WorldWideScience

Sample records for matter development females

  1. Microfinance and female empowerment : Do institutions matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haile, Hirut Bekele; Bock, Bettina; Folmer, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Microfinance programmes increasingly target poor women in developing countries with the expectation that, besides poverty reduction, having access to microcredit advances their empowerment. However, research provides conflicting evidence and shows that empowerment may not, or may only be partially

  2. Microfinance and female empowerment: Do institutions matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haile Hirut, Bekele; Folmer, H.; Bock, B.B.

    2012-01-01

    Microfinance programmes increasingly target poor women in developing countries with the expectation that, besides poverty reduction, having access to microcredit advances their empowerment. However, research provides conflicting evidence and shows that empowerment may not, or may only be partially

  3. Regional gray matter variation in male-to-female transsexualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Sánchez, Francisco J.; Gaser, Christian; Toga, Arthur W.; Narr, Katherine L.; Hamilton, Liberty S.; Vilain, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Gender identity—one's sense of being a man or a woman—is a fundamental perception experienced by all individuals that extends beyond biological sex. Yet, what contributes to our sense of gender remains uncertain. Since individuals who identify as transsexual report strong feelings of being the opposite sex and a belief that their sexual characteristics do not reflect their true gender, they constitute an invaluable model to understand the biological underpinnings of gender identity. We analyzed MRI data of 24 male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals not yet treated with cross-sex hormones in order to determine whether gray matter volumes in MTF transsexuals more closely resemble people who share their biological sex (30 control men), or people who share their gender identity (30 control women). Results revealed that regional gray matter variation in MTF transsexuals is more similar to the pattern found in men than in women. However, MTF transsexuals show a significantly larger volume of regional gray matter in the right putamen compared to men. These findings provide new evidence that transsexualism is associated with distinct cerebral pattern, which supports the assumption that brain anatomy plays a role in gender identity. PMID:19341803

  4. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosinski, Lauren P; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N; Harrington, Michael G; Christensen, Trace A; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2015-12-01

    White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical.

  5. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren P. Klosinski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical.

  6. Normal development of the female reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The embryonic development of the female reproductive system involves a progression of events that is conserved across vertebrate species. The early gonad progresses from a form that is undifferentiated in both genotypic males and females. Rudimentary male (Wolffian) and female (M...

  7. Female Poverty in Development Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    PEKER, Ayşe Esra

    2018-01-01

    The scope  of  poverty differs  from country tocountry,  from the  period to period,  and  depending on  the  developments in welfare  level.  Today, although  the  phenomenon poverty is seen  the problem  of   less developed  and   developing c...

  8. Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems have substantially less brain gray matter volume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish S Dalwani

    Full Text Available Structural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated lower regional gray matter volume in adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems. These research studies, including ours, have generally focused on male-only or mixed-sex samples of adolescents with conduct and/or substance problems. Here we compare gray matter volume between female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems and female healthy controls of similar ages.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems will show significantly less gray matter volume in frontal regions critical to inhibition (i.e. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, conflict processing (i.e., anterior cingulate, valuation of expected outcomes (i.e., medial orbitofrontal cortex and the dopamine reward system (i.e. striatum.We conducted whole-brain voxel-based morphometric comparison of structural MR images of 22 patients (14-18 years with severe substance and conduct problems and 21 controls of similar age using statistical parametric mapping (SPM and voxel-based morphometric (VBM8 toolbox. We tested group differences in regional gray matter volume with analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and IQ at p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons at whole-brain cluster-level threshold.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems compared to controls showed significantly less gray matter volume in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, bilateral somatosensory cortex, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral angular gyrus. Considering the entire brain, patients had 9.5% less overall gray matter volume compared to controls.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems in comparison to similarly aged female healthy controls showed substantially lower gray matter volume in brain regions involved in inhibition, conflict processing, valuation

  9. [Genes in the development of female genital tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Na; Zhu, Lan; Lang, Jing-he

    2013-12-01

    Female genital tract, which includes oviduct, uterus, and vagina, is critical for female reproduction. In recent years, animal experiments using knockout mice and genetic studies on patients with female genital malformations have contributed substantially to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms in the female genital tract development. Here we review genes that are involved in various stages of female genital tract formation and development.

  10. Healthcare service quality: what really matters to the female patient?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafei, Ingy; Walburg, J.A.; Taher, Ahmed F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to develop a model that encompasses the constructs and sub-constructs consumers use in evaluating healthcare service quality (HSQ) in Egypt. Design/methodology/approach – Factor analysis was performed on 40 variables to identify the constructs. Ordinal logistic regression

  11. WNT4 signaling in female gonadal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Miriam; Maiorino, Raffaella; Schonauer, Sergio

    2010-06-01

    WNT4 signaling pathways represent an important step in the multi-faceted process of mammalian gonadal differentiation and the development of internal genitalia. WNT4 protein controls the cytoplasmatic stability of specific transcriptional coactivator beta catenin during both embriogenesis and adult homeostasis. The biological significance of WNT4 consists in determining the final female reproductive system, inhibiting Wolff ducts' differentiation, male steroidogenesis and vascular cell migration. An overview of WNT4 cellular mechanisms is given in order to understand its critical role in the genesis of various human diseases such as congenital malformations and gynecological disorders like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The final discussion focusses on several possible therapeutic uses of Wnt4 both during pregnancy in order to correct the genetic loss of function of the protein and during adulthood in order to normalize fertility in PCOS-affected females planning pregnancy.

  12. Sex-specific Gray Matter Volume Differences in Females with Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Tanya M.; Flowers, D. Lynn; Napoliello, Eileen M.; Eden, Guinevere F.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia, characterized by unexpected reading difficulty, is associated with anomalous brain anatomy and function. Previous structural neuroimaging studies have converged in reports of less gray matter volume (GMV) in dyslexics within left hemisphere regions known to subserve language. Due to the higher prevalence of dyslexia in males, these studies are heavily weighted towards males, raising the question whether studies of dyslexia in females only and using the same techniques, would generate the same findings. In a replication study of men we obtained the same findings of less GMV in dyslexics in left middle/inferior temporal gyri and right postcentral/supramarginal gyri as reported in the literature. However, comparisons in women with and without dyslexia did not yield left hemisphere differences and instead we found less GMV in right precuneus and paracentral lobule/medial frontal gyrus. In boys, we found less GMV in left inferior parietal cortex (supramarginal/angular gyri), again consistent with previous work, while in girls differences were within right central sulcus, spanning adjacent gyri, and left primary visual cortex. Our investigation into anatomical variants in dyslexia replicates existing studies in males, but at the same time shows that dyslexia in females is not characterized by involvement of left hemisphere language regions but rather early sensory and motor cortices (i.e. motor and premotor cortex, primary visual cortex). Our findings suggest that models on the brain basis of dyslexia, primarily developed through the study of males, may not be appropriate for females and suggest a need for more sex-specific investigations into dyslexia. PMID:23625146

  13. Female Leadership Talent Development: The Brazilian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Muniz Prado

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Women’s participation in leadership positions is increasing all over the world. Nevertheless, an analysis of the top positions of several careers shows that this progress has been insufficient to equitably drive the professional rise of women to the highest levels of responsibility, power and prestige. In Brazil the situation is not different. Various factors contribute to this phenomenon. Social and cultural influences play a particularly important role in the development of female leadership talent, impacting not just the behavioral patterns incorporated and displayed by women, but also the structure of their professional fields. Hence, this study aimed to analyze the development of talent in the light of gender studies, with an emphasis on factors that interfere in the rise of Brazilian women towards positions of power and leadership. This approach is hoped to elicit a reflection on how the unequal conditions experienced by women are perpetuated and often made to seem natural by valuing their “difference”

  14. Understanding Female Students' Physics Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    While the gender gap in physics participation is a known problem, practical strategies that may improve the situation are not well understood. As physics education researchers, we draw on evidence to help inform us of what may or may not be working. To this end, physics identity has proven to be a useful framework for understanding and predicting participation in physics. Drawing on data from national surveys of college students, case studies in physics classes, and surveys of undergraduate women in physics, we identify strategies that are predictive of female students' physics identity development from their high school and undergraduate physics experiences. These findings will be discussed as well as future directions for using this research to increase the recruitment of women to physics-related careers. NSF Grant # 1431846.

  15. Mind over matter: exploring job stress among female blue-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin-Blake, C Shannon; Tucker, Pattie J; Liburd, Leandris

    2006-12-01

    Although overall health has been defined holistically as the integration of a person's optimal mental, physical, social, intellectual, and spiritual well-being, a mental health focus remains on the fringe of many public health efforts. This report describes recent efforts by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to explore job stress among female blue-collar workers. Using a more holistic approach to understand its impact on blue-collar women's overall health, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was used to assess optimal human performance. Attempting to encapsulate how overall health affects one's ability to participate and fulfill daily personal/professional tasks, HRQOL yields a broader understanding of the interaction between psychological well-being (mind) and physical functioning (matter). Embedding CDC HRQOL-4 measures into a questionnaire used as part of a larger mixed methods project, blue-collar women responded to questions about their health, including both mental and physical. For these female workers, mental health appeared to be of greater consequence, which could be interpreted as mind being more significant than matter. This paper highlights the findings related to HRQOL issues experienced by these female blue-collar workers and summarizes recommendations for effective individual and organizational approaches to address job stress.

  16. Physical Activity and Adolescent Female Psychological Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Linda A.; Feltz, Deborah L.

    1991-01-01

    Relationships between self-reported past and present physical activity levels and self-image, sense of mastery, gender role identity, self-perceived physical ability, and self-perceived attractiveness were studied for 149 female high school sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Results are discussed in terms of adolescent emotional health. (SLD)

  17. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Lenschow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.

  18. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenschow, Constanze; Sigl-Glöckner, Johanna; Brecht, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory) male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.

  19. Does Gender Matter? Female Representation on Corporate Boards and Firm Financial Performance - A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletzer, Jan Luca; Nikolova, Romina; Kedzior, Karina Karolina; Voelpel, Sven Constantin

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an ongoing, worldwide debate about the representation of females in companies. Our study aimed to meta-analytically investigate the controversial relationship between female representation on corporate boards and firm financial performance. Following a systematic literature search, data from 20 studies on 3097 companies published in peer-reviewed academic journals were included in the meta-analysis. On average, the boards consisted of eight members and female participation was low (mean 14%) in all studies. Half of the 20 studies were based on data from developing countries and 62% from higher income countries. According to the random-effects model, the overall mean weighted correlation between percentage of females on corporate boards and firm performance was small and non-significant (r = .01, 95% confidence interval: -.04, .07). Similar small effect sizes were observed when comparing studies based on developing vs. developed countries and higher vs. lower income countries. The mean board size was not related to the effect sizes in studies. These results indicate that the mere representation of females on corporate boards is not related to firm financial performance if other factors are not considered. We conclude our study with a discussion of its implications and limitations. PMID:26086454

  20. Developing Competitive Excellence in the Talented Female Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildenhaus, Kevin J.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the historical development of female participation in sports, then identifies the unique issues associated with women's struggles for athletic acceptance and competitive excellence. Topics discussed include talent recognition and development, sex roles and socialization, physiology and maturation, coaching the female athlete,…

  1. Female labor force participation in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Verick, Sher

    2014-01-01

    While women’s labor force participation tends to increase with economic development, the relationship is not straightforward or consistent at the country level. There is considerably more variation across developing countries in labor force participation by women than by men. This variation is driven by a wide variety of economic and social factors, which include economic growth, education, and social norms. Looking more broadly at improving women’s access to quality employment, a critica...

  2. The Development of Female Sexual Behavior Requires Prepubertal Estradiol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, O.; Baum, M.J.; Bakker, J.

    2011-01-01

    The classic view of brain and behavioral sexual differentiation holds that the neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior in female rodents develop in the absence ofovarian sex hormone actions. However,inaprevious study, female aromatase knock-out (ArKO) mice, which cannot convert testosterone to

  3. White matter volume changes in people who develop psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterfang, Mark; McGuire, Philip K; Yung, Alison R; Phillips, Lisa J; Velakoulis, Dennis; Wood, Stephen J; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T; Brewer, Warrick; Soulsby, Bridget; Desmond, Patricia; McGorry, Patrick D; Pantelis, Christos

    2008-09-01

    Grey matter changes have been described in individuals who are pre- and peri-psychotic, but it is unclear if these changes are accompanied by changes in white matter structures. To determine whether changes in white matter occur prior to and with the transition to psychosis in individuals who are pre-psychotic who had previously demonstrated grey matter reductions in frontotemporal regions. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine regional white matter volume in 75 people with prodromal symptoms. A subset of the original group (n=21) were rescanned at 12-18 months to determine white matter volume changes. Participants were retrospectively categorised according to whether they had or had not developed psychosis at follow-up. Comparison of the baseline MRI data from these two subgroups revealed that individuals who later developed psychosis had larger volumes of white matter in the frontal lobe, particularly in the left hemisphere. Longitudinal comparison of data in individuals who developed psychosis revealed a reduction in white matter volume in the region of the left fronto-occipital fasciculus. Participants who had not developed psychosis showed no reductions in white matter volume but increases in a region subjacent to the right inferior parietal lobule. The reduction in volume of white matter near the left fronto-occipital fasciculus may reflect a change in this tract in association with the onset of frank psychosis.

  4. Family matters: Familial support and science identity formation for African American female STEM majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ashley Dawn

    This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical race feminism as the theoretical framework to answer the following questions: 1) What role does family play in the experiences of African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? 2) What factors impact the formation of science identity for African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? Purposive sampling was used to select the participants for this study. The researcher conducted in-depth interviews with 10 African American female undergraduate STEM major from a predominantly White and a historically Black institution with the state of North Carolina public university system. Findings suggest that African American families and science identity formation influence the STEM experiences of the African American females interviewed in this study. The following five themes emerged from the findings: (1) independence, (2) support, (3) pressure to succeed, (4) adaptations, and (5) race and gender. This study contributes to the literature on African American female students in STEM higher education. The findings of this study produced knowledge regarding policies and practices that can lead to greater academic success and persistence of African American females in higher education in general, and STEM majors in particular. Colleges and universities may benefit from the findings of this study in a way that allows them to develop and sustain programs and policies that attend to the particular concerns and needs of African American women on their campuses. Finally, this research informs both current and future African American female

  5. Recent developments in dark matter searches

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    results from indirect and direct detection dark matter search experiments is given. .... Such particles can be very light but still be CDM since their interaction was so extremely weak that they could not thermalize in the early Universe. ..... was caused by the report of two events in the signal region, the first time direct detection.

  6. Progesterone Withdrawal-Evoked Plasticity of Neural Function in the Female Periaqueductal Grey Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Lovick

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclical changes in production of neuroactive steroids during the oestrous cycle induce significant changes in GABAA receptor expression in female rats. In the periaqueductal grey (PAG matter, upregulation of α4β1δ GABAA receptors occurs as progesterone levels fall during late dioestrus (LD or during withdrawal from an exogenous progesterone dosing regime. The new receptors are likely to be extrasynaptically located on the GABAergic interneurone population and to mediate tonic currents. Electrophysiological studies showed that when α4β1δ GABAA receptor expression was increased, the excitability of the output neurones in the PAG increased, due to a decrease in the level of ongoing inhibitory tone from the GABAergic interneurones. The functional consequences in terms of nociceptive processing were investigated in conscious rats. Baseline tail flick latencies were similar in all rats. However, acute exposure to mild vibration stress evoked hyperalgesia in rats in LD and after progesterone withdrawal, in line with the upregulation of α4β1δ GABAA receptor expression.

  7. Recent Developments in Supersymmetric and Hidden Sector Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, Daniel; Liu Zuowei; Nath, Pran

    2008-01-01

    New results which correlate SUSY dark matter with LHC signals are presented, and a brief review of recent developments in supersymmetric and hidden sector dark matter is given. It is shown that the direct detection of dark matter is very sensitive to the hierarchical SUSY sparticle spectrum and the spectrum is very useful in distinguishing models. It is shown that the prospects of the discovery of neutralino dark matter are very bright on the 'Chargino Wall' due to a copious number of model points on the Wall, where the NLSP is the Chargino, and the spin independent neutralino-proton cross section is maintained at high values in the 10 -44 cm 2 range for neutralino masses up to ∼850 GeV. It is also shown that the direct detection of dark matter along with lepton plus jet signatures and missing energy provide dual, and often complementary, probes of supersymmetry. Finally, we discuss an out of the box possibility for dark matter, which includes dark matter from the hidden sector, which could either consist of extra weakly interacting dark matter (a Stino XWIMP), or milli-charged dark matter arising from the Stueckelberg extensions of the MSSM or the SM.

  8. Bodies That Don't Matter: Possibilities of Female Homoeroticism in Twelfth Night

    OpenAIRE

    松尾, 江津子

    2007-01-01

    This article attempts to consider (non-)representation of female same-sex love in William Shakespeare's Twelfth Night in the cultural and political context of early modern England. The first question here is whether female homoeroticism existed in early modern English society. Valerie Traub shows how female same-sex desire and sexual activity did exist in spite of the lack of their historical documents in early modern England. According to her, female homoerotic desire was regarded as“ insign...

  9. Black Female Faculty Success and Early Career Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tamara Bertrand; Osborne-Lampkin, La'Tara

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a number of Black female junior scholars have participated in an early career professional development program designed to address socialization issues through individual and small group mentoring. This descriptive qualitative study investigated scholars' perceptions of the importance and effectiveness of a research…

  10. Sleep spindling and fluid intelligence across adolescent development: sex matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert eBódizs

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Evidence supports the intricate relationship between sleep electroencephalogram (EEG spindling and cognitive abilities in children and adults. Although sleep EEG changes during adolescence index fundamental brain reorganization, a detailed analysis of sleep spindling and the spindle-intelligence relationship was not yet provided for adolescents. Therefore, adolescent development of sleep spindle oscillations were studied in a home polysomnographic study focusing on the effects of chronological age and developmentally acquired overall mental efficiency (fluid IQ with sex as a potential modulating factor. Subjects were 24 healthy adolescents (12 males with an age range of 15–22 years (mean: 18 years and fluid IQ of 91-126 (mean: 104.12, Raven Progressive Matrices Test. Slow spindles (SSs and fast spindles (FSs were analyzed in 21 EEG derivations by using the individual adjustment method. A significant age-dependent increase in average FS density (r = .57; p = .005 was found. Moreover, fluid IQ correlated with FS density (r = .43; p = .04 and amplitude (r = .41; p = .049. The latter effects were entirely driven by particularly reliable FS-IQ correlations in females [r = .80 (p = .002 and r = .67 (p = .012, for density and amplitude, respectively]. Region-specific analyses revealed that these correlations peak in the fronto-central regions. The control of the age-dependence of FS measures and IQ scores did not considerably reduce the spindle-IQ correlations with respect to FS density. The only positive spindle-index of fluid IQ in males turned out to be the frequency of FSs (r = .60, p = .04. Increases in FS density during adolescence may index reshaped structural connectivity related to white matter maturation in the late developing human brain. The continued development over this age range of cognitive functions is indexed by specific measures of sleep spindling unravelling gender differences in adolescent brain maturation and perhaps cognitive

  11. Software development: do good manners matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Destefanis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A successful software project is the result of a complex process involving, above all, people. Developers are the key factors for the success of a software development process, not merely as executors of tasks, but as protagonists and core of the whole development process. This paper investigates social aspects among developers working on software projects developed with the support of Agile tools. We studied 22 open-source software projects developed using the Agile board of the JIRA repository. All comments committed by developers involved in the projects were analyzed and we explored whether the politeness of comments affected the number of developers involved and the time required to fix any given issue. Our results showed that the level of politeness in the communication process among developers does have an effect on the time required to fix issues and, in the majority of the analysed projects, it had a positive correlation with attractiveness of the project to both active and potential developers. The more polite developers were, the less time it took to fix an issue.

  12. Breast development and disorders in the adolescent female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Nirupama K

    2018-04-01

    Breast development in the female is a process that becomes noticeable during puberty, and defines a girl's transition into adulthood. Various conditions can disrupt or alter the normal development, which may lead to abnormal breast changes and features. Further, the finding of a breast mass in adolescence can be unsettling to the patient and her family. While the majority of these breast changes and/or masses tend to be benign and self-limited, the appropriate evaluation is always warranted. This chapter will focus on the normal and abnormal development of breasts. We will also discuss the evaluation and management of breast masses that can be found in the adolescent female. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Youth development in India: does poverty matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Bijaya Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the differentials in youth development patterns determined by the economic condition of the household in India. The wealth index is used to glean youth development differentials in the different economic categories of the household. The findings suggest that youth from the bottom 20 per cent (poorest) of households are deprived in education, employment, labour force and are not working currently compared to youth from the middle and rich households. The states differ in yo...

  14. Predictive models reduce talent development costs in female gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pion, Johan; Hohmann, Andreas; Liu, Tianbiao; Lenoir, Matthieu; Segers, Veerle

    2017-04-01

    This retrospective study focuses on the comparison of different predictive models based on the results of a talent identification test battery for female gymnasts. We studied to what extent these models have the potential to optimise selection procedures, and at the same time reduce talent development costs in female artistic gymnastics. The dropout rate of 243 female elite gymnasts was investigated, 5 years past talent selection, using linear (discriminant analysis) and non-linear predictive models (Kohonen feature maps and multilayer perceptron). The coaches classified 51.9% of the participants correct. Discriminant analysis improved the correct classification to 71.6% while the non-linear technique of Kohonen feature maps reached 73.7% correctness. Application of the multilayer perceptron even classified 79.8% of the gymnasts correctly. The combination of different predictive models for talent selection can avoid deselection of high-potential female gymnasts. The selection procedure based upon the different statistical analyses results in decrease of 33.3% of cost because the pool of selected athletes can be reduced to 92 instead of 138 gymnasts (as selected by the coaches). Reduction of the costs allows the limited resources to be fully invested in the high-potential athletes.

  15. Developing software is not an easy matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Cardrige

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Why is it so difficult to learn to develop software? This question has been trying to answer for a long time, but has not yet found a solution to this issue. Moreover, it tends to confuse development with programming, and this also creates problems to elucidate the question. In an era in which urgently required improve the quality, and reliability, and safety of software it becomes urgent to potentiate or develop skills and abilities in professionals to meet these needs. But students are not interested in making careers involving these concepts, they prefer other less demanding and easier to achieve a certification. This article attempts to answer the question and present some suggestions for overcoming this difficulty.

  16. Sexual dimorphism of Broca's region: More gray matter in female brains in Brodmann areas 44 and 45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Florian; Jancke, Lutz; Luders, Eileen

    2017-01-02

    Although a sexual dimorphism in brain structure is generally well established, evidence for sex differences in Brodmann areas (BA) 44 and 45 is inconclusive. This may be due to the difficulty of accurately defining BA 44 and BA 45 in magnetic resonance images, given that these regions are variable in their location and extent and that they do not match well with macroanatomic landmarks. Here we set out to test for possible sex differences in the local gray matter of BA 44/45 by integrating imaging-based signal intensities with cytoarchitectonically defined tissue probabilities in a sample of 50 male and 50 female subjects. In addition to testing for sex differences with respect to left- and right-hemispheric measures of BA 44/45, we also assessed possible sex differences in BA 44/45 asymmetry. Our analyses revealed significantly larger gray matter volumes in females compared with males for BA 44 and BA 45 bilaterally. However, there was a lack of significant sex differences in BA 44/45 asymmetry. These results corroborate reports of a language-related female superiority, particularly with respect to verbal fluency and verbal memory tasks. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Ego development in female-to-male transsexual couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, M; Costos, D; MacGowan, B

    1984-12-01

    The ego development of 22 postoperative female-to-male transsexuals and their spouses or lovers with whom they had been living for a year or more was investigated. The transsexuals, their spouses, and a control group of 22 couples were administered the Washington University Sentence Completion Test of Ego Development, a projective measure of ego functioning. Ego development refers to the framework of meaning that the individual brings to an experience. The construct of ego development incorporates a series of sequential stages that integrate various frames of reference including cognitive style, interpersonal style, conscious preoccupation, and impulse control. These processes have received little attention in studies on female-to-male transsexuals who have successfully negotiated the social barrier of cross-living to the extent that they are living the male role in a heterosexual relationship. No significant differences in the distribution of ego development scores were found between the transsexuals and the control males, or between the transsexuals' spouses and the control spouses. Over 93% of the transsexuals and their spouses scored above the conformist level of ego development. These findings are discussed in terms of some of the previous literature on conformist thinking by transsexuals.

  18. White Matter Volume Predicts Language Development in Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Caitlin K; Asaro, Lisa A; Akhondi-Asl, Alireza; Kussman, Barry D; Rivkin, Michael J; Bellinger, David C; Warfield, Simon K; Wypij, David; Newburger, Jane W; Soul, Janet S

    2017-02-01

    To determine whether brain volume is reduced at 1 year of age and whether these volumes are associated with neurodevelopment in biventricular congenital heart disease (CHD) repaired in infancy. Infants with biventricular CHD (n = 48) underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurodevelopmental testing with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II and the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories at 1 year of age. A multitemplate based probabilistic segmentation algorithm was applied to volumetric MRI data. We compared volumes with those of 13 healthy control infants of comparable ages. In the group with CHD, we measured Spearman correlations between neurodevelopmental outcomes and the residuals from linear regression of the volumes on corrected chronological age at MRI and sex. Compared with controls, infants with CHD had reductions of 54 mL in total brain (P = .009), 40 mL in cerebral white matter (P Development-II scores but did correlate positively with MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory language development. Infants with biventricular CHD show total brain volume reductions at 1 year of age, driven by differences in cerebral white matter. White matter volume correlates with language development, but not broader developmental indices. These findings suggest that abnormalities in white matter development detected months after corrective heart surgery may contribute to language impairment. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00006183. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hybrid female mate choice as a species isolating mechanism: environment matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, E M; Pfennig, K S

    2016-04-01

    A fundamental goal of biology is to understand how new species arise and are maintained. Female mate choice is potentially critical to the speciation process: mate choice can prevent hybridization and thereby generate reproductive isolation between potentially interbreeding groups. Yet, in systems where hybridization occurs, mate choice by hybrid females might also play a key role in reproductive isolation by affecting hybrid fitness and contributing to patterns of gene flow between species. We evaluated whether hybrid mate choice behaviour could serve as such an isolating mechanism using spadefoot toad hybrids of Spea multiplicata and Spea bombifrons. We assessed the mate preferences of female hybrid spadefoot toads for sterile hybrid males vs. pure-species males in two alternative habitat types in which spadefoots breed: deep or shallow water. We found that, in deep water, hybrid females preferred the calls of sterile hybrid males to those of S. multiplicata males. Thus, maladaptive hybrid mate preferences could serve as an isolating mechanism. However, in shallow water, the preference for hybrid male calls was not expressed. Moreover, hybrid females did not prefer hybrid calls to those of S. bombifrons in either environment. Because hybrid female mate choice was context-dependent, its efficacy as a reproductive isolating mechanism will depend on both the environment in which females choose their mates as well as the relative frequencies of males in a given population. Thus, reproductive isolation between species, as well as habitat specific patterns of gene flow between species, might depend critically on the nature of hybrid mate preferences and the way in which they vary across environments. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Obesity Associated Cerebral Gray and White Matter Alterations Are Interrelated in the Female Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Mueller

    Full Text Available Obesity is known to affect the brain's gray matter (GM and white matter (WM structure but the interrelationship of such changes remains unclear. Here we used T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in combination with voxel-based morphometry (VBM and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS to assess the relationship between obesity-associated alterations of gray matter density (GMD and anisotropic water diffusion in WM, respectively. In a small cohort of lean to obese women, we confirmed previous reports of obesity-associated alterations of GMD in brain regions involved in executive control (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DLPFC and habit learning (i.e., dorsal striatum. Gray matter density alterations of the DLPFC were negatively correlated with radial diffusivity in the entire corpus callosum. Within the genu of the corpus callosum we found a positive correlation with axial diffusivity. In posterior region and inferior areas of the body of the corpus callosum, axial diffusivity correlated negatively with altered GMD in the dorsal striatum. These findings suggest that, in women, obesity-related alterations of GMD in brain regions involved in executive control and habit learning might relate to alterations of associated WM fiber bundles within the corpus callosum.

  1. Sleep spindling and fluid intelligence across adolescent development: sex matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bódizs, Róbert; Gombos, Ferenc; Ujma, Péter P; Kovács, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    Evidence supports the intricate relationship between sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) spindling and cognitive abilities in children and adults. Although sleep EEG changes during adolescence index fundamental brain reorganization, a detailed analysis of sleep spindling and the spindle-intelligence relationship was not yet provided for adolescents. Therefore, adolescent development of sleep spindle oscillations were studied in a home polysomnographic study focusing on the effects of chronological age and developmentally acquired overall mental efficiency (fluid IQ) with sex as a potential modulating factor. Subjects were 24 healthy adolescents (12 males) with an age range of 15-22 years (mean: 18 years) and fluid IQ of 91-126 (mean: 104.12, Raven Progressive Matrices Test). Slow spindles (SSs) and fast spindles (FSs) were analyzed in 21 EEG derivations by using the individual adjustment method (IAM). A significant age-dependent increase in average FS density (r = 0.57; p = 0.005) was found. Moreover, fluid IQ correlated with FS density (r = 0.43; p = 0.04) and amplitude (r = 0.41; p = 0.049). The latter effects were entirely driven by particularly reliable FS-IQ correlations in females [r = 0.80 (p = 0.002) and r = 0.67 (p = 0.012), for density and amplitude, respectively]. Region-specific analyses revealed that these correlations peak in the fronto-central regions. The control of the age-dependence of FS measures and IQ scores did not considerably reduce the spindle-IQ correlations with respect to FS density. The only positive spindle-index of fluid IQ in males turned out to be the frequency of FSs (r = 0.60, p = 0.04). Increases in FS density during adolescence may index reshaped structural connectivity related to white matter maturation in the late developing human brain. The continued development over this age range of cognitive functions is indexed by specific measures of sleep spindling unraveling gender differences in adolescent brain maturation and perhaps

  2. Birthplace effects on the development of female athletic talent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Dany J; King, Jared; Côté, Jean; Abernethy, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which an athlete's place of birth can influence the likelihood of playing professional sport. Information regarding the birthplace of all American female athletes in the Ladies Professional Golf Association and Women's United Soccer Association was gathered from official league websites. Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine if the birthplace of these professional athletes differed in any systematic way from official census population distributions. Odds-ratios were determined for cities within specific population ranges to ascertain if the likelihood of playing professional sport was influenced in any systematic way by city size. The analyses revealed that female professional soccer players born in cities of less than 1,000,000 were over-represented, as were female professional golfers born in cities of less than 250,000. Results are consistent with those of male professional athletes in suggesting that areas of lower population provide conditions more conducive to the development of expertise than do larger city environments.

  3. When phonetics matters: creation and perception of female images in song folklore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stashko Halyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a stylistic analysis of female images in American song folklore in order to examine how sound symbolic language elements contribute to the construction of verbal images. The results obtained show the link between sound and meaning and how such phonetic means of stylistics as assonance, alliteration, and onomatopoeia function to reinforce the meanings of words or to set the mood typical of the characters. Their synergy helps create and interpret female images and provides relevant atmosphere and background to them in folk song texts.

  4. Development of the Reference Korean Female Voxel Phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Yeom, Yoen Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is for development of the reference Korean female phantom, HDRK-Woman. The phantom was constructed by adjusting a Korean woman voxel phantom to the Reference Korean data. The Korean woman phantom had been developed based on the high-resolution color slice images obtained from an adult Korean female cadaver. There were a total of 39 organs including the 27 organs specified in ICRP 103 for effective dose calculation. The voxel resolution of the phantom was 1.967 X 1.967 X X 2.0619 mm 3 and the voxel array size is 261 X 109 X 825 in the x, y and z directions. Then, the voxel resolution was changed to 2.0351 X 2.0351 X 2.0747 mm 3 for adjustment of the height and total bone mass of the phantom to the Reference Korean data. Finally, the internal organs and tissue were adjusted using in-house software program developed for 3D volume adjustment of the organs and tissue. The effective dose values of HDRK phantoms were calculated for broad parallel photon beams using MCNPX Monte Carlo code and compared with those of ICRP phantoms.

  5. Development of the Reference Korean Female Voxel Phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo [University of Science and Technology, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Yoen Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The objective of this study is for development of the reference Korean female phantom, HDRK-Woman. The phantom was constructed by adjusting a Korean woman voxel phantom to the Reference Korean data. The Korean woman phantom had been developed based on the high-resolution color slice images obtained from an adult Korean female cadaver. There were a total of 39 organs including the 27 organs specified in ICRP 103 for effective dose calculation. The voxel resolution of the phantom was 1.967 X 1.967 X X 2.0619 mm{sup 3} and the voxel array size is 261 X 109 X 825 in the x, y and z directions. Then, the voxel resolution was changed to 2.0351 X 2.0351 X 2.0747 mm{sup 3} for adjustment of the height and total bone mass of the phantom to the Reference Korean data. Finally, the internal organs and tissue were adjusted using in-house software program developed for 3D volume adjustment of the organs and tissue. The effective dose values of HDRK phantoms were calculated for broad parallel photon beams using MCNPX Monte Carlo code and compared with those of ICRP phantoms.

  6. Family Matters: Familial Support and Science Identity Formation for African American Female STEM Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ashley Dawn

    2013-01-01

    This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical…

  7. Development of medfly female attractant systems for trapping in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains information from a four-year research programme co-ordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The objective of the programme was to develop a trapping system for females of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), for practical use in Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs and to design and evaluate a trap to obtain eggs from wild female medflies in order to estimate sterility induction in the field population. Spain (through INIA) participated in this programme because of interest in the control of medfly in this area of the Mediterranean. Citrus, peaches, plums, apricots and other subtropical fruits are some of the cultures which are severely attacked by this pest. To facilitate comparison of results, all the trials of 1994 - 97 were carried out in the same orchards. These orchards were located near the Malaga airport in the south of Spain on the Mediterranean coast. Female medfly attractants tested were three food based 'female' attractants (FA-3), namely ammonium acetate (AA), 1,4 diaminobutane (putrescine) and trimethylamine, all formulated to last at least one month. These attractants were evaluated either in combinations of two (AA + putrescine, termed FA-2) or all three (termed FA-3). The attractants were tested in various traps including the plastic International Pheromone's McPhail traps (IPMT) and Tephri traps, a Spanish trap similar to the IPMT. Traps were used either as a dry trap (provided with DDVP) or a wet trap (provided with water and 0.01% surfactant). Jackson traps with Trimedlure JT,TML), a routinely used male medfly trapping system, was also used. Based on the results of successive years, we can observe progress towards the project goals. In 1994, the development of the FA-2 attractants (P+AA) with their selectivity for female medflies was a significant effort towards reaching future goals. The synergism of trimethylamine with the FA-2 attractants, yielding the FA-3

  8. Early dynamics of white matter deficits in children developing dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderauwera, Jolijn; Wouters, Jan; Vandermosten, Maaike; Ghesquière, Pol

    2017-10-01

    Neural anomalies have been demonstrated in dyslexia. Recent studies in pre-readers at risk for dyslexia and in pre-readers developing poor reading suggest that these anomalies might be a cause of their reading impairment. Our study goes one step further by exploring the neurodevelopmental trajectory of white matter anomalies in pre-readers with and without a familial risk for dyslexia (n=61) of whom a strictly selected sample develops dyslexia later on (n=15). We collected longitudinal diffusion MRI and behavioural data until grade 3. The results provide evidence that children with dyslexia exhibit pre-reading white matter anomalies in left and right long segment of the arcuate fasciculus (AF), with predictive power of the left segment above traditional cognitive measures and familial risk. Whereas white matter differences in the left AF seem most strongly related to the development of dyslexia, differences in the left IFOF and in the right AF seem driven by both familial risk and later reading ability. Moreover, differences in the left AF appeared to be dynamic. This study supports and expands recent insights into the neural basis of dyslexia, pointing towards pre-reading anomalies related to dyslexia, as well as underpinning the dynamic character of white matter. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Married women's negotiation for safer sexual intercourse in Kenya: Does experience of female genital mutilation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xiangnan; Sano, Yujiro; Kansanga, Moses; Baada, Jemima; Antabe, Roger

    2017-12-01

    Married women's ability to negotiate for safer sex is important for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa, including Kenya. Yet, its relationship to female genital mutilation is rarely explored, although female genital mutilation has been described as a social norm and marker of womanhood that can control women's sexuality. Drawing on the social normative influence theory, this study addressed this void in the literature. We analysed data from the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey using logistic regression. Our sample included 8,602 married women. Two indicators of safer sex, namely the ability to refuse sex and the ability to ask for condom use, were explored. We found that women who had undergone genital mutilation were significantly less likely to report that they can refuse sex (OR=0.87; p<.05) and that they can ask for condom use during sexual intercourse (OR=0.62; p<.001) than their counterparts who had not undergone genital mutilation, while controlling for theoretically relevant variables. Our findings indicate that the experience of female genital mutilation may influence married women's ability to negotiate for safer sex through gendered socialization and expectations. Based on these findings, several policy implications are suggested. For instance, culturally sensitive programmes are needed that target both married women who have undergone genital mutilation and their husbands to understand the importance of safer sexual practices within marriage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Adipose tissue transcriptome changes during obesity development in female dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ryan W; Vester Boler, Brittany M; Ridge, Tonya K; Graves, Thomas K; Swanson, Kelly S

    2011-03-29

    During the development of obesity, adipose tissue undergoes major expansion and remodeling, but the biological processes involved in this transition are not well understood. The objective of this study was to analyze global gene expression profiles of adipose tissue in dogs, fed a high-fat diet, during the transition from a lean to obese phenotype. Nine female beagles (4.09 ± 0.64 yr; 8.48 ± 0.35 kg) were randomized to ad libitum feeding or body weight maintenance. Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy, blood, and dual x-ray absorptiometry measurements were collected at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 wk of feeding. Serum was analyzed for glucose, insulin, fructosamine, triglycerides, free fatty acids, adiponectin, and leptin. Formalin-fixed adipose tissue was used for determination of adipocyte size. Adipose RNA samples were hybridized to Affymetrix Canine 2.0 microarrays. Statistical analysis, using repeated-measures ANOVA, showed ad libitum feeding increased (P obesity development.

  11. Diet matters: Glucocorticoid-related neuroadaptations associated with calorie intake in female rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Jodi R; Diaz, Maylen Perez; Pincus, Melanie; Kovacs-Balint, Zsofia; Feczko, Eric; Earl, Eric; Miranda-Dominguez, Oscar; Fair, Damien; Sanchez, Mar M; Wilson, Mark E; Michopoulos, Vasiliki

    2018-05-01

    Exposure to psychosocial stressors increases consumption of palatable, calorically dense diets (CDD) and the risk for obesity, especially in females. While consumption of an obesogenic diet and chronic stress have both been shown to decrease dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) binding and alter functional connectivity (FC) within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), it remains uncertain how social experience and dietary environment interact to affect reward pathways critical for the regulation of motivated behavior. Using positron emission tomography (PET) and resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance neuroimaging (rs-fMRI), in female rhesus monkeys maintained in a low calorie chow (n = 18) or a dietary choice condition (chow and a CDD; n = 16) for 12 months, the current study tested the overarching hypothesis that the adverse social experience resulting from subordinate social status would interact with consumption of an obesogenic diet to increase caloric intake that would be predicted by greater cortisol, lower prefrontal D2R binding potential (D2R-BP) and lower PFC-NAcc FC. Results showed that the consequences of adverse social experience imposed by chronic social subordination vary significantly depending on the dietary environment and are associated with alterations in prefrontal D2R-BP and FC in NAcc-PFC sub-regions that predict differences in caloric intake, body weight gain, and fat accumulation. Higher levels of cortisol in the chow-only condition were associated with mild inappetence, as well as increased orbitofrontal (OFC) D2R-BP and greater FC between the NAcc and the dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC) and ventromedial PFC (vmPFC). However, increased cortisol release in females in the dietary choice condition was associated with reduced prefrontal D2R-BP, and opposite FC between the NAcc and the vmPFC and dlPFC observed in the chow-only females. Importantly, the degree of these glucocorticoid-related neuroadaptations

  12. Does Gender Matter? Female Representation on Corporate Boards and Firm Financial Performance--A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletzer, Jan Luca; Nikolova, Romina; Kedzior, Karina Karolina; Voelpel, Sven Constantin

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an ongoing, worldwide debate about the representation of females in companies. Our study aimed to meta-analytically investigate the controversial relationship between female representation on corporate boards and firm financial performance. Following a systematic literature search, data from 20 studies on 3097 companies published in peer-reviewed academic journals were included in the meta-analysis. On average, the boards consisted of eight members and female participation was low (mean 14%) in all studies. Half of the 20 studies were based on data from developing countries and 62% from higher income countries. According to the random-effects model, the overall mean weighted correlation between percentage of females on corporate boards and firm performance was small and non-significant (r = .01, 95% confidence interval: -.04, .07). Similar small effect sizes were observed when comparing studies based on developing vs. developed countries and higher vs. lower income countries. The mean board size was not related to the effect sizes in studies. These results indicate that the mere representation of females on corporate boards is not related to firm financial performance if other factors are not considered. We conclude our study with a discussion of its implications and limitations.

  13. The development of children's inhibition: Does parenting matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Roskam, I.; Stievenart, Marie; Meunier, J.-C.; Noël, M.-P.

    2014-01-01

    Whereas a large body of research has investigated the maturation of inhibition in relation to the prefrontal cortex, far less research has been devoted to environmental factors that could contribute to inhibition improvement. The aim of the current study was to test whether and to what extent parenting matters for inhibition development from 2 to 8. years of age. Data were collected from 421 families, with 348 mother-child dyads and 342 father-child dyads participating. Children's inhibition ...

  14. Mapping Gray Matter Development: Implications for Typical Development and Vulnerability to Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogtay, Nitin; Thompson, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have scanned large numbers of children and adolescents repeatedly over time, as their brains develop, tracking volumetric changes in gray and white matter in remarkable detail. Focusing on gray matter changes specifically, here we explain how earlier studies using lobar volumes of specific…

  15. Development and Female Crime: A Cross-National Test of Alternative Explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffensmeier, Darrell; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Interpol data from 69 countries indicate that the relationship between female percentage of arrests and national development status is mediated by opportunity for "female" consumer crimes and formalization of social control (which makes female crime more visible), but not by gender equality or female economic marginality. Contains 49 references.…

  16. The effects of puberty on white matter development in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Lara; Goddings, Anne-Lise; Whitaker, Kirstie J; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Viner, Russell M

    2015-02-01

    Neuroimaging studies demonstrate considerable changes in white matter volume and microstructure during adolescence. Most studies have focused on age-related effects, whilst puberty-related changes are not well understood. Using diffusion tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics, we investigated the effects of pubertal status on white matter mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) in 61 males aged 12.7-16.0 years. Participants were grouped into early-mid puberty (≤Tanner Stage 3 in pubic hair and gonadal development; n=22) and late-post puberty (≥Tanner Stage 4 in pubic hair or gonadal development; n=39). Salivary levels of pubertal hormones (testosterone, DHEA and oestradiol) were also measured. Pubertal stage was significantly related to MD in diverse white matter regions. No relationship was observed between pubertal status and FA. Regression modelling of MD in the significant regions demonstrated that an interaction model incorporating puberty, age and puberty×age best explained our findings. In addition, testosterone was correlated with MD in these pubertally significant regions. No relationship was observed between oestradiol or DHEA and MD. In conclusion, pubertal status was significantly related to MD, but not FA, and this relationship cannot be explained by changes in chronological age alone. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. STATUS OF DEVELOPMENT OF DYNAMOMETER FORCE IN FEMALE ATHLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan V. Doder

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to perceive, on a great sample of sportswomen, di- vided according to the age, the current trend of the development of this ability related to some former researches that means to perceive concurrence or possibly distinguishing of those values related to the previous ones. On the sample of 792 sportswomen, at the age of 8 till 21, divided on sub-samples according to the age it was measured dynamometer force by classic methods of dynamometer measuring. Such obtained results placed in a data base of a Provincial Institution for sport in Novi Sad, were processed by methods of descriptive statistics, on the basis of which it was carried out a developing curve of this ability of a contemporary sports youth. Based on the size of some sub-samples it could be concluded that the number of some respondents within them at the age of 10 to 21 in most cases allow relevant concluding about developing trends of explosive force, altho- ugh it must be noticed that less presence of respondents in initial and final years allows only conditional conclusion. In sportswomen a developing curve is being characterized by a steady time of obtaining of maximum values (at the age of twenty till twenty-one and only at the muscles of legs maximum values are noted earlier at the age of eighteen till twenty. Dynamics of the development of dynamometer force till those maximum va- lues has a different trend for different muscular groups. After achieving of maximum values, force is being maintained constantly for a long time on a lower level, and only varies in rare cases. Within a female population a developing trend of dynamometer force is very prone to bigger varying of some muscular groups but because of that top values are being noted almost in the same period of a development of an individual. The time of lasting of those maximum values related to the male population is considerably shorter. Though, after the peak, sportswomen maintain the level

  18. Promoting female condoms in the sex industry in 4 towns of Southern China: context matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Li; Liao, Susu; Weeks, Margaret R; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Jingmei; Zhang, Qingning; Zhou, Yuejiao; He, Bin; Li, Jianghong; Dunn, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    The female condom (FC) is an effective tool for dual protection, but it remains underused. Individual and contextual reasons need to be explored. The aim of this study was to compare individual and contextual characteristics of FC multitime users, 1-time users, and nonusers among women in the sex industry of 4 study sites in China. A standardized 1-year FC intervention along with male condoms was implemented through outreach to sex establishments. Three serial cross-sectional surveys were conducted at baseline and after each of two 6-month intervention phases. A total of 445, 437, and 290 eligible women were interviewed at 3 cross-sectional surveys, respectively. At the first and second postintervention surveys, 83.3% and 81.7% of women reported knowing about FC, and 28.8% and 36.6% had used FC at least once. Women who used FC multiple times reported less unprotected sex than nonusers in the last 30 days (3.0% vs. 17.2% at first and 3.2% vs. 16.8% at second postintervention survey, P 4.0) and working in boarding houses (adjusted odds ratio, 3.4) were associated with FC use. Adding FC into male-condom-only intervention may reduce unprotected sex among women in sex establishments in rural and small urban areas of China. Adoption of FC may be related not only to intervention exposure but also to contextual factors associated with study site and type of sex establishments.

  19. A matter of months: High precision migration chronology of a Bronze Age female.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Margarita Frei

    Full Text Available Establishing the age at which prehistoric individuals move away from their childhood residential location holds crucial information about the socio dynamics and mobility patterns in ancient societies. We present a novel combination of strontium isotope analyses performed on the over 3000 year old "Skrydstrup Woman" from Denmark, for whom we compiled a highly detailed month-scale model of her migration timeline. When combined with physical anthropological analyses this timeline can be related to the chronological age at which the residential location changed. We conducted a series of high-resolution strontium isotope analyses of hard and soft human tissues and combined these with anthropological investigations including CT-scanning and 3D visualizations. The Skrydstrup Woman lived during a pan-European period characterized by technical innovation and great social transformations stimulated by long-distance connections; consequently she represents an important part of both Danish and European prehistory. Our multidisciplinary study involves complementary biochemical, biomolecular and microscopy analyses of her scalp hair. Our results reveal that the Skrydstrup Woman was between 17-18 years old when she died, and that she moved from her place of origin -outside present day Denmark- to the Skrydstrup area in Denmark 47 to 42 months before she died. Hence, she was between 13 to 14 years old when she migrated to and resided in the area around Skrydstrup for the rest of her life. From an archaeological standpoint, this one-time and one-way movement of an elite female during the possible "age of marriageability" might suggest that she migrated with the aim of establishing an alliance between chiefdoms. Consequently, this detailed multidisciplinary investigation provides a novel tool to reconstruct high resolution chronology of individual mobility with the perspective of studying complex patterns of social and economic interaction in prehistory.

  20. A matter of months: High precision migration chronology of a Bronze Age female

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Chiara; Jørkov, Marie Louise; Allentoft, Morten E.; Kaul, Flemming; Ethelberg, Per; Reiter, Samantha S.; Wilson, Andrew S.; Taube, Michelle; Olsen, Jesper; Lynnerup, Niels; Willerslev, Eske; Kristiansen, Kristian; Frei, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Establishing the age at which prehistoric individuals move away from their childhood residential location holds crucial information about the socio dynamics and mobility patterns in ancient societies. We present a novel combination of strontium isotope analyses performed on the over 3000 year old “Skrydstrup Woman” from Denmark, for whom we compiled a highly detailed month-scale model of her migration timeline. When combined with physical anthropological analyses this timeline can be related to the chronological age at which the residential location changed. We conducted a series of high-resolution strontium isotope analyses of hard and soft human tissues and combined these with anthropological investigations including CT-scanning and 3D visualizations. The Skrydstrup Woman lived during a pan-European period characterized by technical innovation and great social transformations stimulated by long-distance connections; consequently she represents an important part of both Danish and European prehistory. Our multidisciplinary study involves complementary biochemical, biomolecular and microscopy analyses of her scalp hair. Our results reveal that the Skrydstrup Woman was between 17–18 years old when she died, and that she moved from her place of origin -outside present day Denmark- to the Skrydstrup area in Denmark 47 to 42 months before she died. Hence, she was between 13 to 14 years old when she migrated to and resided in the area around Skrydstrup for the rest of her life. From an archaeological standpoint, this one-time and one-way movement of an elite female during the possible “age of marriageability” might suggest that she migrated with the aim of establishing an alliance between chiefdoms. Consequently, this detailed multidisciplinary investigation provides a novel tool to reconstruct high resolution chronology of individual mobility with the perspective of studying complex patterns of social and economic interaction in prehistory. PMID:28582402

  1. Attentional and affective biases for attractive females emerge early in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennels, Jennifer Lynn; Verba, Stephanie Ann

    2017-01-01

    Predominant experience with females early in development results in infants developing an attractive, female-like facial representation that guides children's attention toward and affective preferences for attractive females. When combined with increased interest in the other sex at puberty, these early emerging biases might help explain the robust prosocial and financial biases men exhibit toward attractive women during adulthood.

  2. Development of a female medfly attractant system in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakri, A.

    1999-01-01

    Field trials were conducted in Morocco to evaluate food-based attractants according to the FAO/IAEA international network program. Ammonium acetate plus putrescine (FA-2 attractants) were very effective and selective for female medfly attraction. The addition of trimethylamine (FA-3 attractants) increased trap catches. The association of the female attractants with various traps were tested in two medfly host plants, argan (Argania spinosa) and mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) during two seasons (fall and summer). Open bottom dry traps (OBDTs), closed bottom dry traps (CBDTs), dry International Pheromone's McPhail traps (IPMTs), wet IPMTs, locally made traps and Tephri traps, all baited with the synthetic lures (FA-2 and FA-3), were compared to liquid protein baited IPMTs and Trimedlure baited Jackson traps. Results showed that the new trapping systems were as effective in capturing females as the standard IPMT baited with NuLure + borax. Furthermore, dry Tephri traps were the most effective under certain conditions. Only in one experiment were CBDTs baited with the synthetic two component lure (FA-2) as effective as Trimedlure baited Jackson traps. In most cases the attracted females were immature. Attempts to increase the attractiveness of the synthetic lure by the addition of male medfly synthetic pheromone failed. Based on the results obtained, it is apparent that the three component synthetic female attractant (FA-3) provides an effective system for capturing female medflies and could be used as an alternative to NuLure baited IPMT traps for assessing the efficacy of SIT when sterile males are released. (author)

  3. Constructing Occupational Identities: How Female Preschool Teachers Develop Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mina

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how female teachers construct their occupational identities as teachers within early childhood education (ECE) settings. The combination of feminist scholarship and the use of teacher life history method allow these women to describe themselves as professionally trained and educated teachers who love teaching and children even…

  4. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  5. What explains uneven female labor force participation levels and trends in developing countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Rapid fertility decline, a strong expansion of female education, and favorable economic conditions should have promoted female labor force participation in developing countries. Yet trends in female labor force participation (FLFP) have been quite heterogeneous, rising strongly in Latin America, stagnating in many other regions, while improvements were modest in the Middle East and female participation even fell in South Asia. These trends are inconsistent with secular theories such as the Fe...

  6. methanization of organic matters. Guide for project developers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-02-01

    This document aims at informing potential project developers (farmers, local communities, industrials) all along the creation of a methanization unit. It precisely indicates administrative procedures required to complete a project. It first presents some generalities about methanization (matters and their performance, methanization cycle, biogas), describes methanization processes (dry and humid), and valorisation processes (co-generation, hot water production, gas injection into the public network), presents digestate characteristics, and discusses benefits and drawbacks of methanization. The different steps of a project management are then analysed. Additional procedures are indicated, and risks and traps of methanization projects are highlighted. The document comes along with a large number of appendices which can be documents released by professional or public bodies

  7. The development of children's inhibition: does parenting matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Stievenart, Marie; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Noël, Marie-Pascale

    2014-06-01

    Whereas a large body of research has investigated the maturation of inhibition in relation to the prefrontal cortex, far less research has been devoted to environmental factors that could contribute to inhibition improvement. The aim of the current study was to test whether and to what extent parenting matters for inhibition development from 2 to 8years of age. Data were collected from 421 families, with 348 mother-child dyads and 342 father-child dyads participating. Children's inhibition capacities and parenting behaviors were assessed in a three-wave longitudinal data collection. The main analyses examined the impact of parenting on the development of children's inhibition capacities. They were conducted using a multilevel modeling (MLM) framework. The results lead to the conclusion that both mothers and fathers contribute through their child-rearing behavior to their children's executive functioning, even when controlling for age-related improvement (maturation) and important covariates such as gender, verbal IQ, and place of enrollment. More significant relations between children's inhibition development and parenting were displayed for mothers than for fathers. More precisely, parenting behaviors that involve higher monitoring, lower discipline, inconsistency and negative controlling, and a positive parenting style are associated with good development of inhibition capacities in children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cognitive Function and Serum Hormone Levels Are Associated with Gray Matter Volume Decline in Female Patients with Prolactinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Yao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectiveCognitive impairments have been reported in patients with hyperprolactinemia; however, there is a lack of knowledge of brain structure alterations relevant to hyperprolactinemia in prolactinomas. Thus, we aimed to identify changes in brain structure in prolactinomas and to determine whether these changes are related to cognitive performance and clinical characteristics.MethodsParticipants were 32 female patients with prolactinomas and 26 healthy controls (HC matched for age, sex, education, and handedness. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging brain scans, neuropsychological assessments, and clinical evaluations. Voxel-based morphometry analysis was used to identify changes in gray matter volume (GMV. Partial correlation analysis and multiple linear regression were performed to determine the relationship between GMV, cognition, and clinical characteristics.ResultsCompared to HC, patients with prolactinomas demonstrated a decrease in GMV in the left hippocampus, left orbitofrontal cortex, right middle frontal cortex (MFC, and right inferior frontal cortex (IFC. In addition, patients performed worse than controls on tests for verbal memory and executive function, and this was significantly related to the GMV of the left hippocampus and right MFC, respectively. Moreover, in the patients, we found a negative relationship between serum prolactin levels and the GMV of the left hippocampus and right IFC, whereas a positive relationship was found between the GMV of the left hippocampus and serum levels of estradiol and luteinizing hormone.ConclusionIn patients with prolactinomas, specific brain structure abnormalities have been identified and are associated with cognitive impairments and dysfunctional hormones. This study enhances our understanding of brain structure changes that may occur with prolactinomas and provides novel and fundamental evidence for previous behavioral findings relevant to hyperprolactinemia.

  9. Local Energy Matters: Solar Development in Duluth, Minnesota Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slick, Jodi Lyn [Ecolibrium3

    2018-03-30

    The Local Energy Matters project advanced solar deployment in the City of Duluth, MN- a cold-climate community of 86,000. At the beginning of the project, Duluth had 254.57 kW installed solar capacity with an average cost of $5.04/watt installed in 2014. The project worked with cross-sector stakeholders to benchmark the current market, implement best practices for solar deployment and soft cost reduction, develop pilot deployment programs in residential rooftop, community solar, and commercial/industrial sectors, work with the City of Duluth to determine appropriate sites for utility scale developments, and demonstrate solar pus storage. Over the three years of the project, Duluth’s installed residential and commercial solar capacity grew by 344% to 875.9 kW with an additional 702 kW solar garden capacity subscribed by Duluth residents, businesses, and institutions. Installation costs dropped 48% over this timeframe to $4.08/watt installed (exclusive of solar garden construction). This report documents the process used to identify levers for increased solar installation and cost reductions in a nascent cold-climate solar market.

