "wins" (for development, mitigation, adaptation) can also create negative side-effects. Moreover, benefits and negative side-effects may differ across time and space and have diverse consequences for individuals and groups. Assessments of the full range of outcomes created by climate compatible development projects and their implications for distributive justice are scarce. This article develops a framework using a systematic literature review that enables holistic climate compatible development outcome evaluation over seven parameters identified. Thereafter, we explore the outcomes of two donor-funded projects that pursue climate compatible development triple-wins in Malawi using this framework. Household surveys, semi-structured interviews and documentary material are analysed. Results reveal that uneven outcomes are experienced between stakeholder groups and change over time. Although climate compatible development triple-wins can be achieved through projects, they do not represent the full range of outcomes. Ecosystem—and community-based activities are becoming popularised as approaches for achieving climate compatible development goals. However, findings suggest that a strengthened evidence base is required to ensure that these approaches are able to meet climate compatible development goals and further distributive justice.

  12. A review of neighborhood effects and early child development: How, where, and for whom, do neighborhoods matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Anita; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Janus, Magdalena; Brownell, Marni; Guhn, Martin

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes a scoping review of 42 studies of neighborhood effects on developmental health for children ages 0-6, published between 2009 and 2014. It focuses on three themes: (1) theoretical mechanisms that drive early childhood development, i.e. how neighborhoods matter for early childhood development; (2) dependence of such mechanisms on place-based characteristics i.e. where neighborhood effects occur; (3) dependence of such mechanisms on child characteristics, i.e. for whom is development most affected. Given that ecological systems theories postulate diverse mechanisms via which neighborhood characteristics affect early child development, we specifically examine evidence on mediation and/or moderation effects. We conclude by discussing future challenges, and proposing recommendations for analyses that utilize ecological longitudinal population-based databases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Kinetic box models for the uptake of radionuclides and heavy metals by suspended particulate matter: equivalence between models and its implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, H.; Abril, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years an increasing experimental effort has been paid to the study of the sorption process of radionuclides and heavy metals by particulate matter in aquatic environments. This has led to the development of different kinetic box models. Most of them are variations of two basic approaches: one containing several (up to three) parallel reactions while the other involves consecutive reactions. All the reactions are reversible (irreversibility is contained as a particular case) with concentration independent coefficients. The present work provides analytical solutions and demonstrates that both approaches are mathematically equivalent. That is, both models produce the same analytical solution for the uptake curve (time course of the concentrations in the dissolved phase), which is illustrated using literature data. This result unifies the description of the observed behaviour, but it brings up the question of the physical meaning of the involved coefficients. Finally, the mathematical relationship developed here serves to discuss some limitations found in recent attempts in literature devoted to distinguish the actual uptake mechanism

  14. Effects of soil organic matter content on cadmium toxicity in Eisenia fetida: implications for the use of biomarkers and standard toxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizar, A; Rodríguez, M P; Izquierdo, A; Cancio, I; Marigómez, I; Soto, M

    2015-01-01

    Bioavailability is affected by soil physicochemical characteristics such as pH and organic matter (OM) content. In addition, OM constitutes the energy source of Eisenia fetida, a well established model species for soil toxicity assessment. The present work aimed at assessing the effects of changes in OM content on the toxicity of Cd in E. fetida through the measurement of neutral red uptake (NRU) and mortality, growth, and reproduction (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] Nos. 207 and 222). Complementarily, metallothionein (MT) and catalase transcription levels were measured. To decrease variability inherent to natural soils, artificial soils (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 1984) with different OM content (6, 10, and 14%) and spiked with Cd solutions at increasing concentrations were used. Low OM in soil decreased soil ingestion and Cd bioaccumulation but also increased Cd toxicity causing lower NRU of coelomocytes, 100 % mortality, and stronger reproduction impairment, probably due to the lack of energy to maintain protection mechanisms (production of MT).Cd bioaccumulation did not reflect toxicity, and OM played a pivotal role in Cd toxicity. Thus, OM content should be taken into account when using E. fetida in in vivo exposures for soil health assessment.

  15. Hidden charged dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Tu, Huitzu; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2009-01-01

    Can dark matter be stabilized by charge conservation, just as the electron is in the standard model? We examine the possibility that dark matter is hidden, that is, neutral under all standard model gauge interactions, but charged under an exact (\\rm U)(1) gauge symmetry of the hidden sector. Such candidates are predicted in WIMPless models, supersymmetric models in which hidden dark matter has the desired thermal relic density for a wide range of masses. Hidden charged dark matter has many novel properties not shared by neutral dark matter: (1) bound state formation and Sommerfeld-enhanced annihilation after chemical freeze out may reduce its relic density, (2) similar effects greatly enhance dark matter annihilation in protohalos at redshifts of z ∼ 30, (3) Compton scattering off hidden photons delays kinetic decoupling, suppressing small scale structure, and (4) Rutherford scattering makes such dark matter self-interacting and collisional, potentially impacting properties of the Bullet Cluster and the observed morphology of galactic halos. We analyze all of these effects in a WIMPless model in which the hidden sector is a simplified version of the minimal supersymmetric standard model and the dark matter is a hidden sector stau. We find that charged hidden dark matter is viable and consistent with the correct relic density for reasonable model parameters and dark matter masses in the range 1 GeV ∼ X ∼< 10 TeV. At the same time, in the preferred range of parameters, this model predicts cores in the dark matter halos of small galaxies and other halo properties that may be within the reach of future observations. These models therefore provide a viable and well-motivated framework for collisional dark matter with Sommerfeld enhancement, with novel implications for astrophysics and dark matter searches

  16. Integrating Youth into Community Development: Implications for Policy Planning and Program Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary V. Barnett

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available As non-profits, volunteer groups, and nongovernmental organizations take on increasingly larger roles in contributing to local well-being, the active collaboration between youth and adults is vital to the long-term success of community development efforts. Similarly, as service activities become standardized components of high-school programs, youth are empowered to becoming long-term contributors to local development efforts. Through this process youth engage in shared citizenship, leading to greater investment in their communities. This research was based on the premise that youth, acting as central parts of the community development process, have the capacity to improve local well-being. It reflects input from 12 key informants and 418 youth who participated in a survey conducted on the development issues contributing to their involvement. The findings of this study provide insights into the factors most directly shaping youth attitudes and involvement in their communities, as well as presenting direct implications for applied use.

  17. Establishment of Requirements and Methodology for the Development and Implementation of GreyMatters, a Memory Clinic Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapuria, Archana; Evans, Matt; Curcin, Vasa; Austin, Tony; Lea, Nathan; Kalra, Dipak

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to establish the requirements and methodology for the development process of GreyMatters, a memory clinic system, outlining the conceptual, practical, technical and ethical challenges, and the experiences of capturing clinical and research oriented data along with the implementation of the system. The methodology for development of the information system involved phases of requirements gathering, modeling and prototype creation, and 'bench testing' the prototype with experts. The standard Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) recommended approach for the specifications of software requirements was adopted. An electronic health record (EHR) standard, EN13606 was used, and clinical modelling was done through archetypes and the project complied with data protection and privacy legislation. The requirements for GreyMatters were established. Though the initial development was complex, the requirements, methodology and standards adopted made the construction, deployment, adoption and population of a memory clinic and research database feasible. The electronic patient data including the assessment scales provides a rich source of objective data for audits and research and to establish study feasibility and identify potential participants for the clinical trials. The establishment of requirements and methodology, addressing issues of data security and confidentiality, future data compatibility and interoperability and medico-legal aspects such as access controls and audit trails, led to a robust and useful system. The evaluation supports that the system is an acceptable tool for clinical, administrative, and research use and forms a useful part of the wider information architecture.

  18. Situation of sources and management of organic matter in Alsace, perspectives of development of biogas production installations - Final report. Situation of organic matter sources and perspectives of methanization in Alsace - Synthesis. Call for projects 2016 methanization installations in Alsace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houillon, Gregory; Gambotti, Michel; Chabrier, Jean-Paul; L'Huillier, Marthe; Wolff, Virginie; Muller, Jonathan; Gintz, Christophe; Strehler, Jean-Francois; Monasson, Anne; Gartner, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at proposing answers to the issue of valorisation of organic matter, and of feasibility of development of a biogas production sector in Alsace. It addresses different sources of organic matter, except the wood energy sector. The study comprises an assessment of the present situation of the organic matter resource with respect to actors (agriculture, communities, industry). Different aspects are addressed: sector characterisation, regulation, resource assessment, resource mapping, existing processing sectors. It also comprises an assessment of additional resources related to the three types of actors, and then an assessment of the potential biogas production, a realistic assessment of potential biogas production according to resource availability and collection possibility criteria. Based on these elements, proposals are made for the development of methanization in Alsace

  19. Communication for Development: A Personal Experience with Implications for Development Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agunga, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Communication for Development (C4D) is a new academic discipline and profession for addressing human dimension concerns in development, such as local participation, integration and capacity building, which are the main issues limiting aid effectiveness. However, my experience in Malawi, one of the poorest countries in Africa and where a…

  20. Science Teachers' Conceptualizations and Implications for the Development of the Professional Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymakamoglu, Sibel Ersel

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the two primary school science teachers' conceptions of professional development, their perceptions of self-improvement and the factors influencing their professional development. In this investigation, a case study approach was adopted. The participant teachers were given a semi-structured interview and the data…

  1. Consumer perception of meat quality and implications for product development in the meat sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone; Brunsø, Karen

    2004-01-01

    of purchase, based on own experience and informational cues available in the shopping environment, is described, as well as the way in which quality is experienced in the home during and after meal preparation. The relationship between quality expectations and quality experience and its implications...... for consumer satisfaction and repeat purchase intent is addressed. In the second part of the paper, and building on the insights obtained on subjective quality perception, possibilities for consumer-oriented product development in the meat sector are addressed. Issues dealt with here are branding...

  2. Consumer perception of meat quality and implications for product development in the meat sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone; Brunsø, Karen

    of purchase, based on own experience and informational cues available in the shopping environment, is described, as well as the way in which quality is experienced in the home during and after meal preparation. The relationship between quality expectations and quality experience and its implications...... for consumer satisfaction and repeat purchase intent is addressed. In the second part of the paper, and building on the insights obtained on subjective quality perception, possibilities for consumer-oriented product development in the meat sector are addressed. Issues dealt with here are branding...

  3. ORGANISATIONAL DETERMINANTS INFLUENCING INFORMATION SYSTEMS REIMPLEMENTATION: SOME IMPLICATIONS TO THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyen Teoh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an in-depth study of global Web-based Marketing Decision Support System reimplementation, in a British-based Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG manufacturer. The paper shows that the success of a system implementation can still be marginal even if the organisation understands the key organisational determinants of success and has influence over them. The paper concludes with a discussion of how implementation planning, user need analysis and communication problems could be overcomed and also some implications to the companies in the developing nations.

  4. Memory profiles of Down, Williams, and fragile X syndromes: implications for reading development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Frances A; Moore, Marie S; Loveall, Susan J; Merrill, Edward C

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this review was to understand the types of memory impairments that are associated with intellectual disability (ID, formerly called mental retardation) and the implications of these impairments for reading development. Specifically, studies on working memory, delayed memory and learning, and semantic/conceptual memory in Down syndrome, Williams syndrome, and fragile X syndrome were examined. A distinct memory profile emerged for each of the 3 etiologies of ID. Memory profiles are discussed in relation to strengths and weaknesses in reading skills in these three etiologies. We suggest that reading instruction be designed to capitalize on relatively stronger memory skills while providing extra support for especially challenging aspects of reading.

  5. Moral competence as a positive youth development construct: conceptual bases and implications for curriculum development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hing Keung

    2006-01-01

    Moral competence refers to the orientation to perform altruistic behavior and the ability to judge moral issues logically, consistently and at an advanced level of development. A brief review of the concepts of altruism and justice is presented. The gender and cultural issues are also discussed. The contents of moral competence program units include four major topics: (1) Fairness, (2) Proper conduct (mainly altruistic and prosocial orientation), (3) Responsibility and altruistic orientation, and (4) Integrity and fairness. The general goal is to help students to develop an altruistic orientation and a judgment structure of a high level of justice. This paper is part of the development of the positive youth development program in Hong Kong.

  6. Combination of e+/e- ratio from AMS-02 and gamma ray line from Fermi-LAT with implication for Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shiyuan; Luo, Yonggang

    2013-01-01

    The precise AMS-02 data provide definite information for the e+/e- ratio in 100 - 350 GeV region. Assuming that the recent gamma ray line observed by Fermi-LAT experiment is product of dark matter in space and taken as input. We make a global fit for the AMS-02 e+/e- spectrum with both dark matter and pulsar contribution. For this spectrum over 130 GeV, pulsar is the dominant contribution. We also investigate the constrains on hadron production from dark matter annihilation.

  7. Problem Space Matters: The Development of Creativity and Intelligence in Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, Marisete Maria; Jaarsveld, Saskia; Lachmann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Previous research showed that in primary school, children's intelligence develops continually, but creativity develops more irregularly. In this study, the development of intelligence, measured traditionally, i.e., operating within well-defined problem spaces (Standard Progressive Matrices) was compared with the development of intelligence…

  8. Exploring the implications of social change for human development: perspectives, issues and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinyin

    2015-02-01

    Researchers have investigated the implications of social change for human development from different perspectives. The studies published in this special section were conducted within Greenfield's theoretical framework (2009). The findings concerning links between specific sociodemographic features (e.g., commercial activities, schooling) and individual cognition and social behaviour are particularly interesting because they tap the underlying forces that drive human development. To further understand the issues in these studies and in the field, a pluralist-constructive perspective is discussed, which emphasises the integration of diverse values and practices in both Western and non-Western societies and its effects on the development of sophisticated competencies in individual adaptation to the changing global community. In addition, several issues are highlighted and some suggestions are provided for future explorations in this field. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  9. Light absorption properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in adjacent waters of the Changjiang Estuary during a flood season: implication for DOC estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyang; Shen, Fang; Li, Xiuzhen

    2014-11-01

    Light absorption properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in adjacent waters of the Changjiang Estuary were investigated during the summer of 2013. CDOM absorption showed a substantial portion of the total absorption and clearly dominant among most investigation stations. It generally decreased from the northwest to the southeast, which controlled by physical mixing of fresh water and seawater as was indicated by a conservative behaviour of CDOM. CDOM absorption sharply increased during phytoplankton blooms. Similarly, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) also peaked during blooms period. However, DOC exhibited a more complex behavior relative to a simple conservative mixing, possibly attributed to multiple origins of DOC. CDOM absorption and DOC co-varied to some degree, implying a potential way of DOC estimation from CDOM absorption. However, more detailed information such as CDOM and DOC composition and more validation data were required to obtain a stable CDOM - DOC pattern. Lastly, empirical algorithms with limited data were developed to retrieve CDOM absorption. Further validation of the algorithms were needed when they were to be commonly applied.

  10. Leakage Implications for European Timber Markets from Reducing Deforestation in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Boman

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest management strategies and policies such as REDD (reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation may have unintentional implications for forest sectors in countries not targeted by such policies. The success of a policy effort like REDD would result in a significant reduction in deforestation and forest degradation and an ensuing reduction in the supply of natural forest timber production within participating countries. This could in turn result in price increases, inducing a supply response outside project boundaries with possible implications for forest management as well as global carbon emissions. This paper reviews the literature to discern potential timber market implications for countries sourcing wood products from developing countries affected by REDD related conservation efforts. The literature reviewed shows varying degrees of market effects leakage—policy actions in one place creating incentives for third parties to increase timber harvesting elsewhere through the price mechanism—ranging from negligible to substantial. However, wood products in the studies reviewed are dealt with on quite an aggregated scale and are assumed to be more or less perfect substitutes for wood products outside conservation effort boundaries. The review suggests that a thorough mapping of the end-uses of tropical timber is needed to comprehensively analyze impacts on wood-product markets in regions such as Europe from conservation efforts in tropical developing countries. The types of tropical timber expected to be affected, in which applications they are used, which are the most likely substitutes and where they would be sourced, are issues that, along with empirical analysis of supply and demand price elasticities and degree of substitutability, should be investigated when assessing the overall effectiveness of REDD.

  11. Behavioral competence as a positive youth development construct: conceptual bases and implications for curriculum development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hing Keung

    2006-01-01

    Behavioral competence refers to the ability to use non-verbal and verbal strategies to perform socially acceptable and normative behavior in social interactions. The main objective is to teach our children to be courteous, graceful, and fair so that they behave with respect and responsibility in social interactions with others. The importance of behavioral competence is discussed and it is emphasized that the competence to behave or act effectively must be based on a positive or prosocial motivation or disposition. The behavioral program units cover the following three types of behaviors: applause, criticism, and apology. The general goal is to foster the development of socially acceptable character, manner, and normative behavior. This paper is part of the development of the positive youth development program in Hong Kong.

