Sample records for matrix structure rheology

  1. Rheology of Structured Oils (United States)

    Kelbaliev, G. I.; Rasulov, S. R.; Rzaev, A. G.; Mustafaeva, G. R.


    Rheological models of structured oils are proposed and compared with available experimental data on oils from different deposits. It is shown that structured oils can possess properties of Bingham and power-law non-Newtonian fluids.

  2. Rheological Behavior of the Matrixes of Bauxite-Based Castables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Fangbao; Rigaud M.; LIU Xinhong; ZHONG Xiangchong


    Rheology of castables is greatly affected and controlled by rheological behavior of their matrix. In this work, the rheological properties of bauxite-based castable matrix have been studied. The effects of super-fine silica and alumina addition, water/cement ratio, dispersants and bauxite particle-size on viscosity, shear rate and shear stress of the slurries have been investigated. Based on these results, the range of optimum composition of the matrix with good rheological behavior has been obtained.

  3. Effect of Matrix Viscosity on Rheological and Microwave Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites with Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotsilkova R.


    Full Text Available Nanocomposites of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs in epoxy resin and polypropylene (PP are studied. The effect of matrix viscosity on the degree of dispersion of nanotubes is determined by rheological methods. Rheology and microwave properties are correlated to estimate the optimal limits of nanofiller content required for improving the performance of nanocomposites. Rheological percolation threshold is determined for both types nanocomposites, ϕp=0.27% for the epoxy/MWCNT and; ϕp=1.5% for the PP/MWCNT, as found critical for achieving a network structure of interacting nanotubes in the matrix polymer. Good electromagnetic shielding efficiency was obtained for nanocomposites at nanotube contents above the rheological percolation. Low viscosity matrix facilitates contacts between MWCNTs, resulting in appearance of electromagnetic shielding at very low percolation threshold.

  4. Zeta Potential and Rheological Behavior of ULC Castables Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yuanchao; WANG Zhanmin; CAO Xiying


    Effects of starting materials and four dispersants (STP, SHP, FDN and FS60) on Zeta potential and rheological behavior of alumina based ULC castables matrix were investigated. The results show that: characteristics of silica fume and alumina cements play a very important role in Zeta potential and viscosity of suspensions of the castables matrix; the dispersants STP and SHP can change Zeta potential values of the matrix suspensions remarkably; the four dispersants can effectively improve the rheological properties of matrix suspensions. For the point of lower viscosity of the matrix suspensions, the suitable additions of the three dispersants (SHP, FDN and FS60) are about 0.2% while that of STP is about 0.3%.

  5. Microgravity Foam Structure and Rheology (United States)

    Durian, Douglas J.


    To exploit rheological and multiple-light scattering techniques, and ultimately microgravity conditions, in order to quantify and elucidate the unusual elastic character of foams in terms of their underlying microscopic structure and dynamics. Special interest is in determining how this elastic character vanishes, i.e. how the foam melts into a simple viscous liquid, as a function of both increasing liquid content and shear strain rate. The unusual elastic character of foams will be quantified macroscopically by measurement of the shear stress as a function of static shear strain, shear strain rate, and time following a step strain; such data will be analyzed in terms of a yield stress, a static shear modulus, and dynamical time scales. Microscopic information about bubble packing and rearrangement dynamics, from which these macroscopic non-Newtonian properties presumably arise, will be obtained non-invasively by novel multiple-light scattering diagnostics such as Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy (DWS). Quantitative trends with materials parameters, such as average bubble size, and liquid content, will be sought in order to elucidate the fundamental connection between the microscopic structure and dynamics and the macroscopic rheology.

  6. Evolution of the rheological structure of Mars (United States)

    Azuma, Shintaro; Katayama, Ikuo


    The evolution of Mars has been greatly influenced by temporal changes in its rheological structure, which may explain the difference in tectonics between Mars and Earth. Some previous studies have shown the rheological structures of Mars calculated from the flow law of rocks and the predicted thermal structure. However, the Peierls mechanism, which is the dominant deformation mechanism at relatively low temperature, and the evolution of water reservoirs on Mars were not considered in such studies. In this paper, we apply the Peierls mechanism to refine the rheological structure of Mars to show a new history of the planet that considers the most recent reports on its evolution of water reservoirs. Considering the Peierls creep and the evolution of water reservoirs, we attempt to explain why the tectonics of Mars is inactive compared with that of Earth. On early Mars, the lithospheric thickness inferred from the brittle-ductile transition was small, and the lithospheric strength was low ( 200-300 MPa) under wet conditions at 4 Gya. This suggests that plate boundaries could have developed on the early "wet" Mars, which is a prerequisite for the operation of plate tectonics. Our results also imply that the lithospheric strength had significantly increased in the Noachian owing to water loss. Therefore, plate tectonics may have ceased or could no longer be initiated on Mars. At the least, the tectonic style of Mars would have dramatically changed during the Noachian.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Rheology, microrheology and structure of soft materials (United States)

    Oppong, Felix K.

    We study the relationship between the bulk rheological properties and the micron-scale structure and rheology of different types of soft materials. The materials studied are Laponite, a colloidal clay suspension; Carbopol, a dispersion of microgel particles; hydroxyethyl cellulose, a linear polymer solution; and hydrophobically modified hydroxyethyl cellulose, an associative polymer. Bulk properties are measured using conventional shear rheometry. The micron-scale measurements are performed using techniques based on multiple particle tracking and dynamic light scattering. From the thermal motion of suspended tracer particles, we obtain information about the local structure and viscoelastic properties of the materials. We investigate the evolution of Laponite from a liquid to a gel and find that the process is length-scale dependent. We study the properties of Carbopol as a function of microgel concentration and find that as concentration increases, a jamming transition occurs which is related to the onset of yield stress on the bulk scale. We compare the viscoelastic properties of hydroxyethylcellulose and its associative derivative and observe that the hydrophobic interactions in the latter lead to much slower dynamics than in the unmodified polymer. A study of the stress relaxation in hydroxyethylcellulose showed that it depended on both the wait time after the application and removal of a large strain and on the type and magnitude of the deformation applied. Our work exploits the unique ability of microrheological techniques to probe both the rheology and structure of soft materials on the microscopic scale, which enables a better understanding of the relationship between bulk scale properties and microscopic structure in these systems. Keywords. Rheology, microrheology, soft materials, particle tracking, dynamic light scattering, viscoelasticity, yield stress, gelation, polymers.

  8. Rheology and structural arrest of casein suspensions


    Dahbi, Louisa; Alexander, M.; Trappe, Véronique; Dhont, J. K. G.; Schurtenberger, Peter


    The rheology of milk powder suspensions is investigated up to very high concentrations, where structural arrest occurs. The main component of the milk powder investigated is casein, so that the suspensions can be regarded as casein suspensions. Four concentration regimes are identified. For effective casein volume fractions less than 0.54 the concentration dependence of the zero-shear viscosity is similar to that of hard-sphere suspensions. However, due to the elastic deformation of the casei...

  9. Effect of carboxymethylation on rheological and drug release characteristics of locust bean gum matrix tablets. (United States)

    Chakravorty, Amrita; Barman, Gouranga; Mukherjee, Sudipta; Sa, Biswanath


    This study was undertaken to investigate correlation between the carboxymethylation-induced rheological changes and drug release characteristics of locust bean gum (LBG) matrix tablets. LBG was derivatized to carboxymethyl LBG (CMLBG) and characterized by (13)C NMR, FTIR and elemental analyses. Rheological studies revealed that LBG, in contact with water, produced a strong elastic gel which swelled less due to lower penetration of water resulting in slower drug release. On the other hand, CMLBG formed a viscous polymer solution through which higher influx of water resulted in rapid swelling of the matrix and faster drug release. Although the release from a particular matrix was dependent on drugs' solubilities, CMLBG matrix tablet produced faster release of all the drugs than LBG matrix tablets. In conclusion, rheological study appeared to be an useful tool to predict release of drugs from polysaccharide matrix tablets.

  10. Structural rheology of a model ointment. (United States)

    Pena, L E; Lee, B L; Stearns, J F


    A model ointment consisting of white petrolatum, mineral oil and microcrystalline wax was studied using rheology, microscopy and thermal techniques. Rheograms studied over a temperature range of 25-40 degrees C indicated that the overall rheogram shape changed little as the temperature increased. However, two inflections gradually disappeared as the temperature increased. Thermal optical analysis showed that the temperature range over which these inflection disappeared correlated with the melting transition of the components forming the secondary structure. Another series of rheograms obtained from ointments with different combinations of the raw materials showed the rheology of the ointment is primarily controlled by the white petrolatum and mineral oil and that the microcrystalline wax acts to build-up the structure by incorporating itself into the existing white petrolatum structure. Thermal optical analysis of comelts of the raw materials proved that the ointment network structure is essentially a recombination of the naturally occurring components in differing ratios. The knowledge obtained from these studies is applied to a discussion of the thermal and mechanical stresses encountered in the filling operation.

  11. Adaptive rheology and ordering of cell cytoskeleton govern matrix rigidity sensing (United States)

    Gupta, Mukund; Sarangi, Bibhu Ranjan; Deschamps, Joran; Nematbakhsh, Yasaman; Callan-Jones, Andrew; Margadant, Felix; Mège, René-Marc; Lim, Chwee Teck; Voituriez, Raphaël; Ladoux, Benoît


    Matrix rigidity sensing regulates a large variety of cellular processes and has important implications for tissue development and disease. However, how cells probe matrix rigidity, and hence respond to it, remains unclear. Here, we show that rigidity sensing and adaptation emerge naturally from actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Our in vitro experiments and theoretical modeling demonstrate a bi-phasic rheology of the actin cytoskeleton, which transitions from fluid on soft substrates to solid on stiffer ones. Furthermore, we find that increasing substrate stiffness correlates with the emergence of an orientational order in actin stress fibers, which exhibit an isotropic to nematic transition that we characterize quantitatively in the framework of active matter theory. These findings imply mechanisms mediated by a large-scale reinforcement of actin structures under stress, which could be the mechanical drivers of substrate stiffness dependent cell shape changes and cell polarity. PMID:26109233

  12. Rheological characteristics of soft rock structural surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈沅江; 吴超; 傅衣铭


    There are two mechanisms of the coarse surface asperity resistance effect and rubbing resistance effect in the course of the soft rock structural surface creep,of which the former plays a dominant role in hindering the deformation in the starting creep phase,so that the structural surface creep usually displays the strong surface roughness effect,and so does the latter when the asperities in the coarse surface were fractured by shearing.Under the low stress condition,there are only two phases of the decelerating creep and the constant creep for the soft rock structural surface,and as the stress increases and overcomes the rubbing resistance,the accelerating creep failure of the structural surface will happen suddenly.Therefore,a multiple rheological model,which combines the nonlinear NEWTON body(NN) of a certain mass and the empirical plastic body(EM) with the classical SAINT VENANT body,NEWTON body,KELVIN body and HOOKE body,could be used to comprehensively describe the creep characteristics of the soft rock structural surface.Its mechanical parameter values will vary owing to the different surface roughness of the structural surface.The parameters of GH,GK and ηL are positively linearly correlative to the surface roughness.The surface roughness and m are negative exponential function correlation.The long-term strength τS is positively correlative to the surface roughness.

  13. Rheology and structure of thermoreversible hydrogels (United States)

    Jiang, Jun


    Highly concentrated solutions of non-ionic amphiphilic triblock copolymer poly(ethylene oxide)99-poly(propylene oxide)67-poly(ethylene oxide)99 (Pluronic F127) are widely used in numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery vehicles, and surfactants for emulsification of food and personal care products. The Pluronic copolymers are popular for these applications, since their gelation properties are thermoreversible and easily controlled by varying the concentration. They are liquid below room temperature and gel at body temperature. Hence they are great injectable biomaterials for tissue engineering and implantation. In this dissertation, thermal gelation and structure of high concentration triblock copolymer Pluronic F127-clay (Cloisite Na+ and Lucentite SWN) aqueous solutions were characterized by rheological measurements, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and small angle X-ray/neutron scattering. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS), under shear using a Couette cell in radial and tangential scattering geometry, was performed to examine the structural evolution of the polymeric micellar macro-lattice formed by concentrated aqueous solutions of triblock copolymer-Pluronic F127, as a function of the shear rate. The micellar gel showed a shear thinning, i.e., a reduction of the resistance to shear, by forming a layered stacking of two-dimensional hexagonally close packed (HCP) polymer micelles. A theoretical model was developed to calculate 2D SANS scattering patterns that can be compared with the experimental data. In order to improve the mechanical properties of the gel, while still maintaining the thermo-reversibility, we synthesized multiblock structures, where the F127 construct would be repeated several times. In this manner, physical interconnections between the micelles could occur as the multiblock copolymers formed interlocking loops and tails, thereby greatly increasing the mechanical strength of the gels. The rheological and structural

  14. Extracellular matrix structure. (United States)

    Theocharis, Achilleas D; Skandalis, Spyros S; Gialeli, Chrysostomi; Karamanos, Nikos K


    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a non-cellular three-dimensional macromolecular network composed of collagens, proteoglycans/glycosaminoglycans, elastin, fibronectin, laminins, and several other glycoproteins. Matrix components bind each other as well as cell adhesion receptors forming a complex network into which cells reside in all tissues and organs. Cell surface receptors transduce signals into cells from ECM, which regulate diverse cellular functions, such as survival, growth, migration, and differentiation, and are vital for maintaining normal homeostasis. ECM is a highly dynamic structural network that continuously undergoes remodeling mediated by several matrix-degrading enzymes during normal and pathological conditions. Deregulation of ECM composition and structure is associated with the development and progression of several pathologic conditions. This article emphasizes in the complex ECM structure as to provide a better understanding of its dynamic structural and functional multipotency. Where relevant, the implication of the various families of ECM macromolecules in health and disease is also presented.

  15. Rheology and structure of milk protein gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Visschers, R.W.


    Recent studies on gel formation and rheology of milk gels are reviewed. A distinction is made between gels formed by aggregated casein, gels of `pure` whey proteins and gels in which both casein and whey proteins contribute to their properties. For casein' whey protein mixtures, it has been shown th

  16. Rheology and structure of milk protein gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Visschers, R.W.


    Recent studies on gel formation and rheology of milk gels are reviewed. A distinction is made between gels formed by aggregated casein, gels of `pure` whey proteins and gels in which both casein and whey proteins contribute to their properties. For casein' whey protein mixtures, it has been shown

  17. Extracellular matrix stiffness and architecture govern intracellular rheology in cancer. (United States)

    Baker, Erin L; Bonnecaze, Roger T; Zaman, Muhammad H


    Little is known about the complex interplay between the extracellular mechanical environment and the mechanical properties that characterize the dynamic intracellular environment. To elucidate this relationship in cancer, we probe the intracellular environment using particle-tracking microrheology. In three-dimensional (3D) matrices, intracellular effective creep compliance of prostate cancer cells is shown to increase with increasing extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness, whereas modulating ECM stiffness does not significantly affect the intracellular mechanical state when cells are attached to two-dimensional (2D) matrices. Switching from 2D to 3D matrices induces an order-of-magnitude shift in intracellular effective creep compliance and apparent elastic modulus. However, for a given matrix stiffness, partial blocking of beta1 integrins mitigates the shift in intracellular mechanical state that is invoked by switching from a 2D to 3D matrix architecture. This finding suggests that the increased cell-matrix engagement inherent to a 3D matrix architecture may contribute to differences observed in viscoelastic properties between cells attached to 2D matrices and cells embedded within 3D matrices. In total, our observations show that ECM stiffness and architecture can strongly influence the intracellular mechanical state of cancer cells.

  18. Extracellular Matrix Stiffness and Architecture Govern Intracellular Rheology in Cancer


    Baker, Erin L.; Bonnecaze, Roger T.; Zaman, Muhammad H.


    Little is known about the complex interplay between the extracellular mechanical environment and the mechanical properties that characterize the dynamic intracellular environment. To elucidate this relationship in cancer, we probe the intracellular environment using particle-tracking microrheology. In three-dimensional (3D) matrices, intracellular effective creep compliance of prostate cancer cells is shown to increase with increasing extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness, whereas modulating E...

  19. Formation, structure and rheological properties of soy protein gels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, J.M.S.


    Keywords: soy protein isolate, glycinin,β-conglycinin, heat denaturation, gelation, network structure, rheology, permeability measurements, microscopy, pH, ionic strength, emulsified oil dropletsThis study was performed to understand the factors determining heat-induced formation an

  20. Structure and rheology of nanoparticle–polymer suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Srivastava, Samanvaya


    Structure and rheology of oligomer-tethered nanoparticles suspended in low molecular weight polymeric host are investigated at various particle sizes and loadings. Strong curvature effects introduced by the small size of the nanoparticle cores are found to be important for understanding both the phase stability and rheology of the materials. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy measurements indicate that PEG-SiO 2/PEG suspensions are more stable against phase separation and aggregation than expected from theory for interacting brushes. SAXS and rheology measurements also reveal that at high particle loadings, the stabilizing oligomer brush is significantly compressed and produces jamming in the suspensions. The jamming transition is accompanied by what appears to be a unique evolution in the transient suspension rheology, along with large increments in the zero-shear, Newtonian viscosity. The linear and nonlinear flow responses of the jammed suspensions are discussed in the framework of the Soft Glassy Rheology (SGR) model, which is shown to predict many features that are consistent with experimental observations, including a two-step relaxation following flow cessation and a facile method for determining the shear-thinning coefficient from linear viscoelastic measurements. Finally, we show that the small sizes of the particles have a significant effect on inter-particle interactions and rheology, leading to stronger deviations from expectations based on planar brushes and hard-sphere suspension theories. In particular, we find that in the high volume fraction limit, tethered nanoparticles interact in their host polymer through short-range forces, which are more analogous to those between soft particles than between spherical polymer brushes. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-ze Xu; Yi-bin Xu


    The evolution and the origin of "solid-like state" in molten polymer/clay nanocomposites are studied. Using polypropylene/clay hybrid (PPCH) with sufficient maleic anhydride modified PP (PP-MA) as compatibilizer, well exfoliation yet solid-like state was achieved after annealing in molten state. Comprehensive linear viscoelasticity and non-linear rheological behaviors together with WAXD and TEM are studied on PPCH at various dispersion stages focusing on time,temperature and deformation dependencies of the "solid-like" state in molten nanocomposites. Based on these, it is revealed that the solid-structure is developed gradually along with annealing through the stages of inter-layer expansion by PP-MA,the diffusion and association of exfoliated silicate platelets, the formation of band/chain structure and, finally, a percolated clay associated network, which is responsible for the melt rigidity or solid-like state. The network will be broken down by melt frozen/crystallization and weakened at large shear or strong flow and, even more surprisingly, may be disrupted by using trace amount of silane coupling agent which may block the edge interaction of platelets. The solid-like structure causes characteristic non-linear rheological behaviors, e.g. residual stress after step shear, abnormal huge stress overshoots in step flows and, most remarkably, the negative first normal stress functions in steady shear or step flows. The rheological and structural arguments challenge the existing models of strengthened entangled polymer network by tethered polymer chains connecting clay particles or by chains in confined melts or frictional interaction among tactoids. A scheme of percolated networking of associated clay platelets, which may in band form of edge connecting exfoliated platelets, is suggested to explain previous experimental results.

  2. Rheology and Structure of Quenched Binary Mixtures Under Oscillatory Shear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ai-Guo


    We applied the D2Q9 BGK lattice Boltzmann method to study the rheology and structure of the phaseseparating binary fluids under oscillatory shear in the diffusive regime. The method is suitable for simulating systemswhose dynamicsis described by the Navier-Stokes equation and convection-diffusion equation. The shear oscillationinduces different rheological patterns from those under steady shear. With the increasing of the frequency of the shearthe system shows more isotropic behavior, while with the decreasing of the frequency we find more configurations similarto those under steady shear. By decreasing the frequency of the shear, the period of the applied flow becomes thesame order of the relaxation time of the shear velocity profile, which is inversely proportional to the viscosity, and moreanisotropic effects become observable. The structure factor and the velocity profile contribute to the understanding ofthe configurations and the kinetic process. Oscillatory shear induces nonlinear pattern of the horizontal velocity profile.Therefore, configurations are found where lamellar order close to the wall coexists with isotropic domains in the middleof the system. For very slow frequencies, the morphology of the domains is characterized by lamellar order everywherethat resembles what happens in the case of steady shear.

  3. Correlation between rheological behavior and structure of multi-component polymer systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Rheological measurement has been an effective method to characterize the structure and properties for multiphase/multi-component polymers, owing to its sensitivity to the structure change of hetero geneous systems. In this article, recent progress in the studies on the morphology/structure and rheological properties of heterogeneous systems is summarized, mainly reporting the findings of the authors and their collaborators, involving the correlation between the morphology and viscoelastic relaxation of LCST-type polymer blends, the microstructure and linear/nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of block copolymers, time scaling of shear-induced crystallization and rheological response of polyolefins, and the relationship between the structure/properties and rheological behavior of filled polymer blends. It is suggested that a thorough understanding of the characteristic rheological response to the morphology/structure evolution of multiphase/multi-component polymers facilitates researchers' optimizing the morphology/structure and ultimate mechanical properties of polymer materials.

  4. Correlation between rheological behavior and structure of multi-component polymer systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Rheological measurement has been an effective method to characterize the structure and properties for multiphase/multi-component polymers, owing to its sensitivity to the structure change of hetero- geneous systems. In this article, recent progress in the studies on the morphology/structure and rheological properties of heterogeneous systems is summarized, mainly reporting the findings of the authors and their collaborators, involving the correlation between the morphology and viscoelastic relaxation of LCST-type polymer blends, the microstructure and linear/nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of block copolymers, time scaling of shear-induced crystallization and rheological response of poly- olefins, and the relationship between the structure/properties and rheological behavior of filled polymer blends. It is suggested that a thorough understanding of the characteristic rheological response to the morphology/structure evolution of multiphase/multi-component polymers facilitates researchers’ op- timizing the morphology/structure and ultimate mechanical properties of polymer materials.

  5. Rheology and structure of aqueous bentonite–polyvinyl alcohol dispersions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S İşçı; C H Ünlü; O Atici; N Güngör


    The influence of polymer on flow behaviour of Balikesir, Turkey bentonite dispersions (2%, w/w) was studied for non-ionic polymer, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). In a range of 3.3 × 10-6 – 3.3 × 105 mol/l, PVA was added to the bentonite dispersions in different concentrations and its behaviour was observed on rheology parameters. Thixotropy was detected by a hysteresis loop of the flow curves. The data were interpreted taking into account the interactions of colloidal clay particles, bentonitic clay concentrations, structure, and concentrations of added PVA. The particle size analysis was explained by surface orientation of PVA to the clay particles dispersed in aqueous solution. Zeta potential determination also emphasized that PVA molecules got attached on the face and edge surface of clay particles. The morphology of bentonite dispersions was analysed by scanning electron micrograph (SEM). FTIR studies carried out in parallel to rheology studies showed that hydrogen bonds were formed between surface of the clay, and absorbed PVA molecules and adsorbed water. The presence of PVA did not prevent extensive swelling of bentonite.

  6. Rheology, tectonics, and the structure of the Venus lithosphere (United States)

    Zuber, M. T.


    Given the absence of ground truth information on seismic structure, heat flow, and rock strength, or short wavelength gravity or magnetic data for Venus, information on the thermal, mechanical and compositional nature of the shallow interior must be obtained by indirect methods. Using pre-Magellan data, theoretical models constrained by the depths of impact craters and the length scales of tectonic features yielded estimates on the thickness of Venus' brittle-elastic lithosphere and the allowable range of crustal thickness and surface thermal gradient. The purpose of this study is to revisit the question of the shallow structure of Venus based on Magellan observations of the surface and recent experiments that address Venus' crustal rheology.

  7. Structure, Ion Transport, and Rheology of Nanoparticle Salts

    KAUST Repository

    Wen, Yu Ho


    Above a critical surface chemistry-dependent particle loading associated with nanoscale interparticle spacing, ligand-ligand interactions-both electrostatic and steric-come into play and govern the structure and dynamics of charged oligomer-functionalized nanoparticle suspensions. We report in particular on the structure, ion transport, and rheology of suspensions of nanoparticle salts created by cofunctionalization of silica particles with tethered sulfonate salts and oligomers. Dispersion of the hairy ionic particles into medium and high dielectric constant liquids yields electrolytes with unique structure and transport properties. We find that electrostatic repulsion imparted by ion dissociation can be tuned to control the dispersion state and rheology through counterion size (i.e., Li+, Na+, and K+) and dielectric properties of the dispersing medium. Analysis of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) structure factors and the mechanical modulus shows that when the interparticle spacing approaches nanometer dimensions, weakly entangled anchored ligands experience strong and long-lived topological constraints analogous to those normally found in well-entangled polymeric fluids. This finding provides insight into the molecular origins of the surprisingly similar rubbery plateau moduli observed in hairy nanoparticle suspensions and entangled polymers of the same chemistry as the tethered ligands. Additionally, we find that a time-composition superposition (TCS) principle exists for the suspensions, which can be used to substantially extend the observation time over which dynamics are observed in jammed, soft glassy suspensions. Application of TCS reveals dynamical similarities between the suspensions and entangled solutions of linear polymer chains; i.e., a hairy particle trapped in a cage appears to exhibit analogous dynamics to a long polymer chain confined to a tube. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  8. Structural analysis of gluten-free doughs by fractional rheological model (United States)

    Orczykowska, Magdalena; Dziubiński, Marek; Owczarz, Piotr


    This study examines the effects of various components of tested gluten-free doughs, such as corn starch, amaranth flour, pea protein isolate, and cellulose in the form of plantain fibers on rheological properties of such doughs. The rheological properties of gluten-free doughs were assessed by using the rheological fractional standard linear solid model (FSLSM). Parameter analysis of the Maxwell-Wiechert fractional derivative rheological model allows to state that gluten-free doughs present a typical behavior of viscoelastic quasi-solid bodies. We obtained the contribution dependence of each component used in preparations of gluten-free doughs (either hard-gel or soft-gel structure). The complicate analysis of the mechanical structure of gluten-free dough was done by applying the FSLSM to explain quite precisely the effects of individual ingredients of the dough on its rheological properties.

  9. Myocardial structure and matrix metalloproteinases. (United States)

    Aggeli, C; Pietri, P; Felekos, I; Rautopoulos, L; Toutouzas, K; Tsiamis, E; Stefanadis, C


    Metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes which enhance proteolysis of extracellular matrix proteins. The pathophysiologic and prognostic role of MMPs has been demonstrated in numerous studies. The present review covers a wide a range of topics with regards to MMPs structural and functional properties, as well as their role in myocardial remodeling in several cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, the clinical and therapeutic implications from their assessment are highlighted.

  10. Effect of polycarboxylate admixture structure on cement paste rheology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranda, M. A. G.


    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effect of the structural differences in four polycarboxylate and polyether admixtures on the rheological properties of cement pastes with different chemical and mineralogical compositions and different active additions (CEM I 42.5 R, CEM I 52.5 R, CEM I 52.5 N/SR, CEM II/AV 42.5R, CEM II/B-L 32.5 R, CEM III/B 32.5R, BL I 52.5R and CAC – European standard EN 197-1:2000. The results of the minislump test concurred with the variations observed in the values of the rheological parameters (shear stress and plastic viscosity. The structural characteristic of the admixtures found to play the most prominent role in their fluidizing effect was the proportion of carboxylate (CG and polyether (EG group components. In cements characteristics such as fineness and the C3A/calcium sulphate and C3S/C3A ratios were also observed to be essential to admixture effectiveness. In this regard, the rheological parameters varied most widely in CEM I 52.5N/SR pastes and least in BL I 52.5R cement pastes. Of the additioned cements, the CEM III/B 32.5R pastes, which contained granulated blast furnace slag, showed the highest rises in flowability. Finally, the fluidizing effect of polycarboxylate superplasticizers was much more intense in calcium aluminate cements, although flowability declined rapidly in this material.El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido estudiar el efecto de las diferencias estructurales de cuatro aditivos basados en policarboxilatos y poliéteres sobre las propiedades reológicas de pastas de cemento con diferente composición química, mineralógica y con distintas adiciones activas (CEM I 42,5 R, CEM I 52,5 R, CEM I 52,5 N/SR, CEM II/AV 42,5R, CEM II/ B-L 32,5 R, CEM III/B 32,5R, BL I 52,5R y CAC - Norma EN 197-1:2000. Los resultados obtenidos sobre la fluidez de la pasta en el ensayo del “Minislump” coinciden con la evolución de los valores de los parámetros reológicos (esfuerzo de

  11. Formwork pressure of self-consolidating concrete: Influence of flocculation mechanisms, structural rebuilding, thixotropy and rheology (United States)

    Ferron, Raissa Patricia Douglas

    While self-consolidating concrete (SCC) may no longer be considered a "new concrete", there are still significant challenges to overcome before there is broader acceptance of SCC. One of these challenges concerns the formwork pressure exerted by SCC. A major advantage of SCC is the accelerated casting process due to the elimination of external vibration. However, faster casting rates may induce higher formwork pressure; this is a major concern for cast-in place applications, especially when casting tall elements. It has been reported that the formwork pressure of SCC can be less than hydrostatic pressure. This is due to the build-up of a three-dimensional structure when the concrete is left at rest. The development of this structure and the mechanisms behind it are of particular interest to users of SCC. The research presented in this manuscript was carried out at the Center for Advanced Cement-Based Materials at Northwestern University and the Universidad Complutense de Madrid. This dissertation focuses on the structural rebuilding SCC and its implications for formwork pressure. Special emphasis was given to the influence of flocculation mechanisms and the impact of material constituents. A rheological protocol to characterize structural rebuilding was developed. This protocol can be used to assess the contributions from irreversible structural build-up from hydration and reversible structural rebuilding from thixotropic effects. The impact of various mixture ingredients, including cement type, mineral admixtures, chemical admixtures and clays, on the structural rebuilding was examined. The results showed that the rheological properties of the paste matrix and its evolution over time can be used as an indication of the formwork pressure behavior. Formwork pressure is highly impacted by the structural rebuilding that occurs in the paste matrix, and the results showed that formwork pressure is related to the rate at which structural rebuilding occurs and the total

  12. A model colloidal gel for coordinated measurements of force, structure, and rheology


    Hsiao, Lilian C.; Whitaker, Kathryn A.; Solomon, Michael J; Furst, Eric M.


    We introduce a model gel system in which colloidal forces, structure, and rheology are measured by balancing the requirements of rheological and microscopy techniques with those of optical tweezers. Sterically stabilized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) colloids are suspended in cyclohexane (CH) and cyclohexyl bromide (CHB) with dilute polystyrene serving as a depletion agent. A solvent comprising of 37% weight fraction CH provides sufficient refractive index contrast to enable optical trappi...

  13. Rheology, microstructure and crystallographic preferred orientation of matrix containing a dispersed second phase: Insight from experimentally deformed ice (United States)

    Cyprych, Daria; Piazolo, Sandra; Wilson, Christopher J. L.; Luzin, Vladimir; Prior, David J.