  10. Distinct Trajectories of Cortisol Response to Prolonged Acute Stress Are Linked to Affective Responses and Hippocampal Gray Matter Volume in Healthy Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admon, Roee; Treadway, Michael T; Valeri, Linda; Mehta, Malavika; Douglas, Samuel; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2017-08-16

    The development of robust laboratory procedures for acute stress induction over the last decades has greatly advanced our understanding of stress responses in humans and their underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Nevertheless, attempts to uncover linear relationships among endocrine, neural, and affective responses to stress have generally yielded inconsistent results. Here, 79 healthy females completed a well established laboratory procedure of acute stress induction that was modified to prolong its effect. Endocrinological and subjective affect assessments revealed stress-induced increases in cortisol release and negative affect that persisted 65 and 100 min after stress onset, respectively, confirming a relatively prolonged acute stress induction. Applying latent class linear mixed modeling on individuals' patterns of cortisol responses identified three distinct trajectories of cortisol response: the hyper-response ( n = 10), moderate-response ( n = 21), and mild-response ( n = 48) groups. Notably, whereas all three groups exhibited a significant stress-induced increase in cortisol release and negative affect, the hyper-response and mild-response groups both reported more negative affect relative to the moderate-response group. Structural MRI revealed no group differences in hippocampal and amygdala volumes, yet a continuous measure of cortisol response (area under the curve) showed that high and low levels of stress-induced cortisol release were associated with less hippocampal gray matter volume compared with moderate cortisol release. Together, these results suggest that distinct trajectories of cortisol response to prolonged acute stress among healthy females may not be captured by conventional linear analyses; instead, quadratic relations may better describe links between cortisol response to stress and affective responses, as well as hippocampal structural variability. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Despite substantial research, it is unclear whether and how

  11. Association of regional gray matter volumes in the brain with disruptive behavior disorders in male and female children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina J. Michalska

    2015-01-01

    The present findings did not replicate previous findings of reduced gray matter volumes in the anterior insula, amygdala, and frontal cortex in youth with CD, but are consistent with previous findings of reduced gray matter volumes in temporal regions, particularly in girls.

  12. Endocrine disruptors in female reproductive tract development and carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Growing concerns over endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and their effects on human fetal development and adult health have promoted research into the underlying molecular mechanisms of endocrine disruption. Gene targeting technology has allowed insight into the genetic pathways governing reproductive tract development and how exposure to EDCs during a critical developmental window can alter reproductive tract development, potentially forming the basis for adult diseases. This review prima...

  13. A Subject Matter Expert View of Curriculum Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, M. P.; Anderson, R. B.; Edgar, L. A.; Gaither, T. A.; Vaughan, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    In 2015, NASA selected for funding the PLANETS project: Planetary Learning that Advances the Nexus of Engineering, Technology, and Science. The PLANETS partnership develops planetary science and engineering curricula for out of classroom time (OST) education settings. This partnership is between planetary science Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) at the US Geological Survey (USGS), curriculum developers at the Boston Museum of Science (MOS) Engineering is Everywhere (EiE), science and engineering teacher professional development experts at Northern Arizona University (NAU) Center for Science Teaching and Learning (CSTL), and OST teacher networks across the world. For the 2016 and 2017 Fiscal Years, our focus was on creating science material for two OST modules designed for middle school students. We have begun development of a third module for elementary school students. The first model teaches about the science and engineering of the availability of water in the Solar System, finding accessible water, evaluating it for quality, treating it for impurities, initial use, a cycle of greywater treatment and re-use, and final treatment of blackwater. This module is described in more detail in the abstract by L. Edgar et al., Water in the Solar System: The Development of Science Education Curriculum Focused on Planetary Exploration (233008) The second module involves the science and engineering of remote sensing in planetary exploration. This includes discussion and activities related to the electromagnetic spectrum, spectroscopy and various remote sensing systems and techniques. In these activities and discussions, we include observation and measurement techniques and tools as well as collection and use of specific data of interest to scientists. This module is described in more detail in the abstract by R. Anderson et al., Remote Sensing Mars Landing Sites: An Out-of-School Time Planetary Science Education Activity for Middle School Students (232683) The third module

  14. Hip-Hop's Influence on the Identity Development of Black Female College Students: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Wilma J.; West, Nicole M.; Jackson, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    This article explores unique issues regarding the effects of hip-hop culture on the identity development of young Black female college students. Through the lenses of womanist and Black feminist perspectives, the intersecting impact of race and gender are reviewed within the context of the competing influences of hip-hop on Black female identity.…

  15. Development of a sexual function questionnaire for clinical trials of female sexual dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quirk, Frances H.; Heiman, Julia R.; Rosen, Raymond C.; Laan, Ellen; Smith, Michael D.; Boolell, Mitra

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To better evaluate efficacy in clinical trials of drugs as potential treatments for female sexual dysfunctions (FSD), a brief, multidimensional measure of female sexual function was developed. METHODS: Data from semistructured interviews with 82 women with or without FSD, aged 19-65

  16. Strategies of Female Members of Parliament in Developing Empathy Values to Gain Constituent Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridhahani

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative research aims to describe the strategies applied by female parliamentary candidates to develop empathy values to gain constituent support in the legislative general election in 2014. Research subjects comprise 12 female members of parliament from seven regencies/cities in South Kalimantan who were chosen from different…

  17. Female Labor Supply and Fertility in Iran: A Comparison Between Developed, Semi Developed and Less Developed Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamgholipour Sefiddashti, Sara; Homaie Rad, Enayatollah; Arab, Mohamad; Bordbar, Shima

    2016-02-01

    Female labor supply has been changed dramatically in the recent yr. In this study, we examined the effects of development on the relationship between fertility and female labor supply. We used data of population and housing census of Iran and estimated three separate models. To do this we employed Logistic Regressions (BLR). The estimation results of our study showed that there was a negative relationship between fertility rate and female labor supply and there are some differences for this relationship in three models. When fertility rate increases, FLS would decreases. In addition, for higher fertility rates, the woman might be forced to work more because of the economic conditions of her family; and negative coefficients of the fertility rate effects on FLS would increase with a diminishing rate.

  18. Brief Report: Does Gender Matter in Intervention for ASD? Examining the Impact of the PEERS® Social Skills Intervention on Social Behavior among Females with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Alana J.; Schiltz, Hillary; Haendel, Angela; Dolan, Bridget K.; Willar, Kirsten S.; Pleiss, Sheryl; Karst, Jeffrey S.; Carson, Audrey M.; Caiozzo, Christina; Vogt, Elisabeth; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan

    2017-01-01

    A paucity of research has been conducted to examine the effect of social skills intervention on females with ASD. Females with ASD may have more difficulty developing meaningful friendships than males, as the social climate can be more complex (Archer, Coyne, "Personality and Social Psychology Review" 9(3):212-230, 2005). This study…

  19. Longitudinal development of hormone levels and grey matter density in 9 and 12-year-old twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Rachel M; Koenis, M M G; Schnack, Hugo G; van Baal, G Caroline; van Soelen, Inge L C; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2015-05-01

    Puberty is characterized by major changes in hormone levels and structural changes in the brain. To what extent these changes are associated and to what extent genes or environmental influences drive such an association is not clear. We acquired circulating levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol and testosterone and magnetic resonance images of the brain from 190 twins at age 9 [9.2 (0.11) years; 99 females/91 males]. This protocol was repeated at age 12 [12.1 (0.26) years] in 125 of these children (59 females/66 males). Using voxel-based morphometry, we tested whether circulating hormone levels are associated with grey matter density in boys and girls in a longitudinal, genetically informative design. In girls, changes in FSH level between the age of 9 and 12 positively associated with changes in grey matter density in areas covering the left hippocampus, left (pre)frontal areas, right cerebellum, and left anterior cingulate and precuneus. This association was mainly driven by environmental factors unique to the individual (i.e. the non-shared environment). In 12-year-old girls, a higher level of circulating estradiol levels was associated with lower grey matter density in frontal and parietal areas. This association was driven by environmental factors shared among the members of a twin pair. These findings show a pattern of physical and brain development going hand in hand.

  20. Gestational age at birth and brain white matter development in term-born infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies on infants/children born preterm have shown that adequate gestational length is critical for brain white matter development. Less is known regarding how variations in gestational age at birth in term infants/children affect white matter development, which was evaluated in this study. Using d...

  1. Breast cancer patterns and lifetime risk of developing breast cancer among Puerto Rican females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazario, C M; Figueroa-Vallés, N; Rosario, R V

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidemiologic patterns of breast cancer and to estimate the lifetime risk probability of developing breast cancer among Hispanic females using cancer data from Puerto Rico. The age-adjusted breast cancer incidence rate (per 100,000) in Puerto Rico increased from 15.3 in 1960-1964 to 43.3 in 1985-1989. The age-adjusted breast cancer mortality rate (per 100,000) increased from 5.7 to 10.6 comparing the same two time periods (1960-1964 vs 1985-1989). Nevertheless, in 1985-1989 breast cancer incidence rate was higher in US White females (110.8 per 100,000) compared to Puerto Rican females (51.4 per 100,000; age-adjusted to the 1970 US standard population). The breast cancer mortality rate was also higher in US White females (27.4 per 100,000) than in Puerto Rican females (15.1 per 100,000; age-adjusted to the 1970 US standard population) during 1985-1989. A multiple decrement life table was constructed applying age-specific incidence and mortality rates from cross-sectional data sets (1980-1984 and 1985-1989 data for Puerto Rican females and 1987-1989 SEER data sets for US White and Black females) to a hypothetical cohort of 10,000,000 women. The probability of developing invasive breast cancer was computed for the three groups using the long version of DEVCAN: Probability of DEVeloping CANcer software, version 3.3. The lifetime risk of developing breast cancer was 5.4% for Puerto Rican females, compared to 8.8% for US Black females and 13.0% for US White females. Lifetime risk for Puerto Rican females increased from 4.5% in 1980-1984 to 5.4% in 1985-1989. Lifetime risk of breast cancer appears to be increasing in Puerto Rico, but remains lower than the probability for US White females. Therefore, the application of lifetime probability of developing invasive breast cancer estimated for the US female population will overestimate the risk for the Puerto Rican female population.

  2. Born female: the development of nursing in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muecke, M A; Srisuphan, W

    1989-01-01

    Nursing was the first education-based occupational field for women in Thailand. In the brief span of 90 years since its beginning in hospital bedside care, it has become a professional field that has one of the greatest concentrations of women with doctoral degrees in the nation (n = 23). The academic evolution of nursing was instigated by the decisive contributions of two rich and powerful interests, the monarchy and private U.S.A.-based foundations. A cadre of doctorally prepared nurses has emerged. They, like members of other professions in Thailand, are predominantly from the urban privileged sector of society. The majority of today's nurses have followed a different course starting from petty bourgeoisie origins in towns and moving laterally through provincial bureaucratic channels. To date, lack of basic education has denied the poor and minority ethnic groups from the hill areas access to nursing. We describe the development of the nursing profession in three phases: the beginning of nurse training, 1896-1926; the creation of a small elite of nurses, 1926-1956; and the development of academic nursing, 1956 to the present. The future depends upon how the current polarization between the minority elite of university-prepared nurses and the majority lower middle class nurses proceeds. Since each group is governed and educated by separate government Ministries, and since women do not have access to higher government positions, nursing may have little control over its own development unless its new leaders take new leadership. One strategy is to recruit men into university nursing.

  3. Potential contribution of progesterone receptors to the development of sexual behavior in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desroziers, Elodie; Brock, Olivier; Bakker, Julie

    2017-04-01

    We previously showed that estradiol can have both defeminizing and feminizing effects on the developing mouse brain. Pre- and early postnatal estradiol defeminized the ability to show lordosis in adulthood, whereas prepubertal estradiol feminized this ability. Furthermore, we found that estradiol upregulates progesterone receptors (PR) during development, inducing both a male-and female-typical pattern of PR expression in the mouse hypothalamus. In the present study, we took advantage of a newly developed PR antagonist (ZK 137316) to determine whether PR contributes to either male- or female-typical sexual differentiation. Thus groups of male and female C57Bl/6j mice were treated with ZK 137316 or OIL as control: males were treated neonatally (P0-P10), during the critical period for male sexual differentiation, and females were treated prepubertally (P15-P25), during the critical period for female sexual differentiation. In adulthood, mice were tested for sexual behavior. In males, some minor effects of neonatal ZK treatment on sexual behavior were observed: latencies to the first mount, intromission and ejaculation were decreased in neonatally ZK treated males; however, this effect disappeared by the second mating test. By contrast, female mice treated with ZK during the prepubertal period showed significantly less lordosis than OIL-treated females. Mate preferences were not affected in either males or females treated with ZK during development. Taken together, these results suggest a role for PR and thus perhaps progesterone in the development of lordosis behavior in female mice. By contrast, no obvious role for PR can be discerned in the development of male sexual behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantifying Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying Matter explains how scientists learned to measure matter and quantify some of its most fascinating and useful properties. It presents many of the most important intellectual achievements and technical developments that led to the scientific interpretation of substance. Complete with full-color photographs, this exciting new volume describes the basic characteristics and properties of matter. Chapters include:. -Exploring the Nature of Matter. -The Origin of Matter. -The Search for Substance. -Quantifying Matter During the Scientific Revolution. -Understanding Matter's Electromagnet

  5. Involvement of ethylene in sex expression and female flower development in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Susana; Martínez, Cecilia; García, Juan Manuel; Megías, Zoraida; Jamilena, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Although it is known that ethylene has a masculinizing effect on watermelon, the specific role of this hormone in sex expression and flower development has not been analyzed in depth. By using different approaches the present work demonstrates that ethylene regulates differentially two sex-related developmental processes: sexual expression, i.e. the earliness and the number of female flowers per plant, and the development of individual floral buds. Ethylene production in the shoot apex as well as in male, female and bisexual flowers demonstrated that the female flower requires much more ethylene than the male one to develop, and that bisexual flowers result from a decrease in ethylene production in the female floral bud. The occurrence of bisexual flowers was found to be associated with elevated temperatures in the greenhouse, concomitantly with a reduction of ethylene production in the shoot apex. External treatments with ethephon and AVG, and the use of Cucurbita rootstocks with different ethylene production and sensitivity, confirmed that, as occurs in other cucurbit species, ethylene is required to arrest the development of stamens in the female flower. Nevertheless, in watermelon ethylene inhibits the transition from male to female flowering and reduces the number of pistillate flowers per plant, which runs contrary to findings in other cucurbit species. The use of Cucurbita rootstocks with elevated ethylene production delayed the production of female flowers but reduced the number of bisexual flowers, which is associated with a reduced fruit set and altered fruit shape.

  6. A Conceptual Female Hygiene Product : Developed from Needs and Prerequisites in an Agricultural East African Context

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Maria; Larsson, Lina

    2014-01-01

    Menstruation is a large problem for females in development countries today. Studies have shown that around 40 percent of menstruating girls have been absent from school due to their menstruation. One of the challenges that need to be solved is the absence of female hygiene products amongst women, especially in low income and developing countries due to the cost of commercial products. In countries where the national economy is unstable or poorly comes a problem with importing products, it wou...

  7. Sex steroid hormones matter for learning and memory: estrogenic regulation of hippocampal function in male and female rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaekyoon; Tuscher, Jennifer J.; Fortress, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    Ample evidence has demonstrated that sex steroid hormones, such as the potent estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2), affect hippocampal morphology, plasticity, and memory in male and female rodents. Yet relatively few investigators who work with male subjects consider the effects of these hormones on learning and memory. This review describes the effects of E2 on hippocampal spinogenesis, neurogenesis, physiology, and memory, with particular attention paid to the effects of E2 in male rodents. The estrogen receptors, cell-signaling pathways, and epigenetic processes necessary for E2 to enhance memory in female rodents are also discussed in detail. Finally, practical considerations for working with female rodents are described for those investigators thinking of adding females to their experimental designs. PMID:26286657

  8. Morbidity, mortality, and socioeconomics in females with 46,XY disorders of sex development: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, Agnethe; Johannsen, Trine H; Stochholm, Kirstine

    2018-01-01

    Context: Little is known about long-term health outcomes in phenotypic females with 46,XY disorders of sex development (XY females) and the socioeconomic profile is not described in detail. Objective: To describe morbidity, mortality and socioeconomic status in XY females in a comparison...... the general population. Interventions: None. Main outcome measures: combined mortality and morbidity as well as chapter-specific morbidity. Medicinal use and socioeconomic profile, including education, cohabitation and retirement. Results: Compared to female controls overall morbidity was increased in XY...... closely related to the DSD condition. Judged on educational level and income XY females perform well on the labor market. However, DSD seems to impact on the prospects of family life.​....

  9. Flowering in Xanthium strumarium: INITIATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF FEMALE INFLORESCENCE AND SEX EXPRESSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, M; Kinet, J M; Bodson, M; Havelange, A; Jacqmard, A; Bernier, G

    1981-06-01

    Vegetative plants of Xanthium strumarium L. grown in long days were induced to flower by exposure to one or several 16-hour dark periods. The distribution of male and female inflorescences on the flowering shoot was described, and a scoring system was designed to assess the development of the female inflorescences. The time of movement of the floral stimulus out of the induced leaf and the timing of action of high temperature were shown to be similar for both the apical male and lateral female inflorescences.Strong photoperiodic induction of the plants favored female sex expression, while maleness was enhanced by exogenous gibberellic acid. The problem of the control of sex expression in Xanthium is discussed in relation to the distribution pattern of male and female inflorescences on the flowering shoot and to the state of the meristem at the time of the arrival of the floral stimulus.

  10. Incidence, prevalence, diagnostic delay, and clinical presentation of female 46,XY disorders of sex development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, Agnethe; Johannsen, Trine H; Krag, Kirstine Stochholm

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: The prevalence of phenotypic females with a 46,XY karyotype is low, thus current knowledge about age and clinical presentation at diagnosis is sparse even for the most frequent conditions, androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), and gonadal dysgenesis. OBJECTIVE: To estimate incidence......, prevalence, age at diagnosis, and clinical presentation at diagnosis in 46,XY females. DESIGN AND SETTING: A nationwide study covering all known females with a 46,XY karyotype in Denmark since 1960. The diagnosis of 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD) was determined by medical record evaluation, data.......0-13.5; range, 0-34 y) in AIS and 17.0 years (95% confidence interval, 15.5-19.0; range, 0-28 y) in gonadal dysgenesis (P = .001). Clinical presentation was dependent on cause of DSD. CONCLUSIONS: The first estimate on prevalence of 46,XY females is 6.4 per 100 000 live born females. The presentation of AIS...

  11. Comparative expression profiling reveals gene functions in female meiosis and gametophyte development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lihua; He, Jiangman; Cai, Hanyang; Lin, Haiyan; Li, Yanqiang; Liu, Renyi; Yang, Zhenbiao; Qin, Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Megasporogenesis is essential for female fertility, and requires the accomplishment of meiosis and the formation of functional megaspores. The inaccessibility and low abundance of female meiocytes make it particularly difficult to elucidate the molecular basis underlying megasporogenesis. We used high-throughput tag-sequencing analysis to identify genes expressed in female meiocytes (FMs) by comparing gene expression profiles from wild-type ovules undergoing megasporogenesis with those from the spl mutant ovules, which lack megasporogenesis. A total of 862 genes were identified as FMs, with levels that are consistently reduced in spl ovules in two biological replicates. Fluorescence-assisted cell sorting followed by RNA-seq analysis of DMC1:GFP-labeled female meiocytes confirmed that 90% of the FMs are indeed detected in the female meiocyte protoplast profiling. We performed reverse genetic analysis of 120 candidate genes and identified four FM genes with a function in female meiosis progression in Arabidopsis. We further revealed that KLU, a putative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, is involved in chromosome pairing during female meiosis, most likely by affecting the normal expression pattern of DMC1 in ovules during female meiosis. Our studies provide valuable information for functional genomic analyses of plant germline development as well as insights into meiosis. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Intake of Erythrocytes Required for Reproductive Development of Female Schistosoma japonicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jipeng; Wang, Shuqi; Liu, Xiufeng; Xu, Bin; Chai, Riyi; Zhou, Pan; Ju, Chuan; Sun, Jun; Brindley, Paul J.; Hu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The reproductive development and maturation of female schistosomes are crucial since their released eggs are responsible for the host immunopathology and transmission of schistosomiasis. However, little is known about the nutrients required by female Schistosoma japonicum during its sexual maturation. We evaluated the promoting effect of several nutrients (calf serum, red blood cells (RBCs), ATP and hypoxanthine) on the reproductive development of pre-adult females at 18 days post infection (dpi) from mixed infections and at 50 dpi from unisexual infections of laboratory mice in basic medium RPMI-1640. We found RBCs, rather than other nutrients, promoted the female sexual maturation and egg production with significant morphological changes. In 27% of females (18 dpi) from mixed infections that paired with males in vitro on day 14, vitelline glands could be positively stained by Fast Blue B; and in 35% of females (50 dpi) from unisexual infections on day 21, mature vitelline cells were observed. Infertile eggs were detected among both groups. To analyze which component of mouse RBCs possesses the stimulating effect, RBCs were fractionated and included in media. However, the RBC fractions failed to stimulate development of the female reproductive organs. In addition, bovine hemoglobin hydrolysate, digested by neutral protease, was found to exhibit the promoting activity instead of untreated bovine hemoglobin. The other protein hydrolysate, lactalbumin hydrolysate, exhibited a similar effect with bovine hemoglobin hydrolysate. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we found the expression levels of four reproduction-related genes were significantly stimulated by RBCs. These data indicate that RBCs provide essential nutrients for the sexual maturation of female S. japonicum and that the protein component of RBCs appeared to constitute the key nutrient. These findings would improve laboratory culture of pre-adult schistosomes to adult worms in medium with well-defined components

  13. Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van N.; Rijntjes, E.; Heijning, van de B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats. EXP PHYSIOL 00(0) 000-000, 0000. - A lack of thyroid hormone, i.e. hypothyroidism, during early development results in multiple morphological and functional alterations in the developing brain. In the

  14. Incidence, Prevalence, Diagnostic Delay, and Clinical Presentation of Female 46,XY Disorders of Sex Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Agnethe; Johannsen, Trine H; Stochholm, Kirstine; Viuff, Mette H; Fedder, Jens; Main, Katharina M; Gravholt, Claus H

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of phenotypic females with a 46,XY karyotype is low, thus current knowledge about age and clinical presentation at diagnosis is sparse even for the most frequent conditions, androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), and gonadal dysgenesis. To estimate incidence, prevalence, age at diagnosis, and clinical presentation at diagnosis in 46,XY females. A nationwide study covering all known females with a 46,XY karyotype in Denmark since 1960. The diagnosis of 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD) was determined by medical record evaluation, data from the Danish National Patient Registry, and genetic testing, if available. A total of 166 females registered as 46,XY females in the Danish Cytogenetic Central Registry were identified. A total of 124 females were classified as having 46,XY DSD, 78 with AIS and 25 with gonadal dysgenesis, whereas the remaining subjects had a variety of different diagnoses. The prevalence of 46,XY females was 6.4 per 100 000 live born females, and for AIS and gonadal dysgenesis, it was 4.1 and 1.5 per 100 000, respectively. Median age at diagnosis was 7.5 years (95% confidence interval, 4.0-13.5; range, 0-34 y) in AIS and 17.0 years (95% confidence interval, 15.5-19.0; range, 0-28 y) in gonadal dysgenesis (P = .001). Clinical presentation was dependent on cause of DSD. The first estimate on prevalence of 46,XY females is 6.4 per 100 000 live born females. The presentation of AIS and gonadal dysgenesis is distinctly different, with AIS being diagnosed during childhood and gonadal dysgenesis during pubertal years. The presenting phenotype is dependent on the cause of 46,XY DSD.

  15. Zimbabwean Female Participation in Physics: Factors of Identity Formation Considered as Contributing to Developing an Orientation to Physics by Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudyanga, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the Zimbabwean female participation in physics, with special emphasis on the factors of identity formation considered as contributing to developing an orientation to physics by female students. The main study from which this paper was taken explored the influence of identity formation on the Zimbabwean Advanced Level…

  16. Development of multi-dimensional body image scale for malaysian female adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Yit Siew; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to develop a Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents. Data were collected among 328 female adolescents from a secondary school in Kuantan district, state of Pahang, Malaysia by using a self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The self-administered questionnaire comprised multiple measures of body image, Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26; Garner & Garfinkel, 1979) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1965...

  17. Sex Steroid Hormones Matter for Learning and Memory: Estrogenic Regulation of Hippocampal Function Inmale and Female Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Karyn M.; Kim, Jaekyoon; Tuscher, Jennifer J.; Fortress, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    Ample evidence has demonstrated that sex steroid hormones, such as the potent estrogen 17ß-estradiol (E[subscript 2]), affect hippocampal morphology, plasticity, and memory in male and female rodents. Yet relatively few investigators who work with male subjects consider the effects of these hormones on learning and memory. This review describes…

  18. Do values matter? The impact of work ethic and traditional gender role values on female labour market supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, K.; Verbakel, C.M.C.; Graaf, P.M. de

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to gain a better understanding of the explanatory value of work ethic and traditional gender role values with regard to variation in female labour market supply. Although women's labour market participation has increased dramatically over the past decades, it still lacks behind

  19. Do values matter? : The impact of work ethic and traditional gender role values on female labour market supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, Kirsten; Verbakel, Ellen; de Graaf, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to gain a better understanding of the explanatory value of work ethic and traditional gender role values with regard to variation in female labour market supply. Although women’s labour market participation has increased dramatically over the past decades, it still lacks behind

  20. What Contributes to Gifted Adolescent Females' Talent Development at a High-Achieving, Secondary Girls' School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweedale, Charlotte; Kronborg, Leonie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine what contributes to gifted adolescent females' talent development at a high-achieving girls' school. Using Kronborg's (2010) Talent Development Model for Eminent Women as a theoretical framework, this research examined the conditions that supported and those that hindered the participants' talent…

  1. Digest: Context matters: the effects of light environment and female presence on the structure of wolf spider courtship displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialko, Kristina

    2018-03-31

    Does variation in the environment in which a signal is presented affect the components of a complex, ritualized animal display? Using a signal phenotype network, Rosenthal et al. (2018) find that light and female presence alter the structure of wolf spider courtship displays, providing evidence that complex signaling behaviors may be modified depending on the social and environmental context. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Size Matters: The Effect of the Scramble for Africa on Informal Institutions and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Dimico, Arcangelo

    2013-01-01

    We argue that the partition of ethnic groups following the Scramble for Africa does not itself matter for development in Africa. It matters only when the partitioned groups are relatively small because small groups lack political representation which may promote ethnic mobilization and foster support for informal (rather than formal) institutions which then may affect development. Furthermore, the analysis of data from the Afrobarometer shows that the persistence of informal/tribal institutio...

  3. Career Guidance and Counseling in Educating Female Scientists Of a Developing Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olorode, D. O.; Olorode, G. T.

    2009-05-01

    The study area is Nigeria as a developing nation. A nation that must be developed must devote a high percentage of her resources to support the education of her women. To educate a woman is to educate a nation. This paper seeks to understand the problems of women scientists from the high school level. Three high schools were chosen, two of them are females only while one is a mixed school. Observations reveal that the problems encountered in Nigeria, by females in science education has a lot of link with lack of Career Guidance Counselors at the high school level. Where they have, female students are not advised properly in the sciences, hence majority of the girls end up with the arts and humanities. It is concluded therefore that every high school in a developing nation must have Departments of Guidance and Counseling for Science and Arts Faculties.

  4. A Short Note on Economic Development and Socioeconomic Inequality in Female Body Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Deuchert, Eva; Cabus, Sofie J.; Tafreschi, Darjusch

    2012-01-01

    The origin of the obesity epidemic in developing countries is still poorly understood. It has been prominently argued that economic development provides a natural interpretation of the growth in obesity. This paper tests the main aggregated predictions of the theoretical framework to analyze obesity: Average female body weight is associated with economic development. In relatively poor countries, obesity is a phenomenon of the socioeconomic elite. With economic development, obesity shifts tow...

  5. Brief Report: Does Gender Matter in Intervention for ASD? Examining the Impact of the PEERS® Social Skills Intervention on Social Behavior Among Females with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Alana J; Schiltz, Hillary; Haendel, Angela; Dolan, Bridget K; Willar, Kirsten S; Pleiss, Sheryl; Karst, Jeffrey S; Carson, Audrey M; Caiozzo, Christina; Vogt, Elisabeth; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan

    2017-07-01

    A paucity of research has been conducted to examine the effect of social skills intervention on females with ASD. Females with ASD may have more difficulty developing meaningful friendships than males, as the social climate can be more complex (Archer, Coyne, Personality and Social Psychology Review 9(3):212-230, 2005). This study examined whether treatment response among females differed from males. One hundred and seventy-seven adolescents and young adults with ASD (N = 177) participated in this study. When analyzed by group, no significant differences by gender emerged: PEERS ® knowledge (TASSK/TYASSK, p = .494), direct interactions (QSQ, p = .762), or social responsiveness (SRS, p = .689; SSIS-RS, p = .482). Thus, females and males with ASD respond similarly to the PEERS ® intervention.

  6. Development of multi-dimensional body image scale for malaysian female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Yit Siew; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Khor, Geok Lin

    2008-01-01

    The present study was conducted to develop a Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents. Data were collected among 328 female adolescents from a secondary school in Kuantan district, state of Pahang, Malaysia by using a self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. The self-administered questionnaire comprised multiple measures of body image, Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26; Garner & Garfinkel, 1979) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Inventory (Rosenberg, 1965). The 152 items from selected multiple measures of body image were examined through factor analysis and for internal consistency. Correlations between Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale and body mass index (BMI), risk of eating disorders and self-esteem were assessed for construct validity. A seven factor model of a 62-item Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale for Malaysian female adolescents with construct validity and good internal consistency was developed. The scale encompasses 1) preoccupation with thinness and dieting behavior, 2) appearance and body satisfaction, 3) body importance, 4) muscle increasing behavior, 5) extreme dieting behavior, 6) appearance importance, and 7) perception of size and shape dimensions. Besides, a multidimensional body image composite score was proposed to screen negative body image risk in female adolescents. The result found body image was correlated with BMI, risk of eating disorders and self-esteem in female adolescents. In short, the present study supports a multi-dimensional concept for body image and provides a new insight into its multi-dimensionality in Malaysian female adolescents with preliminary validity and reliability of the scale. The Multi-dimensional Body Image Scale can be used to identify female adolescents who are potentially at risk of developing body image disturbance through future intervention programs.

  7. Entire litters developed from transferred eggs in whole body x-irradiated female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, T.P.

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of mouse eggs to sublethal x-irradiation was determined in vitro and in vivo with regard to the development of donor litters in foster mothers. One thousand seven hundred fifty-eight unfertilized eggs of agouti dark-eyed donor mice were transferred into 293 unirradiated or x-irradiated, mated female pink-eyed mice. Two hundred thirty-nine recipients became pregnant; of these 35 produced litters containing solely dark-eyed fetuses. Sublethal doses of x-radiation administered to donor eggs in vitro before transferring into unirradiated recipients did not influence significantly the number of litters of exclusively dark-eyed fetuses produced. However, recipients irradiated by 250 roentgens (r) produced more solely dark-eyed litters than did those irradiated with 100 r. In 21 pregnant females irradiated by 100 r, only 3 (14%) developed solely dark-eyed fetuses as compared to 22 pregnant females irradiated by 250 r, of which 13 (59%) developed solely dark-eyed fetuses, all from unirradiated, transferred eggs. Of another group of 22 pregnant females which received 250 r body irradiation and subsequently received eggs also irradiated by 250 r, only 7 (32%) produced litters of dark-eyed fetuses. No one female of these three groups carried native fetuses. Such radiation-induced infertility resulting from damage of native eggs rather than loss of mother's ability to carry a pregnancy, is frequently remedied by egg transfer

  8. Vertebrate estrogen regulates the development of female characteristics in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guanwang; Lin, Ying; Yang, Congwen; Xing, Runmiao; Zhang, Haiyan; Chen, Enxiang; Han, Chaoshan; Liu, Hongling; Zhang, Weiwei; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-01-01

    The vertebrate estrogens include 17-β-estradiol (E2), which has an analog in silkworm ovaries. In this study, the Bombyx mori vitellogenin gene (BmVg) was used as a biomarker to analyze the function of the E2 in silkworm. In most oviparous animals, Vg has female-specific expression. However, BmVg expression was also detected in B. mori males. Stage specific fluctuation of BmVg expression was similar in males and females, but expression levels in males were lower than in females. E2 treatment by injection or feeding of male larvae in the final instar stage induced and stimulated male BmVg transcription and protein synthesis. When silkworm ovary primordia were transplanted into males, BmVg was induced in male fat bodies. Transplanted ovaries primordia were also able to develop into ovaries and produce mature eggs. When females were treated with E2 promoted BmVg/BmVn protein accumulation in hemolymph, ovaries and eggs. However, BmVg transcription was decreased in female fat bodies. An E2 analog was identified in the hemolymph of day 3 wandering silkworms using high-performance liquid chromatography. Estradiol titers from fifth late-instar larvae to pupal stage were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results suggested that silkworms synthesized a vertebrate E2 analog. This study found that E2 promoted the synthesis of BmVg, a female typical protein in silkworms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Diffusion-tensor MR imaging of gray and white matter development during normal human brain maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Pratik; Miller, Jeffrey H; Shimony, Joshua S; Philip, Joseph V; Nehra, Deepika; Snyder, Abraham Z; Conturo, Thomas E; Neil, Jeffrey J; McKinstry, Robert C

    2002-10-01

    Conventional MR imaging findings of human brain development are thought to result from decreasing water content, increasing macromolecular concentration, and myelination. We use diffusion-tensor MR imaging to test theoretical models that incorporate hypotheses regarding how these maturational processes influence water diffusion in developing gray and white matter. Experimental data were derived from diffusion-tensor imaging of 167 participants, ages 31 gestational weeks to 11 postnatal years. An isotropic diffusion model was applied to the gray matter of the basal ganglia and thalamus. A model that assumes changes in the magnitude of diffusion while maintaining cylindrically symmetric anisotropy was applied to the white matter of the corpus callosum and internal capsule. Deviations of the diffusion tensor from the ideal model predictions, due to measurement noise, were estimated by using Monte Carlo simulations. Developing gray matter of the basal ganglia and developing white matter of the internal capsule and corpus callosum largely conformed to theory, with only small departures from model predictions in older children. However, data from the thalamus substantially diverged from predicted values, with progressively larger deviations from the model with increasing participant age. Changes in water diffusion during maturation of central gray and white matter structures can largely be explained by theoretical models incorporating simple assumptions regarding the influence of brain water content and myelination, although deviations from theory increase as the brain matures. Diffusion-tensor MR imaging is a powerful method for studying the process of brain development, with both scientific and clinical applications.

  10. Tribolium castaneum Transformer-2 regulates sex determination and development in both males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2013-12-01

    Tribolium castaneum Transformer (TcTra) is essential for female sex determination and maintenance through the regulation of sex-specific splicing of doublesex (dsx) pre-mRNA. In females, TcTra also regulates the sex-specific splicing of its own pre-mRNA to ensure continuous production of functional Tra protein. Transformer protein is absent in males and hence dsx pre-mRNA is spliced in a default mode. The mechanisms by which males inhibit the production of functional Tra protein are not known. Here, we report on functional characterization of transformer-2 (tra-2) gene (an ortholog of Drosophila transformer-2) in T. castaneum. RNA interference-mediated knockdown in the expression of gene coding for tra-2 in female pupae or adults resulted in the production of male-specific isoform of dsx and both female and male isoforms of tra suggesting that Tra-2 is essential for the female-specific splicing of tra and dsx pre-mRNAs. Interestingly, knockdown of tra-2 in males did not affect the splicing of dsx but resulted in the production of both female and male isoforms of tra suggesting that Tra-2 suppresses female-specific splicing of tra pre-mRNA in males. This dual regulation of sex-specific splicing of tra pre-mRNA ensures a tight regulation of sex determination and maintenance. These data suggest a critical role for Tra-2 in suppression of female sex determination cascade in males. In addition, RNAi studies showed that Tra-2 is also required for successful embryonic and larval development in both sexes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of nanotoxicity on female reproductivity and fetal development in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianling; Zhang, Qiu; Wang, Zhiping; Yan, Bing

    2013-04-29

    The extensive application of nanomaterials in industry, medicine and consumer products has raised concerns about their potential toxicity. The female population is particularly vulnerable and deserves special attention because toxicity in this group may impact both female reproductivity and fetal development. Mouse and zebrafish models each have their own unique features and studies using these models to examine the potential toxicity of various nanoparticles are compared and summarized in this review. Several nanoparticles exhibit detrimental effects on female reproductivity as well as fetal development, and these adverse effects are related to nanoparticle composition, surface modification, dose, exposure route and animal species. Limited studies on the mechanisms of nanotoxicity are also documented and reviewed herein.

  12. Effects of Nanotoxicity on Female Reproductivity and Fetal Development in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianling Sun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The extensive application of nanomaterials in industry, medicine and consumer products has raised concerns about their potential toxicity. The female population is particularly vulnerable and deserves special attention because toxicity in this group may impact both female reproductivity and fetal development. Mouse and zebrafish models each have their own unique features and studies using these models to examine the potential toxicity of various nanoparticles are compared and summarized in this review. Several nanoparticles exhibit detrimental effects on female reproductivity as well as fetal development, and these adverse effects are related to nanoparticle composition, surface modification, dose, exposure route and animal species. Limited studies on the mechanisms of nanotoxicity are also documented and reviewed herein.

  13. THE POTENTIAL OF FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS A REGIONAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT ENGINE IN THE WESTERN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Cohut Ioana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the objectives, activities, and the results of the empirical, quantitative, and qualitative research carried out in the AntrES project (AntrES - Project acronym "Entrepreneurship and Equal Opportunities. A new school for women entrepreneurship" – Antreprenoriatul şi egalitatea de şanse. Un nou model de şcoală antreprenorială pentru femei, during the two years of implementation, in the Western Romania referring to the new businesses start up; business development; the motivation and difficulties of female entrepreneurs and potentially enterprising women; of their perceptions regarding the need for entrepreneurship education, the role of female entrepreneurship promotion and the impact of the successful models on new businesses start up – this paper presents directions of action meant to emphasize and support the potential of the female entrepreneurship in Romania, as a regional growth and development engine.

  14. Development of sexual behavior in free-ranging female Japanese macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; Vasey, Paul L

    2014-09-01

    We studied the development of sexual behaviors in female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) living at Arashiyama, Japan, in a group where adult females routinely exhibit sexual interactions with both males and females. Our cross-sectional data on juvenile, adolescent, and adult females supported most of our predictions related to the learning hypothesis, which holds that adolescence serves to provide females with a period in which to practice adult female-like sexual behavioral patterns, including sexual solicitations, sexual mounts, and spatio-temporal coordination during consortships. We found evidence for a gradual acquisition of adult-like behavioral patterns (e.g., more frequent solicitations with body contact, more frequent complete mounts, more diverse solicitation patterns and complete mounting postures, and longer consortships involving prolonged inter-mount grasping behavior between partners), and a gradual disappearance of less effective immature behavioral patterns (e.g., less frequent non-contact solicitations, ambiguous mounting initiations, and incomplete mounts). We distinguished between three major categories of sexual behavioral patterns based on their speed of development, ranging from fast (e.g., diversity in mounting postures and genital stimulation during mounting) to slow (e.g., contact solicitations and grasping behavior between consortship partners), with some being intermediate (e.g., range of solicitation patterns and expression of complete mounts). This study showed that the emergence of both conceptive and non-conceptive adult sexual behaviors can be traced back to immature behavioral patterns in adolescent female Japanese macaques, with a major threshold occurring at the age of 4 years. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Development of the Cell Population in the Brain White Matter of Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigaard, Rasmus Krarup; Kjær, Majken; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2014-01-01

    While brain gray matter is primarily associated with sensorimotor processing and cognition, white matter modulates the distribution of action potentials, coordinates communication between different brain regions, and acts as a relay for input/output signals. Previous studies have described......, and microglia) in the cerebral white matter of 9 infants aged 0-33 months, using design-based stereological methods to obtain quantitative data about brain development. There were linear increases with age in the numbers of oligodendrocytes (7-28 billion) and astrocytes (1.5-6.7 billion) during the first 3...

  16. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of cerebral white matter development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, Daniela.; Prayer, Lucas

    2003-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) has become a sensitive tool to monitor white matter development. Different applications of diffusion-weighted techniques provide information about premyelinating, myelinating, and postmyelinating states of white matter maturation. Mirroring maturational processes on the cellular level, DWI has to be regarded as a morphological method as well as a functional instrument, giving insight into molecular processes during the formation of axons and myelin sheets and into the steric arrangement of white matter tracts the formation of which is strongly influenced by their function

  17. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of cerebral white matter development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela. E-mail: daniela.prayer@univie.ac.at; Prayer, Lucas

    2003-03-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) has become a sensitive tool to monitor white matter development. Different applications of diffusion-weighted techniques provide information about premyelinating, myelinating, and postmyelinating states of white matter maturation. Mirroring maturational processes on the cellular level, DWI has to be regarded as a morphological method as well as a functional instrument, giving insight into molecular processes during the formation of axons and myelin sheets and into the steric arrangement of white matter tracts the formation of which is strongly influenced by their function.

  18. Why Closely Coupled Work Matters in Global Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Eskild

    2014-01-01

    We report on an ethnographic study of an offshore global software development project between Danish and Philippine developers in a Danish company called GlobalSoft. We investigate why the IT- developers chose to engage in more closely coupled work as the project progressed and argue that closely...

  19. White-matter development is different in bilingual and monolingual children: a longitudinal DTI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Ghazal Mohades

    Full Text Available Although numerous people grow up speaking more than one language, the impact of bilingualism on brain developing neuroanatomy is still poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether the changes in the mean fractional-anisotropy (MFA of language pathways are different between bilingual and monolingual children. Simultaneous-bilinguals, sequential-bilinguals and monolingual, male and female 10-13 years old children participated in this longitudinal study over a period of two years. We used diffusion tensor tractography to obtain mean fractional-anisotropy values of four language related pathways and one control bundle: 1-left-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus/lIFOF, 2-left-arcuate fasciculus/lAF/lSLF, 3-bundle arising from the anterior part of corpus-callosum and projecting to orbital lobe/AC-OL, 4-fibres emerging from anterior-midbody of corpus-callosum (CC to motor cortices/AMB-PMC, 5- right-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus rIFOF as the control pathway unrelated to language. These values and their rate of change were compared between 3 groups. FA-values did not change significantly over two years for lAF/lSLF and AC-OL. Sequential-bilinguals had the highest degree of change in the MFA value of lIFOF, and AMB-PMC did not present significant group differences. The comparison of MFA of lIFOF yielded a significantly higher FA-value in simultaneous bilinguals compared to monolinguals. These findings acknowledge the existing difference of the development of the semantic processing specific pathway between children with different semantic processing procedure. These also support the hypothesis that age of second language acquisition affects the maturation and myelination of some language specific white-matter pathways.

  20. Mixtures of environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals affect mammary gland development in female and male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Boberg, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Estrogenic chemicals are able to alter mammary gland development in female rodents, but little is known on the effects of anti-androgens and mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with dissimilar modes of action. Pregnant rat dams were exposed during gestation and lactation to mixtures...

  1. Insights into female germ cell biology: from in vivo development to in vitro derivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dajung; Kee, Kehkooi

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of human germ cell biology is important for developing infertility treatments. However, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate human gametogenesis due to the difficulties in collecting samples, especially germ cells during fetal development. In contrast to the mitotic arrest of spermatogonia stem cells in the fetal testis, female germ cells proceed into meiosis and began folliculogenesis in fetal ovaries. Regulations of these developmental events, including the initiation of meiosis and the endowment of primordial follicles, remain an enigma. Studying the molecular mechanisms of female germ cell biology in the human ovary has been mostly limited to spatiotemporal characterizations of genes or proteins. Recent efforts in utilizing in vitro differentiation system of stem cells to derive germ cells have allowed researchers to begin studying molecular mechanisms during human germ cell development. Meanwhile, the possibility of isolating female germline stem cells in adult ovaries also excites researchers and generates many debates. This review will mainly focus on presenting and discussing recent in vivo and in vitro studies on female germ cell biology in human. The topics will highlight the progress made in understanding the three main stages of germ cell developments: namely, primordial germ cell formation, meiotic initiation, and folliculogenesis.

  2. Women's Leadership Development in Sport Settings: Factors Influencing the Transformational Learning Experience of Female Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megheirkouni, Majd; Roomi, Muhammad Azam

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores the positive and negative factors influencing transformational learning experiences of female leaders in women's leadership development programmes in sports and examines the differences in learning/change factors cited by those who successfully addressed them and those who failed. Design/methodology/approach: The study…

  3. Nitrogen deficiency in maize. I. Effects on crop growth, development, dry matter partitioning, and kernel set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhart, S.A.; Andrade, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    Variations in N availability affect growth and development of maize (Zea mays L.) and may lead to changes in crop physiological conditions at flowering and in kernel set. The objectives of this study were (i) to establish the effect of N availability on crop development, crop radiation interception, radiation use efficiency, and dry matter partitioning; and (ii) to study the relationship between kernel number and crop growth at flowering and between kernel number and crop N accumulation at flowering. Three experiments with a commercial hybrid (DK636) were carried out under field conditions at the INTA Balcarce Experimental Station, Argentina, without water limitations. The treatments consisted of different radiation levels, obtained by shading, combined with different levels of N availability obtained by the addition of N fertilizer or organic matter to immobilize N. Nitrogen deficiencies delayed both vegetative and reproductive phenological development, slightly reduced leaf emergence rate, and strongly diminished leaf expansion rate and leaf area duration. Nitrogen deficiencies reduced radiation interception as much as radiation use efficiency and their effects on the ear dry mater/total dry matter ratio at harvest were associated with crop growth rate reductions at flowering. Dry matter partitioning to reproductive sinks at flowering and the ear dry matter/total dry matter ratio at harvest were reduced by N shortages. Significant relationships between kernel number and N accumulation rate or crop growth rate at flowering were fitted by linear + plateau functions with thresholds above which kernel number and grain yield did not increase

  4. A potential mate influences reproductive development in female, but not male, pine siskins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Heather E; Edley, Bruce; Hahn, Thomas P

    2016-04-01

    The role of photoperiod in avian reproductive timing has been well studied, and we are increasingly recognizing the roles of other environmental cues such as social cues. However, few studies have evaluated the extent to which males and females of the same species respond similarly to the same type of cue. Moreover, previous studies have rarely examined how variation in the quality or nature of a given social cue might modulate its effect. Here, we examine the sensitivity of male and female pine siskins (Spinus pinus) to a potential mate as a stimulatory cue for gonadal recrudescence, and we investigate whether variation in the relationship between a bird and its potential mate modulates the effect of that potential mate. Birds were initially housed without opposite sex birds on a 12L:12D photoperiod with ad libitum food. After gonadal recrudescence had begun males and females were randomly paired with an opposite sex bird or housed alone. An additional group of males was paired with estradiol-implanted females. In males, these social treatments had no effect on testis length, cloacal protuberance length, luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, or testosterone levels. In females, presence of a potential mate had a significant and positive effect on ovary score, defeathering of the brood patch, and LH levels. Among paired birds, the degree of affiliation within a pair corresponded to the extent of reproductive development in females, but not males. Thus, reproductive timing in females appears to be sensitive to both the presence of a potential mate and her relationship with him. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Medfly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) female attractant studies and development of trapping systems for sterility assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, L.A.; Sponagel, K.

    1999-01-01

    In four years of research, we evaluated different traps (McPhail, Tephri, Closed-bottom dry trap, Open-bottom dry trap, and Frutect), lures (FA-2 and FA-3 synthetic lures composed of ammonium acetate + putrescine, and ammonium acetate + putrescine + trimethylamine, respectively), and insect retention methods (water, sticky inserts, insecticides) to develop a selective trapping system for female Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Wiedemann) sterility assessment. The trapping systems were compared with protein-baited McPhail traps, which are the standard method for C. capitata female capture, during eight to fifteen week trials in coffee and orthanique orange plantations at two different localities in Honduras. Trimedlure-baited Jackson traps were also used as the standard indicator of the C. capitata populations. The Closed-bottom trap baited with the two-component synthetic lure captured eight to twelve times fewer C. capitata than the Jackson trap. The McPhail trap and the modified Open-bottom trap, both baited with the two-component synthetic lure, captured 1.6 to 3.5 times more C. capitata females than the protein-baited McPhail trap. The addition of trimethylamine to the two-component synthetic lure resulted in 9.8 to 15.8 times increases in C. capitata female capture over the protein-baited McPhail trap. The presence of water in McPhail or Tephri traps did not affect the capture of C. capitata females. Throughout the study, all female-targeted trapping systems captured the same proportion of females. (author)

  6. Net foreign asset (com)position : Does financial development matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Robert; de Haan, Jakob

    We investigate the relationship between a country's domestic financial development and the (composition of its) net foreign asset position using a pooled mean group estimator and data for 50 countries for the 1970-2007 period. The results show that financial development reduces a country's long-run

  7. Epigenetic regulation during fetal femur development: DNA methylation matters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C de Andrés

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications are heritable changes in gene expression without changes in DNA sequence. DNA methylation has been implicated in the control of several cellular processes including differentiation, gene regulation, development, genomic imprinting and X-chromosome inactivation. Methylated cytosine residues at CpG dinucleotides are commonly associated with gene repression; conversely, strategic loss of methylation during development could lead to activation of lineage-specific genes. Evidence is emerging that bone development and growth are programmed; although, interestingly, bone is constantly remodelled throughout life. Using human embryonic stem cells, human fetal bone cells (HFBCs, adult chondrocytes and STRO-1(+ marrow stromal cells from human bone marrow, we have examined a spectrum of developmental stages of femur development and the role of DNA methylation therein. Using pyrosequencing methodology we analysed the status of methylation of genes implicated in bone biology; furthermore, we correlated these methylation levels with gene expression levels using qRT-PCR and protein distribution during fetal development evaluated using immunohistochemistry. We found that during fetal femur development DNA methylation inversely correlates with expression of genes including iNOS (NOS2 and COL9A1, but not catabolic genes including MMP13 and IL1B. Furthermore, significant demethylation was evident in the osteocalcin promoter between the fetal and adult developmental stages. Increased TET1 expression and decreased expression of DNA (cytosine-5--methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1 in adult chondrocytes compared to HFBCs could contribute to the loss of methylation observed during fetal development. HFBC multipotency confirms these cells to be an ideal developmental system for investigation of DNA methylation regulation. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the role of epigenetic regulation, specifically DNA methylation, in bone development

  8. [Economic development and married women's employment in Taiwan: a study of female marginalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y

    1994-07-01

    As in other developing countries, the industrial development in Taiwan seems to marginalize female workers. This study tries to examine the trend of women's employment status, using both macro- and micro-level data. The statistics suggest that female employment had significantly declined during the early stages of industrialization. Although rapid economic development has expanded women's job opportunities, most women are concentrated in lower-status jobs and the informal sector. Informal employment is especially prevalent among married women. In the micro-level analysis the study examines the factors that led to the marginalization of women's labor force. The empirical analysis applies a multinomial logistic model to a 1980 KAP (knowledge, attitude, and practice) survey sample of 3859 married women. The results suggest that married women's work patterns in terms of formal vs. informal employment are determined by the family organization rather than by labor market conditions. Wives from families with small businesses are more likely to be involved in informal employment. Wives also tend to work informally when they have young children. On the other hand, the effects of labor market conditions are mediated by the types of family economy. Therefore the women's informal employment in Taiwan, as a characteristic of female marginalization, is the result of the sexual division of labor in the family organization and the prevalence of the family business, rather than that of being excluded into the marginal forms of employment through the process of capitalistic production, as argued by the female marginalization theorists.

  9. Quantitative ultrasonography of the periventricular white and grey matter of the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaart, R A; Thijssen, J M; Rotteveel, J J; Valckx, F M; van Geemen, A J

    1999-05-01

    This study addresses the value of operator-independent computer processing of ultrasonograms of the developing brain. With this aim, routine cranial ultrasonograms obtained from 39 term and preterm infants without clinical or sonographic evidence of brain damage were analyzed by five observers. The procedure, respectively, included: 1. the definition of four regions of interest (ROI), one white matter and one grey matter area on each side of the brain; 2. digitization of the sonogram data within these ROIs; 3. correction for the equipment settings, using data from a tissue-mimicking phantom as a reference; and 4. calculation of four sonogram characteristics (i.e., mean echo level, MEAN, signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, and axial and lateral correlation, CORAX and CORLAT, of the echo level co-occurrence matrix). Significant differences between both sides of the brain or a significant influence of ROI size were not found. The interobserver spread was considerable, but less than the intersubject spread. Two sonogram characteristics seemed strongly correlated in white and grey matter (CORAX and CORLAT) and another only in white matter (SNR with CORAX and CORLAT). MEAN seemed not to be correlated with any other characteristic. Furthermore, it was found that maturation equally decreases white and grey matter MEAN and, thus, hardly affects the ratio between the two. An effect on the other sonogram characteristics was only found in the white matter (i.e., an increase of SNR and a decrease of CORAX and CORLAT). Except for MEAN, the grey matter sonogram characteristics seem hardly affected by maturation. In view of these findings, we conclude that quantitative ultrasonography reveals white and grey matter maturation and, furthermore, provides a conceptional-age-independent reference (MEAN white:grey matter ratio) that might be found to facilitate the detection of pathologic brain alterations.

  10. Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada Mining Matters: A Model of Effective Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymers, L.; Heenan, S.

    2009-05-01

    Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada Mining Matters is a charitable organization whose mandate is to bring the wonders of Canada's geology and mineral resources to students, educators and industry. The organization provides current information about rocks, minerals, metals, and mining and offers exceptional educational resources, developed by teachers and for teachers that meet Junior, Intermediate and Senior Provincial Earth Science and Geography curriculum expectations. Since 1994, Mining Matters has reached more than 400,000 educators, students, industry representatives, and Aboriginal Youth through Earth Science resources. At the time of the program's inception, members of the Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada (PDAC) realized that their mining and mineral industry expertise could be of help to teachers and students. Consulting experts in education, government, and business, and the PDAC worked together to develop the first Mining Matters Earth Science curriculum kit for Grades 6 and 7 teachers in Ontario. PDAC Mining Matters became the official educational arm of the Association and a charitable organization in 1997. Since then, the organization has partnered with government, industry, and educators to develop bilingual Earth science teaching units for Grades 4 and 7, and senior High School. The teaching units consist of kits that contain curriculum correlated lesson plans, inform bulletins, genuine data sets, rock and mineral samples, equipment and additional instructional resources. Mining Matters offers instructional development workshops for the purposes of training pre-service and in- service educators to use our teaching units in the classroom. The workshops are meant to provide teachers with the knowledge and confidence they need to successfully employ the units in the classroom. Formal mechanisms for resource and workshop evaluations are in place. Overwhelmingly teacher feedback is positive, describing the excellence

  11. Gendered Morality and Development Narratives: The Case of Female Labor Migration from Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses two dominant and contradictory representations of Indonesian female migrant workers: as national “heroes” who contribute to Indonesia’s economic development, or as exploited “victims” of labor abuse. By analyzing public statements by Indonesian state actors, news reports, and migrant activists’ websites, I argue that representations of migrants as victims do not undermine representations of migrants as heroes of development. Instead, in Indonesian public discourses abou...

  12. As if Kyoto mattered: The clean development mechanism and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher Zegras, P.

    2007-01-01

    Transportation is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the most rapidly growing anthropogenic source. In the future, the developing world will account for the largest share of transport GHG increases. Four basic components drive transportation energy consumption and GHG emissions: activities (A), mode share (S), fuel intensity (I) and fuel choice (F) (ASIF). Currently, the Kyoto Protocol's clean development mechanism (CDM) serves as the main international market-based tool designed to reduce GHG emissions from the developing world. Theoretically, the CDM has the dual purpose of helping developing countries achieve 'sustainable development' goals and industrialized countries meet their Kyoto emissions reduction commitments. This paper reviews overall CDM activities and transportation CDM activities to date and then presents findings from three case studies of transportation CDM possibilities examined with the ASIF framework in Santiago de Chile. The analysis suggests that bus technology switch (I) provides a fairly good project fit for the CDM, while options aimed at inducing mode share (S) to bicycle, or modifying travel demand via land use changes (ASI) face considerable challenges. The implications of the findings for the CDM and the 'post-Kyoto' world are discussed

  13. Male and female experiences of having fertility matters raised alongside a cancer diagnosis during the teenage and young adult years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, M A; Glaser, A W; Hale, J P; Sloper, P

    2009-07-01

    Discussion and management of potential reproductive health sequelae of adolescent cancer are essential and challenging components of care for the multidisciplinary team. Despite this, research has been limited to specific experiences (e.g. sperm banking) or fertility-related concerns of adult survivors. This grounded theory study of 38 male and female survivors of adolescent cancer aged 16-30 years drew on in-depth single interviews to map the range of experiences of being advised that treatment might affect fertility. Strong support for being told at around diagnosis was found regardless of gender, age, incapacity or availability of fertility preservation services. Age and life stage appeared less significant for impact than the perceived level of threat to personal and social well-being. Women were more likely to achieve lower levels of comprehension about the physiological impact, to report later distress from lack of fertility preservation services and to revisit more frequently those decisions made by the few offered fertility preservation. Men found decision making about sperm banking straightforward on the whole and reported satisfaction with having the choice regardless of outcome. Findings suggest that young people can cope with this information alongside diagnosis especially when professional and parental support is proportionate to the particular impact on them.

  14. 3. Impact of altered gravity on CNS development and behavior in male and female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.; Nguon, K.; Ladd, B.; Sulkowski, V. A.; Sulkowski, Z. L.; Baxter, M. G.