  12. Review: Exogenous butyrate: implications for the functional development of ruminal epithelium and calf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwińska, B; Hanczakowska, E; Arciszewski, M B; Klebaniuk, R

    2017-09-01

    The importance of the use of exogenous butyrate in calves' diets is due to its role as a factor stimulating the functional development of ruminal epithelium and improving calf performance during the transition from preruminant to ruminant status. Our review will first present results related to effects of the administration of butyrate in calves' diets on the development of ruminal epithelium toward a more effective absorption and metabolism of fermentation products from the rumen. The introduction of sodium butyrate at a level of about 0.3% of diet dry matter is accompanied by an increase to 35% in butyrate concentration in the rumen of 33-day-old calves. Mutual reliance between an enhanced ruminal concentration of butyrate and the activities of transcription factors, genes and proteins involved in cell proliferation, ketogenesis and the maintenance of cell pH homeostasis in the ruminal epithelial cells has been clearly confirmed in many experiments. Second, the review presents results related to the effects of the introduction of butyrate salts in the diet on calf performance. Of 11 studies a positive effect was found in six; five of these were obtained from the calves that started receiving butyrate supplement at a level of about 0.3% diet dry matter from the age of 3 to 5 days. Results indicate that when a supplement is given to calves soon after birth the functional development of ruminal epithelium in cooperation with the endocrine and digestion systems is transferred into improving the efficiency of rearing. There have been no studies on the effects of greater amounts of butyrate salts in milk replacer; butyrate constitutes about 1.2% of the whole cow's milk dry matter. In older calves, when butyrate administration is provided as a component of a starter concentrate at the increasing inclusion rate from 0.3% to 3.0%, the practical effect in calf performance relates to the risk of depression of rumen pH below 5.5 and accompanying disruption of the

  13. Recognition for Positive Behavior as a Critical Youth Development Construct: Conceptual Bases and Implications on Youth Service Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben M. F. Law

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition for positive behavior is an appropriate response of the social environment to elicit desirable external behavior among the youth. Such positive responses, rendered from various social systems, include tangible and intangible reinforcements. The following theories are used to explain the importance of recognizing positive behavior: operational conditioning, observational learning, self-determination, and humanistic perspective. In the current work, culturally and socially desirable behaviors are discussed in detail with reference to Chinese adolescents. Positive behavior recognition is especially important to adolescent development because it promotes identity formation as well as cultivates moral reasoning and social perspective thinking from various social systems. The significance of recognizing positive behavior is illustrated through the support, tutorage, invitation, and subsidy provided by Hong Kong’s social systems in recognition of adolescent volunteerism. The practical implications of positive behavior recognition on youth development programs are also discussed in this work.

  14. Regional white matter development in very preterm infants: perinatal predictors and early developmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cynthia E; Smyser, Tara; Smyser, Christopher D; Shimony, Joshua; Inder, Terrie E; Neil, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    Preterm infants are at risk for white matter (WM) injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Serial diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained from very preterm infants (N = 78) born regions of interest for infants with ≥2 scans (N = 50). Sixty-five children underwent neurodevelopmental testing at 2 y of age. FA slope for the posterior limb of the internal capsule was greater than other regions. The anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC), corpus callosum, and optic radiations demonstrated greater FA slope with increasing gestational age. Infants with patent ductus arteriosus had lower FA slope in the ALIC. MD slope was lower with prolonged ventilation or lack of antenatal steroids. At 2 y of age, lower motor scores were associated with lower FA in the left but higher FA in the right inferior temporal lobe at term-equivalent age. Better social-emotional competence was related to lower FA in the left cingulum bundle. This study demonstrates regional variability in the susceptibility/sensitivity of WM maturation to perinatal factors and relationships between altered diffusion measures and developmental outcomes in preterm neonates.

  15. Nucleons, Nuclear Matter and Quark Matter: A unified NJL approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Lawley; W. Bentz; A.W. Thomas

    2006-02-10

    We use an effective quark model to describe both hadronic matter and deconfined quark matter. By calculating the equations of state and the corresponding neutron star properties, we show that the internal properties of the nucleon have important implications for the properties of these systems.

  16. Nucleons, nuclear matter and quark matter: a unified NJL approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawley, S [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter, University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5005 (Australia); Bentz, W [Department of Physics, School of Science, Tokai University Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Thomas, A W [Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2006-05-01

    We use an effective quark model to describe both hadronic matter and deconfined quark matter. By calculating the equations of state and the corresponding neutron star properties, we show that the internal properties of the nucleon have important implications for the properties of these systems.

  17. Prosocial norms as a positive youth development construct: conceptual bases and implications for curriculum development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Andrew M H; Cheng, Howard C H; Leung, Mana C M

    2006-01-01

    Prosocial norms are clear, healthy, ethical standards, beliefs, and behavior guidelines that promote prosocial behavior and minimize health risks. The promotion of prosocial norms like altruism, solidarity, and volunteerism is an important aspect of positive youth development programs. From the literature, it is evident that a prosocial orientation is encouraged in traditional Chinese philosophy. Longitudinal studies have shown that prosocial behavior increases gradually over adolescence, and that the development of prosocial behavior is closely linked to the development of moral reasoning, perspective taking, and regulation of personal distress. It is noteworthy that females have a higher prosocial orientation than males, and peer influence could be a major mediating factor of interventions to foster prosocial norms and behavior during adolescence. This review also analyzes the mechanism underlying prosocial behavior using the cost-reward model, social cognitive theory, and stages of moral development. Role modeling, social reinforcements and evaluations, discussion of moral dilemmas, empathy skills training, and foot-in-the-door procedures are identified as useful strategies for fostering prosocial norms and behavior.

  18. The implications of future building scenarios for long-term building energy research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, W.T.

    1986-12-01

    This report presents a discussion of alternative future scenarios of the building environment to the year 2010 and assesses the implications these scenarios present for long-term building energy R and D. The scenarios and energy R and D implications derived from them are intended to serve as the basis from which a strategic plan can be developed for the management of R and D programs conducted by the Office of Buildings and Community Systems, US Department of Energy. The scenarios and analysis presented here have relevance not only for government R and D programs; on the contrary, it is hoped that the results of this effort will be of interest and useful to researchers in both private and public sector organizations that deal with building energy R and D. Making R and D decisions today based on an analysis that attempts to delineate the nexus of events 25 years in the future are clearly decisions made in the face of uncertainty. Yet, the effective management of R and D programs requires a future-directed understanding of markets, technological developments, and environmental factors, as well as their interactions. The analysis presented in this report is designed to serve that need. Although the probability of any particular scenario actually occurring is uncertain, the scenarios to be presented are sufficiently robust to set bounds within which to examine the interaction of forces that will shape the future building environment.

  19. Development and Operation of Dual-Mode Analyzers for Wireless Power Consortium/Power Matters Alliance Wireless Power Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Keehong

    2016-05-01

    We have designed a protocol analyzer to be used in wireless power systems and analyzed the operation of wireless chargers defined by standards of Qi of Wireless Power Consortium (WPC) and Power Matters Alliance (PMA) protocols. The integrated circuit (IC, or microchip) developed so far for wireless power transmission is not easily adopted by chargers for specific purposes. A device for measuring the performance of test equipment currently available is required to transform and expand the types of protocol. Since a protocol analyzer with these functions is required, we have developed a device that can analyze the two protocols of WPC and PMA at the same time. As a result of our research, we present a dual-mode system that can analyze the protocols of both WPC and PMA.

  20. Development of the carapacial ridge: implications for the evolution of genetic networks in turtle shell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustakas, Jacqueline E

    2008-01-01

    Paleontologists and neontologists have long looked to development to understand the homologies of the dermal bones that form the "armor" of turtles, crocodiles, armadillos, and other vertebrates. This study shows molecular evidence supporting a dermomyotomal identity for the mesenchyme of the turtle carapacial ridge. The mesenchyme of the carapace primordium expresses Pax3, Twist1, Dermo1, En1, Sim1, and Gremlin at early stages and before overt ossification expresses Pax1. A hypothesis is proposed that this mesenchyme forms dermal bone in the turtle carapace. A comparison of regulatory gene expression in the primordia of the turtle carapace, the vertebrate limb, and the vertebral column implies the exaptation of key genetic networks in the development of the turtle shell. This work establishes a new role for this mesodermal compartment and highlights the importance of changes in genetic regulation in the evolution of morphology.

  1. Simplified Dark Matter Models

    OpenAIRE

    Morgante, Enrico

    2018-01-01

    I review the construction of Simplified Models for Dark Matter searches. After discussing the philosophy and some simple examples, I turn the attention to the aspect of the theoretical consistency and to the implications of the necessary extensions of these models.

  2. INCOME AND ENERGY SOURCES AMONG AGRARIAN HOUSEHOLDS IN NIGERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR LOW CARBON ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mkpado

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Low-carbon power comes from sources that produce fewer greenhouse gases than do traditional means of power generation. It includes zero carbon power generation sources, such as wind power, solar power, geothermal power and (except for fuel preparation nuclear power, as well as sources with lower-level emissions such as natural and petroleum gas, and also technologies that prevent carbon dioxide from being emitted into the atmosphere, such as carbon capture and storage. This article correlated value of income from different sources to energy sources used by agrarian households in Nigeria and drew implications for low carbon development in Africa. It analysis included use of wind power for irrigation purposes, harnessing solar energy for lightening and possible cost implications. Secondary data were collected from Community Based Monitoring System Nigeria Project. Descriptive statistics, correlation and qualitative analysis were employed. The average annual income of agrarian households from different sources such as crop farming, livestock farming, petty trading, forest exploitation, remittance and labour per day was below the poverty line of $1 per day. The source of energy that had the highest number of significant correlation was electrical energy (low carbon electrical energy. It showed the possibility of pooling resources as farmers group to attract grants or equity financing to build wind mills for irrigation. The study recommended use of energy efficient bulbs to reduce CO2 emissions. This requires creating awareness among rural dwellers of the need to make such change.

  3. Quark Matter '87: Concluding remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1988-03-01

    This year marked the beginning of the experimental program at BNL and CERN to probe the properties of ultra dense hadronic matter and to search for the quark-gluon plasma phase of matter. Possible implications of the preliminary findings are discussed. Problems needing further theoretical and experimental study are pointed out. 50 refs

  4. Natriuretic peptides in developing medaka embryos: implications in cardiac development by loss-of-function studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyanishi, Hiroshi; Okubo, Kataaki; Nobata, Shigenori; Takei, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NPs), atrial NP (ANP) and B-type NP (BNP), and their receptor, guanylyl cyclase (GC)-A have attracted attention of many basic and clinical researchers because of their potent renal and cardiovascular actions. In this study, we used medaka, Oryzias latipes, as a model species to pursue the physiological functions of NPs because it is a suitable model for developmental analyses. Medaka has two ligands, BNP and C-type NP3 (CNP3) (but not ANP), that have greater affinity for the two O. latipes GC-A receptors (OLGC), OLGC7 and OLGC2, respectively. CNP3 is the ancestral molecule of cardiac NPs. Initially, we examined developmental expression of cardiac NP/receptor combinations, BNP/OLGC7 and CNP3/OLGC2, using quantitative real-time PCR and in situ hybridization. BNP and CNP3 mRNA increased at stages 25 (onset of ventricular formation) and 22 (appearance of heart anlage), respectively, whereas both receptor mRNAs increased at as early as stage 12. BNP/OLGC7 transcripts were found in arterial/ventricular tissues and CNP3/OLGC2 transcripts in venous/atrial tissues by in situ hybridization. Thus, BNP and CNP3 can act locally on cardiac myocytes in a paracrine/autocrine fashion. Double knockdown of BNP/OLGC7 genes impaired ventricular development by causing hypoplasia of ventricular myocytes as evidenced by reduced bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. CNP3 knockdown induced hypertrophy of atria and activated the renin-angiotensin system. Collectively, it appears that BNP is important for normal ventricular, whereas CNP3 is important for normal atrial development and performance, a role usually taken by ANP in other vertebrates. The current study provides new insights into the role of cardiac NPs in cardiac development in vertebrates.

  5. Recent Advances in Developing Inhibitors for Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Prolyl Hydroxylases and Their Therapeutic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Yeon Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs are members of the 2-oxoglutarate dependent non-heme iron dioxygenases. Due to their physiological roles in regulation of HIF-1α stability, many efforts have been focused on searching for selective PHD inhibitors to control HIF-1α levels for therapeutic applications. In this review, we first describe the structure of PHD2 as a molecular basis for structure-based drug design (SBDD and various experimental methods developed for measuring PHD activity. We further discuss the current status of the development of PHD inhibitors enabled by combining SBDD approaches with high-throughput screening. Finally, we highlight the clinical implications of small molecule PHD inhibitors.

  6. Thyroid hormone regulation of adult intestinal stem cells: Implications on intestinal development and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guihong; Roediger, Julia; Shi, Yun-Bo

    2016-12-01

    Organ-specific adult stem cells are essential for organ homeostasis, tissue repair and regeneration. The formation of such stem cells often takes place during postembryonic development, a period around birth in mammals when plasma thyroid hormone concentration is high. The life-long self-renewal of the intestinal epithelium has made mammalian intestine a valuable model to study the function and regulation and adult stem cells. On the other hand, much less is known about how the adult intestinal stem cells are formed during vertebrate development. Here, we will review some recent progresses on this subject, focusing mainly on the formation of the adult intestine during Xenopus metamorphosis. We will discuss the role of thyroid hormone signaling pathway in the process and potential molecular conservations between amphibians and mammals as well as the implications in organ homeostasis and human diseases.

  7. Implications Of Foreign Direct Investment, Financial Development And Real Exchange Rate For Economic Growth In Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victalice Ngimanang Achamoh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the effects of foreign direct investment (FDI, financial development and real exchange rate (RER on economic growth in Cameroon using Cameroon’s annual time series data spanning the period 1977 - 2010. To address these objectives, residual based Engle-Granger test, the OLS based Autoregressive Distributive Lag (ARDL bound testing and maximum likelihood based Johansen cointegration techniques are employed. Results of Unit roots tests show that all the series possessed unit roots at level or first difference form. The ARDL model and VECM results reveal that the RER has a significant negative effect on economic growth, while FDI and Financial Development relate positively to economic growth. These findings have implications for stimulating economic growth by increasing efficiency of the financial sector in allocating credit to the private sector and preventing real exchange rate appreciation in the shortrun.

  8. FDI and Economic Growth — Does the Quality of Banking Development Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Hakimah Haji Mohd

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the role of banking development quality in the FDI-growth nexus from 1998 to 2009. Banking development quality is measured using two standardized intermediation  cost indicators and an index of banking development quality that is constructed based on the following indicators: overhead costs to total assets and net interest margin. The results for developed countries show that, on its own, FDI is negatively related to economic growth. However, when FDI is interacted with a banking development quality index, the quality of banking development is found to play a positive role in influencing the effects of FDI on economic growth. This suggests that the quality of banking development serves as an absorptive capacity that allows developed countries to benefit from the positive growth effects of FDI. On the contrary, for emerging countries, the findings indicate that banking development quality plays no role in influencing the impact of FDI on economic growth. This implies that the quality of banking development in emerging countries has yet to reach a level that allows it to importantly influence the growth effects of FDI.

  9. Dark matter analysis of XENON100 data and cut development utilizing the novel PAX raw data processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittweg, Christian [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet, Muenster (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The XENON100 experiment located at LNGS is aimed at the direct detection of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). It utilizes an ultra-low background dual-phase xenon TPC which yields two separate scintillation signals that facilitate background discrimination and event selection. Limits on various interaction types have been published by the collaboration (Science 349 (2015) 6250, 851-854). In the analysis dark matter candidate events have to pass cuts with respect to data quality, consistency and physical features of the interaction. The former ones are implemented with regard to the used data processor's capabilities for noise discrimination and peak-finding. The Processor for Analyzing Xenon (PAX), developed for the XENON1T experiment, enhances these capabilities compared to XENON100. A greater robustness against noise and an increased peak-identification efficiency open up new opportunities for physically motivated cuts while rendering old ones obsolete. The poster will focus on the implementation of new cuts into the analysis chain. Both PAX and the xenon analysis will be introduced. A planned full-scale dark matter analysis of PAX-processed XENON100 data will be outlined.

  10. White matter development and tobacco smoking in young adults: A systematic review with recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogliettino, Alex R; Potenza, Marc N; Yip, Sarah W

    2016-05-01

    Adolescence and young adulthood are critical vulnerability periods for initiation of tobacco smoking. White matter development is ongoing during this time and may be influenced by exposure to nicotine. Synthesis of findings from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies of adolescent and young adult smokers may be helpful in understanding the relationship between neurodevelopment and initiation and progression of tobacco-use behaviors and in guiding further research. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify DTI studies comparing adolescent and young adult (mean age adult studies. Directions for further research are also discussed. All identified studies reported increases in fractional anisotropy (FA) among adolescent/young adult smokers in comparison to non-smokers. Increased FA was most frequently reported in regions of the corpus callosum (genu, body and spenium), internal capsule and superior longitudinal fasciculus. Findings of increased FA among adolescent/young adult smokers are contrary to those from most adult studies and thus raise the possibility of differential effects of nicotine on white matter across the lifespan. Further research including multiple time points is needed to test this hypothesis. Other areas warranting further research include DTI studies of e-cigarette use and studies incorporating measures of pubertal stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Brief report: do peer relationships matter to Vietnamese adolescents' and young adults' development of identity? Towards a working theory of identity development in a changing culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong; Cohen, Edward; Hines, Alice

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, using data from the first nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of more than 7000 Vietnamese adolescents, we explore how peers, compared to family, matter to Vietnamese adolescents' development of their independent identity as an adult. We use future hopes and aspirations as proxies for identity development, arguing that an individual's development of future hopes and aspirations is a correlate to the emergence of an independent identity. Our analyses show that peers have a positive and consistent influence on adolescents' hopes to have a happy family, good job, good income, and opportunities to do what they want. Regarding career and economic aspirations, the importance of peer relationships appears to have dropped away. It may be that when youth consider their realistic economic alternatives, the role of peers that was important for identity development in adolescence gives way to pragmatism about the attainment of a career identity. Copyright © 2011 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  12. Stellar Wakes from Dark Matter Subhalos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Malte; Kopp, Joachim; Safdi, Benjamin R; Wu, Chih-Liang

    2018-05-25

    We propose a novel method utilizing stellar kinematic data to detect low-mass substructure in the Milky Way's dark matter halo. By probing characteristic wakes that a passing dark matter subhalo leaves in the phase-space distribution of ambient halo stars, we estimate sensitivities down to subhalo masses of ∼10^{7}  M_{⊙} or below. The detection of such subhalos would have implications for dark matter and cosmological models that predict modifications to the halo-mass function at low halo masses. We develop an analytic formalism for describing the perturbed stellar phase-space distributions, and we demonstrate through idealized simulations the ability to detect subhalos using the phase-space model and a likelihood framework. Our method complements existing methods for low-mass subhalo searches, such as searches for gaps in stellar streams, in that we can localize the positions and velocities of the subhalos today.