    We utilize in situ neutron diffraction to continuously track the average grain size and crystal preferred orientation (CPO) development in ice, during uniaxial compression of two-phase and pure ice samples. Two-phase samples are composed of ice matrix and 20 vol.% of second phases of two types: (1) rheologically soft, platy graphite, and (2) rigid, rhomb-shaped calcite. The samples were tested at 10 °C below the ice melting point, ambient pressures, and two strain rates (1 ×10-5 and 2.5 ×10-6 s-1), to 10 and 20% strain. The final CPO in the ice matrix, where second phases are present, is significantly weaker, and ice grain size is smaller than in an ice-only sample. The microstructural and rheological data point to dislocation creep as the dominant deformation regime. The evolution and final strength of the CPO in ice depend on the efficiency of the recrystallization processes, namely grain boundary migration and nucleation. These processes are markedly influenced by the strength, shape, and grain size of the second phase. In addition, CPO development in ice is further accentuated by strain partitioning into the soft second phase, and the transfer of stress onto the rigid second phase.

  14. Relationships between structure and rheology in polymer nanocomposites probed via X-ray scattering (United States)

    Pujari, Saswati

    Polymer nanocomposites have received intense attention due to their potential for significantly enhanced polymer properties like mechanical strength, thermal stability, electrical conductivity, etc. Melt state processing of these materials exposes the nanofillers to complex flow fields, which can induce changes in nanocomposite microstructure, including particle dispersion and the orientation of anisotropic nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. Since nanocomposite properties are strongly correlated with both these structural features, it is essential to develop methods to characterize such microstructural changes. This thesis reports extensive measurements of mechanical rheology and particle orientation during flow of nanocomposites based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes, clays, and graphene nanosheets. Changes in orientation of anisotropic nanoparticles are manifested in x-ray scattering images collected during shear. In-situ studies of orientation are enabled by custom designed x-ray adapted shear cells and high energy synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Photon Source in Argonne National Laboratory where these experiments were conducted. Studies of flow induced orientation in model nanotube dispersions revealed increasing sample anisotropy with increasing shear rate across concentrations and aspect ratios. In dilute dispersions the orientation dynamics was dominated by flow induced aggregation/disaggregation of MWNTs, with anisotropy primarily attributed to individually dispersed nanotubes. In concentrated suspensions, sample anisotropy resulted from flow induced elastic deformation within entangled MWNT clusters. Release of elastic energy upon flow cessation resulted in an unexpected relaxation of induced anisotropy. These studies were followed with study of more complex, but, industrially relevant nanocomposites made with polypropylene as the dispersing matrix. The high viscosity of polypropylene makes dispersion of nanoparticles difficult, and hence a careful

  15. A preliminary study on the lithospheric thermal-rheological structure of the East Qinling orogenic belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Shunyou; ZHANG Guowei; DIAO Bo; GUO Anlin; YU Xiangni


    This paper considers the lithospheric rheological structure of the East Qinling orogenic belt to explore its geodynamics. The lithospheric rheological structure was calculated by the constraints of the lithospheric temperature structure. The thermal-rheological stratification structures of the lithosphere in the East Qinling orogenic belt present different features from each other within different tectonic units. The hinterland fault-bounded fold zone (HLZ) and the North Qinling thick-skinned imbricated thrust zone (NQL) in the northern half part of the Qinling orogen, with a tempera-ture of 305℃ for the Moho boundary, are characterized by "cold" geotherm, thickened lithosphere and the model C for rheological stratification structure. The South Qinling tectonic zone (SQL), with a mean temperature of 642℃ and a high temperature of 826℃ for the Moho boundary, has obvious features with the model H of"hot" geotherm, thinned lithosphere and intensive rheological behavior within moderate-lower crust and top of the upper mantle. During post-orogenesis, the NQL, being the convergent frontal region of continental subduction beneath the Qinling orogen by both the North China craton (NC) and Yangtze craton (YZ), is in a coexistence period of a dominantly thickened lithosphere and an initial delamination, and the SQL, proba-bly under pluming, has been developing new delamination and underplating and partial melting within the crust in its axel area and recycling for mass and energy (in the forms of heat transfer and convection) between the crust and mantle.

  16. Rheology of Prepreg and Properties of Silica/bismaleimide Matrix Copper Clad Laminate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAI Shankai


    Full Text Available The effects of the silica surface treated by coupling agents KH550, KH560 and KH570 on the rheological properties of bismaleimide (BMI resin system were investigated. The rigidity, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE and thermal stability of the copper clad laminate (CCL were studied by DMA, TMA and TGA. The resin system containing silica surface treated by KH-560, comparing to KH550, KH570 and without surface treatment resin system has better rheological properties and low melt viscosity. The comprehensive properties of the copper clad laminate can be effectively improved by the introduction of silica in the resin system, exhibiting higher storage modulus and lower CTE compare to no silica in the CCL. When the silica mass fraction is 50%, the storage modulus is increased by 83% at 50℃, and the CTE below the glass transition temperature is decreased by 153%.

  17. Experimental analysis of ductile-slip rheology in shallow structural level faults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The authors select different grain size samples from granitic body in Weishan, central Hunan, to conduct mylonitization experiments under high temperature (HT) and high pressure (HP), by which the temperature and pressure conditions of mylonitization and microstructures of deformation have been obtained. Through the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations of experimental mylonite, we calculate its dislocation density (D), differential rheological stress (Pd) and speed rate of strain (Rs): 3.20×109/cm2, 139.32 MPa and 6.39×10-10/s respectively. The results are in the same magnitude-order with those of natural mylonite from fault zones. By comparison and analysis of chemical compositions and microstructures of different structural environments, the authors establish approximate rheological parameters related to shallow structural level and also suggest the multiple rheological properties and total trend from deep structural level to shallow structural level.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Zuo; Qiang Zheng; Wan-jie Wang


    Rheological measurement has been a preferred approach to the characterization of the structure and phase behaviors for multi-component/multi-phase polymer systems, due to its sensitive response to the changes of structure for these heterogeneous polymers. In the present article, recent progresses in the studies on rheology for heterogeneous polymer systems including phase-separated polymeric blends and block copolymers are reviewed, mainly depending on the results by the authors' research group. By means of rheological measurements, not only some new fingerprints responsible for the evolution of morphology and structure concerning these polymer systems are obtained, also the corresponding results are significant for design and preparation of novel polymeric structural materials and functional materials.

  19. Rheological and Structural Properties of Sea Cucumber Stichopus japonicus During Heat Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xin; XUE Dongmei; ZHANG Zhaohui; XU Jiachao; XUE Changhu


    Changes in tissue structure, rheological properties and water content of raw and heated sea cucumber meat were studied. Sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus was heated at 25 ℃, 70 ℃ and 100 ℃ water for 5 min. The structural changes were observed using a light microscope and the rheological parameters (rupture strength, adhesive strength and deformation)determined using a texture meter. Microscopic photograph revealed that the structural change of heated meat was greater than that of raw meat. The rupture strength, adhesive strength and deformation of raw meat were smaller than those of the heated meat. Meanwhile, rheological parameters showed positive correlation with heating temperature. These changes are mainly caused by thermal denaturation and gelatinization of collagen during heating. These changes were also evidenced in observations using a light microscope and differential scanning calorimetry.

  20. Relations between rheological properties and network structure of soy protein gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, J.M.S.


    This paper focuses on the relations between network structure and rheological properties of soy protein gels as a function of pH and ionic strength. Network structure has been characterized independently by permeability measurements and confocal scanning laser microscopy in terms of coarseness.

  1. Relations between rheological properties and network structure of soy protein gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, J.M.S.


    This paper focuses on the relations between network structure and rheological properties of soy protein gels as a function of pH and ionic strength. Network structure has been characterized independently by permeability measurements and confocal scanning laser microscopy in terms of coarseness. Resu

  2. Rheological and structural studies of carboxymethyl derivatives of chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winstead, Cherese; Katagumpola, Pushpika [Delaware State University, Department of Chemistry, 1200 N. Dupont Highway, Dover, DE 19901 (United States)


    The degrees of substitution of chitosan derivatives were varied and the viscoelastic behavior of these biopolymer solutions was studied using rheology. Chitosan is a cationic copolymer of glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin. Due to its inherent non-toxicity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability, chitosan has gained much interest. However, the poor solubility of the biopolymer in water and most common organic solvents limits its applications. Therefore, the focus of this work is the chemical modification of chitosan via carboxymethylation as well as studying the viscoelastic behavior of these polymer solutions. Varying degrees of substitution (DS) of carboxymethyl chitosan derivatives were synthesized by treating chitosan with monochloroacetic acid under alkylated medium varying the reaction time and temperature. The effect of degree of substitution on the rheology of these polymer solutions was studied as a function of concentration. The viscosity of chitosan derivatives sharply increased with increase in degree of substitution. G' and G' dependence on strain and angular frequency were studied and were found to exhibit predominantly viscous behavior. Additional characterization of the derivatized products were further studied using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), {sup 1}H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermal gravimetric analysis as well as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Degree of substitution (DS) was calculated by titrimetric method.

  3. Synthesis, physicochemical, structural and rheological characterizations of carboxymethyl xanthan derivatives. (United States)

    Yahoum, Madiha M; Moulai-Mostefa, Nadji; Le Cerf, Didier


    The aim of this work was to synthesize a carboxymethylated xanthan (CMXG) via an etherification reaction between different ratios (2, 4, and 6) of xanthan gum (XG) and monochloroacetic acid (MCAA) using the Williamson synthesis method. The synthetized products were characterized in terms of their physico-chemical and rheological properties. Both FTIR and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H(1) NMR) analyses confirmed the grafting of carboxymethyl groups on xanthan hydroxyl groups. The obtained results demonstrated that the degree of substitution was proportional to the chloroacetic acid and xanthan gum ratios. The obtained carboxymethyl derivatives presented greater hydrophilicity and lower molecular weights with increasing degrees of substitution than native xanthan gum. The rheological study revealed that the viscosity of the CMXG derivatives decreased with the degree of substitution and with the conservation of the shear-thinning and weak gel behaviours. The flow curves suggested the existence of two different populations of particles consisting of CMXG particles with a smaller average size and a second population formed by the residual fractions of native XG particles. It was also found that the elastic modulus of XG was largely higher than that of the CMXG derivatives and decreased with increasing DS. For the CMXG derivatives, two regions of viscoelastic behaviour were observed, which were separated by a crossover point corresponding to the critical frequency and relaxation time, i.e., the time required for stress relaxation.

  4. Rheological and structural studies of carboxymethyl derivatives of chitosan (United States)

    Winstead, Cherese; Katagumpola, Pushpika


    The degrees of substitution of chitosan derivatives were varied and the viscoelastic behavior of these biopolymer solutions was studied using rheology. Chitosan is a cationic copolymer of glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin. Due to its inherent non-toxicity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability, chitosan has gained much interest. However, the poor solubility of the biopolymer in water and most common organic solvents limits its applications. Therefore, the focus of this work is the chemical modification of chitosan via carboxymethylation as well as studying the viscoelastic behavior of these polymer solutions. Varying degrees of substitution (DS) of carboxymethyl chitosan derivatives were synthesized by treating chitosan with monochloroacetic acid under alkylated medium varying the reaction time and temperature. The effect of degree of substitution on the rheology of these polymer solutions was studied as a function of concentration. The viscosity of chitosan derivatives sharply increased with increase in degree of substitution. G' and G" dependence on strain and angular frequency were studied and were found to exhibit predominantly viscous behavior. Additional characterization of the derivatized products were further studied using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermal gravimetric analysis as well as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Degree of substitution (DS) was calculated by titrimetric method.

  5. Relation between the Rheology Characteristic and Initial Hydration Structure of Portland Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on the rheology characteristic and the resistivity variation under alternating electric-field of Portland cement hydration by means of AR2000 advanced rheometer and non-contacting electrical resistivity device, the influence of cement kinds and the chemical admixtures on the initial rheology characteristic and structure forming and developing of cement hydration was studied. The relationship between the rheology characteristic, the initial hydration structure forming and the hydration process at very early ages was analyzed by macro properties and microstructure tests. The results showed that, the storage modulus, acted as S, could be described more subtle distinction accompanying with hydration of fresh paste model at very early period. Combining the resistivity alterations, a sudden change on structure forming emerged when the hydration of cement becoming inducing age. The rheology characteristic was interrelated to the hydration structure forming, development and the physical mechanics properties. The sudden change on storage modulus moved up due to the addition of retarder, but the structure forming and developing was retarded to a certain extent.

  6. A preliminary model for 3-D rheological structure of the lithosphere in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZANG; Shaoxian; (臧绍先); LI; Chang; (李昶); NING; Jieyuan; (宁杰远); WEI; Rongqiang; (魏荣强)


    3-D structures of velocity and temperature are obtained using the dataof P-wave velocity and heat flow in North China (105°E-124°E, 30°N-42°N).Taking into account the effect of three main rheological mechanisms, namely friction sliding, brittle fracture and creep in the lithosphere, the 3-D structuresof the rheological strength and viscosity in the lithosphere in North China arecalculated. The results show that the strength and viscosity in the lithospherehave layering characteristics. Under the strain rate of 10-15 s-1, the upper part of the upper crust is in the brittle region and the lower part of the upper crust may be in the ductile region dominated by creep; the middle crust can be inthe brittle region dominated by brittle fracture, or the upper layer of brittlefracture and lower layer of creep ductile; the lower crust almost is in the creep region dominated by creep. In addition, the strength varies horizontally, which has a close relationship with geotectonics. The influence of velocity structure and temperature structure on the rheological structure is discussed and some suggestions to improve the study of lithospheric rheological structure are put forward.

  7. Effects of structural rearrangements on the rheology of rennet-induced casein particle gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellema, M.; Walstra, P.; Opheusden, van J.H.J.; Vliet, van T.


    During ageing of casein or skim milk gels, structural changes take place that affect gel parameters, such as pore size and storage modulus. These changes can be explained in terms of rearrangements of the gel network at various length scales. In this paper, rheological experiments on rennet-induced

  8. Superplasticity of metals: phenomenology based on rheological properties and structural dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, O.M. [Moscow State Steel and Alloys Inst. (Russian Federation). Lab. of Superplastic Mater. Deformation


    Fine structure superplasticity (FSSP), high strain rate superplasticity (HSRSP) and phase transformation superplasticity (PTSP) as well as superplastic-like behaviour of some natural and industrial materials evidently belong to the same type of rheological behaviour i.e. non-linear viscoplastic flow. Temperature map has been proposed as a base for rheological analysis of various types of superplastic and superplastic-like flow of metallic materials. A phenomenological model has been developed to describe deformation of polycrystalline materials at elevated temperatures in a wide range of strain rates with respect to structure evolution during deformation. Rheological analysis of FSSP, HSRSP and PTSP materials along with a slurry during rheocasting shows similarities and peculiarities of superplastic and superplastic-like behaviour. The value of apparent viscosity seems to be an informative index for estimation of rheological and physical state of grain boundaries as a viscous phase and of polycrystalline material as a whole. A new process of impulse bulk forming is presented to show unique possibility of joining in one process two stages of a regular superplastic technology, i.e. preparation of ultrafine grain structure followed by HSRSP deformation. (orig.) 37 refs.

  9. Lithospheric thermal-rheological structures of the continental margin in the northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Thermal structures of three deep seismic profiles in the continental margin in the northern South China Sea are calculated, their "thermal" lithospheric thicknesses are evaluated based on the basalt dry solidus, and their rheological structures are evaluated with linear frictional failure criterion and power-law creep equation. "Thermal" lithosphere is about 90 km in thickness in shelf area, and thins toward the slope, lowers to 60-65 km in the lower slope, ocean crust and Xisha Trough. In the mid-west of the studied area, the lithospheric rheological structure in shelf area and Xisha Islands is of four layers: brittle, ductile, brittle and ductile. Because of uprising of heat mantle and thinning of crust and lithosphere in Xisha Trough, the bottom of the upper brittle layer is only buried at 16 km. In the eastern area, the bottom of the upper brittle layer in the north is buried at 20 km or so, while in lower slope and ocean crust, the rheological structure is of two layers of brittle and ductile, and crust and uppermost mantle form one whole brittle layer whose bottom is buried at 30-32 km. Analyses show that the characteristics of rheological structure accord with the seismic result observed. The character of rheological stratification implies that before the extension of the continent margin, there likely was a ductile layer in mid-lower crust. The influence of the existence of ductile layer to the evolution of the continent margin and the different extensions of ductile layer and brittle layer should not be overlooked. Its thickness, depth and extent in influencing continent margin's extension and evolution should be well evaluated in building a dynamic model for the area.

  10. Chocolate rheology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Vidal Gonçalves


    Full Text Available Rheology is the science that studies the deformation and flow of solids and fluids under the influence of mechanical forces. The rheological measures of a product in the stage of manufacture can be useful in quality control. The microstructure of a product can also be correlated with its rheological behavior allowing for the development of new materials. Rheometry permits attainment of rheological equations applied in process engineering, particularly unit operations that involve heat and mass transfer. Consumer demands make it possible to obtain a product that complies with these requirements. Chocolate industries work with products in a liquid phase in conching, tempering, and also during pumping operations. A good design of each type of equipment is essential for optimum processing. In the design of every process, it is necessary to know the physical characteristics of the product. The rheological behavior of chocolate can help to know the characteristics of application of the product and its consumers. Foods are generally in a metastable state. Their texture depends on the structural changes that occur during processing. Molten chocolate is a suspension with properties that are strongly affected by particle characteristics including not only the dispersed particles but also the fat crystals formed during chocolate cooling and solidification. Chocolate rheology is extensively studied, and it is known that chocolate texture and stability is strongly affected by the presence of specific crystals

  11. Tear Film Dynamics: the roles of complex structure and rheology (United States)

    Dey, Mohar; Feng, James; Vivek, Atul S.; Dixit, Harish N.; Richhariya, Ashutosh


    Ocular surface infections such as microbial and fungal keratitis are among leading causes of blindness in the world. A thorough understanding of the pre-corneal tear film dynamics is essential to comprehend the role of various tear layer components in the escalation of such ocular infections. The pre-corneal tear film comprises of three layers of complex fluids, viz. the innermost mucin layer, a hydrophilic protective cover over the sensitive corneal epithelium, the intermediate aqueous layer that forms the bulk of the tear film and is often embedded with large number of bio-polymers either in the form of soluble mucins or pathogens, and finally the outermost lipid layer that stabilizes the film by decreasing the air/tear film interfacial tension. We have developed a comprehensive mathematical model to describe such a film by incorporating the effects of the non-uniform mucin distribution along with the complex rheology of the aqueous layer with/without pathogens, Marangoni effects from the lipid layer and the slip effects at the base of the tear film. A detailed linear stability analysis and a fully non-linear solution determine the break up time (BUT) of such a tear film. We also probe the role of the various components of the pre-corneal tear film in the dynamics of rupture.

  12. Rheological behavior and stability of ciprofloxacin suspension: Impact of structural vehicles and flocculating agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandar Moghimipour


    Full Text Available Ciprofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone and is used against a broad spectrum of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of structural vehicles and other formulating factors on physical stability and rheological behavior of ciprofloxacin suspension. To formulate the suspensions, the effect of glycerin and polysorbate 80 as wetting agents was evaluated. Then to achieve controlled flocculation, different concentrations of sodium chloride and calcium chloride were added. After choosing suitable wetting and flocculating agents, structural vehicles such as sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose (NaCMC, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC and Veegum were evaluated. Physical stability parameters such as sedimentation volume, the degree of flocculation and the ease of redispersion of the suspensions and growth of crystals were evaluated. After incorporation of structural vehicles, the rheological properties of formulations containing were also studied to find out their rheological behavior. According to the results, suspension containing glycerin (0.2% w/v and sodium chloride (0.05% w/v as wetting agent and flocculating agent, respectively, were the most stable formulations regarding their F and N. Microscopic observations showed the growth of crystals in ciprofloxacin suspension in formulation without excipients and the minimum amount of crystal growth was seen in suspension containing NaCMC (0.25% w/v, Veegum (0.1% w/v and NaCl (0.05% w/v. Rheological studies showed that almost all of the formulations had psuedoplastic behavior with different degree of thixotropy. The formulation containing NaCMC (0.25% w/v, Veegum (0.1% w/v and NaCl (0.05% w/v was the most stable formulation. It may be concluded that by altering the amount ratios of formulation factors, the best rheological behavior and the most proper thixotropy may be achieved.

  13. The Relationships between Rheological Properties and Structural Changes of Chilled Abalone Meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xin; ZHANG Zhaohui; TANG Zhixu; TASHIRO Yuri; OGAWA Hiroo


    The quantitative correlation between theological properties and structural characteristic values of chilled abalone meat was studied. Structural changes were observed, and these values were enumerated using image processing and analysis technique. Structural changes in the myofibrils and collagen fibrils were the greatest in chilling for 24 h. After chilling for 48 h, similar structures of vertical and cross sections were observed. For chilling from 0h to 72h, the instantaneous modulus E0 of the both section meat decreases gradually with time, but no significant differences were observed after chilling for 48 h.The relaxation time and viscosity of both sections attained the same values for the same chilling time, but increased gradually with increasing chilling time. Meanwhile, a negative correlation between the structural characteristic values (Dm, Am,Rvm), and rheological properties (E1,τi,η1) clearly exists. Some logarithmic expressions have been obtained for these negative correlations. These results suggest that the difference in rheological properties between the cross and vertical sections was mainly due to the structural changes of myofibrils and collagen fibrils, and rheological properties are influenced quantitatively by the structural characteristic values for chilling from 0 h to 72 h.

  14. Soft particles at fluid interfaces: wetting, structure, and rheology (United States)

    Isa, Lucio

    Most of our current knowledge concerning the behavior of colloidal particles at fluid interfaces is limited to model spherical, hard and uniform objects. Introducing additional complexity, in terms of shape, composition or surface chemistry or by introducing particle softness, opens up a vast range of possibilities to address new fundamental and applied questions in soft matter systems at fluid interfaces. In this talk I will focus on the role of particle softness, taking the case of core-shell microgels as a paradigmatic example. Microgels are highly swollen and cross-linked hydrogel particles that, in parallel with their practical applications, e.g. for emulsion stabilization and surface patterning, are increasingly used as model systems to capture fundamental properties of bulk materials. Most microgel particles develop a core-shell morphology during synthesis, with a more cross-linked core surrounded by a corona of loosely linked and dangling polymer chains. I will first discuss the difference between the wetting of a hard spherical colloid and a core-shell microgel at an oil-water interface, pinpointing the interplay between adsorption at the interface and particle deformation. I will then move on to discuss the interplay between particle morphology and the microstructure and rheological properties of the interface. In particular, I will demonstrate that synchronizing the compression of a core-shell microgel-laden fluid interface with the deposition of the interfacial monolayer makes it possible to transfer the 2D phase diagram of the particles onto a solid substrate, where different positions correspond to different values of the surface pressure and the specific area. Using atomic force microscopy, we analyzed the microstructure of the monolayer and discovered a phase transition between two crystalline phases with the same hexagonal symmetry, but with two different lattice constants. The two phases correspond to shell-shell or core-core inter

  15. Thermal-rheological structure of the lithosphere beneath two types of basins in eastern and western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良书; 李成; 刘福田; 李华; 卢华复; 刘绍文


    After calculating thermal-rheological properties of the lithosphere in the Northern Jiangsu basin, the Bohaiwan basin as well as the Jiyang depression in the east and Tarim basin in the west of China, this paper analyzes the relationship between thermal-rheological structures and tectonic evolution of the two types of basins. The results show that the thermal-rheoiogical structures of the lithosphere directly reflect the dynamic processes. Under different dynamic environments, the style of basin formation and the differences in basin evolution are closely related to the dynamic properties of the lithosphere indicated by thermal-rheological structures.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Zheng; Min Zuo


    The dynamic rheological measurements have been a preferred approach to the characterization of the structure and properties for multi-component or multi-phase polymer systems, due to its sensitive response to changes of structure for these heterogeneous polymers. In the present article, recent progresses in the studies on dynamic theology for heterogeneous polymer systems including polymeric composites filled with inorganic particles, thermo-oxidized polyolefins, phaseseparated polymeric blends and functional polymers with the scaling and percolation behavior are reviewed, mainly depending on the results by the authors' group. By means of rheological measurements, not only some new fingerprints responsible for the evolution of morphology and structure concerning these polymer systems are obtained, the corresponding results are also significant for the design and preparation of novel polymer-based composites and functional materials.

  17. Longevity and thermo-rheological structure of old lithospheres : key constraints form surface and Moho topography. (United States)

    François, Thomas; Burov, Evgueni


    Surface topography and Moho are the most robust observables that have been insufficiently exploited for containing the rheological and thermal structure and hence for understanding the longevity and eventual destruction of cratons and "tectons". Craton longevity has been often explained by their buoyancy and analysed by testing gravitational stability of cratonic mantle "keels" as a function of the hypothesized plate thickness and thermo-rheological structure. Destruction of some cratons (e.g. North China) and data indicating little if no buoyancy of some tectons (e.g., Arabian shield) suggest that buoyancy is not the only factor of their stability, and previous studies show that their mechanical strength is as important as buoyancy. The upper bounds on this strength are provided by flexural studies demonstrating that Te values (equivalent elastic thickness) in cratons are highest in the world and may probably reach 150 km. Yet, the sensitivity of common methods is poor for Te values above 80 km while the lower bounds on the strength and the equivalent elastic thickness of cratons are still matter of debate. How this strength is partitioned between crust and mantle, and which set of rheological parameters pertain, remain major unknowns. We show that smooth low topography and "frozen" heterogeneous crustal structure of cratons represent the missing constraints for understanding of craton longevity. The cratonic crust is characterized by isostatically misbalanced density heterogeneities, suggesting that the lithosphere has to be strong enough to keep them "frozen" through the time without producing major gravitational instabilities and topographic undulations. Hence, to constrain thermo-rheological properties of cratons one should first investigate the stability of their topography and internal structure (constrained from seismic and gravity data). Our thermo-mechanical numerical experiments accounting for free surface boundary condition demonstrate that craton

  18. Rheological and structural characterization of agar/whey proteins insoluble complexes. (United States)

    Rocha, Cristina M R; Souza, Hiléia K S; Magalhães, Natália F; Andrade, Cristina T; Gonçalves, Maria Pilar


    Complex coacervation between whey proteins and carboxylated or highly sulphated polysaccharides has been widely studied. The aim of this work was to characterise a slightly sulphated polysaccharide (agar) and whey protein insoluble complexes in terms of yield, composition and physicochemical properties as well as to study their rheological behaviour for better understanding their structure. Unlike other sulphated polysaccharides, complexation of agar and whey protein at pH 3 in the absence of a buffering agent resulted in a coacervate that was a gel at 20°C with rheological properties and structure similar to those of simple agar gels, reinforced by proteins electrostatically aggregated to the agar network. The behaviour towards heat treatment was similar to that of agar alone, with a high thermal hysteresis and almost full reversibility. In the presence of citrate buffer, the result was a "flocculated solid", with low water content (75-81%), whose properties were governed by protein behaviour.

  19. Rheological and structural properties of differently acidified and renneted milk gels. (United States)

    Liu, X T; Zhang, H; Wang, F; Luo, J; Guo, H Y; Ren, F Z


    In this study we assessed the rheological and structural properties of differently acidified and renneted milk gels by controlling pH value and renneting extent. Skim milk were exactly renneted to 4 extents (20, 35, 55, and 74%) and then direct acidified to the desired pH (4.8, 5.0, 5.2, 5.5, 5.8, and 6.2), respectively. Rheological properties were assessed by dynamic rheological measurements, structural properties were studied by spontaneous whey separation and confocal laser scanning micrograph, and protein interactions were studied by dissociation test. Results showed that minimally renneted milk samples (20 and 35%) formed weak gels with low storage modulus, and the acidification range within which gels could form was narrow (pH ≤ 5.2). Highly renneted milk samples formed more gels with high storage modulus. The results of this study revealed that acidification determined the structural properties of highly renneted milk gels. As pH increased from 5.0 to 6.2, highly renneted milk gels had lower loss tangent, decreased spontaneous syneresis, and smaller pores. For both the low and high rennetings, divalent calcium bonds contributed less at low pH than at high pH. In conclusion, renneting increased the pH range suitable for gel formation; acidification determined the spontaneous syneresis and microstructure of highly renneted milk gels.

  20. The rheological structure of the lithosphere in the Eastern Marmara region, Turkey (United States)

    Oruç, Bülent; Sönmez, Tuba


    The aim of this work is to propose the geometries of the crustal-lithospheric mantle boundary (Moho) and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) and the 1D thermal structure of the lithosphere, in order to establish a rheological model of the Eastern Marmara region. The average depths of Moho and LAB are respectively 35 km and 51 km from radially averaged amplitude spectra of EGM08 Bouguer anomalies. The geometries of Moho and LAB interfaces are estimated from the Parker-Oldenburg gravity inversion algorithm. Our results show the Moho depth varies from 31 km at the northern part of North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) to 39 km below the mountain belt in the southern part of the NAFZ. The depth to the LAB beneath the same parts of the region ranges from 45 km to 55 km. Having lithospheric strength and thermal boundary layer structure, we analyzed the conditions of development of lithosphere thinning. A two-dimensional strength profile has been estimated for rheology model of the study area. Thus we suggest that the rheological structure consists of a strong upper crust, a weak lower crust, and a partly molten upper lithospheric mantle.

  1. Direct-writing construction of layered meshes from nanoparticles-vaseline composite inks: rheological properties and structures (United States)

    Cai, Kunpeng; Sun, Jingbo; Li, Qi; Wang, Rui; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji


    Direct-writing is superior in the construction of arbitrarily designed three-dimensional (3D) structures. In this work, we develop a series of organic inks doped with nanoparticles to fabricate 3D meshes of interpenetrating rods. The effects of nanoparticle addition on the rheological properties of organic inks were analyzed. The results revealed intelligible relationship between the ink's formability and rheological properties, which could be beneficial to the construction of 3D structures from organic inks by direct writing.

  2. Non-contact tunable damping of a cantilever beam structure embedded with photo-rheological fluids (United States)

    Cho, Min-Young; Kim, Ji-Sik; Choi, Seung-Bok; Kim, Gi-Woo


    This research presents an introduction to non-contact tunable damping using a new class of photo-rheological fluids (PRFs) whose rheological behavior can be changed by using ultraviolet (UV) light. When the PRF is irradiated by UV light, its viscosity decreases; the viscosity recovers to its initial value when UV light is switched off, implying that the viscosity of PRF is reversible and tunable. We demonstrate that UV light can be used to induce the changes in the viscosity of PRFs, and that the proposed method can be successfully applied to realize non-contact tunable damping of vibrating structures. The additional advantages of PRF include no deposition associated with the single-phase solution of PRF and no electro-magnetic interference shielding.

  3. Structure-rheology relations in sodium caseinate containing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, H.G.M.