    The present study examined the effect of altered gravity on CNS development. Specifically, we compared neurodevelopment, behavior, cerebellar structure and protein expression in rat neonates exposed perinatally to hypergravity. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 1.5G-1.75G hypergravity on a 24-ft centrifuge starting on gestational day (G) 10, through giving birth on G22/G23, and nursing their offspring through postnatal day (P) 21. Cerebellar mass on P6 was decreased in 1.75G-exposed male pups by 27.5 percent; in 1.75G-exposed female pups it was decreased by 22.5 percent. The observed cerebellar changes were associated with alterations in neurodevelopment and motor behavior. Exposure to hypergravity impaired performance on the following neurocognitive tests: (1) righting time on P3 was more than doubled in 1.75G-exposed rats and the effect appeared more pronounced in female pups, (2) startle response on P10 was delayed in both male and female HG pups; HG pups were one-fifth as likely to respond to a clapping noise as SC pups, and (3) performance on a rotorod on P21 was decreased in HG pups; the duration of the stay on rotorod recorded for HG pups of both sexes was one tenth of the SC pups. Furthermore, Western blot analysis of selected cerebellar proteins suggested gender-specific changes in glial and neuronal proteins. On P6, GFAP expression was decreased by 59.2 percent in HG males, while no significant decrease was observed in female cerebella. Synaptophysin expression was decreased in HG male neonates by 29.9 percent and in HG female neonates by 20.7 percent as compared to its expression in SC cerebella. The results of this experiment suggest that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar development and behavior differently in male and female neonates. If one accepts that hypergravity is a good paradigm to study the effect of microgravity on the CNS, and since males and females were shown to respond differently to hypergravity, it can be

  15. Corruption and Development in Nigeria: Matters Arising | Felix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the link between corruption and development, using a contextual analysis of the Nigerian experience from Independence (1960) to this present day (2010). It conceptualizes corruption as “putrefaction, tainting, debasement, perversion or venality, spoiling, destruction of purity or falling away from ...

  16. Does Infrastructure Matter In Tourism Development? Seetanah B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kpo

    sound infrastructure in promoting tourism development in the island. The networks ... as an interesting case whereby the effect of infrastructure on tourist arrivals into .... Gearing et al (1974) study the case of Turkey as a tourist destination and find that ... et al (2000) in discussing the case of Sun Lost City, South Africa, and ...

  17. Economic Disparities in Middle Childhood Development: Does Income Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    A large literature has documented the influence of family economic resources on child development, yet income's effects in middle childhood have been understudied. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,551), the author examined the influence of family income in early and middle childhood on academic skills and…

  18. Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einasto J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available I give a review of the development of the concept of dark matter. The dark matter story passed through several stages from a minor observational puzzle to a major challenge for theory of elementary particles. Modern data suggest that dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, and that it consists of some unknown non-baryonic particles. Dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, thus properties of dark matter particles determine the structure of the cosmic web.

  19. A short note on economic development and socioeconomic inequality in female body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuchert, Eva; Cabus, Sofie; Tafreschi, Darjusch

    2014-07-01

    The origin of the obesity epidemic in developing countries is still poorly understood. It has been prominently argued that economic development provides a natural interpretation of the growth in obesity. This paper tests the main aggregated predictions of the theoretical framework to analyze obesity. Average body weight and health inequality should be associated with economic development. Both hypotheses are confirmed: we find higher average female body weight in economically more advanced countries. In relatively nondeveloped countries, obesity is a phenomenon of the socioeconomic elite. With economic development, obesity shifts toward individuals with lower socioeconomic status. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Cognitive Development of Toddlers: Does Parental Stimulation Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Prahbhjot; Menon, Jagadeesh; Bharti, Bhavneet; Sidhu, Manjit

    2018-02-01

    To examine the impact of quality of early stimulation on cognitive functioning of toddlers living in a developing country. The developmental functioning of 150 toddlers in the age range of 12-30 mo (53% boys; Mean = 1.76 y, SD = 0.48) was assessed by the mental developmental index of the Developmental Assessment Scale for Indian Infants (DASII). The StimQ questionnaire- toddler version was used to measure cognitive stimulation at home. The questionnaire consists of four subscales including availability of learning materials (ALM), reading activities (READ), parent involvement in developmental activities (PIDA), and parent verbal responsivity (PVR). Multivariate regression analysis was used to predict cognitive scores using demographic (age of child), socio-economic status (SES) (income, parental education), and home environment (subscale scores of StimQ) as independent variables. Mean Mental Development Index (MDI) score was 91.5 (SD = 13.41), nearly one-fifth (17.3%) of the toddlers had MDI scores less than 80 (cognitive delay). Children with cognitive delay, relative to typically developing (TD, MDI score ≥ 80) cohort of toddlers, had significantly lower scores on all the subscales of StimQ and the total StimQ score. Despite the overall paucity of learning materials available to toddlers, typical developing toddlers were significantly more likely to have access to symbolic toys (P = 0.004), art materials (P = 0.032), adaptive/fine motor toys (P = 0.018), and life size toys (P = 0.036). Multivariate regression analysis results indicated that controlling for confounding socio-economic status variables, higher parental involvement in developmental activities (PIDA score) and higher parental verbal responsivity (PVR score) emerged as significant predictors of higher MDI scores and explained 34% of variance in MDI scores (F = 23.66, P = 0.001). Disparities in child development emerge fairly early and these differences are not

  1. Why bacteria matter in animal development and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraune, Sebastian; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2010-07-01

    While largely studied because of their harmful effects on human health, there is growing appreciation that bacteria are important partners for invertebrates and vertebrates, including man. Epithelia in metazoans do not only select their microbiota; a coevolved consortium of microbes enables both invertebrates and vertebrates to expand the range of diet supply, to shape the complex immune system and to control pathogenic bacteria. Microbes in zebrafish and mice regulate gut epithelial homeostasis. In a squid, microbes control the development of the symbiotic light organ. These discoveries point to a key role for bacteria in any metazoan existence, and imply that beneficial bacteria-host interactions should be considered an integral part of development and evolution.

  2. DCDC2 polymorphism is associated with left temporoparietal gray and white matter structures during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darki, Fahimeh; Peyrard-Janvid, Myriam; Matsson, Hans; Kere, Juha; Klingberg, Torkel

    2014-10-22

    Three genes, DYX1C1, DCDC2, and KIAA0319, have been previously associated with dyslexia, neuronal migration, and ciliary function. Three polymorphisms within these genes, rs3743204 (DYX1C1), rs793842 (DCDC2), and rs6935076 (KIAA0319) have also been linked to normal variability of left temporoparietal white matter volume connecting the middle temporal cortex to the angular and supramarginal gyri. Here, we assessed whether these polymorphisms are also related to the cortical thickness of the associated regions during childhood development using a longitudinal dataset of 76 randomly selected children and young adults who were scanned up to three times each, 2 years apart. rs793842 in DCDC2 was significantly associated with the thickness of left angular and supramarginal gyri as well as the left lateral occipital cortex. The cortex was significantly thicker for T-allele carriers, who also had lower white matter volume and lower reading comprehension scores. There was a negative correlation between white matter volume and cortical thickness, but only white matter volume predicted reading comprehension 2 years after scanning. These results show how normal variability in reading comprehension is related to gene, white matter volume, and cortical thickness in the inferior parietal lobe. Possibly, the variability of gray and white matter structures could both be related to the role of DCDC2 in ciliary function, which affects both neuronal migration and axonal outgrowth. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3414455-08$15.00/0.

  3. Historical trend of nuclear matter calculation and its recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohno, Michio

    2006-01-01

    He guide line to understand nuclear properties on the basis of nuclear force was started in the 1950's by the Brueckner theory. The theory established the fundamental framework to formulate the picture to consider both the two nucleon and tensor correlations as well as Pauli effect inside the nuclei. In the 1960's the theory was developed to obtain ground state energy on the perturbation many-body theory. The growth and refinement of the Brueckner theory in the 1970's and after are overviewed and the computer code developments in the 1980's are mentioned. Concerning the many-body correlation problem Italian group has calculated up to three-body correlations in the Brueckner theory. At present, effective interaction nuclear theory is coming into a new level and actively studied by the introduction of low momentum interaction based on the renormalization group theory, by full application of the coupled cluster method, by the application of Skyrme Hartree-Fock method in wide range and by the reconsideration of the energy density functional method in relation to the relativistic mean field method. Owing to the recent remarkable progress of computers, calculations which were impossible to be executed in old days are now done rather easily. (S. Funahashi)

  4. Attention and Regional Gray Matter Development in Very Preterm Children at Age 12 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Rachel E; Melzer, Tracy R; Bora, Samudragupta; Watts, Richard; Woodward, Lianne J

    2017-08-01

    This study examines the selective, sustained, and executive attention abilities of very preterm (VPT) born children in relation to concurrent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of regional gray matter development at age 12 years. A regional cohort of 110 VPT (≤32 weeks gestation) and 113 full term (FT) born children were assessed at corrected age 12 years on the Test of Everyday Attention-Children. They also had a structural MRI scan that was subsequently analyzed using voxel-based morphometry to quantify regional between-group differences in cerebral gray matter development, which were then related to attention measures using multivariate methods. VPT children obtained similar selective (p=.85), but poorer sustained (p=.02) and executive attention (p=.01) scores than FT children. VPT children were also characterized by reduced gray matter in the bilateral parietal, temporal, prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices, bilateral thalami, and left hippocampus; and increased gray matter in the occipital and anterior cingulate cortices (family-wise error-corrected pregional gray matter development appear to contribute, at least in part, to the poorer attentional performance of VPT children at school age. (JINS, 2017, 23, 539-550).

  5. Advancing the Practice of CRCs: Why Professional Development Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Prikhidko, Alena; Kolb, H Robert

    2018-01-01

    Clinical research coordinators (CRCs) assume critical responsibilities central to the success of the research team. The complexity of their role requires essential professional qualifications. One barrier to professionalization, however, has been the inconsistent, or absent, competency-based training. This study explored participants' perceptions of training experiences designed to prepare them for the national certification exam. Focus group methodology was used to document their experiences. The findings showed that sustainable mentoring relationships developed, participant confidence levels increased, and anxiety about performance capacity diminished. Cognitive reframing of the work environment and CRC roles was facilitated by training that fostered sharing and social reinforcement of professional and personal identities. Findings from this study suggest that access to meaningful training and quality instruction supports the professionalization of CRCs.

  6. Developments in clinical trials: a Pharma Matters report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, A; Nuskey, B; Rabasseda, X; Arias, E

    2014-08-01

    As the pharmaceutical industry strives to meet the ever-increasing complexity of drug development, new technology in clinical trials has become a beacon of hope. With big data comes the promise of accelerated patient recruitment, real-time monitoring of clinical trials, bioinformatics empowerment of quicker phase progression, and the overwhelming benefits of precision medicine for select trials. Risk-based monitoring stands to benefit as well. With a strengthening focus on centralized data by the FDA and industry's transformative initiative, TransCelerate, a new era in trial risk mitigation has begun. The traditional method of intensive on-site monitoring is becoming a thing of the past as statistical, real-time analysis of site and trial-wide data provides the means to monitor with greater efficiency and effectiveness from afar. However, when it comes to big data, there are challenges that lie ahead. Patient privacy, commercial investment protection, technology woes and data variability are all limitations to be met with considerable thought. At the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology this year, clinical trials on psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and other skin diseases were discussed in detail. This review of clinical research reports on novel therapies for psoriasis and atopic dermatitis reveals the impact of these diseases and the drug candidates that have been successful in phase II and III studies. Data-focused highlights of novel dermatological trials, as well as real-life big data approaches and an insight on the new methodology of risk-based monitoring, are all discussed in this edition of Developments in Clinical Trials. Copyright 2014 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  7. WHY DO LOGISTICS AND TRANSPORT MATTER FOR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedelescu-Ionescu Daniela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In face of the challenges of global competition, business firms are concentrating more on the needs of customers and seeking ways to reduce costs, improve quality and meet the ever-rising expectation of their customers. To these ends, many of them have identified logistics as an area to build cost and service advantages. Logistical activities have always been vital to organizations, and therefore business logistics and supply chain management represents a synthesis of many concepts, principles, and methods from the more traditional areas of production, purchasing, transportation, economics, as well as from the disciplines of applied mathematics, and organizational behaviour. It concentrates on important activities of management such as planning, organizing, and controlling, and also on a three-way relationship of related transportation, inventory, and location strategies, which are at the heart of good logistics planning and decision making. Selecting a good logistics strategy may yield a competitive advantage. Transportation provides the flow of materials, products and persons between production facilities, warehouses, distribution centers, terminals and customer locations. The progress in techniques and management principles improves the moving load, delivery speed, service quality, operation costs, the usage of facilities and energy saving. A strong system needs a clear frame of logistics and a proper transport implements and techniques to link the producing procedures. The transportation takes a crucial part in the management of logistic. Without well-developed transportation systems, logistics could not bring its advantages into full play. A good transport system in logistics activities could provide better logistics efficiency, reduce operation cost, and promote service quality. The process determines the efficiency of moving products and energy saving. Improvements in transportation and logistics make valuable contribution to production

  8. The role of female entrepreneurial networks and small business development: a pilot study based on Sri Lankan migrant entrepreneurs of tourism industry in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A.K.N.S.Surangi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years much has been written about the rapid spread of various types of firm networking, the area of female entrepreneurs’ networks and small business entrepreneurship is still a challenging research field. This study aims to explore the role of female entrepreneurs’ networks and examine the importance influences for female entrepreneurs’ networking behaviour. Pilot studies are mostly under-reported in the qualitative research literature and this article specifically focuses on the pilot study findings.Having established that a qualitative methodology is most suitable for this study, the in-depth narrative interviews and observation are deemed a particularly suitable research tools. For this study, the pilot work was conducted in London prior to the main stage of data gathering in Sri Lanka. Five Sri Lankan migrant women entrepreneurs in London were purposively approached and interviewed.Findings show that the female entrepreneurs’ networking experience provides a valuable insight for developing their own small businesses. More specifically, majority of the female entrepreneurs emphasized the purpose- driven nature of their contacts and they organized their networks around the family and social domains rather than professional ties. Further, influences: competing family responsibilities and business matters (being a good mum, gender, trust and running home based business, are important and they affect networking behaviour of female entrepreneurs. This study adds to the extant literature through its two-dimensional focus on entrepreneurial networking .The structural dimension which investigates who are parts of the entrepreneurial networks; the relational side which explores the contributions each tie brings to the entrepreneurial venture. Further, it brings new evidence to bear by examine the importance influences for women networking behaviour by showing how the phenomenon of entrepreneurship is context specific and the

  9. Effects of ovarian steroids and prolactin on the sequential development of nesting behaviour in female budgerigars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, R E

    1975-10-01

    As intact, breeding female budgerigars approach egg-laying, they spend an increasing amount of time in the nestbox and nest hollow. The brood patch area begins to defeather and becomes vascular and the oviduct increases in weight. Precursory albumen forms in the tubular glands of the oviduct. Oestradiol (OB) treatment in combination with prolactin (OB+PL) induced ovariectomized budgerigars to display nesting behaviour which did not differ from that shown by intact females in the 3 days immediately preceding egg-laying. In contrast, OB induced only the initial phase of the nesting sequence and the effects of OB in combination with progesterone (OB+PR) were intermediate between treatments with OB alone and OB+PL. Incubation of artificial eggs occurred only in the OB+PL group and the latency to display of the incubation posture was shorter in the OB+PL group than in the OB+PR group. No incubation posture was displayed by the OB-treated group. Oviduct development was not influenced by prolactin, but progesterone induced precocious development of tubular glands in the magnum region of the oviduct. Treatment with OB+PR induced uniform development of precursor albumen in the tubular glands. Development of the brood patch occurred with both OB+PL and OB+PR treatment. However, OB+PR resulted in defeathering which was advanced in relation to vascularity when compared with intact breeding females, whereas defeathering and vascularity of the OB+PL group did not differ from that of intact females at egg-laying. These results indicate that prolactin in combination with oestradiol was more effective than progesterone not only in inducing the later phases of nesting behaviour but also in initiating incubation behaviour and defeathering of the brood patch area.

  10. The putative sensor histidine kinase CKI1 is involved in female gametophyte development in Arabidopsis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejátko, Jan; Pernisová, M.; Eneva, T.; Palme, K.; Brzobohatý, Břetislav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 269, č. 4 (2003), s. 443-453 ISSN 1617-4615 R&D Projects: GA MŠk VS96096; GA MŠk LN00A081 Grant - others:INCO-Copernicus(XE) ERB3512-PL966135; QLRT(XE) 2000-0020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : female gametophyte development * two-component signaling * sensor histidine kinase Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.240, year: 2003

  11. A Study on Career Development of Female Principals at Elementary and Junior High Schools

    OpenAIRE

    深澤, 真奈美; 重川, 純子

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate career development of female principals at elementary and junior high schools. We interviewed eight married principals who had children with respect to their work and private lives, especially child care. Respondents recognized that both teaching jobs on their first stages and management jobs as middle leader led to management jobs as executive. Most respondents were recommended to advance their careers by their supervisors (principals). They recogn...

  12. Predator-prey interactions in selected slow and fast developing females of a ladybird, Propylea dissecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Arshi; Omkar; Mishra, Geetanjali

    2015-10-14

    Development rate polymorphism describes the scenario in which individuals exhibit distinct differences in their rate of development resulting in slow and fast developers even from the same clutch of eggs. Previously we showed that in ladybird, Propylea dissecta fast developers have higher foraging and predation rates than slow developers. But correlation between foraging efficacies with reproductive output of female remains unexplored. We selected slow and fast developmental rate for 15 generations in a P. dissecta and assessed female functional response and numerical response by using varying prey biomasses (A. pisum). We evaluated predatory parameters: prey consumption, attack rate, handling time, and the reproductive measures: number of eggs laid, egg, and body biomass conversion efficiencies. Overall, both group of P. dissecta showed increased prey biomasses curvilinear for consumption rate demonstrating the physiological capacity of foraging for food are mutually exclusive behaviors (i.e., Holling's Type-II functional response). Consumption rate and proportion of prey consumed was higher, and prey handling time was shorter, in experimental fast developers. However, prey attack rate was higher in experimental slow developers. The functional response of experimental fast developers got elevated whereas got depressed for control slow-fast developers. Our results suggest that slow developers may perform better at low prey biomass than fast developers due to their high attack rate whereas high density prey may favour fast developers due to their shorter prey handling time and higher consumption rates. This study is first attempt to evaluate predatory responses of experimentally selected lines of slow and fast developers. J. Exp. Zool. 9999A:XX-XX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Intra-puparial development of the females of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Pujol-Luz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Intra-puparial development of the females of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae. The chronology and morphological changes that take place during intra-puparial development of Chrysomya albiceps is described based on 254 specimens reared in the laboratory. Larvae were obtained from the eggs laid by a single female. The pre-pupae were separated according to the reduction of larval length and the degree of pigmentation and sclerotization of the cuticle. After pupation, 10 individuals were fixed in Carnoy's solution and preserved in 70% ethanol, 10 individuals were fixed every 3 hours up to complete the first 24 hours (n = 80, the remaining individuals were fixed every six hours up to the 90th hour (n = 110 when 54 females emerged. The pupae were immersed in 5% formic acid for 48 hours and maintained in 70% ethanol, and then dissected and analyzed. C. albiceps shows four intra-puparial stages, each of which were described and compared with those described for Musca domestica, Calliphora erythrocephala, Sarcophaga bullata, Cuterebra tenebrosa, Oestrus ovis and Dermatobia hominis. Four developmental stages may be described: (1 the larva-pupa apolysis, after three hours; (2 the criptocephalic pupa, after six hours; (3 the phanerocephalic pupa, after nine hours; (4 the pharate pupa, after nine hours. The pharate adult is completely formed after 81 hours.

  14. Gender identity and gender role orientation in female assigned patients with disorders of sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Aino K; Fagerholm, Riitta; Santtila, Pekka; Miettinen, Päivi J; Taskinen, Seppo

    2012-11-01

    Gender identity and gender role orientation were assessed in 24 female assigned patients with disorders of sex development. A total of 16 patients were prenatally exposed to androgens, of whom 15 had congenital adrenal hyperplasia and 1 was virilized due to maternal tumor. Eight patients had 46,XY karyotype, of whom 5 had partial and 3 had complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. Gender identity was measured by the 27-item Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults with 167 female medical students as controls, and gender role was assessed by the femininity and masculinity subscales of the 30-item Bem Sex Role Inventory with 104 female and 64 male medical students as controls. No patient reached the cutoff for gender identity disorder on the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults. However, patients with 46,XY karyotype demonstrated a somewhat more conflicted gender identity, although the overall differences were relatively small. As to gender role orientation, patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome had high scores on the femininity and masculinity scales of the Bem Sex Role Inventory, which made them the most androgynous group. Our findings, although clinically not clear cut, suggest that patients with disorders of sex development are a heterogeneous group regarding gender identity and gender role outcomes, and that this issue should be discussed with the family when treatment plans are made. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Report of the international consensus development conference on female sexual dysfunction: definitions and classifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basson, R.; Berman, J.; Burnett, A.; Derogatis, L.; Ferguson, D.; Fourcroy, J.; Goldstein, I.; Graziottin, A.; Heiman, J.; Laan, E.; Leiblum, S.; Padma-Nathan, H.; Rosen, R.; Segraves, K.; Segraves, R. T.; Shabsigh, R.; Sipski, M.; Wagner, G.; Whipple, B.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Female sexual dysfunction is highly prevalent but not well defined or understood. We evaluated and revised existing definitions and classifications of female sexual dysfunction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An interdisciplinary consensus conference panel consisting of 19 experts in female sexual

  16. What Matters in the Finance-Growth Nexus of Developed Economies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Marc Steffen; Udoieva, Iuliia A.

    growth and mitigate economic risk. We find no such effect for private bond markets and private credit volume. Overall, our results suggest that financial sector “structure” matters for economic development of advanced economies highlighting the importance of addressing financial structure gaps....

  17. Origin and dynamics of oligodendrocytes in the developing brain : Implications for perinatal white matter injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilborg, Erik; de Theije, Caroline G.M.; van Hal, Maurik; Wagenaar, Nienke; de Vries, Linda S.; Benders, Manon J.; Rowitch, David H; Nijboer, Cora H.

    2018-01-01

    Infants born prematurely are at high risk to develop white matter injury (WMI), due to exposure to hypoxic and/or inflammatory insults. Such perinatal insults negatively impact the maturation of oligodendrocytes (OLs), thereby causing deficits in myelination. To elucidate the precise pathophysiology

  18. The female gametophyte: an emerging model for cell type-specific systems biology in plant development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc William Schmid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Systems biology, a holistic approach describing a system emerging from the interactions of its molecular components, critically depends on accurate qualitative determination and quantitative measurements of these components. Development and improvement of large-scale profiling methods (omics now facilitates comprehensive measurements of many relevant molecules. For multicellular organisms, such as animals, fungi, algae, and plants, the complexity of the system is augmented by the presence of specialized cell types and organs, and a complex interplay within and between them. Cell type-specific analyses are therefore crucial for the understanding of developmental processes and environmental responses. This review first gives an overview of current methods used for large-scale profiling of specific cell types exemplified by recent advances in plant biology. The focus then lies on suitable model systems to study plant development and cell type specification. We introduce the female gametophyte of flowering plants as an ideal model to study fundamental developmental processes. Moreover, the female reproductive lineage is of importance for the emergence of evolutionary novelties such as an unequal parental contribution to the tissue nurturing the embryo or the clonal production of seeds by asexual reproduction (apomixis. Understanding these processes is not only interesting from a developmental or evolutionary perspective, but bears great potential for further crop improvement and the simplification of breeding efforts. We finally highlight novel methods, which are already available or which will likely soon facilitate large-scale profiling of the specific cell types of the female gametophyte in both model and non-model species. We conclude that it may take only few years until an evolutionary systems biology approach toward female gametogenesis may decipher some of its biologically most interesting and economically most valuable processes.

  19. Adolescent development and eating disorder related quality of life in Indian females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, M; Abraham, S

    2011-03-01

    To study the relationship of adolescent development and eating disorder related quality of life in Indian females. 461 female school students (aged 12-17 yrs) were recruited from middle to high socio-economic status (SES), English speaking schools in Delhi, India. Adolescent development was measured by Tanner stage and months since menarche. Subjects completed the Quality of Life for Eating Disorders questionnaire (QOL ED), which included six subscores. Correlation and partial correlation coefficient analysis to control for Body Mass Index (BMI) were performed. After controlling for BMI, all adolescent development measures were correlated with the psychological feelings (PSY) subscore. This subscore contained items relating to confusion, social unease, sadness, difficulty coping, desiring perfection and loss of control. Tanner breast stage was correlated with the eating behaviour (EB) subscore. During adolescent development, Indian girls became more aware of their psychological feelings and emotions. Only those reporting breast development were using behaviours to control their body, weight and shape. These behaviours are not associated with the presence of disordered eating thoughts, such as preoccupation with food, eating, body weight or shape.

  20. Modeling the development of drug addiction in male and female animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Wendy J

    2018-01-01

    An increasing emphasis has been placed on the development and use of animal models of addiction that capture defining features of human drug addiction, including escalation/binge drug use, enhanced motivation for the drug, preference for the drug over other reward options, use despite negative consequences, and enhanced drug-seeking/relapse vulnerability. The need to examine behavior in both males and females has also become apparent given evidence demonstrating that the addiction process occurs differently in males and females. This review discusses the procedures that are used to model features of addiction in animals, as well as factors that influence their development. Individual differences are also discussed, with a particular focus on sex differences. While no one procedure consistently produces all characteristics, different models have been developed to focus on certain characteristics. A history of escalating/binge patterns of use appears to be critical for producing other features characteristic of addiction, including an enhanced motivation for the drug, enhanced drug seeking, and use despite negative consequences. These characteristics tend to emerge over abstinence, and appear to increase rather than decrease in magnitude over time. In females, these characteristics develop sooner during abstinence and/or following less drug exposure as compared to males, and for psychostimulant addiction, may require estradiol. Although preference for the drug over other reward options has been demonstrated in non-human primates, it has been more difficult to establish in rats. Future research is needed to define the parameters that optimally induce each of these features of addiction in the majority of animals. Such models are essential for advancing our understanding of human drug addiction and its treatment in men and women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. "Differently normal" and "normally different": negotiations of female embodiment in women's accounts of 'atypical' sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntram, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    During recent decades numerous feminist scholars have scrutinized the two-sex model and questioned its status in Western societies and medicine. Along the same line, increased attention has been paid to individuals' experiences of atypical sex development, also known as intersex or 'disorders of sex development' (DSD). Yet research on individuals' experiences of finding out about their atypical sex development in adolescence has been scarce. Against this backdrop, the present article analyses 23 in-depth interviews with women who in their teens found out about their atypical sex development. The interviews were conducted during 2009-2012 and the interviewees were all Swedish. Drawing on feminist research on female embodiment and social scientific studies on diagnosis, I examine how the women make sense of their bodies and situations. First, I aim to explore how the women construe normality as they negotiate female embodiment. Second, I aim to investigate how the divergent manners in which these negotiations are expressed can be further understood via the women's different access to a diagnosis. Through a thematic and interpretative analysis, I outline two negotiation strategies: the "differently normal" and the "normally different" strategy. In the former, the women present themselves as just slightly different from 'normal' women. In the latter, they stress that everyone is different in some manner and thereby claim normalcy. The analysis shows that access to diagnosis corresponds to the ways in which the women present themselves as "differently normal" and "normally different", thus shedding light on the complex role of diagnosis in their negotiations of female embodiment. It also reveals that the women make use of what they do have and how alignments with and work on norms interplay as normality is construed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Discussing underrepresentation as a means to facilitating female students’ physics identity development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robynne M. Lock

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that approximately half of high school physics students are female, only 21% of physics bachelor’s degrees are awarded to women. In a previous study, drawn from a national survey of college students in introductory English courses, five factors commonly proposed to positively impact female students’ choice of a physical science career were tested using multivariate matching methods. The only factor found to have a positive effect was the explicit discussion of the underrepresentation of women in physics. In order to explore this further, a case study of the classes of one teacher reported to discuss the underrepresentation of women was conducted. Two classroom underrepresentation discussions were recorded, students and teacher were interviewed, and relevant student work was collected. Analyzing the case study data using a figured worlds framework, we found that discussing the underrepresentation of women in science explicitly creates an opportunity for students’ figured worlds of professional and school science to change, and facilitates challenging their own implicit assumptions about how the world functions. Subsequently, the norms in students’ figured worlds may change or become less rigid allowing for a new openness to physics identity development amongst female students.

  3. siRNA-Mediated Silencing of doublesex during Female Development of the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshava Mysore

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of sex-specific traits, including the female-specific ability to bite humans and vector disease, is critical for vector mosquito reproduction and pathogen transmission. Doublesex (Dsx, a terminal transcription factor in the sex determination pathway, is known to regulate sex-specific gene expression during development of the dengue fever vector mosquito Aedes aegypti. Here, the effects of developmental siRNA-mediated dsx silencing were assessed in adult females. Targeting of dsx during A. aegypti development resulted in decreased female wing size, a correlate for body size, which is typically larger in females. siRNA-mediated targeting of dsx also resulted in decreased length of the adult female proboscis. Although dsx silencing did not impact female membrane blood feeding or mating behavior in the laboratory, decreased fecundity and fertility correlated with decreased ovary length, ovariole length, and ovariole number in dsx knockdown females. Dsx silencing also resulted in disruption of olfactory system development, as evidenced by reduced length of the female antenna and maxillary palp and the sensilla present on these structures, as well as disrupted odorant receptor expression. Female lifespan, a critical component of the ability of A. aegypti to transmit pathogens, was also significantly reduced in adult females following developmental targeting of dsx. The results of this investigation demonstrate that silencing of dsx during A. aegypti development disrupts multiple sex-specific morphological, physiological, and behavioral traits of adult females, a number of which are directly or indirectly linked to mosquito reproduction and pathogen transmission. Moreover, the olfactory phenotypes observed connect Dsx to development of the olfactory system, suggesting that A. aegypti will be an excellent system in which to further assess the developmental genetics of sex-specific chemosensation.

  4. A Review of Particulate Matter and Health: Focus on Developing Countries.

    OpenAIRE

    L. Panyacosit

    2000-01-01

    The burden of ill human health attributable to particulate air pollution is a critical problem of growing concern. In developing countries it is not uncommon to experience today the same particulate matter levels that characterized the devastating "London fog episodes" of the 1950s which resulted in over 4000 cases of premature mortality and countless cases of exacerbated morbidity related health endpoints. This literature review gives an overview of the situation in developing countries...

  5. [Effects of in utero exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on sexual development in female offspring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yu; Gao, Yu; Shi, Rong; Zhou, Yi-Jun; Tian, Ying

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the ability of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) with inducing damage in sexual development of female offspring rats after maternal exposure. On gestational day (GD) 12, pregnant Wistar rats were weighed, encoded and randomly assigned to 5 groups (10 dams per group). From GD 12 through GD 17 each dam was dosed daily by gavage with either corn oil (vehicle control, 1 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1)) or DEHP (1, 250, 750 and 1000 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1)). Then female offspring were monitored for eye opening on postnatal day (PND) 14-17, organ coefficient on PND 22 and the time to vaginal opening on PND 30 - 38 (if vagina did not open during the period, observation time should extent to adult), as well as body weight, time to first estrus. No significant changes were observed on eye opening at any dose, which were (15.8 +/- 0.4) d, (16.3 +/- 0.6) d, (16.0 +/- 0.6) d, (15.9 +/- 0.6) d, (15.8 +/- 0.4) d respectively in control, 1, 250, 750 and 1000 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) (F = 1.363, P = 0.262). However, 62.50% (15/24), 81.25% (26/32) female offspring were permanently absence of vaginal orifice in 750 and 1000 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) groups respectively, while control, 1 and 250 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) groups developed normally with vaginal orifices (chi(2) values were 84.92, 132.79, respectively, P xd(-1). After covariance adjustment for body weight, which can statistically influenced the age of vaginal opening (F = 40.857, P xd(-1) group was advanced than control (t = -2.056, P < 0.05). Exposure to DEHP in utero from GD 12 - 17 can result in abnormalities of sexual development such as the time to vaginal opening and vaginal atresia.

  6. An Analysis of Female Lecturers' Participation in Civil Engineering Research and Development Activities at One Polytechnic in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikuvadze, Pinias; Matswetu, Vimbai Sharon; Mugijima, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to explore female lecturers' participation in civil engineering research and development activities at one polytechnic in Zimbabwe. Case study design was chosen for this study to make predictions, narration of events, comparisons and drawing of conclusions. The female lecturers were purposively sampled to participate in the…

  7. A management strategy for principals for the career development of female teachers in primary schools / Anna Wilhelmina Fourie

    OpenAIRE

    Fourie, Anna Wilhelmina

    2012-01-01

    This research is focused on the development of a management strategy for the career development of female educators in primary schools in the Free State Province. The nature of career is conceptualised as multi-facetted influencing all aspects of life and pivotal for understanding the career trajectories of female educators (Theron, 2002:1-3). Career development, an ongoing lifelong dynamic process underpinned by career planning, is addressed by means of Human Resource Manageme...

  8. Long-term effects of prenatal X ray on development and fertility of human females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.B.; Tonascia, J.A.; Merz, T.

    1976-01-01

    This continuing epidemiologic study investigates possible effects of X-ray exposure during foetal life on the subsequent development and fertility of human females and on their offspring. The study population comprises 1458 females exposed in utero to maternal diagnostic X ray such as pelvimetry, and 1458 unexposed controls matched by hospital of birth, parity, race and birthdate (1947-1952). Phase I of the study showed a 10-15% increase in fertility in young exposed women, based on ascertainment of live births and foetal deaths registered in Baltimore City. This statistically significant difference (p=0.011) remained after adjustment for differences between exposed and control women in economic, social and medical factors. Phase II of the study, a direct follow-up of exposed control pairs of women now aged 22-28, continues to show more total pregnancies among exposed women. Exposed-in-utero women had 15% more total pregnancies than controls in 1960-1969, and 7% more in 1970-1975. Exposed and control women are similar in number of siblings, number of children wanted, contraceptive use, and frequency of therapeutic abortion. Other findings suggest possible exposed-control differences in growth, development and behaviour. Exposed women have completed fewer grades of school, have poorer general health, more menstrual problems, more of certain diseases and accidents, and are heavier for height than controls. (author)

  9. Experimental developments in relativistic heavy-ion collisions published between Quark Matter 2002 and the beginning of Quark Matter 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmick, Thomas K

    2004-01-01

    The Quark Matter conference is the 'meeting of record' for the field of relativistic heavy-ion physics. Each such conference is filled with exciting new data frequently presented to the world for the first time. However, the field also makes significant progress during the 18 months between Quark Matter conferences. Such progress is summarized in a single talk near the beginning of the conference and sets the stage for the newest data and discoveries. This paper is the experimental summary of selected results published in journals and presented at conferences between the end of QM2002 and the beginning of QM2004

  10. [Mass media influence and risk of developing eating disorders in female students from Lima, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo Montoya, Yessenia; Quenaya, Alejandra; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2015-12-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are a public health problem, and their relationship to mass media is still controversial. To assess whether there is an association between models of body image shown in mass media and the risk of developing EDs among female adolescent students from Lima, Peru. Cross-sectional study conducted in three schools located in the district of La Victoria, Lima, Peru. The risk of developing EDs was measured using the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), while mass media influence was measured using the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3), which was categorized into tertiles both in the overall score and its subscales (information, pressure, general internalization, and athletic internalization). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) for EDs were estimated. Four hundred and eighty-three students were included, their median age was 14 ? 3 years old. A risk of developing an ED was observed in 13.9% of them. Students who are more influenced by mass media (upper tertile of the SATAQ-3) have a higher probability of having a risk of developing an ED (aPR: 4.24; 95% confidence interval |-CI-|: 2.10-8.56), as well as those who have a greater access to information (PR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.09-3.25), suffer more pressure (PR: 4.97; 95% CI: 2.31-10.69), show a greater general internalization (PR: 5.00; 95% CI: 2.39-10.43), and show a greater level of athletic internalization (PR: 4.35; 95% CI: 2.19-8-66). The greater the influence of mass media, the greater the probability of having a risk of developing an ED among female students from Lima, Peru.

  11. [The frieze of the "Mystery villa" in Pompeii. Contribution to the development of female psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, G

    1979-01-01

    The large frieze of the "Villa of the Mysteries" at Pompeji is interpreted on the base of the psychology of C. G. Jung, especially of his student Erich Neumann. According to his psychological theories the frieze is depicting the development of the female principle to individuation, arranged with extraordinary artistic inspiration. Through the myth of Ariadne-Theseus-Dionysus the change of the woman, disappointed from the personal man and hero is shown. Through the experience of the transpersonal male principle in herself she is entering in a new level of conscience, the patriarchism, and so coming to the highest development, to the "Selbst". The experience of the male principle is made through Dionysus, a symbol of change in the theory of the "Archetypen" found by C. G. Jung.

  12. Knowledge, attitudes, practices and behaviors associated with female condoms in developing countries: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore L

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lizzie Moore,1 Mags Beksinska,1,2 Alnecia Rumphs,3 Mario Festin,4 Erica L Gollub3 1MatCH Research (Maternal, Adolescent and Child Health Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of the Witwatersrand, Westville, Durban, South Africa; 2Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK; 3Florida International University, Department of Epidemiology, Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work, Miami, FL, USA; 4World Health Organization, Special Program of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland Abstract: Women in developing countries are at high risk of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and unplanned pregnancy. The female condom (FC is an effective dual protective method regarded as a tool for woman's empowerment, yet supply and uptake are limited. Numerous individual, socioeconomic, and cultural factors influence uptake of new contraceptive methods. We reviewed studies of FC knowledge, attitudes, practices, and behaviors across developing countries, as well as available country-level survey data, in order to identify overarching trends and themes. High acceptability was documented in studies conducted in diverse settings among male and female FC users, with FCs frequently compared favorably to male condoms. Furthermore, FC introduction has been shown to increase the proportion of "protected" sex acts in study populations, by offering couples additional choice. However, available national survey data showed low uptake with no strong association with method awareness, as well as inconsistent patterns of use between countries. We identified a large number of method attributes and contextual factors influencing FC use/nonuse, most of which were perceived both positively and negatively by different groups and between settings. Male partner

  13. Annual and monthly range fidelity of female boreal woodland caribou in respons to petroleum development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyan V. Tracz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum-sector development in northern Alberta, Canada has been implicated as one factor influencing the decline of boreal woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou. Previous research showed that caribou are farther from petroleum-sector disturbances within their home range than expected. As petroleum development increases, the distance caribou can selectively place themselves relative to industrial disturbance must decrease, because distances between disturbances decrease. Conceptually, the number of local disturbances becomes so large that caribou either abandon their local avoidance behaviour or leave their traditional home range. We evaluated whether an intense petroleum- development event in northern Alberta was sufficient to result in home range abandonment by female woodland caribou. Using well locations as an index of petroleum development, we found that caribou studied from 1992 to 2000 did not change their annual or monthly range fidelity as a function of development intensity. Caribou remained in peatland complexes containing a large number of petroleum-sector disturbances rather than move to new areas, presumably because the risks of dispersing across upland habitat to reach other suitable habitat are high. Such range fidelity may have fitness consequences for woodland caribou if they suffer greater predation in areas where petroleum development is occurring.

  14. Leader evaluation and team cohesiveness in the process of team development: A matter of gender?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Rovira-Asenjo

    Full Text Available Leadership positions are still stereotyped as masculine, especially in male-dominated fields (e.g., engineering. So how do gender stereotypes affect the evaluation of leaders and team cohesiveness in the process of team development? In our study participants worked in 45 small teams (4-5 members. Each team was headed by either a female or male leader, so that 45 leaders (33% women supervised 258 team members (39% women. Over a period of nine months, the teams developed specific engineering projects as part of their professional undergraduate training. We examined leaders' self-evaluation, their evaluation by team members, and team cohesiveness at two points of time (month three and month nine, the final month of the collaboration. While we did not find any gender differences in leaders' self-evaluation at the beginning, female leaders evaluated themselves more favorably than men at the end of the projects. Moreover, female leaders were evaluated more favorably than male leaders at the beginning of the project, but the evaluation by team members did not differ at the end of the projects. Finally, we found a tendency for female leaders to build more cohesive teams than male leaders.

  15. Leader evaluation and team cohesiveness in the process of team development: A matter of gender?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczesny, Sabine; Gumí, Tània; Guimerà, Roger; Sales-Pardo, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Leadership positions are still stereotyped as masculine, especially in male-dominated fields (e.g., engineering). So how do gender stereotypes affect the evaluation of leaders and team cohesiveness in the process of team development? In our study participants worked in 45 small teams (4–5 members). Each team was headed by either a female or male leader, so that 45 leaders (33% women) supervised 258 team members (39% women). Over a period of nine months, the teams developed specific engineering projects as part of their professional undergraduate training. We examined leaders’ self-evaluation, their evaluation by team members, and team cohesiveness at two points of time (month three and month nine, the final month of the collaboration). While we did not find any gender differences in leaders’ self-evaluation at the beginning, female leaders evaluated themselves more favorably than men at the end of the projects. Moreover, female leaders were evaluated more favorably than male leaders at the beginning of the project, but the evaluation by team members did not differ at the end of the projects. Finally, we found a tendency for female leaders to build more cohesive teams than male leaders. PMID:29059231

  16. Perceptions of parental control and the development of indecision among late adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, J R; Olivette, M J

    1993-01-01

    Late adolescent females (N = 86; M age = 19.1 years) completed reliable and valid self-report measures on their perception of both parents' authority style (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive) and their own tendency toward decisional procrastination. Households where daughters perceived both parents as high authoritarian (n = 32) were significantly more likely to raise daughters with strong indecision tendencies than were parents perceived as low authoritarian (n = 23). Mothers and fathers perceived as high (n = 22) or low (n = 22) authoritative, and high (n = 32) or low (n = 24) permissive, did not produce significant differences in daughters' self-reported decisional procrastination. Results suggest that parental authority characterized by stern inflexibility and overcontrol has the greatest influence on daughters who develop chronic indecision tendencies.

  17. Intrauterine Exposure to Paracetamol and Aniline Impairs Female Reproductive Development by Reducing Follicle Reserves and Fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Mazaud-Guittot, Severine; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Niels Banhos

    2016-01-01

    in shortening of the anogenital distance in adult offspring, suggesting that fetal hormone signaling had been disturbed. Female offspring of paracetamol-exposed mothers had ovaries with diminished follicle reserve and reduced fertility. Fetal gonads of exposed animals had also reduced gonocyte numbers......, suggesting that the reduced follicle count in adults could be due to early disruption of germ cell development. However, ex vivo cultures of ovaries from 12.5 days post coitum fetuses showed no decrease in proliferation or expression following exposure to paracetamol. This suggests that the effect...... of paracetamol occurs prior to this developmental stage. Accordingly, using embryonic stem cells as a proxy for primordial germ cells we show that paracetamol is an inhibitor of cellular proliferation, but without cytotoxic effects. Collectively, our data show that intrauterine exposure to paracetamol at levels...

  18. Dietary quercetin exacerbates the development of estrogen-induced breast tumors in female ACI rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Bhupendra; Mense, Sarah M.; Bhat, Nimee K.; Putty, Sandeep; Guthiel, William A.; Remotti, Fabrizio; Bhat, Hari K.

    2010-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant compounds that structurally mimic the endogenous estrogen 17β-estradiol (E 2 ). Despite intense investigation, the net effect of phytoestrogen exposure on the breast remains unclear. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of quercetin on E 2 -induced breast cancer in vivo. Female ACI rats were given quercetin (2.5 g/kg food) for 8 months. Animals were monitored weekly for palpable tumors, and at the end of the experiment, rats were euthanized, breast tumor and different tissues excised so that they could be examined for histopathologic changes, estrogen metabolic activity and oxidant stress. Quercetin alone did not induce mammary tumors in female ACI rats. However, in rats implanted with E 2 pellets, co-exposure to quercetin did not protect rats from E 2 -induced breast tumor development with 100% of the animals developing breast tumors within 8 months of treatment. No changes in serum quercetin levels were observed in quercetin and quercetin + E 2 -treated groups at the end of the experiment. Tumor latency was significantly decreased among rats from the quercetin + E 2 group relative to those in the E 2 group. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity was significantly downregulated in quercetin-exposed mammary tissue. Analysis of 8-isoprostane F 2α (8-iso-PGF 2α ) levels as a marker of oxidant stress showed that quercetin did not decrease E 2 -induced oxidant stress. These results indicate that quercetin (2.5 g/kg food) does not confer protection against breast cancer, does not inhibit E 2 -induced oxidant stress and may exacerbate breast carcinogenesis in E 2 -treated ACI rats. Inhibition of COMT activity by quercetin may expose breast cells chronically to E 2 and catechol estrogens. This would permit longer exposure times to the carcinogenic metabolites of E 2 and chronic exposure to oxidant stress as a result of metabolic redox cycling to estrogen metabolites, and thus quercetin may exacerbate E 2 -induced

  19. Development of a Low Background Environment for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, Angela Jane [British Columbia U.

    1996-01-01

    A major problem currently facing astrophysics and cosmology is the question of dark matter. Although there is little doubt about the existence of dark matter, there is considerable uncertainty about the abundance and nature of this matter. One possibility is that dark matter consists of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), such as the lightest stable particle in supersymmetry models. Direct detection experiments look for nuclear recoils from WIMPs scattering in a detector. The first generation of direct detection experiments were ultimately limited by radioactive backgrounds. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) is a direct detection experiment based on novel particle detectors operated at millikelvin temperatures that provide intrinsic background rejection. This capability, however, is not 100% effective. Therefore a low background environment is essential to the experiment. To create such an environment, all possible background sources have been extensively studied both by measuring the background contribution from muons, photons and neutrons and by performing detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the photon and neutron backgrounds. The results of this investigation, as discussed in this thesis, have influenced all aspects of the CDMS experiment. The initial site for the CDMS experiment is the Stanford Underground Facility. The relatively high muon flux at this site due to its shallow depth was balanced against the convenience of a local site with the unlimited access necessary for operating a complicated cryogenic system and developing new detector technology. The cryostat used to house the detectors was designed to accommodate the extensive shielding necessary to reduce the ambient backgrounds to acceptable levels and to minimize the amount of radioactive contamination near the detectors. Simulations and measurements of the local backgrounds led to a layered shield design that consists primarily of plastic scintillators to veto muons, lead and copper

  20. Low-dose effects of bisphenol A on early sexual development in male and female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Boberg, Julie

    2014-01-01

    the influence of BPA on early sexual development in male and female rats at dose levels covering both regulatory no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) (5 and 50 mg/kg bw per day) as well as doses in the microgram per kilogram dose range (0.025 and 0.25 mg/kg bw per day). Time-mated Wistar rats (n=22) were...... in both sexes indicates effects on prenatal sexual development and provides new evidence of low-dose adverse effects of BPA in rats in the microgram per kilogram dose range. The NOAEL in this study is clearly below 5 mg/kg for BPA, which is used as the basis for establishment of the current tolerable......Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely detected in human urine and blood. BPA has been reported to impair many endpoints for reproductive and neurological development; however, it is controversial whether BPA has effects in the microgram per kilogram dose range. The aim of the current study was to examine...

  1. Gendered Morality and Development Narratives: The Case of Female Labor Migration from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Chan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses two dominant and contradictory representations of Indonesian female migrant workers: as national “heroes” who contribute to Indonesia’s economic development, or as exploited “victims” of labor abuse. By analyzing public statements by Indonesian state actors, news reports, and migrant activists’ websites, I argue that representations of migrants as victims do not undermine representations of migrants as heroes of development. Instead, in Indonesian public discourses about migrant women, various institutions and actors often evoke similar gendered moral assumptions of what makes a “good” or “bad” Indonesian woman and worker. These assumptions serve narratives that imply which migrant workers are heroes who deserve media attention; which migrants are unfairly abused and deserve state protection; and which migrants partly deserve their tragic fates. I term these assumptions gendered moral hierarchies, which distinguish between “tolerable” and “illegitimate” violence. Gendered moral hierarchies in representations of migrants downplay the responsibility of states and institutions for migrant safety, labor protection, and aspects of social welfare, by emphasizing individual moral responsibility and blame. More attention to gendered moral assumptions behind migrants’ narratives of development and victimhood can illuminate how they experience the risks and promises of transnational labor migration in gendered and culturally specific ways.

  2. TBT Effects on the Development of Intersex (Ovotestis in Female Fresh Water Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revathi Peranandam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of tributyltin (TBT on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000 ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary. Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii.

  3. TBT effects on the development of intersex (ovotestis) in female fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peranandam, Revathi; Palanisamy, Iyapparaj; Lourdaraj, Arockia Vasanthi; Natesan, Munuswamy; Vimalananthan, Arun Prasanna; Thangaiyan, Suganya; Perumal, Anantharaman; Muthukalingan, Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    The impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000 ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary). Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii.

  4. TBT Effects on the Development of Intersex (Ovotestis) in Female Fresh Water Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peranandam, Revathi; Palanisamy, Iyapparaj; Lourdaraj, Arockia Vasanthi; Natesan, Munuswamy; Vimalananthan, Arun Prasanna; Thangaiyan, Suganya; Perumal, Anantharaman; Muthukalingan, Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    The impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000 ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary). Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii. PMID:25121096

  5. Stories Matter: Conceptual Challenges in the Development of Oral History Database Building Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Jessee

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Stories Matter is new oral history database building software designed by an interdisciplinary team of oral historians and a software engineer affiliated with the Centre for Oral History and Digital Storytelling at Concordia University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It encourages a shift away from transcription, enabling oral historians to continue to interact with their interviews in an efficient manner without compromising the greater life history context of their interviewees. This article addresses some of the conceptual challenges that arose when developing this software. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs110119

  6. [Features of dyslipidemia development and insulin resistance in female workers engaged in methanol and formaldehyde production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranenko, L A

    2013-01-01

    The article covers data on analyzing occupational risk of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in female workers exosed to methanol and formaldehyde. Findings are that increased contents of the studied chemicals in the air of workplace cause more probable dyslipidemia, insuline resistence in peri-menopausal female workers, these disorders have reliable correlation with occupation.

  7. Female Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Key to Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Angela W.; Barrett, Hazel R.

    1991-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, aggregate data show that female literacy is associated with higher agricultural productivity and is more strongly correlated than GNP with mortality and immunization rates of young children. A case study of Gambia confirms these relationships, with high female illiteracy apparently impeding both human and economic…

  8. Discussing Underrepresentation as a Means to Facilitating Female Students' Physics Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Robynne M.; Hazari, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that approximately half of high school physics students are female, only 21% of physics bachelor's degrees are awarded to women. In a previous study, drawn from a national survey of college students in introductory English courses, five factors commonly proposed to positively impact female students' choice of a physical science…

  9. Asic3(-/- female mice with hearing deficit affects social development of pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Li Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infant crying is an important cue for mothers to respond adequately. Inappropriate response to infant crying can hinder social development in infants. In rodents, the pup-mother interaction largely depends on pup's calls. Mouse pups emit high frequency to ultrasonic vocalization (2-90 kHz to communicate with their dam for maternal care. However, little is known about how the maternal response to infant crying or pup calls affects social development over the long term. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we used mice lacking acid-sensing ion channel 3 (Asic3(-/- to create a hearing deficit to probe the effect of caregiver hearing on maternal care and adolescent social development. Female Asic3(-/- mice showed elevated hearing thresholds for low to ultrasonic frequency (4-32 kHz on auditory brain stem response, which thus hindered their response to their pups' wriggling calls and ultrasonic vocalization, as well as their retrieval of pups. In adolescence, pups reared by Asic3(-/- mice showed a social deficit in juvenile social behaviors as compared with those reared by wild-type or heterozygous dams. The social-deficit phenotype in juvenile mice reared by Asic3(-/- mice was associated with the reduced serotonin transmission of the brain. However, Asic3(-/- pups cross-fostered to wild-type dams showed rescued social deficit. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Inadequate response to pups' calls as a result of ASIC3-dependent hearing loss confers maternal deficits in caregivers and social development deficits in their young.

  10. Blocked, delayed, or obstructed: What causes poor white matter development in intrauterine growth restricted infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolcos, Mary; Petratos, Steven; Hirst, Jonathan J; Wong, Flora; Spencer, Sarah J; Azhan, Aminath; Emery, Ben; Walker, David W

    2017-07-01

    Poor white matter development in intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) babies remains a major, untreated problem in neonatology. New therapies, guided by an understanding of the mechanisms that underlie normal and abnormal oligodendrocyte development and myelin formation, are required. Much of our knowledge of the mechanisms that underlie impaired myelination come from studies in adult demyelinating disease, preterm brain injury, or experimental models of hypoxia-ischemia. However, relatively less is known for IUGR which is surprising because IUGR is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity, second only to premature birth. IUGR is also a significant risk factor for the later development of cerebral palsy, and is a greater risk compared to some of the more traditionally researched antecedents - asphyxia and inflammation. Recent evidence suggests that the white matter injury and reduced myelination in the brains of some preterm babies is due to impaired maturation of oligodendrocytes thereby resulting in the reduced capacity to synthesize myelin. Therefore, it is not surprising that the hypomyelination observable in the central nervous system of IUGR infants has similarly lead to investigations identifying a delay or blockade in the progress of maturation of oligodendrocytes in these infants. This review will discuss current ideas thought to account for the poor myelination often present in the neonate's brain following IUGR, and discuss novel interventions that are promising as treatments that promote oligodendrocyte maturation, and thereby repair the myelination deficits that otherwise persist into infancy and childhood and lead to neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of female medfly attractants to support the sterile insect technique: experiments conducted in Madeira, Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.

    1999-01-01

    With the availability of genetic sexing strains of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), it is possible to release only sterile males in SIT programs. The availability of a new female medfly attractant can reduce labor costs because program progress can be monitored by trapping females instead of the usual male trapping with its labor intensive identification of sterile and wild males. Three Madeira studies evaluated new female attractants; ammonium acetate, putrescine and trimethylamine. One study was carried out in the same area during two different periods of 1996 (8 June to 27 July and 12 October to 30 November). A second study was conducted between 24 May to 05 July, 1997, in two different areas at the same altitude. One area had a wild fly population (sex ratio 1: 1) and the other was in an area where sterile males were released (sex ratio > 9: 1). The third study, conducted from 18 October to 29 November, 1997, compared wild fly captures at low elevations (80 m) with those at high elevations (700 m). The first study showed that the inclusion of the attractant trimethylamine significantly increased the wild female medfly. The percentage of medfly females in the traps with the two and the three attractants (FA-2 and FA-3) was more than 70%. In the second and third studies, the dry traps were more effective than wet traps in capturing wild medfly females. In areas with only wild females, the percentage of females captured was more than 62%. In areas where sterile males were released, the percentage of females captured was between 12% and 19%. In conclusion, the new attractants captured high percentages of females and, when combined with medfly genetic sexing strains, can reduce program costs significantly. (author)

  12. Development and biological function of the female gonads and genitalia in IGF-I deficiency -- Laron syndrome as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Zvi

    2006-01-01

    Laron syndrome (LS) or primary GH insensitivity is a unique human model to study the effects of congenital IGF-I deficiency. Within our cohort of 63 patients with LS, 15 female patients were regularly followed since birth or infancy, throughout puberty. We observed that they were short at birth, with small genitalia and gonads -- during puberty, developed delayed puberty but eventually reached between 16 and 19 1/2 years full sexual development. Reproduction is unaffected at a young adult age. It is concluded that IGF-I in concert with the sex hormones has a modulatory but not essential function on female sexual development and maturation.

  13. Neurobehavioural methods, effects and prevention: workers' human rights are why the field matters for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, L

    2009-11-01

    Little research into neurobehavioural methods and effects occurs in developing countries, where established neurotoxic chemicals continue to pose significant occupational and environmental burdens, and where agents newly identified as neurotoxic are also widespread. Much of the morbidity and mortality associated with neurotoxic agents remains hidden in developing countries as a result of poor case detection, lack of skilled personnel, facilities and equipment for diagnosis, inadequate information systems, limited resources for research and significant competing causes of ill-health, such as HIV/AIDS and malaria. Placing the problem in a human rights context enables researchers and scientists in developing countries to make a strong case for why the field of neurobehavioural methods and effects matters because there are numerous international human rights commitments that make occupational and environmental health and safety a human rights obligation.

  14. Early oestrogens in shaping reproductive networks: evidence for a potential organisational role of oestradiol in female brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, J; Brock, O

    2010-07-01

    A central tenet of contemporary theories on mammalian brain and behavioural sexual differentiation is that an organisational action of testosterone, secreted by the male's testes, controls male-typical aspects of brain and behavioural development, whereas no active perinatal sex hormone signalling is required for female-typical sexual differentiation. Furthermore, the available evidence suggests that many, although not all, of the perinatal organisational actions of testosterone on the development of the male brain result from the cellular effects of oestradiol formed via neural aromatisation of testosterone. However, a default developmental programme for the female brain has been criticised. Indeed, we review new results obtained in aromatase knockout mice indicating that oestradiol actively contributes to the differentiation of female-typical aspects of brain and behavioural sexual differentiation. Furthermore, we propose that male-typical neural and behavioural differentiation occurs prenatally in genetic males under the influence of oestradiol, which is avoided in foetal genetic females by the neuroprotective actions of alpha-fetoprotein, whereas female-typical neural and behavioural differentiation normally occurs postnatally in genetic females under the influence of oestradiol that is presumably produced by the ovaries.

  15. Development of the rate of employment and unemployment of males and females in countries of EU15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Palát

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the evaluation the rates of employment and unemployment of women, men and as a whole in countries of EU15. Rates of employment were evaluated in the period 1993–2002. Rates of unemployment were evaluated in the period 1994–2003. Employment of males in fifteen countries of EU is higher then employment of females. Unemployment of females in fifteen countries of EU is higher than unemployment of males and in opposite unemployment of females in Sweden is lower than unemployment of males. Trends of rates of male, female and total employment and unemployment are evaluated. Methods of regression and correlation analysis, development trends and cluster analysis were applied for the mathematical-statistical analysis.