  13. Stellar Wakes from Dark Matter Subhalos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Malte; Kopp, Joachim; Safdi, Benjamin R.; Wu, Chih-Liang

    2018-05-01

    We propose a novel method utilizing stellar kinematic data to detect low-mass substructure in the Milky Way's dark matter halo. By probing characteristic wakes that a passing dark matter subhalo leaves in the phase-space distribution of ambient halo stars, we estimate sensitivities down to subhalo masses of ˜107 M⊙ or below. The detection of such subhalos would have implications for dark matter and cosmological models that predict modifications to the halo-mass function at low halo masses. We develop an analytic formalism for describing the perturbed stellar phase-space distributions, and we demonstrate through idealized simulations the ability to detect subhalos using the phase-space model and a likelihood framework. Our method complements existing methods for low-mass subhalo searches, such as searches for gaps in stellar streams, in that we can localize the positions and velocities of the subhalos today.

  14. Tobacco control policy development in the European Union: do political factors matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosdriesz, Jizzo R.; Willemsen, Marc C.; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    There has been much variation between European countries in the development of tobacco control policy. Not much is known about the factors that shape this variation. This study aimed to assess the role of political factors in tobacco control policy development. We used data from 11 European

  15. Trophic structure of arthropods in Starling nests matter to blood parasites and thereby to nestling development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfs, Peter H. J.; Lesna, Izabela K.; Sabelis, Maurice W.; Komdeur, Jan; Bairlein, F.

    Nestling development and long-term survival in many bird species depend on factors such as parental feeding, time of breeding and environmental conditions. However, little research has been carried out on the effect of ectoparasites on nestling development, and no research on the impact of the

  16. Trophic structure of arthropods in Starling nests matter to blood parasites and thereby to nestling development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfs, P.H.J.; Lesna, I.K.; Sabelis, M.W.; Komdeur, J.

    2012-01-01

    Nestling development and long-term survival in many bird species depend on factors such as parental feeding, time of breeding and environmental conditions. However, little research has been carried out on the effect of ectoparasites on nestling development, and no research on the impact of the

  17. Meeting electrification's social objectives in South Africa, and implications for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaunt, C.T.

    2005-01-01

    Electrification programmes and projects are usually planned and evaluated on the basis of their economic (financial) and socio-economic performance. It is not usually recognised that electrification is often carried out for social objectives of poverty alleviation and political effect. Examination of electrification in South Africa reveals clearly that initial electrification was to meet economic objectives, later socio-economic objectives were adopted, and recently the objectives were social. Social electrification, particularly rural electrification, is not viable according to usual assessment methods, which are frequently distorted to provide the justification for a project to proceed. The technology of network electrification changed to meet the constraints, challenging usual perceptions about the relative costs of urban and rural electrification and the potential for photovoltaic electrification. Adopting a specification for social electrification allows suitable tariffs for electrification to be identified, indicates how capital investment decisions might be modified for social electrification, and identifies implications for electricity industry restructuring. A better understanding of electrification's social objectives has implications for projects and programmes in other developing countries

  18. Absorption and fluorescence properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter: implications for the monitoring of water quality in a large subtropical reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohan; Zhang, Yunlin; Shi, Kun; Zhu, Guangwei; Xu, Hai; Zhu, Mengyuan

    2014-12-01

    The development of techniques for real-time monitoring of water quality is of great importance for effectively managing inland water resources. In this study, we first analyzed the absorption and fluorescence properties in a large subtropical reservoir and then used a chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence monitoring sensor to predict several water quality parameters including the total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and CDOM fluorescence parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) components in the reservoir. The CDOM absorption coefficient at 254 nm (a(254)), the humic-like component (C1), and the tryptophan-like component (C3) decreased significantly along a gradient from the northwest to the lake center, northeast, southwest, and southeast region in the reservoir. However, no significant spatial difference was found for the tyrosine-like component (C2), which contributed only four marked peaks. A highly significant linear correlation was found between the a(254) and CDOM concentration measured using the CDOM fluorescence sensor (r(2) = 0.865, n = 76, p CDOM concentrations could act as a proxy for the CDOM absorption coefficient measured in the laboratory. Significant correlations were also found between the CDOM concentration and TN, TP, COD, DOC, and the maximum fluorescence intensity of C1, suggesting that the real-time monitoring of CDOM concentrations could be used to predict these water quality parameters and trace the humic-like fluorescence substance in clear aquatic ecosystems with DOC CDOM fluorescence sensor is a useful tool for on-line water quality monitoring if the empirical relationship between the CDOM concentration measured using the CDOM fluorescence sensor and the water quality parameters is calibrated and validated.

  19. Enhanced transfer of organic matter to higher trophic levels caused by ocean acidification and its implications for export production: A mass balance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxhammer, Tim; Taucher, Jan; Bach, Lennart T; Achterberg, Eric P; Algueró-Muñiz, María; Bellworthy, Jessica; Czerny, Jan; Esposito, Mario; Haunost, Mathias; Hellemann, Dana; Ludwig, Andrea; Yong, Jaw C; Zark, Maren; Riebesell, Ulf; Anderson, Leif G

    2018-01-01

    Ongoing acidification of the ocean through uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is known to affect marine biota and ecosystems with largely unknown consequences for marine food webs. Changes in food web structure have the potential to alter trophic transfer, partitioning, and biogeochemical cycling of elements in the ocean. Here we investigated the impact of realistic end-of-the-century CO2 concentrations on the development and partitioning of the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and silica pools in a coastal pelagic ecosystem (Gullmar Fjord, Sweden). We covered the entire winter-to-summer plankton succession (100 days) in two sets of five pelagic mesocosms, with one set being CO2 enriched (~760 μatm pCO2) and the other one left at ambient CO2 concentrations. Elemental mass balances were calculated and we highlight important challenges and uncertainties we have faced in the closed mesocosm system. Our key observations under high CO2 were: (1) A significantly amplified transfer of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from primary producers to higher trophic levels, during times of regenerated primary production. (2) A prolonged retention of all three elements in the pelagic food web that significantly reduced nitrogen and phosphorus sedimentation by about 11 and 9%, respectively. (3) A positive trend in carbon fixation (relative to nitrogen) that appeared in the particulate matter pool as well as the downward particle flux. This excess carbon counteracted a potential reduction in carbon sedimentation that could have been expected from patterns of nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes. Our findings highlight the potential for ocean acidification to alter partitioning and cycling of carbon and nutrients in the surface ocean but also show that impacts are temporarily variable and likely depending upon the structure of the plankton food web.

  20. Enhanced transfer of organic matter to higher trophic levels caused by ocean acidification and its implications for export production: A mass balance approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Boxhammer

    Full Text Available Ongoing acidification of the ocean through uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is known to affect marine biota and ecosystems with largely unknown consequences for marine food webs. Changes in food web structure have the potential to alter trophic transfer, partitioning, and biogeochemical cycling of elements in the ocean. Here we investigated the impact of realistic end-of-the-century CO2 concentrations on the development and partitioning of the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and silica pools in a coastal pelagic ecosystem (Gullmar Fjord, Sweden. We covered the entire winter-to-summer plankton succession (100 days in two sets of five pelagic mesocosms, with one set being CO2 enriched (~760 μatm pCO2 and the other one left at ambient CO2 concentrations. Elemental mass balances were calculated and we highlight important challenges and uncertainties we have faced in the closed mesocosm system. Our key observations under high CO2 were: (1 A significantly amplified transfer of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from primary producers to higher trophic levels, during times of regenerated primary production. (2 A prolonged retention of all three elements in the pelagic food web that significantly reduced nitrogen and phosphorus sedimentation by about 11 and 9%, respectively. (3 A positive trend in carbon fixation (relative to nitrogen that appeared in the particulate matter pool as well as the downward particle flux. This excess carbon counteracted a potential reduction in carbon sedimentation that could have been expected from patterns of nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes. Our findings highlight the potential for ocean acidification to alter partitioning and cycling of carbon and nutrients in the surface ocean but also show that impacts are temporarily variable and likely depending upon the structure of the plankton food web.

  1. Prosocial involvement as a positive youth development construct: conceptual bases and implications for curriculum development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Howard C H; Siu, Andrew M H; Leung, Mana C M

    2006-01-01

    Pro-social involvement programmes are significant and important for the healthy growth of adolescents as well as for the development of society. Pro-social involvement of adolescence refers to paid-job, volunteer works, sport and games. It serves the functions of making adolescents aware of and to accept the social norms and moral standard of the society, which would bring positive changes to the adolescents and consequently benefit the society as a whole. Past studies showed that adolescents who participated in pro-social involvement programmes tended to have positive self-perception, more social skills, and less anti-social behaviors. In Hong Kong, professionals in education and social services have fully recognized the benefits of pro-involvement programmes. They have organized multi-level and diverse pro-social involvement programmes and encouraged adolescents to participate. Through participation, adolescents could be helped to redefine their relationship with the society, and maximize their potentials for growth. The current programme described in this article is designed in the P.A.T.H.S. Project, support by the Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust.

  2. To the matter of the educated development of the construction industry of recreational territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermakov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rational creation of the consumer quality of constructions, which is taking into account some cultural, historical and other, accepted for society development paradigms enters to replace mass sustainable development of the industry of a construction in case of development of the recreational territories around megalopolises, using intellectual systems in a construction, ecological, energy-saving technologies in increase in a consumer evaluation of quality. For the residential development of the recreational territories of cities it is important to provide not only complex conditions of their development, to keep their potential for future generations, providing their social-and-economic development, to consider national and climatic features, but also to use their potential opportunities and traditions of the people inhabiting them, rationally and economically. The educated development of the construction industry is the new term entered into the use of constructors, when the consumer quality of building and structures meets national preferences taking into account traditions and advanced achievements in the use of materials, architectural and project decisions, production technologies and climatic opportunities with the minimum damage to the environment. Its accomplishment assumes enhancement and introduction of local-and-standard regulation with implementation of innovative solutions.

  3. Implications of sustainability constraints on UK bioenergy development: Assessing optimistic and precautionary approaches with UK MARKAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowall, Will; Anandarajah, Gabrial; Dodds, Paul E.; Tomei, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Bioenergy is an important renewable energy resource. However, assessments of the future of bioenergy are beset with uncertainty and contested values, suggesting that a precautionary approach to bioenergy resource development may be warranted. This paper uses UK MARKAL to examine the implications of adopting a precautionary approach to bioenergy development in the UK. The paper reports a detailed review of UK bioenergy resources and sustainability constraints, and develops precautionary and optimistic resource scenarios. The paper then examines the implications of these scenarios using the energy systems model MARKAL, finding that a precautionary approach adds to the cost of decarbonisation, but does not significantly alter the optimal technology mix. In particular, biomass and co-firing CCS emerge as optimal technologies across scenarios. The question of UK land availability for bioenergy production is highlighted within the paper. With less land available for bioenergy production, the costs of decarbonisation will rise; whereas if more land is available for bioenergy, then less land is available for either food production or ecosystem conservation. This paper quantifies one side of this trade-off, by estimating the additional costs incurred when UK land availability for bioenergy production is constrained. - Highlights: ► We assess UK bioenergy resources under optimistic and precautionary approaches. ► Using MARKAL, we find that sustainability constraints add to decarbonisation costs. ► Preferred use of bioenergy is similar in optimistic and precautionary cases. ► Best use of bioenergy is heat and power, not transport, if CCS is available. ► The marginal value of additional land availability to the energy system is high.

  4. The early development of brain white matter: a review of imaging studies in fetuses, newborns and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, J; Dehaene-Lambertz, G; Kulikova, S; Poupon, C; Hüppi, P S; Hertz-Pannier, L

    2014-09-12

    Studying how the healthy human brain develops is important to understand early pathological mechanisms and to assess the influence of fetal or perinatal events on later life. Brain development relies on complex and intermingled mechanisms especially during gestation and first post-natal months, with intense interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Although the baby's brain is organized early on, it is not a miniature adult brain: regional brain changes are asynchronous and protracted, i.e. sensory-motor regions develop early and quickly, whereas associative regions develop later and slowly over decades. Concurrently, the infant/child gradually achieves new performances, but how brain maturation relates to changes in behavior is poorly understood, requiring non-invasive in vivo imaging studies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two main processes of early white matter development are reviewed: (1) establishment of connections between brain regions within functional networks, leading to adult-like organization during the last trimester of gestation, (2) maturation (myelination) of these connections during infancy to provide efficient transfers of information. Current knowledge from post-mortem descriptions and in vivo MRI studies is summed up, focusing on T1- and T2-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and quantitative mapping of T1/T2 relaxation times, myelin water fraction and magnetization transfer ratio. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of natural gas development in the Marcellus and Utica shales on regional ozone and fine particulate matter levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohani, Yusuf H.; Roy, Anirban A.; Heo, Jinhyok; Robinson, Allen L.; Adams, Peter J.

    2017-04-01

    The Marcellus and Utica shale formations have recently been the focus of intense natural gas development and production, increasing regional air pollutant emissions. Here we examine the effects of these emissions on regional ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels using the chemical transport model, CAMx, and estimate the public health costs with BenMAP. Simulations were performed for three emissions scenarios for the year 2020 that span a range potential development storylines. In areas with the most gas development, the 'Medium Emissions' scenario, which corresponds to an intermediate level of development and widespread adoption of new equipment with lower emissions, is predicted to increase 8-hourly ozone design values by up to 2.5 ppbv and average annual PM2.5 concentrations by as much as 0.27 μg/m3. These impacts could range from as much as a factor of two higher to a factor of three lower depending on the level of development and the adoption of emission controls. Smaller impacts (e.g. 0.1-0.5 ppbv of ozone, depending on the emissions scenario) are predicted for non-attainment areas located downwind of the Marcellus region such as New York City, Philadelphia and Washington, DC. Premature deaths for the 'Medium Emissions' scenario are predicted to increase by 200-460 annually. The health impacts as well as the changes in ozone and PM2.5 were all driven primarily by NOx emissions.

  6. Implication of neuro-genesis during brain development in behavior disorders caused by depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Humans are continuously exposed to neurotoxic compounds in the environment. The developing brain is more susceptible to neurotoxic compounds and modifications in its growth could lead to disorders in adulthood. Uranium (U) is an environmental heavy metal and induces behavioral disorders as well as affects neurochemistry. The aim of my thesis was to investigate whether depleted uranium (DU) exposure affects neuro-genesis processes, which are implicated in brain development and in synaptic plasticity in adults. While DU increased cell proliferation in the hippocampal neuro-epithelium and decreased cell death at prenatal stages, DU lead to opposite effects in the dentate gyrus at postnatal stages. Moreover, DU had an inhibitory effect on the transition toward neuronal differentiation pathway during development. At adult stage, DU induced a decrease in neuronal differentiation but has no impact in cell proliferation. Finally, DU exposure during brain development caused depressive like behavior at late postnatal and adult stage, and decreased spatial memory at adult stage. Consequently, DU exposure during brain development caused modification in neuro-genesis processes associated to cognitive and emotional disorders at adult age. U could present a threat to human health, especially in pregnant women and children. (author)

  7. Development and validation of a MODIS colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) algorithm in northwest Florida estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satellite remote sensing provides synoptic and frequent monitoring of water quality parameters that aids in determining the health of aquatic ecosystems and the development of effective management strategies. Northwest Florida estuaries are classified as optically-complex, or wat...

  8. Ligand extraction of rare earth elements from aquifer sediments: Implications for rare earth element complexation with organic matter in natural waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianwu; Johannesson, Karen H.

    2010-12-01

    The ability of organic matter as well as carbonate ions to extract rare earth elements (REEs) from sandy sediments of a Coastal Plain aquifer was investigated for unpurified organic matter from different sources (i.e., Mississippi River natural organic matter, Aldrich humic acid, Nordic aquatic fulvic acid, Suwannee River fulvic acid, and Suwannee River natural organic matter) and for extraction solutions containing weak (i.e., CH 3COO -) or strong (i.e., CO32-) ligands. The experimental results indicate that, in the absence of strong REE complexing ligands in solution, the amount of REEs released from the sand is small and the fractionation pattern of the released REEs appears to be controlled by the surface stability constants for REE sorption with Fe(III) oxides/oxyhydroxides. In the presence of strong solution complexing ligands, however, the amount and the fractionation pattern of the released REEs reflect the strength and variation of the stability constants of the dominant aqueous REE species across the REE series. The varying amount of REEs extracted by the different organic matter employed in the experiments indicates that organic matter from different sources has different complexing capacity for REEs. However, the fractionation pattern of REEs extracted by the various organic matter used in our experiments is remarkable consistent, being independent of the source and the concentration of organic matter used, as well as solution pH. Because natural aquifer sand and unpurified organic matter were used in our experiments, our experimental conditions are more broadly similar to natural systems than many previous laboratory experiments of REE-humic complexation that employed purified humic substances. Our results suggest that the REE loading effect on REE-humic complexation is negligible in natural waters as more abundant metal cations (e.g., Fe, Al) out-compete REEs for strong binding sites on organic matter. More specifically, our results indicate that REE

  9. Parenting and Child Development in Adoptive Families: Does Parental Sexual Orientation Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Farr, Rachel H.; Forssell, Stephen L.; Patterson, Charlotte J.