    The general aim of the work described in this thesis was to investigate structure-rheologyrelations for dairy related products, focusing on model systems containing sodium caseinate. The acid inducedgelationof sodium caseinate, of sodium caseinate

  4. Estimating Rheological Parameters of Anhydrite from Folded Evaporite sequences: Implications for Internal Dynamics of Salt Structure (United States)

    Adamuszek, Marta; Dabrowski, Marcin; Schmalholz, Stefan M.; Urai, Janos L.; Raith, Alexander


    Salt structures have been identified as a potential target for hydrocarbon, CO2, or radioactive waste storage. The most suitable locations for magazines are considered in the thick and relatively homogeneous rock salt layers. However, salt structures often consist of the evaporite sequence including rock salt intercalated with other rock types e.g.: anhydrite, gypsum, potassium and magnesium salt, calcite, dolomite, or shale. The presence of such heterogeneities causes a serious disturbance in the structure management. Detailed analysis of the internal architecture and internal dynamics of the salt structure are crucial for evaluating them as suitable repositories and also their long-term stability. The goal of this study is to analyse the influence of the presence of anhydrite layers on the internal dynamics of salt structures. Anhydrite is a common rock in evaporite sequences. Its physical and mechanical properties strongly differ from the properties of rock salt. The density of anhydrite is much higher than the density of salt, thus anhydrite is likely to sink in salt causing the disturbance of the surrounding structures. This suggestion was the starting point to the discussion about the long-term stability of the magazines in salt structures [1]. However, the other important parameter that has to be taken into account is the viscosity of anhydrite. The high viscosity ratio between salt and anhydrite can restrain the layer from sinking. The rheological behaviour of anhydrite has been studied in laboratory experiments [2], but the results only provide information about the short-term behaviour. The long-term behaviour can be best predicted using indirect methods e.g. based on the analysis of natural structures that developed over geological time scale. One of the most promising are fold structures, the shape of which is very sensitive to the rheological parameters of the deforming materials. Folds can develop in mechanically stratified materials during layer

  5. The vitreous state thermodynamics, structure, rheology, and crystallization

    CERN Document Server

    Gutzow, Ivan S


    This book summarizes the experimental evidence and modern classical and theoretical approaches in understanding the vitreous state, from structural problems, over equilibrium and non-equilibrium thermodynamics, to statistical physics. Glasses, and especially silicate glasses, are only the best known representatives of this particular physical state of matter. Other typical representatives include organic polymer glasses, and many other easily vitrifying organic and inorganic substances, technically important materials, amidst them vitreous water and vitrified aqueous solutions, and also many metallic alloy systems. Some of these systems only form glasses under particular conditions, e.g. through ultra-rapid cooling. This book describes the properties and the formation of both every-day technical glasses and especially of such more exotic forms of vitreous matter. It is a unique source of knowledge and new ideas for materials scientists, engineers and researchers working on condensed matter. The new edition e...

  6. Rheological and structural constraints on the accumulation of 'thick' pseudotachylite (United States)

    Brown, S. R.; Andrews, G. D.; Russell, K.; Gibson, D.


    assumptions/estimates are made for geometry (e.g., a simple, uniformly thin disc), melt temperature, country-rock temperature, and the viscosity of the melt. The whole-rock chemistry of the pseudotachylite, in this case crystallized, approximates that of the melt, and this can then be applied to published models of silicate melt viscosity (e.g., GRD model). Establishing these parameters will allow us to test the feasibility of accumulation of melt during an earthquake event and estimate the minimum volumes generated. This combined with knowledge of the effective viscosity of the melt will be of interest to seismologists and structural geologists who seek to understand the effects of melt generation during active seismicity.

  7. Silver Matrix Composites - Structure and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieczorek J.


    Full Text Available Phase compositions of composite materials determine their performance as well as physical and mechanical properties. Depending on the type of applied matrix and the kind, amount and morphology of the matrix reinforcement, it is possible to shape the material properties so that they meet specific operational requirements. In the paper, results of investigations on silver alloy matrix composites reinforced with ceramic particles are presented. The investigations enabled evaluation of hardness, tribological and mechanical properties as well as the structure of produced materials. The matrix of composite material was an alloy of silver and aluminium, magnesium and silicon. As the reinforcing phase, 20-60 μm ceramic particles (SiC, SiO2, Al2O3 and Cs were applied. The volume fraction of the reinforcing phase in the composites was 10%. The composites were produced using the liquid phase (casting technology, followed by plastic work (the KOBO method. The mechanical and tribological properties were analysed for plastic work-subjected composites. The mechanical properties were assessed based on a static tensile and hardness tests. The tribological properties were investigated under dry sliding conditions. The analysis of results led to determination of effects of the composite production technology on their performance. Moreover, a relationship between the type of reinforcing phase and the mechanical and tribological properties was established.

  8. Predicting structure in nonsymmetric sparse matrix factorizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, J.R. (Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, CA (United States)); Ng, E.G. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))


    Many computations on sparse matrices have a phase that predicts the nonzero structure of the output, followed by a phase that actually performs the numerical computation. We study structure prediction for computations that involve nonsymmetric row and column permutations and nonsymmetric or non-square matrices. Our tools are bipartite graphs, matchings, and alternating paths. Our main new result concerns LU factorization with partial pivoting. We show that if a square matrix A has the strong Hall property (i.e., is fully indecomposable) then an upper bound due to George and Ng on the nonzero structure of L + U is as tight as possible. To show this, we prove a crucial result about alternating paths in strong Hall graphs. The alternating-paths theorem seems to be of independent interest: it can also be used to prove related results about structure prediction for QR factorization that are due to Coleman, Edenbrandt, Gilbert, Hare, Johnson, Olesky, Pothen, and van den Driessche.

  9. Structural Changes and Rheological Properties of Dry Abalone Meat (Haliotis diversicolor) During the Process of Water Restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Changes in tissue structure, rheological property and water content of dry abalone meat in the process of water restoration were studied. The weight and volume of dry abalone meat increased with water restoration. When observed under a light microscope, structural change in myofibrils was obvious and a distinct network was found. When water restoration time increased from 24h to 72h, the instantaneous modulus E0 and viscosity η1 increased, whereas the rupture strength and relaxation time (τ1) were reduced. There were no significant changes of rheological parameters (E0, η1, τ1, rupture strength) from 72 h to 96 h of water restoration. Therefore, the dry abalone meat was swollen enough at the time of 72 h. The rheological parameters were obviously influenced by the structural changes.

  10. Vibration control of a structure using Magneto-Rheological grease damper (United States)

    Sugiyama, Shinya; Sakurai, Tomoki; Morishita, Shin


    This paper describes an application study of Magneto-Rheological (MR) grease damper to a structure with three stories. MR fluid is known as one of successful smart materials whose rheological properties can be varied by magnetic field strength, and has been applied to various kinds of device such as dampers, clutches, engine mounts, etc. However, ferromagnetic particles dispersed in MR fluid settle out of the suspension after a certain interval due to the density difference between the particles and their career fluid. To overcome this defect, we have developed a new type of controllable working fluid using grease as the career of magnetic particles. Network of thickener in grease is expected to hold the magnetic particles and prevent them from settled down. No or little sedimentation was observed in MR grease whose characteristics could be controlled by the magnetic field strength. MR grease was introduced into a cylindrical damper and its performance was studied. As a result, it was confirmed that the damping force of MR grease damper could be controlled by the applied electric current to the coil in the cylinder of damper. Furthermore, vibration response of a three-story model structure equipped with MR grease damper was investigated experimentally, and it was shown that MR grease damper worked effectively as a semi-active damper.

  11. Rheological Properties and Structural Changes in Different Sections of Boiled Abalone Meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xin; TANG Zhixu; ZHANG Zhaohui; Ogawa Hiroo


    Changes in tissue structures, rheological properties of cross- and vertical section boiled abalone meat were studied in relation to boiling time. The adductor muscle of abalone Haliotis discus which was removed from the shell, was boiled for 1, 2, and 3 h, respectively. Then it was cut up and separated into cross- and vertical section meat. When observed by a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope, structural changes in the myofibrils were greatest in the cross section meat compared with the vertical section meat. When boiling time was increased from 1 h to 3 h, the instantaneous modulus E0 and rupture strength of both section meat decreased gradually with increased boiling time, and no significant differences were observed between these two section meat for the same boiling time. When boiled for 1 h, the relaxation time of cross section meat was much longer than that of vertical section meat. There were no significant changes in the relaxation time of vertical section for different boiling time, but the relaxation time of cross section meat was reduced gradually with increasing boiling time. These results confirmed that the difference in rheological properties between the cross- and vertical section meat was mainly due to the denaturation level of myofibrils when heated for 1 h, as well as due to the changes in the amount of denatured proteins, and the manner in which the inner denatured protein components weve exchanged after boiling time was increased from 1 h to 3 h.

  12. Effect of heat-moisture treatment on the structural, physicochemical, and rheological characteristics of arrowroot starch. (United States)

    Pepe, Larissa S; Moraes, Jaqueline; Albano, Kivia M; Telis, Vânia R N; Franco, Célia M L


    The effect of heat-moisture treatment on structural, physicochemical, and rheological characteristics of arrowroot starch was investigated. Heat-moisture treatment was performed with starch samples conditioned to 28% moisture at 100 ℃ for 2, 4, 8, and 16 h. Structural and physicochemical characterization of native and modified starches, as well as rheological assays with gels of native and 4 h modified starches subjected to acid and sterilization stresses were performed. Arrowroot starch had 23.1% of amylose and a CA-type crystalline pattern that changed over the treatment time to A-type. Modified starches had higher pasting temperature and lower peak viscosity while breakdown viscosity practically disappeared, independently of the treatment time. Gelatinization temperature and crystallinity increased, while enthalpy, swelling power, and solubility decreased with the treatment. Gels from modified starches, independently of the stress conditions, were found to have more stable apparent viscosities and higher G' and G″ than gels from native starch. Heat-moisture treatment caused a reorganization of starch chains that increased molecular interactions. This increase resulted in higher paste stability and strengthened gels that showed higher resistance to shearing and heat, even after acid or sterilization conditions. A treatment time of 4 h was enough to deeply changing the physicochemical properties of starch.

  13. The role of rheology, crustal structures and lithology in the seismicity distribution of the northern Apennines (United States)

    Chiaraluce, L.; Barchi, M. R.; Carannante, S.; Collettini, C.; Mirabella, F.; Pauselli, C.; Valoroso, L.


    The Northern Apennines of Italy is a unique area to study active crustal processes due to the availability of high-resolution subsurface geology (deep borehole and seismic profiles) and seismicity (back-ground and seismic sequences) data. In this work we have investigated the relationship between crustal structures and lithologies, rheological profiles and seismicity cut-off by constructing three integrated profiles across the Umbria-Marche Apennines. At first approximation we observe a good correspondence between the background seismicity cut-off and the modelled brittle ductile transition (BDT): 90% of the seismic activity is located above the transition. In the area characterized by active extension, where the majority of the seismicity is occurring, most of the crustal earthquakes are confined within the brittle layer at depth rheology and therefore the position of the brittle ductile transition exerts a role at regional scale for the occurrence of crustal seismicity, however crustal structures and lithology play the major role at a more local scale and therefore they need to be considered for a better understanding of earthquake distribution within the seismogenic layer.

  14. Biopolymer Blends Based on Poly (lactic acid: Shear and Elongation Rheology/Structure/Blowing Process Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racha Al-Itry


    Full Text Available This study was dedicated to the blown film extrusion of poly(lactic acid, which mainly presents poor shear and elongation viscosities, and its blends. In order to enhance its melt strength, two main routes were selected (i a structural modification through chain extension and branching mechanisms by adding a reactive multifunctional epoxide (named Joncryl and (ii blending with poly(butylene adipate-co-terephtalate, named PBAT in presence (or not of Joncryl. The effects of the reactive agent on the shear and elongation rheology, morphological, and interfacial properties of the blends were systematically investigated. A decrease of the interfacial tension has been also demonstrated according to the deformed drop retraction method (DDRM. Hence, the role of Joncryl as a compatibilizer was highlighted. Consequently, finer morphology of the dispersed phase was obtained. Furthermore, the impact of the two modification routes on the blown film extrusion ability of PLA has been studied. Based on the improved shear and elongational rheological properties, a great enlargement of the blowing processing window of PLA modified with Joncryl was demonstrated. Indeed, with the addition of Joncryl into PLA–PBAT blends, a reduction of the instability defects has been detected. Finally, the induced crystalline structure and the thermo-mechanical properties of blown films were shown to be improved.

  15. Polymer matrix nanocomposites for automotive structural components (United States)

    Naskar, Amit K.; Keum, Jong K.; Boeman, Raymond G.


    Over the past several decades, the automotive industry has expended significant effort to develop lightweight parts from new easy-to-process polymeric nanocomposites. These materials have been particularly attractive because they can increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, attempts to reinforce soft matrices by nanoscale reinforcing agents at commercially deployable scales have been only sporadically successful to date. This situation is due primarily to the lack of fundamental understanding of how multiscale interfacial interactions and the resultant structures affect the properties of polymer nanocomposites. In this Perspective, we critically evaluate the state of the art in the field and propose a possible path that may help to overcome these barriers. Only once we achieve a deeper understanding of the structure-properties relationship of polymer matrix nanocomposites will we be able to develop novel structural nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical properties for automotive applications.

  16. Polymer matrix nanocomposites for automotive structural components. (United States)

    Naskar, Amit K; Keum, Jong K; Boeman, Raymond G


    Over the past several decades, the automotive industry has expended significant effort to develop lightweight parts from new easy-to-process polymeric nanocomposites. These materials have been particularly attractive because they can increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, attempts to reinforce soft matrices by nanoscale reinforcing agents at commercially deployable scales have been only sporadically successful to date. This situation is due primarily to the lack of fundamental understanding of how multiscale interfacial interactions and the resultant structures affect the properties of polymer nanocomposites. In this Perspective, we critically evaluate the state of the art in the field and propose a possible path that may help to overcome these barriers. Only once we achieve a deeper understanding of the structure-properties relationship of polymer matrix nanocomposites will we be able to develop novel structural nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical properties for automotive applications.

  17. Nuclear matrix - structure, function and pathogenesis. (United States)

    Wasąg, Piotr; Lenartowski, Robert


    The nuclear matrix (NM), or nuclear skeleton, is the non-chromatin, ribonucleoproteinaceous framework that is resistant to high ionic strength buffers, nonionic detergents, and nucleolytic enzymes. The NM fulfills a structural role in eukaryotic cells and is responsible for maintaining the shape of the nucleus and the spatial organization of chromatin. Moreover, the NM participates in several cellular processes, such as DNA replication/repair, gene expression, RNA transport, cell signaling and differentiation, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis. Short nucleotide sequences called scaffold/matrix attachment regions (S/MAR) anchor the chromatin loops to the NM proteins (NMP). The NMP composition is dynamic and depends on the cell type and differentiation stage or metabolic activity. Alterations in the NMP composition affect anchoring of the S/MARs and thus alter gene expression. This review aims to systematize information about the skeletal structure of the nucleus, with particular emphasis on the organization of the NM and its role in selected cellular processes. We also discuss several diseases that are caused by aberrant NM structure or dysfunction of individual NM elements.

  18. Altered permeability barrier structure in cholesteatoma matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane-Knudsen, Viggo; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars; Rasmussen, Gurli


    The stratum corneum of the cholesteatoma epithelium comprises the greater part of the cholesteatoma matrix. The permeability barrier that militates against diffusion and penetration of infectious and toxic agents into and through the epithelium is situated here. The multiple long sheets of lamellar...... lipid structures filling the intercellular spaces mainly control the barrier function. The barrier in cholesteatoma epithelium is several times thicker than in unaffected skin but presents distinctive features of a defective barrier as seen in other scaling skin diseases. The intercellular spaces appear...

  19. Thermal-rheological structure of the lithosphere beneath Jiyang Depression: Its implications for geodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shaowen; WANG Liangshu; GONG Yuling; LI Cheng; LI Hua; HAN Yongbing


    Jiyang Depression, located in the southeast Bohai Bay Basin, has the geomorphologic framework of multiple uplifts intervening with sags. Combined the abundant geo-temperature data and thermo-physical parameters of rock samples derived from oil and gas exploration during the past years, with geothermal approaches, here we investigate the lithospheric thermal regime of this depression. Consequently, based on the obtained thermal structure of the lithosphere, along with rheological modeling, the lithospheric rheological profiles of Jiyang Depression are then determined. Our results show that the temperature at the bottom of sedimentary cover within depression varies from 129℃ to 298℃, accompanied with the basement heat flow ranging between 54.3 and 60.5 mW/m2; and 406℃-436℃ for temperature at the bottom of the upper crust, along with heat flow varying from 47.7 to 52.6 mW/m2; while the temperature at the bottom of the middle crust is between 537℃ and 572℃, as well as heat flow ranging from 41.3 to 56.3 mW/m2. The temperature at Moho ranges from 669℃ to 721℃, the heat flow derived from mantle is between 38.1 and 43.1 mW/m2, and calculated thickness of the thermal lithosphere beneath depression varies from 71 to 90 km. Lithospheric thermal regime is a close correlation with such factors as crustal thickness and surface heat flow, etc. Usually, the larger the surface heat flow, the larger the deep temperature and heat flow within lithosphere, and the thinner the thermal lithospheric thickness. This high thermal regime of the lithosphere in Jiyang Depression is thought to be related to Cenozoic back-arc spreading during the western Pacific plate subduction into Eurasian continent. Lithospheric rheological modeling shows that the lithosphere in Jiyang Depression is characterized by its distinct rheological stratification as follows: The upper and most part of the middle crust are of brittle, while the lower crust and the lower part of middle crust are all

  20. The effects of surface functionalization on rheology, structure and transport properties of nanocomposites (United States)

    Ranka, Moulik A.

    In this thesis, the effects of surface functionalization using hydrophobic silanes on properties of nanocomposites comprising 42 nm silica particles suspended in a melt of polyethylene-glycol (PEG) are studied using rheological, static and dynamic x-ray scattering studies. The nanocomposites are studied in the low molecular weight unentangled (PEG-400) and high molecular weight entangled (PEG-20000) regimes. We find no differences in the properties of the bare and silanized particles in the low volume fraction regime up to where the interparticle separation distance h > 6Rg. In the region of 6Rg > h > 3Rg (5Rg > h > 3Rg, in case of entangled melts), we find substantial differences in the rheological, structure and transport properties when comparing the bare and silanized particles. In the unentangled melts, we observe up to four orders of magnitude drop in the viscosity of the composites at the highest levels of silanization and observe shear thinning behavior that is unlike what is universally seen for hard spheres. For the entangled melts, a yield stress is observed for the silanized particles that is absent in the case of the bare particles and there is a divergence in the elastic modulus in comparison to bare particles. We observe an anomalous speed up in the density relaxations and an associated maxima in structure properties in the case of unentangled melts which has been reported previously for particles experiencing soft repulsive potentials. A clear reentrant behavior in structure and transport properties is observed for bare particles in the entangled melts that have been previously reported for particles interacting with soft repulsive potentials such as square shoulder and ramp potentials. In the silanized systems, the density relaxation times although lower than bare particles, is ii unaffected by increasing volume fraction up to h ~ 3Rg and is decoupled from the structure properties which are non-monotonic similar to bare particles. In the region of

  1. Rheological properties of soil: a review (United States)

    Zhu, Guangli; Zhu, Long; Yu, Chao


    Recently rheological methods have been applied to investigate the mechanical properties of soil micro-structure. Rheological techniques have a number of quantitative physically based measurements and offer a better understanding of how soil micro-structure behaves when subject to stress. Rheological material is refers to deformation properties similar to the solid and flow properties similar to the liquid of bound water and colloidal substances under stress. Soil rheology is divided into fluid rheology and plasticity rheology. Fluid rheology is produced by rheological material. Plasticity rheology mainly refers to the sliding and peristaltic between soil solid particles under shear stress. It is generally believed that the soft soil rheology mainly belongs to fluid rheology, while the rheology of sand and other coarse grained soil mainly belongs to plasticity rheology. Thus, rheology mechanisms of soft soil and sand are different. This paper introduces the methods of the research progress on the rheology of soil, in the soil rheological mechanism, rheological model and rheological numerical aspects of the research at home and abroad were summarized and analysed, discussed the problems existed in related research, and puts forward some suggestions for the future study on the rheology of soil.

  2. Solvent-mediated gel formation, hierarchical structures, and rheological properties of organogels. (United States)

    Su, Ming-Ming; Yang, Hai-Kuan; Ren, Li-Jun; Zheng, Ping; Wang, Wei


    We report the formation of solvent-mediated gels as well as their hierarchical structures and rheological properties. The gelator used is a hybrid with a molecular structure of cholesterol-polyoxometalate-cholesterol, in which the cholesterol dissolves well in toluene and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), whereas the polyoxometalate cluster dissolves only in DMF. These solubility differences enable the gelator to form thermally reversible supramolecular organogels by mixing solvents of toluene and DMF when the volume fraction, ftol, of toluene is larger than 85.7 v/v%. We found a V-shaped correlation between the gelation times, tgel and ftol: tgel decreases from 1300 min to 2 min when ftol increases from 85.7 v/v% to 90.0 v/v%. It then increases from 2 min to 5800 min when ftol further increases from 90.0 v/v% to 100.0 v/v%. We observed ribbon-like self-assembled structures in the gels as well as a structural evolution from rigid and straight ribbons to twistable ones from ftol=85.7 v/v% to ftol=100.0 v/v%. These ribbons constitute two three-dimensional (3D) gel networks: one is constructed via physical connection of the rigid and straight ribbon, and the other is built up from ribbons splitting and intertwining. The latter has a better 3D gel network that offers improved rheological properties. Fundamentally, this solvent-mediated approach regulates the balance between solubility and insolubility of this gelator in the mixing solvents. It also provides a new method for the preparation of organogels.

  3. Structure and rheology of colloidal particle gels: insight from computer simulation. (United States)

    Dickinson, Eric


    A particle gel is a network of aggregated colloidal particles with soft solid-like mechanical properties. Its structural and rheological properties, and the kinetics of its formation, are dependent on the sizes and shapes of the constituent particles, the volume fraction of the particles, and the nature of the interactions between the particles before, during and after gelation. Particle gels may be permanent or transient depending on whether the colloidal forces between the aggregating particles lead to irreversible bonding or weak reversible interactions. With short-range reversible interactions, network formation is typically associated with phase separation or kinetic arrest due to particle crowding. Much existing knowledge has been derived from computer simulations of idealized model systems containing spherical particles interacting with well-defined pair potentials. The status of current progress is reviewed here by summarizing the underlying methodology and key findings from a range of simulation approaches: Monte Carlo, molecular dynamics, Brownian dynamics, Stokesian dynamics, dissipative particle dynamics, multiparticle collision dynamics, and fluid particle dynamics. Then it is described how the technique of Brownian dynamics simulation, in particular, has provided detailed insight into how different kinds of bonding and weak reversible interactions can affect the aggregate fractal structure, the percolation behaviour, and the small-deformation rheological properties of network-forming colloidal systems. A significant ongoing development has been the establishment and testing of efficient algorithms that are able to capture the subtle dynamic structuring effects that arise from effects of interparticle hydrodynamic interactions. This has led to an appreciation recently of the potentially important role of these particle-particle hydrodynamic effects in controlling the evolving morphology of simulated colloidal aggregates and in defining the location of

  4. Mashed potatoes enriched with soy protein isolate and inulin: chemical, rheological and structural basis. (United States)

    Alvarez, M D; Olivares, M D; Blanch, M; Canet, W


    Soy protein isolate is typical vegetable protein with health-enhancing activities. Inulin, a prebiotic no digestible carbohydrate, has functional properties. A mashed potato serving of 200 g with added soy protein isolate and/or inulin concentrations of 15-60 g/kg provides from 3 to 12 g of soy protein isolate and/or inulin, respectively. Currently, no information is available about the possible texture-modifying effect of this non-ionizable polar carbohydrate in different soy-based food systems. In this study, the effect of the addition of soy protein isolate and inulin blends at different soy protein isolate: inulin ratios on the degree of inulin polymerization and the rheological and structural properties of fresh mashed and frozen/thawed mashed potatoes were evaluated. The inulin chemical structure remained intact throughout the various treatments, and soy protein isolate did not affect inulin composition being a protein compatible with this fructan. Small-strain rheology showed that both ingredients behaved like soft fillers. In the frozen/thawed mashed potatoes samples, addition of 30 : 30 and 15 : 60 blend ratios significantly increased elasticity (G' value) compared with 0 : 0 control, consequently reducing the freeze/thaw stability conferred by the cryoprotectants. Inulin crystallites caused a significant strengthening effect on soy protein isolate gel. Micrographs revealed that soy protein isolate supports the inulin structure by building up a second fine-stranded network. Thereby, possibility of using soy protein isolate and inulin in combination with mashed potatoes to provide a highly nutritious and healthy product is promising.

  5. Significance of Wheat Flour Dough Rheology to Gas Cell Structure Development in Bread and Other Baked Products (United States)

    Engmann, Jan


    We discuss which rheological material functions of wheat flour dough are most relevant for structure development in baked products under common processing conditions. We consider the growth of gas cells during dough proofing (driven by yeast) and during baking, where the growth is driven by a combination of CO2 desorption, water and ethanol evaporation, and thermal expansion of gas. Attention is given to upper limits on biaxial extension rate and stress and the consequences for the required rheological material functions. The applicability of the "Considère criterion" to predict the probability of coalescence between gas cells and its effect on loaf aeration is briefly discussed.

  6. Nonlinear oscillatory rheology and structure of wormlike micellar solutions and colloidal suspensions (United States)

    Gurnon, Amanda Kate

    this constitutive model are tested by comparison with experiments on model WLM solutions. Further comparisons to the nonlinear oscillatory shear responses measured from colloidal suspensions establishes this analysis as a promising, quantitative method for understanding the underlying mechanisms responsible for the nonlinear dynamic response of complex fluids. A new experimental technique is developed to measure the microstructure of complex fluids during steady and transient shear flow using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The Flow-SANS experimental method is now available to the broader user communities at the NIST Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, MD and the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France. Using this new method, a model shear banding WLM solution is interrogated under steady and oscillatory shear. For the first time, the flow-SANS methods identify new metastable states for shear banding WLM solutions, thus establishing the method as capable of probing new states not accessible using traditional steady or linear oscillatory shear methods. The flow-induced three-dimensional microstructure of a colloidal suspension under steady and dynamic oscillatory shear is also measured using these rheo- and flow-SANS methods. A new structure state is identified in the shear thickening regime that proves critical for defining the "hydrocluster" microstructure state of the suspension that is responsible for shear thickening. For both the suspensions and the WLM solutions, stress-SANS rules with the measured microstructures define the individual stress components arising separately from conservative and hydrodynamic forces and these are compared with the macroscopic rheology. Analysis of these results defines the crucial length- and time-scales of the transient microstructure response. The novel dynamic microstructural measurements presented in this dissertation provide new insights into the complexities of shear thickening and shear banding flow phenomena

  7. Characterization of gum ghatti (Anogeissus latifolia): a structural and rheological approach. (United States)

    Kaur, Lovedeep; Singh, Jaspreet; Singh, Harjinder


    Gatifolia, a commercial gum ghatti (Anogeissus latifolia) product was studied for its structural, thermal, and rheological characteristics. This study may prove helpful for the use of gum ghatti in a diverse range of food applications. The molecular weight (M(W)) and R(g) (radius of gyration) for gum ghatti were calculated to be approximately 8.94 x 10(7) g/mol and 140 nm, respectively, using high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) system combined with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS). Gum ghatti solutions exhibited pseudoplastic behavior (as determined by flow experiments), which became more prevalent with increasing concentrations. Gum ghatti also displayed time-dependent shear-thickening behavior and showed negative hysteresis during up-down flow measurements. Under the measurement conditions at the range of frequencies and temperatures studied, the gum did not behave as a typical viscoelastic gel.

  8. LDH dye hybrid material as coloured filler into polystyrene: Structural characterization and rheological properties (United States)

    Taviot-Gueho, C.; Illaik, A.; Vuillermoz, C.; Commereuc, S.; Verney, V.; Leroux, F.


    The organic inorganic hybrid assembly composed of a dye molecule of large size, direct yellow®50, as interleaved anionic molecule and layered double hydroxide host was investigated by X-ray diffraction. Upon hydrothermal post-synthesis treatment, the basal spacing is strongly decreased, explained by a drastic change in the orientation of the organic molecule against the LDH sheets, from perpendicular to parallel. The interactions were studied by 13C CPMAS NMR technique. Dispersed into polystyrene, the coloured filler was found to behave better in the viscoelastic domain than conventional surfactant LDH filler, maintaining similar rheological properties to filler-free PS. We demonstrate here that an intercalated nanocomposite polymer structure, providing an additional function as colour, is not preposterous.

  9. Polysaccharides As Viscosupplementation Agents: Structural Molecular Characteristics but Not Rheology Appear Crucial to the Therapeutic Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita C. Machado


    Full Text Available IntroductionMost clinical studies and basic research document viscosupplementation (VS in terms of effectiveness and safety, but only a few highlight its molecular mechanisms of action. Besides, there is generally focus on hyaluronic acid (HA as being the most relevant polysaccharide to reach the clinical endpoints, attributing its effect mainly to its unique viscoelastic properties, related to a high-molecular weight and gel formulation. Usually, studies do not approach the possible biological pathways where HA may interfere, and there is a lack of reports on other biocompatible polysaccharides that could be of use in VS.AimWe briefly review the main proposed mechanisms of action of intra-articular hyaluronic acid (IA-HA treatment and discuss its effectiveness focusing on the role of rheological and intrinsic structural molecular properties of polysaccharides in providing a therapeutic effect.MethodsWe conducted a literature search using PubMed database to find articles dealing with the mechanisms of action of IA-HA treatment and/or emphasizing how the structural properties of the polysaccharide used influenced the clinical outcomes.Discussion/conclusionHA is involved in numerous biochemical interactions that may explain the clinical benefits of VS, most of them resulting from HA–cluster of differentiation 44 receptor interaction. There are other important aspects apart from the molecular size or the colloidal state of the IA-HA involved in VS efficiency that still need to be consolidated. Indeed, it seems that clinical response may be dependent on the intrinsic properties of the polysaccharide, regardless of being HA, rather than to rheology, posing some controversy to previous beliefs.

  10. Implementation of a Matrix Organizational Structure: A Case Study. (United States)

    Whorton, David M.

    The implementation of a matrix structure as an alternative to the traditional collegial/bureaucratic form at a college of education in a medium-size state university is described. Matrix organizational structures are differentiated from hierarchical bureaucratic structures by dividing the organization's tasks into functional units across which an…

  11. Evolution of rheologically heterogeneous salt structures: a case study from the northeast of the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A F. Raith


    Full Text Available At the first order salt structures are controlled by the low flow strength of evaporites and by the tectonic boundary conditions. Rheological contrasts within an evaporite body have an important effect on the evolution of the internal structure of salt, but how this mechanical layering affects salt deformation at different scales is not well known. The potassium–magnesium salts (K-Mg salts carnallite and bischofite are prime examples of layers with much lower effective viscosity than rock salt: their low viscosity presents serious drilling hazards but also allows squeeze solution mining. In contrast, anhydrite and carbonate layers (stringers in salt are much stronger than halite. In this study, we used high-resolution 3-D seismic and well data to study the evolution of the Veendam and Slochteren salt pillows at the southern boundary of the Groningen High, northern Netherlands. Here the rock salt layers contain both the mechanically stronger Zechstein III Anhydrite–Carbonate stringer and the weaker K-Mg salts, providing an example of extreme rheological heterogeneities in salt structures. The internal structure of the two salt pillows shows areas in which the K-Mg salt-rich ZIII 1b layer is much thicker than elsewhere, in combination with a complexly ruptured and folded ZIII Anhydrite–Carbonate stringer. Thickness maps of supra-salt sediments and well data are used to infer the initial depositional architecture of the K-Mg salts and their deformation history. Results suggest that active faulting and the resulting depressions of the Zechstein surface above a Rotliegend graben caused the local accumulation of bittern brines and precipitation of the thick K-Mg salts. During the first phase of salt flow and withdrawal from the Veendam area, under differential loading by Buntsandstein sediments, the ZIII stringer was boudinaged while the lens of Mg salts remained relatively undeformed. This was followed by a convergence stage, when the K-Mg salt

  12. Identification of structure and parameters of rheological constitutive model for rocks using differential evolution algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏国韶; 张小飞; 陈光强; 符兴义


    To determine structure and parameters of a rheological constitutive model for rocks,a new method based on differential evolution(DE) algorithm combined with FLAC3D(a numerical code for geotechnical engineering) was proposed for identification of the global optimum coupled of model structure and its parameters.At first,stochastic coupled mode was initialized,the difference in displacement between the numerical value and in-situ measurements was regarded as fitness value to evaluate quality of the coupled mode.Then the coupled-mode was updated continually using DE rule until the optimal parameters were found.Thus,coupled-mode was identified adaptively during back analysis process.The results of applications to Jinping tunnels in China show that the method is feasible and efficient for identifying the coupled-mode of constitutive structure and its parameters.The method overcomes the limitation of the traditional method and improves significantly precision and speed of displacement back analysis process.