  16. Development of the rate of employment and unemployment of males and females in ten associated countries of EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Klíma

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the evaluation the rates of employment and unemployment of women, men and as a whole in ten associated countries of EU. Rates of employment were evaluated in the period 1996-2002. Rates of unemployment were evaluated in the period 1996-2003. Employment of males in all ten associated countries of EU is higher then employment of females. Unemployment of females in the Czech Republic, Cyprus, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia is higher than unemployment of males and in opposite unemployment of females in Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania and Latvia is lower than unemployment of males. Trends of rates of male, female and total employment and unemployment are evaluated. Methods of regression and correlation analysis, development trends and cluster analysis were applied for the mathematical-statistical analysis.

  17. Development of Central Diabetes Insipidus in a Female Victim with Severe Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Nikiforova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Case report. A pregnant woman with severe brain injury developed cerebral salt-wasting syndrome concurrent with diabetes insipidus. Placental enzymatic destruction of antidiuretic hormone and thyroid, adrenal, and renal dysfunction were excluded. Polyuria developed on day 3 when diuresis was less than 8.5 liters, there was hyponatremia (Na+ < 130 mmol/l with a urinary Na+ content of > 40 mmol/l. The administration of 3% sodium chloride solution considerably enhanced polyuria. When minirin was given in a daily dose of 0.4 mg, diuresis reached 32.4 liters, which exceeds the levels described for the complete absence of antidiuretic hormone. The use of minirin in the mean therapeutic dose (0.6 mg daily reduced, but failed to normalize diuresis. Evident hypernatremia and hypokalemia were absent in the existing polyuria. Brain injury in the female patient was suspected to cause and impair the synthesis of antidiuretic hormone and to increase the elaboration of ouabaine. This concomitance led to the concurrent development of central diabetes insipidus and cerebral salt-wasting syndrome. On this basis, the dose of minirin was increased up to 1.2 mg daily; hypothiazid 50 mg twice daily was prescribed. Hydrocortisone 50 mg twice daily was intramuscularly injected after diuresis reduced to 4.7 liters and hyponatremia (Na+ = 112.2 mmol/l. The performed therapy could normalize diuresis up to 1.8 liters and correct the blood levels of electrolytes. Key words: brain injury, diabetes insipidus, cerebral salt-wasting syndrome.

  18. Similarities and differences in the career trajectories of male and female career development award recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagsi, Reshma; DeCastro, Rochelle; Griffith, Kent A; Rangarajan, Soumya; Churchill, Cristina; Stewart, Abigail; Ubel, Peter A

    2011-11-01

    To examine the careers of career development award recipients. In 2009, a postal survey was conducted of 818 recipients of K08 and K23 awards in 2000-2001 to examine career paths and personal characteristics. Of 589 respondents (72% response rate), 211 (35.9%) were female. Women were less likely to have children (Psuccessful (P=.002), and they published fewer papers (P=.001). Overall, 118 women (55.9%) and 274 men (72.5%) met at least one of the following criteria for success: serving as principal investigator on an R01 or grants>$1,000,000 since K award receipt, publishing at least 35 publications since K award year, or serving as dean, department chair, or division chief. In a multivariate model, gender (odds ratio 1.72, P=.003) was associated with the likelihood of success by this definition, and analysis revealed no significant interactions (including with parental status). Most of these promising investigators of both genders remained in academia and received promotions. However, gender differences in success existed, unrelated to parental status, suggesting a need for ongoing investigation of the causes of gender differences in academic medical careers.

  19. Prenatal and adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke modulates the development of white matter microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Leslie K; Picciotto, Marina R; Heath, Christopher J; Frost, Stephen J; Tsou, Kristen A; Dwan, Rita A; Jackowski, Marcel P; Constable, Robert T; Mencl, W Einar

    2007-12-05

    Prenatal exposure to maternal smoking has been linked to cognitive and auditory processing deficits in offspring. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that exposure to nicotine disrupts neurodevelopment during gestation and adolescence, possibly by disrupting the trophic effects of acetylcholine. Given recent clinical and preclinical work suggesting that neurocircuits that support auditory processing may be particularly vulnerable to developmental disruption by nicotine, we examined white matter microstructure in 67 adolescent smokers and nonsmokers with and without prenatal exposure to maternal smoking. The groups did not differ in age, educational attainment, IQ, years of parent education, or symptoms of inattention. Diffusion tensor anisotropy and anatomical magnetic resonance images were acquired, and auditory attention was assessed, in all subjects. Both prenatal exposure and adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke was associated with increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in anterior cortical white matter. Adolescent smoking was also associated with increased FA of regions of the internal capsule that contain auditory thalamocortical and corticofugal fibers. FA of the posterior limb of the left internal capsule was positively correlated with reaction time during performance of an auditory attention task in smokers but not in nonsmokers. Development of anterior cortical and internal capsule fibers may be particularly vulnerable to disruption in cholinergic signaling induced by nicotine in tobacco smoke. Nicotine-induced disruption of the development of auditory corticofugal fibers may interfere with the ability of these fibers to modulate ascending auditory signals, leading to greater noise and reduced efficiency of neurocircuitry that supports auditory processing.

  20. Particulate matter air pollution exposure: role in the development and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean H Ling

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sean H Ling, Stephan F van EedenJames Hogg iCAPTURE Centre for Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Research and Heart and Lung Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Due to the rapid urbanization of the world population, a better understanding of the detrimental effects of exposure to urban air pollution on chronic lung disease is necessary. Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter (PM air pollution causes exacerbations of pre-existing lung conditions, such as, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. However, little is known whether a chronic, low-grade exposure to ambient PM can cause the development and progression of COPD. The deposition of PM in the respiratory tract depends predominantly on the size of the particles, with larger particles deposited in the upper and larger airways and smaller particles penetrating deep into the alveolar spaces. Ineffective clearance of this PM from the airways could cause particle retention in lung tissues, resulting in a chronic, low-grade inflammatory response that may be pathogenetically important in both the exacerbation, as well as, the progression of lung disease. This review focuses on the adverse effects of exposure to ambient PM air pollution on the exacerbation, progression, and development of COPD.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, particulate matter, air pollution, alveolar macrophage

  1. 29th Workshop on Recent Developments in Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed Matter Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Thirty years ago, because of the dramatic increase in the power and utility of computer simulations, The University of Georgia formed the first institutional unit devoted to the application of simulations in research and teaching: The Center for Simulational Physics. Then, as the international simulations community expanded further, we sensed the need for a meeting place for both experienced simulators and newcomers to discuss inventive algorithms and recent results in an environment that promoted lively discussion. As a consequence, the Center for Simulational Physics established an annual workshop series on Recent Developments in Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed Matter Physics. This year's highly interactive workshop was the 29th in the series marking our efforts to promote high quality research in simulational physics. The continued interest shown by the scientific community amply demonstrates the useful purpose that these meetings have served. The latest workshop was held at The University of Georgia from February 22-26, 2016. It served to mark the 30 th Anniversary of the founding of the Center for Simulational Physics. In addition, during this Workshop we celebrated the 60 th birthday of our esteemed colleague Prof. H.-Bernd Schuttler. Bernd has not only contributed to the understanding of strongly correlated electron system, but has made seminal contributions to systems biology through the introduction of modern methods of computational physics. These Proceedings provide a “status report” on a number of important topics. This on-line “volume” is published with the goal of timely dissemination of the material to a wider audience. This program was supported in part by the President's Venture Fund through the generous gifts of the University of Georgia Partners and other donors. We also wish to offer thanks to the Office of the Vice-President for Research, the Franklin College of Arts and Sciences, and the IBM Corporation for partial

  2. Financial development and economic growth in Ghana: Does the measure of financial development matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Adu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the long-run growth effects of financial development in Ghana. We find that the growth effect of financial development is sensitive to the choice of proxy. Both the credit to the private sector as ratios to GDP and total domestic credit are conducive for growth, while broad money stock to GDP ratio is not growth-inducing. The indexes created from principal component analysis confirmed the sensitivity of the effect to the choice of proxy. The findings here suggest that whether financial development is good or bad for growth depends on the indicator used to proxy for financial development.

  3. Psychosexual development, maternalism, nonpromiscuity, and body image in 15 females with precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, J; Walker, P A

    1971-03-01

    Fifteen females with a history of idiopathic sexual precocity were selected without known sampling bias. They had been followed for as long as 18 years. They showed various behavioral characteristics as a group, but were also individually unique. If the IQ permitted, they benefited socially from school acceleration. Left to their own devices, the majority preferred friends nearer to them in physique age rather than chronologic age. Play interests, though influenced by the age of playmates, showed no features unique to the precocious onset of hormonal puberty. About half of the girls had occasional moody or depressed spells and wanted to be left alone. Maternalistic interests were strongly represented; only one girl was a tomboy. Masturbation and sexual play in childhood were rarely confirmed, and in no instances were totally contrary to family or community mores. No consistent progression of erotic dream content was discerned. Dreams of having a baby were rare, but antedated intercourse dreams, which were also rarely reported and did not include sensations of climax. Whereas the youngest age of having a serious boyfriend was 8 years, and the youngest age of intercourse, 11, the majority of girls did not report romantic and sexual involvements before the middle teenage years or later. In the three instances of marriage, the youngest was at age 21. Motherhood has so far been achieved by only one patient. She delivered her first child at age 11. The visible appearance of early sexual development and early advanced statural growth created a problem in childhood human relationships for most of the girls, regardless of what they said, and regardless of their skill or ineptitude in handling it. They all benefited even from minimal counseling, as did their parents. Early appearance of physical sexual development does not automatically lead to premature engagement in erotic activity or promiscuous sexual behavior. Such activity and behavior require appropriate experience

  4. Accelerated cerebral white matter development in preterm infants: a voxel-based morphometry study with diffusion tensor MR imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giménez, Mónica; Miranda, Maria J; Born, A Peter

    2008-01-01

    stratum. While some earlier findings in preterm infants have suggested developmental delays, the results of this study are more consistent with accelerated white matter development, possibly as a result of increased sensorimotor stimulation in the extrauterine environment. These results are the first...... to suggest that the increased intensity of stimulation associated with preterm birth may advance the process of white matter maturation in the human brain. Questions remain about whether these findings reflect acceleration of the process of white matter maturation generally, or localized alterations induced...

  5. The low prevalence of female smoking in the developing world: gender inequality or maternal adaptations for fetal protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Edward H; Garfield, Melissa J; Sullivan, Roger J

    2016-01-01

    Female smoking prevalence is dramatically lower in developing countries (3.1%) than developed countries (17.2%), whereas male smoking is similar (32% vs 30.1%). Low female smoking has been linked to high gender inequality. Alternatively, to protect their offspring from teratogenic substances, pregnant and lactating women appear to have evolved aversions to toxic plant substances like nicotine, which are reinforced by cultural proscriptions. Higher total fertility rates (TFRs) in developing countries could therefore explain their lower prevalence of female smoking. To compare the associations of TFR and gender inequality with national prevalence rates of female and male smoking. Data from a previous study of smoking prevalence vs gender inequality in 74 countries were reanalysed with a regression model that also included TFR. We replicated this analysis with three additional measures of gender equality and 2012 smoking data from 173 countries. A 1 SD increase in TFR predicted a decrease in female smoking prevalence by factors of 0.58-0.77, adjusting for covariates. TFR had a smaller and unexpected negative association with male smoking prevalence. Increased gender equality was associated with increased female smoking prevalence, and, unexpectedly, with decreased male smoking prevalence. TFR was also associated with an increase in smoking prevalence among postmenopausal women. High TFR and gender inequality both predict reduced prevalence of female smoking across nations. In countries with high TFR, adaptations and cultural norms that protect fetuses from plant toxins might suppress smoking among frequently pregnant and lactating women. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  6. Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation During Ovule Development of Female-Sterile Rice fsv1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helian Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of female fertility is an important field of rice sexual reproduction research. DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic modification that dynamically regulates gene expression during development processes. However, few reports have described the methylation profiles of female-sterile rice during ovule development. In this study, ovules were continuously acquired from the beginning of megaspore mother cell meiosis until the mature female gametophyte formation period, and global DNA methylation patterns were compared in the ovules of a high-frequency female-sterile line (fsv1 and a wild-type rice line (Gui99 using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS. Profiling of the global DNA methylation revealed hypo-methylation, and 3471 significantly differentially methylated regions (DMRs were observed in fsv1 ovules compared with Gui99. Based on functional annotation and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG pathway analysis of differentially methylated genes (DMGs, we observed more DMGs enriched in cellular component, reproduction regulation, metabolic pathway, and other pathways. In particular, many ovule development genes and plant hormone-related genes showed significantly different methylation patterns in the two rice lines, and these differences may provide important clues for revealing the mechanism of female gametophyte abortion.

  7. Early phosphorus nutrition, mycorrhizae development, dry matter partitioning and yield of maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavito, M.E.; Miller, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    to a mycorrhizal mycelium network (no-tillage treatments). Maize yield and harvest index were lower after cropping With canola. The yield for conventional tillage was higher than that for no-tillage but the harvest index was lower. The hypothesis was supported at early stages of maize growth by the effect...... was used with previous crop (Zea mays L.-maize and Brassica napus L.-canola), tillage practices (no-tillage or conventional tillage) and P fertilization (5 levels) as factors chosen to modify mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages of maize. Previous cropping with canola resulted in decreased......We conducted a field experiment to test the hypothesis that improved phosphorus nutrition occurs in maize plants with rapid arbuscular (AM) mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages and that this also is reflected in dry matter allocation and final yield. A split-split plot design...

  8. Baryonic matter and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We summarize recent developments in identifying the ground state of dense baryonic matter and beyond. The topics include deconfinement from baryonic matter to quark matter, a diquark mixture, topological effect coupled with chirality and density, and inhomogeneous chiral condensates.

  9. Development of the liquid level meters for the PandaX dark matter detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jie; Gong Haowei; Lin Qing; Ni Kaixuan; Wei Yuehuan; Xiao Mengjiao; Xiao Xiang; Zhao Li; Tan Andi

    2014-01-01

    The two-phase xenon detector is at the frontier of dark matter direct search. This kind of detector uses liquid xenon as the sensitive target and is operated in two-phase (liquid/gas) mode, where the liquid level needs to be monitored and controlled in sub-millimeter precision. In this paper, we present a detailed design and study of two kinds of level meters for the PandaX dark matter detector. The long level meter is used to monitor the overall liquid level while short level meters are used to monitor the inclination of the detector. These level meters are cylindrical capacitors that are custom-made from two concentric metal tubes. Their capacitance values are read out by a universal transducer interface chip and are recorded by the PandaX slow control system. We present the developments that lead to level meters with long-term stability and sub-millimeter precision. Fluctuations (standard deviations) of less than 0.02 mm for the short level meters and less than 0.2 mm for the long level meter were achieved during a few days of test operation. (authors)

  10. White Matter Tracts Connected to the Medial Temporal Lobe Support the Development of Mnemonic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendelken, Carter; Lee, Joshua K; Pospisil, Jacqueline; Sastre, Marcos; Ross, Julia M; Bunge, Silvia A; Ghetti, Simona

    2015-09-01

    One of the most important factors driving the development of memory during childhood is mnemonic control, or the capacity to initiate and maintain the processes that guide encoding and retrieval operations. The ability to selectively attend to and encode relevant stimuli is a particularly useful form of mnemonic control, and is one that undergoes marked improvement over childhood. We hypothesized that structural integrity of white matter tracts, in particular those connecting medial temporal lobe memory regions to other cortical areas, and/or those connecting frontal and parietal control regions, should contribute to successful mnemonic control. To test this hypothesis, we examined the relationship between structural integrity of selected white matter tracts and an experimental measure of mnemonic control, involving enhancement of memory by attention at encoding, in 116 children aged 7-11 and 25 young adults. We observed a positive relationship between integrity of uncinate fasciculus and mnemonic enhancement across age groups. In adults, but not in children, we also observed an association between mnemonic enhancement and integrity of ventral cingulum bundle and ventral fornix/fimbria. Integrity of fronto-parietal tracts, including dorsal cingulum and superior longitudinal fasciculus, was unrelated to mnemonic enhancement. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Development of blood extraction system designed by female mosquito's blood sampling mechanism for bio-MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi; Nakanishi, Naoyuki; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2005-02-01

    A compact and wearable wristwatch type Bio-MEMS such as a health monitoring system (HMS) to detect blood sugar level for diabetic patient, was newly developed. The HMS consists of (1) a indentation unit with a microneedle to generate the skin penetration force using a shape memory alloy(SMA) actuator, (2) a pumping unit using a bimorph PZT piezoelectric actuator to extract the blood and (3) a gold (Au) electrode as a biosensor immobilized GOx and attached to the gate electrode of MOSFET to detect the amount of Glucose in extracted blood. GOx was immobilized on a self assembled spacer combined with an Au electrode by the cross-link method using BSA as an additional bonding material. The device can extract blood in a few microliter through a painless microneedle with the negative pressure by deflection of the bimorph PZT piezoelectric actuator produced in the blood chamber, by the similar way the female mosquito extracts human blood with muscle motion to flex or relax. The performances of the liquid sampling ability of the pumping unit through a microneedle (3.8mm length, 100μm internal diameter) using the bimorph PZT piezoelectric microactuator were measured. The blood extraction micro device could extract human blood at the speed of 2μl/min, and it is enough volume to measure a glucose level, compared to the amount of commercial based glucose level monitor. The electrode embedded in the blood extraction device chamber could detect electrons generated by the hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide produced by the reaction between GOx and glucose in a few microliter extracted blood, using the constant electric current measurement system of the MOSFET type hybrid biosensor. The output voltage for the glucose diluted in the chamber was increased lineally with increase of the glucose concentration.

  12. Prenatal Exposure to Unconventional Oil and Gas Operation Chemical Mixtures Altered Mammary Gland Development in Adult Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapouckey, Sarah A; Kassotis, Christopher D; Nagel, Susan C; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2018-03-01

    Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) operations, which combine hydraulic fracturing (fracking) and directional drilling, involve the use of hundreds of chemicals, including many with endocrine-disrupting properties. Two previous studies examined mice exposed during early development to a 23-chemical mixture of UOG compounds (UOG-MIX) commonly used or produced in the process. Both male and female offspring exposed prenatally to one or more doses of UOG-MIX displayed alterations to endocrine organ function and serum hormone concentrations. We hypothesized that prenatal UOG-MIX exposure would similarly disrupt development of the mouse mammary gland. Female C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to ~3, ~30, ~ 300, or ~3000 μg/kg/d UOG-MIX from gestational day 11 to birth. Although no effects were observed on the mammary glands of these females before puberty, in early adulthood, females exposed to 300 or 3000 μg/kg/d UOG-MIX developed more dense mammary epithelial ducts; females exposed to 3 μg/kg/d UOG-MIX had an altered ratio of apoptosis to proliferation in the mammary epithelium. Furthermore, adult females from all UOG-MIX-treated groups developed intraductal hyperplasia that resembled terminal end buds (i.e., highly proliferative structures typically seen at puberty). These results suggest that the mammary gland is sensitive to mixtures of chemicals used in UOG production at exposure levels that are environmentally relevant. The effect of these findings on the long-term health of the mammary gland, including its lactational capacity and its risk of cancer, should be evaluated in future studies. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  13. Do Methods Matter in Global Leadership Development? Testing the Global Leadership Development Ecosystem Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jennie L.

    2018-01-01

    As world communication, technology, and trade become increasingly integrated through globalization, multinational corporations seek employees with global leadership skills. However, the demand for these skills currently outweighs the supply. Given the rarity of globally ready leaders, global competency development should be emphasized in business…

  14. Irregularities in the development of male and female gametophytes in the greenhouse carnation (Dianthus caryophpllus L. cv. William Sim.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Zenkteler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It was found that numerous teratological transformations of the pistils and stamens account for the complete or partial female and male sterility in D. caryaphyllus L. cv. William Sim. Moreover, the degeneration of generative organs was accompanied by irregularities in the development of macro-and microsporogenesis.

  15. Relationship between mathematics teacher subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge and professional development needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd; Chinnappan, Mohan; Saad, Noor Shah

    2017-05-01

    Two key variables emerged from the literature review is that Specific Matter Knowledge [SMK] and Pedagogical Content Knowledge [PCK] can influence the mathematics teachers' Professional Development [PD] needs. However, the key variables of SMK and PCK that were being investigated were not defined clearly. Empirical evidence that support relationship between SMK and PD and PCK and PD were not verified. In addition, how does PCK mediate SMK and PD is not clear and somewhat lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between primary mathematics teacher's SMK, PCK and PD needs. Results of path analysis with SmartPLS indicated that the direct effect of SMK on PD was mediated via PCK. This data provide support for the claim that PD programs for future teachers of primary mathematics should be driven by a more nuanced understanding of the link between SMK and PCK.

  16. Mastitis in the lactating mink female (Mustela vison S.) and the development of "greasy kits"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, T.N.; Dietz, Hans H.

    2000-01-01

    "Greasy kits" is the result ufa multifactorial disease complex with few known definitive aetiological factors. Mastitis has been hypothesized as a triggering factor although classical clinical signs of mastitis (rubor, tumor, dolor, calor) are rarely seen in lactating Danish mink Females. In this......"Greasy kits" is the result ufa multifactorial disease complex with few known definitive aetiological factors. Mastitis has been hypothesized as a triggering factor although classical clinical signs of mastitis (rubor, tumor, dolor, calor) are rarely seen in lactating Danish mink Females...

  17. Sex matters: females in proestrus show greater diazepam anxiolysis and brain-derived neurotrophin factor- and parvalbumin-positive neurons than males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenelle, Rebecca; Berman, Ariel K; La, Jeffrey; Mason, Briana; Asumadu, Evans; Yelleswarapu, Chandra; Donaldson, S Tiffany

    2018-04-01

    In humans and animal models, sex differences are reported for anxiety-like behavior and response to anxiogenic stimuli. In the current work, we studied anxiety-like behavior and response to the prototypical anti-anxiety drug, diazepam. We used 6th generation outbred lines of adult Long Evans rats with high and low anxiety-like behavior phenotypes to investigate the impact of proestrus on the baseline and diazepam-induced behavior. At three doses of diazepam (0, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), we measured anxiogenic responses on the elevated plus maze of adult male and female rats. We assessed parvalbumin and brain-derived neurotrophin protein levels in forebrain and limbic structures implicated in anxiety/stress using immunohistochemistry. At baseline, we saw significant differences between anxiety lines, with high anxiety lines displaying less time on the open arms of the elevated plus maze, and less open arm entries, regardless of sex. During proestrus, high anxiety females showed less anxiety-like behavior at 0.1 mg/kg, while low anxiety females displayed less anxiety-like behavior at 0.1 and 1.0 doses, relative to males. Brain-derived neurotrophin protein was elevated in females in the medial prefrontal cortex and central amygdala, while parvalbumin-immunoreactive cells were greater in males in the medial prefrontal cortex. Parvalbumin-positive cells in high anxiety females were higher in CA2 and dentate gyrus relative to males from the same line. In sum, when tested in proestrus, females showed greater anxiolytic effects of diazepam relative to males, and this correlated with increases in neurotrophin and parvalbumin neuron density in corticolimbic structures. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Glucose intolerance develops prior to increased adiposity and accelerated cessation of estrous cyclicity in female growth-restricted rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intapad, Suttira; Dasinger, John Henry; Brown, Andrew D.; Fahling, Joel M.; Esters, Joyee; Alexander, Barbara T.

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of metabolic disease increases in early menopause. Low birth weight influences the age at menopause. Thus, this study tested the hypothesis that intrauterine growth restriction programs early reproductive aging and impaired glucose homeostasis in female rats. Methods Estrous cyclicity, body composition, and glucose homeostasis were determined in female control and growth-restricted rats at 6 and 12 months of age; sex steroids at 12 months. Results Glucose intolerance was present at 6 months of age prior to cessation of estrous cyclicity and increased adiposity in female growth-restricted rats. However, female growth-restricted rats exhibited persistent estrus and a significant increase in adiposity, fasting glucose and testosterone at 12 months of age (Pgrowth-restricted rats (Pgrowth programmed glucose intolerance that developed prior to early estrous acyclicity; yet, fasting glucose levels were elevated in conjunction with increased adiposity, accelerated cessation of estrous cyclicity and a shift towards testosterone excess at 12 months of age in female growth-restricted rats. PMID:26854801

  19. Whole ovary cryopreservation with vascular transplantation – A future development in female oncofertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Brännström

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of female fertility in female cancer victims is gaining more importance in the light of the excellent survival rates today after treatment for the types of cancer, which are common in women during childhood and fertile age. In this article we discuss the risks of infertility after various cancer treatments and in what patient categories fertility preservation should be discussed. The modes of female fertility preservation used today as clinically established methods or as experimental methods that are used in the human female are reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of the methods are also identified. Whole ovary cryopreservation has been suggested as a possible future more efficient method of fertility preservation. The research on this method in different animal models is discussed in detail and unsolved questions are identified. To date there has not been any attempt to transplant a cryopreserved whole human ovary but human ovaries have already been cryopreserved for future fertility preservation purposes, when cryobiological and microsurgical techniques have been further refined.

  20. The BASC-2 Profiles of Female Adolescents At-Risk of Developing an Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowitz, Annie L.

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders, disordered eating, and body dissatisfaction prevalence rates are on the rise among adolescent females. The present study sought to examine a commonly used social-emotional instrument, the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition, Self-Report of Personality (BASC-2, SRP), for the emergence of a common profile of…

  1. Male and Female: Career Development of African American College Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jamie Dowdy

    2015-01-01

    Tendency to foreclose on careers, vocational exploration, and career commitment were examined in relationship to racial-ethnic socialization, parental responsiveness, and career-related verbal encouragement and emotional support among 228 African American male and female college athletes and non-athletes. A number of tests were conducted to test…

  2. Neonatal exposure to daidzein, genistein, or the combination modulates bone development in female CD-1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Ward, Wendy E

    2009-03-01

    Neonatal exposure to genistein (GEN), an isoflavone abundant in soy, favorably modulates bone mineral density (BMD) and bone strength in mice at adulthood. The study objective was to determine whether early exposure to a combination of the soy isoflavones daidzein (DAI) and GEN that naturally exists in soy protein-based infant formula results in greater benefits to bone at adulthood than either treatment alone. Male and female CD-1 mice (n = 8-16 pups per group per gender) were randomized to subcutaneous injections of DAI (2 mg x kg body weight(-1) x d(-1)), GEN (5 mg x kg body weight(-1) x d(-1)), DAI+GEN (7 mg x kg body weight(-1) x d(-1)), diethylstilbesterol (DES; positive control) (2 mg x kg body weight(-1) x d(-1)), or control (CON) from postnatal d 1-5 and were studied to 4 mo of age. BMD, biomechanical bone strength, and bone microarchitecture were assessed at the femur and lumbar vertebrae (LV). Females treated with DAI, GEN, DAI+GEN, or DES had greater (P GEN resulted in greater (P GEN had a positive effect on the skeleton of female mice at adulthood, but, compared with individual treatments, DAI+GEN did not have a greater benefit to bone in females or males.

  3. Female masturbation in adolescence and the development of the relationship to the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, M E

    1982-01-01

    The significance of the role played by masturbation in the female is examined from a developmental point of view in order to question the assumption, often made, that female masturbation has the same normal significance as masturbation for the male. In order to do so, the difference between attitudes to male and female masturbation is defined as a difference in attitude to the use of the hand for masturbatory activity and is related to the observation that it is that activity that female children give up post-oedipally and again in post-puberty. The unconscious meaning of the hand, as identified with the mother's active handling of the child's body, is examined to show that masturbation is needed by the child to internalize a positive narcissistic cathexis of the body as well as a means of separating from the mother's body. The continued use of the hand during adolescence and adulthood by the girl or woman is then seen as a defensive means of maintaining a positive relationship to her own sexual body once the girl's body has become identified with that of her mother. The failure of this defence when used by the girl as a means to maintain a positive relationship to her own sexual body is seen as leading to the unconsciously determined need to attack her body, as can be observed clinically in those adolescents who physically attack their body.

  4. Status epilepticus during early development disrupts sexual behavior in adult female rats: recovery with sexual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria-Avila, Genaro Alfonso; Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Galán, Ricardo; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; López-Meraz, Maria-Leonor

    2014-05-01

    Female sexual behavior is sensitive to stress and diseases. Some studies have shown that status epilepticus (SE) can affect sexual proceptivity and receptivity in female rats and also increases reject responses towards males. However, epidemiologic studies indicate that SE is more frequent in young individuals. Herein, we assessed the effects of SE in infant females on their sexual behavior during adulthood. Thirteen-day-old (P13) rat pups received intraperitoneal injections of lithium chloride (3 mEq/kg). Twenty hours later, at P14, SE was induced by subcutaneous injection of pilocarpine hydrochloride (100 mg/kg s.c.). Control animals were given an equal volume of saline subcutaneously. The animals were weaned at P21 and, later in adulthood, were ovariectomized and hormone-primed with estradiol+progesterone, and their sexual behavior assessed during 4 separate trials of 30 min each with a stud male. Our results indicate that proceptive behaviors (solicitations and hops and darts) were impaired during the first trial, but no alterations were observed for receptivity and attractivity. By trial 3, all SE females displayed normal proceptivity. These results indicate that SE in infancy readily affects proceptivity in a reversible manner. We discuss the role of sexual experience in recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Motherhood and Female Labor Supply in the Developing World: Evidence from Infertility Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguero, Jorge M.; Marks, Mindy S.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new instrument for family size, infertility, to investigate the causal relationship between children and female labor force participation. Infertility mimics an experiment where nature assigns an upper bound for family size, independent of a woman's background. This new instrument allows us to investigate the differential labor…

  6. The importance of monitoring for developing intra-group trust in Ethiopian female workgroups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayissa, F.W.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Ruben, R.

    2017-01-01

    We examine the relation between intra-group trust and monitoring in a patriarchal society, and how this relation affects workgroup performance. Data were collected from 352 women who were members of 72 female workgroups in Addis Ababa by means of field experiments and a survey. The data are analyzed

  7. AHP2, AHP3, and AHP5 act downstream of CKI1 in Arabidopsis female gametophyte development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenning; Yuan, Li; Song, Xiaoya; Yu, Xiaolin; Sundaresan, Venkatesan

    2017-06-15

    Histidine phosphotransfer proteins (HPs) are key elements of the two-component signaling system, which act as a shuttle to transfer phosphorylation signals from histidine kinases (HKs) to response regulators (RRs). CYTOKININ INDEPENDENT 1 (CKI1), a key regulator of central cell specification in the Arabidopsis female gametophyte, activates the cytokinin signaling pathway through the Arabidopsis histidine phosphotransfer proteins (AHPs). There are five HP genes in Arabidopsis, AHP1-AHP5, but it remains unknown which AHP genes act downstream of CKI1 in Arabidopsis female gametophyte development. Promoter activity analysis of AHP1-AHP5 in embryo sacs revealed AHP1, AHP2, AHP3, and AHP5 expression in the central cell. Phenotypic studies of various combinations of ahp mutants showed that triple mutations in AHP2, AHP3, and AHP5 resulted in defective embryo sac development. Using cell-specific single and double markers in the female gametophyte, the ahp2-2 ahp3 ahp5-2/+ triple mutant ovules showed loss of central cell and antipodal cell fates and gain of egg cell or synergid cell attributes, resembling the cki1 mutant phenotypes. These data suggest that AHP2, AHP3, and AHP5 are the major factors acting downstream of CKI1 in the two-component cytokinin signaling pathway to promote Arabidopsis female gametophyte development. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Sexual and moral development of Israeli female adolescents from city and kibbutz: perspectives of Kohlberg and Gilligan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, R

    1991-01-01

    This paper analyzes real-life moral dilemmas of Israeli city and kibbutz adolescents. The contribution of Gilligan's theory to our knowledge of adolescent moral development as originally conceived by Kohlberg is emphasized. It is suggested that Kohlberg's view of the adolescent as a moral philosopher limits the understanding of the moral development of female adolescents, who use both care and justice in their self-descriptions within existing relationships.

  9. 75 FR 26822 - In the Matter of: Universal Property Development & Acquisition Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Universal Property Development & Acquisition Corp. (``Universal Property'') because it has not filed any... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] In the Matter of: Universal Property Development & Acquisition Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading May 10, 2010. It appears to the Securities and...

  10. Early-in-life dietary zinc deficiency and supplementation and mammary tumor development in adulthood female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Flávia R M; Grassi, Tony F; Zapaterini, Joyce R; Bidinotto, Lucas T; Barbisan, Luis F

    2017-06-01

    Zinc deficiency during pregnancy and postnatal life can adversely increase risk of developing human diseases at adulthood. The present study was designed to evaluate whether dietary zinc deficiency or supplementation during the pregnancy, lactation and juvenile stages interferes in the development of mammary tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Pregnant female SD rats were allocated into three groups: zinc-adequate diet (ZnA - 35-mg/kg chow), zinc-deficient diet (ZnD - 3-mg/kg chow) or zinc-supplemented diet (ZnS - 180-mg/kg chow) during gestational day 10 (GD 10) until the litters' weaning. Female offspring received the same diets as their dams until postnatal day (PND) 51. At PND 51, the animals received a single dose of DMBA (50 mg/kg, ig) and zinc-adequate diets. At PND 180, female were euthanized, and tumor samples were processed for histological evaluation and gene expression microarray analysis. The ZnD induced a significant reduction in female offspring body weight evolution and in mammary gland development. At late in life, the ZnD or ZnS did not alter the latency, incidence, multiplicity, volume or histological types of mammary tumors in relation to the ZnA group. However, the total tumor number in ZnS group was higher than in ZnA group, accompanied by distinct expression of 4 genes up- and 15 genes down-regulated. The present findings indicate that early-in-life dietary zinc supplementation, differently to zinc deficiency, has a potential to modify the susceptibility to the development of mammary tumors induced by DMBA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development And Application of Functional Assays For Freshwater Dissolved Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, S.; Tipping, E.; Gondar, D.; Baker, A.

    2006-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural waters participates in many important ecological and geochemical reactions, including acid-base buffering, light absorption, proton binding, binding of heavy metals, organic contaminants, aluminium and radionuclides, adsorption at surfaces, aggregation and photochemical reactivity. We are studying DOM in order to understand and quantify these functional properties, so we can use the knowledge to predict the influence of DOM on the natural freshwater environment. As DOM has no readily identifiable structure, our approach is to measure what it does, rather than what it is. Thus, we have developed a series of 12 standardised, reproducible assays of physico-chemical functions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in freshwaters. The assays provide quantitative information on light absorption, fluorescence, photochemical fading, pH buffering, copper binding, benzo(a)pyrene binding, hydrophilicity and adsorption to alumina. We have collected twenty DOM samples in total, ten samples from a eutrophic lake (Esthwaite Water) and ten samples from three stream waters. A mild isolation method was then used to concentrate the DOM samples for the assay work. When assaying the concentrates, parallel assays were also preformed with Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA), as a quality control standard. Our results showed that; (i) for eleven of the assays, the variability among the twenty DOM samples was significantly (p<0.001) greater than can be explained by analytical error, i.e. by comparison with results from the SRFA quality control; (ii) the functional properties of the DOM from Esthwaite Water are strongly influenced by the seasonally-dependent input of autochthonous DOM, derived from phytoplankton. The autochthonous DOM is less fluorescent, light absorbing, hydrophobic and has a lower acid group content and capacity to be adsorbed onto alumina than terrestrially derived allochthonous DOM; (iii) significant correlations were found between

  12. Do Thinking Styles Matter for Science Achievement and Attitudes toward Science Class in Male and Female Elementary School Students in Taiwan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Ling; Tseng, Yi-Kuan

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to explore the effects of thinking styles on science achievement and attitudes toward science class among Taiwanese elementary school students and to explore the differences between male and female students in their modes of thinking. Participants included 756 sixth-grade students from 28 classes in four elementary…

  13. Developing Critical Thinking with Debate: Evidence from Iranian Male and Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Danaye Tous

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference between the performance of Iranian male and female EFL learners on the five dimensions of the California Critical Thinking Skills Test.88 learners, out of 120, who were selected through convenience sampling method, participated in this study. The researcher used a quantitative research method with one-group pretest posttest design. This group received some treatment in the form of “the Meeting-House Debate” strategy. Data analysis was done using descriptive and inferential statistics. Result showed that there was no significant difference in the performance of males and females on the sub-scales measured; i.e. evaluation, analysis, inference, deductive reasoning, and inductive reasoning. It was concluded that gender did not have a significant effect on the students’ critical thinking skills.

  14. Development and application of the Chinese adult female computational phantom Rad-HUMAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yican; Cheng, Mengyun; Wang, Wen; Fan, Yanchang; Zhao, Kai; He, Tao; Pei, Xi; Shang, Leiming; Chen, Chaobin; Long, Pengcheng; Cao, Ruifen; Wang, Guozhong; Zhou, Shaoheng; Yu, Shengpeng; Hu, Liqin; Zeng, Q.

    2013-01-01

    Rad-HUMAN is a whole-body numerical phantom of a Chinese adult woman which contains 46 organs and tissues and was created by MCAM6 software using the color photographs of the Chinese Visible Human dataset. This dataset was obtained from a 22-year old Chinese female cadaver judged to represent normal human anatomy as much as possible. The density and elemental composition recommended in the ICRP Publication 89 and in the ICRU report 44 were assigned to the organ and tissue in Rad-HUMAN for radiation protection purpose. The last step was to implement the anatomical data into a Monte Carlo code. Rad-HUMAN contains more than 28.8 billion tiny volume units, which produces an accurately whole-body numerical phantom of a Chinese adult female

  15. Increasing the Retention of Females of Color in Engineering and Technology Degree Programs through Professional Development Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felecia M. Nave

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of professional development activities designed to provide minority female engineering students with the knowledge and essential skills to enhance their preparedness to transition into the engineering workforce and their ability to sustain a successful career. Three professional development workshops are discussed that focused on such topics as breaking the glass ceiling, leadership, soft skills development, balancing technical and non-technical skill development, professional etiquette, mentoring, and creating a growth plan. Industry partnerships have been a critical component to the success of these activities.

  16. Roentgenographic studies on the growth and development of lower third molars in Korean female

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyoung Soon; Lee, Sung Woo [Department of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1976-11-15

    The author obtained the following results through the studies on 1012 roentgenograms of lower third molar regions of Korean female; 1. The rate of presence of lower third molars was 78.9 percent. 2. The period that crowns of lower third molars become completed was 16.1 years. 3. The period that completion of apices of lower third molars become completed was over 27 years.

  17. Designing eHealth that Matters via a Multidisciplinary Requirements Development Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Velsen, Lex; Wentzel, Jobke; Van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia Ewc

    2013-06-24

    Requirements development is a crucial part of eHealth design. It entails all the activities devoted to requirements identification, the communication of requirements to other developers, and their evaluation. Currently, a requirements development approach geared towards the specifics of the eHealth domain is lacking. This is likely to result in a mismatch between the developed technology and end user characteristics, physical surroundings, and the organizational context of use. It also makes it hard to judge the quality of eHealth design, since it makes it difficult to gear evaluations of eHealth to the main goals it is supposed to serve. In order to facilitate the creation of eHealth that matters, we present a practical, multidisciplinary requirements development approach which is embedded in a holistic design approach for eHealth (the Center for eHealth Research roadmap) that incorporates both human-centered design and business modeling. Our requirements development approach consists of five phases. In the first, preparatory, phase the project team is composed and the overall goal(s) of the eHealth intervention are decided upon. Second, primary end users and other stakeholders are identified by means of audience segmentation techniques and our stakeholder identification method. Third, the designated context of use is mapped and end users are profiled by means of requirements elicitation methods (eg, interviews, focus groups, or observations). Fourth, stakeholder values and eHealth intervention requirements are distilled from data transcripts, which leads to phase five, in which requirements are communicated to other developers using a requirements notation template we developed specifically for the context of eHealth technologies. The end result of our requirements development approach for eHealth interventions is a design document which includes functional and non-functional requirements, a list of stakeholder values, and end user profiles in the form of

  18. Female and Male Interns and Their Mentors? Perception of Workforce Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Cathy W.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Brush, Kimberly M.

    2013-01-01

    Participants in this study were student interns and mentors taking part in the 2012, 10- week Langley Aerospace Research Student Scholars (LARSS) summer internship program in Hampton, Virginia. The study examined mentors and student interns' ratings of their preparedness in basic knowledge and skills. The study focused on three primary areas: 1) overall evaluation of knowledge and skills by mentors and interns; 2) male and female interns' perceptions of their own skills in these key areas; and 3) mentors' perceptions of their student interns' knowledge and skills in the same areas by gender. Overall mentors were more positive about their interns' improvement in 12 of 17 areas assessed than were the student interns. There were no significant gender differences in how mentors rated their male and female interns' abilities in these workforce skills, but there were four key areas where female interns rated their own abilities lower than did their male peers: analytical thinking, computational skills, computer skills and technical skills. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Effects of soil organic matter on the development of the microbial polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Zhang, N.; Xue, M.; Lu, S.T.; Tao, S.

    2011-01-01

    The microbial activity in soils was a critical factor governing the degradation of organic micro-pollutants. The present study was conducted to analyze the effects of soil organic matter on the development of degradation potentials for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Most of the degradation kinetics for PAHs by the indigenous microorganisms developed in soils can be fitted with the Logistic growth models. The microbial activities were relatively lower in the soils with the lowest and highest organic matter content, which were likely due to the nutrition limit and PAH sequestration. The microbial activities developed in humic acid (HA) were much higher than those developed in humin, which was demonstrated to be able to sequester organic pollutants stronger. The results suggested that the nutrition support and sequestration were the two major mechanisms, that soil organic matter influenced the development of microbial PAHs degradation potentials. - Research highlights: → PAH degradation kinetics obey Logistic model. → Degradation potentials depend on soil organic carbon content. → Humin inhibits the development of PAH degradation activity. → Nutrition support and sequestration regulate microbial degradation capacity. - Soil organic matter regulated PAH degradation potentials through nutrition support and sequestration.

  20. Development trends of white matter connectivity in the first years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Pew-Thian; Fan, Yong; Chen, Yasheng; Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2011-01-01

    The human brain is organized into a collection of interacting networks with specialized functions to support various cognitive functions. Recent research has reached a consensus that the brain manifests small-world topology, which implicates both global and local efficiency at minimal wiring costs, and also modular organization, which indicates functional segregation and specialization. However, the important questions of how and when the small-world topology and modular organization come into existence remain largely unanswered. Taking a graph theoretic approach, we attempt to shed light on this matter by an in vivo study, using diffusion tensor imaging based fiber tractography, on 39 healthy pediatric subjects with longitudinal data collected at average ages of 2 weeks, 1 year, and 2 years. Our results indicate that the small-world architecture exists at birth with efficiency that increases in later stages of development. In addition, we found that the networks are broad scale in nature, signifying the existence of pivotal connection hubs and resilience of the brain network to random and targeted attacks. We also observed, with development, that the brain network seems to evolve progressively from a local, predominantly proximity based, connectivity pattern to a more distributed, predominantly functional based, connectivity pattern. These observations suggest that the brain in the early years of life has relatively efficient systems that may solve similar information processing problems, but in divergent ways.

  1. Indoor particulate matter in developing countries: a case study in Pakistan and potential intervention strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Colbeck, Ian; Ali, Zulfiqar; Ahmad, Shakil

    2013-06-01

    Around three billion people, largely in low and middle income countries, rely on biomass fuels for their household energy needs. The combustion of these fuels generates a range of hazardous indoor air pollutants and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Worldwide, it is responsible for four million deaths. A reduction in indoor smoke can have a significant impact on lives and can help achieve many of the Millennium Developments Goals. This letter presents details of a seasonal variation in particulate matter (PM) concentrations in kitchens using biomass fuels as a result of relocating the cooking space. During the summer, kitchens were moved outdoors and as a result the 24 h average PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fell by 35%, 22% and 24% respectively. However, background concentrations of PM10 within the village increased by 62%. In locations where natural gas was the dominant fuel, the PM concentrations within the kitchen as well as outdoors were considerably lower than those in locations using biomass. These results highlights the importance of ventilation and fuel type for PM levels and suggest that an improved design of cooking spaces would result in enhanced indoor air quality.

  2. Indoor particulate matter in developing countries: a case study in Pakistan and potential intervention strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Colbeck, Ian; Ali, Zulfiqar; Ahmad, Shakil

    2013-01-01

    Around three billion people, largely in low and middle income countries, rely on biomass fuels for their household energy needs. The combustion of these fuels generates a range of hazardous indoor air pollutants and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Worldwide, it is responsible for four million deaths. A reduction in indoor smoke can have a significant impact on lives and can help achieve many of the Millennium Developments Goals. This letter presents details of a seasonal variation in particulate matter (PM) concentrations in kitchens using biomass fuels as a result of relocating the cooking space. During the summer, kitchens were moved outdoors and as a result the 24 h average PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PM 1 fell by 35%, 22% and 24% respectively. However, background concentrations of PM 10 within the village increased by 62%. In locations where natural gas was the dominant fuel, the PM concentrations within the kitchen as well as outdoors were considerably lower than those in locations using biomass. These results highlights the importance of ventilation and fuel type for PM levels and suggest that an improved design of cooking spaces would result in enhanced indoor air quality. (letter)

  3. Development trends of white matter connectivity in the first years of life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pew-Thian Yap

    Full Text Available The human brain is organized into a collection of interacting networks with specialized functions to support various cognitive functions. Recent research has reached a consensus that the brain manifests small-world topology, which implicates both global and local efficiency at minimal wiring costs, and also modular organization, which indicates functional segregation and specialization. However, the important questions of how and when the small-world topology and modular organization come into existence remain largely unanswered. Taking a graph theoretic approach, we attempt to shed light on this matter by an in vivo study, using diffusion tensor imaging based fiber tractography, on 39 healthy pediatric subjects with longitudinal data collected at average ages of 2 weeks, 1 year, and 2 years. Our results indicate that the small-world architecture exists at birth with efficiency that increases in later stages of development. In addition, we found that the networks are broad scale in nature, signifying the existence of pivotal connection hubs and resilience of the brain network to random and targeted attacks. We also observed, with development, that the brain network seems to evolve progressively from a local, predominantly proximity based, connectivity pattern to a more distributed, predominantly functional based, connectivity pattern. These observations suggest that the brain in the early years of life has relatively efficient systems that may solve similar information processing problems, but in divergent ways.

  4. Development of female fruit fly, Ceratitis species, attractant systems for trapping and sterility assessment in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyles, D.K.; Du Plessis, N.; Barnes, B.N.

    1999-01-01

    Fruit in the Western Cape Province of South Africa is attacked by the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, and the Natal fruit fly, C. rosa. Control costs and crop losses amount to an estimated US$ 5 million per year. The ARC-Fruit, Vine and Wine Research Institute in Stellenbosch has been taking part in the FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) to develop a female attractant systems for C. capitata during the 1996/97 and 1997/98 growing seasons. These seasons represented Year 3 and Year 4, respectively, of the female attractant CRP. The performance of these attractant systems in monitoring C. rosa was also evaluated. The Year 3 trial was carried out in a plum orchard with a low fruit fly population, and the Year 4 trial was carried out in the same plum orchard, as well as in a pear orchard with a high fruit fly population. Four female trapping systems were evaluated in Year 3 and five in Year 4. In Year 3, two systems consisted of a locally-manufactured buckettype 'Sensus' trap containing one of two different female attractants (β-caryophyllene, or β-caryophyllene + protein hydrolysate), one was a McPhail trap (IPMT) baited with borax + protein hydrolysate, and the fourth was an open bottom dry trap (OBDT) baited with the three component ammonium acetate, putrescine and trimethylamine system (FA-3). Sensus traps and Jackson traps baited with the male fruit fly attractant Trimedlure (TML) were also included. In Year 4, there was one wet and one dry IPMT system (both baited with FA-3), one IPMT system (borax + protein hydrolysate), and one wet and one dry Tephri trap system (both with FA-3). Jackson traps baited with TML were also included. Results from Year 3 showed that of the systems tested, the best female C. capitata attractant systems under low population conditions were the IPMT system baited with borax + protein hydrolysate, and the OBDT system baited with FA-3. β-caryophyllene in a Sensus trap did not adequately attract female C

  5. The development and application of the AstroFit program for complementary dark matter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan Nelly

    2013-02-01

    This doctoral thesis describes the development and application of the AstroFit program. Many studies have shown the existence of dark matter (DM), a mass component that constitutes over eighty percent of the entire matter in the Universe. From historical astrophysical evidence to latest reconstructions with sophisticated methods, the gravitational effect of DM can be shown, but its nature remains unknown. Many theoretical explanations aim at describing DM, for example as weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), within particular frameworks. The majority of these frameworks extend the existing standard model of particle physics (SM), so that new particles are added to the known set of elementary particles. One of these frameworks is the constrained supersymmetric standard model (CMSSM) that naturally introduces a DM candidate in form of the lightest supersymmetric particle(LSP). Searches for DM particles are undertaken in three different ways. First, directly with fixed-target experiments that measure WIMPs coming towards the Earth with nuclei of the target material. Second, indirectly by reconstructing DM signatures in particle spectra of known particles observed with ground-based telescopes, spaceborne satellites or balloon-borne experiments. And third, indirectly via direct production of DM at particle colliders such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and energy reconstructions where missing transverse energy is presumably carried away by the DM particles. Global fit programs used in particle physics, such as Fittino, are designed to fit parameters of theories beyond the SM simultaneously that are in accordance with the experimental and observed data in order to probe models and constrain the parameter space. To explore complementarity in DM research, the AstroFit interface program has been developed to combine all available information from direct and indirect searches for DM as well as collider searches for new physics in such global fits. To demonstrate

  6. The development and application of the AstroFit program for complementary dark matter studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan Nelly

    2013-02-15

    This doctoral thesis describes the development and application of the AstroFit program. Many studies have shown the existence of dark matter (DM), a mass component that constitutes over eighty percent of the entire matter in the Universe. From historical astrophysical evidence to latest reconstructions with sophisticated methods, the gravitational effect of DM can be shown, but its nature remains unknown. Many theoretical explanations aim at describing DM, for example as weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), within particular frameworks. The majority of these frameworks extend the existing standard model of particle physics (SM), so that new particles are added to the known set of elementary particles. One of these frameworks is the constrained supersymmetric standard model (CMSSM) that naturally introduces a DM candidate in form of the lightest supersymmetric particle(LSP). Searches for DM particles are undertaken in three different ways. First, directly with fixed-target experiments that measure WIMPs coming towards the Earth with nuclei of the target material. Second, indirectly by reconstructing DM signatures in particle spectra of known particles observed with ground-based telescopes, spaceborne satellites or balloon-borne experiments. And third, indirectly via direct production of DM at particle colliders such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and energy reconstructions where missing transverse energy is presumably carried away by the DM particles. Global fit programs used in particle physics, such as Fittino, are designed to fit parameters of theories beyond the SM simultaneously that are in accordance with the experimental and observed data in order to probe models and constrain the parameter space. To explore complementarity in DM research, the AstroFit interface program has been developed to combine all available information from direct and indirect searches for DM as well as collider searches for new physics in such global fits. To demonstrate

  7. Current developments in soil organic matter modeling and the expansion of model applications: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Eleanor E; Paustian, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is an important natural resource. It is fundamental to soil and ecosystem functions across a wide range of scales, from site-specific soil fertility and water holding capacity to global biogeochemical cycling. It is also a highly complex material that is sensitive to direct and indirect human impacts. In SOM research, simulation models play an important role by providing a mathematical framework to integrate, examine, and test the understanding of SOM dynamics. Simulation models of SOM are also increasingly used in more ‘applied’ settings to evaluate human impacts on ecosystem function, and to manage SOM for greenhouse gas mitigation, improved soil health, and sustainable use as a natural resource. Within this context, there is a need to maintain a robust connection between scientific developments in SOM modeling approaches and SOM model applications. This need forms the basis of this review. In this review we first provide an overview of SOM modeling, focusing on SOM theory, data-model integration, and model development as evidenced by a quantitative review of SOM literature. Second, we present the landscape of SOM model applications, focusing on examples in climate change policy. We conclude by discussing five areas of recent developments in SOM modeling including: (1) microbial roles in SOM stabilization; (2) modeling SOM saturation kinetics; (3) temperature controls on decomposition; (4) SOM dynamics in deep soil layers; and (5) SOM representation in earth system models. Our aim is to comprehensively connect SOM model development to its applications, revealing knowledge gaps in need of focused interdisciplinary attention and exposing pitfalls that, if avoided, can lead to best use of SOM models to support policy initiatives and sustainable land management solutions. (topical review)

  8. Sport specialization's association with an increased risk of developing anterior knee pain in adolescent female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Randon; Barber Foss, Kim; Hewett, Timothy E; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-02-01

    To determine if sport specialization increases the risk of anterior knee pain in adolescent female athletes. Retrospective cohort epidemiology study. Female basketball, soccer, and volleyball players (N = 546) were recruited from a single county public school district in Kentucky consisting of 5 middle schools and 4 high schools. A total of 357 multisport and 189 single-sport (66 basketball, 57 soccer, and 66 volleyball) athlete subjects were included due to their diagnosis of patellofemoral pain (PFP) on physical exam. Testing consisted of a standardized history and physician-administered physical examination to determine the presence of PFP. This study compared self-reported multisport athletes with sport-specialized athletes participating in only 1 sport. The sports-participation data were normalized by sport season, with each sport accounting for 1 season of exposure. Incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and used to determine significant differences between athletes who specialized in sport in early youth and multisport athletes. Specialization in a single sport increased the relative risk of PFP incidence 1.5-fold (95% CI 1.0-2.2, P = .038) for cumulative PFP diagnoses. Specific diagnoses such as Sinding Larsen Johansson/ patellar tendinopathy (95% CI 1.5-10.1, P = .005) and Osgood Schlatter disease (95% CI 1.5-10.1, P = .005) demonstrated a 4-fold greater relative risk in single-sport compared with multisport athletes. Incidence of other specific PFP diagnoses such as fat pad, plica, trauma, pes anserine bursitis, and iliotibial-band tendonitis was not different between single-sport and multisport participants (P > .05). Early sport specialization in female adolescents is associated with increased risk of anterior knee-pain disorders including PFP, Osgood Schlatter, Sinding Larsen-Johansson compared with multisport athletes.

  9. Behavioural and cognitive sex/gender differences in autism spectrum condition and typically developing males and females

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, L.; Mandy, W.; Petrides, K.

    2017-01-01

    Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing behavioural and cognitive characteristics in males and females with and without an autism spectrum condition diagnosis. A total of 13 studies were included ...

  10. Ego development, self-perception, and self-complexity in adolescence: a study of female psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D W; Brody, L; Noam, G G

    2001-01-01

    A study of two groups of female psychiatric inpatients, differing in level of ego development, explored domains of self-perception that best predicted global self-worth and symptom clusters that best predicted second-order factors of self perception. Findings revealed quantitative and qualitative differences in self-complexities, and more positive self-perceptions among the higher ego-level group in scholastic competence, job competence, and behavioral conduct. Results are discussed from a developmental perspective.

  11. Development of a model for predicting the dry matter production of mulberry [Morus alba] based on meteorological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, K.; Ito, D.

    1999-01-01

    It is necessary to predict mulberry growth and yield precisely at any time during the growing period, since mulberry trees are cut anytime along with the increase of the frequency of silkworm rearing per year. Therefore, in this study, attempts were made to develop a model to predict the dry matter production in mulberry fields with standard density with the cooperation of the prefectural experimental stations of Ibaraki, Tochigi, Gunma, Saitama, Tokyo and Gifu. To construct the model, we conducted three experiments. In the first year, we estimated the dry weight of mulberry new shoots based on the length and base width. Logarithm of leaf dry weight of a new shoot was regressed linearly on the logarithm of the product of length and base width. Stem dry weight was estimated with a linear regression of the logarithm on the logarithm of the product of length and base square width. In the next year, we evaluated the maximal effective radiation (Smax) of mulberry, over which mulberry cannot use radiation to produce dry matter. This experiment included shaded and control (non-shaded) plots, and the difference between these plots was analyzed. Shading treatment decreased the dry matter production, but did not affect the radiation conversion efficiency. Shoot dry matter production increased almost proportionally with intercepted radiation except for the later growth periods. Therefore, no Smax was revealed in mulberry fields with standard density. The effect of temperature and growth stage on the radiation conversion efficiency was investigated last year. Relation of temperature and radiation conversion efficiency was not clear for shoot dry matter production. However, there was a positive relation for stem dry mater production. Although the efficiency decreased with mulberry growth for leaf dry matter production, it increased at the early growth stage and decreased at the late stage for stem dry matter production

  12. Steps towards equal gender representation: TANDEMplusIDEA - an international mentoring and personal development scheme for female scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefli, Bettina; Breuer, Elke

    2010-05-01

    TANDEMplusIDEA was a European mentoring programme conducted by the technical universities RWTH Aachen, Imperial College London, ETH Zurich and TU Delft between 2007 and 2010 to achieve more gender equality in science. Given the continuing underrepresentation of women in science and technology and the well-known structural and systematic disadvantages in male-dominated scientific cultures, the main goal of this programme was to promote excellent female scientists through a high-level professional and personal development programme. Based on the mentoring concept of the RWTH Aachen, TANDEMplusIDEA was the first mentoring programme for female scientists realized in international cooperation. As a pilot scheme funded by the 6th Framework Programme of the European Commission, the scientific evaluation was an essential part of the programme, in particular in view of the development of a best practice model for international mentoring. The participants of this programme were female scientists at an early stage of their academic career (postdoc or assistant professor) covering a wide range of science disciplines, including geosciences. This transdisciplinarity as well as the international dimension of the programme have been identified by the participants as one of the keys of success of the programme. In particular, the peer-mentoring across discipline boarders proved to have been an invaluable component of the development programme. This presentation will highlight some of the main findings of the scientific evaluation of the programme and focus on some additional personal insights from the participants.