    2010-01-01

    This study, funded by Williams Institute, investigated child development and parenting in 106 families headed by 27 lesbian, 29 gay, and 50 heterosexual couples with young adopted children. Parents and teachers reported that, on average, children were developing in typical ways. Measures of children’s adjustment, parenting approaches, parenting stress, and couple relationship adjustment were not significantly associated with parental sexual orientation. However, several family process variabl...

  10. Teaching matters-academic professional development in the early 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnert, Beatrix

    2015-10-01

    Academic work at different career stages has changed and a broadened portfolio of expertise enables academics to adapt, maintain and advance their career. Development related to research activity is naturally driven by methodology and technology. Institutions and peers largely support development in the contexts of dissemination, measuring impact and obtaining funding. A European Commission High Level Group recommended pedagogic training for everyone teaching in Higher Education by 2020 with mandatory continuing professional development and with academic staff recruitment and promotion being linked to teaching performance. Early career teaching experience is already an expectation, and advantage is gained by developing recognized teaching expertise. More senior academics gain an advantage through recognition of higher levels of expertise, also covering elements of leadership and innovation in teaching. This review aims to raise awareness particularly of teaching-related skills within the dimensions of academic professional development in Higher Education, outlining some general directions for development and recognition in context of current challenges to support planning and identifying training needs and opportunities at different career stages. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a force sensor using atom interferometry to constrain theories on dark matter and dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlupf, Chandler; Niederriter, Robert; Bohr, Eliot; Khamis, Sami; Park, Youna; Szwed, Erik; Hamilton, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Atom interferometry has been used in many precision measurements such as Newton's gravitational constant, the fine structure constant, and tests of the equivalence principle. We will perform atom interferometry in an optical lattice to measure the force felt by an atom due to a test mass in search of new forces suggested by dark matter and dark energy theories. We will be developing a new apparatus using laser-cooled ytterbium to continuously measure this force by observing their Bloch oscillations. Interfering atoms in an optical lattice allows continuous measurements in a small volume over a long period of time, enabling our device to be sensitive to time-varying forces while minimizing vibrational noise. We present the details of this experiment and the progress on it thus far.

  12. Grey matter volume and cortical structure in Prader-Willi syndrome compared to typically developing young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Manning

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS is a neurodevelopmental disorder of genomic imprinting, presenting with a characteristic overeating disorder, mild to moderate intellectual disability, and a variable range of social and behavioral difficulties. Consequently, widespread alterations in neural structure and developmental and maturational trajectory would be expected. To date, there have been few quantitative and systematic studies of brain morphology in PWS, although alterations of volume and of cortical organisation have been reported. This study aimed to investigate, in detail, the structure of grey matter and cortex in the brain in a sample of young adults with PWS in a well-matched case-controlled analysis. 20 young adults with PWS, aged 19–27 years, underwent multiparameter mapping magnetic resonance imaging sequences, from which measures of grey matter volume, cortical thickness and magnetisation transfer saturation, as a proxy measure of myelination, were examined. These variables were investigated in comparison to a control group of 40 typically developing young adults, matched for age and sex. A voxel-based morphometry analysis identified large and widespread bilateral clusters of both increased and decreased grey matter volume in the brain in PWS. In particular, widespread areas of increased volume encompassed parts of the prefrontal cortex, especially medially, the majority of the cingulate cortices, from anterior to posterior aspects, insula cortices, and areas of the parietal and temporal cortices. Increased volume was also reported in the caudate, putamen and thalamus. The most ventromedial prefrontal areas, in contrast, showed reduced volume, as did the parts of the medial temporal lobe, bilateral temporal poles, and a small cluster in the right lateral prefrontal cortex. Analysis of cortical structure revealed that areas of increased volume in the PWS group were largely driven by greater cortical thickness. Conversely, analysis of

  13. Grey matter volume and cortical structure in Prader-Willi syndrome compared to typically developing young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Katherine E; Tait, Roger; Suckling, John; Holland, Anthony J

    2018-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of genomic imprinting, presenting with a characteristic overeating disorder, mild to moderate intellectual disability, and a variable range of social and behavioral difficulties. Consequently, widespread alterations in neural structure and developmental and maturational trajectory would be expected. To date, there have been few quantitative and systematic studies of brain morphology in PWS, although alterations of volume and of cortical organisation have been reported. This study aimed to investigate, in detail, the structure of grey matter and cortex in the brain in a sample of young adults with PWS in a well-matched case-controlled analysis. 20 young adults with PWS, aged 19-27 years, underwent multiparameter mapping magnetic resonance imaging sequences, from which measures of grey matter volume, cortical thickness and magnetisation transfer saturation, as a proxy measure of myelination, were examined. These variables were investigated in comparison to a control group of 40 typically developing young adults, matched for age and sex. A voxel-based morphometry analysis identified large and widespread bilateral clusters of both increased and decreased grey matter volume in the brain in PWS. In particular, widespread areas of increased volume encompassed parts of the prefrontal cortex, especially medially, the majority of the cingulate cortices, from anterior to posterior aspects, insula cortices, and areas of the parietal and temporal cortices. Increased volume was also reported in the caudate, putamen and thalamus. The most ventromedial prefrontal areas, in contrast, showed reduced volume, as did the parts of the medial temporal lobe, bilateral temporal poles, and a small cluster in the right lateral prefrontal cortex. Analysis of cortical structure revealed that areas of increased volume in the PWS group were largely driven by greater cortical thickness. Conversely, analysis of myelin content using

  14. Role of neighbourhoods in child growth and development: does 'place' matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Kirkwood, Betty

    2010-07-01

    It is estimated that at least 200 million children--mostly from developing countries--suffer from developmental delays. The study aims to contribute to an understanding of the contextual environment in which a child grows and develops in such setup; and in particular to evaluate the relative contributions of socio-economic status and rural-urban neighbourhoods on growth and psychomotor development. A cross-sectional study was conducted from May to November 2002 in 15 rural and 11 urban communities of Sindh, Pakistan. 1,244 children aged less than 3 years were assessed via home visits using Bayley's Infant Developmental Scale for psychomotor development, anthropometry and a socio-economic and demographic questionnaire. A socio-economic index was created using principal component analysis, and the study hypotheses explored through hierarchical linear modelling. We found that sub-optimal growth and development were prevalent among the study's children. Overall the mean psychomotor development (PD) index was 96.0 (SD 16.7), with 23% assessed as having delayed development, and undernourished with 39.8% stunted, 30.9% underweight and 18.1% wasted. Lower socio-economic status and living in a rural rather than urban neighbourhood were all found to have strong associations with lower psychomotor scores and with undernutrition. Rural-urban differences in undernutrition were explained by the lower socio-economic status of families in rural areas. By contrast, rural-urban differences in psychomotor scores remained strong even after controlling for differences in socio-economic status. It was estimated that rural residence accounted for 28% of cases of delayed psychomotor development among study children. Improvements in socio-economic status are vital to achieve optimal growth and development during early childhood. The study draws attention to the importance of taking heed of contextual needs, especially relating to differences between rural and urban neighbourhoods, in the

  15. When does time matter? maternal employment, children's time with parents, and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsin, Amy; Felfe, Christina

    2014-10-01

    This study tests the two assumptions underlying popularly held notions that maternal employment negatively affects children because it reduces time spent with parents: (1) that maternal employment reduces children's time with parents, and (2) that time with parents affects child outcomes. We analyze children's time-diary data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and use child fixed-effects and IV estimations to account for unobserved heterogeneity. We find that working mothers trade quantity of time for better "quality" of time. On average, maternal work has no effect on time in activities that positively influence children's development, but it reduces time in types of activities that may be detrimental to children's development. Stratification by mothers' education reveals that although all children, regardless of mother's education, benefit from spending educational and structured time with their mothers, mothers who are high school graduates have the greatest difficulty balancing work and child care. We find some evidence that fathers compensate for maternal employment by increasing types of activities that can foster child development as well as types of activities that may be detrimental. Overall, we find that the effects of maternal employment are ambiguous because (1) employment does not necessarily reduce children's time with parents, and (2) not all types of parental time benefit child development.

  16. Do economic, financial and institutional developments matter for environmental degradation? Evidence from transitional economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamazian, Artur [School of Economics and Business Administration, University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bhaskara Rao, B. [School of Economics and Finance, University of Western Sydney, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    Several studies have examined the relationship between environmental degradation and economic growth. However, most of them did not take into account financial developments and institutional quality. Moreover, Stern [Stern, D., 2004. The rise and fall of the environmental Kuznets curve. World Development 32(8): 1419-1439.] noted that there are important econometric weaknesses in the earlier studies, such as endogeneity, heteroscedasticity, omitted variables, etc. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap in the literature by investigating the linkage between not only economic development and environmental quality but also financial development and institutional quality. We employ the standard reduced-form modelling approach to control for country-specific unobserved heterogeneity and GMM estimation to control for endogeneity. Our study considers 24 transition economies and panel data for 1993-2004. Our results support the EKC hypothesis while confirming the importance of both institutional quality and financial development for environmental performance. We also found that financial liberalization may be harmful for environmental quality if it is not accomplished in a strong institutional framework. (author)

  17. Family Income and Child Cognitive and Noncognitive Development in Australia: Does Money Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanam, Rasheda; Nghiem, Son

    2016-06-01

    This article investigates whether family income affects children's cognitive and noncognitive development by exploiting comprehensive information from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. We include variables that represent parental investment, parental stress, and neighborhood characteristics to examine if these factors mediate the effects of income. Using dynamic panel data, we find that family income is significantly associated with children's cognitive skills but not with noncognitive skills. Mother's education, parent's physical and mental health, parenting styles, child's own health, and presence of both biological parents are the most important factors for children's noncognitive development. For cognitive development, income as well as parents' education, child's birth weight, and number of books that children have at home are highly significant factors. We also find strong evidence to support the skill formation theory that children's previous cognitive and noncognitive outcomes are significantly related to their current outcomes.

  18. Fathers matter: The role of father parenting in preschoolers' executive function development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwissen, Alyssa S; Carlson, Stephanie M

    2015-12-01

    Although previous work has shown that mothers' parenting influences the development of child executive function (EF; important self-control skills developed during the preschool years), the role of fathers' parenting has not been thoroughly investigated. We observed fathers' autonomy support and control in dyadic play with their 3-year-old children (N pairs=110) and measured father and child EF independently with laboratory tasks. We found that fathers' controlling parenting was significantly inversely related to the child EF composite, above and beyond family income and child verbal ability. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fathers are important for the development of EF in their children and suggest that fathers should be included in both research and parenting interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fathers Matter: The Role of Father Autonomy Support and Control in Preschoolers' Executive Function Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwissen, Alyssa S.; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous work has shown that mothers' parenting influences the development of child executive function (important self-control skills developed in the preschool years) the role of fathers' parenting has not been thoroughly investigated. We observed fathers' autonomy support and control in dyadic play with their 3-year-old children (N pairs = 110), and measured father and child EF independently with laboratory tasks. We found that fathers' controlling parenting was significantly inversely related to the child EF composite, above and beyond family income and child verbal ability. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fathers are important for the development of EF in their children, and suggest fathers should be included in both research and parenting interventions. PMID:26209884

  20. Exploring the notion of a 'capability for uncertainty' and the implications for leader development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Bennett

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: With uncertainty increasingly defining organisational contexts, executive leaders need to develop their ‘capability for uncertainty’ – the ability to engage with uncertainty in their organisational context and to lead others, while simultaneously managing their own experience of uncertainty. However, what constitutes such a holistic ‘capability for uncertainty’ is not clear. Research purpose: The purpose was to gain an understanding of what constitutes a capability for uncertainty. Motivation for the study: Gaining an understanding of what components constitute leaders’ capability for uncertainty would provide a basis for determining what interventions would be relevant for developing leaders towards achieving such a capability. Research approach, design and method: An interpretive qualitative approach was adopted, using interpretative phenomenological analysis to gain an understanding of what capability executive leaders developed through their lived experience of uncertainty. Two purposive samples of six executive leaders from two different South African companies (a private company and a state-owned company, which had both been experiencing long-term organisational uncertainty prior to and up to the time of the study, were used. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Main findings: The executives all developed their capability for uncertainty through lived experiences of uncertainty, to a greater or lesser extent. Five components were identified as constituting a holistic capability for uncertainty, as follows: a sense of positive identity, an acceptance of uncertainty, effective sense-making, learning agility and relevant leadership practices during organisational uncertainty. Practical/managerial implications: Organisations need to target and design leader development interventions to specifically develop these components of a holistic capability for uncertainty in executives and leaders, enabling

  1. Weaning stress and gastrointestinal barrier development: Implications for lifelong gut health in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Moeser

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI barrier serves a critical role in survival and overall health of animals and humans. Several layers of barrier defense mechanisms are provided by the epithelial, immune and enteric nervous systems. Together they act in concert to control normal gut functions (e.g., digestion, absorption, secretion, immunity, etc. whereas at the same time provide a barrier from the hostile conditions in the luminal environment. Breakdown of these critical GI functions is a central pathophysiological mechanism in the most serious GI disorders in pigs. This review will focus on the development and functional properties of the GI barrier in pigs and how common early life production stressors, such as weaning, can alter immediate and long-term barrier function and disease susceptibility. Specific stress-related pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for driving GI barrier dysfunction induced by weaning and the implications to animal health and performance will be discussed.

  2. Developments in National Fuel Alcohol (biofuel) Programs: implications for world sugar trade. Rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This paper focuses on developments in the national fuel alcohol programmes of Brazil, the European Union and USA with the main emphasis on Brazil. A brief history of Brazil's alcohol production is given, and the deregulation of the alcohol sector in Brazil, the impacts of partial liberalisation of Brazil's alcohol sector, government delays in further liberalisation and attempts to manage supply, the PROALCOOL programme, the government's actions to boost ethanol demand, the slump in ethanol output in 1998/1999, and the increase in sugar output are examined. The long term goal of increasing reliance on biofuels in the European Union, the EU's alcohol industry, and ethanol production in France are considered. Market factors affecting ethanol production in the US, the US government's extension of its ethanol tax incentive, the US ethanol sector, and the future demand for ethanol in the US are discussed. The short and medium-term implications for sugar in Brazil, the EU and the US are assessed. (UK)

  3. Experience as Knowledge in a New Product Development Team: Implications for Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lynne P.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to better understand how New Product Development (NPD) team members apply their experiences to meet the task needs of their project. Although "experience" is highly valued in team members, little research has looked specifically at experiences as a type of knowledge, and how this knowledge is used in work settings. This research evaluated nearly 200 instances where team members referenced past experiences during team meetings. During these experience exchanges, team members structured the sharing of their experiences to include three common elements: the source of the experience, the nature of the experience, and the degree of relevance to the current work of the team. The experiences fell into four categories: people (relationships), process, product, and politics. This paper describes how team members structured, applied, and integrated their individual experiences and presents the resulting implications for knowledge management systems that wish to exploit experience knowledge.

  4. Uranium resources and their implications for fission breeder and fusion hybrid development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Max, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    Present estimates of uranium resources and reserves in the US and the non-Communist world are reviewed. The resulting implications are considered for two proposed breeder technologies: the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) and the fusion hybrid reactor. Using both simple arguments and detailed scenarios from the published literature, conditions are explored under which the LMFBR and fusion hybrid could respectively have the most impact, considering both fuel-supply and economic factors. The conclusions emphasize strong potential advantages of the fusion hybrid, due to its inherently large breeding rate. A discussion is presented of proposed US development strategies for the fusion hybrid, which at present is far behind the LMFBR in its practical application and maturity

  5. The clean development mechanism (CDM) an international perspective and implications for the LAC region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    This paper addresses activity a) an analysis of international CDM experiences and its potential contribution to the LAC region. The paper begins with a section describing the basic principles of the CDM and retrieves the lessons learned from the first two years of the CDM operation. This is followed by a more detailed review in section 2 of the on-going baseline and monitoring methodology approval process. In section 3, the development value of the CDM is explored. Section 4 describes the current CDM markets, while section 5 reviews the response of host countries to the CDM outside the LAC region. Section 6 describes the various capacity building programs established by Annex 1 countries to support the CDM. In each of the first 6 sections, implications for the LAC region are identified. Section 7 brings these conclusions together into a concise summary. (The author)

  6. Brook trout distributional response to unconventional oil and gas development: Landscape context matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Eric R.; Petty, J. Todd; Maloney, Kelly O.; Young, John A.; Faulkner, Stephen; Slonecker, Terry; Milheim, Lesley E.; Hailegiorgis, Atesmachew; Niles, Jonathan M.