  13. Structural and Rheological Properties of Temperature-Responsive Amphiphilic Triblock Copolymers in Aqueous Media. (United States)

    Nielsen, Josefine Eilsø; Zhu, Kaizheng; Sande, Sverre Arne; Kováčik, Lubomír; Cmarko, Dušan; Knudsen, Kenneth D; Nyström, Bo


    Thermoresponsive amphiphilic biodegradable block copolymers of the type poly(ε-caprolactone-co-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone-co-lactide) (PCLA-PEGm-PCLA) have great potential for various biomedical applications. In the present study, we have surveyed the effects of PEG spacer length (m = 1000 and 1500), temperature, and polymer concentration on the self-assembling process to form supramolecular structures in aqueous solutions of the PCLA-PEGm-PCLA copolymer. This copolymer has a lower critical solution temperature, and the cloud point depends on both concentration and PEG length. Thermoreversible hydrogels are formed in the semidilute regime; the gel windows in the phase diagrams can be tuned by the concentration and length of the PEG spacer. The rheological properties of both dilute and semidilute samples were characterized; especially the sol-to-gel transition was examined. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments reveal fundamental structural differences between the two copolymers for both dilute and semidilute samples. The intensity profiles for the copolymer with the long PEG spacer could be described by a spherical core-shell model over a broad temperature domain, whereas the copolymer with the short hydrophilic spacer forms rod-like species over an extended temperature range. This finding is supported by cryo-TEM images. At temperatures approaching macroscopic phase separation, both copolymers seem to assume extended rod-like structures.

  14. Control of rheological and structural properties cement stone at the nanomodification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernishov Evgeny Mihalovich


    Full Text Available The efficiency of the use of nanotechnology solutions specially grown nanoparticles to regulate the rheological properties, the kinetics of setting and hardening of the modified cement stone. Modification of the cement stone structure was carried out using the synthesized authors complex nanomodifier (CNA on the basis of SiO2 nanopar-ticles and superplasticizer GLENIUM®ACE 30 based on polycarboxylate. The originality of the author's approach is the method of synthesis and the method of administration of complex nanomodifier based on SiO2. CNA was prepared in an aqueous medium, which is then used both as a cement mixing water system. It was found that the use of the synthesized CNA reduces the viscosity of the cement paste is 1.5 times, extends the setting time, provides in the first days of hardening strength increase by 4.5 times in comparison with the unmodified system. It is important that the optimum dosage of CNA is only 0.01% by weight of cement. Achieved effects are associated with the manifestation of the role of structure particles embryos substrate for crystallization centers tumors zoning.

  15. Covariance, correlation matrix, and the multiscale community structure of networks. (United States)

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi; Fang, Bin-Xing


    Empirical studies show that real world networks often exhibit multiple scales of topological descriptions. However, it is still an open problem how to identify the intrinsic multiple scales of networks. In this paper, we consider detecting the multiscale community structure of network from the perspective of dimension reduction. According to this perspective, a covariance matrix of network is defined to uncover the multiscale community structure through the translation and rotation transformations. It is proved that the covariance matrix is the unbiased version of the well-known modularity matrix. We then point out that the translation and rotation transformations fail to deal with the heterogeneous network, which is very common in nature and society. To address this problem, a correlation matrix is proposed through introducing the rescaling transformation into the covariance matrix. Extensive tests on real world and artificial networks demonstrate that the correlation matrix significantly outperforms the covariance matrix, identically the modularity matrix, as regards identifying the multiscale community structure of network. This work provides a novel perspective to the identification of community structure and thus various dimension reduction methods might be used for the identification of community structure. Through introducing the correlation matrix, we further conclude that the rescaling transformation is crucial to identify the multiscale community structure of network, as well as the translation and rotation transformations.

  16. [Molecular Dynamics of Self-assembling and Rheology of Superhelical Structure of Protofiber of Spider Web]. (United States)

    Shaitan, K V; Orshanskiy, I A


    In this study we suggested a dynamics simulation for the formation of protofiber of spider web nanofiber. It was shown that a bundle of parallel polyalanine β-strands of sufficient length is arranged through self-assembly into a stable right-handed super helix. By numerical analysis we investigated the rheological properties and provided in nonlinear regime a generalization of the model of Singer for description of the rheological behaviour of super helix.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new algorithm of structure random response numerical characteristics, named as matrix algebra algorithm of structure analysis is presented.Using the algorithm, structure random response numerical characteristics can easily be got by directly solving linear matrix equations rather than structure motion differential equations.Moreover, in order to solve the corresponding linear matrix equations, the numerical integration fast algorithm is presented.Then according to the results, dynamic design and life-span estimation can be done.Besides, the new algorithm can solve non-proportion damp structure response.

  18. Controlling the structure and rheology of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose in zinc chloride aqueous suspensions for fabricating advanced nanopaper (United States)

    Wang, Sha; Zhang, Xin; Hu, Liangbing; Briber, Robert; Wang, Howard; Zhong, Linxin

    Due to its abundance, low-cost, biocompatibility and renewability, cellulose has become an attractive candidate as a functional material for various advanced applications. A key to novel applications is the control of the structure and rheology of suspensions of fibrous cellulose. Among many different approaches of preparing cellulose suspensions, zinc chloride addition to aqueous suspensions is regarded an effective practice. In this study, effects of ZnCl2 concentration on TEMPO-oxidized cellulose (TOC) nanofiber suspensions have been investigated. Highly-transparent cellulose nanofiber suspension can be rapidly obtained by dissolving TOC in 65 wt.% zinc chloride aqueous solutions at room temperature, whereas a transparent zinc ion cross-linked TOC gel could be obtained with zinc chloride concentration as low as 10 wt. %. The structural and rheological characteristics of TOC/ZnCl2 suspensions have been measured to correlate to the performance of thetransparent and flexible nanocellulose paper subsequently produced via vacuum filtration or wet-casting processes.

  19. Structural Features of Alkaline Extracted Polysaccharide from the Seeds of Plantago asiatica L. and Its Rheological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Yi Yin


    Full Text Available Polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. has many bioactivities, but few papers report on the structural and rheological characteristics of the alkaline extract. The alkaline extracted polysaccharide was prepared from seeds of P. asiatica L. and named herein as alkaline extracted polysaccharide from seeds of P. asiatica L. (PLAP. Its structural and rheological properties were characterized by monosaccharide composition, methylation, GC-MS and rheometry. PLAP, as an acidic arabinoxylan, was mainly composed of 1,2,4-linked Xylp and 1,3,4-linked Xylp residues. PLAP solution showed pseudoplastic behavior, and weak gelling properties at high concentration. Sodium and especially calcium ions played a significant role in increasing the apparent viscosity and gel strength.

  20. Role of disulphide linkages between protein-coated lipid droplets and the protein matrix in the rheological properties of porcine myofibrillar protein-peanut oil emulsion composite gels. (United States)

    Wu, Mangang; Xiong, Youling L; Chen, Jie


    The objective of the study was to establish disulphide interaction between protein-coated oil droplets and the surrounding protein matrix in myofibrillar protein (MP)-emulsion composite gels. An MP-stabilized peanut oil emulsion was treated with 0, 1, 3, 5 and 10 mM N-ethylmaleimide (NEM, a sulphydryl-blocking agent) and subsequently incorporated into a bulk MP sol to produce 5%-lipid, 2%-protein composites at pH 6.2. About 69% of sulphydryls in the emulsion (1% protein) were blocked by 1 mM NEM, and almost all were bound at ≥3 mM NEM. The loss of free sulphydryls resulted in a significant drop in the storage modulus (G') and rupture force of the composite gels. Microstructural examination revealed pores and oil leakage from emulsion droplets by NEM treatments, corresponding to declining rheological properties of the MP-emulsion composites. The results supported the hypothesis that disulphide cross-linking between MP-coated oil droplets and protein matrix contributed to the stabilization and reinforcement of protein-emulsion composite gels formed in comminuted muscle foods.

  1. A Computational Study of the Rheology and Structure of Surfactant Covered Droplets (United States)

    Maia, Joao; Boromand, Arman

    Using different types of surface-active agents are ubiquitous in different industrial applications ranging from cosmetic and food industries to polymeric nano-composite and blends. This allows to produce stable multiphasic systems like foams and emulsions whose stability and shelf-life are directly determined by the efficiency and the type of the surfactant molecules. Moreover, presence and self-assembly of these species on an interface will display complex dynamics and structural evolution under different processing conditions. Analogous to bulk rheology of complex systems, surfactant covered interfaces will response to an external mechanical forces or deformation differently depends on the molecular configuration and topology of the system constituents. Although the effect of molecular configuration of the surface-active molecules on the planar interfaces has been studied both experimentally and computationally, it remains challenging from both experimental and computational aspects to track efficiency and effectiveness of different surfactant molecules with different molecular geometries on curved interfaces. Using Dissipative Particle Dynamics, we have studies effectiveness and efficiency of different surfactant molecules on a curved interface in equilibrium and far from equilibrium. Interfacial tension is calculated for linear and branched surfactant with different hydrophobic and hydrophilic tail and head groups with different branching densities. Deformation parameter and Taylor plots are obtained for individual surfactant molecules under shear flow.

  2. Advances in biomimetic regeneration of elastic matrix structures. (United States)

    Sivaraman, Balakrishnan; Bashur, Chris A; Ramamurthi, Anand


    Elastin is a vital component of the extracellular matrix, providing soft connective tissues with the property of elastic recoil following deformation and regulating the cellular response via biomechanical transduction to maintain tissue homeostasis. The limited ability of most adult cells to synthesize elastin precursors and assemble them into mature crosslinked structures has hindered the development of functional tissue-engineered constructs that exhibit the structure and biomechanics of normal native elastic tissues in the body. In diseased tissues, the chronic overexpression of proteolytic enzymes can cause significant matrix degradation, to further limit the accumulation and quality (e.g., fiber formation) of newly deposited elastic matrix. This review provides an overview of the role and importance of elastin and elastic matrix in soft tissues, the challenges to elastic matrix generation in vitro and to regenerative elastic matrix repair in vivo, current biomolecular strategies to enhance elastin deposition and matrix assembly, and the need to concurrently inhibit proteolytic matrix disruption for improving the quantity and quality of elastogenesis. The review further presents biomaterial-based options using scaffolds and nanocarriers for spatio-temporal control over the presentation and release of these biomolecules, to enable biomimetic assembly of clinically relevant native elastic matrix-like superstructures. Finally, this review provides an overview of recent advances and prospects for the application of these strategies to regenerating tissue-type specific elastic matrix structures and superstructures.

  3. Theory of rheology (United States)

    Hutton, J. F.


    The structure of the modern theory of rheology is discussed to show the assumptions and limitations. Rheology is discussed as a branch of continuum mechanics to determine the relationships between stress, strain, and strain rate which will give a closer representation of lubricant properties than the Newtonian flow equation. Rheology is also investigated as a branch of chemical physics. Consideration is limited to those theories of nonpolymeric and polymeric fluids which can represent viscoelasticity in terms of identifiable and measureable molecular characteristics. The possibility that elastic liquids may rupture in shear and linear tension analogous to the failure of solids is proposed.

  4. Structural and rheological characterizations of nanoparticles of environment-sensitive hydrophobic alginate in aqueous solution. (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Li, Jiacheng; Feng, Yuhong; He, Furui; Zhou, Qingfeng; Xiao, Dunchao; Tang, Yiyuan


    Amphiphilic polymers that form self-assembled structures in aqueous media have been investigated and used for the diagnosis and therapy of various diseases, including cancer. In our work, a series of environment-sensitive hydrophobic alginates (Ugi-Alg) with various weight-average molecular mass values (Mw~6.7×10(5)-6.7×10(4)g/mol) were synthesized via Ugi reaction. The structure of Ugi-Alg was characterized by (1)HNMR spectrometer. The electrostatic self-assembly of different molecular weight (Mw) and composition (M/G ratio) of Ugi-Alg chain under various Na(+) concentrations, was investigated by dynamic light scattering, electron spin resonance experiments, and transmission electron microscopy. Result showed that by comparing to other Ugi-Alg, the mid-Mw Ugi-Alg (Mw~2.8×10(5)g/mol) could form stable and homogeneous nanoparticles in low Na(+) concentration solution. However, G/M values exerted no obvious effect on nanoparticles structure. Additionally, steady-shear flow, thixotropy and dynamical viscoelasticity tests were performed to characterize the rheological behavior of Ugi-Alg aqueous solutions as influenced by Mw and M/G ratio. All of the samples exhibited a non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior above a critical shear rate (γ̇c2). The greater the Mw, the more sensitive the temperature-dependent behavior will be. The upward-downward rheograms showed that all of the systems evaluated in this study displayed a hysteresis loop, indicating a strong thixotropic behavior, and the thixotropic of mid-Mw Ugi-Alg was the strongest. The dynamical viscoelastic properties were characterized by oscillatory frequency sweep, revealing the gel-like viscoelastic behavior of mid-low Ugi-Alg and the fluid-like viscoelastic behavior of high-Mw Ugi-Alg. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Structure and assembly of a paramyxovirus matrix protein. (United States)

    Battisti, Anthony J; Meng, Geng; Winkler, Dennis C; McGinnes, Lori W; Plevka, Pavel; Steven, Alasdair C; Morrison, Trudy G; Rossmann, Michael G


    Many pleomorphic, lipid-enveloped viruses encode matrix proteins that direct their assembly and budding, but the mechanism of this process is unclear. We have combined X-ray crystallography and cryoelectron tomography to show that the matrix protein of Newcastle disease virus, a paramyxovirus and relative of measles virus, forms dimers that assemble into pseudotetrameric arrays that generate the membrane curvature necessary for virus budding. We show that the glycoproteins are anchored in the gaps between the matrix proteins and that the helical nucleocapsids are associated in register with the matrix arrays. About 90% of virions lack matrix arrays, suggesting that, in agreement with previous biological observations, the matrix protein needs to dissociate from the viral membrane during maturation, as is required for fusion and release of the nucleocapsid into the host's cytoplasm. Structure and sequence conservation imply that other paramyxovirus matrix proteins function similarly.

  6. High performance SMC matrix for structural applications (United States)

    Salard, T.; Lortie, F.; Gérard, J. F.; Peyre, C.


    Mechanical properties of a common SMC (Sheet Molding Compound) matrix constituted of a vinylester resin and a Low-Profile Additive (LPA) were compared to those of vinylester modified with core-shell rubber (CSR) particles. Valuable properties are brought by CSR, especially high impact strength, high fracture toughness with little loss in stiffness, in spite of the presence of CSR agglomerates in blends.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-hong Guo; Zheng-ping Fang


    Dynamic rheological analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (P'TIR) were used to study the effects of thermo-oxidation on the viscoelasticity and microstructure of polyolefin elastomers (POE).It was found that dynamic storage modulus (G') and dynamic loss modulus (G') at low frequency region can sensitively reflect the change of microstructure of POE,which can be seen through the "second plateau" appeared in G' versus co plots at low frequencies.The frequency dependence of loss tangent (tanδ) measured under different frequency sweeps showed that the thermo-oxidative behaviors of POE relied on the holding time.The dynamic rheology test was found to be a sensitive technique for analyzing the structural changes during thermo-oxidation of polymers.

  8. Effect of dextran and dextran sulfate on the structural and rheological properties of model acid milk gels. (United States)

    Pachekrepapol, U; Horne, D S; Lucey, J A


    Various types of polysaccharides are widely used in cultured dairy products. However, the interaction mechanisms, between milk proteins and these polysaccharides, are not entirely clear. To explore the interactions between uncharged and charged polysaccharides and the caseins, we used a model acid-milk-gel system, which allowed acidification to occur separately from gelation. The effect of adding uncharged dextran (DX; molecular weight ~2.0×10(6) Da) and negatively charged dextran sulfate (DS; molecular weight ~1.4×10(6) Da) to model acid milk gels was studied. Two concentrations (0.075 and 0.5%, wt/wt) of DX or DS were added to cold milk (~0°C) that had been acidified to pH values 4.4, 4.6, 4.8, or 4.9. Acidified milks containing DX or DS were then quiescently heated at the rate of 0.5°C/min to 30°C, which induced gelation, and gels were then held at 30°C for 17 h to facilitate gel development. Dynamic small-amplitude-oscillation rheology and large-deformation (shear) tests were performed. Microstructure of gels was examined by fluorescence microscopy. Gels made with a high concentration of DX gelled at a lower temperature, but after 17 h at 30°C, these gels exhibited lower storage moduli and lower yield-stress values. At pH 4.8 or 4.9 (pH values greater than the isoelectric point of caseins), addition of 0.5% DS to acidified milk resulted in lower gelation temperature. At pH 4.4 (pH values less than the isoelectric point of caseins), addition of 0.5% DS to acidified milk resulted in gels with very high stiffness values. Gels made at pH 4.8 or 4.9 with both concentrations of DS had much lower stiffness and yield-stress values than control gels. Microstructural analysis indicated that gels made at pH 4.4 with the addition of 0.5% DX exhibited large protein strands and pores, whereas gels made with 0.075% DX or the control gels had a finer protein matrix. At higher pH values (>4.4), gels made with 0.5% DX had a finer structure. At all pH values, gels made

  9. Shear rheology of mixed protein adsorption layers vs their structure studied by surface force measurements. (United States)

    Danov, Krassimir D; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Radulova, Gergana M; Basheva, Elka S; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Pelan, Eddie G


    The hydrophobins are proteins that form the most rigid adsorption layers at liquid interfaces in comparison with all other investigated proteins. The mixing of hydrophobin HFBII with other conventional proteins is expected to reduce the surface shear elasticity and viscosity, E(sh) and η(sh), proportional to the fraction of the conventional protein. However, the experiments show that the effect of mixing can be rather different depending on the nature of the additive. If the additive is a globular protein, like β-lactoglobulin and ovalbumin, the surface rigidity is preserved, and even enhanced. The experiments with separate foam films indicate that this is due to the formation of a bilayer structure at the air/water interface. The more hydrophobic HFBII forms the upper layer adjacent to the air phase, whereas the conventional globular protein forms the lower layer that faces the water phase. Thus, the elastic network formed by the adsorbed hydrophobin remains intact, and even reinforced by the adjacent layer of globular protein. In contrast, the addition of the disordered protein β-casein leads to softening of the HFBII adsorption layer. Similar (an even stronger) effect is produced by the nonionic surfactant Tween 20. This can be explained with the penetration of the hydrophobic tails of β-casein and Tween 20 between the HFBII molecules at the interface, which breaks the integrity of the hydrophobin interfacial elastic network. The analyzed experimental data for the surface shear rheology of various protein adsorption layers comply with a viscoelastic thixotropic model, which allows one to determine E(sh) and η(sh) from the measured storage and loss moduli, G' and G″. The results could contribute for quantitative characterization and deeper understanding of the factors that control the surface rigidity of protein adsorption layers with potential application for the creation of stable foams and emulsions with fine bubbles or droplets. Copyright © 2014

  10. Rheological and structural characterization of the interactions between cyclodextrin compounds and hydrophobically modified alginate. (United States)

    Burckbuchler, Virginie; Kjøniksen, Anna-Lena; Galant, Céline; Lund, Reidar; Amiel, Catherine; Knudsen, Kenneth D; Nyström, Bo


    Interactions in semidilute solutions of a hydrophobically modified alginate (HM-alginate) in the presence of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) monomer or a beta-cyclodextrin polymer (poly(beta-CD)) have been characterized at different temperatures with the aid of rheology and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The viscosity results for the HM-alginate/HP-beta-CD system reveal progressive deactivation of the hydrophobic associations as the concentration of HP-beta-CD increases. For the HM-alginate/poly(beta-CD) system, on the other hand, addition of poly(beta-CD) sets up bridges between adjacent polymer chains and thereby strengthens the associative network. A novel shear-thickening effect is observed at fairly high shear rates for the HM-alginate/poly(beta-CD) system, and this feature is influenced by temperature. Elevated temperature induces higher chain mobility and the formation of weaker network associations. Analyses of the SANS data disclosed that the association strength in HM-alginate/poly(beta-CD) mixtures increases strongly with increasing cosolute concentration, whereas no effect or a moderate weakening of the strength can be traced in HM-alginate/HP-beta-CD solutions upon addition of HP-beta-CD. The value of the correlation length xi is virtually not affected by the addition of cosolute for the HM-alginate/poly(beta-CD) system, whereas the decoupling of hydrophobic moieties of the polymer upon addition of HP-beta-CD gives rise to a smaller value of xi, suggesting that the size of the heterogeneity patches is reduced. The SANS results suggest that compact association structures are formed in the HM-alginate/poly(beta-CD) solutions.

  11. Determination of structural changes of dispersed clay platelets in a polymer blend during solid-state rheological property measurement by small-angle X-ray scattering

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bandyopadhyay, J


    Full Text Available -1 Polymer Volume 52, Issue 12, 26 May 2011, Pages 2628?2642 Determination of structural changes of dispersed clay platelets in a polymer blend during solid-state rheological property measurement by small-angle X-ray scattering ? Jayita Bandyopadhyaya... frequency and temperature sweep tests. Graphical abstract Keywords ? Blend composites; ? Small-angle X-ray scattering; ? Solid-state rheology ...

  12. Biaxial shear of confined colloidal hard spheres: the structure and rheology of the vorticity-aligned string phase. (United States)

    Lin, Neil Y C; Cheng, Xiang; Cohen, Itai


    Using a novel biaxial confocal rheoscope, we investigate the flow of the shear induced vorticity aligned string phase [X. Cheng et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2011, 109, 63], which has a highly anisotropic microstructure. Using biaxial shear protocols we show that we have excellent control of the string phase anisotropic morphology. We choose a shear protocol that drives the system into the string phase. Subsequently, a biaxial force measurement device is used to determine the suspension rheology along both the flow and vorticity directions. We find no measurable dependence of the suspension stress response along the shear and vorticity directions due to the hydrodynamically induced string morphology. In particular, we find that the suspension's high frequency stress response is nearly identical along the two orthogonal directions. While we do observe an anisotropic stress response at lower shear frequencies associated with shear thinning, we show that this anisotropy is independent of the shear induced string structure. These results suggest that for the range of flows explored, Brownian and hydrodynamic contributions to the stress arising from the anisotropic suspension microstructure are sufficiently weak that they do not significantly contribute to the rheology. Collectively, this study presents a general and powerful approach for using biaxial confocal rheometry to elucidate the relationship between microstructure and rheology in complex fluids driven far-from-equilibrium.

  13. Effects of Pressure, Temperature, Treatment Time, and Storage on Rheological, Textural, and Structural Properties of Heat-Induced Chickpea Gels (United States)

    Alvarez, María Dolores; Fuentes, Raúl; Canet, Wenceslao


    Pressure-induced gelatinization of chickpea flour (CF) was studied in combination with subsequent temperature-induced gelatinization. CF slurries (with 1:5 flour-to-water ratio) and CF in powder form were treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), temperature (T), and treatment time (t) at three levels (200, 400, 600 MPa; 10, 25, 50 °C; 5, 15, 25 min). In order to investigate the effect of storage (S), half of the HHP-treated CF slurries were immediately analyzed for changes in oscillatory rheological properties under isothermal heating at 75 °C for 15 min followed by cooling to 25 °C. The other half of the HHP-treated CF slurries were refrigerated (at 4 °C) for one week and subsequently analyzed for changes in oscillatory properties under the same heating conditions as the unrefrigerated samples. HHP-treated CF in powder form was analyzed for changes in textural properties of heat-induced CF gels under isothermal heating at 90 °C for 5 min and subsequent cooling to 25 °C. Structural changes during gelatinization were investigated using microscopy. Pressure had a more significant effect on rheological and textural properties, followed by T and treatment t (in that order). Gel aging in HHP-treated CF slurries during storage was supported by rheological measurements. PMID:28231191

  14. Effects of Pressure, Temperature, Treatment Time, and Storage on Rheological, Textural, and Structural Properties of Heat-Induced Chickpea Gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Alvarez


    Full Text Available Pressure-induced gelatinization of chickpea flour (CF was studied in combination with subsequent temperature-induced gelatinization. CF slurries (with 1:5 flour-to-water ratio and CF in powder form were treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP, temperature (T, and treatment time (t at three levels (200, 400, 600 MPa; 10, 25, 50 °C; 5, 15, 25 min. In order to investigate the effect of storage (S, half of the HHP-treated CF slurries were immediately analyzed for changes in oscillatory rheological properties under isothermal heating at 75 °C for 15 min followed by cooling to 25 °C. The other half of the HHP-treated CF slurries were refrigerated (at 4 °C for one week and subsequently analyzed for changes in oscillatory properties under the same heating conditions as the unrefrigerated samples. HHP-treated CF in powder form was analyzed for changes in textural properties of heat-induced CF gels under isothermal heating at 90 °C for 5 min and subsequent cooling to 25 °C. Structural changes during gelatinization were investigated using microscopy. Pressure had a more significant effect on rheological and textural properties, followed by T and treatment t (in that order. Gel aging in HHP-treated CF slurries during storage was supported by rheological measurements.

  15. Matrix factorization method for the Hamiltonian structure of integrable systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ghosh; B Talukdar; S Chakraborti


    We demonstrate that the process of matrix factorization provides a systematic mathematical method to investigate the Hamiltonian structure of non-linear evolution equations characterized by hereditary operators with Nijenhuis property.

  16. From Tall to Matrix: Redefining Organizational Structures (United States)

    Johnson McPhail, Christine


    This article examines traditional organizational structures of community colleges and how traditional hierarchical structures influence delivery of programs and services. The point is to reveal ways in which community colleges can change organizational structures to more effectively implement key reform and student success efforts through a…

  17. From Tall to Matrix: Redefining Organizational Structures (United States)

    Johnson McPhail, Christine


    This article examines traditional organizational structures of community colleges and how traditional hierarchical structures influence delivery of programs and services. The point is to reveal ways in which community colleges can change organizational structures to more effectively implement key reform and student success efforts through a…

  18. Structure and rheological properties of acid-induced egg white protein gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, M.; Velde, van de F.; Stijnman, A.; Pijpekamp, van de A.; Visschers, R.W.


    This study compares the rheological properties of acid-induced gels prepared of industrial spray-dried egg white proteins (EWP) with the acid-induced gels prepared of ovalbumin (OA) and whey protein isolate (WPI). Also we aimed to form transparent gels of EWP by means of the cold-gelation process. W

  19. System size dependence of the structure and rheology in a sheared lamellar liquid crystalline medium (United States)

    Jaju, S. J.; Kumaran, V.


    The structural and rheological evolution of an initially disordered lamellar phase system under a shear flow is examined using a mesoscale model based on a free energy functional for the concentration field, which is the scaled difference in the concentration between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic components. The dimensionless numbers which affect the shear evolution are the Reynolds number (γ ˙ ¯ L2 /ν ) , the Schmidt number (ν /D ) , a dimensionless parameter Σ =(A λ2 /ρ ν2 ) , a parameter μr which represents the viscosity contrast between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic components, and (L /λ ) , the ratio of system size and layer spacing. Here, ρ, ν, and D are the density, kinematic viscosity (ratio of viscosity and density), and the mass diffusivity, and A is the energy density in the free energy functional which is proportional to the compression modulus. Two distinct modes of structural evolution are observed for moderate values of the parameter Σ depending only on the combination ScΣ and independent of system size. For ScΣ less than about 10, the layers tend to form before they are deformed by the mean shear, and layered but misaligned domains are initially formed, and these are deformed and rotated by the flow. In this case, the excess viscosity (difference between the viscosity and that for an aligned state) does not decrease to zero even after 1000 strain units, but appears to plateau to a steady state value. For ScΣ greater than about 10, layers are deformed by the mean shear before they are fully formed, and a well aligned lamellar phase with edge dislocation orders completely due to the cancellation of dislocations. The excess viscosity scales as t-1 in the long time limit. The maximum macroscopic viscosity (ratio of total stress and average strain rate over the entire sample) during the alignment process increases with the system size proportional to (L/λ ) 3 /2. For large values of Σ, there is localisation of shear at the walls

  20. Structure-rheology relationship in weakly amphiphilic block copolymer Langmuir monolayers. (United States)

    Li Destri, Giovanni; Miano, Fausto; Marletta, Giovanni


    The linear viscoelastic behavior in the low-frequency regime at the water/air interface of three different polystyrene-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) copolymer monolayers, with block length ratio varying from 66-33 to 50-50 and 25-75 in molecular units, was studied and related to the interfacial behavior, characterized by means of Langmuir isotherms, and their structure, characterized by means of the atomic force microscopy technique. The two monolayers with the highest PMMA amount showed a single phase transition at about 12 mN/m, the viscoelastic behavior changing from a predominantly elastic to a viscoelastic one. This change in the viscoelastic properties was ascribed to the beginning of entanglement among the PMMA coronas of the predominantly circular quasi-2D micelles formed by the two copolymer systems. Conversely, the polymer with the lowest PMMA amount, despite having the same PMMA block length of the PS-PMMA 50-50 block copolymer, was found to behave as a viscoelastic system at any surface pressure value. This characteristic behavior cannot therefore be simply related to the molecular weight difference, but it has been put in connection to the irregular micelle structure observed in this case, consisting of a mixture of spherical and wormlike micelles, and to the different conformation adopted by the PMMA block. By blending this copolymer with an immiscible elastic homopolymer, namely poly(2-vinylpyridine), it was possible to tune the micelle nanostructure, obtaining regular circular quasi-2D micelles, with viscoelastic properties as expected for the PMMA-rich copolymer monolayers. To the best of our knowledge, this study shows for the first time the explicit dependence upon the relative block length and, in turn, upon the nanostructure of the quasi-2D micelles, of the viscoelastic properties of Langmuir monolayers and suggests that molecular weight and intermolecular interactions are not the only parameters governing the polymer conformation and

  1. Effects of complex internal structures on rheology of multiple emulsions particles in 2D from a boundary integral method. (United States)

    Wang, Jingtao; Liu, Jinxia; Han, Junjie; Guan, Jing


    A boundary integral method is developed to investigate the effects of inner droplets and asymmetry of internal structures on rheology of two-dimensional multiple emulsion particles with arbitrary numbers of layers and droplets within each layer. Under a modest extensional flow, the number increment of layers and inner droplets, and the collision among inner droplets subject the particle to stronger shears. In addition, the coalescence or release of inner droplets changes the internal structure of the multiple emulsion particles. Since the rheology of such particles is sensitive to internal structures and their change, modeling them as the core-shell particles to obtain the viscosity equation of a single particle should be modified by introducing the time-dependable volume fraction Φ(t) of the core instead of the fixed Φ. An asymmetric internal structure induces an oriented contact and merging of the outer and inner interface. The start time of the interface merging is controlled by adjusting the viscosity ratio and enhancing the asymmetry, which is promising in the controlled release of inner droplets through hydrodynamics for targeted drug delivery.