  13. A search for low-mass dark matter with the cryogenic dark matter search and the development of highly multiplexed phonon-mediated particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, David Craig [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    A wide variety of astrophysical observations indicate that approximately 85% of the matter in the universe is nonbaryonic and nonluminous. Understanding the nature of this "dark matter" is one of the most important outstanding questions in cosmology. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are a leading candidate for dark matter since they would be thermally produced in the early universe in the correct abundance to account for the observed relic density of dark matter. If WIMPs account for the dark matter, then rare interactions from relic WIMPs should be observable in terrestrial detectors. Recently, unexplained excess events in the DAMA/LIBRA, CoGeNT, and CRESST-II experiments have been interpreted as evidence of scattering from WIMPs with masses ~10 GeV and spin-independent scattering cross sections of 10-41-10-40 cm2. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II) attempts to identify WIMP interactions using an array of cryogenic germanium and silicon particle detectors located at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in northern Minnesota. In this dissertation, data taken by CDMS II are reanalyzed using a 2 keV recoil energy threshold to increase the sensitivity to WIMPs with masses ~10 GeV. These data disfavor an explanation for the DAMA/LIBRA, CoGeNT, and CRESST-II results in terms of spin-independent elastic scattering of WIMPs with masses ≲12 GeV, under standard assumptions. At the time of publication, they provided the strongest constraints on spin-independent elastic scattering from 5-9 GeV, ruling out previously unexplored parameter space. To detect WIMPs or exclude the remaining parameter space favored by the most popular models will ultimately require detectors with target masses ≳1 ton, requiring an increase in mass by more than two orders of magnitude over CDMS II. For cryogenic detectors such as CDMS, scaling to such large target masses will require individual detector elements to be fabricated more quickly and cheaply, while

  14. Smoking and the Developing Brain : Altered White Matter Microstructure in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Healthy Controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, Hanneke; Groenman, Annabeth P.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Luman, Marjolein; Greven, Corina U.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    Brain white matter (WM) tracts, playing a vital role in the communication between brain regions, undergo important maturational changes during adolescence and young adulthood, a critical period for the development of nicotine dependence. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated

  15. 75 FR 69717 - In the Matter of: Edentify, Inc., Embryo Development Corp., Enclaves Group, Inc., Energytec, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] In the Matter of: Edentify, Inc., Embryo Development Corp., Enclaves Group, Inc., Energytec, Inc., Enesco Group, Inc., Entertainment Is Us, Inc... Commission that there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Embryo...

  16. Altered Development of White Matter in Youth at High Familial Risk for Bipolar Disorder: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versace, Amelia; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Romero, Soledad; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study white matter (WM) development in youth at high familial risk for bipolar disorder (BD). WM alterations are reported in youth and adults with BD. WM undergoes important maturational changes in adolescence. Age-related changes in WM microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging with tract-based spatial statistics in healthy…

  17. Developing Pre-Service Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge of Electromagnetism by Integrating Concept Maps and Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Nadaraj

    2015-01-01

    This case study explored the development of two pre-service teachers' subject matter knowledge (SMK) of electromagnetism while integrating the use of concept maps (CM) and collaborative learning (CL) strategies. The study aimed at capturing how these pre-service teachers' SMK in electromagnetism was enhanced after having been taught SMK in a…

  18. Wistar-Kyoto Female Rats Are More Susceptible to Develop Sugar Binging: A Comparison with Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Papacostas-Quintanilla

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The hedonic component of the feeding behavior involves the mesolimbic reward system and resembles addictions. Nowadays, the excessive consumption of sucrose is considered addictive. The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rat strain is prone to develop anxiety and addiction-like behavior; nevertheless, a lack of information regarding their vulnerability to develop sugar binging-like behavior (SBLB and how it affects the reward system persist. Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to compare the different predisposition of two rat strains, Wistar (W and WKY to develop the SBLB in female and male rats. Also, we studied if the SBLB-inducing protocol produces changes in anxiety-like behavior using the plus-maze test (PMT and, analyzed serotonin (5-HT and noradrenaline (NA concentrations in brain areas related to anxiety and ingestive behavior (brain stem, hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala. Finally, we evaluated whether fluoxetine, a drug that has been effective in reducing the binge-eating frequency, body weight, and severity of binge eating disorder, could also block this behavior. Briefly, WKY and W female rats were exposed to 30% sucrose solution (2 h, 3 days/week for 4 weeks, and fed up ad libitum. PMT was performed between the last two test periods. Immediately after the last test where sucrose access was available, rats were decapitated and brain areas extracted for high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The results showed that both W and WKY female and male rats developed the SBLB. WKY rats consumed more calories and ingested a bigger amount of sucrose solution than their W counterpart. This behavior was reversed by using fluoxetine, rats exposed to the SBLB-inducing protocol presented a rebound effect during the washout period. On female rats, the SBLB-inducing protocol induced changes in NA concentrations on WKY, but not on W rats. No changes were found in 5-HT levels. Finally, animals that developed SBLB showed increased

  19. A SIMPLE Bubble Chamber for Dark Matter Searches: Testing and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, A.R.; Fernandes, A.C.; Marques, J.G.; Kling, A. [C2TN, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 - km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela, LRS (Portugal); Felizardo, M.; Girard, T.A. [Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003, Lisbon (Portugal); Lazaro, I. [Laboratoire Souterrain a Bas Bruit, UMS 3538 UNS/UAPV/CNRS, 84400 Rustrel-Pays d' Apt (France); Puibasset, J. [Centre de Recherche sur la Matiere Divisee CNRS et Universite d' Orleans, 45071 Orleans, 02 (France)

    2015-07-01

    SIMPLE (Superheated Instrument for Massive Particle Experiments) is one of only three experiments worldwide in search of evidence of astroparticle dark matter (WIMPs) using halocarbon-loaded superheated liquid (SHL) detectors. The 2012 Phase II SIMPLE measurements yielded the most restrictive exclusion contour in the spin-dependent (SD) sector of WIMP-proton interactions from a direct search experiment at the time, overlapping for the first time results previously obtained only indirectly [1]. In order to remain competitive with other experiments in the field, the next phase measurement requires larger exposure over shorter observation times with significantly improved neutron shielding. To increase exposure, SIMPLE plans, as a first step, to replace its superheated droplet detectors (SDDs), each containing an active mass of about 15 g of halocarbon, with bubble chambers capable of holding up to 20 kg of active halocarbon mass. We report on the development of the first 1 kg halocarbon SIMPLE bubble chamber prototype, including chamber recompression system design and testing and initial acoustic detection of bubble formation. (authors)

  20. Interaction of Natural Organic Matter with Layered Minerals: Recent Developments in Computational Methods at the Nanoscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery A. Greathouse

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of mineral surfaces in the adsorption, transport, formation, and degradation of natural organic matter (NOM in the biosphere remains an active research area owing to the difficulties in identifying proper working models of both NOM and mineral phases present in the environment. The variety of aqueous chemistries encountered in the subsurface (e.g., oxic vs. anoxic, variable pH further complicate this field of study. Recently, the advent of nanoscale probes such as X-ray adsorption spectroscopy and surface vibrational spectroscopy applied to study such complicated interfacial systems have enabled new insight into NOM-mineral interfaces. Additionally, due to increasing capabilities in computational chemistry, it is now possible to simulate molecular processes of NOM at multiple scales, from quantum methods for electron transfer to classical methods for folding and adsorption of macroparticles. In this review, we present recent developments in interfacial properties of NOM adsorbed on mineral surfaces from a computational point of view that is informed by recent experiments.

  1. Brief Report: Do Peer Relationships Matter to Vietnamese Adolescents' and Young Adults' Development of Identity? Towards a Working Theory of Identity Development in a Changing Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong; Cohen, Edward; Hines, Alice

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, using data from the first nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of more than 7000 Vietnamese adolescents, we explore how peers, compared to family, matter to Vietnamese adolescents' development of their independent identity as an adult. We use future hopes and aspirations as proxies for identity development, arguing that…

  2. Heterochronicity of white matter development and aging explains regional patient control differences in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochunov, Peter; Ganjgahi, Habib; Winkler, Anderson; Kelly, Sinead; Shukla, Dinesh K; Du, Xiaoming; Jahanshad, Neda; Rowland, Laura; Sampath, Hemalatha; Patel, Binish; O'Donnell, Patricio; Xie, Zhiyong; Paciga, Sara A; Schubert, Christian R; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Guohao; Thompson, Paul M; Nichols, Thomas E; Hong, L Elliot

    2016-12-01

    Altered brain connectivity is implicated in the development and clinical burden of schizophrenia. Relative to matched controls, schizophrenia patients show (1) a global and regional reduction in the integrity of the brain's white matter (WM), assessed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fractional anisotropy (FA), and (2) accelerated age-related decline in FA values. In the largest mega-analysis to date, we tested if differences in the trajectories of WM tract development influenced patient-control differences in FA. We also assessed if specific tracts showed exacerbated decline with aging. Three cohorts of schizophrenia patients (total n = 177) and controls (total n = 249; age = 18-61 years) were ascertained with three 3T Siemens MRI scanners. Whole-brain and regional FA values were extracted using ENIGMA-DTI protocols. Statistics were evaluated using mega- and meta-analyses to detect effects of diagnosis and age-by-diagnosis interactions. In mega-analysis of whole-brain averaged FA, schizophrenia patients had lower FA (P = 10 -11 ) and faster age-related decline in FA (P = 0.02) compared with controls. Tract-specific heterochronicity measures, that is, abnormal rates of adolescent maturation and aging explained approximately 50% of the regional variance effects of diagnosis and age-by-diagnosis interaction in patients. Interactive, three-dimensional visualization of the results is available at www.enigma-viewer.org. WM tracts that mature later in life appeared more sensitive to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and were more susceptible to faster age-related decline in FA values. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4673-4688, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Opportunities for scientists to influence policy: When does radiation metrology matter in development of national policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coursey, Bert M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate measurements of radiation and radioactivity rarely rise to the level of national policy. The things that matter most to ordinary citizens do not normally include questions of science and technology. Citizens are more often concerned with issues close to home relating to commerce, health, safety, security and the environment. When questions of confidence in measurements arise, they are first directed to the ministry that has responsibilities in that area. When the required uncertainty in field measurements challenges the capability of the regulatory authorities, the National Metrology Institute may be asked to develop transfer standards to enhance the capabilities of the ministry with the mission lead. In this paper, we will consider eight instances over the past nine decades in which questions in radiation and radionuclide metrology in the US did rise to the level that they influenced decisions on national policy. These eight examples share some common threads. Radioactivity and ionizing radiation are useful tools in many disciplines, but can often represent potential or perceived threats to health and public safety. When unforeseen applications of radiation arise, or when environmental radioactivity from natural and man-made sources presents a possible health hazard, the radiation metrologists may be called upon to provide the technical underpinning for policy development. - Highlights: • We review instances in which accurate measurements of radiation influence policy. • Heads of state rely on senior science advisors to frame policy decisions. • Metrologists support federal agencies that have mission leads in different fields. • Metrologists are called on when other agencies lack requisite expertise. • Radionuclide metrologists must recognize and accept challenges

  4. Female ever-smoking, education, emancipation and economic development in 19 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaap, Maartje M; Kunst, Anton E; Leinsalu, Mall

    2009-01-01

    Large differences in ever-smoking rates among women are found between countries and socio-economic groups. This study examined the socio-economic inequalities in female ever-smoking rates in 19 European countries, and explored the association between cross-national differences in these inequalities...... of current and former smokers of the total survey population. A Relative Index of Inequality was estimated for women in the three age groups to measure the magnitude of educational differences. In regression analyses the association of ever-smoking rates of women age 25-39 years with the gross domestic...... product (GDP) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) was explored. Less educated women aged 25-39 years were more likely to have ever smoked than more educated women in all countries, except Portugal. In the age groups 40-59 years the educational pattern differed between countries. Women aged 60+ years...

  5. Considering an Affect Regulation Framework for Examining the Association Between Body Dissatisfaction and Positive Body Image in Black Older Adolescent Females: Does Body Mass Index Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. PMID:25079011

  6. The Development of Female Entrepreneurship in the Function of Overcoming Unemployment of Women in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Sladjana Vujicic; Goran Kvrgic; Dragan Ivkovic; Radomir Vujadin; Natasa Vujadin

    2012-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is the engine of economic development of each country. The above facts indicate that entrepreneurship should be given special attention and it should constantly be developed. As one of the possible directions of development of entrepreneurship in recent decades, the development of women entrepreneurship stands out. Although in most countries of the world it is believed that women are less capable for entrepreneurship than men, and despite the fact that the majority of large e...

  7. Rhetorical meta-language to promote the development of students' writing skills and subject matter understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelger, Susanne; Sigrell, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background: Feedback is one of the most significant factors for students' development of writing skills. For feedback to be successful, however, students and teachers need a common language - a meta-language - for discussing texts. Not least because in science education such a meta-language might contribute to improve writing training and feedback-giving. Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore students' perception of teachers' feedback given on their texts in two genres, and to suggest how writing training and feedback-giving could become more efficient. Sample: In this study were included 44 degree project students in biology and molecular biology, and 21 supervising teachers at a Swedish university. Design and methods: The study concerned students' writing about their degree projects in two genres: scientific writing and popular science writing. The data consisted of documented teacher feedback on the students' popular science texts. It also included students' and teachers' answers to questionnaires about writing and feedback. All data were collected during the spring of 2012. Teachers' feedback, actual and recalled - by students and teachers, respectively - was analysed and compared using the so-called Canons of rhetoric. Results: While the teachers recalled the given feedback as mainly positive, most students recalled only negative feedback. According to the teachers, suggested improvements concerned firstly the content, and secondly the structure of the text. In contrast, the students mentioned language style first, followed by content. Conclusions: The disagreement between students and teachers regarding how and what feedback was given on the students texts confirm the need of improved strategies for writing training and feedback-giving in science education. We suggest that the rhetorical meta-language might play a crucial role in overcoming the difficulties observed in this study. We also discuss how training of writing skills may contribute to

  8. Effect of rosella extract on development of fatty streaks lesions in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Al-Kennany

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to explore the effect of rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa on female rats on oxidative stress which induced by 0.5% H2O2. Oxidative stress has been investigated via tissue (aorta and heart malonadyaldehyde (MDA as indirect lipid peroxidation index. For atherosclerotic lesions follow up light microscopical technique has been applied. The result elucidate significant reduction in lipid profit parameters namely: low density lipoprotein (LDL-c, triglycerides, very low density lipoprotein (vLDL-c, atherogenic index and significant elevation in high density lipoprotein (HDL-c in few animals treated with H2O2 and rosella extract, parallely, this research illustrate reduction in aorta and heart MDA concentration, concomitant with significant rising in glutathione (GSH level. Histopathologically, this study revealed fatty streaks associated with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells have been detected after 60 days, in animal treated with rosella revealed reduction in lipid vacuoles and proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMcs in media toward intimal layers after 40 days from treatment.

  9. Long-term effects of prenatal x-ray of human females. II. Growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M B; Tonascia, J

    1981-09-01

    Experimental studies and studies of survivors of in-utero exposure to atomic bomb blasts have shown significant stunting of growth and mental retardation following these exposures. Central nervous system damage following very low doses of x-ray at around the time of birth has also been observed in experimental animals. This long term follow-up studies of 1458 human females exposed in utero to diagnostic x-rays and of 1458 matched unexposed controls studied in Baltimore, Maryland, included measurements of height, weight and school achievement. Women who had been exposed to x-rays in utero were significantly shorter in their mid-twenties than were their matched, unexposed controls, even after adjustment for other social and economic factors. However, additional follow-up revealed that mothers of exposed women were also shorter than the control mothers. Short stature appeared to be a selective factor for x-ray during pregnancy (mostly pelvimetry, 1947-1952). Mothers' and daughters' heights were similarly correctly among exposed and control mother-daughter pairs, suggesting that the height differences between exposed daughters and their controls were due to these selective factor rather than to any direct effect of radiation on growth. Exposed women reported poorer school achievement than control women. However, except for a higher proportion of exposed women leaving school because of pregnancy, these measurements were no longer significantly different when rates were simultaneously adjusted for socioeconomic differences between exposed and control women.

  10. Development and Evaluation of a Proposed Neck Shield for the 5 Percentile Hybrid III Female Dummy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banglmaier, Richard F; Pecoraro, Katie M; Feustel, Jim R; Scherer, Risa D; Rouhana, Stephen W

    2005-11-01

    Frontal airbag interaction with the head and neck of the Hybrid III family of dummies may involve a non-biofidelic interaction. Researchers have found that the deploying airbag may become entrapped in the hollow cavity behind the dummy chin. This study evaluated a prototype neck shield design, the Flap Neck Shield, for biofidelic response and the ability to prevent airbag entrapment in the chin/jaw cavity. Neck pendulum calibration tests were conducted for biofidelity evaluation. Static and dynamic airbag deployments were conducted to evaluate neck shield performance. Tests showed that the Flap Neck Shield behaved in a biofidelic manner with neck loads and head motion within established biofidelic limits. The Flap Neck Shield did not alter the neck loads during static or dynamic airbag interactions, but it did consistently prevent the airbag from penetrating the chin/jaw cavity. Use of the Flap Neck Shield with the 5(th) percentile Hybrid III female dummy is recommended for frontal airbag deployments given its acceptable biofidelic response and repeatable performance.

  11. Long-term effects of prenatal x-ray of human females: growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.B.; Tonascia, J.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental studies and studies of survivors of in-utero exposure to atomic bomb blasts have shown significant stunting of growth and mental retardation following these exposures. Central nervous system damage following very low dosage of x-ray at around the time of birth has also been observed in experimental animals. This long term followup study of 1458 human females exposed in-utero to diagnostic x-rays and of 1458 matched unexposed controls studied in Baltimore, Maryland, included measurements of height, weight, and school achievement. Women who had been exposed to x-rays in-utero were significantly shorter in their mid-twenties than were their matched, unexposed controls, even after adjustment for other social and economic factors. However, additional followup revealed that mothers of exposed women were also shorter than the control mothers. Short stature appeared to be a selective factor for x-ray during pregnancy (mostly pelvimetry, 1947 to 1952). Mothers' and daughters' heights were similarly correlated among exposed and controlled mother-daughter pairs, suggesting that the height differences between exposed daughters and their controls were due to these selective factors rather than to any direct effect of radiation on growth. Exposed women reported poorer school achievement than control women. However, except for a higher proportion of exposed women leaving school because of pregnancy, these measurements were no longer significantly different when rates were simultaneously adjusted for socioeconomic differences between exposed and control women

  12. The effects of female sex steroids on the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in thymectomized and irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.A.; Young, P.R.; Penhale, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Female PVG/c strain rats are more susceptible to induction of autoimmune thyroiditis initiated by thymectomy and irradiation (Tx-X) than similarly treated males. Pre-pubertal ovariectomy further augmented susceptibility. Administration of oestrogen or progesterone to groups of 4 weeks old ovariectomized Tx-X animals over a period of 15 weeks significantly altered induction of this condition. Oestrogen administered repeatedly at dose levels of 1 μg and 10 μg/100 g body weight resulted in partial suppression of thyroiditis with a corresponding change in the incidence of antibodies to thyroglobulin. Oestrogen administered by a single implantation had a suppressive effect on the development of autoimmunity in ovariectomized Tx-X females. Oestrogen given by either of these procedures also reduced the incidence of thyroiditis and autoantibody induction in orchidectomized male Tx-X rats. In contrast, repeated administration of progesterone at a dose of 250 mg and 1,500 μg/100 g body weight appeared to augment levels of autoimmunity. It is concluded that the differential susceptibility to the induction of autoimmunity by thymectomy and irradiation is the direct consequence of sex hormonal influences. The higher incidence of the disease in the female would appear to be determined by the balance between the activity of oestrogen and progesterone which would further appear to have antagonistic influences in this particular situation. (UK)

  13. Maternal provision of transformer-2 is required for female development and embryo viability in the wasp Nasonia vitripennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuverink, Elzemiek; Rensink, Anna H; Rondeel, Inge; Beukeboom, Leo W; van de Zande, Louis; Verhulst, Eveline C

    2017-11-01

    In insect sex determination a primary signal starts the genetic sex determination cascade that, in most insect orders, is subsequently transduced down the cascade by a transformer (tra) ortholog. Only a female-specifically spliced tra mRNA yields a functional TRA-protein that forms a complex with TRA2, encoded by a transformer-2 (tra2) ortholog, to act as a sex specific splicing regulator of the downstream transcription factors doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru). Here, we identify the tra2 ortholog of the haplodiploid parasitoid wasp N. vitripennis (Nv-tra2) and confirm its function in N. vitripennis sex determination. Knock down of Nv-tra2 by parental RNA interference (pRNAi) results in complete sex reversal of diploid offspring from female to male, indicating the requirement of Nv-tra2 for female sex determination. As Nv-tra2 pRNAi leads to frequent lethality in early developmental stages, maternal provision of Nv-tra2 transcripts is apparently also required for another, non-sex determining function during embryogenesis. In addition, lethality following Nv-tra2 pRNAi appears more pronounced in diploid than in haploid offspring. This diploid lethal effect was also observed following Nv-tra pRNAi, which served as a positive control in our experiments. As diploid embryos from fertilized eggs have a paternal chromosome set in addition to the maternal one, this suggests that either the presence of this paternal chromosome set or the dosage effect resulting from the diploid state is incompatible with the induced male development in N. vitripennis caused by either Nv-tra2 or Nv-tra pRNAi. The role of Nv-tra2 in activating the female sex determination pathway yields more insight into the sex determination mechanism of Nasonia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassola, V. F.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI_AM and female RPI_AF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  15. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassola, V F; Kramer, R; Khoury, H J; De Melo Lima, V J

    2010-01-01

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI A M and female RPI A F phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  16. Eighteenth Workshop on Recent Developments in Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed Matter Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Landau, David P; Schüttler, Heinz-Bernd; Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed-Matter Physics XVIII

    2006-01-01

    This volume represents a "status report" emanating from presentations made during the 18th Annual Workshop on Computer Simulations Studies in Condensed Matter Physics at the Center for Simulational Physics at the University of Georgia in March 2005. It provides a broad overview of the most recent advances in the field, spanning the range from statistical physics to soft condensed matter and biological systems. Results on nanostructures and materials are included as are several descriptions of advances in quantum simulations and quantum computing as well as.methodological advances.

  17. Exploring Coaching Actions Based on Developed Values: A Case Study of a Female Hockey Coach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callary, Bettina; Werthner, Penny; Trudel, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    There are few empirical studies that demonstrate how values are developed and how they are linked to coaching actions. There can be a discrepancy between the statement of coaches' values and their actual coaching actions. In order to examine how coaching actions are influenced by values that are developed over a lifetime, the purpose of this…

  18. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of female medfly attractant systems for trapping and sterility assessment. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Practical application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against major insect pests will continue to increase as the repeated use of insecticides is recognized as an environmental problem. In the case of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), which attacks over 300 species of fruits and vegetables in tropical, subtropical, and temperate climates on all five continents, control is still largely based on frequent insecticide spraying, often more than 10 sprays per fruiting season. Methods for population estimation, which accurately reflect changes due to movement, mortality or reproduction, are a prerequisite for effective pest management and in particular for use of SIT. With better monitoring tools medfly populations can be estimated more accurately and compared under different conditions, to guide decisions on alternative (i.e. more effective and more environment-friendly) control strategies. In support of this need in the application of SIT field programmes against medfly, an FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research project (CRP) was carried out which resulted in a TECDOC published in 1996 on Standardization of Medfly Trapping for Use in sterile insect technique Programmes. Following the development of male only genetic sexing strains at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratories in Seibersdorf, Austria, it was recognized that the development of a female medfly targeted trapping system, in conjunction with only male sterile releases, would improve the efficacy of the SIT, reduce costs, and more effectively utilize sterile males. As a result, a new FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project on Development of Female Medfly Attractant Systems for Trapping and Sterility Assessment was initiated in 1994 with the objective to develop new synthetic female medfly attractants and to determine their efficacy compared to proteinaceous baits under different weather, host-tree and population density conditions. Findings obtained during the course of this 5-year CRP are

  20. Development of female medfly attractant systems for trapping and sterility assessment. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    Practical application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against major insect pests will continue to increase as the repeated use of insecticides is recognized as an environmental problem. In the case of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), which attacks over 300 species of fruits and vegetables in tropical, subtropical, and temperate climates on all five continents, control is still largely based on frequent insecticide spraying, often more than 10 sprays per fruiting season. Methods for population estimation, which accurately reflect changes due to movement, mortality or reproduction, are a prerequisite for effective pest management and in particular for use of SIT. With better monitoring tools medfly populations can be estimated more accurately and compared under different conditions, to guide decisions on alternative (i.e. more effective and more environment-friendly) control strategies. In support of this need in the application of SIT field programmes against medfly, an FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research project (CRP) was carried out which resulted in a TECDOC published in 1996 on Standardization of Medfly Trapping for Use in sterile insect technique Programmes. Following the development of male only genetic sexing strains at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratories in Seibersdorf, Austria, it was recognized that the development of a female medfly targeted trapping system, in conjunction with only male sterile releases, would improve the efficacy of the SIT, reduce costs, and more effectively utilize sterile males. As a result, a new FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project on Development of Female Medfly Attractant Systems for Trapping and Sterility Assessment was initiated in 1994 with the objective to develop new synthetic female medfly attractants and to determine their efficacy compared to proteinaceous baits under different weather, host-tree and population density conditions. Findings obtained during the course of this 5-year CRP are

  1. Development of white matter microstructure in relation to verbal and visuospatial working memory-A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogsrud, Stine K; Fjell, Anders M; Tamnes, Christian K; Grydeland, Håkon; Due-Tønnessen, Paulina; Bjørnerud, Atle; Sampaio-Baptista, Cassandra; Andersson, Jesper; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2018-01-01

    Working memory capacity is pivotal for a broad specter of cognitive tasks and develops throughout childhood. This must in part rely on development of neural connections and white matter microstructure maturation, but there is scarce knowledge of specific relations between this and different aspects of working memory. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enables us to study development of brain white matter microstructure. In a longitudinal DTI study of 148 healthy children between 4 and 11 years scanned twice with an on average 1.6 years interval, we characterized change in fractional anisotropy (FA), mean (MD), radial (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD) in 10 major white matter tracts hypothesized to be of importance for working memory. The results showed relationships between change in several tracts and change in visuospatial working memory. Specifically, improvement in visuospatial working memory capacity was significantly associated with decreased MD, RD and AD in inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) and uncinate fasciculus (UF) in the right hemisphere, as well as forceps major (FMaj). No significant relationships were found between change in DTI metrics and change in verbal working memory capacity. These findings yield new knowledge about brain development and corresponding working memory improvements in childhood.

  2. Development of white matter microstructure in relation to verbal and visuospatial working memory—A longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjell, Anders M.; Tamnes, Christian K.; Grydeland, Håkon; Due-Tønnessen, Paulina; Bjørnerud, Atle; Sampaio-Baptista, Cassandra; Andersson, Jesper; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Walhovd, Kristine B.

    2018-01-01

    Working memory capacity is pivotal for a broad specter of cognitive tasks and develops throughout childhood. This must in part rely on development of neural connections and white matter microstructure maturation, but there is scarce knowledge of specific relations between this and different aspects of working memory. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enables us to study development of brain white matter microstructure. In a longitudinal DTI study of 148 healthy children between 4 and 11 years scanned twice with an on average 1.6 years interval, we characterized change in fractional anisotropy (FA), mean (MD), radial (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD) in 10 major white matter tracts hypothesized to be of importance for working memory. The results showed relationships between change in several tracts and change in visuospatial working memory. Specifically, improvement in visuospatial working memory capacity was significantly associated with decreased MD, RD and AD in inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) and uncinate fasciculus (UF) in the right hemisphere, as well as forceps major (FMaj). No significant relationships were found between change in DTI metrics and change in verbal working memory capacity. These findings yield new knowledge about brain development and corresponding working memory improvements in childhood. PMID:29689058

  3. Female infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.A.; Yoder, I.

    1984-01-01

    Infertility, defined as 1 year of unprotected intercourse without conception, is becoming of increasingly important medical concern. Fertility in both the male and the female is at its peak in the twenties. Many couples today have postponed marriage and/or childbearing into their 30s until careers are established, but at that point fertility may be diminished. The current epidemic of venereal disease has been associated with an increasing incidence of tubal scarring. In addition, the use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) and birth control pills for contraception have let to later problems with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ovulation disturbances. The problem of infertility intensifies as the number of babies available for adoption decreases. Therefore, it is estimated that approximately 10-20% of couples will eventually seek medical attention for an infertility-related problem. Fortunately, marked improvements in the results of tubal surgery are concurrently occurring secondary to refinements in microsurgical techniques, and many medical alternatives to induce ovulation are being developed. The male factor causes infertility in 30-40 % of couples, and the female factor is responsible in approximately 50% of couples. No cause is found in 10-20% of couples. This chapter discusses the role of coordinated imaging in the diagnosis and therapy of infertility in the female

  4. Sex differences in abnormal white matter development associated with conduct disorder in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decety, Jean; Yoder, Keith J; Lahey, Benjamin B

    2015-08-30

    Associations between white matter pathway abnormalities and antisocial personality disorder in adults are well replicated, and there is some evidence for an association of white matter abnormalities with conduct disorder (CD) in adolescents. In this study, white matter maturation using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was examined in 110 children aged 10.0 ± 0.8 years selected to vary widely in their numbers of CD symptoms. The results replicated age-related increases in fractional anisotropy (FA) found in previous studies. There was not a significant association between the number of CD symptoms and FA, but CD symptoms were found to be significantly associated with greater axial and radial diffusivity in a broad range of white matter tracts, particularly in girls. In complementary analyses, there were similar significant differences in axial and radial diffusivity between children who met diagnostic criteria for CD and healthy children with no symptoms of CD, particularly in girls. Brain structural abnormalities may contribute to the emergence of CD in childhood, perhaps playing a greater role in girls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Going beyond Input Quantity: "Wh"-Questions Matter for Toddlers' Language and Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Leech, Kathryn A.; Cabrera, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    There are clear associations between the overall quantity of input children are exposed to and their vocabulary acquisition. However, by uncovering specific features of the input that matter, we can better understand the mechanisms involved in vocabulary learning. We examine whether exposure to "wh"-questions, a challenging quality of…

  6. Unidentified Factors in Jojoba Meal Prevent Oviduct Development in Broiler Breeder Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaut; Onagbesan; Bruggeman; Verhoeven; Berghman; Flo; Cokelaere; Decuypere

    1998-01-19

    Supplementation of feed with jojoba meal, as a means for autonomous feed restriction, was successful in depressing feed intake and controlling body weight of broiler breeder pullets to the extent recommended by the breeder company. However, these broiler breeders never produced eggs. At the level of ovary, normal follicle development and maturation did occur. A considerable number of ovulations occurred which were not followed by oviposition. After ovulation, the ova could not be captured by the oviduct, because of the small size of the oviduct, resulting in "internal laying". The virtual absence of oviduct development cannot be explained presently but it must be due to some yet unidentified factor(s) in jojoba meal which prevent(s) the normal development of the oviduct. These factors may be acting by abnormally increasing plasma progesterone or triiodothyronin levels and/or directly by themselves interfering with oviduct development. The nature of these factors requires further investigations.

  7. Development of the Human Fetal Kidney from Mid to Late Gestation in Male and Female Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danica Ryan

    2018-01-01

    Interpretation: These findings highlight spatial and temporal variability in nephrogenesis in the developing human kidney, whereas the relative cellular composition of glomeruli does not appear to be influenced by gestational age.

  8. Female entrepreneurship in developing countries,  Barriers and Motivation : Case Study, Egypt and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa, Gihan; Santos, Ajoqué

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurship accounted by women has become important all over the world, especially in developing countries where it plays not only an economic role but a social role as well, changing communities and consequently, the whole society. The purpose of this paper is to identify the main motivation and barriers faced by women in developing countries, especially concerning the case study, namely Brazil and Egypt. In order to accomplish that, a deep literature review has been done and ten cases ...

  9. [Effect of leptin on long-term spatial memory of rats with white matter damage in developing brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Er-Cui; Jiang, Li

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the neuroprotective effect of leptin by observing its effect on spatial memory of rats with white matter damage in developing brain. A total of 80 neonatal rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham-operation (n=27), model (n=27) and leptin intervention (n=27). The rats in the model and leptin intervention groups were used to prepare a model of white matter damage in developing brain, and the rats in the leptin intervention group were given leptin (100 μg/kg) diluted with normal saline immediately after modelling for 4 consecutive days. The survival rate of the rats was observed and the change in body weight was monitored. When the rats reached the age of 21 days, the Morris water maze test was used to evaluate spatial memory. There was no significant difference in the survival rate of rats between the three groups (P>0.05). Within 10 days after birth, the leptin intervention group had similar body weight as the sham-operation group and significantly lower body weight than the model group (P0.05). The results of place navigation showed that from the second day of experiment, there was a significant difference in the latency period between the three groups (Pmemory impairment of rats with white matter damage in developing brain. It thus exerts a neuroprotective effect, and is worthy of further research.

  10. A Narrative Study on the Leadership Development of Female Superintendents in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo, Mitzi N.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore, through the lived experiences of 8 women who achieved the superintendency in New Jersey, the intersectionality of gender, social norms, and race and how these women developed as leaders. The study was designed to identify perceived barriers to career ascension in education administration and the successful…

  11. Exploring the Impact of Sports Participation on Multiple Intelligence Development of High School Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kul, Marat

    2015-01-01

    After Gardner had introduced the Multiple Intelligence (MI) theory, many researchers tried to find out the possibilities of applying this theory in the education domain. Moreover, the effects of different kinds of athletic applications on intelligence development within the framework of this theory have also been under investigation. This study…

  12. Development of American and Foreign-National Female Graduate Students in Engineering at Research Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Briana Marie Keafer

    2013-01-01

    Women continue to be underrepresented among engineering faculty despite decades of reform and intervention. To understand why more graduate women do not pursue careers in academia, this mixed methods study focuses on the experiences of women currently in graduate engineering programs, and how the graduate culture shapes their development and…

  13. Behavioural and cognitive sex/gender differences in autism spectrum condition and typically developing males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Laura; Mandy, William; Petrides, K V

    2017-08-01

    Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing behavioural and cognitive characteristics in males and females with and without an autism spectrum condition diagnosis. A total of 13 studies were included in meta-analyses of sex/gender differences in core autism spectrum condition symptoms (social/communication impairments and restricted/repetitive behaviours and interests) and intelligence quotient. A total of 20 studies were included in a qualitative review of sex/gender differences in additional autism spectrum condition symptoms. For core traits and intelligence quotient, sex/gender differences were comparable in autism spectrum conditions and typical samples. Some additional autism spectrum condition symptoms displayed different patterns of sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions and typically developing groups, including measures of executive function, empathising and systemising traits, internalising and externalising problems and play behaviours. Individuals with autism spectrum conditions display typical sex/gender differences in core autism spectrum condition traits, suggesting that diagnostic criteria based on these symptoms should take into account typical sex/gender differences. However, awareness of associated autism spectrum condition symptoms should include the possibility of different male and female phenotypes, to ensure those who do not fit the 'typical' autism spectrum condition presentation are not missed.

  14. Human papillomavirus vaccination: assessing knowledge, attitudes, and intentions of college female students in Lebanon, a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dany, Mohammed; Chidiac, Alissar; Nassar, Anwar H

    2015-02-18

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a common cause for genital warts and cervical cancer. Developing countries in the Middle East such as Lebanon are traditionally considered to be conservative societies with low incidence of sexually transmitted infections. However, nowadays, there is an unexpected increase in the incidence of HPV infections among Middle Eastern females. Thus, the objective of this study is to assess the behavioral perceptions of HPV vaccination among female students attending an academic institution in Lebanon. This cross-sectional study invited 512 students to complete a self-administered questionnaire that assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and intentions towards HPV vaccination. Data analysis included the calculation of knowledge scores ranging from 0 to 100, attitude scores ranging from most positive (1) to most negative (5), and intention scores ranging from lowest intention (0) to highest intention (10). With a response rate of n=215 (42%), 36.5% never heard of the vaccine before, and only 16.5% were already HPV vaccinated. The median knowledge score of 52.7% ± 1.71 reflects poor to moderate knowledge. Still, the median attitude score of 2.47 ± 0.05 shows a general positive attitude towards HPV vaccination where most of the participants agreed that female college students in Lebanon have a good chance of contracting HPV (62.1%) and that all gynecologists should recommend the vaccine (76.0%). Students in graduate programs, health related majors, and those who are vaccinated had significantly higher knowledge scores compared with students in undergraduate programs, non-health related majors, and HPV non-vaccinated students, respectively. Finally, the survey helped in increasing the intention to obtain HPV vaccine as the intention score increased significantly from 5.24 ± 0.27 before the students went through the survey to 6.98 ± 0.22 after the students completed the survey. Our study highlights the importance of offering guidance to

  15. Relationship between histology, development and tumorigenesis of mammary gland in female rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    LÍŠKA, Ján; BRTKO, Július; DUBOVICKÝ, Michal; MACEJOVÁ, Dana; KISSOVÁ, Viktória; POLÁK, Štefan; UJHÁZY, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    The mammary gland is a dynamic organ that undergoes structural and functional changes associated with growth, reproduction, and post-menopausal regression. The postnatal transformations of the epithelium and stromal cells of the mammary gland may contribute to its susceptibility to carcinogenesis. The increased cancer incidence in mammary glands of humans and similarly of rodents in association with their development is believed to be partly explained by proliferative activity together with lesser degree of differentiation, but it is not completely understood how the virgin gland retains its higher susceptibility to carcinogenesis. During its developmental cycle, the mammary gland displays many of the properties associated with breast cancer. An early first full-term pregnancy may have a protective effect. Rodent models are useful for investigating potential breast carcinogens. The purpose of this review is to help recognizing histological appearance of the epithelium and the stroma of the normal mammary gland in rats, and throughout its development in relation to tumorigenic potential. PMID:26424555

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF TOMATO HYBRIDS BASED ON FEMALE PARENTS FORMS WITH FUNCTIONAL MALE STERILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Uzun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of variability of functional male sterility (ps–2 depending on year of study, genotype and age of the plant is shown. The efficiency of the method of forced ejection of pollen from intact anthers to increase the degree of sterility is shown. The five tomato hybrids developed based on selected lines were submitted for the state variety trial of Moldova.

  17. Differences in female and male development of the human cerebral cortex from birth to age 16

    OpenAIRE

    Hanlon, Harriet Wehner

    1994-01-01

    This study compares the development of the human cerebral cortex of 224 girls and 284 boys in a series of cross-sectional analyses as measured by EEG coherence on normal children's brains (longisectional design). Correlations of these EEG readings taken from all brain regions between a mean age of 6 months and 16 years yield measures of synaptic communication. Time series of these measures reflect the changing growth patterns across the 16 years. Time series of mean EE...

  18. Social networks and female reproductive choices in the developing world: a systematized review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Samantha M P; Moore, Spencer

    2014-12-10

    Continuing high global maternal mortality and morbidity rates in developing countries have resulted in an increasing push to improve reproductive health services for women. Seeking innovative ways for assessing how positive health knowledge and behaviors spread to this vulnerable population has increased the use of social network theories and analysis in health promotion research. Despite the increased research on social networks and health, no overarching review on social networks and maternal health literature in developing countries has been conducted. This paper attempts to synthesize this literature by identifying both published and unpublished studies in major databases on social networks and maternal and child health. This review examined a range of study types for inclusion, including experimental and non-experimental study designs including randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental, cohort studies, case control studies, longitudinal studies, and cross-sectional observational studies. Only those that occurred in developing countries were included in the review. Eighteen eligible articles were identified; these were published between 1997 and 2012. The findings indicated that the most common social network mechanisms studied within the literature were social learning and social influence. The main outcomes studied were contraceptive use and fertility decisions. Findings suggest the need for continuing research on social networks and maternal health, particularly through the examination of the range of social mechanisms through which networks may influence health behaviors and knowledge, and the analysis of a larger variety of reproductive outcomes.

  19. Vulnerability of female germ cells in developing mice and monkeys to tritium, gamma rays, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, R.L.; Koehler, C.G.; Felton, J.S.; Kwan, T.C.; Wuebbles, B.J.; Jones, D.C.L.

    1978-01-01

    During development female germ cells in both mouse and monkey are extremely sensitive to destruction by low-level chronic tritium exposure (via 3 HOH in maternal drinking water). Practical significance of this stems from tritium's importance in nuclear energy production and as an environmental pollutant. In mice exposed from conception to 14 days of age, the LD 50 level for oocytes is only 2 μCi per mililiter of body water. The present studies indicate that, for female germ cells in squirrel monkeys exposed in utero, the LD 50 is even lower, about 0.5 μCi/ml. This striking sensitivity contrasts with reported radioresistance for primate oocytes, chiefly from acute x-irradiation experiments. The discrepancy is reconciled if germ cells in the fetal primate pass through a highly sensitive period of limited duration. In light of other data showing germ-cell loss following repeated semiweekly x-irradiation during late but not during mid gestation, these results indicate that exceedingly high sensitivity occurs probably about the middle of the last trimester, at which time the LD 50 for monkey germ cells is, as for that of the mouse, less than 5 rads. Whereas highest radiosensitivity in primates is before birth, in mice it is after birth. To define the period of sensitivity more sharply, we measured oocyte responses to standard gamma-ray exposures in Swiss-Webster mice at various ages and found them to be maximal between days 5 and 19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), important as pollutants, also can destroy female germ cells effectively

  20. Mental Health Problems of Iranian Female Adolescents and Its Association with Pubertal Development: A Nationwide Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aria Sotoudeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mental health problems including emotional and behavioral problems during puberty may be under influence of different risk factors including cultures, living in urban or rural areas and ethnic factors which may vary between different countries. The main aim of this study is to investigate the profile of emotional and behavioral problems and the role of factors such as age, stage of puberty, ethnicity, rurality and living in urban area, as risk factors in Iranian girls. As a part of a large national study we evaluated the emotional and behavioral problems in different stages of puberty in a community sample of Iranian adolescent girls from public schools that were selected by clustered random sampling method. In all subjects, demographic characteristics, and pubertal stages were measured. Emotional and behavioral problems were evaluated using Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. The associations of age, pubertal development indices, socioeconomic and demographic factors with the behavioral problems were assessed. A total number of 4576 students enrolled the study and responded to the questions. The mean age of participants was 13.83 2.19 years. The mean total score of difficulties in participants was 14.34 5.81. According to these results 813 (17.8% adolescents had total problem scores higher than Goodmans cutoff points and the most frequent problem domain was conduct problems (20.5%. According to the results the most related variable with the total difficulty score of SDQ were ethnicity, residency in urban areas and development of menstrual cycle respectively. The results of this study showed that the most correlated factors with mental health problems in Iranian girls during puberty are ethnicity, urbanity and development of menstrual cycle.

  1. Yolk proteins during ovary and egg development of mature female freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Pinto, Vania; Vazquez-Boucard, Celia; Villarreal-Colmenares, Humberto

    2003-01-01

    Vitellins from ovaries and eggs at different stages of development in freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) were examined by chromatography, PAGE and SDS-PAGE. With these methods, two forms of vitellin (Vt1 and Vt2) were observed in ovaries and eggs (stages I and V). In ovaries in secondary vitellogenesis, native molecular mass was 470 (Vt1) and 440 (Vt2) kDa. The electrophoretic pattern of the eggs proved to be more complex. The protein molecular mass depend on the development stage of the egg: stage I, 650 kDa (Vt1) and 440 kDa (Vt2); stage V, 390 kDa (Vt1) and 340 kDa (Vt2). The identified vitellins appear to be lipo-glycocarotenoprotein. A similar vitellin polypeptide composition was observed in the two forms of vitellin from ovaries and eggs in stage V. In ovaries the SDS-PAGE analysis showed four subunits with molecular weights of approximately 180, 120, 95 and 80 kDa (Vt1 and Vt2). The polypeptide composition in the two forms of vitellins in stage I and stage III eggs were different at 195, 190, 130 and 110 kDa (Vt1) and 116 and 107 kDa (Vt2). On the other hand, in stage V eggs, 110, 95, 87 and 75 kDa (Vt1 and Vt2) were identified. Two antibodies (Ab1 and Ab2) were prepared against the purified proteins of stage V eggs and their specificity was demonstrated by radial immunoprecipitation, and Western blotting analysis. Two forms of vitellins were also found in stage V eggs after chromatography on Sepharose CL-2B column and hydroxylapatite and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  2. Oxidative stress in mouse sperm impairs embryo development, fetal growth and alters adiposity and glucose regulation in female offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lane

    Full Text Available Paternal health cues are able to program the health of the next generation however the mechanism for this transmission is unknown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are increased in many paternal pathologies, some of which program offspring health, and are known to induce DNA damage and alter the methylation pattern of chromatin. We therefore investigated whether a chemically induced increase of ROS in sperm impairs embryo, pregnancy and offspring health. Mouse sperm was exposed to 1500 µM of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, which induced oxidative damage, however did not affect sperm motility or the ability to bind and fertilize an oocyte. Sperm treated with H2O2 delayed on-time development of subsequent embryos, decreased the ratio of inner cell mass cells (ICM in the resulting blastocyst and reduced implantation rates. Crown-rump length at day 18 of gestation was also reduced in offspring produced by H2O2 treated sperm. Female offspring from H2O2 treated sperm were smaller, became glucose intolerant and accumulated increased levels of adipose tissue compared to control female offspring. Interestingly male offspring phenotype was less severe with increases in fat depots only seen at 4 weeks of age, which was restored to that of control offspring later in life, demonstrating sex-specific impacts on offspring. This study implicates elevated sperm ROS concentrations, which are common to many paternal health pathologies, as a mediator of programming offspring for metabolic syndrome and obesity.

  3. Development of attractant systems for trapping female Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Soconusco region, Chiapas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, P.; Miranda, H.; Paxtian, J.; Celedonio, H.; Orozco, D.

    1999-01-01

    With the aim of developing a system of attractants and trapping to optimize the capture of female Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) as well as other fruit flies, six experiments were carried out during the period 1994-1997, in a sterile-insect release zone in the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. Relating to the system of attractants, the evaluation focused on the comparison of food attractants (i.e. ammonium acetate, putrescine and trimethylamine) with standard attractants, such as Trimedlure and liquid hydrolyzed protein. For the trapping system, dry traps (Jackson trap, Open bottom dry trap, etc.) as well as wet traps (McPhail trap, Tephri trap, etc.) were tested alternately with the different kinds of attractants. The experiments were performed in agrosystems of coffee and groves of citrus and mango. Results consistently showed that a combination of ammonium acetate + putrescine + trimethylamine was the best for the capture of female Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) when used in traps such as the OBDT and the plastic McPhail trap (IPMT), while for Anastrepha spp., the McPhail trap baited with liquid hydrolyzed protein still appears to be the best option, although the combination of ammonium acetate with putrescine was quite consistent in the trapping of A. obliqua and A. ludens in traps such as the IPMT. (author)

  4. The development of guided inquiry-based learning devices on photosynthesis and respiration matter to train science literacy skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choirunnisak; Ibrahim, M.; Yuliani

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a guided inquiry-based learning devices on photosynthesis and respiration matter that are feasible (valid, practical, and effective) to train students’ science literacy. This research used 4D development model and tested on 15 students of biology education 2016 the State University of Surabaya with using one group pretest-posttest design. Learning devices developed include (a) Semester Lesson Plan (b) Lecture Schedule, (c) Student Activity Sheet, (d) Student Textbook, and (e) testability of science literacy. Research data obtained through validation method, observation, test, and questionnaire. The results were analyzed descriptively quantitative and qualitative. The ability of science literacy was analyzed by n-gain. The results of this research showed that (a) learning devices that developed was categorically very valid, (b) learning activities performed very well, (c) student’s science literacy skills improved that was a category as moderate, and (d) students responses were very positively to the learning that already held. Based on the results of the analysis and discussion, it is concluded that the development of guided inquiry-based learning devices on photosynthesis and respiration matter was feasible to train students literacy science skills.

  5. White-matter tract abnormalities and antisocial behavior: A systematic review of diffusion tensor imaging studies across development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Waller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antisocial behavior (AB, including aggression, violence, and theft, is thought be underpinned by abnormal functioning in networks of the brain critical to emotion processing, behavioral control, and reward-related learning. To better understand the abnormal functioning of these networks, research has begun to investigate the structural connections between brain regions implicated in AB using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, which assesses white-matter tract microstructure. This systematic review integrates findings from 22 studies that examined the relationship between white-matter microstructure and AB across development. In contrast to a prior hypothesis that AB is associated with greater diffusivity specifically in the uncinate fasciculus, findings suggest that adult AB is associated with greater diffusivity across a range of white-matter tracts, including the uncinate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, cingulum, corticospinal tract, thalamic radiations, and corpus callosum. The pattern of findings among youth studies was inconclusive with both higher and lower diffusivity found across association, commissural, and projection and thalamic tracts.

  6. Reproducibility and relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire developed for female adolescents in Suihua, North China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aims to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ developed for female adolescents in the Suihua area of North China. The FFQ was evaluated against the average of 24-hour dietary recalls (24-HRs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 168 female adolescents aged 12 to 18 completed nine three consecutive 24-HRs (one three consecutive 24 HRs per month and two FFQs over nine months. The reproducibility of the FFQ was estimated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs, and its relative validity was assessed by comparing it with the 24-HRs. The mean values of the 24-HRs were lower than those of the FFQs, except for protein (in FFQ1 and iron (in FFQ2. The ICCs for all nutrients and food groups in FFQ1 and FFQ2 were moderately correlated (0.4-0.8. However, all the ICCs decreased after adjusting for energy. The weighted κ statistic showed moderate agreement (0.40-0.6 for all nutrients and food groups, except for niacin and calcium, which showed poor agreement (0.35. The relative validity results indicate that the crude Spearman's correlation coefficients of FFQ1 and the 24-HRs ranged from 0.41 (for Vitamin C to 0.65 (for fruit. The coefficients of each nutrient and food group in FFQ2 and the 24-HRs were higher than those in FFQ1 and the 24-HRs, indicating good correlation. Although all energy-adjusted Spearman's correlation coefficients were lower than the crude coefficients, de-attenuation to correct for intra-individual variability improved the correlation coefficients. The weighted κ coefficients of nutrients and food groups ranged from 0.32 for beans to 0.52 for riboflavin in FFQ1 and the 24-HRs, and 0.32 for Vitamin C to 0.54 for riboflavin in FFQ2 and the 24-HRs. CONCLUSION: The FFQ developed for female adolescents in the Suihua area is a reliable and valid instrument for ranking individuals within this study.

  7. Reproducibility and Relative Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire Developed for Female Adolescents in Suihua, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Sun, Caihong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Jiajia; Wang, Hui; Wu, Lijie

    2011-01-01

    Background This study aims to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed for female adolescents in the Suihua area of North China. The FFQ was evaluated against the average of 24-hour dietary recalls (24-HRs). Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 168 female adolescents aged 12 to 18 completed nine three consecutive 24-HRs (one three consecutive 24 HRs per month) and two FFQs over nine months. The reproducibility of the FFQ was estimated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and its relative validity was assessed by comparing it with the 24-HRs. The mean values of the 24-HRs were lower than those of the FFQs, except for protein (in FFQ1) and iron (in FFQ2). The ICCs for all nutrients and food groups in FFQ1 and FFQ2 were moderately correlated (0.4–0.8). However, all the ICCs decreased after adjusting for energy. The weighted κ statistic showed moderate agreement (0.40–0.6) for all nutrients and food groups, except for niacin and calcium, which showed poor agreement (0.35). The relative validity results indicate that the crude Spearman's correlation coefficients of FFQ1 and the 24-HRs ranged from 0.41 (for Vitamin C) to 0.65 (for fruit). The coefficients of each nutrient and food group in FFQ2 and the 24-HRs were higher than those in FFQ1 and the 24-HRs, indicating good correlation. Although all energy-adjusted Spearman's correlation coefficients were lower than the crude coefficients, de-attenuation to correct for intra-individual variability improved the correlation coefficients. The weighted κ coefficients of nutrients and food groups ranged from 0.32 for beans to 0.52 for riboflavin in FFQ1 and the 24-HRs, and 0.32 for Vitamin C to 0.54 for riboflavin in FFQ2 and the 24-HRs. Conclusion The FFQ developed for female adolescents in the Suihua area is a reliable and valid instrument for ranking individuals within this study. PMID:21589932

  8. Normal development of human brain white matter from infancy to early adulthood: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, Satoshi; Matsui, Mie; Tanaka, Chiaki; Uematsu, Akiko; Miura, Kayoko; Kawana, Izumi; Noguchi, Kyo

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which measures the magnitude of anisotropy of water diffusion in white matter, has recently been used to visualize and quantify parameters of neural tracts connecting brain regions. In order to investigate the developmental changes and sex and hemispheric differences of neural fibers in normal white matter, we used DTI to examine 52 healthy humans ranging in age from 2 months to 25 years. We extracted the following tracts of interest (TOIs) using the region of interest method: the corpus callosum (CC), cingulum hippocampus (CGH), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). We measured fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD). Approximate values and changes in growth rates of all DTI parameters at each age were calculated and analyzed using LOESS (locally weighted scatterplot smoothing). We found that for all TOIs, FA increased with age, whereas ADC, AD and RD values decreased with age. The turning point of growth rates was at approximately 6 years. FA in the CC was greater than that in the SLF, ILF and CGH. Moreover, FA, ADC and AD of the splenium of the CC (sCC) were greater than in the genu of the CC (gCC), whereas the RD of the sCC was lower than the RD of the gCC. The FA of right-hemisphere TOIs was significantly greater than that of left-hemisphere TOIs. In infants, growth rates of both FA and RD were larger than those of AD. Our data show that developmental patterns differ by TOIs and myelination along with the development of white matter, which can be mainly expressed as an increase in FA together with a decrease in RD. These findings clarify the long-term normal developmental characteristics of white matter microstructure from infancy to early adulthood. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Female condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounds, W

    1997-06-01

    Early versions of a female condom were available in the 1920s and 1960s, but they were little used and soon forgotten. It took the arrival of AIDS, and the urgent need for a wider range of female-controlled barrier techniques, to rekindle scientific interest in this method. In the 1980s, three groups in Europe and the USA began development of new female condom designs, comprising 'Femidom (Reality)', the 'Bikini Condom', and 'Women's Choice'. Apart from differences in their physical design, Femidom differs from the others in that it is made of a polyurethane membrane, which has several advantages over latex. Of the three, Femidom is the most advanced in terms of development and clinical testing, and it is the only one to have reached the marketing stage. Laboratory studies and clinical trials suggest that its contraceptive efficacy is similar to that documented for the male condom, though a direct comparison is not possible because no comparative clinical trials have, as yet, been undertaken. Reported 'typical-use' pregnancy rates range from 12.4 to 22.2% at 6 months of use in the USA and Latin America, respectively, while a study in the UK observed a rate of 15% at 12 months. As with all barrier methods, most failures appear to be associated with poor compliance or incorrect use. 'Perfect-use' pregnancy rates were substantially lower, indicating that Femidom can be very effective, if used consistently and correctly. Evidence for Femidom's effectiveness to protect against transmission of sexual disease-causing organisms, including HIV, is still very limited and based largely on laboratory studies. Whilst, in theory, the condom should confer reliable protection, its efficacy in clinical use will depend upon correct and consistent use and upon the product's ability to maintain an effective physical barrier throughout penetrative intercourse. In this respect, the results of recent and ongoing clinical studies are expected with much interest. How valuable Femidom will

  10. Effect of early institutionalization and foster care on long-term white matter development: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Johanna; Zhu, Tong; Stamoulis, Catherine; Fox, Nathan A; Zeanah, Charles; Nelson, Charles A

    2015-03-01

    Severe neglect in early life is associated with compromises in brain development and associated behavioral functioning. Although early intervention has been shown to support more normative trajectories of brain development, specific improvements in the white matter pathways that underlie emotional and cognitive development are unknown. To examine associations among neglect in early life, early intervention, and the microstructural integrity of white matter pathways in middle childhood. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project is a randomized clinical trial of high-quality foster care as an intervention for institutionally reared children in Bucharest, Romania, from 2000 through the present. During infancy, children were randomly selected to remain in an institution or to be placed in foster care. Those who remained in institutions experienced neglect, including social, emotional, linguistic, and cognitive impoverishment. Developmental trajectories of these children were compared with a group of sociodemographically matched children reared in biological families at baseline and several points throughout development. At approximately 8 years of age, 69 of the original 136 children underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. Four estimates of white matter integrity (fractional anisotropy [FA] and mean [MD], radial [RD], and axial [AD] diffusivity) for 48 white matter tracts throughout the brain were obtained through diffusion tensor imaging. Significant associations emerged between neglect in early life and microstructural integrity of the body of the corpus callosum (FA, β = 0.01 [P = .01]; RD, β = -0.02 [P = .005]; MD, β = -0.01 [P = .02]) and tracts involved in limbic circuitry (fornix crus [AD, β = 0.02 (P = .046)] and cingulum [RD, β = -0.01 (P = .02); MD, β = -0.01 (P = .049)]), frontostriatal circuitry (anterior [AD, β = -0.01 (P = .02)] and superior [AD, β = -0.02 (P = .02); MD, β = -0.01 (P = .03)] corona

  11. A review of neighborhood effects and early child development: How, where, and for whom, do neighborhoods matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Anita; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Janus, Magdalena; Brownell, Marni; Guhn, Martin

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes a scoping review of 42 studies of neighborhood effects on developmental health for children ages 0-6, published between 2009 and 2014. It focuses on three themes: (1) theoretical mechanisms that drive early childhood development, i.e. how neighborhoods matter for early childhood development; (2) dependence of such mechanisms on place-based characteristics i.e. where neighborhood effects occur; (3) dependence of such mechanisms on child characteristics, i.e. for whom is development most affected. Given that ecological systems theories postulate diverse mechanisms via which neighborhood characteristics affect early child development, we specifically examine evidence on mediation and/or moderation effects. We conclude by discussing future challenges, and proposing recommendations for analyses that utilize ecological longitudinal population-based databases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Traumatic life events and development of post-traumatic stress disorder among female factory workers in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Taylor Jennelle; Yu, Xiao; Chien, Lung-Chang; Karim, Mohammad Monjurul; Alamgir, Hasanat

    2018-06-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be more prevalent and burdensome in developing countries. The goals of this study were to (1) determine the prevalence of PTSD, (2) identify types and number of traumas related to screening positive for PTSD and (3) determine other sociodemographic risk factors and health/medical conditions that may be correlated to PTSD among garment-factory workers and a comparable working population in Bangladesh. A survey was administered to a convenient sample of 607 lower socio-economic status (SES) working women in Bangladesh, 310 of who were garment workers. The primary outcome PTSD was measured by the PTSD Checklist. The Life Events Checklist determined the number and type of traumatic events. The prevalence of PTSD was found to be 17.79% - 7.25% in garment workers and 21.55% in the comparison worker group. In multivariate analysis, PTSD was found to be significantly associated with age, income, chronic pain and number of stressful events. Participants between 45-50 years of age had the greatest odds of reporting PTSD - 15.68 fold (95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.08, 60.29) compared with those younger than 24 years. PTSD was more common in those with lower income (2,000-4,000 taka) (odds ratio (OR) = 1.60; 95% CI = 0.79, 3.26), who had chronic pain (OR = 2.48; 95% CI = 1.51, 4.07) and who experienced over three traumatic life events (OR = 11.25; 95% CI = 4.59, 27.59). The mean number of traumatic events experienced by this entire population was 4.9 with PTSD being more likely in those who experienced physical assault (OR = 6.35; 95% CI = 4.07, 9.90), who caused serious harm or death to someone else (OR = 4.80; 95% CI = 1.36, 16.87) and who had exposure to combat or war (OR = 4.76; 95% CI = 1.17, 19.34). Undiagnosed and untreated PTSD impacts the quality of life and decrease worker productivity among working-age women in this developing country.