    2018-01-01

    We conducted a large-scale assessment of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development effects on brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) distribution. We compiled 2231 brook trout collection records from the Upper Susquehanna River Watershed, USA. We used boosted regression tree (BRT) analysis to predict occurrence probability at the 1:24,000 stream-segment scale as a function of natural and anthropogenic landscape and climatic attributes. We then evaluated the importance of landscape context (i.e., pre-existing natural habitat quality and anthropogenic degradation) in modulating the effects of UOG on brook trout distribution under UOG development scenarios. BRT made use of 5 anthropogenic (28% relative influence) and 7 natural (72% relative influence) variables to model occurrence with a high degree of accuracy [Area Under the Receiver Operating Curve (AUC) = 0.85 and cross-validated AUC = 0.81]. UOG development impacted 11% (n = 2784) of streams and resulted in a loss of predicted occurrence in 126 (4%). Most streams impacted by UOG had unsuitable underlying natural habitat quality (n = 1220; 44%). Brook trout were predicted to be absent from an additional 26% (n = 733) of streams due to pre-existing non-UOG land uses (i.e., agriculture, residential and commercial development, or historic mining). Streams with a predicted and observed (via existing pre- and post-disturbance fish sampling records) loss of occurrence due to UOG tended to have intermediate natural habitat quality and/or intermediate levels of non-UOG stress. Simulated development of permitted but undeveloped UOG wells (n = 943) resulted in a loss of predicted occurrence in 27 additional streams. Loss of occurrence was strongly dependent upon landscape context, suggesting effects of current and future UOG development are likely most relevant in streams near the probability threshold due to pre-existing habitat degradation.

  7. Biologic interactions between HSV-2 and HIV-1 and possible implications for HSV vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Joshua T; Gottlieb, Sami L

    2017-09-25

    Development of a safe and effective vaccine against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) has the potential to limit the global burden of HSV-2 infection and disease, including genital ulcer disease and neonatal herpes, and is a global sexual and reproductive health priority. Another important potential benefit of an HSV-2 vaccine would be to decrease HIV infections, as HSV-2 increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition several-fold. Acute and chronic HSV-2 infection creates ulcerations and draws dendritic cells and activated CD4+ T cells into genital mucosa. These cells are targets for HIV entry and replication. Prophylactic HSV-2 vaccines (to prevent infection) and therapeutic vaccines (to modify or treat existing infections) are currently under development. By preventing or modifying infection, an effective HSV-2 vaccine could limit HSV-associated genital mucosal inflammation and thus HIV risk. However, a vaccine might have competing effects on HIV risk depending on its mechanism of action and cell populations generated in the genital mucosa. In this article, we review biologic interactions between HSV-2 and HIV-1, consider HSV-2 vaccine development in the context of HIV risk, and discuss implications and research needs for future HSV vaccine development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Water Demand of Energy: Implications for Sustainable Energy Policy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Madani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available With energy security, climate change mitigation, and sustainable development as three main motives, global energy policies have evolved, now asking for higher shares of renewable energies, shale oil and gas resources in the global energy supply portfolios. Yet, concerns have recently been raised about the environmental impacts of the renewable energy development, supported by many governments around the world. For example, governmental ethanol subsidies and mandates in the U.S. are aimed to increase the biofuel supply while the water footprint of this type of energy might be 70–400 times higher than the water footprint of conventional fossil energy sources. Hydrofracking, as another example, has been recognized as a high water-intensive procedure that impacts the surface and ground water in both quality and quantity. Hence, monitoring the water footprint of the energy mix is significantly important and could have implications for energy policy development. This paper estimates the water footprint of current and projected global energy policies, based on the energy production and consumption scenarios, developed by the International Energy Outlook of the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The outcomes reveal the amount of water required for total energy production in the world will increase by 37%–66% during the next two decades, requiring extensive improvements in water use efficiency of the existing energy production technologies, especially renewables.

  9. Phloem development in nematode-induced feeding sites: The implications of auxin and cytokinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit eAbsmanner

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary plant parasitic nematodes such as root-knot nematodes and cyst nematodes induce giant cells or syncytia, respectively, in their host plant’s roots. These highly specialized structures serve as feeding sites from which exclusively the nematodes withdraw nutrients. While giant cells are symplastically isolated and obtain assimilates by transporter-mediated processes syncytia are massively connected to the phloem by plasmodesmata. To support the feeding sites and the nematode during their development, phloem is induced around syncytia and giant cells. In the case of syncytia the unloading phloem consists of sieve elements and companion cells and in the case of root knots it consists exclusively of sieve elements. We applied immunohistochemistry to identify the cells within the developing phloem that responded to auxin and cytokinin. Both feeding sites themselves did not respond to either hormone. We were able to show that in root knots an auxin response precedes the differentiation of these auxin responsive cells into phloem elements. This process appears to be independent of B-type Arabidopsis response regulators. Using additional markers for tissue identity we provide evidence that around giant cells protophloem is formed and proliferates dramatically. In contrast, the phloem around syncytia responded to both hormones. The presence of companion cells as well as hormone-responsive sieve elements suggests that metaphloem development occurs. The implication of auxin and cytokinin in the further development of the metaphloem is discussed.

  10. Type of iconicity matters in the vocabulary development of signing children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortega, G.; Sümer, B.; Özyürek, A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent research on signed as well as spoken language shows that the iconic features of the target language might play a role in language development. Here, we ask further whether different types of iconic depictions modulate children's preferences for certain types of sign-referent links during

  11. Work-related learning and skill development in Europe: Does initial skill mismatch matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira Sequeda, Maria; Künn-Nelen, Annemarie; de Grip, Andries

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides more insight into the assumption of human capital theory that the productivity of job-related training is driven by the improvement of workers’ skills. We analyze the extent to which training and informal learning on the job are related to employee skill development and consider

  12. Why does site visit matter in global software development: A knowledge-based perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Mansooreh; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Context: Face-to-Face (F2F) interaction is a strong means to foster social relationships and effective knowledge sharing within a team. However, communication in Global Software Development (GSD) teams is usually restricted to computer-mediated conversation that is perceived to be less effective...

  13. Measurements Matter: Taking the DIT-2 Multiple Times and College Students' Moral Reasoning Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Matthew J.; Pascarella, Ernest T.; Trolian, Teniell; Selznick, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine differences between undergraduate students who had multiple exposures to an assessment of moral reasoning development (DIT-2) and students of the same cohort who had fewer exposures to the same assessment. Controlling for a host of individual covariates, the analysis determined that students who took the…

  14. Impaired dynamic cerebrovascular response to hypercapnia predicts development of white matter hyperintensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Sam

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Vascular impairment in regions of NAWM that progresses to WMH consists not only of decreased magnitude of ssCVR, but also a pathological decrease in the speed of vascular response. These findings support the association between cerebrovascular dysregulation and the development of WMH.

  15. Migrants' capacity as actors of development : do skills matter for economic and social remittances?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturge, Georgina; Bilgili, Özge; Siegel, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Highly skilled migrants are presumably in a better position than less skilled ones to contribute to development in their countries of origin, largely by way of economic and social remittances. In this article, we use unique data on first-generation migrants in the Netherlands to test how economic

  16. Prosody teaching matters in developing speaking skills for Farsi-English interpreter trainees : An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yenkimaleki, M.; V.J., van Heuven

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of explicit teaching of prosody on developing speaking skills for Farsi-English interpreter trainees. Two groups of student interpreters were formed. All were native speakers of Farsi who studied English translation and interpreting at the BA level at

  17. Context Matters in Educational Research and International Development: Learning from the Small States Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The article argues that greater attention should be paid to contextual factors in educational research and international development cooperation. The analysis draws upon principles that underpin socio-cultural approaches to comparative education, a critical analysis of the political economy of contemporary educational research, and recent research…

  18. Contexts That Matter to the Leadership Development of Latino Male College Students: A Mixed Methods Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gina A.; Huerta, Adrian H.; Ramirez, Jenesis J.; Patrón, Oscar E.

    2017-01-01

    As the number of Latino males entering college increases, there is a need to understand their unique leadership experiences. This study used a convergent parallel mixed methods design to understand what contexts contribute to Latino male undergraduate students' leadership development, capacity, and experiences. Quantitative data were gathered by…

  19. Faith Matters: Developing the Our Whole Lives Evaluation and Promotion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of faith-based organizations implementing comprehensive sexuality education into their ministries, including a review of a study of 5,819 religious teens by Christian Community Inc., a nonprofit research and resource development organization. The study by Christian Community Inc. had a major impact in the…

  20. Development of Test Items Related to Selected Concepts Within the Scheme the Particle Nature of Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Rodney L.; Pella, Milton O.

    The purpose of this study was to develop tests items with a minimum reading demand for use with pupils at grade levels two through six. An item was judged to be acceptable if the item satisfied at least four of six criteria. Approximately 250 students in grades 2-6 participated in the study. Half of the students were given instruction to develop…

  1. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  2. Supplier integration in product development: A matter of designing the project structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Danilovic

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In product development close collaboration between systems integrators and suppliers is important. The purpose of this article is to investigate the impact of the work breakdown structure (WBS and work packages (WPs in product development on the possibility of carrying through the strategy of supplier involvement into collaborative practice and to investigate how supplier involvement can be improved by altering the design of collaborative WBS and WP structures. Dependence Structure Matrix (DSM is introduced in order to analyse, visualise and manage interdependencies, in terms of information exchange between the systems integrator and supplier. This article shows how DSM can support the alternative design of integrated and collaborative WBS and integrated WPs following the logic of dependencies and the flow of information in order to support a strategy focusing on integration of suppliers on project and team level.

  3. External Shocks and Banking Crises in Developing Countries: Does the Exchange Rate Regime Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Chandima Mendis

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines some determinants of banking crises in developing economies. Specifically, the effects of terms of trade shocks and capital flows are analyzed. The choice of the nominal exchange rate regime is found to be a crucial factor in the way various shocks are transmitted through the monetary sector. A logit model is used on panel data and preliminary results indicate that countries with flexible regimes were able to lessen the impact of external shocks on the domestic economy. Th...

  4. Incidence and mortality of kidney cancers, and human development index in Asia; a matter of concern

    OpenAIRE

    Arabsalmani, Masoumeh; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Hadadian, Fatemeh; Towhidi, Farhad; Vafaee, Kamran; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence and mortality of kidney cancer have steadily increased by 2%- 3% per decade worldwide, and an increased risk of kidney cancer has been observed in many Asian countries. The information on the incidence and mortality of a disease and its distribution is essential for better planning for prevention and further studies. Objectives This study aimed to assess the incidence and mortality of kidney cancer and their correlation with the human development index (HDI) in Asia. ...

  5. Pay Matters: The Piece Rate and Health in the Developing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mary E

    Piece rate pay remains a common form of compensation in developing-world industries. While the piece rate may boost productivity, it has been shown to have unintended consequences for occupational safety and health, including increased accident and injury risk. This paper explores the relationship between worker pay and physical and emotional health, and questions the modern day business case for piece rate pay in the developing world. The relationship between piece rate and self-reported measures of physical and emotional health is estimated using a large survey of garment workers in 109 Vietnamese factories between 2010 and 2014. A random effects logit model controls for factory and year, predicting worker health as a function of pay type, demographics, and factory characteristics. Workers paid by the piece report worse physical and emotional health than workers paid by the hour (OR = 1.38-1.81). Wage incentives provide the most consistently significant evidence of all demographic and factory-level variables, including the factory's own performance on occupational safety and health compliance measures. These results highlight the importance of how workers are paid to understanding the variability in worker health outcomes. More research is needed to better understand the business case supporting the continued use of piece rate pay in the developing world. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A matter of interpretation: developing primary pupils' enquiry skills using position-linked datalogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Daniel John; Collier, Christopher; Howe, Alan

    2012-11-01

    Background: This article reports on an evaluation study of a project seeking to develop the use of position-linked datalogging with primary pupils in environmental science contexts. Purpose: The study sought to find out the extent to which the project had developed: (1) participant teachers' confidence in using datalogging as an everyday part of their science teaching; (2) pupils' abilities to collect and interpret relevant environmental monitoring data; and (3) the use of scientific data within environmental education in the project schools. Programme description: The project used software which integrates data from Global Positioning System (GPS) with sensor data collected outdoors to produce Google Earth visualisations of environmental quality in each school's locality. Sample: Phase 1 involved 10 primary schools in the South West of England (2008-9), and phase 2 was implemented in six primary schools in Greater London during 2010. All pupils in the 9-10-year-old age range participated to some extent (N ≈ 450) and each school identified a focus group of between two and four pupils (n = 38) together with two members of staff (n = 32) to be more closely involved in the project. Design and methods: The evaluation adopted a multi-method approach, drawing upon documentary sources (n = 40); observations of continuing professional development (CPD) cluster days (n = 8) and dissemination events (June 2009 and January 2011): baseline pupil assessment tasks (n = 291) and teachers' baseline questionnaire (n = 25) in September 2008 and March 2010; classroom observations; samples of pupil work (n = 31); end-of-project pupil assessment (n = 38) and teachers' and pupils' responses to the project (n ≈ 180) in June 2009 and December 2010; and a longitudinal evaluation in February 2012. Results: Datalogging had become a regular feature of practical science in nearly all project schools up to 30 months after the end of the project, but the use of position-linked logging had

  7. The National Health Service Knowledge and Skills Framework and its implications for continuing professional development in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Dinah; Berridge, Emma-Jane; Kelly, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The National Health Service Knowledge and Skills Framework has been introduced as part of the Agenda for Change Reforms in the United Kingdom to link pay and career progression to competency. The purpose of this paper is to consider the implications for nurses, their managers and the impact on university departments delivering continuing professional development for nurses. The new system has the potential to increase the human resources management aspect of the clinical nurse managers' role and could have legal implications, for example if practitioners perceive that their needs for continuing professional development have been overlooked to the detriment of their pay and career aspirations. The new system also has implications for providers of continuing professional development in the universities and is likely to demand closer liaison between education providers and trust staff who commission education and training. The Knowledge and Skills Framework is of interest to nurses and nurse educators internationally because the system, if effective, could be introduced elsewhere.

  8. Robust Water Supply Infrastructure Development Pathways: What, When and Where Matters the Most? (INVITED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Patrick; Zeff, Harrison; Characklis, Gregory

    2017-04-01

    Water supply adaptation frameworks that seek robustness must adaptively trigger actions that are contextually appropriate to emerging system observations and avoid long term high regret lock-ins. As an example, emerging water scarcity concerns in southeastern United States are associated with several deeply uncertain factors, including rapid population growth, limited coordination across adjacent municipalities and the increasing risks for sustained regional droughts. Managing these uncertainties will require that regional water utilities identify regionally coordinated, scarcity-mitigating infrastructure development pathways that trigger time appropriate actions. Mistakes can lead to water shortages, overbuilt stranded assets and possibly financial failures. This presentation uses the Research Triangle area of North Carolina to illustrate the key concerns and challenges that emerged when helping Raleigh, Durham, Cary and Chapel Hill develop their long term water supply infrastructure pathways through 2060. This example shows how the region's water utilities' long term infrastructure pathways are strongly shaped by their short term conservation policies (i.e., reacting to evolving demands) and their ability to consider regional water transfers (i.e., reacting to supply imbalances). Cooperatively developed, shared investments across the four municipalities expand their capacity to use short term transfers to better manage severe droughts with fewer investments in irreversible infrastructure options. Cooperative pathways are also important for avoiding regional robustness conflicts, where one party benefits strongly at the expense of one or more the others. A significant innovation of this work is the exploitation of weekly and annual dynamic risk-of-failure action triggers that exploit evolving feedbacks between co-evolving human demands and regional supplies. These dynamic action triggers provide high levels of adaptivity, tailor actions to their specific context

  9. Harmonizing DTI measurements across scanners to examine the development of white matter microstructure in 803 adolescents of the NCANDA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Kilian M; Sullivan, Edith V; Rohlfing, Torsten; Chu, Weiwei; Kwon, Dongjin; Nichols, B Nolan; Zhang, Yong; Brown, Sandra A; Tapert, Susan F; Cummins, Kevin; Thompson, Wesley K; Brumback, Ty; Colrain, Ian M; Baker, Fiona C; Prouty, Devin; De Bellis, Michael D; Voyvodic, James T; Clark, Duncan B; Schirda, Claudiu; Nagel, Bonnie J; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2016-04-15

    Neurodevelopment continues through adolescence, with notable maturation of white matter tracts comprising regional fiber systems progressing at different rates. To identify factors that could contribute to regional differences in white matter microstructure development, large samples of youth spanning adolescence to young adulthood are essential to parse these factors. Recruitment of adequate samples generally relies on multi-site consortia but comes with the challenge of merging data acquired on different platforms. In the current study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were acquired on GE and Siemens systems through the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA), a multi-site study designed to track the trajectories of regional brain development during a time of high risk for initiating alcohol consumption. This cross-sectional analysis reports baseline Tract-Based Spatial Statistic (TBSS) of regional fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (L1), and radial diffusivity (LT) from the five consortium sites on 671 adolescents who met no/low alcohol or drug consumption criteria and 132 adolescents with a history of exceeding consumption criteria. Harmonization of DTI metrics across manufacturers entailed the use of human-phantom data, acquired multiple times on each of three non-NCANDA participants at each site's MR system, to determine a manufacturer-specific correction factor. Application of the correction factor derived from human phantom data measured on MR systems from different manufacturers reduced the standard deviation of the DTI metrics for FA by almost a half, enabling harmonization of data that would have otherwise carried systematic error. Permutation testing supported the hypothesis of higher FA and lower diffusivity measures in older adolescents and indicated that, overall, the FA, MD, and L1 of the boys were higher than those of the girls, suggesting continued microstructural development

  10. Accelerated Urban Expansion in Lhasa City and the Implications for Sustainable Development in a Plateau City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Tang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization challenges regional sustainable development, but a slight expansion mechanism was revealed in a plateau city. We have integrated the urban expansion process and analyzed its determinants in Lhasa (Tibet, and we provide insightful suggestions for urban management and planning for Lhasa. The full continuum of the urban expansion process has been captured using time-series of high-resolution remote sensing data (1990–2015. Four categories of potential determinants involved in economic, demographic, social, and government policy factors were selected, and redundancy analysis was employed to define the contribution rates of these determinants. The results illustrate that considerable urban expansion occurred from 1990 to 2015 in Lhasa, with the area of construction land and transportation land increasing at rates of 117.2% and 564.7%, respectively. The urban expansion in the center of Lhasa can be characterized as temperate sprawl from 1990 through 2008, primarily explained by governmental policies and investment, economic development, tourist growth, and increased governmental investment resulting in faster urban expansion from 2008 to 2015, mainly occurring in the east, south, and west of Lhasa. In contrast with other cities of China, central government investment and “pairing-up support” projects have played an important role in infrastructure construction in Lhasa. The miraculous development of the tourism industry had prominent effects on this economic development and urbanization after 2006, due to the running of the Tibetan Railway. An integrative and proactive policy framework, the “Lhasa development model”, having important theoretical, methodological, and management implications for urban planning and development, has been proposed.