  2. Composition and Structure of Earth's Lower Mantle from Elasticity and Rheology Measurements (United States)

    Marquardt, Hauke; Kurnosov, Alexander; Frost, Daniel; Boffa Ballaran, Tiziana; Ziberna, Luca; Miyagi, Lowell; Liermann, Hanns-Peter; Speziale, Sergio; Immoor, Julia


    In this contribution, we present results of two novel experimental data sets on the elasticity and rheology of lower mantle minerals and discuss how the results contribute to our understanding of the composition, structure and dynamics of the shallow lower mantle. (1) We report first high-pressure single-crystal elasticity data on Al-Fe-bearing bridgmanite (Mg0.88Fe0.12Si0.89Al0.11)O3, the dominant phase in Earth's lower mantle, using high-pressure Brillouin spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction on focused ion beam (FIB) cut samples in a novel self-consistent approach. We combine our elasticity data with previous experimental measurements of the phase assemblages and element partitioning in a pyrolitic mantle and present a mineral-physics based seismic profile of the uppermost lower mantle. Within the resolution of our model, we find excellent agreement of our mineral physics prediction with the seismic Preliminary Reference Earth Model up to at least 1000 km depth, indicating chemical homogeneity of upper and shallow lower mantle. (2) We present results from synchrotron radial x-ray diffraction measurements on the deformation behavior of (Mg0.8Fe0.2)O ferropericlase, the second most abundant mineral in the lower mantle, at high-pressures and temperatures of up to 1400 K. From our data, we calculate the flow strength of ferropericlase, which we find to increase at pressures >20 GPa. Modelling based on our experimental data indicates a strong increase of viscosity around subducting slabs in the upper 900 km of a lower mantle with a pyrolitic composition. This viscosity increase takes place in the shallow lower mantle without the need for a compositional change with depth or a phase transition. It can therefore provide a plausible mechanism to explain the stagnation of sinking slabs in the shallow lower mantle as observed by seismic tomography that is consistent with the compositional constraints from our elasticity measurements on bridgmanite.

  3. The nuclear matrix: a structural milieu for genomic function. (United States)

    Berezney, R; Mortillaro, M J; Ma, H; Wei, X; Samarabandu, J


    While significant progress has been made in elucidating molecular properties of specific genes and their regulation, our understanding of how the whole genome is coordinated has lagged behind. To understand how the genome functions as a coordinated whole, we must understand how the nucleus is put together and functions as a whole. An important step in that direction occurred with the isolation and characterization of the nuclear matrix. Aside from the plethora of functional properties associated with these isolated nuclear structures, they have enabled the first direct examination and molecular cloning of specific nuclear matrix proteins. The isolated nuclear matrix can be used for providing an in vitro model for understanding nuclear matrix organization in whole cells. Recent development of high-resolution and three-dimensional approaches for visualizing domains of genomic organization and function in situ has provided corroborative evidence for the nuclear matrix as the site of organization for replication, transcription, and post-transcriptional processing. As more is learned about these in situ functional sites, appropriate experiments could be designed to test molecular mechanisms with the in vitro nuclear matrix systems. This is illustrated in this chapter by the studies of nuclear matrix-associated DNA replication which have evolved from biochemical studies of in vitro nuclear matrix systems toward three-dimensional computer image analysis of replication sites for individual genes.

  4. Space-Time Structures from IIB Matrix Model

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, H; Kawai, H; Kitazawa, Y; Tada, T


    We derive a long distance effective action for space-time coordinates from a IIB matrix model. It provides us an effective tool to study the structures of space-time. We prove the finiteness of the theory for finite $N$ to all orders of the perturbation theory. Space-time is shown to be inseparable and its dimensionality is dynamically determined. The IIB matrix model contains a mechanism to ensure the vanishing cosmological constant which does not rely on the manifest supersymmetry. We discuss possible mechanisms to obtain realistic dimensionality and gauge groups from the IIB matrix model.

  5. Wave Function Structure in Two-Body Random Matrix Ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, L; Kaplan, Lev; Papenbrock, Thomas


    We study the structure of eigenstates in two-body interaction random matrix ensembles and find significant deviations from random matrix theory expectations. The deviations are most prominent in the tails of the spectral density and indicate localization of the eigenstates in Fock space. Using ideas related to scar theory we derive an analytical formula that relates fluctuations in wave function intensities to fluctuations of the two-body interaction matrix elements. Numerical results for many-body fermion systems agree well with the theoretical predictions.

  6. Structure, dynamics, and rheology of concentrated dispersions of poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted colloids


    Zackrisson, Malin; Stradner, Anna; Schurtenberger, Peter; Bergenholtz, Johan


    A comprehensive experimental study of the dynamics and rheology of concentrated aqueous dispersions of poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted colloidal spheres is reported. The study focuses on good solvent conditions, for which excluded-volume interactions dominate. At high concentrations a glass transition is evident from the nondecaying component of the intensity correlation function measured with three-dimensional dynamic light scattering. Results for the linear viscoelastic and steady shear rheol...

  7. Experimental analysis of ductile-slip rheology in shallow structural level faults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Benliang


    [1]Reiner, M., Deformation Strain and Flow: An Elementary Introduction to Rheology, London: H. K. Lewis & Co. Ltd, 1960, 347.[2]Nicolas, A., Crystalline Plasticity and Solid State Flow in Metamorphic Rocks, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1976, 289.[3]Ranalli, G., Murphy, D., Rheological stratification of the lithosphere, Tectonophysics, 1987, 132: 281-295.[4]Cloetingh, S., Sassi, W., Origin of sedimentary basin, in International Lithosphere Program, Report 19, ICL Secretariat, Canada, 1994, 25-28.[5]Sobolev, S., Wenzel, F., Processes in the lithosphere as reflected in integrated petrological and geophysical tudies, in Inter-national Lithosphere Program, Report 19, ICL Secretariat, Canada, 1994, 29-34.[6]Xu Zhiqin, Chui Junwen, Tectonic Dynamics of Deformation in the Continental Mountain Link (in Chinese with English abstract), Beijing: Metallurgical Industry Press, 1996, 6-20.[7]Sun Yan, Shen Xiuzi, Suzuki, T., Study on the ductile deformation domain of the simple shear in rocks-taking brittle faults of the covering strata in the southern Jiangsu area, Science in China, Ser. B, 1992, 35: 1512-1520.[8]Bons, P. D., Cox, S. J. D., Analogue experiments and numerical modeling on the relation between microgeometry and flow properties of polyphase materials, Mat. Sci. Eng., 1994, 175: 237-246.[9]Bon, P. D., Vrai, J., An apparatus to experimentally model the dynamics of ductile shear zones, Tectonophysics, 1996, 256: 145-164.[10]Faure, M., Sun Yan, Shu Liangshu et al., Extensional tectonics within a subduction-type orogen: The case study of the Wugongshan dome, Jiangxi Province, southeastern China, Tectonophysics, 1996, 263: 77-106.[11]Shu Liangshu, Sun Yan, Wang Dezhi et al., Mesozoic doming extensional tectonics of Wugongshan, south China, Science in China, Ser. D, 1998, 41(6): 601-608.[12]Wu Xueyi, The Introduction of Tectonogeochemistry (in Chinese with English abstract), Guiyang: Guizhou Sciences and Technology Press ,1998

  8. Protein structure estimation from NMR data by matrix completion. (United States)

    Li, Zhicheng; Li, Yang; Lei, Qiang; Zhao, Qing


    Knowledge of protein structures is very important to understand their corresponding physical and chemical properties. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the main methods to measure protein structure. In this paper, we propose a two-stage approach to calculate the structure of a protein from a highly incomplete distance matrix, where most data are obtained from NMR. We first randomly "guess" a small part of unobservable distances by utilizing the triangle inequality, which is crucial for the second stage. Then we use matrix completion to calculate the protein structure from the obtained incomplete distance matrix. We apply the accelerated proximal gradient algorithm to solve the corresponding optimization problem. Furthermore, the recovery error of our method is analyzed, and its efficiency is demonstrated by several practical examples.

  9. Matrix Transfer Function Design for Flexible Structures: An Application (United States)

    Brennan, T. J.; Compito, A. V.; Doran, A. L.; Gustafson, C. L.; Wong, C. L.


    The application of matrix transfer function design techniques to the problem of disturbance rejection on a flexible space structure is demonstrated. The design approach is based on parameterizing a class of stabilizing compensators for the plant and formulating the design specifications as a constrained minimization problem in terms of these parameters. The solution yields a matrix transfer function representation of the compensator. A state space realization of the compensator is constructed to investigate performance and stability on the nominal and perturbed models. The application is made to the ACOSSA (Active Control of Space Structures) optical structure.

  10. Structure of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose Aqueous Solutions: A SANS and Rheology Study (United States)

    Lopez, Carlos G; Rogers, Sarah E; Colby, Ralph H; Graham, Peter; Cabral, João T


    We report a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and rheology study of cellulose derivative polyelectrolyte sodium carboxymethyl cellulose with a degree of substitution of 1.2. Using SANS, we establish that this polymer is molecularly dissolved in water with a locally stiff conformation with a stretching parameter. We determine the cross sectional radius of the chain ( 3.4 Å) and the scaling of the correlation length with concentration (ξ = 296 c−1/2Å for c in g/L) is found to remain unchanged from the semidilute to concentrated crossover as identified by rheology. Viscosity measurements are found to be in qualitative agreement with scaling theory predictions for flexible polyelectrolytes exhibiting semidilute unentangled and entangled regimes, followed by what appears to be a crossover to neutral polymer concentration dependence of viscosity at high concentrations. Yet those higher concentrations, in the concentrated regime defined by rheology, still exhibit a peak in the scattering function that indicates a correlation length that continues to scale as. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2015, 53, 492–501 PMID:26709336

  11. Relationship between Rheological Behaviour and Final Structure of Al2O3 and YSZ Foams Produced by Replica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Gómez


    Full Text Available Using rheological parameters of ceramic suspensions, it is possible to taylor the structure of the ceramic foams produced by replica. This method consists in the impregnation of a polymeric flexible template (polyurethane foam with a ceramic suspension (slurry containing the appropriate additives, followed by burning out organic compounds and additives and sintering the ceramic structure. In this work, ceramic foams were produced by the replica method from Al2O3 and 3% Y2O3-ZrO2. Rheological parameters of the ceramic suspensions were investigated to improve the mechanical performance of final structures. Different types and quantities of raw materials were combined in order to select the formulations for ceramic foams. The parameters that have a significant influence on the process are the binder type and the amount of solids. Significant changes on the hysteresis area of the suspensions resulted in a lower density of macrodefects in the material. Likewise, when the shear rate viscosity is enhanced, the thickness of the struts increased proportionally. Lastly, when the hysteresis area magnitude and the ceramic thickness increased, the material with higher uniformity was internally densified, and the stress concentration of the internal defects was smoothed

  12. Matrix Organizational Structure and Its Effects Upon Education Organizations. (United States)

    Yates, James R.

    Applying matrix organizational structure to the organization of special education services is the focus of this paper. Beginning with a list of ways in which educational organizations differ from business or military organizations, the author warns that educators must be cautious when transferring organizational structures from other disciplines…

  13. Tensor Models: extending the matrix models structures and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dartois, Stephane


    In this text we review a few structural properties of matrix models that should at least partly generalize to random tensor models. We review some aspects of the loop equations for matrix models and their algebraic counterpart for tensor models. Despite the generic title of this review, we, in particular, invoke the Topological Recursion. We explain its appearance in matrix models. Then we state that a family of tensor models provides a natural example which satisfies a version of the most general form of the topological recursion, named the blobbed topological recursion. We discuss the difficulties of extending the technical solutions existing for matrix models to tensor models. Some proofs are not published yet but will be given in a coming paper, the rest of the results are well known in the literature.

  14. Gap Dependent Rheology in Type I Collagen Gels (United States)

    Arevalo, Richard; Urbach, Jeffrey; Blair, Daniel


    Branched type I collagen fiber networks provide extracellular support in mammalian tissues. The intricate network structure can succumb to partial or complete tearing under sufficient applied strain. Under small shear strains, in vitro collagen gels exhibit strain-stiffening while maintaining overall network integrity. Higher shear strains lead to network failure through discrete yielding events. We perform rheology and confocal-rheology experiments to fully elucidate the strain-stiffening and yielding behavior in these highly nonlinear materials. We apply continuous shear strains to collagen gels confined within the rheometer at fixed gaps. We observe that sheared collagen in the strain-stiffening and yielding regime has an apparent modulus that is strongly dependent on the collagen thickness. Moreover, we demonstrate that network yielding is universally controlled by the ratio of the collagen thickness to the mesh size. These results have broad implications for the interpretation of rheological data of extracellular matrix proteins and for the design of biomimetic scaffolds.

  15. Effects of Supercritical Fluids, Pressure, Temperature, and Molecular Structure on the Rheological Properties of Molten Polymers (United States)

    Park, Hee Eon; Dealy, John M.


    Since high pressures are involved in most plastics forming processes, reliable high-pressure rheological data are required for the simulation of the processes. The effect of pressure is in some ways the reverse of that of temperature; for example increasing temperature decreases the viscosity, while pressure increases it. Supercritical fluids (SCFs) such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen can act as physical blowing agents in the manufacture of foams and as plasticizers to reduce melt viscosity during processing. The effects of dissolved SCF, pressure, and temperature on the rheological properties of a melt must be known to achieve optimum processing conditions. We used a rotational rheometer and a high-pressure sliding plate rheometer, in which the shear strain, temperature, pressure, and SCF concentration are all uniform. A shear stress transducer senses the stress in the center of the sample to avoid edge effects. It was possible to use shift factors for temperature, pressure and SCF (CO2 or N2) concentration to obtain a master curve. The effect of temperature could be described by the Arrhenius or WLF models, and the effect of pressure was described by the Barus equation. The effect of SCF concentration could be described by the Fujita-Kishimoto equation. The relative effects of pressure and temperature on the viscosity were quantified. To study the effects of short and long chain branching and a phenyl side group, three polymers were used: polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene. We quantified the effects of short- and long-chain branching, pressure, temperature and dissolved SCF on the rheological properties of these three polymers by use of shift factors.

  16. Moisture-activated rheological structuring of nonaqueous poloxamine-poly(acrylic acid) systems designed as novel biomedical implants. (United States)

    Jones, David S; Muldoon, Brendan C O; Woolfson, A David; Andrews, Gavin P; McCoy, Colin P; Sanderson, F Dominic


    This study reports the formulation/characterisation of novel polymeric platforms designed to behave as low-viscosity systems in the nonaqueous state, however, following uptake of aqueous fluids, exhibit rheological structuring and mucoadhesion. The rheological/mechanical and mucoadhesive properties of platforms containing poly(acrylic acid) (PAA, 1%, 3%, 5%, w/w) and poloxamines (Tetronic 904, 901, 704, 701, 304), both in the absence and presence of phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) are described. With the exception of Tetronic 904, all formulations exhibited Newtonian flow in the nonaqueous state, whereas, all aqueous formulations displayed pseudoplastic flow. The consistency and viscoelastic properties were dependent on the concentrations of PAA and PBS and Tetronic grade. PBS significantly increased the consistency, viscoelasticity and mucoadhesion, reaching a maximum at a defined concentration of PBS that was dependent on PAA concentration and Tetronic grade. Formulations containing Tetronic 904 exhibited greatest consistency and elasticity both prior to and after dilution with PBS. Increasing PAA concentration enhanced the mucoadhesive properties. Prolonged drug release of metronidazole was observed from formulations containing 10% (w/w) PBS, 3% and, particularly, 5% (w/w) PAA. It is suggested that the physicochemical properties of formulations containing 3% or 5% (w/w) PAA and Tetronic 904, would render them suitable platforms for administration to body cavities.

  17. Stochastic-Strength-Based Damage Simulation Tool for Ceramic Matrix and Polymer Matrix Composite Structures (United States)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Pineda, Evan J.; Walton, Owen J.; Arnold, Steven M.


    Stochastic-based, discrete-event progressive damage simulations of ceramic-matrix composite and polymer matrix composite material structures have been enabled through the development of a unique multiscale modeling tool. This effort involves coupling three independently developed software programs: (1) the Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC), (2) the Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures Life Prediction Program (CARES/ Life), and (3) the Abaqus finite element analysis (FEA) program. MAC/GMC contributes multiscale modeling capabilities and micromechanics relations to determine stresses and deformations at the microscale of the composite material repeating unit cell (RUC). CARES/Life contributes statistical multiaxial failure criteria that can be applied to the individual brittle-material constituents of the RUC. Abaqus is used at the global scale to model the overall composite structure. An Abaqus user-defined material (UMAT) interface, referred to here as "FEAMAC/CARES," was developed that enables MAC/GMC and CARES/Life to operate seamlessly with the Abaqus FEA code. For each FEAMAC/CARES simulation trial, the stochastic nature of brittle material strength results in random, discrete damage events, which incrementally progress and lead to ultimate structural failure. This report describes the FEAMAC/CARES methodology and discusses examples that illustrate the performance of the tool. A comprehensive example problem, simulating the progressive damage of laminated ceramic matrix composites under various off-axis loading conditions and including a double notched tensile specimen geometry, is described in a separate report.

  18. Matrix Management Structures in Higher Education. Coombe Lodge Working Paper. Information Bank Number 1394. (United States)

    Cuthbert, Rob

    The matrix structure as an alternative to the departmental structure for colleges and universities is discussed, and the matrix system at Middlesex Polytechnic in England is used as illustration. The major impact of the introduction of a matrix structure is its effect on teaching activities within the institution. The matrix structure formally…

  19. The structure of cell-matrix adhesions: the new frontier. (United States)

    Hanein, Dorit; Horwitz, Alan Rick


    Adhesions between the cell and the extracellular matrix (ECM) are mechanosensitive multi-protein assemblies that transmit force across the cell membrane and regulate biochemical signals in response to the chemical and mechanical environment. These combined functions in force transduction, signaling and mechanosensing contribute to cellular phenotypes that span development, homeostasis and disease. These adhesions form, mature and disassemble in response to actin organization and physical forces that originate from endogenous myosin activity or external forces by the extracellular matrix. Despite advances in our understanding of the protein composition, interactions and regulation, our understanding of matrix adhesion structure and organization, how forces affect this organization, and how these changes dictate specific signaling events is limited. Insights across multiple structural levels are acutely needed to elucidate adhesion structure and ultimately the molecular basis of signaling and mechanotransduction. Here we describe the challenges and recent advances and prospects for unraveling the structure of cell-matrix adhesions and their response to force. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Silicon Photodetectors Matrix Coordinate Bipolar Functionally Integrated Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Murashev


    Full Text Available In this paper a new approach for solving the detection and coordinate the detection of radiation in the optical range of 0.3-1.1 microns, based on the use of so-called bipolar functionally integrated structures (BI-FIS in pixels photodetector arrays is discussed. Variants of new technical solutions based on photo-detectors matrix pixel BI-FIS structures are shown. Their effectiveness and scope are evaluated.

  1. Thermal-rheological structure of lithosphere beneath the northern flank of Tarim Basin, western China:Implications for geodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Shaowen; WANG; Liangshu; LI; Cheng; LI; Hua; HAN; Yong


    Based on the data of geo-temperature and thermophysical parameters of rocks in the Kuqa Depression and the Tabei Uplift, northern flank of the Tarim Basin, in terms of the analytical solution of 1-D heat transfer equation, the thermal structure of the lithosphere under this region is determined. Our results show that the average surface heat flow of the northern flank of the Tarim Basin is 45 mW/m2, and the mantle heat flow is between 20 and 23 mW/m2; the temperature at crust-mantle boundary (Moho) ranges from 514℃ to 603℃ and the thermal lithosphere where the heat conduction dominates is 138-182 km thick. Furthermore, in combination with the P wave velocity structure resulting from the deep seismic sounding profile across this region and rheological modeling, we have studied the local composition of the lithosphere and its rheological profile, as well as the strength distribution. We find that the rheological stratification of the lithosphere in this region is apparent. The lowermost of the lower crust is ductile; however,the uppermost of the mantle and the upper and middle parts of the crust are both brittle layers,which is typically the so-called sandwich-like structure. Lithospheric strength is also characterized by the lateral variation, and the uplift region is stronger than the depression region. The lithospheric strength of the northem flank of the Tarim Basin decreases gradually from south to north; the Kuqa Depression has the lowest strength and the south of the Tabei Uplift is strongest.The total lithospheric strength of this region is 4.77× 1012-5.03 × 1013 N/m under extension, and 6.5 × 1012-9.4× 1013 N/m under compression. The lithospheric brittle-ductile transition depth is between 20 km and 33 km. In conclusion, the lithosphere of the northern flank of the Tarim Basin is relatively cold with higher strength, so it behaves rigidly and deforms as a whole, which is also supported by the seismic activity in this region. This rigidity of the

  2. A rheological study of hydrophobic-surface-active polymer systems structuration; Etude rheologique de la structuration de systemes polymere hydrophobe-tensioactif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, E.


    This work deals with the study of the rheology and the structuration of hydrophobic polymer and surfactant systems. The used associative polymers are acrylamide/nonyl methacrylate copolymers and the surfactant is nonionic. They are particularly used for hydrocarbons extraction techniques as drilling (drilling fluids) or wells cementation. The studied materials are first characterized by different analytic techniques. This preliminary stage of the work gives a good insight of the physico-chemical parameters of the systems. The effect of surfactant was shown by studying the variation of Newtonian viscosity as a function of surfactant concentration. This yields bell curves, whose maximum determines the critical aggregation concentration (cac). The hydrophobic effect is analysed in different polymer concentration regimes, in quasi-static conditions, and under shear. The study of the dynamic visco-elasticity of semi-dilute solutions allows to observe the effect of the hydrophobic associations on the relaxation time of the chains. The system can be described as a superposition of two networks of junctions: the network of physical entanglements and a second one formed by the hydrophobic links. Phenomena of structuration have been observed at room temperature for surfactant concentrations close to the cac. The increase of viscosity or elastic modulus can be 3 to 4 orders of magnitude. The effect of the temperature on the structure of the systems is studied as well. The rheological characterization of the Sol-Gel transition is developed and the rheological behavior of the solutions in a structured state shows a critical stress for rupture of the structure. Microscopic observations of the birefringence of the solutions display the existence of lamellar vesicles, which leads to the following assumption: the formation of big spherulites create a rigidification of the macromolecular network. (author) 190 refs.

  3. Distance matrix-based approach to protein structure prediction. (United States)

    Kloczkowski, Andrzej; Jernigan, Robert L; Wu, Zhijun; Song, Guang; Yang, Lei; Kolinski, Andrzej; Pokarowski, Piotr


    Much structural information is encoded in the internal distances; a distance matrix-based approach can be used to predict protein structure and dynamics, and for structural refinement. Our approach is based on the square distance matrix D = [r(ij)(2)] containing all square distances between residues in proteins. This distance matrix contains more information than the contact matrix C, that has elements of either 0 or 1 depending on whether the distance r (ij) is greater or less than a cutoff value r (cutoff). We have performed spectral decomposition of the distance matrices D = sigma lambda(k)V(k)V(kT), in terms of eigenvalues lambda kappa and the corresponding eigenvectors v kappa and found that it contains at most five nonzero terms. A dominant eigenvector is proportional to r (2)--the square distance of points from the center of mass, with the next three being the principal components of the system of points. By predicting r (2) from the sequence we can approximate a distance matrix of a protein with an expected RMSD value of about 7.3 A, and by combining it with the prediction of the first principal component we can improve this approximation to 4.0 A. We can also explain the role of hydrophobic interactions for the protein structure, because r is highly correlated with the hydrophobic profile of the sequence. Moreover, r is highly correlated with several sequence profiles which are useful in protein structure prediction, such as contact number, the residue-wise contact order (RWCO) or mean square fluctuations (i.e. crystallographic temperature factors). We have also shown that the next three components are related to spatial directionality of the secondary structure elements, and they may be also predicted from the sequence, improving overall structure prediction. We have also shown that the large number of available HIV-1 protease structures provides a remarkable sampling of conformations, which can be viewed as direct structural information about the

  4. Advanced Ceramic Matrix Composites with Multifunctional and Hybrid Structures (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Morscher, Gregory N.


    Ceramic matrix composites are leading candidate materials for a number of applications in aeronautics, space, energy, and nuclear industries. Potential composite applications differ in their requirements for thickness. For example, many space applications such as "nozzle ramps" or "heat exchangers" require very thin (structures whereas turbine blades would require very thick parts (> or = 1 cm). Little is known about the effect of thickness on stress-strain behavior or the elevated temperature tensile properties controlled by oxidation diffusion. In this study, composites consisting of woven Hi-Nicalon (trademark) fibers a carbon interphase and CVI SiC matrix were fabricated with different numbers of plies and thicknesses. The effect of thickness on matrix crack formation, matrix crack growth and diffusion kinetics will be discussed. In another approach, hybrid fiber-lay up concepts have been utilized to "alloy" desirable properties of different fiber types for mechanical properties, thermal stress management, and oxidation resistance. Such an approach has potential for the C(sub I)-SiC and SiC(sub f)-SiC composite systems. CVI SiC matrix composites with different stacking sequences of woven C fiber (T300) layers and woven SiC fiber (Hi-Nicalon (trademark)) layers were fabricated. The results will be compared to standard C fiber reinforced CVI SiC matrix and Hi-Nicalon reinforced CVI SiC matrix composites. In addition, shear properties of these composites at different temperatures will also be presented. Other design and implementation issues will be discussed along with advantages and benefits of using these materials for various components in high temperature applications.

  5. In-vitro digestibility, rheology, structure, and functionality of RS3 from oat starch. (United States)

    Shah, Asima; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Gani, Adil; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad


    Starches isolated from three different varieties of oat were modified with dual autoclaving-retrogradation treatment to make modified food starches with high contents of type 3 resistant starch (RS3). FT-IR spectroscopy showed increase in the ratio of intensity of 1047cm(-1)/1022cm(-1) on treatment. Morphology of the oat starches changed into a continuous network with increased values for onset temperature (To), peak temperature (Tp), and conclusion temperature (Tc). XRD showed an additional peak at 13° and increase in peak intensity at 20° inclusive of the major X-ray diffraction peaks which reflects formation of amylose-lipid complex from dual autoclaving-retrogradation cycle. Peaks at 13° and 20° are the typical peaks of the V-type pattern. Rheological analysis suggested that retrogradated oat starches showed shear thickening behavior as revealed from Herschel-Bulkely model and frequency sweep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Structure Analysis for a New Type of Vane Hydraulic Damper Using Magneto-rheological Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-qiu; FENG Zhan-zong; WANG Hong-tao


    Over recent years the progress in actuator and microelectronics technology has made intelligent suspension systems feasible. Based on conventional vane hydraulic damper, a new vane magneto-rheological fluid (MRF) damper with fail-safe capability is designed. Firstly, the mathematical model of damping moment is deduced based on the parallel-plate model and Bingham model of MR fluids. Secondly, some influence factors of damping adjustable multiple are analyzed to provide some ways for augmenting the damping adjustable multiple under the condition of keeping initial damping moment invariable. Finally, the magnetic circuit is designed, and magnetic field distribution is simulated with the magnetic finite element analysis software-AN,SOFT. The theory and simulation results confirm that the damping adjustable range of vane MRF damper can meet the requirement of heavy vehiele semi-active suspension system.

  7. Rheological aspects of dense lignite-water suspensions; structure development on consecutive flow loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudoulas, Thomas B.; Kastrinakis, Eleftherios G.; Nychas, Stavros G. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemical Engineering, Univ. Box 453, Thessaloniki (Greece)


    Aspects of dense lignite-water slurries (LWS) rheology were investigated using controlled stress and controlled strain rheometers with parallel disks and Couette geometries. During the preparation of the slurries, the achieved solids volume fractions were up to 0.425 and the particle size distributions were polydispersed with sizes up to 300 {mu}m. In the ascending parts of consecutive flow loops, a slope transition of the flow curve was observed and studied in relation to the solids volume fraction. The obtained results with the different geometries and rheometers were qualitatively the same. By following the model proposed by Cheng (Rheol Acta 42:372-382, 2003) for thixotropic fluids, and taking into account the yield stress appearance, a suitable correlation for LWS is proposed, which is consistent with the experimental flow curves. (orig.)

  8. Structured matrix based methods for approximate polynomial GCD

    CERN Document Server

    Boito, Paola


    Defining and computing a greatest common divisor of two polynomials with inexact coefficients is a classical problem in symbolic-numeric computation. The first part of this book reviews the main results that have been proposed so far in the literature. As usual with polynomial computations, the polynomial GCD problem can be expressed in matrix form: the second part of the book focuses on this point of view and analyses the structure of the relevant matrices, such as Toeplitz, Toepliz-block and displacement structures. New algorithms for the computation of approximate polynomial GCD are presented, along with extensive numerical tests. The use of matrix structure allows, in particular, to lower the asymptotic computational cost from cubic to quadratic order with respect to polynomial degree. .

  9. Computing the structural influence matrix for biological systems. (United States)

    Giordano, Giulia; Cuba Samaniego, Christian; Franco, Elisa; Blanchini, Franco


    We consider the problem of identifying structural influences of external inputs on steady-state outputs in a biological network model. We speak of a structural influence if, upon a perturbation due to a constant input, the ensuing variation of the steady-state output value has the same sign as the input (positive influence), the opposite sign (negative influence), or is zero (perfect adaptation), for any feasible choice of the model parameters. All these signs and zeros can constitute a structural influence matrix, whose (i, j) entry indicates the sign of steady-state influence of the jth system variable on the ith variable (the output caused by an external persistent input applied to the jth variable). Each entry is structurally determinate if the sign does not depend on the choice of the parameters, but is indeterminate otherwise. In principle, determining the influence matrix requires exhaustive testing of the system steady-state behaviour in the widest range of parameter values. Here we show that, in a broad class of biological networks, the influence matrix can be evaluated with an algorithm that tests the system steady-state behaviour only at a finite number of points. This algorithm also allows us to assess the structural effect of any perturbation, such as variations of relevant parameters. Our method is applied to nontrivial models of biochemical reaction networks and population dynamics drawn from the literature, providing a parameter-free insight into the system dynamics.

  10. Structure of metal matrix composites with an addition of tuff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Łach


    Full Text Available The article presents preliminary results of tests of metal matrix composites structure which was modified by an addition of powderedvolcanic tuff. Distribution and shape of ceramic particles as well as the quality of the bonding along the tuff- metal matrix interface werestudied. Depth of tuff element diffusion in the matrix as well as diffusion in tuff particles were checked. Micro-hardness and porosity of the composites were also tested. The tuff from Filipowice near the town of Krzeszowice was used for the tests. Powder metallurgy wasapplied to obtain the composites and the matrix materials were copper and 316L steel powders. The tuff was introduced in 2, 5 and 10 %by weight. To remove water from the channels of aluminosilicates, the tuff was baked at 850 oC for 4 hours and then cooled together withthe oven. The tests revealed good quality of the bonding of the tuff particles and the matrix and their even distribution. The addition of tuff improved the hardness of the composites and reduced their porosity which has great significance because of possible applications of this kind of materials in general and copper composites in particular. This gives grounds for further studies on volcanic tuff use in metal composites

  11. The effect of compatibilization and rheological properties of polystyrene and poly(dimethylsiloxane) on phase structure of polystyrene/poly(dimethylsiloxane) blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chuai, C. Z.; Li, S; Almdal, Kristoffer


    The compatibilization effect of polystyrene (PS)-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) diblock copolymer (PS-b-PDMS) and the effect of rheological properties of PS and PDMS on phase structure of PS/PDMS blends were investigated using a selective extraction technique and scanning electron microscopy (SEM...