  13. Development of computational pregnant female and fetus models and assessment of radiation dose from positron-emitting tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Tianwu [Geneva University Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva (Switzerland); Zaidi, Habib [Geneva University Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva (Switzerland); Geneva University, Geneva Neuroscience Center, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Southern Denmark, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense (Denmark)

    2016-12-15

    Molecular imaging using PET and hybrid (PET/CT and PET/MR) modalities nowadays plays a pivotal role in the clinical setting for diagnosis and staging, treatment response monitoring, and radiation therapy treatment planning of a wide range of oncologic malignancies. The developing embryo/fetus presents a high sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Therefore, estimation of the radiation dose delivered to the embryo/fetus and pregnant patients from PET examinations to assess potential radiation risks is highly praised. We constructed eight embryo/fetus models at various gestation periods with 25 identified tissues according to reference data recommended by the ICRP publication 89 representing the anatomy of the developing embryo/fetus. The developed embryo/fetus models were integrated into realistic anthropomorphic computational phantoms of the pregnant female and used for estimating, using Monte Carlo calculations, S-values of common positron-emitting radionuclides, organ absorbed dose, and effective dose of a number of positron-emitting labeled radiotracers. The absorbed dose is nonuniformly distributed in the fetus. The absorbed dose of the kidney and liver of the 8-week-old fetus are about 47.45 % and 44.76 % higher than the average absorbed dose of the fetal total body for all investigated radiotracers. For {sup 18}F-FDG, the fetal effective doses are 2.90E-02, 3.09E-02, 1.79E-02, 1.59E-02, 1.47E-02, 1.40E-02, 1.37E-02, and 1.27E-02 mSv/MBq at the 8th, 10th, 15th, 20th, 25th, 30th, 35th, and 38th weeks of gestation, respectively. The developed pregnant female/fetus models matching the ICRP reference data can be exploited by dedicated software packages for internal and external dose calculations. The generated S-values will be useful to produce new standardized dose estimates to pregnant patients and embryo/fetus from a variety of positron-emitting labeled radiotracers. (orig.)

  14. Development of a Simple Tool for Identifying Alcohol Use Disorder in Female Korean Drinkers from Previous Questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yu Ri; Kim, Jong Sung; Kim, Sung Soo; Yoon, Seok Joon; Suh, Won Yoon; Youn, Kwangmi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a simple tool for identifying alcohol use disorders in female Korean drinkers from previous questionnaires. This research was conducted on 400 women who consumed at least one alcoholic drink during the past month and visited the health promotion center at Chungnam National University Hospital between June 2013 to May 2014. Drinking habits and alcohol use disorders were assessed by structured interviews using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition diagnostic criteria. The subjects were also asked to answer the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), AUDIT-Consumption, CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener), TWEAK (Tolerance, Worried, Eye-opener, Amnesia, Kut down), TACE (Tolerance, Annoyed, Cut down, Eye-opener), and NET (Normal drinker, Eye-opener, Tolerance) questionnaires. The area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) of each question of the questionnaires on alcohol use disorders was assessed. After combining two questions with the largest AUROC, it was compared to other previous questionnaires. Among the 400 subjects, 58 (14.5%) were identified as having an alcohol use disorder. Two questions with the largest AUROC were question no. 7 in AUDIT, "How often during the last year have you had a feeling of guilt or remorse after drinking?" and question no. 5 in AUDIT, "How often during the past year have you failed to do what was normally expected from you because of drinking?" with an AUROC (95% confidence interval [CI]) of 0.886 (0.850-0.915) and 0.862 (0.824-0.894), respectively. The AUROC (95% CI) of the combination of the two questions was 0.958 (0.934-0.976) with no significant difference as compared to the existing AUDIT with the largest AUROC. The above results suggest that the simple tool consisting of questions no. 5 and no. 7 in AUDIT is useful in identifying alcohol use disorders in Korean female drinkers.

  15. Establishment of Requirements and Methodology for the Development and Implementation of GreyMatters, a Memory Clinic Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapuria, Archana; Evans, Matt; Curcin, Vasa; Austin, Tony; Lea, Nathan; Kalra, Dipak

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to establish the requirements and methodology for the development process of GreyMatters, a memory clinic system, outlining the conceptual, practical, technical and ethical challenges, and the experiences of capturing clinical and research oriented data along with the implementation of the system. The methodology for development of the information system involved phases of requirements gathering, modeling and prototype creation, and 'bench testing' the prototype with experts. The standard Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) recommended approach for the specifications of software requirements was adopted. An electronic health record (EHR) standard, EN13606 was used, and clinical modelling was done through archetypes and the project complied with data protection and privacy legislation. The requirements for GreyMatters were established. Though the initial development was complex, the requirements, methodology and standards adopted made the construction, deployment, adoption and population of a memory clinic and research database feasible. The electronic patient data including the assessment scales provides a rich source of objective data for audits and research and to establish study feasibility and identify potential participants for the clinical trials. The establishment of requirements and methodology, addressing issues of data security and confidentiality, future data compatibility and interoperability and medico-legal aspects such as access controls and audit trails, led to a robust and useful system. The evaluation supports that the system is an acceptable tool for clinical, administrative, and research use and forms a useful part of the wider information architecture.

  16. Situation of sources and management of organic matter in Alsace, perspectives of development of biogas production installations - Final report. Situation of organic matter sources and perspectives of methanization in Alsace - Synthesis. Call for projects 2016 methanization installations in Alsace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houillon, Gregory; Gambotti, Michel; Chabrier, Jean-Paul; L'Huillier, Marthe; Wolff, Virginie; Muller, Jonathan; Gintz, Christophe; Strehler, Jean-Francois; Monasson, Anne; Gartner, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at proposing answers to the issue of valorisation of organic matter, and of feasibility of development of a biogas production sector in Alsace. It addresses different sources of organic matter, except the wood energy sector. The study comprises an assessment of the present situation of the organic matter resource with respect to actors (agriculture, communities, industry). Different aspects are addressed: sector characterisation, regulation, resource assessment, resource mapping, existing processing sectors. It also comprises an assessment of additional resources related to the three types of actors, and then an assessment of the potential biogas production, a realistic assessment of potential biogas production according to resource availability and collection possibility criteria. Based on these elements, proposals are made for the development of methanization in Alsace

  17. The trajectory of gray matter development in Broca’s area is abnormal in people who stutter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deryk Scott Beal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition and mastery of speech-motor control requires years of practice spanning the course of development. People who stutter often perform poorly on speech-motor tasks thereby calling into question their ability to establish the stable neural motor programs required for masterful speech-motor control. There is evidence to support the assertion that these neural motor programs are represented in the posterior part of Broca’s area, specifically the left pars opercularis. Consequently, various theories of stuttering causation posit that the disorder is related to a breakdown in the formation of the neural motor programs for speech early in development and that this breakdown is maintained throughout life. To date, no study has examined the potential neurodevelopmental signatures of the disorder across pediatric and adult populations. The current study aimed to fill this gap in our knowledge. We hypothesized that the developmental trajectory of cortical thickness in people who stutter would differ across the lifespan in the left pars opercularis relative to a group of control participants. We collected structural magnetic resonance images from 116 males (55 people who stutter ranging in age from 6 to 48 years old. Differences in cortical thickness across ages and between patients and controls were investigated in 30 brain regions previously implicated in speech-motor control. An interaction between age and group was found for the left pars opercularis only. In people who stutter, the pars opercularis did not demonstrate the typical maturational pattern of gradual gray matter thinning with age across the lifespan that we observed in control participants. In contrast, the developmental trajectory of gray matter thickness in other regions of interest within the neural network for speech-motor control was similar for both groups. Our findings indicate that the developmental trajectory of gray matter in left pars opercularis is abnormal in

  18. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.

  19. Salivary Gland Proteome during Adult Development and after Blood Feeding of Female Anopheles dissidens Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phattanawiboon, Benjarat; Jariyapan, Narissara; Mano, Chonlada; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Paemanee, Atchara; Sor-Suwan, Sriwatapron; Sriwichai, Patchara; Saeung, Atiporn; Bates, Paul A

    Understanding changes in mosquito salivary proteins during the time that sporozoite maturation occurs and after blood feeding may give information regarding the roles of salivary proteins during the malarial transmission. Anopheles dissidens (formerly Anopheles barbirostris species A1) is a potential vector of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand. In this study, analyses of the proteomic profiles of female An. dissidens salivary glands during adult development and after blood feeding were carried out using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed at least 17 major salivary gland proteins present from day one to day 21 post emergence at 8 different time points sampled. Although there was variation observed, the patterns of protein expression could be placed into one of four groups. Fifteen protein spots showed significant depletion after blood feeding with the percentages of the amount of depletion ranging from 8.5% to 68.11%. The overall results identified various proteins, including a putative mucin-like protein, an anti-platelet protein, a long form D7 salivary protein, a putative gVAG protein precursor, a D7-related 3.2 protein, gSG7 salivary proteins, and a gSG6 protein. These results allow better understanding of the changes of the salivary proteins during the adult mosquito development. They also provide candidate proteins to investigate any possible link or not between sporozoite maturation, or survival of skin stage sporozoites, and salivary proteins.

  20. Children's Books as a Source of Influence on Gender Role Development: Analysis of Female Characters Using Jung's Four Archetypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Shirley J.; Pankake, Anita; Schall, Janine

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to answer this question: "Do children when choosing a book to read for pleasure receive a stereotypical impression of the female role as opposed to the male role as defined by the literature?" A qualitative study reviewed main female characters of the Children's Choice books of 2008 with Jung's archetypes (Great Good…

  1. Problem Space Matters: The Development of Creativity and Intelligence in Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, Marisete Maria; Jaarsveld, Saskia; Lachmann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Previous research showed that in primary school, children's intelligence develops continually, but creativity develops more irregularly. In this study, the development of intelligence, measured traditionally, i.e., operating within well-defined problem spaces (Standard Progressive Matrices) was compared with the development of intelligence…

  2. Influence of ovarian hormones on development of ingestive responding to alterations in fatty acid oxidation in female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithers, Susan E.; McCurley, Melissa; Hamilton, Erica; Doerflinger, Alicia

    2008-01-01

    Adult male rats have been demonstrated to increase food intake in response to administration of drugs that interfere with oxidation of fatty acids (e.g. methyl palmoxirate and mercaptoacetate [MA]), effects that are larger in animals maintained on a high-fat diet. In contrast, while administration of MA has been reported to stimulate food intake in pre-pubertal female rats, food intake is not stimulated by MA in adult female rats. Instead, administration of MA to adult females results in changes in reproductive behavior and physiology. The present experiments were designed to examine the effects of administration of MA on food intake in adult female rats. The results demonstrated that, as previously reported, food intake was stimulated by MA in adult male rats on low-fat and high-fat diets, but food intake in was not stimulated by MA in gonadally-intact adult female rats on either low-fat or high-fat diet. Further, MA did not stimulate food intake in female rats ovariectomized as adults. However, when females were ovariectomized prior to the onset of puberty (postnatal day 25 – 28), food intake was stimulated by administration of MA in adulthood. Finally, cyclic injections of 17-β-estradiol benzoate given to females ovariectomized prior to the onset of puberty abolished the stimulatory effects of MA on food intake in adult females. Taken together, the data suggest that exposure to estrogens during the time of puberty in female rats can persistently alter adult ingestive responding to signals related to changes in energy utilization. PMID:18586247

  3. Linking social and vocal brains: could social segregation prevent a proper development of a central auditory area in a female songbird?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Cousillas

    Full Text Available Direct social contact and social interaction affect speech development in human infants and are required in order to maintain perceptual abilities; however the processes involved are still poorly known. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that social segregation during development would prevent the proper development of a central auditory area, using a "classical" animal model of vocal development, a songbird. Based on our knowledge of European starling, we raised young female starlings with peers and only adult male tutors. This ensured that female would show neither social bond with nor vocal copying from males. Electrophysiological recordings performed when these females were adult revealed perceptual abnormalities: they presented a larger auditory area, a lower proportion of specialized neurons and a larger proportion of generalist sites than wild-caught females, whereas these characteristics were similar to those observed in socially deprived (physically separated females. These results confirmed and added to earlier results for males, suggesting that the degree of perceptual deficiency reflects the degree of social separation. To our knowledge, this report constitutes the first evidence that social segregation can, as much as physical separation, alter the development of a central auditory area.

  4. Regional white matter development in very preterm infants: perinatal predictors and early developmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cynthia E; Smyser, Tara; Smyser, Christopher D; Shimony, Joshua; Inder, Terrie E; Neil, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    Preterm infants are at risk for white matter (WM) injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Serial diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained from very preterm infants (N = 78) born regions of interest for infants with ≥2 scans (N = 50). Sixty-five children underwent neurodevelopmental testing at 2 y of age. FA slope for the posterior limb of the internal capsule was greater than other regions. The anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC), corpus callosum, and optic radiations demonstrated greater FA slope with increasing gestational age. Infants with patent ductus arteriosus had lower FA slope in the ALIC. MD slope was lower with prolonged ventilation or lack of antenatal steroids. At 2 y of age, lower motor scores were associated with lower FA in the left but higher FA in the right inferior temporal lobe at term-equivalent age. Better social-emotional competence was related to lower FA in the left cingulum bundle. This study demonstrates regional variability in the susceptibility/sensitivity of WM maturation to perinatal factors and relationships between altered diffusion measures and developmental outcomes in preterm neonates.

  5. Female medical students are estimated to have a higher risk for developing eating disorders than male medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissing, Agnete Skovlund; Bak, Nanna Hasle; Pedersen, Laura Erna Toftegaard; Petersson, Birgit H

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that university students are at risk for eating disorders. However, risk behaviour has not been studied among Danish medical students, nor have the gender differences in risk behaviour been described in a Danish context. All first-year medical students (n = 979) received a questionnaire related to body perception, exercise habits, eating habits, height and weight in the fall of 2006 and 2007. The response rate was 57% (n = 561). The gender distribution of the study population was 71.8% females and 28.2% males and the average age was 21.5 years. More males (89.8%) than females (73.1%) were satisfied with their body and more females (34.8%) than males (10.9%) felt too fat. More females (42.7%) than males (19.9%) felt guilty when eating unhealthy food. 2.3% (all females) claimed to feel anxiety when they were about to eat. More males (48.4%) than females (28.6%) stated that they could not keep themselves from exercising. 13.5% of the underweight females (body mass index eating disorders than male students. Future research in this area should address the causes of such behaviour.

  6. Development and Operation of Dual-Mode Analyzers for Wireless Power Consortium/Power Matters Alliance Wireless Power Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Keehong

    2016-05-01

    We have designed a protocol analyzer to be used in wireless power systems and analyzed the operation of wireless chargers defined by standards of Qi of Wireless Power Consortium (WPC) and Power Matters Alliance (PMA) protocols. The integrated circuit (IC, or microchip) developed so far for wireless power transmission is not easily adopted by chargers for specific purposes. A device for measuring the performance of test equipment currently available is required to transform and expand the types of protocol. Since a protocol analyzer with these functions is required, we have developed a device that can analyze the two protocols of WPC and PMA at the same time. As a result of our research, we present a dual-mode system that can analyze the protocols of both WPC and PMA.

  7. Low dose bisphenol S or ethinyl estradiol exposures during the perinatal period alter female mouse mammary gland development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolla, SriDurgaDevi; Morcos, Mary; Martin, Brian; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2018-03-08

    Throughout life, mammary tissue is strongly influenced by hormones. Scientists have hypothesized that synthetic chemicals with hormonal activities could disrupt mammary gland development and contribute to breast diseases and dysfunction. Bisphenol S (BPS) is an estrogenic compound used in many consumer products. In this study, CD-1 mice were exposed to BPS (2 or 200 μg/kg/day) during pregnancy and lactation. Mice exposed to 0.01 or 1 μg/kg/day ethinyl estradiol (EE2), a pharmaceutical estrogen, were also evaluated. Mammary glands from female offspring were collected prior to the onset of puberty, during puberty, and in early adulthood. Growth parameters, histopathology, cell proliferation and expression of hormone receptors were quantified. Our evaluations revealed age- and dose-specific effects of BPS that were different from the effects of EE2, and distinct from the effects of BPA that have been reported previously. These assessments suggest that individual xenoestrogens may have unique effects on this sensitive tissue. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Female genital mutilation and efforts to achieve Millennium Development Goals 3, 4, and 5 in southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawani, Lucky O; Onyebuchi, Azubuike K; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka A; Okeke, Nwabunike E

    2014-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM), the common forms of FGM, reasons for the practice, associated obstetric outcomes, and how these have affected efforts to achieve Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 3, 4, and 5 in southeast Nigeria. A prospective descriptive study of parturients in southeast Nigeria was conducted from January to December 2012. All primigravid women attending delivery services at 2 health institutions during the study period were recruited, examined, and classified using the 2008 WHO classification for FGM. The mean age of the 516 participants was 27.24±4.80 years and most (66.3%) had undergone FGM. Type II FGM was the most common form, accounting for 59.6% of cases. Most FGM procedures were performed in infancy (97.1%) and for cultural reasons (60.8%). Women who had undergone FGM had significantly higher risk for episiotomy, perineal tear, hemorrhage, cesarean delivery, neonatal resuscitation, fresh stillbirth/early neonatal death, and longer hospitalization, with higher risk ratios associated with higher degrees of FGM. FGM is still a common practice in southeast Nigeria, where its association with adverse reproductive outcomes militates against efforts to achieve MDGs 3, 4, and 5. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dose-rate effects for mammary tumor development in female Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to X and γ radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.; Gragtmans, N.J.; Myers, D.K.; Jones, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    Mammary tumour development was followed in two experiments involving a total of 2229 female Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to various doses of X or γ rays at different dose rates. The data for another 462 rats exposed to tritiated water in one of these experiments were also analyzed. The incidence of adenocarcinomas and fibroadenomas at a given time after exposure increased linearly in proportion to total radiation dose for most groups. However, no significant increase in adenocarcinomas was observed with chronic γ exposures up to 1.1 Gy, and the increase in fibroadenomas observed with chronic gamma exposures at a dose rate of 0.0076 Gy h -1 up to an accumulated dose of 3.3 Gy was small compared to that observed after acute exposures. The incidence of all mammary tumors increased almost linearly with the log of dose rate in the range 0.0076 to 26.3 Gy h -1 for 3 Gy total dose of gamma rays. The effects of X rays appeared to be less influenced by dose rate than were the effects of γ rays. (author)

  10. Development and nationwide scale-up of Climate Matters, a localized climate change education program delivered by TV weathercasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, H. M.; Maibach, E.

    2016-12-01

    Most Americans view climate change as a threat that is distant in space (i.e., not here), time (i.e., not now), and species (i.e., not us). TV weathercasters are ideally positioned to educate Americans about the current and projected impacts of climate change in their community: they have tremendous reach, are trusted sources of climate information, and are highly skilled science communicators. In 2009, we learned that many weathercasters were potentially interested in reporting on climate change, but few actually were, citing significant barriers including a lack of time to prepare and air stories, and lack of access to high quality content. To test the premise that TV weathercasters can be effective climate educators - if supported with high quality localized climate communication content - in 2010 George Mason University, Climate Central and WLTX-TV (Columbia, SC) developed and pilot-tested Climate Matters, a series of short on-air (and online) segments about the local impacts of climate change, delivered by the station's chief meteorologist. During the first year, more than a dozen stories aired. To formally evaluate Climate Matters, we conducted pre- and post-test surveys of local TV news viewers in Columbia. After one year, WLTX viewers had developed a more science-based understanding of climate change than viewers of other local news stations, confirming our premise that when TV weathercasters report on the local implications of climate change, their viewers learn. Through a series of expansions, including the addition of important new partners - AMS, NASA, NOAA & Yale University - Climate Matters has become a comprehensive nationwide climate communication resource program for American TV weathercasters. As of March 2016, a network of 313 local weathercasters nationwide (at 202 stations in 111 media markets) are participating in the program, receiving new content on a weekly basis. This presentation will review the theoretical basis of the program, detail

  11. FDI and Economic Growth — Does the Quality of Banking Development Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Hakimah Haji Mohd

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the role of banking development quality in the FDI-growth nexus from 1998 to 2009. Banking development quality is measured using two standardized intermediation  cost indicators and an index of banking development quality that is constructed based on the following indicators: overhead costs to total assets and net interest margin. The results for developed countries show that, on its own, FDI is negatively related to economic growth. However, when FDI is interacted with a banking development quality index, the quality of banking development is found to play a positive role in influencing the effects of FDI on economic growth. This suggests that the quality of banking development serves as an absorptive capacity that allows developed countries to benefit from the positive growth effects of FDI. On the contrary, for emerging countries, the findings indicate that banking development quality plays no role in influencing the impact of FDI on economic growth. This implies that the quality of banking development in emerging countries has yet to reach a level that allows it to importantly influence the growth effects of FDI.

  12. Dark matter analysis of XENON100 data and cut development utilizing the novel PAX raw data processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittweg, Christian [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet, Muenster (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The XENON100 experiment located at LNGS is aimed at the direct detection of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). It utilizes an ultra-low background dual-phase xenon TPC which yields two separate scintillation signals that facilitate background discrimination and event selection. Limits on various interaction types have been published by the collaboration (Science 349 (2015) 6250, 851-854). In the analysis dark matter candidate events have to pass cuts with respect to data quality, consistency and physical features of the interaction. The former ones are implemented with regard to the used data processor's capabilities for noise discrimination and peak-finding. The Processor for Analyzing Xenon (PAX), developed for the XENON1T experiment, enhances these capabilities compared to XENON100. A greater robustness against noise and an increased peak-identification efficiency open up new opportunities for physically motivated cuts while rendering old ones obsolete. The poster will focus on the implementation of new cuts into the analysis chain. Both PAX and the xenon analysis will be introduced. A planned full-scale dark matter analysis of PAX-processed XENON100 data will be outlined.

  13. White matter development and tobacco smoking in young adults: A systematic review with recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogliettino, Alex R; Potenza, Marc N; Yip, Sarah W

    2016-05-01

    Adolescence and young adulthood are critical vulnerability periods for initiation of tobacco smoking. White matter development is ongoing during this time and may be influenced by exposure to nicotine. Synthesis of findings from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies of adolescent and young adult smokers may be helpful in understanding the relationship between neurodevelopment and initiation and progression of tobacco-use behaviors and in guiding further research. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify DTI studies comparing adolescent and young adult (mean age adult studies. Directions for further research are also discussed. All identified studies reported increases in fractional anisotropy (FA) among adolescent/young adult smokers in comparison to non-smokers. Increased FA was most frequently reported in regions of the corpus callosum (genu, body and spenium), internal capsule and superior longitudinal fasciculus. Findings of increased FA among adolescent/young adult smokers are contrary to those from most adult studies and thus raise the possibility of differential effects of nicotine on white matter across the lifespan. Further research including multiple time points is needed to test this hypothesis. Other areas warranting further research include DTI studies of e-cigarette use and studies incorporating measures of pubertal stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Brief report: do peer relationships matter to Vietnamese adolescents' and young adults' development of identity? Towards a working theory of identity development in a changing culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong; Cohen, Edward; Hines, Alice

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, using data from the first nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of more than 7000 Vietnamese adolescents, we explore how peers, compared to family, matter to Vietnamese adolescents' development of their independent identity as an adult. We use future hopes and aspirations as proxies for identity development, arguing that an individual's development of future hopes and aspirations is a correlate to the emergence of an independent identity. Our analyses show that peers have a positive and consistent influence on adolescents' hopes to have a happy family, good job, good income, and opportunities to do what they want. Regarding career and economic aspirations, the importance of peer relationships appears to have dropped away. It may be that when youth consider their realistic economic alternatives, the role of peers that was important for identity development in adolescence gives way to pragmatism about the attainment of a career identity. Copyright © 2011 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  15. Neurospora crassa female development requires the PACC and other signal transduction pathways, transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, cell-to-cell fusion, and autophagy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Chinnici

    Full Text Available Using a screening protocol we have identified 68 genes that are required for female development in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. We find that we can divide these genes into five general groups: 1 Genes encoding components of the PACC signal transduction pathway, 2 Other signal transduction pathway genes, including genes from the three N. crassa MAP kinase pathways, 3 Transcriptional factor genes, 4 Autophagy genes, and 5 Other miscellaneous genes. Complementation and RIP studies verified that these genes are needed for the formation of the female mating structure, the protoperithecium, and for the maturation of a fertilized protoperithecium into a perithecium. Perithecia grafting experiments demonstrate that the autophagy genes and the cell-to-cell fusion genes (the MAK-1 and MAK-2 pathway genes are needed for the mobilization and movement of nutrients from an established vegetative hyphal network into the developing protoperithecium. Deletion mutants for the PACC pathway genes palA, palB, palC, palF, palH, and pacC were found to be defective in two aspects of female development. First, they were unable to initiate female development on synthetic crossing medium. However, they could form protoperithecia when grown on cellophane, on corn meal agar, or in response to the presence of nearby perithecia. Second, fertilized perithecia from PACC pathway mutants were unable to produce asci and complete female development. Protein localization experiments with a GFP-tagged PALA construct showed that PALA was localized in a peripheral punctate pattern, consistent with a signaling center associated with the ESCRT complex. The N. crassa PACC signal transduction pathway appears to be similar to the PacC/Rim101 pathway previously characterized in Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In N. crassa the pathway plays a key role in regulating female development.

  16. Neurospora crassa female development requires the PACC and other signal transduction pathways, transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, cell-to-cell fusion, and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnici, Jennifer L; Fu, Ci; Caccamise, Lauren M; Arnold, Jason W; Free, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Using a screening protocol we have identified 68 genes that are required for female development in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. We find that we can divide these genes into five general groups: 1) Genes encoding components of the PACC signal transduction pathway, 2) Other signal transduction pathway genes, including genes from the three N. crassa MAP kinase pathways, 3) Transcriptional factor genes, 4) Autophagy genes, and 5) Other miscellaneous genes. Complementation and RIP studies verified that these genes are needed for the formation of the female mating structure, the protoperithecium, and for the maturation of a fertilized protoperithecium into a perithecium. Perithecia grafting experiments demonstrate that the autophagy genes and the cell-to-cell fusion genes (the MAK-1 and MAK-2 pathway genes) are needed for the mobilization and movement of nutrients from an established vegetative hyphal network into the developing protoperithecium. Deletion mutants for the PACC pathway genes palA, palB, palC, palF, palH, and pacC were found to be defective in two aspects of female development. First, they were unable to initiate female development on synthetic crossing medium. However, they could form protoperithecia when grown on cellophane, on corn meal agar, or in response to the presence of nearby perithecia. Second, fertilized perithecia from PACC pathway mutants were unable to produce asci and complete female development. Protein localization experiments with a GFP-tagged PALA construct showed that PALA was localized in a peripheral punctate pattern, consistent with a signaling center associated with the ESCRT complex. The N. crassa PACC signal transduction pathway appears to be similar to the PacC/Rim101 pathway previously characterized in Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In N. crassa the pathway plays a key role in regulating female development.

  17. Influence of beryllium chloride and oxide on the sexual function in female rats and development of offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selivanova, L.N.; Savinova, T.B.

    1989-11-01

    A translation is given of a Russian article on the influence of beryllium chloride and oxide on the sexual cycle in female rats and on their capacity to conceive; another aim was to identify any embryotoxic and teratogenic effect of these compounds and to identify the exposure period values for pregnant females and the capacity of beryllium to penetrate the placenta and to accumulate in the foetus. (UK)

  18. Cannabidiol Prevents the Development of Cold and Mechanical Allodynia in Paclitaxel-Treated Female C57Bl6 Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Sara Jane; Ramirez, Michael David; Neelakantan, Harshini; Walker, Ellen Ann

    2011-01-01

    The taxane chemotherapeutic paclitaxel frequently produces peripheral neuropathy in humans. Rodent models to investigate mechanisms and treatments are largely restricted to male rats, whereas female mouse studies are lacking. We characterized a range of paclitaxel doses on cold and mechanical allodynia in male and female C57Bl/6 mice. Because the nonpsycho-active phytocannabinoid cannabidiol attenuates other forms of neuropathic pain, we assessed its effect on paclitaxel-induced allodynia. Pa...

  19. Development of pregnant female, hybrid voxel-mathematical models and their application to the dosimetry of applied magnetic and electric fields at 50 Hz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimbylow, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of 2 mm resolution hybrid voxel-mathematical models of the pregnant female. Mathematical models of the developing foetus at 8-, 13-, 26- and 38-weeks of gestation were converted into voxels and combined with the adult female model, NAOMI. This set of models was used to calculate induced current densities and electric fields in the foetus from applied 50 Hz magnetic and electric fields. The influence of foetal tissue conductivities was investigated and implications for electromagnetic field guidelines discussed

  20. Ovarian development in a primitively eusocial wasp: social interactions affect behaviorally dominant and subordinate wasps in opposite directions relative to solitary females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shantanu; Pareek, Vidhi; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2014-07-01

    In many primitively eusocial wasp species new nests are founded either by a single female or by a small group of females. In the single foundress nests, the lone female develops her ovaries, lays eggs as well as tends her brood. In multiple foundress nests social interactions, especially dominance-subordinate interactions, result in only one 'dominant' female developing her ovaries and laying eggs. Ovaries of the remaining 'subordinate' cofoundresses remain suppressed and these individuals function as workers and tend the dominant's brood. Using the tropical, primitively eusocial polistine wasp Ropalidia marginata and by comparing wasps held in isolation and those kept as pairs in the laboratory, we demonstrate that social interactions affect ovarian development of dominant and subordinate wasps among the pairs in opposite directions, suppressing the ovaries of the subordinate member of the pair below that of solitary wasps and boosting the ovaries of dominant member of the pair above that of solitary females. In addition to being of physiological interest, such mirror image effects of aggression on the ovaries of the aggressors and their victims, suggest yet another mechanism by which subordinates can enhance their indirect fitness and facilitate the evolution of worker behavior by kin selection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Tobacco control policy development in the European Union: do political factors matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosdriesz, Jizzo R.; Willemsen, Marc C.; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    There has been much variation between European countries in the development of tobacco control policy. Not much is known about the factors that shape this variation. This study aimed to assess the role of political factors in tobacco control policy development. We used data from 11 European

  2. Trophic structure of arthropods in Starling nests matter to blood parasites and thereby to nestling development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfs, Peter H. J.; Lesna, Izabela K.; Sabelis, Maurice W.; Komdeur, Jan; Bairlein, F.

    Nestling development and long-term survival in many bird species depend on factors such as parental feeding, time of breeding and environmental conditions. However, little research has been carried out on the effect of ectoparasites on nestling development, and no research on the impact of the

  3. Trophic structure of arthropods in Starling nests matter to blood parasites and thereby to nestling development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfs, P.H.J.; Lesna, I.K.; Sabelis, M.W.; Komdeur, J.

    2012-01-01

    Nestling development and long-term survival in many bird species depend on factors such as parental feeding, time of breeding and environmental conditions. However, little research has been carried out on the effect of ectoparasites on nestling development, and no research on the impact of the

  4. To the matter of the educated development of the construction industry of recreational territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermakov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rational creation of the consumer quality of constructions, which is taking into account some cultural, historical and other, accepted for society development paradigms enters to replace mass sustainable development of the industry of a construction in case of development of the recreational territories around megalopolises, using intellectual systems in a construction, ecological, energy-saving technologies in increase in a consumer evaluation of quality. For the residential development of the recreational territories of cities it is important to provide not only complex conditions of their development, to keep their potential for future generations, providing their social-and-economic development, to consider national and climatic features, but also to use their potential opportunities and traditions of the people inhabiting them, rationally and economically. The educated development of the construction industry is the new term entered into the use of constructors, when the consumer quality of building and structures meets national preferences taking into account traditions and advanced achievements in the use of materials, architectural and project decisions, production technologies and climatic opportunities with the minimum damage to the environment. Its accomplishment assumes enhancement and introduction of local-and-standard regulation with implementation of innovative solutions.

  5. The early development of brain white matter: a review of imaging studies in fetuses, newborns and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, J; Dehaene-Lambertz, G; Kulikova, S; Poupon, C; Hüppi, P S; Hertz-Pannier, L

    2014-09-12

    Studying how the healthy human brain develops is important to understand early pathological mechanisms and to assess the influence of fetal or perinatal events on later life. Brain development relies on complex and intermingled mechanisms especially during gestation and first post-natal months, with intense interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Although the baby's brain is organized early on, it is not a miniature adult brain: regional brain changes are asynchronous and protracted, i.e. sensory-motor regions develop early and quickly, whereas associative regions develop later and slowly over decades. Concurrently, the infant/child gradually achieves new performances, but how brain maturation relates to changes in behavior is poorly understood, requiring non-invasive in vivo imaging studies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two main processes of early white matter development are reviewed: (1) establishment of connections between brain regions within functional networks, leading to adult-like organization during the last trimester of gestation, (2) maturation (myelination) of these connections during infancy to provide efficient transfers of information. Current knowledge from post-mortem descriptions and in vivo MRI studies is summed up, focusing on T1- and T2-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and quantitative mapping of T1/T2 relaxation times, myelin water fraction and magnetization transfer ratio. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of natural gas development in the Marcellus and Utica shales on regional ozone and fine particulate matter levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohani, Yusuf H.; Roy, Anirban A.; Heo, Jinhyok; Robinson, Allen L.; Adams, Peter J.

    2017-04-01

    The Marcellus and Utica shale formations have recently been the focus of intense natural gas development and production, increasing regional air pollutant emissions. Here we examine the effects of these emissions on regional ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels using the chemical transport model, CAMx, and estimate the public health costs with BenMAP. Simulations were performed for three emissions scenarios for the year 2020 that span a range potential development storylines. In areas with the most gas development, the 'Medium Emissions' scenario, which corresponds to an intermediate level of development and widespread adoption of new equipment with lower emissions, is predicted to increase 8-hourly ozone design values by up to 2.5 ppbv and average annual PM2.5 concentrations by as much as 0.27 μg/m3. These impacts could range from as much as a factor of two higher to a factor of three lower depending on the level of development and the adoption of emission controls. Smaller impacts (e.g. 0.1-0.5 ppbv of ozone, depending on the emissions scenario) are predicted for non-attainment areas located downwind of the Marcellus region such as New York City, Philadelphia and Washington, DC. Premature deaths for the 'Medium Emissions' scenario are predicted to increase by 200-460 annually. The health impacts as well as the changes in ozone and PM2.5 were all driven primarily by NOx emissions.

  7. Development and validation of a MODIS colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) algorithm in northwest Florida estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satellite remote sensing provides synoptic and frequent monitoring of water quality parameters that aids in determining the health of aquatic ecosystems and the development of effective management strategies. Northwest Florida estuaries are classified as optically-complex, or wat...

  8. Parenting characteristics of female caregivers of children affected by chronic endocrine conditions: a comparison between disorders of sex development and type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Katherine D; Fedele, David A; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Phillips, Timothy M; Mazur, Tom; Mullins, Larry L; Chernausek, Steven D; Wisniewski, Amy B

    2011-12-01

    Rearing a child with a chronic illness is stressful and can potentially affect parenting style, which may result in poorer outcomes for children. The purpose of this study was to compare parenting characteristics of female caregivers rearing children with a disorder of sex development (DSD) to female caregivers rearing children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Caregivers of both groups were matched according to age and compared on measures of stress and parenting practices. Both groups demonstrated significant levels of stress and negative parenting practices. Children with T1DM and male children with non-life-threatening DSD were perceived as more vulnerable by their caregivers. Better understanding of parenting experiences of female caregivers rearing children with DSD, particularly male children, will facilitate the development of individualized interventions to ameliorate negative parenting practices and stress, with the long-term goal of improved health outcomes for their children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Parenting and Child Development in Adoptive Families: Does Parental Sexual Orientation Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Farr, Rachel H.; Forssell, Stephen L.; Patterson, Charlotte J.

    2010-01-01

    This study, funded by Williams Institute, investigated child development and parenting in 106 families headed by 27 lesbian, 29 gay, and 50 heterosexual couples with young adopted children. Parents and teachers reported that, on average, children were developing in typical ways. Measures of children’s adjustment, parenting approaches, parenting stress, and couple relationship adjustment were not significantly associated with parental sexual orientation. However, several family process variabl...

  10. Teaching matters-academic professional development in the early 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnert, Beatrix

    2015-10-01

    Academic work at different career stages has changed and a broadened portfolio of expertise enables academics to adapt, maintain and advance their career. Development related to research activity is naturally driven by methodology and technology. Institutions and peers largely support development in the contexts of dissemination, measuring impact and obtaining funding. A European Commission High Level Group recommended pedagogic training for everyone teaching in Higher Education by 2020 with mandatory continuing professional development and with academic staff recruitment and promotion being linked to teaching performance. Early career teaching experience is already an expectation, and advantage is gained by developing recognized teaching expertise. More senior academics gain an advantage through recognition of higher levels of expertise, also covering elements of leadership and innovation in teaching. This review aims to raise awareness particularly of teaching-related skills within the dimensions of academic professional development in Higher Education, outlining some general directions for development and recognition in context of current challenges to support planning and identifying training needs and opportunities at different career stages. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a force sensor using atom interferometry to constrain theories on dark matter and dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlupf, Chandler; Niederriter, Robert; Bohr, Eliot; Khamis, Sami; Park, Youna; Szwed, Erik; Hamilton, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Atom interferometry has been used in many precision measurements such as Newton's gravitational constant, the fine structure constant, and tests of the equivalence principle. We will perform atom interferometry in an optical lattice to measure the force felt by an atom due to a test mass in search of new forces suggested by dark matter and dark energy theories. We will be developing a new apparatus using laser-cooled ytterbium to continuously measure this force by observing their Bloch oscillations. Interfering atoms in an optical lattice allows continuous measurements in a small volume over a long period of time, enabling our device to be sensitive to time-varying forces while minimizing vibrational noise. We present the details of this experiment and the progress on it thus far.

  12. Grey matter volume and cortical structure in Prader-Willi syndrome compared to typically developing young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Manning

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS is a neurodevelopmental disorder of genomic imprinting, presenting with a characteristic overeating disorder, mild to moderate intellectual disability, and a variable range of social and behavioral difficulties. Consequently, widespread alterations in neural structure and developmental and maturational trajectory would be expected. To date, there have been few quantitative and systematic studies of brain morphology in PWS, although alterations of volume and of cortical organisation have been reported. This study aimed to investigate, in detail, the structure of grey matter and cortex in the brain in a sample of young adults with PWS in a well-matched case-controlled analysis. 20 young adults with PWS, aged 19–27 years, underwent multiparameter mapping magnetic resonance imaging sequences, from which measures of grey matter volume, cortical thickness and magnetisation transfer saturation, as a proxy measure of myelination, were examined. These variables were investigated in comparison to a control group of 40 typically developing young adults, matched for age and sex. A voxel-based morphometry analysis identified large and widespread bilateral clusters of both increased and decreased grey matter volume in the brain in PWS. In particular, widespread areas of increased volume encompassed parts of the prefrontal cortex, especially medially, the majority of the cingulate cortices, from anterior to posterior aspects, insula cortices, and areas of the parietal and temporal cortices. Increased volume was also reported in the caudate, putamen and thalamus. The most ventromedial prefrontal areas, in contrast, showed reduced volume, as did the parts of the medial temporal lobe, bilateral temporal poles, and a small cluster in the right lateral prefrontal cortex. Analysis of cortical structure revealed that areas of increased volume in the PWS group were largely driven by greater cortical thickness. Conversely, analysis of

  13. Grey matter volume and cortical structure in Prader-Willi syndrome compared to typically developing young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Katherine E; Tait, Roger; Suckling, John; Holland, Anthony J

    2018-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of genomic imprinting, presenting with a characteristic overeating disorder, mild to moderate intellectual disability, and a variable range of social and behavioral difficulties. Consequently, widespread alterations in neural structure and developmental and maturational trajectory would be expected. To date, there have been few quantitative and systematic studies of brain morphology in PWS, although alterations of volume and of cortical organisation have been reported. This study aimed to investigate, in detail, the structure of grey matter and cortex in the brain in a sample of young adults with PWS in a well-matched case-controlled analysis. 20 young adults with PWS, aged 19-27 years, underwent multiparameter mapping magnetic resonance imaging sequences, from which measures of grey matter volume, cortical thickness and magnetisation transfer saturation, as a proxy measure of myelination, were examined. These variables were investigated in comparison to a control group of 40 typically developing young adults, matched for age and sex. A voxel-based morphometry analysis identified large and widespread bilateral clusters of both increased and decreased grey matter volume in the brain in PWS. In particular, widespread areas of increased volume encompassed parts of the prefrontal cortex, especially medially, the majority of the cingulate cortices, from anterior to posterior aspects, insula cortices, and areas of the parietal and temporal cortices. Increased volume was also reported in the caudate, putamen and thalamus. The most ventromedial prefrontal areas, in contrast, showed reduced volume, as did the parts of the medial temporal lobe, bilateral temporal poles, and a small cluster in the right lateral prefrontal cortex. Analysis of cortical structure revealed that areas of increased volume in the PWS group were largely driven by greater cortical thickness. Conversely, analysis of myelin content using

  14. Role of neighbourhoods in child growth and development: does 'place' matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Kirkwood, Betty

    2010-07-01

    It is estimated that at least 200 million children--mostly from developing countries--suffer from developmental delays. The study aims to contribute to an understanding of the contextual environment in which a child grows and develops in such setup; and in particular to evaluate the relative contributions of socio-economic status and rural-urban neighbourhoods on growth and psychomotor development. A cross-sectional study was conducted from May to November 2002 in 15 rural and 11 urban communities of Sindh, Pakistan. 1,244 children aged less than 3 years were assessed via home visits using Bayley's Infant Developmental Scale for psychomotor development, anthropometry and a socio-economic and demographic questionnaire. A socio-economic index was created using principal component analysis, and the study hypotheses explored through hierarchical linear modelling. We found that sub-optimal growth and development were prevalent among the study's children. Overall the mean psychomotor development (PD) index was 96.0 (SD 16.7), with 23% assessed as having delayed development, and undernourished with 39.8% stunted, 30.9% underweight and 18.1% wasted. Lower socio-economic status and living in a rural rather than urban neighbourhood were all found to have strong associations with lower psychomotor scores and with undernutrition. Rural-urban differences in undernutrition were explained by the lower socio-economic status of families in rural areas. By contrast, rural-urban differences in psychomotor scores remained strong even after controlling for differences in socio-economic status. It was estimated that rural residence accounted for 28% of cases of delayed psychomotor development among study children. Improvements in socio-economic status are vital to achieve optimal growth and development during early childhood. The study draws attention to the importance of taking heed of contextual needs, especially relating to differences between rural and urban neighbourhoods, in the

  15. Development and validation of a sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for blood plasma cortisol in female cattle, buffaloes, and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, R; Mohan, K; Kumar, V; Sarkar, M; Nitu, K; Meyer, H H D; Prakash, B S

    2013-08-01

    A highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) that used the second antibody coating technique and the cortisol-horseradish peroxidase conjugate as a label for determination of free and total cortisol in blood plasma of dairy animals (cows, buffaloes, and goats) was developed. For biological validation of the EIA, blood samples were collected from the animals at 48 and 24 h before and 0, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96, 108, 120, and 132 h after dexamethasone administration. The EIA was performed directly with 20 μL of fresh plasma (for free cortisol) and also with 20 μL of heat-treated plasma (for total cortisol) after 1:5 dilutions with PBS. Cortisol standards ranging from 0.39 to 200 pg/well/20 μL were used, and the sensitivity of the EIA procedure was found to be 0.39 pg/well/20 μL, which corresponded to 0.02 ng/mL. In comparison with RIA the EIA was at least 4 times more sensitive and required 5 times less cortisol antiserum. In female cattle, buffaloes, and goats, the total, free, and bound plasma cortisol before dexamethasone administration was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the total, free, and bound cortisol after dexamethasone administration. It can be concluded from these studies that the direct, sensitive EIA validated for estimating the free and total cortisol concentrations was sufficiently reliable and quick for studying the dynamics of cortisol distribution in blood plasma of dairy animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. When does time matter? maternal employment, children's time with parents, and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsin, Amy; Felfe, Christina

    2014-10-01

    This study tests the two assumptions underlying popularly held notions that maternal employment negatively affects children because it reduces time spent with parents: (1) that maternal employment reduces children's time with parents, and (2) that time with parents affects child outcomes. We analyze children's time-diary data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and use child fixed-effects and IV estimations to account for unobserved heterogeneity. We find that working mothers trade quantity of time for better "quality" of time. On average, maternal work has no effect on time in activities that positively influence children's development, but it reduces time in types of activities that may be detrimental to children's development. Stratification by mothers' education reveals that although all children, regardless of mother's education, benefit from spending educational and structured time with their mothers, mothers who are high school graduates have the greatest difficulty balancing work and child care. We find some evidence that fathers compensate for maternal employment by increasing types of activities that can foster child development as well as types of activities that may be detrimental. Overall, we find that the effects of maternal employment are ambiguous because (1) employment does not necessarily reduce children's time with parents, and (2) not all types of parental time benefit child development.

  17. Do economic, financial and institutional developments matter for environmental degradation? Evidence from transitional economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamazian, Artur [School of Economics and Business Administration, University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bhaskara Rao, B. [School of Economics and Finance, University of Western Sydney, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    Several studies have examined the relationship between environmental degradation and economic growth. However, most of them did not take into account financial developments and institutional quality. Moreover, Stern [Stern, D., 2004. The rise and fall of the environmental Kuznets curve. World Development 32(8): 1419-1439.] noted that there are important econometric weaknesses in the earlier studies, such as endogeneity, heteroscedasticity, omitted variables, etc. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap in the literature by investigating the linkage between not only economic development and environmental quality but also financial development and institutional quality. We employ the standard reduced-form modelling approach to control for country-specific unobserved heterogeneity and GMM estimation to control for endogeneity. Our study considers 24 transition economies and panel data for 1993-2004. Our results support the EKC hypothesis while confirming the importance of both institutional quality and financial development for environmental performance. We also found that financial liberalization may be harmful for environmental quality if it is not accomplished in a strong institutional framework. (author)

  18. Family Income and Child Cognitive and Noncognitive Development in Australia: Does Money Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanam, Rasheda; Nghiem, Son

    2016-06-01

    This article investigates whether family income affects children's cognitive and noncognitive development by exploiting comprehensive information from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. We include variables that represent parental investment, parental stress, and neighborhood characteristics to examine if these factors mediate the effects of income. Using dynamic panel data, we find that family income is significantly associated with children's cognitive skills but not with noncognitive skills. Mother's education, parent's physical and mental health, parenting styles, child's own health, and presence of both biological parents are the most important factors for children's noncognitive development. For cognitive development, income as well as parents' education, child's birth weight, and number of books that children have at home are highly significant factors. We also find strong evidence to support the skill formation theory that children's previous cognitive and noncognitive outcomes are significantly related to their current outcomes.

  19. Fathers matter: The role of father parenting in preschoolers' executive function development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwissen, Alyssa S; Carlson, Stephanie M

    2015-12-01

    Although previous work has shown that mothers' parenting influences the development of child executive function (EF; important self-control skills developed during the preschool years), the role of fathers' parenting has not been thoroughly investigated. We observed fathers' autonomy support and control in dyadic play with their 3-year-old children (N pairs=110) and measured father and child EF independently with laboratory tasks. We found that fathers' controlling parenting was significantly inversely related to the child EF composite, above and beyond family income and child verbal ability. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fathers are important for the development of EF in their children and suggest that fathers should be included in both research and parenting interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fathers Matter: The Role of Father Autonomy Support and Control in Preschoolers' Executive Function Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwissen, Alyssa S.; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous work has shown that mothers' parenting influences the development of child executive function (important self-control skills developed in the preschool years) the role of fathers' parenting has not been thoroughly investigated. We observed fathers' autonomy support and control in dyadic play with their 3-year-old children (N pairs = 110), and measured father and child EF independently with laboratory tasks. We found that fathers' controlling parenting was significantly inversely related to the child EF composite, above and beyond family income and child verbal ability. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fathers are important for the development of EF in their children, and suggest fathers should be included in both research and parenting interventions. PMID:26209884

  1. Brook trout distributional response to unconventional oil and gas development: Landscape context matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Eric R.; Petty, J. Todd; Maloney, Kelly O.; Young, John A.; Faulkner, Stephen; Slonecker, Terry; Milheim, Lesley E.; Hailegiorgis, Atesmachew; Niles, Jonathan M.

    2018-01-01

    We conducted a large-scale assessment of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development effects on brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) distribution. We compiled 2231 brook trout collection records from the Upper Susquehanna River Watershed, USA. We used boosted regression tree (BRT) analysis to predict occurrence probability at the 1:24,000 stream-segment scale as a function of natural and anthropogenic landscape and climatic attributes. We then evaluated the importance of landscape context (i.e., pre-existing natural habitat quality and anthropogenic degradation) in modulating the effects of UOG on brook trout distribution under UOG development scenarios. BRT made use of 5 anthropogenic (28% relative influence) and 7 natural (72% relative influence) variables to model occurrence with a high degree of accuracy [Area Under the Receiver Operating Curve (AUC) = 0.85 and cross-validated AUC = 0.81]. UOG development impacted 11% (n = 2784) of streams and resulted in a loss of predicted occurrence in 126 (4%). Most streams impacted by UOG had unsuitable underlying natural habitat quality (n = 1220; 44%). Brook trout were predicted to be absent from an additional 26% (n = 733) of streams due to pre-existing non-UOG land uses (i.e., agriculture, residential and commercial development, or historic mining). Streams with a predicted and observed (via existing pre- and post-disturbance fish sampling records) loss of occurrence due to UOG tended to have intermediate natural habitat quality and/or intermediate levels of non-UOG stress. Simulated development of permitted but undeveloped UOG wells (n = 943) resulted in a loss of predicted occurrence in 27 additional streams. Loss of occurrence was strongly dependent upon landscape context, suggesting effects of current and future UOG development are likely most relevant in streams near the probability threshold due to pre-existing habitat degradation.

  2. Development of White Matter Microstructure and Intrinsic Functional Connectivity Between the Amygdala and Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex: Associations With Anxiety and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Larsen, Bart; Hallquist, Michael N; Foran, William; Calabro, Finnegan; Luna, Beatriz

    2017-10-01

    Connectivity between the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is compromised in multiple psychiatric disorders, many of which emerge during adolescence. To identify to what extent the deviations in amygdala-vmPFC maturation contribute to the onset of psychiatric disorders, it is essential to characterize amygdala-vmPFC connectivity changes during typical development. Using an accelerated cohort longitudinal design (1-3 time points, 10-25 years old, n = 246), we characterized developmental changes of the amygdala-vmPFC subregion functional and structural connectivity using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging. Functional connectivity between the centromedial amygdala and rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), anterior vmPFC, and subgenual cingulate significantly decreased from late childhood to early adulthood in male and female subjects. Age-associated decreases were also observed between the basolateral amygdala and the rACC. Importantly, these findings were replicated in a separate cohort (10-22 years old, n = 327). Similarly, structural connectivity, as measured by quantitative anisotropy, significantly decreased with age in the same regions. Functional connectivity between the centromedial amygdala and the rACC was associated with structural connectivity in these same regions during early adulthood (22-25 years old). Finally, a novel time-varying coefficient analysis showed that increased centromedial amygdala-rACC functional connectivity was associated with greater anxiety and depression symptoms during early adulthood, while increased structural connectivity in centromedial amygdala-anterior vmPFC white matter was associated with greater anxiety/depression during late childhood. Specific developmental periods of functional and structural connectivity between the amygdala and the prefrontal systems may contribute to the emergence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and may play a critical role in

  3. Type of iconicity matters in the vocabulary development of signing children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortega, G.; Sümer, B.; Özyürek, A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent research on signed as well as spoken language shows that the iconic features of the target language might play a role in language development. Here, we ask further whether different types of iconic depictions modulate children's preferences for certain types of sign-referent links during

  4. Work-related learning and skill development in Europe: Does initial skill mismatch matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira Sequeda, Maria; Künn-Nelen, Annemarie; de Grip, Andries

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides more insight into the assumption of human capital theory that the productivity of job-related training is driven by the improvement of workers’ skills. We analyze the extent to which training and informal learning on the job are related to employee skill development and consider

  5. Why does site visit matter in global software development: A knowledge-based perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Mansooreh; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Context: Face-to-Face (F2F) interaction is a strong means to foster social relationships and effective knowledge sharing within a team. However, communication in Global Software Development (GSD) teams is usually restricted to computer-mediated conversation that is perceived to be less effective...

  6. Measurements Matter: Taking the DIT-2 Multiple Times and College Students' Moral Reasoning Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Matthew J.; Pascarella, Ernest T.; Trolian, Teniell; Selznick, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine differences between undergraduate students who had multiple exposures to an assessment of moral reasoning development (DIT-2) and students of the same cohort who had fewer exposures to the same assessment. Controlling for a host of individual covariates, the analysis determined that students who took the…

  7. Impaired dynamic cerebrovascular response to hypercapnia predicts development of white matter hyperintensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Sam

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Vascular impairment in regions of NAWM that progresses to WMH consists not only of decreased magnitude of ssCVR, but also a pathological decrease in the speed of vascular response. These findings support the association between cerebrovascular dysregulation and the development of WMH.

  8. Migrants' capacity as actors of development : do skills matter for economic and social remittances?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturge, Georgina; Bilgili, Özge; Siegel, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Highly skilled migrants are presumably in a better position than less skilled ones to contribute to development in their countries of origin, largely by way of economic and social remittances. In this article, we use unique data on first-generation migrants in the Netherlands to test how economic

  9. Prosody teaching matters in developing speaking skills for Farsi-English interpreter trainees : An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yenkimaleki, M.; V.J., van Heuven

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of explicit teaching of prosody on developing speaking skills for Farsi-English interpreter trainees. Two groups of student interpreters were formed. All were native speakers of Farsi who studied English translation and interpreting at the BA level at

  10. Context Matters in Educational Research and International Development: Learning from the Small States Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The article argues that greater attention should be paid to contextual factors in educational research and international development cooperation. The analysis draws upon principles that underpin socio-cultural approaches to comparative education, a critical analysis of the political economy of contemporary educational research, and recent research…

  11. Contexts That Matter to the Leadership Development of Latino Male College Students: A Mixed Methods Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gina A.; Huerta, Adrian H.; Ramirez, Jenesis J.; Patrón, Oscar E.