  11. Bank regulation and financial fragility in developing countries: Does bank structure matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Klomp

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using data for 1238 banks located in 94 developing and emerging countries, we explore whether the impact of bank regulation and supervision on banking risk (measured by the banks’ Z-scores depends on bank structure. Our findings suggest that stricter regulation and supervision increases the banks’ Z-scores. Notably capital requirements and supervisory control diminish banking risk. However, the effectiveness of other dimensions of regulation and supervision depends on the organizational structure of banks. Notably activity restrictions reduce risk of large and foreign owned banks, while liquidity restrictions have most effect on the Z-scores of unlisted and commercial banks.

  12. Energy implications of Indian economic development: decade of 1960--70 and after

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diwan, R.

    India is generally known as a poor, overpopulated, and underdeveloped country. Its per capita income, even in 1976-77, is less than 100 U.S. dollars. In the 1971 census India's population was estimated at 550 million, or approximately 15% of the world population. It is projected that the 1976 Indian population is close to 600 million. Its government has been making major efforts attacking the problem of underdevelopment; in these efforts it is assumed that once the country is developed, the twin problems of poverty and overpopulation also will be solved. To remove underdevelopment, India has instituted the mechanism of five-year plans which are an attempt in generating a development process. In this paper the energy implications of this development process are analyzed during the last decade of 1960-1970. Even though changes have taken place in the years 1970-1976, they are not fundamentally or structurally different from the trends established in the ten-year span under study.

  13. Visualizing the future: technology competency development in clinical medicine, and implications for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Malathi; Keenan, Craig R; Yager, Joel

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors ask three questions. First, what will physicians need to know in order to be effective in the future? Second, what role will technology play in achieving that high level of effectiveness? Third, what specific skill sets will physicians need to master in order to become effective? Through three case vignettes describing past, present, and potential future medical practices, the authors identify trends in major medical, technological and cultural shifts that will shape medical education and practice. From these cases, the authors generate a series of technology-related competencies and skill sets that physicians will need to remain leaders in the delivery of medical care. Physicians will choose how they will be end-users of technology, technology developers, and/or the interface between users and developers. These choices will guide the types of skills each physician will need to acquire. Finally, the authors explore the implications of these trends for medical educators, including the competencies that will be required of educators as they develop the medical curriculum. Examining historical and social trends, including how users adopt current and emerging technologies, allows us to anticipate changes in the practice of medicine. By considering market pressures, global trends and emerging technologies, medical educators and practicing physicians may prepare themselves for the changes likely to occur in the medical curriculum and in the marketplace.

  14. Complexity of Human Antibody Response to Dengue Virus: Implication for Vaccine Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Yang; Lin, Hong-En; Wang, Wei-Kung

    2017-01-01

    The four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) are the leading cause of arboviral diseases in humans. Decades of efforts have made remarkable progress in dengue vaccine development. Despite the first dengue vaccine (dengvaxia from Sanofi Pasteur), a live-attenuated tetravalent chimeric yellow fever-dengue vaccine, has been licensed by several countries since 2016, its overall moderate efficacy (56.5-60.8%) in the presence of neutralizing antibodies during the Phase 2b and 3 trials, lower efficacy among dengue naïve compared with dengue experienced individuals, and increased risk of hospitalization among young children during the follow-up highlight the need for a better understanding of humoral responses after natural DENV infection. Recent studies of more than 300 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against DENV have led to the discovery of several novel epitopes on the envelope protein recognized by potent neutralizing mAbs. This information together with in-depth studies on polyclonal sera and B-cells following natural DENV infection has tremendous implications for better immunogen design for a safe and effective dengue vaccine. This review outlines the progress in our understanding of mouse mAbs, human mAbs, and polyclonal sera against DENV envelope and precursor membrane proteins, two surface proteins involved in vaccine development, following natural infection; analyses of these discoveries have provided valuable insight into new strategies involving molecular technology to induce more potent neutralizing antibodies and less enhancing antibodies for next-generation dengue vaccine development.

  15. Immune responses at brain barriers and implications for brain development and neurological function in later life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen B. Stolp

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For a long time the brain has been considered an immune-privileged site due to a muted inflammatory response and the presence of protective brain barriers. It is now recognised that neuroinflammation may play an important role in almost all neurological disorders and that the brain barriers may be contributing through either normal immune signalling, or disruption of their basic physiological mechanisms. The distinction between normal function and dysfunction at the barriers is difficult to dissect, partly due to a lack of understanding of normal barrier function and partly because of physiological changes that occur as part of normal development and ageing. Brain barriers consist of a number of interacting structural and physiological elements including tight junctions between adjacent barrier cells and an array of influx and efflux transporters. Despite these protective mechanisms, the capacity for immune-surveillance of the brain is maintained, and there is evidence of inflammatory signalling at the brain barriers that may be an important part of the body’s response to damage or infection. This signalling system appears to change both with normal ageing, and during disease. Changes may affect diapedesis of immune cells and active molecular transfer, or cause rearrangement of the tight junctions and an increase in passive permeability across barrier interfaces. Here we review the many elements that contribute to brain barrier functions and how they respond to inflammation, particularly during development and aging. The implications of inflammation–induced barrier dysfunction for brain development and subsequent neurological function are also discussed.

  16. Estrogen and progesterone signalling in the normal breast and its implications for cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Heidi N; Clarke, Christine L; Graham, J Dinny

    2018-05-05

    The ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone are master regulators of the development and function of a broad spectrum of human tissues, including the breast, reproductive and cardiovascular systems, brain and bone. Acting through the nuclear estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR), both play complex and essential coordinated roles in the extensive development of the lobular alveolar epithelial structures of the normal breast during puberty, the normal menstrual cycle and pregnancy. The past decade has seen major advances in understanding the mechanisms of action of estrogen and progesterone in the normal breast and in the delineation of the complex hierarchy of cell types regulated by ovarian hormones in this tissue. There is evidence for a role for both ER and PR in driving breast cancer, and both are favourable prognostic markers with respect to outcome. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the mechanisms of action of ER and PR in the normal breast, and implications for the development and management of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Epigenetic Matters: The Link between Early Nutrition, Microbiome, and Long-term Health Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Indrio

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications are among the most important mechanisms by which environmental factors can influence early cellular differentiation and create new phenotypic traits during pregnancy and within the neonatal period without altering the deoxyribonucleic acid sequence. A number of antenatal and postnatal factors, such as maternal and neonatal nutrition, pollutant exposure, and the composition of microbiota, contribute to the establishment of epigenetic changes that can not only modulate the individual adaptation to the environment but also have an influence on lifelong health and disease by modifying inflammatory molecular pathways and the immune response. Postnatal intestinal colonization, in turn determined by maternal flora, mode of delivery, early skin-to-skin contact and neonatal diet, leads to specific epigenetic signatures that can affect the barrier properties of gut mucosa and their protective role against later insults, thus potentially predisposing to the development of late-onset inflammatory diseases. The aim of this review is to outline the epigenetic mechanisms of programming and development acting within early-life stages and to examine in detail the role of maternal and neonatal nutrition, microbiota composition, and other environmental factors in determining epigenetic changes and their short- and long-term effects.

  18. Leader evaluation and team cohesiveness in the process of team development: A matter of gender?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Rovira-Asenjo

    Full Text Available Leadership positions are still stereotyped as masculine, especially in male-dominated fields (e.g., engineering. So how do gender stereotypes affect the evaluation of leaders and team cohesiveness in the process of team development? In our study participants worked in 45 small teams (4-5 members. Each team was headed by either a female or male leader, so that 45 leaders (33% women supervised 258 team members (39% women. Over a period of nine months, the teams developed specific engineering projects as part of their professional undergraduate training. We examined leaders' self-evaluation, their evaluation by team members, and team cohesiveness at two points of time (month three and month nine, the final month of the collaboration. While we did not find any gender differences in leaders' self-evaluation at the beginning, female leaders evaluated themselves more favorably than men at the end of the projects. Moreover, female leaders were evaluated more favorably than male leaders at the beginning of the project, but the evaluation by team members did not differ at the end of the projects. Finally, we found a tendency for female leaders to build more cohesive teams than male leaders.

  19. Leader evaluation and team cohesiveness in the process of team development: A matter of gender?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczesny, Sabine; Gumí, Tània; Guimerà, Roger; Sales-Pardo, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Leadership positions are still stereotyped as masculine, especially in male-dominated fields (e.g., engineering). So how do gender stereotypes affect the evaluation of leaders and team cohesiveness in the process of team development? In our study participants worked in 45 small teams (4–5 members). Each team was headed by either a female or male leader, so that 45 leaders (33% women) supervised 258 team members (39% women). Over a period of nine months, the teams developed specific engineering projects as part of their professional undergraduate training. We examined leaders’ self-evaluation, their evaluation by team members, and team cohesiveness at two points of time (month three and month nine, the final month of the collaboration). While we did not find any gender differences in leaders’ self-evaluation at the beginning, female leaders evaluated themselves more favorably than men at the end of the projects. Moreover, female leaders were evaluated more favorably than male leaders at the beginning of the project, but the evaluation by team members did not differ at the end of the projects. Finally, we found a tendency for female leaders to build more cohesive teams than male leaders. PMID:29059231

  20. Epigenetic Matters: The Link between Early Nutrition, Microbiome, and Long-term Health Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrio, Flavia; Martini, Silvia; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Corvaglia, Luigi; Cristofori, Fernanda; Mastrolia, Salvatore Andrea; Neu, Josef; Rautava, Samuli; Russo Spena, Giovanna; Raimondi, Francesco; Loverro, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications are among the most important mechanisms by which environmental factors can influence early cellular differentiation and create new phenotypic traits during pregnancy and within the neonatal period without altering the deoxyribonucleic acid sequence. A number of antenatal and postnatal factors, such as maternal and neonatal nutrition, pollutant exposure, and the composition of microbiota, contribute to the establishment of epigenetic changes that can not only modulate the individual adaptation to the environment but also have an influence on lifelong health and disease by modifying inflammatory molecular pathways and the immune response. Postnatal intestinal colonization, in turn determined by maternal flora, mode of delivery, early skin-to-skin contact and neonatal diet, leads to specific epigenetic signatures that can affect the barrier properties of gut mucosa and their protective role against later insults, thus potentially predisposing to the development of late-onset inflammatory diseases. The aim of this review is to outline the epigenetic mechanisms of programming and development acting within early-life stages and to examine in detail the role of maternal and neonatal nutrition, microbiota composition, and other environmental factors in determining epigenetic changes and their short- and long-term effects. PMID:28879172

  1. Speech Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina

    2011-01-01

    About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....

  2. Memory Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Memory Matters KidsHealth / For Kids / Memory Matters What's in ... of your complex and multitalented brain. What Is Memory? When an event happens, when you learn something, ...

  3. Fish egg predation by Baltic sprat and herring: do species characteristics and development stage matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Eero, Margit

    2017-01-01

    Predation of eggs by clupeids has been identified as a major factor contributing to early life stage mortality of Baltic cod. We used data from ichthyoplankton sampling and clupeid stomach analyses to investigate whether eggs of other fish species are to a similar extent subject to predation...... generally negatively selected by both predators, while fish eggs were non-selectively consumed in summer. Predation is suggested to account for a large fraction of mortality of cod eggs at older stages, i.e. those eggs, which have survived the often detrimentally low oxygen concentration in and below...... the permanent halocline. The consumption rates of sprat eggs at all development stages relative to production rates were considerably lower compared to cod, suggesting that egg predation is of lesser importance for sprat recruitment....

  4. Development of decontamination system for radioactive matter on paved road using dry ice blast method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamine, Haruo; Wakayama, Masanori; Nakamura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    As a decontamination method for paved road surface, the 'Dry Ice Blast Decontamination System' has been developed. This decontamination system has characteristic as follows; 1) Generation of decontamination waste is extremely small, 2) not using water, 3) not damaging the pavement surface. In actual decontamination work, more than 60% average (maximum 84%) reduction rate of the radiation counting rate has been achieved. In addition to these features, this system prevent the diffusion into the surrounding and the radiation exposure of workers by sucking waste quickly using attached dust collecting function. This system is also characterized in that it does not cause a difference in skill by the operator because of faceted decontamination using repetitive motion by concatenating three pellet injection nozzle and self-propelled decontamination machine. (author)

  5. Developing a curriculum for training nuclear protective force persons in legal matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a curriculum for the training of security officers involves the integration of the importance of the subject, the difficulty of the subject and a consideration of the time available for the lecture. The importance of the subject is regarded as a combination of 1) the frequency the officer will need to use the material in the field and 2) the possible consequences of the officer not being well trained in the subject. The result of these considerations is a recommended seven-hour curriculum consisting of three hours of instruction on 1) the law of arrest, search and seizure, 2) one hour of instruction on the use of force, 3) two hours of instruction on the scope of legal authority and 4) one hour of instruction on civil liability

  6. Does economic, financial and institutional developments matter for environmental quality? A comparative analysis of EU and MEA countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Mehdi

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) with a sample of 58 MEA (Middle East & African) and 41 EU (European Union) countries for the period 1990 to 2011. The empirical analysis is carried out using the GMM-system method to solve the problem of endogenous variables. We focused on direct and indirect effects of institutional quality (through the efficiency of public expenditure, financial development, trade openness and foreign direct investment) and the income-emission relationship. We found a monotonically increasing relationship between CO 2 emissions and GDP in both MEA and EU regions. The policy implication is clear: in order to have sustainable positive economic performance and to reduce carbon dioxide emission in the country at the same time, policy makers should regulate and enhance the role and efficiency of domestic institutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Incidence and mortality of kidney cancers, and human development index in Asia; a matter of concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabsalmani, Masoumeh; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Hadadian, Fatemeh; Towhidi, Farhad; Vafaee, Kamran; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of kidney cancer have steadily increased by 2%- 3% per decade worldwide, and an increased risk of kidney cancer has been observed in many Asian countries. The information on the incidence and mortality of a disease and its distribution is essential for better planning for prevention and further studies. This study aimed to assess the incidence and mortality of kidney cancer and their correlation with the human development index (HDI) in Asia. This ecological study was based on GLOBOCAN data Asia for assessment the correlation between age-specific incidence rate (ASIR) and age-specific mortality rate (ASMR) with HDI and its details that include life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling and gross national income (GNI) per capita. We use of correlation bivariate method for assessment the correlation between ASIR and ASMR with HDI and its components. A total of 121 099 kidney cancer cases were recorded in Asian countries in 2012.Overall, 80 080 cases (66.12%) were males. Sex ratio was 1.95. The three countries with the highest number of new patients were china (66 466 cases), Japan (16 830 cases), India(9658 cases), respectively. Positive correlation were seen between HDI and ASIR of kidney cancer 0.655 ( P = 0.001), and HDI and ASMR of kidney cancer 0.285 ( P = 0.055). A positive relationship between ASIR and the HDI was seen. The relationship is due to risk factors in countries with high development such as older age, smoking, hypertension, obesity, and diet. However, ASMR showed no significant relationship with HDI.

  8. Redox Modulation Matters: Emerging Functions for Glutaredoxins in Plant Development and Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shutian Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Glutaredoxins (GRXs are small ubiquitous glutathione (GSH-dependent oxidoreductases that catalyze the reversible reduction of protein disulfide bridges or protein-GSH mixed disulfide bonds via a dithiol or monothiol mechanism, respectively. Three major classes of GRXs, with the CPYC-type, the CGFS-type or the CC-type active site, have been identified in many plant species. In spite of the well-characterized roles for GRXs in Escherichia coli, yeast and humans, the biological functions of plant GRXs have been largely enigmatic. The CPYC-type and CGFS-type GRXs exist in all organisms, from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, whereas the CC-type class has thus far been solely identified in land plants. Only the number of the CC-type GRXs has enlarged dramatically during the evolution of land plants, suggesting their participation in the formation of more complex plants adapted to life on land. A growing body of evidence indicates that plant GRXs are involved in numerous cellular pathways. In this review, emphasis is placed on the recently emerging functions for GRXs in floral organ development and disease resistance. Notably, CC-type GRXs have been recruited to participate in these two seemingly unrelated processes. Besides, the current knowledge of plant GRXs in the assembly and delivery of iron-sulfur clusters, oxidative stress responses and arsenic resistance is also presented. As GRXs require GSH as an electron donor to reduce their target proteins, GSH-related developmental processes, including the control of flowering time and the development of postembryonic roots and shoots, are further discussed. Profiling the thiol redox proteome using high-throughput proteomic approaches and measuring cellular redox changes with fluorescent redox biosensors will help to further unravel the redox-regulated physiological processes in plants.