  12. The effect of age on Cheddar cheese melting, rheology and structure, and on the stability of feed for cheese powder manufacture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ray, Colin Andrew; Gholamhosseinpour, Aliakbar; Ipsen, Richard


    Age-related changes to the rheology and structure of Cheddar for cheese powder manufacture, and how this influences the stability of cheese feed during pre-spray-drying storage, were investigated. Cheddar cheese (3, 5, 7, 9, 12 and 15 months old) was analysed for meltability by the Schreiber Test...

  13. Comprehensive study of rheological and surface properties of the selected slag system in the context of its internal structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Řeháčková


    Full Text Available Rheological (dynamic viscosity, flow curves and surface properties (surface tension of real slag system were experimentally investigated. Measurements of dynamic viscosity were performed with use of the high-temperature viscometer Anton Paar FRS 1 600. The method of sessile drop was used for measurement of surface tension. Surface tension and dynamic viscosity were measured in the temperature interval from 1 200 to 1 600 °C. The structural characteristics of the selected samples were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The samples for given analysis were prepared by quench cooling. Experimentally determined values of dynamic viscosity and surface tension were compared with the results of X-ray diffraction phase analysis.

  14. Progressive fracture of polymer matrix composite structures: A new approach (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Murthy, P. L. N.; Minnetyan, L.


    A new approach independent of stress intensity factors and fracture toughness parameters has been developed and is described for the computational simulation of progressive fracture of polymer matrix composite structures. The damage stages are quantified based on physics via composite mechanics while the degradation of the structural behavior is quantified via the finite element method. The approach account for all types of composite behavior, structures, load conditions, and fracture processes starting from damage initiation, to unstable propagation and to global structural collapse. Results of structural fracture in composite beams, panels, plates, and shells are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and versatility of this new approach. Parameters and guidelines are identified which can be used as criteria for structural fracture, inspection intervals, and retirement for cause. Generalization to structures made of monolithic metallic materials are outlined and lessons learned in undertaking the development of new approaches, in general, are summarized.

  15. Internal structures of agar-gelatin co-hydrogels by light scattering, small-angle neutron scattering and rheology. (United States)

    Santinath Singh, S; Aswal, V K; Bohidar, H B


    Internal structures of agar-gelatin co-hydrogels were investigated as a function of their volumetric mixing ratio, [Formula: see text] , 1.0 and 2.0 using dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and rheology. The degree of non-ergodicity ( X = 0.2 ± 0.02) , which was extracted as a heterodyne contribution from the measured dynamic structure factor data remained less than that of homogeneous solutions where ergodicity is expected (X = 10. The static structure factor, I(q) , results obtained from SANS were interpreted in the Guinier regime (low-q , which implied the existence of ≈ 250 nm long rod-like structures (double-helix bundles), and the power law (intermediate-q regions) yielded I (q) ~ q(−α) with α = 2.3 , 1.8 and 1.6 for r = 0.5 , 1.0 and 2.0. This is indicative of the presence of Gaussian chains at low r , while at r = 2 there was a propensity of rod-shaped structures. The gel strength and transition temperatures measured from frequency sweep and temperature ramp studies were suggestive of the presence of a stronger association between the two biopolymer networks at higher r . The results indicate that the internal structures of agar-gelatin co-hydrogels were highly dependent on the volumetric mixing ratio.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Wang; Jiang Li; Cheng-fen Long; Yun-zhao Yu


    Nano silica-modified epoxy resins were synthesized by the sol-gel process. The materials have the morphological structure of nano particales dispersed in the epoxy matrix. The dispersed phase formed a physical network in the resin and thus influenced the rheological behavior greatly. However, the nano silica did not show a significant influence on the mechanical properties of the cured resins.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamika Dutta


    Full Text Available This paper, we have tried to analyze about the Secondary Structure of nucleotide sequences of rice. The data have been collected from NCBI (National Centre for Biotechnology Information using Nucleotide as data base. All the programs were developed using R programming language using “sequinr” package. Here, we have used CETD matrix method to study the prediction. The conclusions are drawn accordingly.

  18. Current Generation in Double-Matrix Structure: A Theoretical Simulation


    Bogdan Lukiyanets; Dariya Matulka; Ivan Grygorchak


    Peculiarities of kinetic characteristics in a supramolecular system, in particular, in a double‐matrix structure observed at change of the guest content in a matrix‐host are investigated. Results obtained within the framework of a time‐independent one‐dimensional Schrödinger equation with three barrier potential qualitatively explain experimental data. They indicate the importance of size quantization of a system, correlation between energy and geometric characteristics of both guest and hos...

  19. Molecular structures of gellan gum imaged with atomic force microscopy in relation to the rheological behavior in aqueous systems in the presence or absence of various cations. (United States)

    Funami, Takahiro; Noda, Sakie; Nakauma, Makoto; Ishihara, Sayaka; Takahashi, Rheo; Al-Assaf, Saphwan; Ikeda, Shinya; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Phillips, Glyn O


    Aqueous solutions of gellan gum with comparable molecular masses but with different acyl contents were investigated by atomic force microscopy and rheological measurements in the presence or absence of various cations. For a high-acyl sample, no continuous network structures were identified microscopically, except in the presence of Ca (2+), where structural inhomogeneity was the highest in terms of the height distribution of molecular assemblies. Rheological thermal hysteresis between sol-gel transitions was detected in the presence of K (+) and Ca (2+), particularly Ca (2+). The storage modulus at 20 degrees C was larger in the order Na (+) < Ca (2+) < K (+). For a low-acyl sample, continuous network structures were identified in the presence of each cation, involving greater thermal hysteresis than the corresponding data for the high-acyl sample. Structural homogeneity was the highest in the presence of K (+). Thermal hysteresis and elasticity of the system were discussed in terms of continuousness and homogeneity of network structures.

  20. Structure of a financial cross-correlation matrix under attack (United States)

    Lim, Gyuchang; Kim, SooYong; Kim, Junghwan; Kim, Pyungsoo; Kang, Yoonjong; Park, Sanghoon; Park, Inho; Park, Sang-Bum; Kim, Kyungsik


    We investigate the structure of a perturbed stock market in terms of correlation matrices. For the purpose of perturbing a stock market, two distinct methods are used, namely local and global perturbation. The former involves replacing a correlation coefficient of the cross-correlation matrix with one calculated from two Gaussian-distributed time series while the latter reconstructs the cross-correlation matrix just after replacing the original return series with Gaussian-distributed time series. Concerning the local case, it is a technical study only and there is no attempt to model reality. The term ‘global’ means the overall effect of the replacement on other untouched returns. Through statistical analyses such as random matrix theory (RMT), network theory, and the correlation coefficient distributions, we show that the global structure of a stock market is vulnerable to perturbation. However, apart from in the analysis of inverse participation ratios (IPRs), the vulnerability becomes dull under a small-scale perturbation. This means that these analysis tools are inappropriate for monitoring the whole stock market due to the low sensitivity of a stock market to a small-scale perturbation. In contrast, when going down to the structure of business sectors, we confirm that correlation-based business sectors are regrouped in terms of IPRs. This result gives a clue about monitoring the effect of hidden intentions, which are revealed via portfolios taken mostly by large investors.

  1. Rheological Flow Behavior of Structural Polysaccharides from Edible Tender Cladodes of Wild, Semidomesticated and Cultivated 'Nopal' (Opuntia) of Mexican Highlands. (United States)

    López-Palacios, C; Peña-Valdivia, C B; Rodríguez-Hernández, A I; Reyes-Agüero, J A


    The aim of this study was to quantify the content of polysaccharides of edible tender cladodes (nopalitos) of three species of Opuntia and to evaluate the rheological flow behavior of isolated polysaccharides. A completely randomized experimental design was used to characterize a wild (O. streptacantha), a semidomesticated (O. megacantha) and a domesticated (O. ficus-indica) species. Mucilage content was higher (4.93 to 12.43 g 100 g(-1) dry matter), tightly bound hemicelluloses were lower (3.32 to 1.81 g 100 g(-1) dry matter) and pectins and loosely bound hemicelluloses were not different in wild than in domesticated species. Aqueous solution/suspensions of mucilage, pectins, hemicellulose and cellulose of all species showed non-Newtonian behavior under simple shear flow. The flow behavior of the structural polysaccharides was well described by the Ostwald de-Waele model. Pectins and mucilages exhibited the highest consistency indexes (K values ranged from 0.075 to 0.177 Pas(n)) with a moderated shear-thinning behavior (n values ranged from 0.53 to 0.67). Cellulose dispersions exhibited the most shear-thinning behavior (n values ranged from 0.17 to 0.41) and hemicelluloses showed a tendency to Newtonian flow (n values ranged from 0.82 to 0.97). The rheological flow properties of these polysaccharides may be useful to improve the textural and sensory qualities of some foods and pharmaceutical materials. Moreover, they can emerge as functional ingredients mainly due to the nutraceutical properties that have been attributed to nopalitos.

  2. Linear rheology and structure of molecular bottlebrushes with short side chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Barrón, Carlos R., E-mail:; Brant, Patrick; Crowther, Donna J. [ExxonMobil Chemical Company, Baytown, Texas 77520 (United States); Eberle, Aaron P. R. [ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, New Jersey 08801 (United States)


    We investigate the microstructure and linear viscoelasticity of model molecular bottlebrushes (BBs) using rheological and small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering measurements. Our polymers have short atactic polypropylene (aPP) side chains of molecular weight ranging from 119 g/mol to 259 g/mol and narrow molecular weight distribution (M{sub w}/M{sub n} 1.02–1.05). The side chain molecular weights are a small fraction of the entanglement molecular weight of the corresponding linear polymer (M{sub e,aPP}= 7.05 kg/mol), and as such, they are unentangled. The morphology of the aPP BBs is characterized as semiflexible thick chains with small side chain interdigitation. Their dynamic master curves, obtained by time-temperature superposition, reveal two sequential relaxation processes corresponding to the segmental relaxation and the relaxation of the BB backbone. Due to the short length of the side chains, their fast relaxation could not be distinguished from the glassy relaxation. The fractional free volume is an increasing function of the side chain length (N{sub SC}). Therefore, the glassy behavior of these polymers as well as their molecular friction and dynamic properties are influenced by their N{sub SC} values. The apparent flow activation energies are a decreasing function of N{sub SC}, and their values explain the differences in zero-shear viscosity measured at different temperatures.

  3. Structural and rheological characterisation of heteropolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria in wheat and sorghum sourdough. (United States)

    Galle, Sandra; Schwab, Clarissa; Arendt, Elke K; Gänzle, Michael G


    Hydrocolloids improve the volume, texture, and shelf life of bread. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) during sourdough fermentation can replace hydrocolloids. It was the aim of this study to determine whether heteropolysaccharides (HePS) synthesized intracellularly from sugar nucleotides by glycosyltransferases are produced in wheat and gluten-free sorghum sourdough at effective levels. The HePS-producing strains Lactobacillus casei FUA3185, L. casei FUA3186, and Lactobacillus buchneri FUA3154 were used; Weissella cibaria 10M producing no EPS in the absence of sucrose served as control strain. Cell suspensions of L. buchneri in MRS showed the highest viscosity at low shear rate. Glycosyltransferase genes responsible of HePS formation in LAB were expressed in sorghum and wheat sourdough. However, only HePS produced by L. buchneri influenced the rheological properties of sorghum sourdoughs but not of wheat sourdoughs. Sorghum sourdough fermented with L. buchneri exhibited a low |G*| compared to the control, indicating a decrease in resistance to deformation. An increase in tan δ indicated decreased elasticity. The use of LAB producing HePS expands the diversity of EPS and increases the variety of cultures for use in baking.

  4. pH effects on the molecular structure of β-lactoglobulin modified air-water interfaces and its impact on foam rheology. (United States)

    Engelhardt, Kathrin; Lexis, Meike; Gochev, Georgi; Konnerth, Christoph; Miller, Reinhard; Willenbacher, Norbert; Peukert, Wolfgang; Braunschweig, Björn


    Macroscopic properties of aqueous β-lactoglobulin (BLG) foams and the molecular properties of BLG modified air-water interfaces as their major structural element were investigated with a unique combination of foam rheology measurements and interfacial sensitive methods such as sum-frequency generation and interfacial dilatational rheology. The molecular structure and protein-protein interactions at the air-water interface can be changed substantially with the solution pH and result in major changes in interfacial dilational and foam rheology. At a pH near the interfacial isoelectric point BLG molecules carry zero net charge and disordered multilayers with the highest interfacial dilatational elasticity are formed at the air-water interface. Increasing or decreasing the pH with respect to the isoelectric point leads to the formation of a BLG monolayer with repulsive electrostatic interactions among the adsorbed molecules which decrease the interfacial dilational elasticity. The latter molecular information does explain the behavior of BLG foams in our rheological studies, where in fact the highest apparent yield stresses and storage moduli are established with foams from electrolyte solutions with a pH close to the isoelectric point of BLG. At this pH the gas bubbles of the foam are stabilized by BLG multilayers with attractive intermolecular interactions at the ubiquitous air-water interfaces, while BLG layers with repulsive interactions decrease the apparent yield stress and storage moduli as stabilization of gas bubbles with a monolayer of BLG is less effective.

  5. Structure and function of the skeletal muscle extracellular matrix. (United States)

    Gillies, Allison R; Lieber, Richard L


    The skeletal muscle extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in muscle fiber force transmission, maintenance, and repair. In both injured and diseased states, ECM adapts dramatically, a property that has clinical manifestations and alters muscle function. Here we review the structure, composition, and mechanical properties of skeletal muscle ECM; describe the cells that contribute to the maintenance of the ECM; and, finally, overview changes that occur with pathology. New scanning electron micrographs of ECM structure are also presented with hypotheses about ECM structure–function relationships. Detailed structure–function relationships of the ECM have yet to be defined and, as a result, we propose areas for future study.

  6. Extension velocity partitioning, rheological crust-mantle and intra-crustal decoupling and tectonically inherited structures: consequences for continental rifting dynamics. (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Mezri, Leila; Burov, Evgueni; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia


    We implemented series of systematic thermo-mechanical numerical models testing the importance of the rheological structure and extension rate partitioning for continental rift evolution. It is generally assumed that styles of continental rifting are mainly conditioned by the initial integrated strength of the lithosphere. For example, strong plates are expected to undergo extension in narrow rifting mode, while weak lithospheres would stretch in wide rifting mode. However, we show that this classification is largely insufficient because the notion of the integrated strength ignores the internal rheological structure of the lithosphere that may include several zones of crust-mantle or upper-crust-intermediate (etc) crust decoupling. As well, orogenic crusts characterizing most common sites of continental extension may exhibit inverted lithological sequences, with stronger and denser formerly lower crustal units on top of weaker and lighter upper crustal units. This all may result in the appearance of sharp rheological strength gradients and presence of decoupling zones, which may lead to substantially different evolution of the rift system. Indeed, strong jump-like contrasts in the mechanical properties result in mechanical instabilities while mechanical decoupling between the competent layers results in overall drop of the flexural strength of the system and may also lead to important horizontal flow of the ductile material. In particular, the commonly inferred concept of level of necking (that assumes the existence of a stationary horizontal stretching level during rifting) looses its sense if necking occurs at several distinct levels. In this case, due to different mechanical strength of the rheological layers, several necking levels develop and switch from one depth to another resulting in step-like variations of rifting style and accelerations/decelerations of subsidence during the active phase of rifting. During the post-rifting phase, initially decoupled

  7. Tuning the Structure and Rheology of Polystyrene Particles at the Air-Water Interface by Varying the pH. (United States)

    Truzzolillo, Domenico; Sharaf, Hossameldeen; Jonas, Ulrich; Loppinet, Benoit; Vlassopoulos, Dimitris


    We form films of carboxylated polystyrene particles (C-PS) at the air-water interface and investigate the effect of subphase pH on their structure and rheology by using a suite of complementary experimental techniques. Our results suggest that electrostatic interactions drive the stability and the structural order of the films. In particular, we show that by increasing the pH of the subphase from 9 up to 13, the films exhibit a gradual transition from solid to liquidlike, which is accompanied by a loss of the long-range order (that characterizes them at lower values of pH). Direct optical visualization of the layers, scanning electron microscopy, and surface pressure isotherms indicate that the particles deposited at the interface form three-dimensional structures involving clusters, with the latter being suppressed and a quasi-2D particle configuration eventually reached at the highest pH values. Evidently, the properties of colloidal films can be tailored significantly by altering the pH of the subphase.

  8. An Uncertainty Structure Matrix for Models and Simulations (United States)

    Green, Lawrence L.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Hemsch, Michael J.; Luckring, James M.; Tripathi, Ram K.


    Software that is used for aerospace flight control and to display information to pilots and crew is expected to be correct and credible at all times. This type of software is typically developed under strict management processes, which are intended to reduce defects in the software product. However, modeling and simulation (M&S) software may exhibit varying degrees of correctness and credibility, depending on a large and complex set of factors. These factors include its intended use, the known physics and numerical approximations within the M&S, and the referent data set against which the M&S correctness is compared. The correctness and credibility of an M&S effort is closely correlated to the uncertainty management (UM) practices that are applied to the M&S effort. This paper describes an uncertainty structure matrix for M&S, which provides a set of objective descriptions for the possible states of UM practices within a given M&S effort. The columns in the uncertainty structure matrix contain UM elements or practices that are common across most M&S efforts, and the rows describe the potential levels of achievement in each of the elements. A practitioner can quickly look at the matrix to determine where an M&S effort falls based on a common set of UM practices that are described in absolute terms that can be applied to virtually any M&S effort. The matrix can also be used to plan those steps and resources that would be needed to improve the UM practices for a given M&S effort.

  9. Slab stagnation and buckling in the mantle transition zone: Rheology, phase transition, trench migration, and seismic structure (United States)

    Bina, Craig; Cizkova, Hana


    Subducting slabs may exhibit buckling instabilities and consequent folding behavior in the mantle transition zone for various combinations of dynamical parameters, accompanied by temporal variations in dip angle, plate velocity, and trench retreat. Parameters governing such behavior include both viscous forces (slab and mantle rheology) and buoyancy forces (slab thermal structure and mineral phase relations). 2D numerical experiments show that many parameter sets lead to slab deflection at the base of the transition zone, typically accompanied by quasi-periodic oscillations (consistent with previous scaling analyses) in largely anticorrelated plate and rollback velocities, resulting in undulating stagnant slabs as buckle folds accumulate subhorizontally atop the lower mantle. Slab interactions with mantle phase transitions are important components of this process (Bina and Kawakatsu, 2010; Čížková and Bina, 2013). For terrestrial parameter sets, trench retreat is found to be nearly ubiquitous, and trench advance is quite rare - due to both rheological structure and ridge-push effects (Čížková and Bina, 2013). Recent analyses of global plate motions indicate that significant trench advance is also rare on Earth, being largely restricted to the Izu-Bonin arc (Matthews et al., 2013). Consequently, we explore the conditions necessary for terrestrial trench advance through dynamical models involving the unusual geometry associated with the Philippine Sea region. Detailed images of buckled stagnant slabs are difficult to resolve due to smoothing effects inherent in seismic tomography, but velocity structures computed for compositionally layered slabs, using laboratory data on relevant mineral assemblages, can be spatially low-pass filtered for comparison with tomographic images of corresponding resolution. When applied to P-wave velocity anomalies from stagnant slab material beneath northeast China, model slabs which undulate due to compound buckling fit

  10. Rheological and secondary structural characterization of rice flour-zein composites for noodles slit from gluten-free sheeted dough. (United States)

    Jeong, Sungmin; Kim, Hee Won; Lee, Suyong


    Rice flour-zein composites in a hydrated viscoelastic state were utilized to compensate for the role of wheat gluten in gluten-free sheeted dough. The use of zein above its glass transition temperature was able to form a viscoelastic protein network of non-wheat dough with rice flour. The mixing stability and development time of the rice dough were positively increased with increasing levels of zein. The protein secondary structural analysis by FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated that the rice doughs with high levels of zein showed significant increases in β-sheet structures whose intensity was almost doubled by the use of 10% zein. The use of zein at more than 5% (w/w) successfully produced gluten-free dough sheets that could be slit into thin and long noodle strands. In addition, the composites were effective in improving the rheological characteristics of gluten-free noodle strands by increasing their maximum force to extension, compared to wheat-based noodles.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishlanova Marina Yur'evna


    The proposed approach discloses private constituents of elements, communications, organizational layers, generalized characteristics of layers, and partial effects. This approach may be used to simulate a system of forces, items of pressure, and organizational problems. The most advanced state of stability and sustainable development is now provided with the structure within which the elements remain in certain natural interdependence (symmetry, or balance. Formation of this model is based on thorough diagnostics of an organization through the employment of the structural matrix approach and the audit of the following characteristics: labour efficiency, reliability and flexibility of communications, uniformity of distribution of communications and their coordination, connectivity of elements and layers with account for their impact, degree of freedom of elements, layers and the system as a whole, reliability, rigidity, adaptability, stability of the organizational structure.

  12. Rheology of Model Dough Formulation (United States)

    Desai, Kiran; Lele, Smita; Lele, Ashish


    Dough is generally considered a viscoelastic material, and its elasticity is attributed to the hydrated gluten matrix. Since starch is a major constituent of flour (˜70 wt% on dry basis) we may expect it to contribute to dough rheology in a non-trivial manner. Considering dough to belong to the generic class of soft solid materials, we use the Strain-Rate Frequency Superposition (SRFS) technique to study rheology of various model dough compositions in which the starch/gluten ratio is systematically varied from 100/0 to 0/100. We find that for compositions containing 0-25% gluten the SRFS superposition principle works well, while for compositions containing greater than 25% gluten the quality of SRFS mastercurves deteriorates gradually. Thus we propose that starch particles contribute substantially to the rheology of dough containing up to 25% gluten.

  13. Relating the molecular structure of comb-type superplasticizers to the compression rheology of MgO suspensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Ane Mette; Flatt, Rober Johan; Bergström, Lennart


    chains. Consolidation experiments, where the volume fraction gradient of particle networks has been determined in response to a centrifugal force field, offer a simple, yet accurate, way of investigating flocculated, partly stabilized and stable suspensions under compression. The compression rheology...

  14. The structure of the "amorphous" matrix of keratins. (United States)

    Kadir, Murat; Wang, Xinwei; Zhu, Bowen; Liu, Jing; Harland, Duane; Popescu, Crisan


    Various keratin fibers, particularly human hairs, were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, TEM, solid-state (1)H NMR and Transient Electro-Thermal Technique, TET. The results converge to suggest that the matrix of keratin fiber cortex, far from being amorphous, has a well-defined nano-scale grainy structure, the size of these grains being around 2-4nm. The size of the grains appears to strongly depend on the chemical treatment of the fiber, on the temperature and on the relative humidity of the environment, as well as on the physiological factors at the level of fiber production in follicle. By suggesting an organization at the nano-scale of the protein chains in these grains, likely to be Keratin Associated Proteins, the results challenge the view of matrix as a homogeneous glassy material. Moreover, they indicate the potential of further investigating the purpose of this structure that appears to reflect not only chemical treatments of keratins but also biological processes at the level of the follicle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Extracellular matrix hydrogels from decellularized tissues: Structure and function. (United States)

    Saldin, Lindsey T; Cramer, Madeline C; Velankar, Sachin S; White, Lisa J; Badylak, Stephen F


    Extracellular matrix (ECM) bioscaffolds prepared from decellularized tissues have been used to facilitate constructive and functional tissue remodeling in a variety of clinical applications. The discovery that these ECM materials could be solubilized and subsequently manipulated to form hydrogels expanded their potential in vitro and in vivo utility; i.e. as culture substrates comparable to collagen or Matrigel, and as injectable materials that fill irregularly-shaped defects. The mechanisms by which ECM hydrogels direct cell behavior and influence remodeling outcomes are only partially understood, but likely include structural and biological signals retained from the native source tissue. The present review describes the utility, formation, and physical and biological characterization of ECM hydrogels. Two examples of clinical application are presented to demonstrate in vivo utility of ECM hydrogels in different organ systems. Finally, new research directions and clinical translation of ECM hydrogels are discussed. More than 70 papers have been published on extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogels created from source tissue in almost every organ system. The present manuscript represents a review of ECM hydrogels and attempts to identify structure-function relationships that influence the tissue remodeling outcomes and gaps in the understanding thereof. There is a Phase 1 clinical trial now in progress for an ECM hydrogel. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Porous matrix structures for alkaline electrolyte fuel cells (United States)

    Vine, R. W.; Narsavage, S. T.


    A number of advancements have been realized by a continuing research program to develop higher chemically stable porous matrix structures with high bubble pressure (crossover resistance) for use as separators in potassium hydroxide electrolyte fuel cells. More uniform, higher-bubble-pressure asbestos matrices were produced by reconstituting Johns-Manville asbestos paper; Fybex potassium titanate which was found compatible with 42% KOH at 250 F for up to 3000 hr; good agreement was found between bubble pressures predicted by an analytical study and those measured with filtered structures; Teflon-bonded Fybex matrices with bubble pressures greater than 30 psi were obtained by filtering a water slurry of the mixture directly onto fuel cell electrodes; and PBI fibers have satisfactory compatibility with 42% KOH at 250 F.

  17. Deformation above mobile substrates, salt rheology and spatial distribution of salt structures: A 3D seismic study of the Permian southern North Sea (United States)

    Hernandez, Karina; Mitchell, Neil; Huuse, Mads


    At ~255 Ma, cycles of evaporation of seawater led to deposition of evaporites including halite (rock salt) in the North Sea Basin. After later burial by denser sediments, the salt beds rose as pillows and diapirs. Assuming mobilization is due to Rayleigh-Taylor gravitational instability of heavy fluid (sediments) overlying light fluid (salts), theory suggests that the spacing between diapirs should be proportional to the original thickness of the salt layer. For example, a description of the theory in Turcotte and Schubert (1982) predicts structure wavelength to be 2.6 times the salt thickness. Previous research has explored mobilization of salt deposits assuming they have uniform rheology. However, this is not justified as halite rheology varies with temperature, grain size and pore brine content. Furthermore, evaporitic sequences contain various minerals besides halite (e.g., anhydrite, gypsum), which have different rheological properties. 3D seismic and well data reveal the internal structure of salt beds. The data have allowed characterization of structure wavelengths and salt thickness, so that the impact of internal composition and other properties on halokinetic behaviour can be assessed.

  18. Structure and physical properties of magneto-rheological slurries under perturbation


    De la Calleja, E. M.; J.L. Carrillo; Donado, F.


    Dispersions of micrometric magnetic particles in inert liquids acquire a complex multifractal structure when they are exposed to a static magnetic field. If in addition to the static field it is applied on the dispersion an oscillatory magnetic perturbation, the structure formed by the particles, and consequently, some of the physical properties of the system, can be strongly affected. Under certain conditions, by the influence of the perturbation, the structure in the dispersion can be recon...

  19. High-strain composites and dual-matrix composite structures (United States)

    Maqueda Jimenez, Ignacio

    Most space applications require deployable structures due to the limiting size of current launch vehicles. Specifically, payloads in nanosatellites such as CubeSats require very high compaction ratios due to the very limited space available in this typo of platform. Strain-energy-storing deployable structures can be suitable for these applications, but the curvature to which these structures can be folded is limited to the elastic range. Thanks to fiber microbuckling, high-strain composite materials can be folded into much higher curvatures without showing significant damage, which makes them suitable for very high compaction deployable structure applications. However, in applications that require carrying loads in compression, fiber microbuckling also dominates the strength of the material. A good understanding of the strength in compression of high-strain composites is then needed to determine how suitable they are for this type of application. The goal of this thesis is to investigate, experimentally and numerically, the microbuckling in compression of high-strain composites. Particularly, the behavior in compression of unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced silicone rods (CFRS) is studied. Experimental testing of the compression failure of CFRS rods showed a higher strength in compression than the strength estimated by analytical models, which is unusual in standard polymer composites. This effect, first discovered in the present research, was attributed to the variation in random carbon fiber angles respect to the nominal direction. This is an important effect, as it implies that microbuckling strength might be increased by controlling the fiber angles. With a higher microbuckling strength, high-strain materials could carry loads in compression without reaching microbuckling and therefore be suitable for several space applications. A finite element model was developed to predict the homogenized stiffness of the CFRS, and the homogenization results were used in

  20. Rheology and Confocal Reflectance Microscopy as Probes of Mechanical Properties and Structure during Collagen and Collagen/Hyaluronan Self-Assembly (United States)

    Yang, Ya-li; Kaufman, Laura J.


    In this work, the gelation of three-dimensional collagen and collagen/hyaluronan (HA) composites is studied by time sweep rheology and time lapse confocal reflectance microscopy (CRM). To investigate the complementary nature of these techniques, first collagen gel formation is investigated at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/mL at 37°C and 32°C. The following parameters are used to describe the self-assembly process in all gels: the crossover time (tc), the slope of the growth phase (kg), and the arrest time (ta). The first two measures are determined by rheology, and the third by CRM. A frequency-independent rheological measure of gelation, tg, is also measured at 37°C. However, this quantity cannot be straightforwardly determined for gels formed at 32°C, indicating that percolation theory does not fully capture the dynamics of collagen network formation. The effects of collagen concentration and gelation temperature on kg, tc, and ta as well as on the mechanical properties and structure of these gels both during gelation and at equilibrium are elucidated. Composite collagen/HA gels are also prepared, and their properties are monitored at equilibrium and during gelation at 37°C and 32°C. We show that addition of HA subtly alters mechanical properties and structure of these systems both during the gelation process and at equilibrium. This occurs in a temperature-dependent manner, with the ratio of HA deposited on collagen fibers versus that distributed homogeneously between fibers increasing with decreasing gelation temperature. In addition to providing information on collagen and collagen/HA structure and mechanical properties during gelation, this work shows new ways in which rheology and microscopy can be used complementarily to reveal details of gelation processes. PMID:19217873

  1. Rheology and confocal reflectance microscopy as probes of mechanical properties and structure during collagen and collagen/hyaluronan self-assembly. (United States)

    Yang, Ya-li; Kaufman, Laura J


    In this work, the gelation of three-dimensional collagen and collagen/hyaluronan (HA) composites is studied by time sweep rheology and time lapse confocal reflectance microscopy (CRM). To investigate the complementary nature of these techniques, first collagen gel formation is investigated at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/mL at 37 degrees C and 32 degrees C. The following parameters are used to describe the self-assembly process in all gels: the crossover time (t(c)), the slope of the growth phase (k(g)), and the arrest time (t(a)). The first two measures are determined by rheology, and the third by CRM. A frequency-independent rheological measure of gelation, t(g), is also measured at 37 degrees C. However, this quantity cannot be straightforwardly determined for gels formed at 32 degrees C, indicating that percolation theory does not fully capture the dynamics of collagen network formation. The effects of collagen concentration and gelation temperature on k(g), t(c), and t(a) as well as on the mechanical properties and structure of these gels both during gelation and at equilibrium are elucidated. Composite collagen/HA gels are also prepared, and their properties are monitored at equilibrium and during gelation at 37 degrees C and 32 degrees C. We show that addition of HA subtly alters mechanical properties and structure of these systems both during the gelation process and at equilibrium. This occurs in a temperature-dependent manner, with the ratio of HA deposited on collagen fibers versus that distributed homogeneously between fibers increasing with decreasing gelation temperature. In addition to providing information on collagen and collagen/HA structure and mechanical properties during gelation, this work shows new ways in which rheology and microscopy can be used complementarily to reveal details of gelation processes.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Zheng; Yan-xia Cao; Miao Du


    Dynamic rheological characteristics of polypropylene (PP) filled with ultra-fine full-vulcanized powdered rubber (UFPR) composed of styrene-butadiene copolymer were studied through dynamic rheological measurements on an Advanced Rheometric Expansion System (ARES). A specific viscoelastic phenomenon, i.e. "the second plateau", appeared at low frequencies, and exhibits a certain dependence on the amount of rubber particles and the dispersion state in the matrix. This phenomenon is attributed to the formation of aggregation structure of rubber particles. The analyses of Cole-Cole diagrams of the dynamic viscoelastic functions suggest that the heterogeneity of the composites is enhanced on increasing both particle content and temperature.