    2017-01-01

    As the number of Latino males entering college increases, there is a need to understand their unique leadership experiences. This study used a convergent parallel mixed methods design to understand what contexts contribute to Latino male undergraduate students' leadership development, capacity, and experiences. Quantitative data were gathered by…

  12. Faith Matters: Developing the Our Whole Lives Evaluation and Promotion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of faith-based organizations implementing comprehensive sexuality education into their ministries, including a review of a study of 5,819 religious teens by Christian Community Inc., a nonprofit research and resource development organization. The study by Christian Community Inc. had a major impact in the…

  13. Development of Test Items Related to Selected Concepts Within the Scheme the Particle Nature of Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Rodney L.; Pella, Milton O.

    The purpose of this study was to develop tests items with a minimum reading demand for use with pupils at grade levels two through six. An item was judged to be acceptable if the item satisfied at least four of six criteria. Approximately 250 students in grades 2-6 participated in the study. Half of the students were given instruction to develop…

  14. Woman's Profession and Female Role--The Development of Sex-specific Structures of Education and of the Labor Market before the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Vera

    1989-01-01

    Examines the intrusion of female employees into the traditionally male domain of office work from 1860 to 1914. Shows that sex-specific segregation was supported by a lack of training facilities for girls and by fact that these facilities supported the dominant sex-role structure. Focuses on the development of vocational schools for girls.…

  15. The Contribution of the New South Wales Primary Schools Sports Association towards Developing Talent in Australian 12-Year-Old Female Swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a case study that inquired into the influence of the New South Wales Primary Schools Sports Association competitive swimming structure on the development of talented 12-year old female swimmers. The study focused on ten 12-year old girls in the New South Wales team that contested the 2009 national swimming championships…

  16. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  17. Supplier integration in product development: A matter of designing the project structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Danilovic

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In product development close collaboration between systems integrators and suppliers is important. The purpose of this article is to investigate the impact of the work breakdown structure (WBS and work packages (WPs in product development on the possibility of carrying through the strategy of supplier involvement into collaborative practice and to investigate how supplier involvement can be improved by altering the design of collaborative WBS and WP structures. Dependence Structure Matrix (DSM is introduced in order to analyse, visualise and manage interdependencies, in terms of information exchange between the systems integrator and supplier. This article shows how DSM can support the alternative design of integrated and collaborative WBS and integrated WPs following the logic of dependencies and the flow of information in order to support a strategy focusing on integration of suppliers on project and team level.

  18. External Shocks and Banking Crises in Developing Countries: Does the Exchange Rate Regime Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Chandima Mendis

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines some determinants of banking crises in developing economies. Specifically, the effects of terms of trade shocks and capital flows are analyzed. The choice of the nominal exchange rate regime is found to be a crucial factor in the way various shocks are transmitted through the monetary sector. A logit model is used on panel data and preliminary results indicate that countries with flexible regimes were able to lessen the impact of external shocks on the domestic economy. Th...

  19. Incidence and mortality of kidney cancers, and human development index in Asia; a matter of concern

    OpenAIRE

    Arabsalmani, Masoumeh; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Hadadian, Fatemeh; Towhidi, Farhad; Vafaee, Kamran; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence and mortality of kidney cancer have steadily increased by 2%- 3% per decade worldwide, and an increased risk of kidney cancer has been observed in many Asian countries. The information on the incidence and mortality of a disease and its distribution is essential for better planning for prevention and further studies. Objectives This study aimed to assess the incidence and mortality of kidney cancer and their correlation with the human development index (HDI) in Asia. ...

  20. Pay Matters: The Piece Rate and Health in the Developing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mary E

    Piece rate pay remains a common form of compensation in developing-world industries. While the piece rate may boost productivity, it has been shown to have unintended consequences for occupational safety and health, including increased accident and injury risk. This paper explores the relationship between worker pay and physical and emotional health, and questions the modern day business case for piece rate pay in the developing world. The relationship between piece rate and self-reported measures of physical and emotional health is estimated using a large survey of garment workers in 109 Vietnamese factories between 2010 and 2014. A random effects logit model controls for factory and year, predicting worker health as a function of pay type, demographics, and factory characteristics. Workers paid by the piece report worse physical and emotional health than workers paid by the hour (OR = 1.38-1.81). Wage incentives provide the most consistently significant evidence of all demographic and factory-level variables, including the factory's own performance on occupational safety and health compliance measures. These results highlight the importance of how workers are paid to understanding the variability in worker health outcomes. More research is needed to better understand the business case supporting the continued use of piece rate pay in the developing world. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A matter of interpretation: developing primary pupils' enquiry skills using position-linked datalogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Daniel John; Collier, Christopher; Howe, Alan

    2012-11-01

    Background: This article reports on an evaluation study of a project seeking to develop the use of position-linked datalogging with primary pupils in environmental science contexts. Purpose: The study sought to find out the extent to which the project had developed: (1) participant teachers' confidence in using datalogging as an everyday part of their science teaching; (2) pupils' abilities to collect and interpret relevant environmental monitoring data; and (3) the use of scientific data within environmental education in the project schools. Programme description: The project used software which integrates data from Global Positioning System (GPS) with sensor data collected outdoors to produce Google Earth visualisations of environmental quality in each school's locality. Sample: Phase 1 involved 10 primary schools in the South West of England (2008-9), and phase 2 was implemented in six primary schools in Greater London during 2010. All pupils in the 9-10-year-old age range participated to some extent (N ≈ 450) and each school identified a focus group of between two and four pupils (n = 38) together with two members of staff (n = 32) to be more closely involved in the project. Design and methods: The evaluation adopted a multi-method approach, drawing upon documentary sources (n = 40); observations of continuing professional development (CPD) cluster days (n = 8) and dissemination events (June 2009 and January 2011): baseline pupil assessment tasks (n = 291) and teachers' baseline questionnaire (n = 25) in September 2008 and March 2010; classroom observations; samples of pupil work (n = 31); end-of-project pupil assessment (n = 38) and teachers' and pupils' responses to the project (n ≈ 180) in June 2009 and December 2010; and a longitudinal evaluation in February 2012. Results: Datalogging had become a regular feature of practical science in nearly all project schools up to 30 months after the end of the project, but the use of position-linked logging had

  2. Robust Water Supply Infrastructure Development Pathways: What, When and Where Matters the Most? (INVITED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Patrick; Zeff, Harrison; Characklis, Gregory

    2017-04-01

    Water supply adaptation frameworks that seek robustness must adaptively trigger actions that are contextually appropriate to emerging system observations and avoid long term high regret lock-ins. As an example, emerging water scarcity concerns in southeastern United States are associated with several deeply uncertain factors, including rapid population growth, limited coordination across adjacent municipalities and the increasing risks for sustained regional droughts. Managing these uncertainties will require that regional water utilities identify regionally coordinated, scarcity-mitigating infrastructure development pathways that trigger time appropriate actions. Mistakes can lead to water shortages, overbuilt stranded assets and possibly financial failures. This presentation uses the Research Triangle area of North Carolina to illustrate the key concerns and challenges that emerged when helping Raleigh, Durham, Cary and Chapel Hill develop their long term water supply infrastructure pathways through 2060. This example shows how the region's water utilities' long term infrastructure pathways are strongly shaped by their short term conservation policies (i.e., reacting to evolving demands) and their ability to consider regional water transfers (i.e., reacting to supply imbalances). Cooperatively developed, shared investments across the four municipalities expand their capacity to use short term transfers to better manage severe droughts with fewer investments in irreversible infrastructure options. Cooperative pathways are also important for avoiding regional robustness conflicts, where one party benefits strongly at the expense of one or more the others. A significant innovation of this work is the exploitation of weekly and annual dynamic risk-of-failure action triggers that exploit evolving feedbacks between co-evolving human demands and regional supplies. These dynamic action triggers provide high levels of adaptivity, tailor actions to their specific context

  3. What matters? Assessing and developing inquiry and multivariable reasoning skills in high school chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daftedar Abdelhadi, Raghda Mohamed

    Although the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) present a detailed set of Science and Engineering Practices, a finer grained representation of the underlying skills is lacking in the standards document. Therefore, it has been reported that teachers are facing challenges deciphering and effectively implementing the standards, especially with regards to the Practices. This analytical study assessed the development of high school chemistry students' (N = 41) inquiry, multivariable causal reasoning skills, and metacognition as a mediator for their development. Inquiry tasks based on concepts of element properties of the periodic table as well as reaction kinetics required students to conduct controlled thought experiments, make inferences, and declare predictions of the level of the outcome variable by coordinating the effects of multiple variables. An embedded mixed methods design was utilized for depth and breadth of understanding. Various sources of data were collected including students' written artifacts, audio recordings of in-depth observational groups and interviews. Data analysis was informed by a conceptual framework formulated around the concepts of coordinating theory and evidence, metacognition, and mental models of multivariable causal reasoning. Results of the study indicated positive change towards conducting controlled experimentation, making valid inferences and justifications. Additionally, significant positive correlation between metastrategic and metacognitive competencies, and sophistication of experimental strategies, signified the central role metacognition played. Finally, lack of consistency in indicating effective variables during the multivariable prediction task pointed towards the fragile mental models of multivariable causal reasoning the students had. Implications for teacher education, science education policy as well as classroom research methods are discussed. Finally, recommendations for developing reform-based chemistry

  4. Harmonizing DTI measurements across scanners to examine the development of white matter microstructure in 803 adolescents of the NCANDA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Kilian M; Sullivan, Edith V; Rohlfing, Torsten; Chu, Weiwei; Kwon, Dongjin; Nichols, B Nolan; Zhang, Yong; Brown, Sandra A; Tapert, Susan F; Cummins, Kevin; Thompson, Wesley K; Brumback, Ty; Colrain, Ian M; Baker, Fiona C; Prouty, Devin; De Bellis, Michael D; Voyvodic, James T; Clark, Duncan B; Schirda, Claudiu; Nagel, Bonnie J; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2016-04-15

    Neurodevelopment continues through adolescence, with notable maturation of white matter tracts comprising regional fiber systems progressing at different rates. To identify factors that could contribute to regional differences in white matter microstructure development, large samples of youth spanning adolescence to young adulthood are essential to parse these factors. Recruitment of adequate samples generally relies on multi-site consortia but comes with the challenge of merging data acquired on different platforms. In the current study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were acquired on GE and Siemens systems through the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA), a multi-site study designed to track the trajectories of regional brain development during a time of high risk for initiating alcohol consumption. This cross-sectional analysis reports baseline Tract-Based Spatial Statistic (TBSS) of regional fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (L1), and radial diffusivity (LT) from the five consortium sites on 671 adolescents who met no/low alcohol or drug consumption criteria and 132 adolescents with a history of exceeding consumption criteria. Harmonization of DTI metrics across manufacturers entailed the use of human-phantom data, acquired multiple times on each of three non-NCANDA participants at each site's MR system, to determine a manufacturer-specific correction factor. Application of the correction factor derived from human phantom data measured on MR systems from different manufacturers reduced the standard deviation of the DTI metrics for FA by almost a half, enabling harmonization of data that would have otherwise carried systematic error. Permutation testing supported the hypothesis of higher FA and lower diffusivity measures in older adolescents and indicated that, overall, the FA, MD, and L1 of the boys were higher than those of the girls, suggesting continued microstructural development

  5. Bank regulation and financial fragility in developing countries: Does bank structure matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Klomp

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using data for 1238 banks located in 94 developing and emerging countries, we explore whether the impact of bank regulation and supervision on banking risk (measured by the banks’ Z-scores depends on bank structure. Our findings suggest that stricter regulation and supervision increases the banks’ Z-scores. Notably capital requirements and supervisory control diminish banking risk. However, the effectiveness of other dimensions of regulation and supervision depends on the organizational structure of banks. Notably activity restrictions reduce risk of large and foreign owned banks, while liquidity restrictions have most effect on the Z-scores of unlisted and commercial banks.

  6. Global variance in female population height: the influence of education, income, human development, life expectancy, mortality and gender inequality in 96 nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Quentin J

    2014-01-01

    Human height is a heritable trait that is known to be influenced by environmental factors and general standard of living. Individual and population stature is correlated with health, education and economic achievement. Strong sexual selection pressures for stature have been observed in multiple diverse populations, however; there is significant global variance in gender equality and prohibitions on female mate selection. This paper explores the contribution of general standard of living and gender inequality to the variance in global female population heights. Female population heights of 96 nations were culled from previously published sources and public access databases. Factor analysis with United Nations international data on education rates, life expectancy, incomes, maternal and childhood mortality rates, ratios of gender participation in education and politics, the Human Development Index (HDI) and the Gender Inequality Index (GII) was run. Results indicate that population heights vary more closely with gender inequality than with population health, income or education.

  7. Epigenetic Matters: The Link between Early Nutrition, Microbiome, and Long-term Health Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Indrio

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications are among the most important mechanisms by which environmental factors can influence early cellular differentiation and create new phenotypic traits during pregnancy and within the neonatal period without altering the deoxyribonucleic acid sequence. A number of antenatal and postnatal factors, such as maternal and neonatal nutrition, pollutant exposure, and the composition of microbiota, contribute to the establishment of epigenetic changes that can not only modulate the individual adaptation to the environment but also have an influence on lifelong health and disease by modifying inflammatory molecular pathways and the immune response. Postnatal intestinal colonization, in turn determined by maternal flora, mode of delivery, early skin-to-skin contact and neonatal diet, leads to specific epigenetic signatures that can affect the barrier properties of gut mucosa and their protective role against later insults, thus potentially predisposing to the development of late-onset inflammatory diseases. The aim of this review is to outline the epigenetic mechanisms of programming and development acting within early-life stages and to examine in detail the role of maternal and neonatal nutrition, microbiota composition, and other environmental factors in determining epigenetic changes and their short- and long-term effects.

  8. Epigenetic Matters: The Link between Early Nutrition, Microbiome, and Long-term Health Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrio, Flavia; Martini, Silvia; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Corvaglia, Luigi; Cristofori, Fernanda; Mastrolia, Salvatore Andrea; Neu, Josef; Rautava, Samuli; Russo Spena, Giovanna; Raimondi, Francesco; Loverro, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications are among the most important mechanisms by which environmental factors can influence early cellular differentiation and create new phenotypic traits during pregnancy and within the neonatal period without altering the deoxyribonucleic acid sequence. A number of antenatal and postnatal factors, such as maternal and neonatal nutrition, pollutant exposure, and the composition of microbiota, contribute to the establishment of epigenetic changes that can not only modulate the individual adaptation to the environment but also have an influence on lifelong health and disease by modifying inflammatory molecular pathways and the immune response. Postnatal intestinal colonization, in turn determined by maternal flora, mode of delivery, early skin-to-skin contact and neonatal diet, leads to specific epigenetic signatures that can affect the barrier properties of gut mucosa and their protective role against later insults, thus potentially predisposing to the development of late-onset inflammatory diseases. The aim of this review is to outline the epigenetic mechanisms of programming and development acting within early-life stages and to examine in detail the role of maternal and neonatal nutrition, microbiota composition, and other environmental factors in determining epigenetic changes and their short- and long-term effects. PMID:28879172

  9. Gender-specific effects of endogenous testosterone: female alpha-estrogen receptor-deficient C57Bl/6J mice develop glomerulosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, S J; Berho, M; Korach, K; Doublier, S; Lupia, E; Striker, G E; Karl, M

    2007-08-01

    Young female mice on a C57Bl/6J (B6) background are considered glomerulosclerosis (GS)-resistant but aging B6 mice develop mild GS. Estrogen deficiency accelerates while estrogen replacement retards GS in young sclerosis-prone oligosyndactyly mutant mice on an ROP background. To explore the effects of sex hormones on glomerular structure and function in the context of gender and genetic background, we studied mice in which the estrogen-receptor (ER) genes alpha- or -beta were deleted (alpha- or betaER knockout (KO)) and crossed into the B6 background. We also studied ovariectomized (Ovx) B6 mice given testosterone. Male and female betaERKO and male alphaERKO mice had no glomerular dysfunction at 9 months of age; however, alphaERKO female mice displayed albuminuria and GS. Ovx prevented glomerular dysfunction in alphaERKO female mice by eliminating endogenous testosterone production while exogenous testosterone induced GS in Ovx B6 mice. Androgen receptor (AR) expression and function was found in microdissected glomeruli and cultured mesangial cells. Testosterone compared to placebo increased both AR expression and TGF-beta1 mRNA levels in glomeruli isolated from female B6 mice. Estrogen deficiency had no deleterious effects on the glomeruli in B6 mice. Our study shows that genetic traits strongly influence the GS-promoting effects of estrogen deficiency while testosterone induces GS in a gender-specific manner.

  10. Maternal provision of transformer-2 is required for female development and embryo viability in the wasp Nasonia vitripennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuverink, Elzemiek; Rensink, Anna H.; Rondeel, Inge; Beukeboom, Leo W.; van de Zande, Louis; Verhulst, Eveline C.

    2017-01-01

    In insect sex determination a primary signal starts the genetic sex determination cascade that, in most insect orders, is subsequently transduced down the cascade by a transformer (tra) ortholog. Only a female-specifically spliced tra mRNA yields a functional TRA-protein that forms a complex with

  11. Maternal provision of transformer-2 is required for female development and embryo viability in the wasp Nasonia vitripennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuverink, Elzemiek; Rensink, Anna H.; Rondeel, Inge; Beukeboom, Leo W.; Zande, van de Louis; Verhulst, Eveline C.

    2017-01-01

    In insect sex determination a primary signal starts the genetic sex determination cascade that, in most insect orders, is subsequently transduced down the cascade by a transformer (tra) ortholog. Only a female-specifically spliced tra mRNA yields a functional TRA-protein that forms a complex with

  12. The Use of the BASC-2 for the Identification of Female Adolescents at Risk for Developing an Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowitz, Annie L.; Choi, Hee-Sook; Schweinle, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders, disordered eating, and body dissatisfaction prevalence rates are on the rise among adolescent females. The present study examined the potential use of a commonly used social--emotional instrument, the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition (BASC-2), for detecting the presence of possible eating disorders in…

  13. The development of consumption culture and the individualisation of female identity: Fashion discourse in the Netherlands 1880-1920

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delhaye, C.A.J.C.

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates how the arena of fashion, as an example of consumption culture, has been an important locus of female individualization. Individualization is defined in a Foucauldian manner as the process by which human beings are channelled into individuals. From the mid-19th century

  14. Postlarval development of Halicarcinus planatus females (Crustacea, Decapoda, Hymenosomatidae in the estuary of the Deseado River, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio H. Vinuesa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses morphology and morphometric growth changes of Halicarcinus planatus females until their terminal moult, and characterises new juvenile stages. Monthly samples were collected in the estuary of the Deseado River, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. Crabs were sampled between the mid-intertidal and upper subtidal levels. Intermoult stages were analysed in sub-samples of adolescents and adults, and the presence of epizoic organisms was registered. Juveniles and adults were reared at the laboratory and examined for moult changes. All 3376 crabs caught were females, indicating a clear spatial segregation between sexes. Five juvenile stages (immature 1, 2, 3, 4 and adolescent and a mature one were recognised on the basis of morphology and morphometry. All immature stages differed in cephalothorax width (CW and abdomen width (AW. Positive allometry was observed in some juvenile stages and isometry in an immature stage and in mature females. Adolescents and adults encompassed a wide range of sizes, and the considerable size overlap between them suggests an anomalous growth process. Moult staging analysis indicated that adolescents have a high incidence of pre-moult stages in winter, when the terminal moult occurs. The measurements performed in laboratory-reared females indicated no abnormal increases during the moult. The terminal moult occurs within a wide size range, perhaps in association with mating.

  15. Patterns of Career Development and Their Role in the Advancement of Female Faculty at Austrian Universities: New Roads to Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Nina-Sophie

    2016-01-01

    As a result of various reforms carried out in the last decade, the academic sphere has undergone perceptible change, with redevelopment and reshaping at different institutional levels. These reforms have had an effect on gender relations, especially within the past several years, with an increasing proportion of female academics now in leading…

  16. The Satellite Cell in Male and Female, Developing and Adult Mouse Muscle: Distinct Stem Cells for Growth and Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Alice; Boldrin, Luisa; Morgan, Jennifer Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Satellite cells are myogenic cells found between the basal lamina and the sarcolemma of the muscle fibre. Satellite cells are the source of new myofibres; as such, satellite cell transplantation holds promise as a treatment for muscular dystrophies. We have investigated age and sex differences between mouse satellite cells in vitro and assessed the importance of these factors as mediators of donor cell engraftment in an in vivo model of satellite cell transplantation. We found that satellite cell numbers are increased in growing compared to adult and in male compared to female adult mice. We saw no difference in the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors between male and female mice, but distinct profiles were observed according to developmental stage. We show that, in contrast to adult mice, the majority of satellite cells from two week old mice are proliferating to facilitate myofibre growth; however a small proportion of these cells are quiescent and not contributing to this growth programme. Despite observed changes in satellite cell populations, there is no difference in engraftment efficiency either between satellite cells derived from adult or pre-weaned donor mice, male or female donor cells, or between male and female host muscle environments. We suggest there exist two distinct satellite cell populations: one for muscle growth and maintenance and one for muscle regeneration. PMID:22662253

  17. Speech Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina

    2011-01-01

    About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....

  18. Memory Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Memory Matters KidsHealth / For Kids / Memory Matters What's in ... of your complex and multitalented brain. What Is Memory? When an event happens, when you learn something, ...

  19. Fish egg predation by Baltic sprat and herring: do species characteristics and development stage matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Eero, Margit

    2017-01-01

    Predation of eggs by clupeids has been identified as a major factor contributing to early life stage mortality of Baltic cod. We used data from ichthyoplankton sampling and clupeid stomach analyses to investigate whether eggs of other fish species are to a similar extent subject to predation...... generally negatively selected by both predators, while fish eggs were non-selectively consumed in summer. Predation is suggested to account for a large fraction of mortality of cod eggs at older stages, i.e. those eggs, which have survived the often detrimentally low oxygen concentration in and below...... the permanent halocline. The consumption rates of sprat eggs at all development stages relative to production rates were considerably lower compared to cod, suggesting that egg predation is of lesser importance for sprat recruitment....

  20. Development of decontamination system for radioactive matter on paved road using dry ice blast method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamine, Haruo; Wakayama, Masanori; Nakamura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    As a decontamination method for paved road surface, the 'Dry Ice Blast Decontamination System' has been developed. This decontamination system has characteristic as follows; 1) Generation of decontamination waste is extremely small, 2) not using water, 3) not damaging the pavement surface. In actual decontamination work, more than 60% average (maximum 84%) reduction rate of the radiation counting rate has been achieved. In addition to these features, this system prevent the diffusion into the surrounding and the radiation exposure of workers by sucking waste quickly using attached dust collecting function. This system is also characterized in that it does not cause a difference in skill by the operator because of faceted decontamination using repetitive motion by concatenating three pellet injection nozzle and self-propelled decontamination machine. (author)

  1. Developing a curriculum for training nuclear protective force persons in legal matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a curriculum for the training of security officers involves the integration of the importance of the subject, the difficulty of the subject and a consideration of the time available for the lecture. The importance of the subject is regarded as a combination of 1) the frequency the officer will need to use the material in the field and 2) the possible consequences of the officer not being well trained in the subject. The result of these considerations is a recommended seven-hour curriculum consisting of three hours of instruction on 1) the law of arrest, search and seizure, 2) one hour of instruction on the use of force, 3) two hours of instruction on the scope of legal authority and 4) one hour of instruction on civil liability

  2. Incidence and mortality of kidney cancers, and human development index in Asia; a matter of concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabsalmani, Masoumeh; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Hadadian, Fatemeh; Towhidi, Farhad; Vafaee, Kamran; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of kidney cancer have steadily increased by 2%- 3% per decade worldwide, and an increased risk of kidney cancer has been observed in many Asian countries. The information on the incidence and mortality of a disease and its distribution is essential for better planning for prevention and further studies. This study aimed to assess the incidence and mortality of kidney cancer and their correlation with the human development index (HDI) in Asia. This ecological study was based on GLOBOCAN data Asia for assessment the correlation between age-specific incidence rate (ASIR) and age-specific mortality rate (ASMR) with HDI and its details that include life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling and gross national income (GNI) per capita. We use of correlation bivariate method for assessment the correlation between ASIR and ASMR with HDI and its components. A total of 121 099 kidney cancer cases were recorded in Asian countries in 2012.Overall, 80 080 cases (66.12%) were males. Sex ratio was 1.95. The three countries with the highest number of new patients were china (66 466 cases), Japan (16 830 cases), India(9658 cases), respectively. Positive correlation were seen between HDI and ASIR of kidney cancer 0.655 ( P = 0.001), and HDI and ASMR of kidney cancer 0.285 ( P = 0.055). A positive relationship between ASIR and the HDI was seen. The relationship is due to risk factors in countries with high development such as older age, smoking, hypertension, obesity, and diet. However, ASMR showed no significant relationship with HDI.

  3. Redox Modulation Matters: Emerging Functions for Glutaredoxins in Plant Development and Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shutian Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Glutaredoxins (GRXs are small ubiquitous glutathione (GSH-dependent oxidoreductases that catalyze the reversible reduction of protein disulfide bridges or protein-GSH mixed disulfide bonds via a dithiol or monothiol mechanism, respectively. Three major classes of GRXs, with the CPYC-type, the CGFS-type or the CC-type active site, have been identified in many plant species. In spite of the well-characterized roles for GRXs in Escherichia coli, yeast and humans, the biological functions of plant GRXs have been largely enigmatic. The CPYC-type and CGFS-type GRXs exist in all organisms, from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, whereas the CC-type class has thus far been solely identified in land plants. Only the number of the CC-type GRXs has enlarged dramatically during the evolution of land plants, suggesting their participation in the formation of more complex plants adapted to life on land. A growing body of evidence indicates that plant GRXs are involved in numerous cellular pathways. In this review, emphasis is placed on the recently emerging functions for GRXs in floral organ development and disease resistance. Notably, CC-type GRXs have been recruited to participate in these two seemingly unrelated processes. Besides, the current knowledge of plant GRXs in the assembly and delivery of iron-sulfur clusters, oxidative stress responses and arsenic resistance is also presented. As GRXs require GSH as an electron donor to reduce their target proteins, GSH-related developmental processes, including the control of flowering time and the development of postembryonic roots and shoots, are further discussed. Profiling the thiol redox proteome using high-throughput proteomic approaches and measuring cellular redox changes with fluorescent redox biosensors will help to further unravel the redox-regulated physiological processes in plants.

  4. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    What You See Ain't What. You Got, Resonance, Vol.4,. No.9,1999. Dark Matter. 2. Dark Matter in the Universe. Bikram Phookun and Biman Nath. In Part 11 of this article we learnt that there are compelling evidences from dynamics of spiral galaxies, like our own, that there must be non-luminous matter in them. In this.

  5. The Evolution of Galaxies by the Incompatibility between Dark Matter and Baryonic Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Ding-Yu

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the evolution of galaxies is by the incompatibility between dark matter and baryonic matter. Due to the structural difference, baryonic matter and dark matter are incompatible to each other as oil droplet and water in emulsion. In the interfacial zone between dark matter and baryonic matter, this incompatibility generates the modification of Newtonian dynamics to keep dark matter and baryonic matter apart. The five periods of baryonic structure development in the order of incre...

  6. CD28 in thymocyte development and peripheral T cell activation in mice exposed to suspended particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drela, Nadzieja; Zesko, Izabela; Jakubowska, Martyna; Biernacka, Marzena

    2006-01-01

    The CD28:B7 signaling pathway is very important for the activity of mature peripheral T lymphocytes and thymocyte development. The proper development of thymocytes into mature single positive CD4 + and CD8 + T cells is crucial for almost all immune functions. In naturally occurring conditions, T cells maturation in the thymus is influenced by environmental agents. The expression of CD28 and the distribution of CD28 low/high thymocytes have been examined at various stages of thymocyte development in BALB/c mice exposed to air-suspended particulate matter (ASM). Acute exposure to ASM resulted in the decrease of CD28 expression in the total thymocyte population. The increase of the percentage of CD28 low and the decrease of CD28 high thymocytes were observed, which may account for the acceleration of thymocyte development under the conditions of elevated risk resulting from the exposure of animals to environmental xenobiotics. ASM exposure resulted in the increase of the level of proliferation of lymph node T cells induced by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies activation despite normal expression of CD28 molecule. In contrast, the level of proliferation of spleen T cells was lowered or normal dependently of the concentration of stimuli used for activation. Results of these studies demonstrate that acute exposure of mice to ASM can result in the progression of two contrasting processes in the immune system: upregulation of thymocyte development, which contributes to the maintenance of peripheral T cell pool, and over-activation of lymph node lymphocytes, which may lead to uncontrolled immunostimulation

  7. Does Context Matter? Literacy Disparities in Self-rated Health Using Evidence from 17 Developed Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeonjin

    2017-05-01

    The study examines whether adult literacy skills predict self-rated health status beyond educational credentials in 17 developed countries using a cross-national survey, the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). The study uses linear regression models with country-level fixed effects to predict self-rated health to account the unobserved country-level heterogeneity. A total of 73,806 respondents aged 25 to 65 were included in the analysis. Although adult literacy is positively associated with better self-rated health in general, the strength of the relationship varies across nations. The literacy-related health inequalities are less severe in countries with the higher public share of health expenditures that may better address the needs of individuals with limited cognitive abilities. Curriculum standardization also contributes to reducing the literacy gradients in health by decreasing variations in skills obtained in school across individuals with different social origins. Overall, this study reveals that promoting equity in adult literacy skills is an important way to improve a population's health. Country-level differences in the strength of the relationship between literacy and self-rated health are systematically related to between-country differences in health financing and educational systems.

  8. Modern trends in position-sensitive neutron detectors development for condensed matter research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belushkin, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    Detecting neutrons is a more complicated task compared to the detection of ionizing particles or ionizing radiation. This is why the variety of neutron detectors is much more limited. Meanwhile, different types of neutron experiments pose specific and often contradictory requirements for detector characteristics. For experiments on the high-intensity neutron sources, the high counting rate is one of the key issues. This is very important, for example, for small-angle neutron scattering and neutron reflectometry. For other experiments, characteristics like detection efficiency, high position resolution, high time resolution, neutron/gamma discrimination, large-area imaging, or compactness, are very important. Today, the cost of the detector also became one of the most important factors. There is no single type of detector which satisfies all the above criteria. Therefore, compromise is inevitable and some of the characteristics are trade off in favor of others. The present report gives an overview of detector systems presently operating at the leading neutron scattering facilities as well as some development work around the globe

  9. Narrative Processing in Typically Developing Children and Children with Early Unilateral Brain Injury: Seeing Gesture Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Özlem Ece; Fisher, Joan A.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    Narrative skill in kindergarteners has been shown to be a reliable predictor of later reading comprehension and school achievement. However, we know little about how to scaffold children’s narrative skill. Here we examine whether the quality of kindergarten children’s narrative retellings depends on the kind of narrative elicitation they are given. We asked this question in typically developing (TD) kindergarten children and in children with pre- or perinatal unilateral brain injury (PL), a group that has been shown to have difficulty with narrative production. We compared children’s skill in story retellings under four different elicitation formats: (1) wordless cartoons, (2) stories told by a narrator through the auditory modality, (3) stories told by a narrator through the audiovisual modality without co-speech gestures, and (4) stories told by a narrator in the audiovisual modality with co-speech gestures. We found that children told better structured narratives in the fourth, audiovisual + gesture elicitation format than in the other three elicitation formats, consistent with findings that co-speech gestures can scaffold other aspects of language and memory. The audiovisual + gesture elicitation format was particularly beneficial to children who had the most difficulty telling a well-structured narrative, a group that included children with larger lesions associated with cerebrovascular infarcts. PMID:24127729

  10. Demand for cooking fuels in a developing country: To what extent do taste and preferences matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpalu, Wisdom; Dasmani, Isaac; Aglobitse, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    Overreliance on biomass energy, such as firewood and charcoal, for cooking in developing countries has contributed to high rates of deforestation and resulted in substantial indoor pollution, which has negatively impacted the health of many individuals. However, the effectiveness of public policies aimed at encouraging households to switch to cleaner fuels, such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and kerosene, hinges on the extent to which they are mentally committed to specific fuels. Using data on four cooking fuels (charcoal, firewood, LPG, and kerosene) from the Ghana living standards survey, we found strong evidence that the most preferred fuel is LPG, followed by charcoal, with kerosene the least preferred. In addition, with the exception of kerosene that has price-elastic demand, the price elasticities of demand for the fuel types examined are inelastic. This finding suggests the so-called fuel-ladder is not robust. - Highlights: → Overreliance on biomass energy for cooking has contributed to deforestation and indoor pollution. → We estimate demand for four cooking fuels (charcoal, firewood, LPG, and kerosene) in Ghana. → We found that the most preferred fuel is LPG, followed by charcoal, with kerosene the least preferred. → This finding suggests the so-called fuel-ladder is not robust.

  11. Demand for cooking fuels in a developing country: To what extent do taste and preferences matter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akpalu, Wisdom, E-mail: wakpalu@yahoo.com [Department of History, Economics and Politics, Farmingdale State College, State University of New York, Farmingdale, 2350 Broadhollow Road, NY 11735 (United States); Dasmani, Isaac; Aglobitse, Peter B. [Department of Economics, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast (Ghana)

    2011-10-15

    Overreliance on biomass energy, such as firewood and charcoal, for cooking in developing countries has contributed to high rates of deforestation and resulted in substantial indoor pollution, which has negatively impacted the health of many individuals. However, the effectiveness of public policies aimed at encouraging households to switch to cleaner fuels, such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and kerosene, hinges on the extent to which they are mentally committed to specific fuels. Using data on four cooking fuels (charcoal, firewood, LPG, and kerosene) from the Ghana living standards survey, we found strong evidence that the most preferred fuel is LPG, followed by charcoal, with kerosene the least preferred. In addition, with the exception of kerosene that has price-elastic demand, the price elasticities of demand for the fuel types examined are inelastic. This finding suggests the so-called fuel-ladder is not robust. - Highlights: > Overreliance on biomass energy for cooking has contributed to deforestation and indoor pollution. > We estimate demand for four cooking fuels (charcoal, firewood, LPG, and kerosene) in Ghana. > We found that the most preferred fuel is LPG, followed by charcoal, with kerosene the least preferred. > This finding suggests the so-called fuel-ladder is not robust.

  12. Measuring what matters to patients: Using goal content to inform measure choice and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jenna; Edbrooke-Childs, Julian; Law, Duncan; Wolpert, Miranda

    2017-04-01

    Personalised care requires personalised outcomes and ways of feeding back clinically useful information to clinicians and practitioners, but it is not clear how to best personalise outcome measurement and feedback using existing standardised outcome measures. The constant comparison method of grounded theory was used to compare goal themes derived from goals set at the outset of therapy for 180 children aged between 4 and 17 years, visiting eight child and adolescent mental health services, to existing standardised outcome measures used as part of common national datasets. In all, 20 out of 27 goal themes corresponded to items on at least one commonly used outcome measure. Consideration of goal themes helped to identify potential relevant outcome measures. However, there were several goal themes that were not captured by items on standardised outcome measures. These seemed to be related to existential factors such as understanding, thinking about oneself and future planning. This presents a powerful framework for how clinicians can use goals to help select a standardised outcome measure (where this is helpful) in addition to the use of a goal-based outcome measure and personalise choices. There may be areas not captured by standardised outcome measures that may be important for children and young people and which may only be currently captured in goal measurement. There is an indication that we may not be measuring what is important to children and young people. We may need to develop or look for new measures that capture these areas.

  13. Milkweed Matters: Monarch Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) Survival and Development on Nine Midwestern Milkweed Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocius, V M; Debinski, D M; Pleasants, J M; Bidne, K G; Hellmich, R L; Brower, L P

    2017-10-01

    The population of monarch butterflies east of the Rocky Mountains has experienced a significant decline over the past 20 yr. In order to increase monarch numbers in the breeding range, habitat restoration that includes planting milkweed plants is essential. Milkweeds in the genus Asclepias and Cynanchum are the only host plants for larval monarch butterflies in North America, but larval performance and survival across nine milkweeds native to the Midwest is not well documented. We examined development and survival of monarchs from first-instar larval stages to adulthood on nine milkweed species native to Iowa. The milkweeds included Asclepias exaltata (poke milkweed) (Gentianales: Apocynaceae), Asclepias hirtella (tall green milkweed) (Gentianales: Apocynaceae), Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed) (Gentianales: Apocynaceae), Asclepias speciosa (showy milkweed) (Gentianales: Apocynaceae), Asclepias sullivantii (prairie milkweed) (Gentianales: Apocynaceae), Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) (Gentianales: Apocynaceae), Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly milkweed) (Gentianales: Apocynaceae), Asclepias verticillata (whorled milkweed) (Gentianales: Apocynaceae), and Cynanchum laeve (honey vine milkweed) (Gentianales: Apocynaceae). In greenhouse experiments, fewer larvae that fed on Asclepias hirtella and Asclepias sullivantii reached adulthood compared with larvae that fed on the other milkweed species. Monarch pupal width and adult dry mass differed among milkweeds, but larval duration (days), pupal duration (days), pupal mass, pupal length, and adult wet mass were not significantly different. Both the absolute and relative adult lipids were different among milkweed treatments; these differences are not fully explained by differences in adult dry mass. Monarch butterflies can survive on all nine milkweed species, but the expected survival probability varied from 30 to 75% among the nine milkweed species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  14. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Soft matter (polymers, colloids, surfactants and liquid crystals) are an important class of materials in modern technology. They also form the basis of many future technologies, for example in medical and environmental applications. Soft matter shows complex behaviour between fluids and solids, and used to be a synonym of complex materials. Due to the developments of the past two decades, soft condensed matter can now be discussed on the same sound physical basis as solid condensedmatter. The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of soft matter for undergraduate and graduate students

  15. Detecting dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Roger L.

    2000-01-01

    Dark matter is one of the most pressing problems in modern cosmology and particle physic research. This talk will motivate the existence of dark matter by reviewing the main experimental evidence for its existence, the rotation curves of galaxies and the motions of galaxies about one another. It will then go on to review the corroborating theoretical motivations before combining all the supporting evidence to explore some of the possibilities for dark matter along with its expected properties. This will lay the ground work for dark matter detection. A number of differing techniques are being developed and used to detect dark matter. These will be briefly discussed before the focus turns to cryogenic detection techniques. Finally, some preliminary results and expectations will be given for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment

  16. Female offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vivienne de Vogel; Marijke Louppen

    2017-01-01

    Although girls and women represent only a minority of the forensic mental health and prison populations, studies worldwide suggest that there has been a steady increase in the number of females being convicted for committing offenses, especially violent offenses. In this chapter, an overview will

  17. Development and evaluation of a food frequency questionnaire for Vietnamese female immigrants in Korea: the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Hye; Choi, Ha Ney; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Chang, Namsoo; Kim, Wha Young; Chung, Hye Won; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for Vietnamese female immigrants in Korea and to evaluate the validity of the FFQ. A total of 80 food items were selected in developing the FFQ according to consumption frequency, the contribution of energy and other nutrients, and the cooking methods based on one-day 24 hour recall (24HR) from 918 Vietnamese female immigrants between November 2006 and November 2007. The FFQ was validated by comparison with 24HR of 425 Vietnamese female immigrants between November 2008 and August 2009. The absolute nutrient intake calculated from the FFQ was higher than that estimated by 24HR for most nutrients. The correlation coefficients between 24HR and FFQ ranged from 0.10 (vitamin C) - 0.36 (energy) for crude intake, 0.05 (vitamin E) - 0.32 (calcium) for per 1000 kcal, and 0.08 (zinc) - 0.34 (calcium) for energy-adjusted, respectively. More than 70% of subjects were classified into the same or adjacent agreement groups for nutrients other than fiber, sodium, vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E, while less than 10% of subjects were classified into complete disagreement groups. We conclude that the FFQ appears to be an acceptable tool for estimating nutrient intake and dietary patterns of Vietnamese female immigrants in Korea. Future studies to validate the FFQ using various biomarkers or other dietary assessment methods are needed.

  18. EXAMINATION OF EFFECTS OF RHYTHMIC GYMNASTICS ON BALANCE DEVELOPMENT AT THE SCHOOL CLASES OF YOUNG ELEMENTARY SCHOOL FEMALE PUPILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Aleksić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Balance is, in this work, important to three different balances: elementary balance, defined as body ability to fix in assigned balance position at minimal lean area, visual difficult balance, defined as body ability to fix in assigned balance position without visual control, and dynamic difficult balance, defined as body ability to fix in assigned balance position with center of gravity above the lean area, in spite of external forces difficulties. The battery for the evaluation of balance consists of three following tests: MPSG, MHNG, MSJN. During the 2005/06 academic year, a research was conducted so as to determine the effects of rhythmic gymnastics` program of physical education teaching on balance of female pupils. The subjects (N=99 were classified in experimental and control groups. At the beginning of the academic year, initial (first measurement was performed, followed by experimental final (second measurement at the end of experiment. Research data was processed using the multi-variant procedures MANCOVA, MANOVA, and mono-variant procedures ANCOVA, ANOVA i interval of entrust in distinction declined mean. After the experimental treatment, it was concluded that there are significant differences between female pupils in experimental and control groups i interest of experimental group evaluation of balance. The basic conclusion is that the female pupils of experimental group achieved significantly higher teaching effects than the control group, in view of partly increased motor abilities, being the result of the effects of the experimental treatment, as well as other external and internal factors. The main conclusion was that experimental treatment contributed better results in balance estimation tests in female pupils experimental group.

  19. An Investigation of University Student and K-12 Teacher Reasoning about Key Ideas in the Development of the Particulate Nature of Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Amy D.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation describes a systematic investigation of university student and K-12 teacher reasoning about key ideas relevant to the development of a particulate model for matter. Written assessments and individual demonstration interviews have been used to study the reasoning of introductory and sophomore-level physics students, introductory…

  20. A Study of the Development in Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Grade Children of an Understanding of a Particulate Model of Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Roger Woodmansee

    The study was designed to determine if chronological age is the main factor in a child's ability to develop a particulate concept of matter. Four demonstrations were organized which consisted of a graded series of particle mixing, gas diffusion, dissolving and smoke investigations. The individualized interviews with children were tape recorded. On…

  1. Particle Dark Matter: Status and Searches

    OpenAIRE

    Sandick, Pearl

    2010-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the phenomenology of particle dark matter and the properties of some of the most widely studied dark matter candidates. Recent developments in direct and indirect dark matter searches are discussed.

  2. Engaging children in the development of obesity interventions: Exploring outcomes that matter most among obesity positive outliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Mona; Marshall, Gareth; Goldman, Roberta E; Cunningham, Courtney; Marshall, Richard; Taveras, Elsie M

    2015-11-01

    To explore outcomes and measures of success that matter most to 'positive outlier' children who improved their body mass index (BMI) despite living in obesogenic neighborhoods. We collected residential address and longitudinal height/weight data from electronic health records of 22,657 children ages 6-12 years in Massachusetts. We defined obesity "hotspots" as zip codes where >15% of children had a BMI ≥95th percentile. Using linear mixed effects models, we generated a BMI z-score slope for each child with a history of obesity. We recruited 10-12 year-olds with negative slopes living in hotspots for focus groups. We analyzed group transcripts and discussed emerging themes in iterative meetings using an immersion/crystallization approach. We reached thematic saturation after 4 focus groups with 21 children. Children identified bullying and negative peer comparisons related to physical appearance, clothing size, and athletic ability as motivating them to achieve a healthier weight, and they measured success as improvement in these domains. Positive relationships with friends and family facilitated both behavior change initiation and maintenance. The perspectives of positive outlier children can provide insight into children's motivations leading to successful obesity management. Child/family engagement should guide the development of patient-centered obesity interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Statins attenuate the development of atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction induced by exposure to urban particulate matter (PM{sub 10})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Ryohei; Hiraiwa, Kunihiko; Cheng, Jui Chih [UBC James Hogg Research Centre, St. Paul' s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Bai, Ni [UBC James Hogg Research Centre, St. Paul' s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Vincent, Renaud [Environmental Health Sciences and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Francis, Gordon A.; Sin, Don D. [UBC James Hogg Research Centre, St. Paul' s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Van Eeden, Stephan F., E-mail: Stephan.vanEeden@hli.ubc.ca [UBC James Hogg Research Centre, St. Paul' s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to ambient air particulate matter (particles less than 10 μm or PM{sub 10}) has been shown to be an independent risk factor for the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) have well-established anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of statins on the adverse functional and morphological changes in blood vessels induced by PM{sub 10}. New Zealand White rabbits fed with a high fat diet were subjected to balloon injury to their abdominal aorta followed by PM{sub 10}/saline exposure for 4 weeks ± lovastatin (5 mg/kg/day) treatment. PM{sub 10} exposure accelerated balloon catheter induced plaque formation and increased intimal macrophages and lipid accumulation while lovastatin attenuated these changes and promoted smooth muscle cell recruitment into plaques. PM{sub 10} impaired vascular acetylcholine (Ach) responses and increased vasoconstriction induced by phenylephrine as assessed by wire myograph. Supplementation of nitric oxide improved the impaired Ach responses. PM{sub 10} increased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in blood vessels and increased the plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1). Incubation with specific inhibitors for iNOS, COX-2 or ET-1 in the myograph chambers significantly improved the impaired vascular function. Lovastatin decreased the expression of these mediators in atherosclerotic lesions and improved endothelial dysfunction. However, lovastatin was unable to reduce blood lipid levels to the baseline level in rabbits exposed to PM{sub 10}. Taken together, statins protect against PM{sub 10}-induced cardiovascular disease by reducing atherosclerosis and improving endothelial function via their anti-inflammatory properties. - Highlights: • Coarse particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) accelerated balloon injury-induced plaque formation. • Lovastatin decreased intimal

  4. Statins attenuate the development of atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction induced by exposure to urban particulate matter (PM10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Ryohei; Hiraiwa, Kunihiko; Cheng, Jui Chih; Bai, Ni; Vincent, Renaud; Francis, Gordon A.; Sin, Don D.; Van Eeden, Stephan F.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air particulate matter (particles less than 10 μm or PM 10 ) has been shown to be an independent risk factor for the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) have well-established anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of statins on the adverse functional and morphological changes in blood vessels induced by PM 10 . New Zealand White rabbits fed with a high fat diet were subjected to balloon injury to their abdominal aorta followed by PM 10 /saline exposure for 4 weeks ± lovastatin (5 mg/kg/day) treatment. PM 10 exposure accelerated balloon catheter induced plaque formation and increased intimal macrophages and lipid accumulation while lovastatin attenuated these changes and promoted smooth muscle cell recruitment into plaques. PM 10 impaired vascular acetylcholine (Ach) responses and increased vasoconstriction induced by phenylephrine as assessed by wire myograph. Supplementation of nitric oxide improved the impaired Ach responses. PM 10 increased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in blood vessels and increased the plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1). Incubation with specific inhibitors for iNOS, COX-2 or ET-1 in the myograph chambers significantly improved the impaired vascular function. Lovastatin decreased the expression of these mediators in atherosclerotic lesions and improved endothelial dysfunction. However, lovastatin was unable to reduce blood lipid levels to the baseline level in rabbits exposed to PM 10 . Taken together, statins protect against PM 10 -induced cardiovascular disease by reducing atherosclerosis and improving endothelial function via their anti-inflammatory properties. - Highlights: • Coarse particulate matter (PM 10 ) accelerated balloon injury-induced plaque formation. • Lovastatin decreased intimal macrophages, lipid accumulation, and

  5. Nonlinearities and transit times in soil organic matter models: new developments in the SoilR package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Carlos; Müller, Markus

    2016-04-01

    SoilR is an R package for implementing diverse models representing soil organic matter dynamics. In previous releases of this package, we presented the implementation of linear first-order models with any number of pools as well as radiocarbon dynamics. We present here new improvements of the package regarding the possibility to implement models with nonlinear interactions among state variables and the possibility to calculate ages and transit times for nonlinear models with time dependencies. We show here examples on how to implement model structures with Michaelis-Menten terms for explicit microbial growth and resource use efficiency, and Langmuir isotherms for representing adsorption of organic matter to mineral surfaces. These nonlinear terms can be implemented for any number of organic matter pools, microbial functional groups, or mineralogy, depending on user's requirements. Through a simple example, we also show how transit times of organic matter in soils are controlled by the time-dependencies of the input terms.

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF THE SPORTS TRAINING ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOME SPECIFIC PHYSICAL ABILITIES OF THE FEMALE HANDBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrislav Vujović

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The sustained and systematic training processes related to the handball have various influences on creating those anthropological characteristics that can be influenced on the basis of exogenesis. A well organized, longer training process is a very important factor that can significantly influence on the quality and quantity of those characteristics of the players that are not being inborn. The objective of the paper is to show the influence of the programmed triennial handball training on the changing of the physical abilities of the female handball players of the Montenegrin national team.

  7. Interactive effects of dietary composition and hormonal treatment on reproductive development of cultured female European eel, Anguilla anguilla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Filipa; Støttrup, Josianne Gatt; Kjørsvik, Elin

    2016-01-01

    Farmed female eels were fed two experimental diets with similar proximate composition but different n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels. Both diets had similar levels of arachidonic acid (ARA), while levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in one diet were...... approximately 4.5 and 2.6 times higher compared to the other diet, respectively. After the feeding period, each diet group was divided into two and each half received one of two hormonal treatments using salmon pituitary extract (SPE) for 13 weeks: i) a constant hormone dose of 18.75mg SPE/kg initial body...

  8. Regional variation of white matter development in the cat brain revealed by ex vivo diffusion MR tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Guangping; Das, Avilash; Hayashi, Emiko; Chen, Qin; Takahashi, Emi

    2016-11-01

    Three-dimensional reconstruction of developing fiber pathways is essential to assessing the developmental course of fiber pathways in the whole brain. We applied diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) tractography to five juvenile ex vivo cat brains at postnatal day (P) 35, when the degree of myelination varies across brain regions. We quantified diffusion properties (fractional anisotropy [FA] and apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC]) and other measurements (number, volume, and voxel count) on reconstructed pathways for projection (cortico-spinal and thalamo-cortical), corpus callosal, limbic (cingulum and fornix), and association (cortico-cortical) pathways, and characterized regional differences in maturation patterns by assessing diffusion properties. FA values were significantly higher in cortico-cortical pathways within the right hemisphere compared to those within the left hemisphere, while the other measurements for the cortico-cortical pathways within the hemisphere did not show asymmetry. ADC values were not asymmetric in both types of pathways. Interestingly, tract count and volume were significantly larger in the left thalamo-cortical pathways compared to the right thalamo-cortical pathways. The bilateral thalamo-cortical pathways showed high FA values compared to the other fiber pathways. On the other hand, ADC values did not show any differences across pathways studied. These results demonstrate that DSI tractography successfully depicted regional variations of white matter tracts during development when myelination is incomplete. Low FA and high ADC values in the cingulum bundle suggest that the cingulum bundle is less mature than the others at this developmental stage. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. D matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiu, Gary; Wang Liantao

    2004-01-01

    We study the properties and phenomenology of particlelike states originating from D branes whose spatial dimensions are all compactified. They are nonperturbative states in string theory and we refer to them as D matter. In contrast to other nonperturbative objects such as 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles, D-matter states could have perturbative couplings among themselves and with ordinary matter. The lightest D particle (LDP) could be stable because it is the lightest state carrying certain (integer or discrete) quantum numbers. Depending on the string scale, they could be cold dark matter candidates with properties similar to that of WIMPs or wimpzillas. The spectrum of excited states of D matter exhibits an interesting pattern which could be distinguished from that of Kaluza-Klein modes, winding states, and string resonances. We speculate about possible signatures of D matter from ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and colliders

  10. Dark matter and its detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Xiaojun; Qin Bo

    2011-01-01

    We first explain the concept of dark matter,then review the history of its discovery and the evidence of its existence. We describe our understanding of the nature of dark matter particles, the popular dark matter models,and why the weakly interacting massive particles (called WIMPs) are the most attractive candidates for dark matter. Then we introduce the three methods of dark matter detection: colliders, direct detection and indirect detection. Finally, we review the recent development of dark matter detection, including the new results from DAMA, CoGent, PAMELA, ATIC and Fermi. (authors)

  11. Cloning and characterisation of two CTR1-like genes in Cucurbita pepo: regulation of their expression during male and female flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Susana; Martínez, Cecilia; Gómez, Pedro; Garrido, Dolores; Jamilena, Manuel

    2010-12-01

    Ethylene is an essential regulator of flower development in Cucurbita pepo, controlling the sexual expression, and the differentiation and maturation of floral organs. To study the action mechanism of ethylene during the male and female flower development, we have identified two CTR1 homologues from C. pepo, CpCTR1 and CpCTR2, and analysed their expressions during female and male flower development and in response to external treatments with ethylene. CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 share a high homology with plant CTR1-like kinases, but differ from other related kinases such as the Arabidopsis EDR1 and the tomato LeCTR2. The C-terminal ends of both CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 have all the conserved motifs of Ser/Thr kinase domains, including the ATP-binding signature and the protein kinase active site consensus sequence, which suggests that CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 could have the same function as CTR1 in ethylene signalling. The transcripts of both genes were detected in different organs of the plant, including roots, leaves and shoots, but were mostly accumulated in mature flowers. During the development of male and female flowers, CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 expressions were concomitant with ethylene production, which indicates that both genes could be upregulated by ethylene, at least in flowers. Moreover, external treatments with ethylene, although did not alter the expression of these two genes in seedlings and leaves, were able to upregulate their expression in flowers. In the earlier stages of flower development, when ethylene production is very low, the expression of CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 is higher in male floral organs, which agrees with the role of these genes as negative regulators of ethylene signalling, and explain the lower ethylene sensitivity of male flowers in comparison with female flowers. The function of the upregulation of these two genes in later stages of female flower development, when the production of ethylene is also increased, is discussed.

  12. Apolipoprotein E4, Gender, Body Mass Index, Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and Air Pollution Interactions: Recipe for Alzheimer's Disease Development in Mexico City Young Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; de la Monte, Suzanne M

    2017-01-01

    Given the epidemiological trends of increasing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and growing evidence that exposure and lifestyle factors contribute to AD risk and pathogenesis, attention should be paid to variables such as air pollution, in order to reduce rates of cognitive decline and dementia. Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) above the US EPA standards is associated with AD risk. Mexico City children experienced pre- and postnatal high exposures to PM2.5, O3, combustion-derived iron-rich nanoparticles, metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and endotoxins. Exposures are associated with early brain gene imbalance in oxidative stress, inflammation, innate and adaptive immune responses, along with epigenetic changes, accumulation of misfolded proteins, cognitive deficits, and brain structural and metabolic changes. The Apolipoprotein E (APOE) 4 allele, the most prevalent genetic risk for AD, plays a key role in the response to air pollution in young girls. APOE 4 heterozygous females with >75% to <94% BMI percentiles are at the highest risk of severe cognitive deficits (1.5-2 SD from average IQ). This review focused on the relationships between gender, BMI, systemic and neural inflammation, insulin resistance, hyperleptinemia, dyslipidemia, vascular risk factors, and central nervous system involvement in APOE4 urbanites exposed to PM2.5 and magnetite combustion-derived iron-rich nanoparticles that can reach the brain. APOE4 young female heterozygous carriers constitute a high-risk group for a fatal disease: AD. Multidisciplinary intervention strategies could be critical for prevention or amelioration of cognitive deficits and long-term AD progression in young individuals at high risk.

  13. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S. S.; Bennett, C. L.

    1995-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Astrophysics conference in Maryland, organized by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland. The topics covered included low mass stars as dark matter, dark matter in galaxies and clusters, cosmic microwave background anisotropy, cold and hot dark matter, and the large scale distribution and motions of galaxies. There were eighty five papers presented. Out of these, 10 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  14. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, A.; Cotti, U.; De Leon, C. L.; Raya, A; Villasenor, L.

    2008-01-01

    One of the biggest scientific mysteries of our time resides in the identification of the particles that constitute a large fraction of the mass of our Universe, generically known as dark matter. We review the observations and the experimental data that imply the existence of dark matter. We briefly discuss the properties of the two best dark-matter candidate particles and the experimental techniques presently used to try to discover them. Finally, we mention a proposed project that has recently emerged within the Mexican community to look for dark matter

  15. Food matters: how the microbiome and gut-brain interaction might impact the development and course of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Seitz, Jochen; Baines, John

    2017-09-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is one of the most common chronic illnesses in female adolescents and exhibits the highest mortality risk of all psychiatric disorders. Evidence for the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic or psychopharmacological interventions is weak. Mounting data indicate that the gut microbiome interacts with the central nervous system and the immune system by neuroendocrine, neurotransmitter, neurotrophic and neuroinflammatory afferent and efferent pathways. There is growing evidence that the gut microbiota influences weight regulation and psychopathology, such as anxiety and depression. This article reviews how the gut-brain interaction may impact the development and course of AN. A "leaky gut", characterized by antigens traversing the intestinal wall, was demonstrated in an animal model of AN, and could underlie the low-grade inflammation and increased risk of autoimmune diseases found in AN. Moreover, starvation has a substantial impact on the gut microbiome, and diets used for re-nutrition based on animal products may support the growth of bacteria capable of triggering inflammation. As there is currently no empirically derived agreement on therapeutic re-nourishment in AN, this review discusses how consideration of gut-brain interactions may be important for treatment regarding the determination of target weight, rapidity of weight gain, refeeding methods and composition of the diet which might all be of importance to improve long-term outcome of one of the most chronic psychiatric disorders of adolescence.

  16. Development of adaptive bust for female soft body armour using three dimensional (3D) warp interlock fabrics: Three dimensional (3D) design process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtew, M. A.; Bruniaux, P.; Boussu, F.