  9. Developing and Testing a Scale of Moral Thinking and Communication (MTC) Functioning: A Preliminary Study and Its Implications for Moral Development and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Ming Angela; Thoma, Stephen J.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a scale assessing students' moral thinking and communication (MTC) functioning as well as to explore the implications for moral development and education. The rationale of MTC functioning, including interaction of four independent competencies: moral awareness, moral judgement, moral discourse, and…

  10. Loss of Panx1 Impairs Mammary Gland Development at Lactation: Implications for Breast Tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K G Stewart

    Full Text Available Pannexin1 (Panx1 subunits oligomerize to form large-pore channels between the intracellular and extracellular milieu that have been shown to regulate proliferation, differentiation and cell death mechanisms. These key cellular responses are ultimately necessary for normal tissue development and function but the role of Panx1 in development, differentiation and function in many tissues remains unexplored, including that of the breast. Panx1 was identified to be expressed in the mammary gland through western blot and immunofluorescent analysis and is dynamically upregulated during pregnancy and lactation. In order to evaluate the role of Panx1 in the context of mammary gland development and function, Panx1-/- mice were evaluated in comparison to wild-type mice in the mammary glands of virgin, lactating and involuting mice. Our results revealed that Panx1 ablation did not affect virgin or involuting mammary glands following histological and whole mount analysis. Panx1 was necessary for timely alveolar development during early lactation based on a decreased number of alveolar lumen following histological analysis and reduced proliferation following Ki67 immunofluorescent labelling. Importantly, the loss of Panx1 in lactating mammary glands did not overtly affect epithelial or secretory differentiation of the mammary gland suggesting that Panx1 is not critical in normal mammary gland function. In addition, PANX1 mRNA expression was correlated with negative clinical outcomes in patients with breast cancer using in silico arrays. Together, our results suggest that Panx1 is necessary for timely alveolar development following the transition from pregnancy to lactation, which may have implications extending to patients with breast cancer.

  11. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    What You See Ain't What. You Got, Resonance, Vol.4,. No.9,1999. Dark Matter. 2. Dark Matter in the Universe. Bikram Phookun and Biman Nath. In Part 11 of this article we learnt that there are compelling evidences from dynamics of spiral galaxies, like our own, that there must be non-luminous matter in them. In this.

  12. The Evolution of Galaxies by the Incompatibility between Dark Matter and Baryonic Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Ding-Yu

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the evolution of galaxies is by the incompatibility between dark matter and baryonic matter. Due to the structural difference, baryonic matter and dark matter are incompatible to each other as oil droplet and water in emulsion. In the interfacial zone between dark matter and baryonic matter, this incompatibility generates the modification of Newtonian dynamics to keep dark matter and baryonic matter apart. The five periods of baryonic structure development in the order of incre...

  13. CD28 in thymocyte development and peripheral T cell activation in mice exposed to suspended particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drela, Nadzieja; Zesko, Izabela; Jakubowska, Martyna; Biernacka, Marzena

    2006-01-01

    The CD28:B7 signaling pathway is very important for the activity of mature peripheral T lymphocytes and thymocyte development. The proper development of thymocytes into mature single positive CD4 + and CD8 + T cells is crucial for almost all immune functions. In naturally occurring conditions, T cells maturation in the thymus is influenced by environmental agents. The expression of CD28 and the distribution of CD28 low/high thymocytes have been examined at various stages of thymocyte development in BALB/c mice exposed to air-suspended particulate matter (ASM). Acute exposure to ASM resulted in the decrease of CD28 expression in the total thymocyte population. The increase of the percentage of CD28 low and the decrease of CD28 high thymocytes were observed, which may account for the acceleration of thymocyte development under the conditions of elevated risk resulting from the exposure of animals to environmental xenobiotics. ASM exposure resulted in the increase of the level of proliferation of lymph node T cells induced by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies activation despite normal expression of CD28 molecule. In contrast, the level of proliferation of spleen T cells was lowered or normal dependently of the concentration of stimuli used for activation. Results of these studies demonstrate that acute exposure of mice to ASM can result in the progression of two contrasting processes in the immune system: upregulation of thymocyte development, which contributes to the maintenance of peripheral T cell pool, and over-activation of lymph node lymphocytes, which may lead to uncontrolled immunostimulation

  14. Does Context Matter? Literacy Disparities in Self-rated Health Using Evidence from 17 Developed Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeonjin

    2017-05-01

    The study examines whether adult literacy skills predict self-rated health status beyond educational credentials in 17 developed countries using a cross-national survey, the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). The study uses linear regression models with country-level fixed effects to predict self-rated health to account the unobserved country-level heterogeneity. A total of 73,806 respondents aged 25 to 65 were included in the analysis. Although adult literacy is positively associated with better self-rated health in general, the strength of the relationship varies across nations. The literacy-related health inequalities are less severe in countries with the higher public share of health expenditures that may better address the needs of individuals with limited cognitive abilities. Curriculum standardization also contributes to reducing the literacy gradients in health by decreasing variations in skills obtained in school across individuals with different social origins. Overall, this study reveals that promoting equity in adult literacy skills is an important way to improve a population's health. Country-level differences in the strength of the relationship between literacy and self-rated health are systematically related to between-country differences in health financing and educational systems.

  15. Modern trends in position-sensitive neutron detectors development for condensed matter research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belushkin, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    Detecting neutrons is a more complicated task compared to the detection of ionizing particles or ionizing radiation. This is why the variety of neutron detectors is much more limited. Meanwhile, different types of neutron experiments pose specific and often contradictory requirements for detector characteristics. For experiments on the high-intensity neutron sources, the high counting rate is one of the key issues. This is very important, for example, for small-angle neutron scattering and neutron reflectometry. For other experiments, characteristics like detection efficiency, high position resolution, high time resolution, neutron/gamma discrimination, large-area imaging, or compactness, are very important. Today, the cost of the detector also became one of the most important factors. There is no single type of detector which satisfies all the above criteria. Therefore, compromise is inevitable and some of the characteristics are trade off in favor of others. The present report gives an overview of detector systems presently operating at the leading neutron scattering facilities as well as some development work around the globe

  16. Narrative Processing in Typically Developing Children and Children with Early Unilateral Brain Injury: Seeing Gesture Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Özlem Ece; Fisher, Joan A.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    Narrative skill in kindergarteners has been shown to be a reliable predictor of later reading comprehension and school achievement. However, we know little about how to scaffold children’s narrative skill. Here we examine whether the quality of kindergarten children’s narrative retellings depends on the kind of narrative elicitation they are given. We asked this question in typically developing (TD) kindergarten children and in children with pre- or perinatal unilateral brain injury (PL), a group that has been shown to have difficulty with narrative production. We compared children’s skill in story retellings under four different elicitation formats: (1) wordless cartoons, (2) stories told by a narrator through the auditory modality, (3) stories told by a narrator through the audiovisual modality without co-speech gestures, and (4) stories told by a narrator in the audiovisual modality with co-speech gestures. We found that children told better structured narratives in the fourth, audiovisual + gesture elicitation format than in the other three elicitation formats, consistent with findings that co-speech gestures can scaffold other aspects of language and memory. The audiovisual + gesture elicitation format was particularly beneficial to children who had the most difficulty telling a well-structured narrative, a group that included children with larger lesions associated with cerebrovascular infarcts. PMID:24127729

  17. Demand for cooking fuels in a developing country: To what extent do taste and preferences matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpalu, Wisdom; Dasmani, Isaac; Aglobitse, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    Overreliance on biomass energy, such as firewood and charcoal, for cooking in developing countries has contributed to high rates of deforestation and resulted in substantial indoor pollution, which has negatively impacted the health of many individuals. However, the effectiveness of public policies aimed at encouraging households to switch to cleaner fuels, such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and kerosene, hinges on the extent to which they are mentally committed to specific fuels. Using data on four cooking fuels (charcoal, firewood, LPG, and kerosene) from the Ghana living standards survey, we found strong evidence that the most preferred fuel is LPG, followed by charcoal, with kerosene the least preferred. In addition, with the exception of kerosene that has price-elastic demand, the price elasticities of demand for the fuel types examined are inelastic. This finding suggests the so-called fuel-ladder is not robust. - Highlights: → Overreliance on biomass energy for cooking has contributed to deforestation and indoor pollution. → We estimate demand for four cooking fuels (charcoal, firewood, LPG, and kerosene) in Ghana. → We found that the most preferred fuel is LPG, followed by charcoal, with kerosene the least preferred. → This finding suggests the so-called fuel-ladder is not robust.

  18. Demand for cooking fuels in a developing country: To what extent do taste and preferences matter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akpalu, Wisdom, E-mail: wakpalu@yahoo.com [Department of History, Economics and Politics, Farmingdale State College, State University of New York, Farmingdale, 2350 Broadhollow Road, NY 11735 (United States); Dasmani, Isaac; Aglobitse, Peter B. [Department of Economics, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast (Ghana)

    2011-10-15

    Overreliance on biomass energy, such as firewood and charcoal, for cooking in developing countries has contributed to high rates of deforestation and resulted in substantial indoor pollution, which has negatively impacted the health of many individuals. However, the effectiveness of public policies aimed at encouraging households to switch to cleaner fuels, such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and kerosene, hinges on the extent to which they are mentally committed to specific fuels. Using data on four cooking fuels (charcoal, firewood, LPG, and kerosene) from the Ghana living standards survey, we found strong evidence that the most preferred fuel is LPG, followed by charcoal, with kerosene the least preferred. In addition, with the exception of kerosene that has price-elastic demand, the price elasticities of demand for the fuel types examined are inelastic. This finding suggests the so-called fuel-ladder is not robust. - Highlights: > Overreliance on biomass energy for cooking has contributed to deforestation and indoor pollution. > We estimate demand for four cooking fuels (charcoal, firewood, LPG, and kerosene) in Ghana. > We found that the most preferred fuel is LPG, followed by charcoal, with kerosene the least preferred. > This finding suggests the so-called fuel-ladder is not robust.

  19. Measuring what matters to patients: Using goal content to inform measure choice and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jenna; Edbrooke-Childs, Julian; Law, Duncan; Wolpert, Miranda

    2017-04-01

    Personalised care requires personalised outcomes and ways of feeding back clinically useful information to clinicians and practitioners, but it is not clear how to best personalise outcome measurement and feedback using existing standardised outcome measures. The constant comparison method of grounded theory was used to compare goal themes derived from goals set at the outset of therapy for 180 children aged between 4 and 17 years, visiting eight child and adolescent mental health services, to existing standardised outcome measures used as part of common national datasets. In all, 20 out of 27 goal themes corresponded to items on at least one commonly used outcome measure. Consideration of goal themes helped to identify potential relevant outcome measures. However, there were several goal themes that were not captured by items on standardised outcome measures. These seemed to be related to existential factors such as understanding, thinking about oneself and future planning. This presents a powerful framework for how clinicians can use goals to help select a standardised outcome measure (where this is helpful) in addition to the use of a goal-based outcome measure and personalise choices. There may be areas not captured by standardised outcome measures that may be important for children and young people and which may only be currently captured in goal measurement. There is an indication that we may not be measuring what is important to children and young people. We may need to develop or look for new measures that capture these areas.

  20. Development of the uncinate fasciculus: Implications for theory and developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Ingrid R; Von Der Heide, Rebecca J; Alm, Kylie H; Vyas, Govinda

    2015-08-01

    The uncinate fasciculus (UF) is a long-range white matter tract that connects limbic regions in the temporal lobe to the frontal lobe. The UF is one of the latest developing tracts, and continues maturing into the third decade of life. As such, individual differences in the maturational profile of the UF may serve to explain differences in behavior. Indeed, atypical macrostructure and microstructure of the UF have been reported in numerous studies of individuals with developmental and psychiatric disorders such as social deprivation and maltreatment, autism spectrum disorders, conduct disorder, risk taking, and substance abuse. The present review evaluates what we currently know about the UF's developmental trajectory and reviews the literature relating UF abnormalities to specific disorders. Additionally, we take a dimensional approach and critically examine symptoms and behavioral impairments that have been demonstrated to cluster with UF aberrations, in an effort to relate these impairments to our speculations regarding the functionality of the UF. We suggest that developmental disorders with core problems relating to memory retrieval, reward and valuation computation, and impulsive decision making may be linked to aberrations in uncinate microstructure. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of the uncinate fasciculus: Implications for theory and developmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid R. Olson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The uncinate fasciculus (UF is a long-range white matter tract that connects limbic regions in the temporal lobe to the frontal lobe. The UF is one of the latest developing tracts, and continues maturing into the third decade of life. As such, individual differences in the maturational profile of the UF may serve to explain differences in behavior. Indeed, atypical macrostructure and microstructure of the UF have been reported in numerous studies of individuals with developmental and psychiatric disorders such as social deprivation and maltreatment, autism spectrum disorders, conduct disorder, risk taking, and substance abuse. The present review evaluates what we currently know about the UF's developmental trajectory and reviews the literature relating UF abnormalities to specific disorders. Additionally, we take a dimensional approach and critically examine symptoms and behavioral impairments that have been demonstrated to cluster with UF aberrations, in an effort to relate these impairments to our speculations regarding the functionality of the UF. We suggest that developmental disorders with core problems relating to memory retrieval, reward and valuation computation, and impulsive decision making may be linked to aberrations in uncinate microstructure.

  2. Milkweed Matters: Monarch Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) Survival and Development on Nine Midwestern Milkweed Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocius, V M; Debinski, D M; Pleasants, J M; Bidne, K G; Hellmich, R L; Brower, L P

    2017-10-01

    The population of monarch butterflies east of the Rocky Mountains has experienced a significant decline over the past 20 yr. In order to increase monarch numbers in the breeding range, habitat restoration that includes planting milkweed plants is essential. Milkweeds in the genus Asclepias and Cynanchum are the only host plants for larval monarch butterflies in North America, but larval performance and survival across nine milkweeds native to the Midwest is not well documented. We examined development and survival of monarchs from first-instar larval stages to adulthood on nine milkweed species native to Iowa. The milkweeds included Asclepias exaltata (poke milkweed) (Gentianales: Apocynaceae), Asclepias hirtella (tall green milkweed) (Gentianales: Apocynaceae), Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed) (Gentianales: Apocynaceae), Asclepias speciosa (showy milkweed) (Gentianales: Apocynaceae), Asclepias sullivantii (prairie milkweed) (Gentianales: Apocynaceae), Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) (Gentianales: Apocynaceae), Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly milkweed) (Gentianales: Apocynaceae), Asclepias verticillata (whorled milkweed) (Gentianales: Apocynaceae), and Cynanchum laeve (honey vine milkweed) (Gentianales: Apocynaceae). In greenhouse experiments, fewer larvae that fed on Asclepias hirtella and Asclepias sullivantii reached adulthood compared with larvae that fed on the other milkweed species. Monarch pupal width and adult dry mass differed among milkweeds, but larval duration (days), pupal duration (days), pupal mass, pupal length, and adult wet mass were not significantly different. Both the absolute and relative adult lipids were different among milkweed treatments; these differences are not fully explained by differences in adult dry mass. Monarch butterflies can survive on all nine milkweed species, but the expected survival probability varied from 30 to 75% among the nine milkweed species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  3. Neurobiology of empathy and callousness: implications for the development of antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Vitacco, Michael J; Graf, Alexander R; Gostisha, Andrew J; Merz, Jenna L; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Information on the neurobiology of empathy and callousness provides clinicians with an opportunity to develop sophisticated understanding of mechanisms underpinning antisocial behavior and its counterpart, moral decision-making. This article provides an integrated in-depth review of hormones (e.g. peripheral steroid hormones such as cortisol) and brain structures (e.g. insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and amygdala) implicated in empathy, callousness, and psychopathic-like behavior. The overarching goal of this article is to relate these hormones and brain structures to moral decision-making. This review will begin in the brain, but will then integrate information about biological functioning in the body, specifically stress-reactivity. Our aim is to integrate understanding of neural processes with hormones such as cortisol, both of which have demonstrated relationships to empathy, psychopathy, and antisocial behavior. The review proposes that neurobiological impairments in individuals who display little empathy are not necessarily due to a reduced ability to understand the emotions of others. Instead, evidence suggests that individuals who show little arousal to the distress of others likewise show decreased physiological arousal to their own distress; one manifestation of reduced stress reactivity may be a dysfunction in empathy, which supports psychopathic-like constructs (e.g. callousness). This integration will assist in the development of objective methodologies that can inform and monitor treatment interventions focused on decreasing antisocial behavior. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Making poverty reduction irreversible: development implications of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, Steve

    2006-07-15

    Development is achieved through growing and managing the 'portfolio of assets' available to a household or a nation. Soils, water, plants and animals often make up the biggest chunk of poor people's assets. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) has taken stock of these environmental assets worldwide. It reveals that fully sixty percent are being degraded – with poor people disproportionately suffering the consequences such as shortage of clean water, floods and droughts. Yet the MA also identified instances of effective asset management – proven 'Response Options' that deserve scaling up. This briefing note identifies the major developmental implications of the MA, and calls for action in four areas: Information – getting information on environmental assets and hazards to the heart of development planning; Institutional reform – encouraging ecosystem management by poor people and local organisations, and enabling better oversight by national authorities; International cooperation – increasing aid and benchmarking it against just how far off-track we are on MDG7 (the 'environmental sustainability' goal); Investment vehicles and budgets – to support long-term environmental management in key environmentally-sensitive sectors. Action on these is so urgently required that we can no longer avoid asking what it will cost. We propose 'Millennium Ecosystem Budgets', globally and nationally.