  3. Extracellular matrix, mechanotransduction and structural hierarchies in heart tissue engineering. (United States)

    Parker, Kevin K; Ingber, Donald E


    The spatial and temporal scales of cardiac organogenesis and pathogenesis make engineering of artificial heart tissue a daunting challenge. The temporal scales range from nanosecond conformational changes responsible for ion channel opening to fibrillation which occurs over seconds and can lead to death. Spatial scales range from nanometre pore sizes in membrane channels and gap junctions to the metre length scale of the whole cardiovascular system in a living patient. Synchrony over these scales requires a hierarchy of control mechanisms that are governed by a single common principle: integration of structure and function. To ensure that the function of ion channels and contraction of muscle cells lead to changes in heart chamber volume, an elegant choreography of metabolic, electrical and mechanical events are executed by protein networks composed of extracellular matrix, transmembrane integrin receptors and cytoskeleton which are functionally connected across all size scales. These structural control networks are mechanoresponsive, and they process mechanical and chemical signals in a massively parallel fashion, while also serving as a bidirectional circuit for information flow. This review explores how these hierarchical structural networks regulate the form and function of living cells and tissues, as well as how microfabrication techniques can be used to probe this structural control mechanism that maintains metabolic supply, electrical activation and mechanical pumping of heart muscle. Through this process, we delineate various design principles that may be useful for engineering artificial heart tissue in the future.

  4. Extracellular matrix structure and nano-mechanics determine megakaryocyte function. (United States)

    Malara, Alessandro; Gruppi, Cristian; Pallotta, Isabella; Spedden, Elise; Tenni, Ruggero; Raspanti, Mario; Kaplan, David; Tira, Maria Enrica; Staii, Cristian; Balduini, Alessandra


    Cell interactions with matrices via specific receptors control many functions, with chemistry, physics, and membrane elasticity as fundamental elements of the processes involved. Little is known about how biochemical and biophysical processes integrate to generate force and, ultimately, to regulate hemopoiesis into the bone marrow-matrix environment. To address this hypothesis, in this work we focus on the regulation of MK development by type I collagen. By atomic force microscopy analysis, we demonstrate that the tensile strength of fibrils in type I collagen structure is a fundamental requirement to regulate cytoskeleton contractility of human MKs through the activation of integrin-α2β1-dependent Rho-ROCK pathway and MLC-2 phosphorylation. Most importantly, this mechanism seemed to mediate MK migration, fibronectin assembly, and platelet formation. On the contrary, a decrease in mechanical tension caused by N-acetylation of lysine side chains in type I collagen completely reverted these processes by preventing fibrillogenesis.

  5. Advanced density matrix renormalization group method for nuclear structure calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Legeza, Ö; Poves, A; Dukelsky, J


    We present an efficient implementation of the Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) algorithm that includes an optimal ordering of the proton and neutron orbitals and an efficient expansion of the active space utilizing various concepts of quantum information theory. We first show how this new DMRG methodology could solve a previous $400$ KeV discrepancy in the ground state energy of $^{56}$Ni. We then report the first DMRG results in the $pf+g9/2$ shell model space for the ground $0^+$ and first $2^+$ states of $^{64}$Ge which are benchmarked with reference data obtained from Monte Carlo shell model. The corresponding correlation structure among the proton and neutron orbitals is determined in terms of the two-orbital mutual information. Based on such correlation graphs we propose several further algorithmic improvement possibilities that can be utilized in a new generation of tensor network based algorithms.

  6. Advanced density matrix renormalization group method for nuclear structure calculations (United States)

    Legeza, Ã.-.; Veis, L.; Poves, A.; Dukelsky, J.


    We present an efficient implementation of the Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) algorithm that includes an optimal ordering of the proton and neutron orbitals and an efficient expansion of the active space utilizing various concepts of quantum information theory. We first show how this new DMRG methodology could solve a previous 400 keV discrepancy in the ground state energy of 56Ni. We then report the first DMRG results in the p f +g 9 /2 shell model space for the ground 0+ and first 2+ states of 64Ge which are benchmarked with reference data obtained from a Monte Carlo shell model. The corresponding correlation structure among the proton and neutron orbitals is determined in terms of two-orbital mutual information. Based on such correlation graphs we propose several further algorithmic improvement possibilities that can be utilized in a new generation of tensor network based algorithms.

  7. Structure of nuclear transition matrix elements for neutrinoless double- decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Rath


    The structure of nuclear transition matrix elements (NTMEs) required for the study of neutrinoless double- decay within light Majorana neutrino mass mechanism is disassembled in the PHFB model. The NTMEs are calculated using a set of HFB intrinsic wave functions, the reliability of which has been previously established by obtaining an overall agreement between the theoretically calculated spectroscopic properties and the available experimental data. Presently, we study the role of short-range correlations, radial evolution of NTMEs and deformation effects due to quadrupolar correlations. In addition, limits on effective light neutrino mass $\\langle m_{} \\rangle$ are extracted from the observed limits on half-lives $T_{1/2}^{0}$ of neutrinoless double- decay.

  8. The effect of structural properties on rheological behaviour of starches in binary dimethyl sulfoxide-water solutions (United States)

    Ptaszek, Paweł; Dziubiński, Marek; Grzesik, N. Mirosław; Liszka-Skoczylas, Marta


    This research study analysed the rheological properties of potato amylose and potato amylopectin in binary solutions of the following water and dimethyl sulfoxide concentrations: 90% DMSO (1), 80% DMSO (2) and 50% DMSO (3), with preparation methodology involving the dissolution at the temperature of 98°C. The studies of dynamic light scattering on the biopolymer coils and the determination of main relaxation times of the solutions were carried out. For the amylose solutions, the fast relaxation phenomena are predominant. The results of the quality tests of the hysteresis loop showed, that the amylose solutions in the solvents (1) and (2) are rheologically stable and shear-thickened. The amylose solutions in solvents (3) reveal oscillatory alterations of viscosity in the time. Amylopectin solutions are characterized by 80% share of slow relaxation phenomena, very low diffusion coefficients and hydrodynamic radii in the range of 2000 nm. The amylopectin solutions are rheologically unstable. PMID:28152071

  9. The effect of structural properties on rheological behaviour of starches in binary dimethyl sulfoxide-water solutions. (United States)

    Ptaszek, Anna; Ptaszek, Paweł; Dziubiński, Marek; Grzesik, N Mirosław; Liszka-Skoczylas, Marta


    This research study analysed the rheological properties of potato amylose and potato amylopectin in binary solutions of the following water and dimethyl sulfoxide concentrations: 90% DMSO (1), 80% DMSO (2) and 50% DMSO (3), with preparation methodology involving the dissolution at the temperature of 98°C. The studies of dynamic light scattering on the biopolymer coils and the determination of main relaxation times of the solutions were carried out. For the amylose solutions, the fast relaxation phenomena are predominant. The results of the quality tests of the hysteresis loop showed, that the amylose solutions in the solvents (1) and (2) are rheologically stable and shear-thickened. The amylose solutions in solvents (3) reveal oscillatory alterations of viscosity in the time. Amylopectin solutions are characterized by 80% share of slow relaxation phenomena, very low diffusion coefficients and hydrodynamic radii in the range of 2000 nm. The amylopectin solutions are rheologically unstable.

  10. Magneto-rheological elastomer (MRE) based composite structures for micro-vibration control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YQ Ni; ZG Ying; ZH Chen


    Magneto-theological elastomers (MREs) are used to construct composite structures for micro-vibration control of equipment under stochastic support-motion excitations. The dynamic behavior of MREs as a smart viscoelastic material is characterized by a complex modulus dependent on vibration frequency and controllable by external magnetic fields. Frequency-domain solution methods for stochastic micro-vibration response analysis of the MRE-based structural systems are developed to derive the system frequency-response function matrices and the expressions of the velocity response spectrum. With these equations, the root-mean-square (RMS) velocity responses in terms of the one-third octave frequency band spectrum can be calculated. Further, the optimization problem of the complex moduli of the MRE cores is defined by minimizing the velocity response spectra and the RMS velocity responses through altering the applied magnetic fields. Simulation results illustrate the influences of MRE parameters on the RMS velocity responses and the high response reduction capacities of the MRE-hased structures. In addition, the developed frequency-domain analysis methods are applicable to sandwich beam structures with arbitrary cores characterized by complex shear moduli under stochastic excitations described by power spectral density functions, and are valid for a wide frequency range.

  11. Rheology of a very dilute magnetic suspension with micro-structures of nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Francisco Ricardo, E-mail:; Rosa, Adriano Possebon; Dias, Nuno Jorge


    The main objective of this present paper is to measure the apparent viscosity of a magnetic suspension in the presence of particle agglomerates of different sizes for several applied magnetic fields, shear rates and particle volume fractions. A secondary goal is to investigate suspension microstructure transition, when subjected to a magnetic field. We show that an employed like virial expansion of two empirical coefficients based only on the experimental data gives a good quantitative description of the magnetorheological suspension effective viscosity up to particle volume fraction less than 0.01. The observed shear rate dependence viscosity is a direct consequence of the stretching, breaking particle structures of different sizes and shapes formed by the action of magnetic attractive force between the polarized particles as observed previously in the context of dense ferrofluids. We have identified even in the limit of a very small particle volume fraction a strong non-linear behavior of the examined suspension due to formation of suspended blobs-like aggregates of different sizes and anisotropic chains of particles. These structures are induced by the presence of an external magnetic field and particle–particle magnetic interactions. A histogram of the structure size distribution is also examined. The results of this paper are important to those who are interested on the magnetorheological suspensions. - Highlights: • Apparent viscosity of a magnetorheological suspension. • Formation of suspended blobs-like aggregates and chains. • Structure transition induced by magnetic effects. • Nonlinear behavior due to multi-structures length scales. • Breaking particle agglomerates by an applied shear.

  12. Sensitivity of near field GIA response with respect to rheological features of the Earth structure (United States)

    Hagedoorn, Jan M.; Klemann, Volker; Sasgen, Ingo; Thomas, Maik


    One task of the German National Climate Modeling Initiative PalMod will be to couple earth system models representing the atmospere, ocean and ice dynamics during the last glacial cycle with the dynamic loading response of a viscoelastic earth model. In preparation, we discuss in this study the influence of viscosity stratification and of lateral heterogeneities in the Earth structure on the solid-earth response to glacial loading. As discussed in literature, there is a controversy about the impact of lateral heterogeneity on the prediction of present and past GIA signals. The influence of the Earth structure on the far-field response is governed by the flexural behaviour of the regional lithosphere and upper-mantle structure in response to the varying ocean load. The influence at and around the glacial ice sheets is substantial with respect to the amplitudes and also with respect to the temporal evolution of the earth's response. Depending on the region of interest, lithospheric variations are present over the extent of the glacial ice sheets varying between 40 and 200 km, and lateral variations in viscosity can vary by one or two orders of magnitude. The focus will be to what extent the behaviour of a laterally heterogeneous viscosity structure can be parameterised by an adjusted spherical earth model representation. Accordingly, we apply predefined ice-sheet histories (like ICE5G and ICE6G) and analyse ensemble runs representing the variability of relative sea-level and palaeo-topography predictions. Spatial pattern of deformation fields will be discussed as the behaviour at specific sea-level curves. Furthermore, we compare the sensitivity on earth structure during the evolution of sea level and palaeo topography during the termination phase of the last glaciation to present-day rates of relative sea-level height and radial displacement.

  13. Probing of field-induced structures and tunable rheological properties of surfactant capped magnetically polarizable nanofluids. (United States)

    Felicia, Leona J; Philip, John


    Oil-based nanofluid containing surfactant-capped magnetite nanoparticles are synthesized by a simple coprecipitation approach, and their magnetorheological properties are studied for different magnetic field strengths and volume fractions. We observe a distinct "plateau-like region" in the shear thinning viscosity curve, under an external magnetic field, possibly due to a peculiar alignment of the chains with respect to the field direction where the structure is stable against fragmentation. The observed plateau regime is reminiscent to that of kinetically arrested gel networks. Interestingly, such a plateau regime has been observed only above certain critical magnetic field when the dipolar interaction strength is much greater than the thermal energy where the aggregation becomes a nonequilibrium transport-limited process. The good collapse of specific viscosity data against Mason number for different magnetic field strengths onto a single curve suggests the dominance of hydrodynamic and magnetic forces on thermal force above a certain magnetic field strength. The observed increase in both static and dynamic yield stresses under the magnetic field confirms the formation of columnar structures that hinder the flow behavior. The hysteresis observed in the magnetic sweep experiments shows the inability of the chains to relax within the measurement time. The dynamic measurements confirm that the field-induced structures impart elastic behavior to the dispersion, which is found to increase with magnetic field and saturates at higher field strengths.

  14. Supramolecular assembly and rheology in food systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der E.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Venema, P.


    We address some recent progress in describing rheological responxe in the linear regime in terms of structural morphology and interactions between mesostructures. As one of the examples we use gels composed of protein fibrils. We subsequently address rheological response in the non-linear regime in

  15. Nanocomposites with thermosetting matrix: structure formation at the interphase boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOROLEV Evgenij Valerjevich


    Full Text Available Composites with thermosetting matrix are often characterized by elevated values of operational properties – flexural and compressive strength, resistance to aggressive environments, etc. At the same time the cost of most thermosets (particularly – epoxy resins is quite high. Because of this the area of application of polymer composites in construction is limited. One of such application is the creation of multifunctional coatings. The high cost of resin dictates the need to improve the operational properties to ensure economic efficiency. So far, the known way to improve the operational properties is to produce nanoscale interfacial layer between fine filler and matrix in block. This way proved to be effective, but mechanism of the improvement is still uncertain. There areat least two different theories – so-called «adhesion theory» and «theory of deformable layer». The investigation is complicated by the variety of oligomers, hardeners (crosslinking agents and precursors of nanomodifiers. It is becoming more common lately to use adducts of aliphatic amines and epoxy oligomers as hardeners. As precursors of nanomodifiers the organosilicon compounds with siloxane bond in the main chain can be successfully used. In this paper we present results of investigation of a model system comprised of oligomer, crosslinking agent and precursor. The analysis of structure is carried out by means of Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. It is shown that at gelation point modifier has no significant effect on the chemical composition of the curing products; nevertheless, the admixture of modifier reduces the regularity of the emerging three-dimensional spatial net of thermoset. After completion of curing process the irregular spatial grid is still present. This indicates that in composites admixture of organosilicon precursors may lead to the formation of transition layer with reduced modulus of elasticity. Such layer, in turn, causes stress

  16. NMR structure of the myristylated feline immunodeficiency virus matrix protein. (United States)

    Brown, Lola A; Cox, Cassiah; Baptiste, Janae; Summers, Holly; Button, Ryan; Bahlow, Kennedy; Spurrier, Vaughn; Kyser, Jenna; Luttge, Benjamin G; Kuo, Lillian; Freed, Eric O; Summers, Michael F


    Membrane targeting by the Gag proteins of the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV types-1 and -2) is mediated by Gag's N-terminally myristylated matrix (MA) domain and is dependent on cellular phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. To determine if other lentiviruses employ a similar membrane targeting mechanism, we initiated studies of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a widespread feline pathogen with potential utility for development of human therapeutics. Bacterial co-translational myristylation was facilitated by mutation of two amino acids near the amino-terminus of the protein (Q5A/G6S; myrMAQ5A/G6S). These substitutions did not affect virus assembly or release from transfected cells. NMR studies revealed that the myristyl group is buried within a hydrophobic pocket in a manner that is structurally similar to that observed for the myristylated HIV-1 protein. Comparisons with a recent crystal structure of the unmyristylated FIV protein [myr(-)MA] indicate that only small changes in helix orientation are required to accommodate the sequestered myr group. Depletion of PI(4,5)P2 from the plasma membrane of FIV-infected CRFK cells inhibited production of FIV particles, indicating that, like HIV, FIV hijacks the PI(4,5)P2 cellular signaling system to direct intracellular Gag trafficking during virus assembly.

  17. NMR Structure of the Myristylated Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Matrix Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola A. Brown


    Full Text Available Membrane targeting by the Gag proteins of the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV types-1 and -2 is mediated by Gag’s N-terminally myristylated matrix (MA domain and is dependent on cellular phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5P2]. To determine if other lentiviruses employ a similar membrane targeting mechanism, we initiated studies of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, a widespread feline pathogen with potential utility for development of human therapeutics. Bacterial co-translational myristylation was facilitated by mutation of two amino acids near the amino-terminus of the protein (Q5A/G6S; myrMAQ5A/G6S. These substitutions did not affect virus assembly or release from transfected cells. NMR studies revealed that the myristyl group is buried within a hydrophobic pocket in a manner that is structurally similar to that observed for the myristylated HIV-1 protein. Comparisons with a recent crystal structure of the unmyristylated FIV protein [myr(-MA] indicate that only small changes in helix orientation are required to accommodate the sequestered myr group. Depletion of PI(4,5P2 from the plasma membrane of FIV-infected CRFK cells inhibited production of FIV particles, indicating that, like HIV, FIV hijacks the PI(4,5P2 cellular signaling system to direct intracellular Gag trafficking during virus assembly.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-Xing Zhou


    Conceptually, an imagined conformation ellipsoid is supposed to represent the shape of a polymer chain for polymer melts in flow fields and to be equivalent to the volume element in a mathematical sense in continuum mechanics. A power law dependence of shear modulus of polymer melts on detC, referred to as envelope volume, is proposed. Based on those assumptions and the non-linear relation of shear modulus, a phenomenological viscoelastic model is derived. The model is tested in simple shear flow, simple elongational flow, oscillatory shear flow, and relaxation process after flow suddenly stopped. The results show that the model works well to predict the change of internal structure and viscoelastic performance of polymer melts in flow fields.

  19. Structural and functional polymer-matrix composites for electromagnetic applications (United States)

    Wu, Junhua

    This dissertation addresses the science and technology of functional and structural polymer-matrix composite materials for electromagnetic applications, which include electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding and low observability (Stealth). The structural composites are continuous carbon fiber epoxy-matrix composites, which are widely used for airframes. The functional composites are composites with discontinuous fillers and in both bulk and coating forms. Through composite structure variation, attractive electromagnetic properties have been achieved. With no degradation of the tensile strength or modulus, the shielding effectiveness of the structural composites has been improved by enhancing multiple reflections through light activation of the carbon fiber. The multiple reflections loss of the electromagnetic wave increases from 1.1 to 10.2 dB at 1.0 GHz due to the activation. Such a large effect of multiple reflections has not been previously reported in any material. The observability of these composites has been lowered by decreasing the electrical conductivity (and hence decreasing the reflection loss) through carbon fiber coating. The incorporation of mumetal, a magnetic alloy particulate filler (28-40 mum size), in a latex paint has been found to be effective for enhancing the shielding only if the electrical resistivity of the resulting composite coating is below 10, as rendered by a conductive particulate filler, such as nickel flake (14-20 mum size). This effectiveness (39 dB at 1.0 GHz) is attributed to the absorption of the electromagnetic wave by the mumetal and the nickel flake, with the high conductivity rendered by the presence of the nickel flake resulting in a relatively high reflection loss of 15.5 dB. Without the nickel flake, the mumetal gives only 3 dB of shielding and 1.5 dB of reflection loss at 1.0 GHz. Nickel powder (0.3-0.5 mum size) has been found to be an effective filler for improving the shielding of polyethersulfone (PES

  20. Structural characterisation and rheological properties of a polysaccharide from sesame leaves (Sesamum radiatum Schumach. & Thonn.). (United States)

    Nep, E I; Carnachan, S M; Ngwuluka, N C; Kontogiorgos, V; Morris, G A; Sims, I M; Smith, A M


    A polysaccharide from the leaves of Sesamum radiatum was extracted by maceration in deionized water followed by ethanol precipitation then chemically and physically characterised. Monosaccharide composition and linkages were determined by high performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy respectively. Sesamum gum was composed of glucuronic acid, mannose, galactose, and xylose with trace quantities of glucose, rhamnose and arabinose. Proton and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and linkage analysis revealed a glucuronomannan based structure comprising a backbone of →4)-β-d-GlcpA-(1→2)-α-d-Manp-(1→ with side-chains of galactose and xylose. Hydrated sesamum gum displayed temperature independent viscoelastic properties with no thermal hysteresis. Intrinsic viscosity was determined to be 3.31 and 4.40dLg(-1) in 0.1M NaCl and deionised water respectively, while the critical concentration was determined to be 0.1% w/v. The characterisation performed in this study will help direct potential applications of this material in foods and pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Strength and Deformation Rate of Plate Boundaries: The Rheological Effects of Grain Size Reduction, Structure, and Serpentinization. (United States)

    Montesi, L.; Gueydan, F.


    Global strain rate maps reveal 1000-fold contrasts between plate interiors, oceanic or continental diffuse plate boundaries and narrow plate boundaries. Here, we show that rheological models based on the concepts of shear zone localization and the evolution of rock structure upon strain can explain these strain rate contrasts. Ductile shear zones constitute a mechanical paradox in the lithosphere. As every plastic deformation mechanism is strain-rate-hardening, ductile rocks are expected to deform at low strain rate and low stress (broad zone of deformation). Localized ductile shear zones require either a localized forcing (locally high stress) or a thermal or structural anomaly in the shear zone; either can be inherited or develop progressively as rocks deform. We previously identified the most effective process at each depth level of the lithosphere. In the upper crust and middle crust, rocks fabric controls localization. Grain size reduction is the most efficient mechanism in the uppermost mantle. This analysis can be generalized to consider a complete lithospheric section. We assume strain rate does not vary with depth and that the depth-integrated strength of the lithospheric does not change over time, as the total force is controlled by external process such as mantle convection and plate and slab buoyancy. Reducing grain size from a coarse value typical of undeformed peridotite to a value in agreement with the stress level (piezometer) while letting that stress vary from depth to depth (the integrated stress remains the same) increases the lithospheric strain rate by about a factor of 1000. This can explain the development of diffuse plate boundaries. The slightly higher strain rate of continental plate boundary may reflect development of a layered rock fabric in the middle crust. Narrow plate boundaries require additional weakening process. The high heat flux near mid-ocean ridge implies a thin lithosphere, which enhances stress (for constant integrated

  2. CNT-based Reinforcing Polymer Matrix Composites for Lightweight Structures Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Carbon Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs) are attractive structural materials for NASA applications due to their high strength to weight ratio, mechanical properties...

  3. Environmental effects on the structure of the G-matrix. (United States)

    Wood, Corlett W; Brodie, Edmund D


    Genetic correlations between traits determine the multivariate response to selection in the short term, and thereby play a causal role in evolutionary change. Although individual studies have documented environmentally induced changes in genetic correlations, the nature and extent of environmental effects on multivariate genetic architecture across species and environments remain largely uncharacterized. We reviewed the literature for estimates of the genetic variance-covariance (G) matrix in multiple environments, and compared differences in G between environments to the divergence in G between conspecific populations (measured in a common garden). We found that the predicted evolutionary trajectory differed as strongly between environments as it did between populations. Between-environment differences in the underlying structure of G (total genetic variance and the relative magnitude and orientation of genetic correlations) were equal to or greater than between-population differences. Neither environmental novelty, nor the difference in mean phenotype predicted these differences in G. Our results suggest that environmental effects on multivariate genetic architecture may be comparable to the divergence that accumulates over dozens or hundreds of generations between populations. We outline avenues of future research to address the limitations of existing data and characterize the extent to which lability in genetic correlations shapes evolution in changing environments.

  4. Analogy between dynamics of thermo-rheological and piezo-rheological pendulums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedrih, K [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering University of Nis, Mathematical Institute SANU, ul. Vojvode Tankosic 3/V/22, 18000-Nis (Serbia)], E-mail:, E-mail: khedrih@eunet.yu


    The constitutive stress-strain relations of the standard thermo-rheological and piezo-rheological hereditary element in differential form as well as in two different integro-differential forms are defined. The considered problem of a thermo-rheological hereditary discrete system nonlinear dynamics in the form of thermo-rheological double pendulum system with coupled pendulums gets the significance of two constrained bodies in plane motion problem, as a problem important for studying a sensor dynamics or actuator dynamics in active structure dynamics. System of the averaged equations in the first approximation for amplitudes and phases are derived and qualitatively analyzed. Analogy between nonlinear dynamics of the double pendulum systems with thermo-rheological and piezo-rheological properties between pendulums is pointed out.

  5. A rheological and microstructural characterisation of bigels for cosmetic and pharmaceutical uses. (United States)

    Lupi, Francesca R; Shakeel, Ahmad; Greco, Valeria; Oliviero Rossi, Cesare; Baldino, Noemi; Gabriele, Domenico


    Bigels are biphasic systems formed by water-based hydrogels and oil-based organogels, mainly studied, in the last few years, for pharmaceutical and cosmetic application focused on the controlled delivery of both lipophilic and hydrophilic active agents. The rheological properties of bigels depend on both the amount and the rheological characteristics of single structured phases. Moreover, it can be expected that, at large fractions of one of the starting gels, systems more complex than oil-in-water or water-in-oil can be obtained, yielding bicontinuous or matrix-in-matrix arrangement. Model bigels were investigated from a microstructural (i.e. microscopy and electrical conductivity tests) and rheological point of view. The hydrogel was prepared by using a low-methoxyl pectin whereas the organogel was prepared by using olive oil and, as gelator, a mixture of glyceryl stearate and policosanol. Model bigels were obtained by increasing the amount of organogel mixed with the hydrogel, and microstructural characterisation evidenced an organogel-in-hydrogel behaviour for all investigated samples, even though at the highest organogel content a more complex structure seems to arise. A semi-empirical model, based on theoretical equations developed for suspensions of elastic spheres in elastic media, was proposed to relate bigel rheological properties to single phase properties and fractions.

  6. Changes in protein structures to improve the rheology and texture of reduced-fat sausages using high pressure processing. (United States)

    Yang, Huijuan; Khan, Muhammad Ammar; Yu, Xiaobo; Zheng, Haibo; Han, Minyi; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong


    This study investigated the role of high-pressure processing (HPP) for improving the functional properties of meat batters and the textural properties of reduced-fat sausages. Application of 200MPa pressure at 10°C for 2min to pork batters containing various fat contents (0-30%) affected their rheological properties, cooking losses, color, textual properties and their protein imaging. The results revealed that both application of 200MPa and increasing fat content decreased cooking loss, as well as improved the textural and rheological properties. Cooking losses, texture and sensory evaluation of 200MPa treated sausages having 20% fat were similar to those of the 0.1MPa treated sausages having 30% fat. Principal component analysis revealed that certain quality attributes were affected differently by the levels of fat addition and by HPP. These findings indicated the potential of HPP for improving yield and texture of emulsion-type sausages having reduced fat contents.

  7. Flow environment and matrix structure interact to determine spatial competition in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. (United States)

    Nadell, Carey D; Ricaurte, Deirdre; Yan, Jing; Drescher, Knut; Bassler, Bonnie L


    Bacteria often live in biofilms, which are microbial communities surrounded by a secreted extracellular matrix. Here, we demonstrate that hydrodynamic flow and matrix organization interact to shape competitive dynamics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Irrespective of initial frequency, in competition with matrix mutants, wild-type cells always increase in relative abundance in planar microfluidic devices under simple flow regimes. By contrast, in microenvironments with complex, irregular flow profiles - which are common in natural environments - wild-type matrix-producing and isogenic non-producing strains can coexist. This result stems from local obstruction of flow by wild-type matrix producers, which generates regions of near-zero shear that allow matrix mutants to locally accumulate. Our findings connect the evolutionary stability of matrix production with the hydrodynamics and spatial structure of the surrounding environment, providing a potential explanation for the variation in biofilm matrix secretion observed among bacteria in natural environments.

  8. Structure Analysis of Network Traffic Matrix Based on Relaxed Principal Component Pursuit

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhe; Xu, Ke; Yin, Baolin


    The network traffic matrix is a kind of flow-level Internet traffic data and is widely applied to network operation and management. It is a crucial problem to analyze the composition and structure of traffic matrix; some mathematical approaches such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used to handle that problem. In this paper, we first argue that PCA performs poorly for analyzing traffic matrixes polluted by large volume anomalies, then propose a new composition model of the network traffic matrix. According to our model, structure analysis can be formally defined as decomposing a traffic matrix into low-rank, sparse, and noise sub-matrixes, which is equal to the Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) problem defined in [13]. Based on the Relaxed Principal Component Pursuit (Relaxed PCP) method and the Accelerated Proximal Gradient (APG) algorithm, an iterative algorithm for decomposing a traffic matrix is presented, and our experiment results demonstrate its efficiency and flexibility. At last, f...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chunxiang; ZHOU Dai


    The polynomial matrix using the block coefficient matrix representation auto-regressive moving average (referred to as the PM-ARMA) model is constructed in this paper for actively controlled multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) structures with time-delay through equivalently transforming the preliminary state space realization into the new state space realization. The PM-ARMA model is a more general formulation with respect to the polynomial using the coefficient representation auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) model due to its capability to cope with actively controlled structures with any given structural degrees of freedom and any chosen number of sensors and actuators. (The sensors and actuators are required to maintain the identical number.) under any dimensional stationary stochastic excitation.

  10. Oxidizing gel formulation for nuclear decontamination: rheological and acidic properties of the organic matrix and its ozonolysis; Formulation d'un gel oxydant a matrice organique applicable a la decontamination nucleaire: proprietes rheologiques, acido-basiques et ozonolyse de la matrice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouy, E


    An acidic and oxidizing gel was formulated with a purely organic matrix, xanthan gum, at low concentrations (1 to 2 wt %). This polymer gel was investigated in various media (aqueous, acidic and ceric) by means of rheology: shear thinning behaviour, thixotropy, yield stress... Evidences of unexpected rheological properties in highly concentrated media show that xanthan is quite convenient for industrial projection of this type of gel on metallic walls in nuclear plants, notwithstanding its time-limited resistance to oxidation (about a few hours). Complexation mechanisms between ceric species and polar sites of the polymer led us to characterise acidic properties of our xanthan sample by potentiometric titration and {sup 1}H NMR techniques. The matrix was finally treated by ozonolysis to suppress organic residues, as required to handle nuclear wastes. In acidic medium, ozonolysis of the gel was achieved successfully while in acidic and ceric medium this process showed limited efficiency, needing further investigation to be clarified. (author)

  11. Multidisciplinary Product Decomposition and Analysis Based on Design Structure Matrix Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Tufail


    Design structure matrix (DSM) modeling in complex system design supports to define physical and logical configuration of subsystems, components, and their relationships. This modeling includes product decomposition, identification of interfaces, and structure analysis to increase the architectural...