    2017-10-01

    The traditional two dimensional (2D) pattern making method for developing female body armour has a negative effect on the ballistic protective performance as well as the comfort of the wearer. This is due to, unlike the male body armour, the female body armour manufacturing involves different darts to accommodate the natural curvature of the female body, i.e. bust area, which will reveals the weak parts at the seam and stitch area while ballistic impact. Moreover, the proper bra size also plays an important role not only in bra design but also in the design of a women’s ballistic vest. The present research study tried to propose the novel 3D designing approach for developing different volumes of breast using feature points (both bust surface and outline points) in the specific 3D adaptive mannequin. Later the flattened 3D bra patterns of this method has been also compare with the 2D standard pattern making in order to modify and match with 2D traditional method. The result indicated that the proposed method which conceives the 3D patterns on the 3D bust is easier to implement and can generate patterns with satisfactory fit and comfort as compared to 2D patterns.

  17. Application of 3.0T magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging in the evaluation on the development of normal brain white matter in infants and young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-li XU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To calculate the radios of peak area of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolites in brain white matter of normal infants and young children, to observe the features of metabolite spectra, and to explore the relations between their ratio with age. Methods The peak areas of metabolites, including N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, choline (Cho, creatine (Cr, and their ratio of NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, in paraventricular white matter of 180 normal infants and young children with different ages as evaluated by multi-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results In paraventricular white matter, spectrum of NAA increased, and that of Cho decreased gradually, while both of them were stabilized at 2 years old. Cr was increased obviously within 3 months, and stabilized after 4 months. Significant differences were found in ratio of different metabolites in paraventricular white matter in different ages (P<0.05. The ratios of NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr in paraventricular white mater were positively correlated with age (r=0.741, r=0.625, while that of Cho/Cr was negatively correlated with age (r=–0.552, P<0.05. Conclusion The ratios of different metabolites are different in brain white matter in infants of different ages. Metabolites concentrations in brain white matter are correlated to some extent with age, which may provide a diagnostic criterion for evaluation of normal brain development and abnormal brain metabolism. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.12.05

  18. Dealing with female sexuality: training, attitude, and practice of obstetrics and gynecology residents from a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Teresa Cristina Souza Barroso; de Souza, Eduardo; da Silva, Ivaldo; Torloni, Maria Regina; Ribeiro, Meireluci Costa; Nakamura, Mary Uchiyama

    2015-05-01

    There is little research on how obstetrics and gynecology (Ob/Gyn) residents deal with female sexuality, especially during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the training, attitude, and practice of Ob/Gyn residents about sexuality. A cross-sectional survey of Brazilian Ob/Gyn residents enrolling in an online sexology course was conducted. A questionnaire assessed their training in sexuality during medical school and residency and their attitude and practice on sexual issues during pregnancy. Training, attitude, and practice of Ob/Gyn residents regarding sexuality were the main outcome measures. A total of 197 residents, from 21 different programs, answered the online questionnaire. Mean age was 27.9 ± 2.2, most were female (87%), single (79%), and had graduated in the last 5 years (91%). Almost two-thirds (63%) stated that they did not receive any training at all and 28% reported having only up to 6 hours of training about sexuality in medical school. Approximately half of the respondents (49%) stated that they had received no formal training about sexuality during their residency up to that moment and 29% had received ≤6 hours of training. Over half (56%) never or rarely took a sexual history, 51% stated that they did not feel competent or confident to answer their pregnant patients' questions about sexuality, and 84% attributed their difficulties in dealing with sexual complaints to their lack of specific knowledge on the topic. The vast majority of Brazilian Ob/Gyn residents enrolling in a sexuality course had little previous formal training on this topic in medical school and during their residency programs. Most residents do not take sexual histories of pregnant patients, do not feel confident in answering questions about sexuality in pregnancy, and attribute these difficulties to lack of knowledge. These findings point to a clear need for additional training in sexuality among Brazilian Ob/Gyn residents. © 2015 International Society for

  19. Development of methods to examine the effects of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) on human peripheral blood leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zussman, Lisa Ann

    In vitro methods to study the effect of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) on leukocyte function using human peripheral blood were developed. These methods were demonstrated using the blood of 1-5 individuals and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) urban PM #1648, diesel PM #1650, silica PM, and a locally collected PM sample (New Jersey PM10). For the blood samples analyzed in this study NIST urban PM and New Jersey PM10 treatment mediated the release of granule contents from peripheral blood leukocytes and induced structural changes associated with degranulation. Flow cytometry revealed PM-induced changes in phagocytosis and cell structure associated with degranulation. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed NIST urban PM-induced cell structure changes were associated with PM internalization. Colorametric and electrophoretic methods showed no PM-induced release of primary granules and a slight PM-induced release of secondary granules associated with only NIST urban PM. Enzyme Immunosorbent Assays detected increased histamine release from basophils treated with NIST urban PM, a locally collected PM, and the soluble and insoluble components of these particles. NIST urban PM was found to be a potent inducer of histamine release in 4 out of 6 individuals tested. Fractionation studies revealed that soluble (aqueous) and insoluble fractions of NIST urban PM contain histamine-releasing activity. This was also demonstrated for the New Jersey PM10 sample for which the soluble fraction exhibited the most activity. Complementary studies with inhibitors of IgE-mediated histamine release conducted on one test subject suggest that PM-induced histamine release was partially mediated by IgE. A new hypothesis has been formed, suggesting that particle toxicity is related to PM-induced histamine release. Due to the bioactive nature of histamine and its association with many cardiopulmonary responses, the PM- mediated release of histamine should be investigated

  20. Development and evaluation of a radial anaerobic/aerobic reactor treating organic matter and nitrogen in sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. P. Garbossa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The design and performance of a radial anaerobic/aerobic immobilized biomass (RAAIB reactor operating to remove organic matter, solids and nitrogen from sewage are discussed. The bench-scale RAAIB was divided into five concentric chambers. The second and fourth chambers were packed with polyurethane foam matrices. The performance of the reactor in removing organic matter and producing nitrified effluent was good, and its configuration favored the transfer of oxygen to the liquid mass due to its characteristics and the fixed polyurethane foam bed arrangement in concentric chambers. Partial denitrification of the liquid also took place in the RAAIB. The reactor achieved an organic matter removal efficiency of 84%, expressed as chemical oxygen demand (COD, and a total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN removal efficiency of 96%. Average COD, nitrite and nitrate values for the final effluent were 54 mg.L-1, 0.3 mg.L-1 and 22.1 mg.L-1, respectively.

  1. Bone Composition in Male and Female Göttingen Minipigs Fed Variously Restrictedly and near ad Libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollen, P. J. A.; Lemmens, A. G.; Beynen, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    diet 2 was a high fat, low fibre diet. A higher level of feed intake led to a significant increase in the following parameters: body weight development, bone size (length and width of rib and femur), bone volume (rib), bone (rib) dry matter and ash content (mg), as well as bone density (femur...... development, bone volume, and dry matter and ash content of the rib (mg) as compared to males. Also bone mineral concentrations in the femur, expressed as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium in mg/cm3, were significantly higher in females as compared to males, as was the Ca:Pi ratio. Bone density measurements...... of the femur’s proximal and distal segment, and total femur bone density (g/cm2) were significantly higher in females as compared to males. Feed conversion in females was significantly lower than in males. This study illustrates that female and male minipigs show distinct differences in body and bone...

  2. Polyacrylamide Ferrogels with Magnetite or Strontium Hexaferrite: Next Step in the Development of Soft Biomimetic Matter for Biosensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P. Safronov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic biosensors are an important part of biomedical applications of magnetic materials. As the living tissue is basically a “soft matter.” this study addresses the development of ferrogels (FG with micron sized magnetic particles of magnetite and strontium hexaferrite mimicking the living tissue. The basic composition of the FG comprised the polymeric network of polyacrylamide, synthesized by free radical polymerization of monomeric acrylamide (AAm in water solution at three levels of concentration (1.1 M, 0.85 M and 0.58 M to provide the FG with varying elasticity. To improve FG biocompatibility and to prevent the precipitation of the particles, polysaccharide thickeners—guar gum or xanthan gum were used. The content of magnetic particles in FG varied up to 5.2 wt % depending on the FG composition. The mechanical properties of FG and their deformation in a uniform magnetic field were comparatively analyzed. FG filled with strontium hexaferrite particles have larger Young’s modulus value than FG filled with magnetite particles, most likely due to the specific features of the adhesion of the network’s polymeric subchains on the surface of the particles. FG networks with xanthan are stronger and have higher modulus than the FG with guar. FG based on magnetite, contract in a magnetic field 0.42 T, whereas some FG based on strontium hexaferrite swell. Weak FG with the lowest concentration of AAm shows a much stronger response to a field, as the concentration of AAm governs the Young’s modulus of ferrogel. A small magnetic field magnetoimpedance sensor prototype with Co68.6Fe3.9Mo3.0Si12.0B12.5 rapidly quenched amorphous ribbon based element was designed aiming to develop a sensor working with a disposable stripe sensitive element. The proposed protocol allowed measurements of the concentration dependence of magnetic particles in gels using magnetoimpedance responses in the presence of magnetite and strontium hexaferrite ferrogels

  3. [The development of the economically active female population in Belgium: trends from 1970 to 1977--Part 3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broerman, M

    1981-01-01

    This final section indicates that women are concentrated in a restricted number of activity sectors; i.e., footwear and clothing, tobacco, leather, textiles, and to a lesser extent, electric and electronic manufacturing in the secondary sector. At the tertiary sector, representation of women is highest in trades and services. The segregation of women in the labor market is still more pronounced in the field of occupations. Of a total of 274 recorded occupations, about 40 of the so-called feminine ones regroup women in very high numbers. Whereas the participation of women in economic life has not ceased to increase over the last few years, their situation in the labor market continues to be somewhat inferior; poor qualifications, little progress and promotion possibility, and low pay. The existence of a double labor market standard results in the absence of mixed jobs and positions, and makes it possible to use women in the labor force and pay them less. This results in a still very pronounced inequality between males and females in the areas of wages, despite the existence of legal constraints tending to assure equality. Discrimination on the level of employment constitutes the most frequent form of resistance against the realization of this equality. An active program in favor of equal opportunity, promotion of women in nontraditional fields, and a change of mentality with regard to the role distribution of men and women would offer women new possibilities in occupying qualified jobs and in fulfilling their economic roles with equality of occupational rights.

  4. Investigational hormone receptor agonists as ongoing female contraception: a focus on selective progesterone receptor modulators in early clinical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Anita L

    2015-01-01

    As efforts are made to continue to increase the safety of contraceptive methods, those without estrogen have attracted new attention. Progestin-only options are available in many delivery systems, but most cause disturbed bleeding patterns. For gynecologic patients, selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) have been approved for medical abortion, for ovulation suppression in emergency contraception, and for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding due to leiomyoma. This article discusses the role of SPRMs in controlling fertility on an ongoing basis with particular emphasis on mifepristone and ulipristal acetate (UPA), since none of the other compounds has progressed out of early Phase I - II testing. It also discusses important information about the mechanisms of action and safety of these two SPRMs. Of all the investigational hormone agonist/antagonists, SPRMs have demonstrated the greatest potential as ongoing female contraceptives. They have the ability to suppress ovulation after initiation of the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge without affecting ovarian production of estrogen or inducing any significant metabolic changes. SPRMs may well be able to provide longer term contraception as oral agents, vaginal rings, and perhaps even intrauterine devices. UPA has the greatest promise. Current research needs to be expanded.

  5. Accumulation of dry matter and nitrogen in the developing seeds of high protein mutant lines of Triticum Aestivum (L.) produced by the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir Ali, N.; Nabulsi, I.

    1993-03-01

    Accumulation patterns of dry matter and nitrogen in the developing seeds of nine mutant lines produced by the IAEA and their mother Triticum Aestivum (L.) line were studied. The experiments lasted 2 years under rain fed conditions. Significant differences were found among the lines in dry matter and nitrogen rates, and periods of accumulation, whereas no significant differences were found in the final seed weight of the lines. The highest rates of accumulation for dry matter and nitrogen were accompanied with the shortest period of accumulation in two late flowering mutant lines. However, these two lines were the lowest in their yield per plot. The other mutant lines achieved the high nitrogen percentage in their seeds through the relative reduction in dry matter accumulation rate compared to their mother line rather than through higher rate of nitrogen accumulation. This study revealed some of the potential reasons behind the higher percentage of protein in the seeds of the mutant lines under investigation. (author). 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Development of 2-channel (532 nm and 355 nm) mobile LIDAR for mapping particulate matter in the atmosphere

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivakumar, V

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors describe the developmentof 2-Channel (532 nm and 355 nm) mobile LIDAR system for studying atmospheric particulate matter. The system is currently tested in house at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research...

  7. Developing a Democratic View of Academic Subject Matters: John Dewey, William Chandler Bagley, and Boyd Henry Bode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    In the first half of the twentieth century, the ideal of democracy influenced the conceptions people had of the academic subject matters. A common criticism was that abstract academic subjects served aristocratic societies. Although most theorists considered the academic subjects to be important, they had differing views on the conception of…

  8. "Can One Put Faith and Work in the Same Sentence?" Faith Development and Vocation of a Female Leader in the Engineering Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Claude-Hélène; Viviers, Rian

    2018-06-01

    Faith has been pointed out as a possible resource in strengthening individuals' health and well-being at work. The aim of this article is to gain in-depth knowledge of the faith development and vocation of a selected female leader in a male-dominated work context. The article contributes to research on faith development in women leaders, based on Fowler's faith development theory. This is a single case study grounded in a qualitative research design. In-depth qualitative data were gathered through observation and interviews over 18 months. Findings showed the development of faith across a women leader's life span and highlight that faith and vocation are important resources that provide strength, meaningfulness and a vision.

  9. The role of fossil organic matter in the ecosystem development of post-mining sites revealed by isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandova, Katerina; Hyodo, Fujio; Vindušková, Olga; Moradi, Jabbar; Frouz, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Sediments rich in kerogen ( 19 Ma old, 14C-free) are present in the overburden at post-mining area in Western Bohemia, near Sokolov city, the Czech Republic. There are two successional chronosequences, an alder reclamation and spontaneous succession, consisting of sites that differ in time since heaping. Both chronosequences accumulate recent organic matter over time, although the process is initially faster at reclamation. We hypothesized that (i) radiocarbon age of soil organic matter would be decreasing with time since spoil heaping; (ii) the detrital food web would show the assimilation of fossil carbon by heterotrophic organisms in the initial stages of succession when fossil organic matter is the predominant source of carbon; (iii) the isotopic track of fossil organic matter in the detrital food web would be more prominent at sites with lower vegetation cover and litter production. Nitrogen isotopic ratios of soils were high at the young sites and the decrease in δ15N was correlated with the increase in content of recent organic carbon. Nitrogen isotopic ratios of soil detritivores equalled to that of tree leaves at reclamation but were higher at successional sites. Possibly, other food sources were used apart from tree leaves litter at the latter. Interestingly, soil animals but not primary producers were 14C depleted in the youngest relative to the oldest sites. The depletion in 14C of detritivores relative to primary producers was likely due to the geophagy behaviour of the millipedes at the young sites where fossil organic matter is the largest carbon pool.

  10. Gaseous Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    aseous Matter focuses on the many important discoveries that led to the scientific interpretation of matter in the gaseous state. This new, full-color resource describes the basic characteristics and properties of several important gases, including air, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nature and scope of the science of fluids is discussed in great detail, highlighting the most important scientific principles upon which the field is based. Chapters include:. Gaseous Matter An Initial Perspective. Physical Characteristics of Gases. The Rise of the Science of Gases. Kinetic Theory of

  11. Effects of maternal and lactational exposure to 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzone on development and reproductive organs in male and female rat offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Noriko; Inselman, Amy L.; White, Gene A.; Chang, Ching-Wei; Trbojevich, Raul A.; Sepehr, Estatira; Voris, Kristie L.; Patton, Ralph E.; Bryant, Matthew S.; Harrouk, Wafa; McIntyre, Barry; Foster, Paul M.; Hansen, Deborah K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (HMB) is an ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compound used in many cosmetic products as a UV-protecting agent and in plastics for preventing UV-induced photodecomposition. HMB has been detected in over 95% of randomly collected human urine samples from adults and from premature infants, and it may have estrogenic potential. METHODS To determine the effects of maternal and lactational exposure to HMB on development and reproductive organs of offspring, time-mated female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with 0, 1,000, 3,000, 10,000, 25,000, or 50,000 ppm HMB (7-8 per group) added to chow from gestation day 6 until weaning on postnatal day (PND) 23. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION Exposure to HMB was associated with reduced body and organ weights in female and male offspring. No significant differences were observed in the number of implantation sites/litter, mean resorptions/litter, % litters with resorptions, number and weights of live fetuses, or sex ratios between the control and HMB dose groups. Normalized anogenital distance in male pups at PND 23 was decreased in the highest dose group. Spermatocyte development was impaired in testes of male offspring in the highest dose group. In females, follicular development was delayed in the highest dose group. However, by evaluating levels of the compound in rat serum, the doses at which adverse events occurred are much higher than usual human exposure levels. Thus, exposure to less than 10,000 ppm HMB does not appear to be associated with adverse effects on the reproductive system in rats. PMID:25707689

  12. Intellectual Development Is Positively Related to Intrinsic Motivation and Course Grades for Female but Not Male Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortright, Ronald N.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Cox, Julie H.; Cortright, Maria A.; Langworthy, Brandon M.; Petta, Lorene M.; Tanner, Charles J.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that the intellectual development of students, i.e., their beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning, affects their intrinsic motivation and class performance. Specifically, we hypothesized that students with low intellectual development (i.e., the naive beliefs that knowledge is simple, absolute, and certain) have low…

  13. Apportionment of the sources of high fine particulate matter concentration events in a developing aerotropolis in Taoyuan, Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Ming-Tung; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Lee, Chung-Te; Cheng, Chung-Hao; Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chang, Shih-Yu; Su, Zhen-Sen

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics and contributions of the sources of fine particulate matter with a size of up to 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) during the period when pollution events could easily occur in Taoyuan aerotropolis, Taiwan, this study conducted sampling at three-day intervals from September 2014 to January 2015. Based on the mass concentration of PM 2.5 , the sampling days were classified into high PM 2.5 concentration event days (PM 2.5 >35 μg m −3 ) and non-event days (PM 2.5 <35 μg m −3 ). In addition, the chemical species, including water-soluble inorganic ions, carbonaceous components, and metal elements, were analyzed. The sources of pollution and their contributions were estimated using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. Furthermore, the effect of the weather type on the measurement results was also explored based on wind field conditions. The mass fractions of Cl − and NO 3 − increased when a high PM 2.5 concentration event occurred, and they were also higher under local emitted conditions than under long range transported conditions, indicating that secondary nitrate aerosols were the major increasing local species that caused high PM 2.5 concentration events. Seven sources of pollution could be distinguished using the PMF model on the basis of the characteristics of the species. Industrial emissions, coal combustion/urban waste incineration, and local emissions from diesel/gasoline vehicles were the main sources that contributed to pollution on high PM 2.5 concentration event days. In order to reduction of high PM 2.5 concentration events, the control of diesel and gasoline vehicle emission is important and should be given priority. - Highlights: • The mass fractions of NH 4 + , K + , Cl − and NO 3 − increased during PM 2.5 event days. • Reduction of coal combustion/urban waste incineration emissions should be prioritized. • The control of vehicle emission is important in the locally emitted periods. • Secondary

  14. Dark matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark. That is, not only is the night sky dark, but also most of the matter and the energy in the universe is dark. For every atom visible in planets, stars and galaxies today there exists at least five or six times as much 'Dark Matter' in the universe. Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious but pervasive dark matter, which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe. Dark energy remains even more elusive, as we lack candidate fields that emerge from well established physics. I will describe various attempts to measure dark matter by direct and indirect means, and discuss the prospects for progress in unravelling dark energy.

  15. Dirac matter

    CERN Document Server

    Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel

    2017-01-01

    This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...

  16. Matter and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effenberger, R.

    1974-09-01

    The author summarizes some of the many questions and answers which have been raised over the years regarding the nature of matter, the origin of its forms and the associated concept of cosmology including the formation of the universe, our place in it and its course of evolution. An examination of the development of the classical concept of matter and its subsequent transformations within the space-time fields of relativity and quantum theory is also presented

  17. The role of the environment in Ukraine after Chernobyl accident and the genetic component in cancer development in female reproductive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganina, K.P.; Naleskina, L.A.; Nesina, I.P.; Borodaj, N.V.; Fedorenko, Z.P.; Vojkshnaras, E.B.

    1996-01-01

    An increase in breast cancer and tumors of reproductive organs was revealed both in a group of women from the regions which are subject to radiation control after the Chernobyl NPP accident and a wider group of Ukrainian female population non-restricted to the above region. Geographical distribution of morbidity is demonstrated. Both genetic and environmental factors are proved to play a part in the susceptibility to development of breast and corpus uteri cancers. The contribution of each of the above factors is assessed.Chromosomal instability was revealed in endometrium cancer patients, even more pronounced in the individuals with a tumor development history aggregated in families. The need for further investigation of development of cancer against genetic background is underlined

  18. Development and aging of the Kisspeptin-GPR54 system in the mammalian brain: what are the impacts on female reproductive function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle eFranceschini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The prominent role of the G protein coupled receptor GPR54 and its peptide ligand kisspeptin in the progression of puberty has been extensively documented in many mammalian species including humans. Kisspeptins are very potent GnRH secretagogues produced by two main populations of neurons located in two ventral forebrain regions, the preoptic area and the arcuate nucleus (ARC. Within the last two years a substantial amount of data has accumulated concerning the development of these neuronal populations and their timely regulation by central and peripheral factors during fetal, neonatal and peripubertal stages of development. This review focuses on the development of the Kisspeptin-GPR54 system in the brain of female mouse, rat, sheep, monkey and humans. The notion that this system represents a major target through which signals from the environment early in life can re-program reproductive function will also be discussed.

  19. Warm dense matter study and pulsed-power developments for X-pinch equipment in Nagaoka University of Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toru; Miki, Yasutoshi; Tachinami, Fumitaka; Saito, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Takuya; Anzai, Nobuyuki; Kikuchi, Takashi; Aso, Tsukasa; Harada, Nob.

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore high energy density physics, we have performed WDM experiment by using several pulsed-power devices. To generate well-defined warm dense state for evaluating electrical conductivity and its properties, we have proposed an isochoric heating of foamed metal by using pulsed-power discharge. The proposed technique yields the electrical conductivity of warm dense matter with a well-defined temperature. To observe the warm dense matter, a pulsed-power generator based on a pulse-forming-network (PFN) was studied toward generating an intense point-spot-like X-ray source from X-pinch technique. From comparison of the designing and the actual inductances of the X-pinch system, the actual inductance of X-pinch system is 3.5 times higher than the designing inductance. To reduce the total inductance of X-pinch system, we will modify the gap switch system such as multi spake gap

  20. Engaging children in the development of obesity interventions: exploring outcomes that matter most among obesity positive outliers

    OpenAIRE

    Sharifi, Mona; Marshall, Gareth; Goldman, Roberta E.; Cunningham, Courtney; Marshall, Richard; Taveras, Elsie M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore outcomes and measures of success that matter most to 'positive outlier' children who improved their body mass index (BMI) despite living in obesogenic neighborhoods. Methods We collected residential address and longitudinal height/weight data from electronic health records of 22,657 children ages 6–12 years in Massachusetts. We defined obesity “hotspots” as zip codes where >15% of children had a BMI ≥95th percentile. Using linear mixed effects models, we gener...

  1. Abnormal white matter properties in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Travis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa (AN is a serious eating disorder that typically emerges during adolescence and occurs most frequently in females. To date, very few studies have investigated the possible impact of AN on white matter tissue properties during adolescence, when white matter is still developing. The present study evaluated white matter tissue properties in adolescent girls with AN using diffusion MRI with tractography and T1 relaxometry to measure R1 (1/T1, an index of myelin content. Fifteen adolescent girls with AN (mean age = 16.6 years ± 1.4 were compared to fifteen age-matched girls with normal weight and eating behaviors (mean age = 17.1 years ± 1.3. We identified and segmented 9 bilateral cerebral tracts (18 and 8 callosal fiber tracts in each participant's brain (26 total. Tract profiles were generated by computing measures for fractional anisotropy (FA and R1 along the trajectory of each tract. Compared to controls, FA in the AN group was significantly decreased in 4 of 26 white matter tracts and significantly increased in 2 of 26 white matter tracts. R1 was significantly decreased in the AN group compared to controls in 11 of 26 white matter tracts. Reduced FA in combination with reduced R1 suggests that the observed white matter differences in AN are likely due to reductions in myelin content. For the majority of tracts, group differences in FA and R1 did not occur within the same tract. The present findings have important implications for understanding the neurobiological factors underlying white matter changes associated with AN and invite further investigations examining associations between white matter properties and specific physiological, cognitive, social, or emotional functions affected in AN.

  2. Abnormal white matter properties in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Katherine E.; Golden, Neville H.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Solomon, Murray; Nguyen, Jenny; Mezer, Aviv; Yeatman, Jason D.; Dougherty, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious eating disorder that typically emerges during adolescence and occurs most frequently in females. To date, very few studies have investigated the possible impact of AN on white matter tissue properties during adolescence, when white matter is still developing. The present study evaluated white matter tissue properties in adolescent girls with AN using diffusion MRI with tractography and T1 relaxometry to measure R1 (1/T1), an index of myelin content. Fifteen adolescent girls with AN (mean age = 16.6 years ± 1.4) were compared to fifteen age-matched girls with normal weight and eating behaviors (mean age = 17.1 years ± 1.3). We identified and segmented 9 bilateral cerebral tracts (18) and 8 callosal fiber tracts in each participant's brain (26 total). Tract profiles were generated by computing measures for fractional anisotropy (FA) and R1 along the trajectory of each tract. Compared to controls, FA in the AN group was significantly decreased in 4 of 26 white matter tracts and significantly increased in 2 of 26 white matter tracts. R1 was significantly decreased in the AN group compared to controls in 11 of 26 white matter tracts. Reduced FA in combination with reduced R1 suggests that the observed white matter differences in AN are likely due to reductions in myelin content. For the majority of tracts, group differences in FA and R1 did not occur within the same tract. The present findings have important implications for understanding the neurobiological factors underlying white matter changes associated with AN and invite further investigations examining associations between white matter properties and specific physiological, cognitive, social, or emotional functions affected in AN. PMID:26740918

  3. Gray matter changes in subjects at high risk for developing psychosis and first-episode schizophrenia: a voxel-based structural MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazue eNakamura

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to use a voxel-based MRI method to investigate the neuroanatomical characteristics in subjects at high risk of developing psychosis compared with those of healthy controls and first-episode schizophrenia patients. Methods: This study included 14 subjects with at-risk mental state (ARMS, 34 patients with first-episode schizophrenia, and 51 healthy controls. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM with the Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL tools to investigate the whole-brain difference in gray matter volume among the three groups. Results: Compared with the healthy controls, the schizophrenia patients showed significant gray matter reduction in the left anterior cingulate gyrus. There was no significant difference in the gray matter volume between the ARMS and other groups. Conclusion: The present study suggests that alteration of the anterior cingulate gyrus may be associated with development of frank psychosis. Further studies with a larger ARMS subjects would be required to examine the potential role of neuroimaging methods in the prediction of future transition into psychosis.

  4. Female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    patterns have brought female genital cutting to Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and North America, including Canada. (II-3) 5. Performing or assisting in female genital cutting is a criminal offense in Canada. (III) 6. Reporting to appropriate child welfare protection services is mandatory when a child has recently been subjected to female genital cutting or is at risk of being subjected to the procedure. (III) 7. There is concern that female genital cutting continues to be perpetuated in receiving countries, mainly through the act of re-infibulation. (III) 8. There is a perception that the care of women with female genital cutting is not optimal in receiving countries. (III) 9. Female genital cutting is not considered an indication for Caesarean section. (III) Recommendations 1. Health care professionals must be careful not to stigmatize women who have undergone female genital cutting. (III-A) 2. Requests for re-infibulation should be declined. (III-B) 3. Health care professionals should strengthen their understanding and knowledge of female genital cutting and develop greater skills for the management of its complications and the provision of culturally competent care to adolescents and women who have undergone genital cutting. (III-A) 4. Health care professionals should use their knowledge and influence to educate and counsel families against having female genital cutting performed on their daughters and other family members. (III-A) 5. Health care professionals should advocate for the availability of and access to appropriate support and counselling services. (III-A) 6. Health care professionals should lend their voices to community-based initiatives seeking to promote the elimination of female genital cutting. (III-A) 7. Health care professionals should use interactions with patients as opportunities to educate women and their families about female genital cutting and other aspects of women's health and reproductive rights. (III-A) 8. Research into female genital

  5. Female athlete triad update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.

  6. An Atlas of Type I MADS Box Gene Expression during Female Gametophyte and Seed Development in Arabidopsis[W].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemer, M.; Heijmans, K.; Airoldi, C.A.; Davies, B.; Angenent, G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Members of the plant type I MADS domain subfamily have been reported to be involved in reproductive development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, from the 61 type I genes in the Arabidopsis genome, only PHERES1, AGAMOUS-LIKE80 (AGL80), DIANA, AGL62, and AGL23 have been functionally

  7. Behavioural and Cognitive Sex/Gender Differences in Autism Spectrum Condition and Typically Developing Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Laura; Mandy, William; Petrides, K. V.

    2017-01-01

    Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing…

  8. A Floricaula/Leafy gene homolog is preferentially expressed in developing female cones of the tropical pine Pinus caribaea var. caribaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Carnier Dornelas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In angiosperms, flower formation is controlled by meristem identity genes, one of which, FLORICAULA (FLO/LEAFY (LFY, plays a central role. It is not known if the formation of reproductive organs of pre-angiosperm species is similarly regulated. Here, we report the cloning of a conifer (Pinus caribaea var. caribaea FLO/LFY homolog, named PcLFY. This gene has a large C-terminal region of high similarity to angiosperm FLO/LFY orthologs and shorter regions of local similarity. In contrast to angiosperms, conifers have two divergent genes resembling LFY. Gymnosperm FLO/LFY proteins constitute a separate clade, that can be divided into two divergent groups. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced protein sequences has shown that PcLFY belongs to the LFY-like clade. Northern hybridization analysis has revealed that PcLFY is preferentially expressed in developing female cones but not in developing male cones. This expression pattern was confirmed by in situ hybridization and is consistent with the hypothesis of PcLFY being involved in the determination of the female cone identity. Additionally, mutant complementation experiments have shown that the expression of the PcLFY coding region, driven by the Arabidopsis LFY promoter, can confer the wild-type phenotype to lfy-26 transgenic mutants, suggesting that both gymnosperm and angiosperm LFY homologs share the same biological role.

  9. "A female … will not be available here": gendered labour markets in northwest Pakistan's rural development sector

    OpenAIRE

    Grünenfelder, Julia

    2010-01-01

    While Pakistan has legally binding mechanisms to promote gender equality in employment, labour markets are shaped by the highly gender-segregated society they are embedded in. Based on the conceptualisation of labour markets as gendered institutions, I explore how gender generates unequal access to the labour market for social organisers—a term referring to a type of development practitioner—in the Hazara region, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan, making it difficult for women to particip...

  10. Lectures on dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seljak, U.

    2001-01-01

    These lectures concentrate on evolution and generation of dark matter perturbations. The purpose of the lectures is to present, in a systematic way, a comprehensive review of the cosmological parameters that can lead to observable effects in the dark matter clustering properties. We begin by reviewing the relativistic linear perturbation theory formalism. We discuss the gauge issue and derive Einstein's and continuity equations for several popular gauge choices. We continue by developing fluid equations for cold dark matter and baryons and Boltzmann equations for photons, massive and massless neutrinos. We then discuss the generation of initial perturbations by the process of inflation and the parameters of that process that can be extracted from the observations. Finally we discuss evolution of perturbations in various regimes and the imprint of the evolution on the dark matter power spectrum both in the linear and in the nonlinear regime. (author)

  11. Lectures on dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seljak, U [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2001-11-15

    These lectures concentrate on evolution and generation of dark matter perturbations. The purpose of the lectures is to present, in a systematic way, a comprehensive review of the cosmological parameters that can lead to observable effects in the dark matter clustering properties. We begin by reviewing the relativistic linear perturbation theory formalism. We discuss the gauge issue and derive Einstein's and continuity equations for several popular gauge choices. We continue by developing fluid equations for cold dark matter and baryons and Boltzmann equations for photons, massive and massless neutrinos. We then discuss the generation of initial perturbations by the process of inflation and the parameters of that process that can be extracted from the observations. Finally we discuss evolution of perturbations in various regimes and the imprint of the evolution on the dark matter power spectrum both in the linear and in the nonlinear regime. (author)

  12. Soil organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The nature, content and behaviour of the organic matter, or humus, in soil are factors of fundamental importance for soil productivity and the development of optimum conditions for growth of crops under diverse temperate, tropical and arid climatic conditions. In the recent symposium on soil organic matter studies - as in the two preceding ones in 1963 and 1969 - due consideration was given to studies involving the use of radioactive and stable isotopes. However, the latest symposium was a departure from previous efforts in that non-isotopic approaches to research on soil organic matter were included. A number of papers dealt with the behaviour and functions of organic matter and suggested improved management practices, the use of which would contribute to increasing agricultural production. Other papers discussed the turnover of plant residues, the release of plant nutrients through the biodegradation of organic compounds, the nitrogen economy and the dynamics of transformation of organic forms of nitrogen. In addition, consideration was given to studies on the biochemical transformation of organic matter, characterization of humic acids, carbon-14 dating and the development of modern techniques and their impact on soil organic matter research

  13. [FEMALE SURGEONS SHOULD BE AWARE OF THE IMPORTANCE OF A CLEAR VISION FOR THEIR CAREER AND LIFE PLANS TO ACHIEVE THEIR CAREER DEVELOPMENT.: A SURVEY OF 20 FEMALE SURGEONS AT THE DEPARTMENT OF SURGERY AND ONCOLOGY, KYUSHU UNIVERSITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Kinuko; Mori, Hitomi; Kameda, Chizu; Nakamura, Katsuya; Ueki, Takashi; Tanaka, Masao

    2015-05-01

    A shortage of surgeons has been a serious problem in recent years. There is an urgent need to utilize female surgeons who tend to resign because of bearing and raising of children. To examine possible measures to deal with the issue, we performed questionnaire survey about work-life balance and career planning on 20 female surgeons in the Department of Surgery and Oncology, Kyushu University. The response rate was 80.0%. In the 16 respondents, seven were unmarried and nine were married. A large fraction of the respondents recognized the importance of work-life-balance. Female surgeons have many difficulties to continue working with good work-life balance; therefore, understanding and cooperation of both their spouses and coworkers is considered to be necessary. Married female surgeons considered that improvement of the working environment and sufficient family support were more important for good work-life balance compared to those who were unmarried. Female surgeons should recognize the importance of improvement of their environment, including the workplace and the family to continue working with good work-life balance in youth and should have the prospects about their career plan of their own.

  14. Front Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HLRC Editor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Higher Learning Research Communications (HLRC, ISSN: 2157-6254 [Online] is published collaboratively by Walden University (USA, Universidad Andrés Bello (Chile, Universidad Europea de Madrid (Spain and Istanbul Bilgi University (Turkey. Written communication to HLRC should be addressed to the office of the Executive Director at Laureate Education, Inc. 701 Brickell Ave Ste. 1700, Miami, FL 33131, USA. HLRC is designed for open access and online distribution through www.hlrcjournal.com. The views and statements expressed in this journal do not necessarily reflect the views of Laureate Education, Inc. or any of its affiliates (collectively “Laureate”. Laureate does not warrant the accuracy, reliability, currency or completeness of those views or statements and does not accept any legal liability arising from any reliance on the views, statements and subject matter of the journal. Acknowledgements The Guest Editors gratefully acknowledge the substantial contribution of the readers for the blind peer review of essays submitted for this special issue as exemplars of individuals from around the world who have come together in a collective endeavor for the common good: Robert Bringle (Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, US, Linda Buckley (University of the Pacific, US, Guillermo Calleja (Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Spain, Eva Egron-Polak (International Association of Universities, France, Heather Friesen (Abu Dhabi University, UAE, Saran Gill (National University of Malaysia, Malaysia, Chester Haskell (higher education consultant, US, Kanokkarn Kaewnuch (National Institute for Development Administration, Thailand, Gil Latz (Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, US, Molly Lee (higher education consultant, Malaysia, Deane Neubauer (East-West Center at University of Hawaii, US, Susan Sutton (Bryn Mawr College, US, Francis Wambalaba (United States International University, Kenya, and Richard Winn (higher education

  15. Development of computational pregnant female and fetus models and assessment of radiation dose from positron-emitting tracers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Tianwu; Zaidi, H.

    2016-01-01

    /fetus presents a high sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Therefore, estimation of the radiation dose delivered to the embryo/fetus and pregnant patients from PET examinations to assess potential radiation risks is highly praised. Methods: We constructed eight embryo/fetus models at various gestation periods......Purpose: Molecular imaging using PET and hybrid (PET/CT and PET/MR) modalities nowadays plays a pivotal role in the clinical setting for diagnosis and staging, treatment response monitoring, and radiation therapy treatment planning of a wide range of oncologic malignancies. The developing embryo...

  16. [Hypertension in females].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cífková, Renata

    2015-05-01

    Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular disorder affecting more males in younger age groups; in the age group of 45-64, it is equally frequent in both genders, it is more common in elderly females. Blood pressure increases more in females around the menopause. Use of hormonal replacement therapy is not associated with an BP increase but, because of increased risk of coronary events, stroke, and thromboembolic events, HRT is not re-commended in CVD prevention. There is a similar decrease in BP by antihypertensive drugs in both genders as well as benefit from antihypertensive treatment. Women report about a double rate of adverse events of antihypertensive drugs. Oral contraception use is associated with a mild BP increase in most women and development of overt hypertension in about 5 %. Pre-eclampsia is associated with increased risk of developing CVD later in life (more frequent development of hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke).

  17. Seasonal and spatial variation of atmospheric particulate matter in a developing megacity, the Greater Cairo, Egypt Egipto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakey, A.S. [The Abdus Salam International Centre of Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: azakey@ictp.it; Abdel-Wahab, M.M. [Cairo University, Department of Meteorology, Faculty of Science, Cairo (Egypt); Pettersson, J.B.C.; Gatari, M.J.; Hallquist, M. [Department of Chemistry, Atmospheric Science, Goeteborg University, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2008-04-15

    As an example of a developing megacity the Greater Cairo (GC) area in Egypt has been evaluated with respect to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and lead (Pb). Particulate matter was collected during 2001-2002 in the two size fractions PM{sub 2}.5 and PM{sub 1}0 at 17 sites representing different activities (industrial, urban, residential and background condition). The PM concentrations were generally high, with yearly average PM{sub 2}.5 and PM{sub 1}0 values of 85 {+-} 12 and 170 {+-} 25 {mu}g/m{sup -}3, respectively. On an annual scale, the high PM levels were due to many sources that included traffic, waste burning and wind blown dust particles emitted from the desert outside GC and the Moqattam hill inside GC. On a seasonal scale, the PM concentrations were highest in the industrial sector during spring, the dusty season, due to the combined effect of dust storm events and anthropogenic emissions over GC. The lowest seasonal concentrations were recorded in the summer season at the background sites. There was a marked increase in PM levels during the period October to December due to burning of waste from harvested rice in the agriculture area in the Nile Delta (north of Cairo). The highest PM{sub 2}.5/PM{sub 1}0 ratio was recorded in the urban sector (0.59) while the lowest ratio was recorded in the residential sector (0.32). The PM{sub 2}.5 and PM{sub 1}0 samples were also analyzed for Pb in order to address the influence of different emission sources. The monthly average concentrations of Pb in both PM{sub 2}.5 (Pb{sub 2}.5) and PM{sub 1}0 (Pb{sub 1}0) varied between 0.4 and 1.8 {+-} {mu}g m{sup -}3 at the non industrial sites. The concentrations were significantly higher in the industrial areas, where concentration up to a maximum of 16 {+-} g m{sup -}3 could be observed. Both the high lead and PM concentrations measured are contributing to local environmental pollution. GC is subjected to high concentrations of particulates most of the year. There is no

  18. Thin-Ideal Internalization and Comparison Process as Mediators of Social Influence and Psychological Functioning in the Development of Disturbed Eating Habits in Croatian College Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pokrajac-Bulian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of internalization and comparison as mediators of relationships between socio-cultural pressures to be thin, psychological factors, restrictive and bulimic behaviours in college females. Participants were 262 Croatian college females (mean age = 21.22 ± 1.47 years who completed self-report questionnaires. Regression analysis was used to test a model in which internalization and social comparison mediated the impact of socio-cultural pressure (parents and peers dieting, teasing, pressure to be thin, media influences, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and perfectionism in restrictive and bulimic behaviours. Internalization is a significant mediator of the relationships between all predictors included in this research and disturbed eating habits. Social comparison is relevant as a mediator between social influence, negative affect, self-esteem, perfectionism and restrictive behaviour but does not mediate bulimic behaviour. These findings could be seful in understanding processes that may predispose young women to develop eating dysfunctions and indicate the need for prevention programs that incorporate formative influences and processes such as internalization of societal norms and comparison in the construction of therapeutic strategies.

  19. Quark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csernai, L.; Kampert, K. H.

    1994-10-15

    Precisely one decade ago the GSI (Darmstadt)/LBL (Berkeley) Collaboration at the Berkeley Bevalac reported clear evidence for collective sidewards flow in high energy heavy ion collisions. This milestone observation clearly displayed the compression and heating up of nuclear matter, providing new insights into how the behaviour of nuclear matter changes under very different conditions. This year, evidence for azimuthally asymmetric transverse flow at ten times higher projectile energy (11 GeV per nucleon gold on gold collisions) was presented by the Brookhaven E877 collaboration at the recent European Research Conference on ''Physics of High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions'', held in Helsinki from 17-22 June.

  20. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha during neonatal brain development affects anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babri, Shirin; Doosti, Mohammad-Hossein; Salari, Ali-Akbar

    2014-03-15

    A nascent literature suggests that neonatal infection is a risk factor for the development of brain, behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which can affect anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in later life. It has been documented that neonatal infection raises the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in neonate rodents and such infections may result in neonatal brain injury, at least in part, through pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, previous studies have shown that TNF-α is involved in cellular differentiation, neurogenesis and programmed cell death during the development of the central nervous system. We investigated for the first time whether neonatal exposure to TNF-α can affect body weight, stress-induced corticosterone (COR), anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult mice. In the present study, neonatal mice were treated to recombinant mouse TNF-α (0.2, 0.4, 0.7 and 1 μg/kg) or saline on postnatal days 3 and 5, then adult male and female mice were exposed to different behavioral tests. The results indicated that neonatal TNF-α treatment reduced body weight in neonatal period in both sexes. In addition, this study presents findings indicating that high doses of TNF- increase stress-induced COR levels, anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult males, but increase levels of anxiety without significantly influencing depression in adult female mice [corrected]. Our findings suggest that TNF-α exposure during neonatal period can alter brain and behavior development in a dose and sex-dependent manner in mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The female body in early Buddhist literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Grünhagen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author presents Theravāda Buddhist perceptions of the female body and their impact on sexuality, gender equality and salvation. In doing so the author draws on a selection of texts from the Buddhist canonical literature, which are relevant to the Theravāda tradition. Early Buddhist literature reflects an understanding of the female body as being more closely connected to the material world and the cycle of reincarnation, due to its biological qualities. This has a severe impact on the woman’s status and her chances of attaining enlightenment. Considering the early teaching of individuals possessing equal capacities to attain liberation, no matter what sex or social background, Buddhism as it developed over time failed to translate the equality of the sexes into a social reality. In fact, the perception of a distinct female ‘nature’ which was deemed a hindrance could not easily be erased from the collective consciousness. It is, however, important to note that Buddhist countries are subject to diverse influences that affect attitudes towards the female body, sexuality and the status of women—thus one has to be very careful with generalizations regarding norms and practices. Over time the negative attitudes and restrictions have been questioned; social changes have given way to new interpretations and perspectives. Pondering religious and cultural implications of the Buddhist attitude towards the body and its sex while also considering, for example, modern Mahayana Buddhist interpretations—especially by Western Buddhists and Buddhist Feminists—can lead to an acknowledgement of its potential of interpreting anattā, selflessness and an equality of capacity to practice Dhamma in favour of a general sex and gender equality.

  2. Mechanisms of browning development in aggregates of marine organic matter formed under anoxic conditions: A study by mid-infrared and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecozzi, Mauro; Acquistucci, Rita; Nisini, Laura; Conti, Marcelo Enrique

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we analyze some chemical aspects concerning the browning development associated to the aggregation of marine organic matter (MOM) occurring in anoxic conditions. Organic matter samples obtained by the degradation of different algal samples were daily taken to follow the evolution of the aggregation process and the associated browning process. These samples were examined by Fourier transform mid infrared (FTIR) and Fourier transform near infrared (FTNIR) spectroscopy and the colour changes occurring during the above mentioned aggregation process were measured by means of Colour Indices (CIs). Spectral Cross Correlation Analysis (SCCA) was applied to correlate changes in CI values to the structural changes of MOM observed by FTIR and FTNIR spectra which were also submitted to Two-Dimensional Hetero Correlation Analysis (2HDCORR). SCCA results showed that all biomolecules present in MOM aggregates such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are involved in the browning development. In particular, SCCA results of algal mixtures suggest that the observed yellow-brown colour can be linked to the development of non enzymatic (i.e. Maillard) browning reactions. SCCA results for MOM furthermore suggest that aggregates coming from brown algae also showed evidence of browning related to enzymatic reactions. In the end 2HDCORR results indicate that hydrogen bond interactions among different molecules of MOM can play a significant role in the browning development.

  3. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As if this was not enough, it turns out that if our knowledge of ... are thought to contain dark matter, although the evidences from them are the .... protons, electrons, neutrons ... ratio of protons to neutrons was close to unity then as they were in ...

  4. Quantum matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechler, Hans Peter; Calcarco, Tommaso; Dressel, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Artificial atoms and molecules, tailored from solids, fractional flux quanta, molecular magnets, controlled interaction in quantum gases, the theory of quantum correlations in mott matter, cold gases, and mesoscopic systems, Bose-Einstein condensates on the chip, on the route to the quantum computer, a quantum computer in diamond. (HSI)

  5. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 4. Molecule Matters – van der Waals Molecules - History and Some Perspectives on Intermolecular Forces. E Arunan. Feature Article Volume 14 Issue 4 April 2009 pp 346-356 ...

  6. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Molecule Matters - Dinitrogen. A G Samuelson J Jabadurai. Volume 16 Issue 12 ... Author Affiliations. A G Samuelson1 J Jabadurai1. Department of Inroganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  7. Interstellar matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezger, P.G.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the formation of our galaxy is presented followed by a summary of recent work in star formation and related topics. Selected discussions are given on interstellar matter including absorption characteristics of dust, the fully ionised component of the ISM and the energy density of lyc-photons in the solar neighbourhood and the diffuse galactic IR radiation

  8. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of gas clouds orbiting in the outer regions of spiral galaxies has revealed that their gravitational at- traction is much larger than the stars alone can provide. Over the last twenty years, astronomers have been forced to postulate the presence of large quantities of 'dark matter' to explain their observations. They are ...

  9. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 9. Molecule Matters - A Chromium Compound with a Quintuple Bond. K C Kumara Swamy. Feature Article Volume 11 Issue 9 September 2006 pp 72-75. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.; Tran Thanh Van, J.

    1988-01-01

    The book begins with the papers devoted to the experimental search of signatures of the dark matter which governs the evolution of the Universe as a whole. A series of contributions describe the presently considered experimental techniques (cryogenic detectors, supraconducting detectors...). A real dialogue concerning these techniques has been instaured between particle physicists and astrophysicists. After the progress report of the particle physicists, the book provides the reader with an updated situation concerning the research in cosmology. The second part of the book is devoted to the analysis of the backgrounds at different energies such as the possible role of the cooling flows in the constitution of massive galactic halos. Any search of dark matter implies necessarily the analysis of the spatial distributions of the large scale structures of the Universe. This report is followed by a series of statistical analyses of these distributions. These analyses concern mainly universes filled up with cold dark matter. The last paper of this third part concerns the search of clustering in the spatial distribution of QSOs. The presence of dark matter should affect the solar neighborhood and related to the existence of galactic haloes. The contributions are devoted to the search of such local dark matter. Primordial nucleosynthesis provides a very powerful tool to set up quite constraining limitations on the overall baryonic density. Even if on takes into account the inhomogeneities in density possibly induced by the Quark-Hadron transition, this baryonic density should be much lower than the overall density deduced from the dynamical models of Universe or the inflationary theories

  11. The suitability of 129SvEv mice for studying depressive-like behaviour: both males and females develop learned helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourbaji, Sabine; Pfeiffer, Natascha; Dormann, Christof; Brandwein, Christiane; Fradley, Rosa; Sheardown, Malcolm; Gass, P

    2010-07-29

    Behavioural studies using transgenic techniques in mice usually require extensive backcrossing to a defined background strain, e.g. to C57BL/6. In this study we investigated whether backcrossing can be replaced by using the 129SvEv strain from which the embryonic stem cells are generally obtained for gene targeting strategies to analyze e.g. depression-like behaviour. For that purpose we subjected male and female 129SvEv mice to two frequently used depression tests and compared them with commonly used C57BL/6 mice. 129SvEv and C57BL/6 mice exhibited differing profiles with regard to locomotion and pain sensitivity. However, in the learned helplessness paradigm, a procedure, which represents a valid method to detect depressive-like behaviour, 129SvEv animals develop a similar level of helplessness as C57BL/6 mice. One great advantage of the 129SvEv animals though, is the fact that in this strain even females develop helplessness, which could not be produced in C57BL/6 mice. In the tail suspension test, both genders of 129SvEv exhibited more despair behaviour than C57BL/6 animals. We therefore suggest that this strain may be utilized in the establishment of new test procedures for affective diseases, since costly and time-consuming backcrossing can be prevented, depressive-like behaviour may be analyzed effectively, and gender-specific topics could be addressed in an adequate way. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Disposal Of Waste Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hyeon; Lee, Seung Mu

    1989-02-01

    This book deals with disposal of waste matter management of soiled waste matter in city with introduction, definition of waste matter, meaning of management of waste matter, management system of waste matter, current condition in the country, collect and transportation of waste matter disposal liquid waste matter, industrial waste matter like plastic, waste gas sludge, pulp and sulfuric acid, recycling technology of waste matter such as recycling system of Black clawson, Monroe and Rome.

  13. Sustainable Development and Female Participation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MARIAN OFOR

    Women play very vital roles in the dynamics of a growing society albeit in a global .... all girls of single child families; those with two girls and no other children may .... They are also deprived of adequate health, education and freedom in most.

  14. Fertility of Czech Females Could Be Lower than Expected: Trends in Future Development of Age-Specific Fertility Rates up to the Year 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Šimpach

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fertility is an essential aspect of reproduction or population replacement of each country. The challenge for demographers is to model fertility and also to estimate its potential future level for the purposes of population projections. In the case of the Czech Republic we have the population projections provided by the Czech Statistical Office (CZSO with overlooking of the total fertility rate in low, medium and high variant. These estimates despite being based on expert judgments, seem to be too positive compared to the past development of the time series of age-specific fertility rates. The aim of this paper is to assess the situation of fertility in the Czech Republic, to analyse the past development of the time series of age-specific fertility rates using one-dimensional Box-Jenkins models and multidimensional stochastic Lee-Carter approach. Together with found trend in time series and principal components estimated by Lee-Carter’s model a forecasts of age-specific fertility rates up to the year 2050 is constructed. Th ese rates are lower than those provided by CZSO in its three variants of the Czech Republic’s population projection, and therefore we discuss the causes at the end of the paper. We would like to point out that the potential future development of Czech females fertility could be lower than which are currently expected.

  15. The Effect of Recycling Education on High School Students' Conceptual Understanding about Ecology: A Study on Matter Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugulu, Ilker; Yorek, Nurettin; Baslar, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze and determine whether a developed recycling education program would lead to a positive change in the conceptual understanding of ecological concepts associated with matter cycles by high school students. The research was conducted on 68 high school 10th grade students (47 female and 21 male students). The…

  16. Hip rate of force development and strength are impaired in females with patellofemoral pain without signs of altered gluteus medius and maximus morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Guilherme S; Barton, Christian John; Serrão, Fábio Viadanna

    2018-02-01

    To compare rate of force development (RFD) and isometric muscle strength of the hip abductors and extensors; and the thickness and the amount of non-contractile tissue of the gluteus medius and maximus between females with and without patellofemoral pain (PFP). Cross-sectional study. Fifty-four physically active females (27 with PFP and 27 healthy individuals) were studied. Hip muscle isometric strength and RFD was evaluated using isokinetic dynamometry. RFD was measured until 30%, 60%, and 90% of the maximal isometric torque (MIT). Hip muscle morphology was evaluated using ultrasonography. The PFP group possessed slower RFD compared to the control group by 33% for hip abductors until 90%MIT (-0.23%/ms, 95%CI -0.44 to -0.02, ES=0.59); by 51% for hip extensors until 30%MIT (-0.42%/ms, 95%CI -0.66 to -0.18, ES=0.97); and by 55% for hip extensors until 60%MIT (-0.36%/ms, 95%CI -0.60 to -0.12, ES=0.81). The PFP group possessed reduced isometric torque compared to the control group by 10% for hip abduction (-16.0Nm/kg×100, 95% CI -30.2 to -1.9, ES=0.61) and by 15% for hip extension (-30.1Nm/kg×100, 95%CI -51.4 to -8.9, ES=0.76). No significant between group differences for the thickness and the amount of non-contractile tissue of the gluteus medius and maximus were identified. Females with PFP have deficits in isometric strength and RFD in hip abduction and extension. RFD deficits are greater than strength deficits which may highlight their potential importance. Hip muscle strength and RFD deficits do not appear to be explained by muscle thickness or proportion of non-contractile tissue of the gluteal musculature as measured by ultrasound. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csernai, L.; Kampert, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    Precisely one decade ago the GSI (Darmstadt)/LBL (Berkeley) Collaboration at the Berkeley Bevalac reported clear evidence for collective sidewards flow in high energy heavy ion collisions. This milestone observation clearly displayed the compression and heating up of nuclear matter, providing new insights into how the behaviour of nuclear matter changes under very different conditions. This year, evidence for azimuthally asymmetric transverse flow at ten times higher projectile energy (11 GeV per nucleon gold on gold collisions) was presented by the Brookhaven E877 collaboration at the recent European Research Conference on ''Physics of High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions'', held in Helsinki from 17-22 June

  18. At the Beginning of the STEM Pipeline: A Case Study Exploring Preadolescent Female Students' Attitudes Toward Science, Perceptions of Scientists, and Developing Career Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heacock, Lucy Vogel

    The continuous underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), referred to as the leaky pipeline, has been examined from multiple perspectives internationally, while the attitudes and perceptions of preadolescent girls regarding STEM remain largely ignored. Employing a constructivist paradigm, this qualitative case study explored the perceptions and attitudes of 40 public elementary school female students across three grade levels regarding science, scientists, and career aspirations. Mixed-methods data collections included three survey instruments combined with semi-structured interviews. Self-efficacy, stereotype threat, and career choice theory provided the framework for the overarching research question: What are the attitudes and perceptions of female preadolescent students at the third, fourth, and fifth grade levels regarding science and scientists, and how might these dispositions affect their early development of STEM career aspirations and interests? The Three-Dimensions of Student Attitude Towards Science (TDSAS) instrument informed the exploration of self-efficacy; the modified Draw-A-Scientist Test (mDAST) and Rubric informed the exploration of stereotype threat; and the STEM-Career Interest Survey (CIS) informed the exploration of career aspirations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six participants. Results from this study indicated that the majority of the preadolescent girls thought science was an important topic to study and displayed an attitude of self-confident ability to learn science and be successful in science class. They highly enjoyed scientific experimentation and deeply valued problem solving. While they inferred they did not experience gender bias, the girls did engage in stereotyping scientists. Over half the girls expected to use science in their future careers, while a minority had already determined they wanted to be scientists when they grow up. The study concludes with

  19. Context matters: the moderating role of bar context in the association between substance use during sex and condom use among male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Wagner, Karla D; Goodman-Meza, David; Semple, Shirley J; Chavarin, Claudia; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2013-10-01

    Tijuana is situated on Mexico's northern border with the U.S., where sex work is quasi-legal. Whereas previous work has focused on the risk behaviors of female sex workers (FSWs), less is known about the risk behaviors of their male clients. Further, research has not examined structural factors as moderators of the association between substance use and condom use, including the contexts in which sex takes place. The purpose of the current study is to examine whether having sex with FSWs in a bar moderates the link between alcohol intoxication during sex and condom use. We recruited 375 male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico from San Diego, California and Tijuana. Using computer assisted interviewing, we surveyed participants on their alcohol use, condom use, and physical contexts of sex with FSWs in the past 4 months. Results showed that more frequent intoxication during sex with FSWs is associated with more unprotected sex, but only among clients having sex with FSWs in a bar context. Results point to potential reasons for inconsistent condom use with FSWs in this context, including lower risk perceptions of sex with FSWs in bars. Future research should examine structural factors that underlie clients' risk behavior in bars in order to inform structural-level HIV prevention interventions.

  20. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...