  5. Implications of the Recommendations of the Expert Panel on Federal Support to Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston Manning

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Canada lags behind many of its First World counterparts when it comes to business innovation, and urgently needs to improve its performance if it is to remain competitive and attractive to investment. The Expert Panel Report on Federal Support to Research and Development has recommended several policy initiatives that governments need to enact to close the gap. This paper reviews all six major recommendations made by the Expert Panel and provides thorough assessments of each, with ample consideration given to their implications for the private sector. The two most promising are: (1 the consolidation of research and development spending programs at the federal level and (2 the adoption of smart procurement as a means of spurring innovation in the non-government sector. While some of the other recommendations need refinement and raise concerns about their impact on the economy, the message for government and business is clear: the former can and should facilitate Canadian business innovation by removing tax and regulatory burdens and facilitating better public-private cooperation, while the latter must make innovation a major part of corporate culture. This paper explains the consequences of the Panel’s recommendations for both sectors, identifies the deficiencies, and offers clear-eyed guidance for ameliorating them.

  6. Private sector participation in secondary education in Nigeria: Implications for national development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uyi Kizito Ehigiamusoe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examines private sector participation in secondary education in Nigeria and its implications for national development. The population consisted all the providers and recipients of private secondary education in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT. Simple random sampling was used to select 200 providers and recipients of private secondary education across the six Area Councils in the FCT. An instrument designated Private Sector Participation in Secondary Education (PSPSE was used to collect data. The data were analysed using Chi-Square method to test for the acceptance or rejection of the study hypotheses. The findings revealed that the academic performance of students in private secondary schools is better than the academic performance of students in public secondary schools. The study further revealed that private secondary schools have better infrastructure than public secondary schools in Nigeria, but private secondary schools contribute less to the development of human resources than public schools in Nigeria. Recommendations are proffered to make private secondary education more viable and responsive to the needs of the society.

  7. Perspectives on the rhythm–grammar link and its implications for typical and atypical language development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Reyna L.; Jacobs, Magdalene S.; Schuele, C. Melanie; McAuley, J. Devin

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the mounting evidence for shared cognitive mechanisms and neural resources for rhythm and grammar. Evidence for a role of rhythm skills in language development and language comprehension is reviewed here in three lines of research: (a) behavioral and brain data from adults and children, showing that prosody and other aspects of timing of sentences influence online morpho-syntactic processing; (b) co-morbidity of impaired rhythm with grammatical deficits in children with language impairment; and (c) our recent work showing a strong positive association between rhythm perception skills and expressive grammatical skills in young school-age children with typical development. Our preliminary follow-up study presented here revealed that musical rhythm perception predicted variance in six-year-old children’s production of complex syntax, as well as online reorganization of grammatical information (transformation); these data provide an additional perspective on the hierarchical relations potentially shared by rhythm and grammar. A theoretical framework for shared cognitive resources for the role of rhythm in perceiving and learning grammatical structure is elaborated on in light of potential implications for using rhythm-emphasized musical training to improve language skills in children. PMID:25773612

  8. The effect of residential choice on the travel distance and the implications for sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eka Putra, Kaspan

    2018-03-01

    For Medan citizens, the choice of residence location depends on the ability to buy a house. House price is determined by the price of land where the housing is located. The more to the edge of the city the location of a house, then the price will be lower. So that the suburbs of Medan become the residential choice for the citizens of low-income. The residential choice will affect the distance of the journey to the workplace. This study analyzed the effect of residential choice on the travel distance and the implications for the implementation of sustainable development. The data used in this study is the primary data obtained through the survey held in Medan. The research approach is quantitative with the data analysis technique of Structural Equation Model (SEM). The results show that low-income citizens tend to choose the location of suburbs, while they work in the urban area. The location of the residence affects the daily travel distance is very high. The travel distance that is the very high effect the use of private vehicle mode. The use of private vehicles for long travel distance requires a huge energy. The use of very high fuel oils is a waste of energy and can increase air pollution. This is not in accordance with the concept of sustainable development.

  9. Nature of Technology: Implications for design, development, and enactment of technological tools in school science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waight, Noemi; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad

    2012-12-01

    This position paper provides a theory-based explanation informed by philosophy of technology (PoT) of the recurrent documented patterns often associated with attempts to enact technology-supported, inquiry-based approaches in precollege science classrooms. Understandings derived from the history of technological development in other domains (e.g. medicine, transportation, and warfare) reveal numerous parallels that help to explain these recurrent patterns. Historical analyses of major technologies reveal a conglomerate of factors that interact to produce benefits, as well as intended and unintended consequences. On a macro-scale, PoT facilitates understandings of how technologies interact and are impacted by individuals, society, institutions, economy, politics, and culture. At the micro-level, and most relevant to science education, PoT engages the inherent nature of technology along a number of key dimensions: role of culture and values, notions of technological progression, technology as part of systems, technological diffusion, technology as a fix, and the notions of expertise. Overall, the present analysis has implications for the design, development, implementation, and adoption of technological tools for use in precollege science education, and highlights the role of technology as both artifact and process.

  10. Economic and fiscal impacts of large-scale development projects: implications for nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leistritz, F.L.; Murdock, S.H.; Texas A and M Univ., College Station)

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with the local economic and fiscal implications of siting high-level nuclear waste repositories in rural areas. The economic and fiscal effects of repository development fall into two categories: (1) standard impacts similar to those that would be associated with developing any large-scale industrial facility in an isolated area; (2) special impacts that result from the hazardous nature of the nuclear materials stored and from federal ownership of the facility. Standard economic and fiscal impacts include employment effects (direct and secondary), local income changes, alterations in community price structures, effects on community services, and changes in revenues and costs for local jurisdictions. Special impacts include the possibility of diminished activity in other basic economic sectors, negative effects on the area's long-term growth prospects and a consequent dampening of investment in the local trade an service sectors, additional costs for local jurisdictions (e.g., for preparing evacuation plans), and limited local tax revenues resulting from the tax-exempt status of the facility. These special effects are difficult to quantify and require additional analysis. 47 references, 1 figure, 4 tables

  11. Project-Based Market Competition and Policy Implications for Sustainable Developments in Building and Construction Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ren Yan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Building and construction sectors are significant contributors to the global economy, but their energy consumption necessitates greater commitment to sustainable developments. There is therefore a growing demand for green innovation in the form of cleaner production and policies to meet the modern requirements of sustainability. However, the nature in which public work is undertaken is in an environment of project-based market competition, whereby contractors routinely bid for contracts under specific project awarding systems, and variations are accompanied with the unique scope of individual projects before the final goods or services are delivered. A comprehensive understanding of the characteristics and contractors’ behavior in systems could help to identify the leverage points of policies. This paper proposes a system dynamics model, with quantitative analysis and simulations, to demonstrate the problems of a system with different project awarding systems and ineffective market performance. The framework of market efficiency and performance measures has been proposed to evaluate the project-based competition mechanism. Managerial policy implications for market efficiency and sustainable developments can thus be systematically discussed and compared through iterative computer simulations and scenario analysis.

  12. Structuring Ethical Interpretations of the Sustainable Development Goals—Concepts, Implications and Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Keitsch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, like the sustainable development (SD concept itself, are open to multifaceted interpretations, and the same is true for their ethical implications. While SDG values are widely accepted as universal, the ethical structure of the SDGs is complex, with differing interpretations and ideas, e.g., on how to regard and value nature. This article is a conceptual attempt to clarify and structure ethical interpretations based on an environmental ethics framework consisting of two branches: anthropocentrism and biocentrism. The aim is to provide an overview of SDG positions and locate them in the wider field of environmental ethics, addressing the human–nature relationship as a recurring topic in the SDGs. Section 1 of this article presents environmental ethics and briefly discusses anthropocentrism and biocentrism. Section 2 outlines ethical similarities of SD and the SDGs and locates representative SDG interpretations within the environmental ethics framework. Section 3 summarizes findings and suggests a possibility of integrating biocentrism and anthropocentrism with regard to the further interpretation and discussion of SDG ethics. Insights from this article will aid researchers in adopting a better overview on ethical positions in the SDG debate.

  13. Making poverty reduction irreversible: development implications of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, Steve

    2006-07-15

    Development is achieved through growing and managing the 'portfolio of assets' available to a household or a nation. Soils, water, plants and animals often make up the biggest chunk of poor people's assets. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) has taken stock of these environmental assets worldwide. It reveals that fully sixty percent are being degraded – with poor people disproportionately suffering the consequences such as shortage of clean water, floods and droughts. Yet the MA also identified instances of effective asset management – proven 'Response Options' that deserve scaling up. This briefing note identifies the major developmental implications of the MA, and calls for action in four areas: Information – getting information on environmental assets and hazards to the heart of development planning; Institutional reform – encouraging ecosystem management by poor people and local organisations, and enabling better oversight by national authorities; International cooperation – increasing aid and benchmarking it against just how far off-track we are on MDG7 (the 'environmental sustainability' goal); Investment vehicles and budgets – to support long-term environmental management in key environmentally-sensitive sectors. Action on these is so urgently required that we can no longer avoid asking what it will cost. We propose 'Millennium Ecosystem Budgets', globally and nationally.

  14. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Soft matter (polymers, colloids, surfactants and liquid crystals) are an important class of materials in modern technology. They also form the basis of many future technologies, for example in medical and environmental applications. Soft matter shows complex behaviour between fluids and solids, and used to be a synonym of complex materials. Due to the developments of the past two decades, soft condensed matter can now be discussed on the same sound physical basis as solid condensedmatter. The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of soft matter for undergraduate and graduate students

  15. Women’s Marriage Age Matters for Public Health: A Review of the Broader Health and Social Implications in South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha A. Marphatia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In many traditional societies, women’s age at marriage acts simultaneously as a gateway to new family roles and the likelihood of producing offspring. However, inadequate attention has previously been given to the broader health and social implications of variability in women’s marriage age for public health. Biomedical scientists have primarily been concerned with whether the onset of reproduction occurs before the woman is adequately able to nurture her offspring and maintain her own health. Social scientists have argued that early marriage prevents women from attaining their rightful education, accessing employment and training opportunities, developing social relationships with peers, and participating in civic life. The aim of this review article is to provide comprehensive research evidence on why women’s marriage age, independent of age at first childbirth, is a crucial issue for public health. It focuses on data from four South Asian countries, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan, in which marriage is near universal and where a large proportion of women still marry below the United Nations prescribed minimum marriage age of 18 years. Using an integrative perspective, we provide a comprehensive synthesis of the physiological, bio-demographic, and socio-environmental drivers of variable marriage age. We describe the adverse health consequences to mothers and to their offspring of an early age at marriage and of childbearing, which include malnutrition and high rates of morbidity and mortality. We also highlight the complex association of marriage age, educational attainment, and low societal status of women, all of which generate major public health impact. Studies consistently find a public health dividend of increased girls’ education for maternal and child nutritional status and health outcomes. Paradoxically, recent relative increases in girls’ educational attainment across South Asia have had limited success in delaying

  16. Mimicking dark matter through a non-minimal gravitational coupling with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolami, O.; Páramos, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study one resorts to the phenomenology of models endowed with a non-minimal coupling between matter and geometry, in order to develop a mechanism through which dynamics similar to that due to the presence of dark matter is generated. As a first attempt, one tries to account for the flattening of the galaxy rotation curves as an effect of the non-(covariant) conservation of the energy-momentum tensor of visible matter. Afterwards, one assumes instead that this non-minimal coupling modifies the scalar curvature in a way that can be interpreted as a dark matter component (albeit with negative pressure). It is concluded that it is possible to mimic known dark matter density profiles through an appropriate power-law coupling f 2 = (R/R 0 ) n , with a negative index n — a fact that reflects the dominance of dark matter at large distances. The properties of the model are extensively discussed, and possible cosmological implications are addressed

  17. Detecting dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Roger L.

    2000-01-01

    Dark matter is one of the most pressing problems in modern cosmology and particle physic research. This talk will motivate the existence of dark matter by reviewing the main experimental evidence for its existence, the rotation curves of galaxies and the motions of galaxies about one another. It will then go on to review the corroborating theoretical motivations before combining all the supporting evidence to explore some of the possibilities for dark matter along with its expected properties. This will lay the ground work for dark matter detection. A number of differing techniques are being developed and used to detect dark matter. These will be briefly discussed before the focus turns to cryogenic detection techniques. Finally, some preliminary results and expectations will be given for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment

  18. NPPB and ACAN, two novel SHOX2 transcription targets implicated in skeletal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Aza-Carmona

    Full Text Available SHOX and SHOX2 transcription factors are highly homologous, with even identical homeodomains. Genetic alterations in SHOX result in two skeletal dysplasias; Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD and Langer mesomelic dysplasia (LMD, while no human genetic disease has been linked to date with SHOX2. SHOX2 is, though, involved in skeletal development, as shown by different knockout mice models. Due to the high homology between SHOX and SHOX2, and their functional redundancy during heart development, we postulated that SHOX2 might have the same transcriptional targets and cofactors as SHOX in limb development. We selected two SHOX transcription targets regulated by different mechanisms: 1 the natriuretic peptide precursor B gene (NPPB involved in the endochondral ossification signalling and directly activated by SHOX; and 2 Aggrecan (ACAN, a major component of cartilage extracellular matrix, regulated by the cooperation of SHOX with the SOX trio (SOX5, SOX6 and SOX9 via the protein interaction between SOX5/SOX6 and SHOX. Using the luciferase assay we have demonstrated that SHOX2, like SHOX, regulates NPPB directly whilst activates ACAN via its cooperation with the SOX trio. Subsequently, we have identified and characterized the protein domains implicated in the SHOX2 dimerization and also its protein interaction with SOX5/SOX6 and SHOX using the yeast-two hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Immunohistochemistry of human fetal growth plates from different time points demonstrated that SHOX2 is coexpressed with SHOX and the members of the SOX trio. Despite these findings, no mutation was identified in SHOX2 in a cohort of 83 LWD patients with no known molecular defect, suggesting that SHOX2 alterations do not cause LWD. In conclusion, our work has identified the first cofactors and two new transcription targets of SHOX2 in limb development, and we hypothesize a time- and tissue-specific functional redundancy between SHOX and SHOX2.

  19. NPPB and ACAN, two novel SHOX2 transcription targets implicated in skeletal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aza-Carmona, Miriam; Barca-Tierno, Veronica; Hisado-Oliva, Alfonso; Belinchón, Alberta; Gorbenko-del Blanco, Darya; Rodriguez, Jose Ignacio; Benito-Sanz, Sara; Campos-Barros, Angel; Heath, Karen E

    2014-01-01

    SHOX and SHOX2 transcription factors are highly homologous, with even identical homeodomains. Genetic alterations in SHOX result in two skeletal dysplasias; Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) and Langer mesomelic dysplasia (LMD), while no human genetic disease has been linked to date with SHOX2. SHOX2 is, though, involved in skeletal development, as shown by different knockout mice models. Due to the high homology between SHOX and SHOX2, and their functional redundancy during heart development, we postulated that SHOX2 might have the same transcriptional targets and cofactors as SHOX in limb development. We selected two SHOX transcription targets regulated by different mechanisms: 1) the natriuretic peptide precursor B gene (NPPB) involved in the endochondral ossification signalling and directly activated by SHOX; and 2) Aggrecan (ACAN), a major component of cartilage extracellular matrix, regulated by the cooperation of SHOX with the SOX trio (SOX5, SOX6 and SOX9) via the protein interaction between SOX5/SOX6 and SHOX. Using the luciferase assay we have demonstrated that SHOX2, like SHOX, regulates NPPB directly whilst activates ACAN via its cooperation with the SOX trio. Subsequently, we have identified and characterized the protein domains implicated in the SHOX2 dimerization and also its protein interaction with SOX5/SOX6 and SHOX using the yeast-two hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Immunohistochemistry of human fetal growth plates from different time points demonstrated that SHOX2 is coexpressed with SHOX and the members of the SOX trio. Despite these findings, no mutation was identified in SHOX2 in a cohort of 83 LWD patients with no known molecular defect, suggesting that SHOX2 alterations do not cause LWD. In conclusion, our work has identified the first cofactors and two new transcription targets of SHOX2 in limb development, and we hypothesize a time- and tissue-specific functional redundancy between SHOX and SHOX2.

  20. Research Review: Social motivation and oxytocin in autism – implications for joint attention development and intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Katherine K. M.; Carver, Leslie J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Scope The social motivation hypothesis (SMH) suggests that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are less intrinsically rewarded by social stimuli than their neurotypical peers. This difference in social motivation has been posited as a factor contributing to social deficits in ASD. Social motivation is thought to involve the neuropeptide oxytocin. Here, we review the evidence for oxytocin effects in ASD, and discuss its potential role in one important social cognitive behavior. Methods Systematic searches were conducted using the PsychINFO and MEDLINE databases and the search terms “oxytocin”, and “autism”; the same databases were used for separate searches for “joint attention”, “intervention”, and “autism”, using the same inclusion criteria as an earlier 2011 review but updating it for the period 2010 to October 2012. Findings Several studies suggest that giving oxytocin to both individuals with ASD and typically developing individuals can enhance performance on social cognitive tasks. Studies that have attempted to intervene in joint attention in ASD suggest that social motivation may be a particular obstacle to lasting effects. Conclusions The review of the evidence for the SMH suggests a potential role for oxytocin in social motivation deficits in ASD. Because of its importance for later communicative and social development, the focus here is on implications of oxytocin and social motivation in the development of and interventions in joint attention. Joint attention is a central impairment in ASD, and as a result is the focus of several behavioral interventions. In describing this previous research on joint attention interventions in ASD, we pay particular attention to problems encountered in such studies, and propose ways that oxytocin may facilitate behavioral intervention in this area. For future research, integrating behavioral and pharmacological interventions (oxytocin administration) would be a worthwhile