  12. Extracellular matrix structure governs invasion resistance in bacterial biofilms. (United States)

    Nadell, Carey D; Drescher, Knut; Wingreen, Ned S; Bassler, Bonnie L


    Many bacteria are highly adapted for life in communities, or biofilms. A defining feature of biofilms is the production of extracellular matrix that binds cells together. The biofilm matrix provides numerous fitness benefits, including protection from environmental stresses and enhanced nutrient availability. Here we investigate defense against biofilm invasion using the model bacterium Vibrio cholerae. We demonstrate that immotile cells, including those identical to the biofilm resident strain, are completely excluded from entry into resident biofilms. Motile cells can colonize and grow on the biofilm exterior, but are readily removed by shear forces. Protection from invasion into the biofilm interior is mediated by the secreted protein RbmA, which binds mother-daughter cell pairs to each other and to polysaccharide components of the matrix. RbmA, and the invasion protection it confers, strongly localize to the cell lineages that produce it.

  13. LDPE分子结构对流变行为的影响%Effect of molecular structure on rheological behavior of low density polyethylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范吉昌; 彭响方; 米皓阳


    采用流动双折射和动态流变实验方法研究了低密度聚乙烯(LDPE)分子结构对其流变行为的影响.熔体在突变收缩口模中流动时的等差线图显示,两种LDPE的流动特性明显不同.由动态流变实验可知,LDPE 1810D在低频剪切时复数黏度比LDPE 2426K大,拟合得到的离散松弛时间谱范围较窄,表明两者的相对分子质量及其分布差别较大;两者的复数黏度随振动频率的变化方式不同,后者复数黏度的变化说明LDPE 2426K分子中含有长支链结构.结果表明,LDPE的相对分子质量及其分布,支链长度对其流变行为有重大影响.%The effect of molecular structure on rheological properties of two kinds of low density polyethylene (LDPE) was studied in flow induced birefringence and dynamic rheological experiment. The isochromatic line of the LDPE melts (grade 1810D and 2426K) when following in the abrupt contraction die shows their remarkably different rheological properties. The dynamic rheological experiment reveals that 1810D has a higher complex viscosity at low frequency and a narrower range of discrete relaxation spectrum compared with 2426K,indicating that they significantly differed in relative molecular mass and its distribution. The complex viscosity of 1810D and 2426K varies with vibration frequency in different ways; the latter's variation in complex viscosity verifies the existence of long chain branches in 2426K. The relative molecular mass and its distribution and the length of the branches have a vital influence on the theological properties of the LDPE melts.

  14. Effect of matrix and particle type on rheological, textural and structural properties of broccoli pasta and noodles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, E.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Linden, van der E.; Scholten, E.


    Durum wheat semolina (DWS) pasta and sweet potato starch (SPS) noodles were incorporated with dif ferent volume fractions and types of broccoli powder (up to 20% v/v). The incorporation of high volume fractions of broccoli powder produced in-house in SPS noodles increases the modulus of the dough an

  15. Visualizing the internal structure of subaqueous, high-concentration sediment-laden flows: implication of rheology to flow structure (United States)

    Perillo, M. M.; Buttles, J.; Mohrig, D. C.; Kane, I.; Pontén, A.; Brown, D.; Minton, B. W.


    Subaqueous sediment-laden flows are thought to be the main mechanism transporting sediments to the deep sea. Understanding the processes governing these flows is crucial to building predictive models of flow behaviour, sediment transport and deposition and is applicable to a wide range of disciplines. Physical modelling using a wide range of experimental facilities and measurement techniques has significantly advanced our understanding of these sediment-laden flows and their ability to erode, transport and deposit sediments. However, for the case of high-sediment concentration flows, measuring flow and depositional properties is still a challenge. Here, we present results from an acoustic reflection technique that allows for direct and noninvasive visualization of the internal structure of high concentration, clay-rich, sand-laden flows with a range of initial yield strengths (0-26 Pa). As the acoustic signal travels through the sediment-laden flow, it encounters zones of varying acoustic impedance that are due to temporal and spatial changes in sediment concentration, grain size and sorting, and flow mixing. The reflected signal is processed and interpreted using seismic techniques developed in exploration geophysics. The ultrasonic reflection data captured two distinct flow stages, an active stage and a post-depositional creeping stage. The clay-rich sand-laden flows showed stratification expressed by three clear vertical zones: (a) an upper relatively dilute turbulent zone, (b) a zone with high sediment concentration and significantly reduced mixing and (c) an aggrading bed of static grains.

  16. Scaling of Structural and Rheological Responde of L3 Sponge Phases in the "Sweetened" Cetylpyridinium/Hexanol/Dextrose/Brine System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcar, L. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Hamilton, William A [ORNL; Butler, Paul D [ORNL; Warr, G. G. [University of Sydney, Australia


    We report a study of the shear response of sponge phases in cetylpyridinium chloride (CPCl)/hexanol/brine/dextrose systems by parallel measurements of rheology and structure by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Our measurements show that this dextrose added to the extensively studied CPCl/hexanol/brine system is taken up exclusively by the brine solvent, resulting in an equivalent CPCl/hexanol membrane structure and phase behavior for this modified system. Adding dextrose to the brine in these systems to volume fractions up to 0.4 allows us to increase the solvent viscosity by more than an order of magnitude. This lowers the cooperative membrane diffusion coefficient in this system as measured by dynamic light scattering by the same factor, resulting in a corresponding slowing of the Helfrich fluctuation dominated membrane dynamics. Our results show clear and consistent evidence of shear-induced sponge to lamellar phase transformations in these systems. Further, both the rheological and microstructural responses of these systems follow universal master curves when plotted against a rescaled applied shear {sub {gamma}}{eta}{sub s}/{phi}{sup 3}, where {phi} is the membrane volume fraction and {eta}{sub s} is the viscosity of the brine/dextrose solvent. This well-defined shear response is characterized by three distinct regimes. At low shear rates the sponge phases exhibit Newtonian flow behavior and no structural change is observed. For intermediate shear rates, the systems shear thin and SANS measurements show that the sponge phases are progressively transformed into lamellar phases with the CPCl/hexanol membrane normals aligned parallel to the velocity gradient. This continuous process and the absence of a stress plateau in the rheological measurements both rule out the existence of a biphasic state in this region and thus of a first-order transition between sponge and lamellar phases as is observed in equilibrium phase diagrams. At higher shear rates, the

  17. Viscous model of lithosphere rheology, stress distribution, integrated strength, and bulk failure: application to and implications from examples of intracratonic rifts and inversion structures (United States)

    Stephenson, R. A.; Ershov, A.


    One way in which theoretical rheological models of the lithosphere can be constrained by geological data is through estimations of the lithosphere's integrated strength. When an applied force exceeds this, then the lithosphere should lose its integrity and undergo irreversible deformation (WLF - "whole lithosphere failure"). The geological expression of this kind of deformational regime is the development of rifts (in extension) and inverted structures (in compression). By considering intracratonic structures rather than marginal ones it is possible to exclude additional extraneous influences and infer the net effect of intraplate stresses. Here, actual intraplate structures are considered in terms of a rheological model in which the non-brittle part of the lithosphere deforms viscously (by creep) in response to applied forces. This is in contrast to conventional estimations of total lithosphere strength based on "yield stress envelopes" in which "ductile" deformation is taken to be time-invariant (plastic). Taking into account the implications of adopting a viscous rheology in place of a plastic one in evaluating the "strength" of the lithosphere, it is necessary to incorporate the time-dependence of stresses, strains and strain rates and also the dependence of the bulk strain rate on the total applied force. This means that the duration of loading of tectonic forces prior to eventual rifting or inversion is also an important model variable. The mechanism that controls strain rate and stress distribution in the lithosphere prior to WLF in the model is one of stress redistribution from ductile deformation zones into elastic ones, as determined by stress relaxation in the former and stress amplification in the latter given an assumed constant applied boundary force. A stable equilibrium regime of deformation occurs when, at each point within the lithosphere, the stress reduction effected by viscous relaxation equals the stress increase effected by the applied force

  18. Obtenção de concretos auto-escoantes zero-cimento a partir do controle reológico da matriz Production of self-flow zero-cement castables based on matrix rheological control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Studart


    Full Text Available Os concretos refratários auto-escoantes com reduzido teor de cimento têm se destacado pelo fato de associarem a facilidade de aplicação dos concretos de elevada fluidez, com o bom desempenho termomecânico dos refratários contendo baixo teor de CaO. Através do controle simultâneo da distribuição granulométrica e do estado de dispersão da matriz, é possível eliminar o cimento aluminoso (fonte de CaO e quaisquer outros ligantes hidráulicos do concreto, mantendo sua auto-escoabilidade. Os concretos obtidos, denominados zero-cimento, apresentam resistência mecânica a verde compatível com aplicações industriais e excelentes propriedades a altas temperaturas. Neste trabalho, são apresentadas as condições de dispersão da matriz necessárias para a obtenção dos concretos zero-cimento, após um ajuste granulométrico prévio. As faixas de pH e de teor de dispersante ideais para a otimização da reologia da matriz são apresentadas graficamente em um mapa de estabilidade, o qual mostrou-se uma ferramenta bastante útil para a formulação dos concretos auto-escoantes zero-cimento.Self-flow low-cement refractory castables have attracted much attention in the latest years because they combine the installation benefits of high-flowability castables with the good thermomechanical behaviour of low CaO-content refractories. By simultaneously controlling the castable particle size distribution and the matrix dispersion state, it becomes possible to eliminate the aluminous cement (CaO source or any other hydraulic binder in the castable, keeping its self-flow ability. Such castables, named self-flow zero-cement castables, exhibit pre-firing mechanical strength compatible with industrial applications and outstanding high temperature properties. The matrix dispersion conditions necessary to obtain these castables are presented in this work. The optimum range of pH and dispersant amount for the matrix rheological optimisation are

  19. Comparison of two matrix data structures for advanced CSM testbed applications (United States)

    Regelbrugge, M. E.; Brogan, F. A.; Nour-Omid, B.; Rankin, C. C.; Wright, M. A.


    The first section describes data storage schemes presently used by the Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM) testbed sparse matrix facilities and similar skyline (profile) matrix facilities. The second section contains a discussion of certain features required for the implementation of particular advanced CSM algorithms, and how these features might be incorporated into the data storage schemes described previously. The third section presents recommendations, based on the discussions of the prior sections, for directing future CSM testbed development to provide necessary matrix facilities for advanced algorithm implementation and use. The objective is to lend insight into the matrix structures discussed and to help explain the process of evaluating alternative matrix data structures and utilities for subsequent use in the CSM testbed.

  20. Rheology in Pharmaceutical Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aho, Johanna; Hvidt, Søren; Baldursdottir, Stefania


    Rheology is the science of flow and deformation of matter. Particularly gels and non-Newtonian fluids, which exhibit complex flow behavior, are frequently encountered in pharmaceutical engineering and manufacturing, or when dealing with various in vivo fluids. Therefore understanding rheology...... is important, and the ability to use rheological characterization tools is of great importance for any pharmaceutical scientist involved in the field. Flow can be generated by shear or extensional deformations, or a combination of both. This chapter introduces the basics of both shear and extensional rheology...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Adriana Florina


    Our research suggests that DSM can provide useful information in detecting risk areas in significant classes of transactions identified in a risk based audit and we recommend using DSM matrix in the planning phase of the audit in order to avoid redundancies in the audit execution phase. This is important considering that the European Commission recommends in the Green Paper for Audit to improve the quality of audits following the setbacks to the profession caused by the financial crisis.

  2. Structural differences of matrix metalloproteinases. Homology modeling and energy minimization of enzyme-substrate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terp, G E; Christensen, I T; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen


    Matrix metalloproteinases are extracellular enzymes taking part in the remodeling of extracellular matrix. The structures of the catalytic domain of MMP1, MMP3, MMP7 and MMP8 are known, but structures of enzymes belonging to this family still remain to be determined. A general approach...... to the homology modeling of matrix metalloproteinases, exemplified by the modeling of MMP2, MMP9, MMP12 and MMP14 is described. The models were refined using an energy minimization procedure developed for matrix metalloproteinases. This procedure includes incorporation of parameters for zinc and calcium ions...... in the AMBER 4.1 force field, applying a non-bonded approach and a full ion charge representation. Energy minimization of the apoenzymes yielded structures with distorted active sites, while reliable three-dimensional structures of the enzymes containing a substrate in active site were obtained. The structural...

  3. Regime of aggregate structures and magneto-rheological characteristics of a magnetic rod-like particle suspension: Monte Carlo and Brownian dynamics simulations (United States)

    Okada, Kazuya; Satoh, Akira


    In the present study, we address a suspension composed ferromagnetic rod-like particles to elucidate a regime change in the aggregate structures and the magneto-rheological characteristics. Monte Carlo simulations have been employed for investigating the aggregate structures in thermodynamic equilibrium, and Brownian dynamics simulations for magneto-rheological features in a simple shear flow. The main results obtained here are summarized as follows. For the case of thermodynamic equilibrium, the rod-like particles aggregate to form thick chain-like clusters and the neighboring clusters incline in opposite directions. If the external magnetic field is increased, the thick chain-like clusters in the magnetic field direction grow thicker by adsorbing the neighboring clusters that incline in the opposite direction. Hence, a significant phase change in the particle aggregates is not induced by an increase in the magnetic field strength. For the case of a simple shear flow, even a weak shear flow induces a significant regime change from the thick chain-like clusters of thermodynamic equilibrium into wall-like aggregates composed of short raft-like clusters. A strong external magnetic field drastically changes these aggregates into wall-like aggregates composed of thick chain-like clusters rather than the short raft-like clusters. The internal structure of these aggregates is not strongly influenced by a shear flow, and the formation of the short raft-like clusters is maintained inside the aggregates. The main contribution to the net viscosity is the viscosity component due to magnetic particle-particle interaction forces in relation to the present volumetric fraction. Hence, a larger magnetic interaction strength and also a stronger external magnetic field give rise to a larger magneto-rheological effect. However, the dependence of the viscosity on these factors is governed in a complex manner by whether or not the wall-like aggregates are composed mainly of short raft

  4. Effect of virgin coconut meal (VCM) on the rheological, micro-structure and baking properties of cake and batter. (United States)

    Srivastava, Yashi; Semwal, Anil Dutt


    Virgin coconut meal (VCM) cakes were prepared by replacing refined wheat flour (maida) (5 to 20 % level) to check its effect on chemical, textural and rheological attributes of cake. The addition of VCM significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased redness (a*), yellowness (b*) while reduced lightness (L*) of cakes. The incorporation of VCM affects the hardness, adhesiveness gumminess and chewiness of cake. The effect of flour replacement with VCM increased the viscosity of batter which leads to increase in consistency index and lower the shearthining behavior. The viscoelastic behavior of cake batter in which elastic modulus (G') and viscous modulus (G") both were decreased with the increase in percentage of VCM. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed that the onset (To), end set (Tc) and enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔH) increased with the increased level of VCM.

  5. Effect of Rheology and Poloxamers Properties on Release of Drugs from Silicon Dioxide Gel-Filled Hard Gelatin Capsules-A Further Enhancement of Viability of Liquid Semisolid Matrix Technology. (United States)

    Sultana, Misbah; Butt, Mobashar Ahmad; Saeed, Tariq; Mahmood, Rizwan; Ul Hassan, Saeed; Hussain, Khalid; Raza, Syed Atif; Ahsan, Muhammad; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan


    The liquid and semisolid matrix technology, filling liquids, semi-solids and gels in hard gelatin capsule are promising, thus, there is a need of enhanced research interest in the technology. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate isoniazid (freely soluble) and metronidazole (slightly soluble) gels filled in hard gelatin capsules for the effect of poloxamers of different viscosities on release of the drugs. Gel of each drug (10% w/w, particle size 180-250 μm), prepared by mixing poloxamer and 8% w/w hydrophilic silicon dioxide (Aerosil® A200), was assessed for rheology, dispersion stability and release profile. Both the drugs remained dispersed in majority of gels for more than 30 days, and dispersions were depended on gels' viscosity, which was further depended on viscosity of poloxamers. A small change in viscosity was noted in gels on storage. FTIR spectra indicated no interactions between components of the gels. The gels exhibited thixotropic and shear-thinning behaviour, which were suitable for filling in hard gelatin capsules without any leakage from the capsules. The release of both drugs from the phase-stable gels for 30 days followed first-order kinetics and was found to be correlated to drugs' solubility, poloxamers' viscosity, polyoxyethylene contents and proportion of block copolymer (poloxamers) in the gels. The findings of the present study indicated that release of drugs of different solubilities (isoniazid and metronidazole) might be modified from gels using different poloxamers and Aerosil® A200.

  6. Inner structure of vehicular ensembles and random matrix theory (United States)

    Krbálek, Milan; Hobza, Tomáš


    We introduce a special class of random matrices (DUE) whose spectral statistics corresponds to statistics of microscopical quantities detected in vehicular flows. Comparing the level spacing distribution (for ordered eigenvalues in unfolded spectra of DUE matrices) with the time-clearance distribution extracted from various areas of the flux-density diagram (evaluated from original traffic data measured on Czech expressways with high occupancies) we demonstrate that the set of classical systems showing an universality associated with Random Matrix Ensembles can be extended by traffic systems.

  7. Abnormal Structure of Fermion Mixings in a Seesaw Quark Mass Matrix Model

    CERN Document Server

    Koide, Y


    It is pointed out that in a seesaw quark mass matrix model which yields a singular enhancement of the top-quark mass, the right-handed fermion-mixing matrix U_R^u for the up-quark sector has a peculiar structure in contrast to the left-handed one U_L^u. As an example of the explicit structures of U_L^u and U_R^u, a case in which the heavy fermion mass matrix M_F is given by a form [(unit matrix)+(rank-one matrix)] is investigated. As a consequence, one finds observable signatures at projected high energy accelerators like the production of a fourth heavy quark family.

  8. Rheology of organoclay suspension

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hato, MJ


    Full Text Available -1 Colloid & Polymer Science Volume 289, Number 10, 1119-1125, DOI: 10.1007/s00396-011-2438-4 Rheology of organoclay suspension Mpitloane Joseph Hato, Ke Zhang, Suprakas Sinha Ray and Hyoung Jin Choi Abstract We have studied the rheological...

  9. Time-dependent failure criteria for lifetime prediction of polymer matrix composite structures


    Guedes, RM


    The use of fibre-reinforced polymers in civil construction applications originated structures with a high specific stiffness and strength. Although these structures usually present a high mechanical performance, their strength and stiffness may decay significantly over time. This is mainly due to the viscoelastic nature of the matrix, damage accumulation and propagation within the matrix and fibre breaking. One serious consequence, as a result of static fatigue (creep failure), is a premature...

  10. A Unisonant r-Matrix Structure of Integrable Systems and Its Reductions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Zhi-Jun; Walter STRAMPP


    A new method is presented to generate finite dimensional integrable systems. Our starting point is a generalized Lax matrix instead of usual Lax pair. Then a unisonant r-matrix structure and a set of generalized Hamiltonian functions are constructed. It can be clearly seen that various constrained integrable flows by nonlinearization method, such as the c-AKNS, c-MKdV, c-Toda, etc., are derived from the reduction of this structure. Furthermore, some new integrable flows are produced

  11. Fast sparse matrix-vector multiplication by exploiting variable block structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuduc, R W; Moon, H


    We improve the performance of sparse matrix-vector multiply (SpMV) on modern cache-based superscalar machines when the matrix structure consists of multiple, irregularly aligned rectangular blocks. Matrices from finite element modeling applications often have this kind of structure. Our technique splits the matrix, A, into a sum, A{sub 1} + A{sub 2} + ... + A{sub s}, where each term is stored in a new data structure, unaligned block compressed sparse row (UBCSR) format . The classical alternative approach of storing A in a block compressed sparse row (BCSR) format yields limited performance gains because it imposes a particular alignment of the matrix non-zero structure, leading to extra work from explicitly padded zeros. Combining splitting and UBCSR reduces this extra work while retaining the generally lower memory bandwidth requirements and register-level tiling opportunities of BCSR. Using application test matrices, we show empirically that speedups can be as high as 2.1x over not blocking at all, and as high as 1.8x over the standard BCSR implementation used in prior work. When performance does not improve, split UBCSR can still significantly reduce matrix storage. Through extensive experiments, we further show that the empirically optimal number of splittings s and the block size for each matrix term A{sub i} will in practice depend on the matrix and hardware platform. Our data lay a foundation for future development of fully automated methods for tuning these parameters.

  12. Structure and rheology of semisolid o/w creams containing cetyl alcohol/non-ionic surfactant mixed emulsifier and different polymers. (United States)

    Ribeiro, H M; Morais, J A; Eccleston, G M


    Oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions for cosmetic use, such as lotions and creams, are complex multiple-phase systems, which may contain a number of interacting surfactants, fatty amphiphiles, polymers and other excipients. This study investigates the influence of two synthetic cationic polymers, Polyquaternium-7 and Polyquaternium-11, and the natural anionic polymer, gum of acacia, on the rheology and microstructure of creams prepared with a non-ionic mixed emulsifier (cetyl stearyl alcohol-12EO/cetyl alcohol) using rheology (continuous shear, and viscoelastic creep and oscillation), microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A control cream containing no polymer was also investigated. The semisolid control cream was structured by a swollen lamellar gel network phase formed from the interaction of cetyl alcohol and the POE surfactant, in excess of that required to stabilize oil droplets, with continuous phase water. Endothermic transitions between 25 and 100 degrees C were identified as components of this phase. Incorporation of cationic polymer into the formulation caused significant loss of structure to produce a mobile semisolid containing larger oil droplets. The microscopical and thermal data implied that the cationic polymer caused the swollen lamellar gel network phase to transform into non-swollen crystals of cetyl alcohol. In contrast, incorporation of gum of acacia produced a thicker cream than the control, with smaller droplet sizes and little evidence of the gel network. Microscopical and thermal data implied that although there were also interactions between gum of acacia and both the surfactant and the swollen gel network phase, the semisolid properties were probably because of the ability of the gum of acacia to stabilize and thicken the emulsion in the absence of the swollen lamellar network.

  13. Rheology and deep tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ranalli


    Full Text Available The distribution of the rheological properties of the lithosphere in space, and their variations in time, have a profound effect on the resulting tectonic deformation. A classical way of estimating these properties makes use of rheological profiles (strength envelopes. Although rheological profiles are based on assumptions and approximations which limit their resolving power, they are an efficient first-order tool for the study of lithosphere rheology, and their application clarifies the dynamics of tectonic processes. Two examples of the interaction of rheology and tectonics are discussed, namely, the post-orogenic relaxation of Moho topography (which is an additional factor to be considered in tectonic inversion, and the strength control on the level of necking in extension (which may lead to apparent local isostasy at passive continental margins and in sedimentary basins.

  14. Ultrasonic array imaging of multilayer structures using full matrix capture and extended phase shift migration (United States)

    Wu, Haiteng; Chen, Jian; Yang, Keji; Hu, Xuxiao


    Multilayer structures have been widely used in industrial fields, and non-destructive evaluation of these structures is of great importance to assure their quality and performance. Recently, ultrasonic array imaging using full matrix capture, e.g. the total focusing method (TFM), has been shown to increase sensitivity to small defects and improve imaging resolution in homogeneous media. However, it cannot be applied to multilayer structures directly, due to the sound velocity variation in different layers and because refraction occurs at layer interfaces, which gives rise to difficulties in determining the propagation path and time. To overcome these problems, an extended phase shift migration (EPSM) is proposed for the full matrix imaging of multilayer structures in this paper. Based on the theory of phase shift migration for monostatic pulse-echo imaging, full matrix imaging using EPSM is derived by extrapolating the wavefields in both transmission and reception, and extended to the multilayer case. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by full matrix imaging of a two-layer structure with side-drilled holes conducted both in the simulation and the experiment. The results verify that the proposed algorithm is capable of full matrix imaging of a layered structure with a high resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. For comparison, full matrix imaging using the TFM with root-mean-squared velocity is also performed, and the results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is superior to the TFM in improving both the image quality and resolution.

  15. Structural Studies of Matrix Metalloproteinase by X-Ray Diffraction. (United States)

    Decaneto, Elena; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Ogata, Hideaki


    Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteolytic enzymes whose endopeptidase activity is dependent on the presence of specific metal ions. MT1-MMP (or MMP-14), which has been implicated in tumor progression and cellular invasion, contains a membrane-spanning region located C-terminal to a hemopexin-like domain and an N-terminal catalytic domain. We recombinantly expressed the catalytic domain of human MT1-MMP in E. coli and purified it from inclusion bodies using a refolding protocol that yielded significant quantities of active protein. Crystals of MT1-MMP were obtained using the vapour diffusion method. Here, we describe the protocols used for crystallization and the data analysis together with the resulting diffraction pattern.

  16. On the cytoskeleton and soft glassy rheology. (United States)

    Mandadapu, Kranthi K; Govindjee, Sanjay; Mofrad, Mohammad R K


    The cytoskeleton is a complex structure within the cellular corpus that is responsible for the main structural properties and motilities of cells. A wide range of models have been utilized to understand cytoskeletal rheology and mechanics (see e.g. [Mofrad, M., Kamm, R., 2006. Cytoskeletal Mechanics: Models and Measurements. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge]). From this large collection of proposed models, the soft glassy rheological model (originally developed for inert soft glassy materials) has gained a certain traction in the literature due to the close resemblance of its predictions to certain mechanical data measured on cell cultures [Fabry, B., Maksym, G., Butler, J., Glogauer, M., Navajas, D., Fredberg, J., 2001. Scaling the microrheology of living cells. Physical Review Letters 87, 14102]. We first review classical linear rheological theory in a concise fashion followed by an examination of the soft glassy rheological theory. With this background we discuss the observed behavior of the cytoskeleton and the inherent limitations of classical rheological models for the cytoskeleton. This then leads into a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages presented to us by the soft glassy rheological model. We close with some comments of caution and recommendations on future avenues of exploration.

  17. Rheological and structural evaluations of commercial italian salad dressings Avaliação reológica e estrutural de molhos de salada comerciais do tipo italiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana de Assis Perrechil


    Full Text Available The emulsion stability, composition, structure and rheology of four different commercial italian salad dressings manufactured with traditional and light formulations were evaluated. According to the results, the fat content ranged from 8% (w/w (light to 34% (w/w (traditional, the carbohydrate concentration varied between 3.8% (w/w (traditional and 14.4% (w/w (light and the pH was between 3.6-3.9 for all samples. The microscopic and stability analyses showed that the only stable salad dressing was a light sample, which had the smallest droplet size when compared with the other samples. With respect to the rheological behaviour, all the salad dressings were characterized as thixotropic and shear thinning fluids. However, the stable dressing showed an overshoot at relatively low shear rates. This distinct rheological behavior being explained by the differences in its composition, particularly the presence of a maltodextrin network.A estabilidade, composição, estrutura e reologia foram avaliadas para quatro diferentes molhos de salada tipo italiano nas versões light e tradicional. De acordo com os resultados, a quantidade de gordura variou entre 8% (m/m (molho light e 34% (m/m (molho tradicional, a concentração de carboidrato apresentou-se na faixa de 3,8% (m/m (tradicional a 14,4% (m/m (light, e o pH foi cerca de 3,6-3,9 para todas as amostras analisadas. As análises de microscopia e estabilidade mostraram que o único molho de salada estável foi uma amostra light que apresentou o menor tamanho de gotas quando comparada com as outras amostras. Com relação à reologia, todos os molhos de salada foram caracterizados como fluidos tixotrópicos e pseudoplásticos. No entanto, o molho de salada que foi estável apresentou um overshoot em baixas taxas de deformação. Tal comportamento reológico foi explicado pelas diferenças em sua composição, particularmente pela presença de maltodextrina.

  18. Integrated optomechanical structural optimization through coupling of sensitivity matrixes (United States)

    Riva, M.; Moschetti, M.


    The design of astronomical instrument is growing in dimension and complexity following ELT class telescopes. The availability of new structural material like composite ones is asking for more robust and reliable designing numerical tools. This paper wants to show a new opto-mechanical optimization approach developed starting from a previously developed integrated design framework. The Idea is to reduce number of iteration in a multi- variable structural optimization taking advantage of the embedded sensitivity routines that are available both in FEA software and in raytracing ones. This approach provide reduced iteration number mainly in case of high number of structural variable parameters.

  19. Spatial variations of current tectonic stress field and its relationship to the structure and rheology of lithosphere around the Bohai Sea, North China (United States)

    Li, Xianrui; Wang, Jie; Zeng, Zuoxun; Dai, Qingqin


    The tectonic stress field in the middle-upper crust is closely related to the structure and rheology of the lithosphere. To determine the stress field in the deep crust, we inversed the focal mechanism solutions (FMSs) of 62 earthquakes that occurred between 2009 and 2015 in the Bohai Sea and its surrounding areas using broadband seismic waveforms collected from 140 stations. We then derived the tectonic stress field using the software SATSI (Spatial And Temporal Stress Inversion) based on the damped linear inversion method. The inversion results show that both the maximum (σ1) and minimum (σ3) principle stress axes throughout the entire region are nearly horizontal except in the Tangshan and Haicheng areas, suggesting that the study area is predominantly under a strike-slip faulting stress regime. The σ1 and σ3 axes are found to be oriented in the NEE-SWW or nearly E-W and NNW-SSE or nearly S-N directions, respectively. These results indicate that the stress field in the North China Craton is controlled by the combined effects of the Pacific Plate westward subduction and the India-Eurasia Plate collision. However, localized normal faulting stress regimes (where the vertical stress σv ≈ σ1) are observed in the Tangshan and Haicheng areas, where low viscosity bodies (LVBs) were identified using geophysical data. Based on the analysis of focal mechanism solutions, active faults and lithosphere rheology characteristics in the Tangshan and Haicheng areas, we speculate that the anomalous stress regime is caused by the local extension resulting from the movement of strike-slip faults under the action of the regional stress field. The existence of LVB may indicate weakness in the crust that favors the accumulation of tectonic stress and triggers large earthquakes.

  20. Molecular Rheology of Complex Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    The processing of polymer materials is highly governed by its rheology, and influences the properties of the final product. For example, a recurring problem is instability in extrusion that leads to imperfect plastic parts. The ability to predict and control the rheological behavior of polymer......–state viscosity between melts and solutions is still an open question. Branched polymer melts have more complex molecular structures. A stress maximum during the start–up of uniaxial extensional flow was reported in 1979 for a low–density polyethylene (LDPE) melt. Subsequently observations of a steady stress......) linear polystyrene melts and solutions; 2) the bidisperse and polydisperse linear polystyrene melts; 3) the NMMD branched polystyrene melts; and 4) the polydisperse branched polyethylene melts. The experimental results are also compared with some developing theoretical models. Finally, to ensure...

  1. Study on voids of epoxy matrix composites sandwich structure parts (United States)

    He, Simin; Wen, Youyi; Yu, Wenjun; Liu, Hong; Yue, Cheng; Bao, Jing


    Void is the most common tiny defect of composite materials. Porosity is closely related to composite structure property. The voids forming behaviour in the composites sandwich structural parts with the carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin skins was researched by adjusting the manufacturing process parameters. The composites laminate with different porosities were prepared with the different process parameter. The ultrasonic non-destructive measurement method for the porosity was developed and verified through microscopic examination. The analysis results show that compaction pressure during the manufacturing process had influence on the porosity in the laminate area. Increasing the compaction pressure and compaction time will reduce the porosity of the laminates. The bond-line between honeycomb core and carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin skins were also analyzed through microscopic examination. The mechanical properties of sandwich structure composites were studied. The optimization process parameters and porosity ultrasonic measurement method for composites sandwich structure have been applied to the production of the composite parts.

  2. Structural Health Monitoring Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Matrix Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fiber Bragg Grating had been identified as very important elements, especially for strain measurements in smart structures. In many applications, arrays of FBG...

  3. Addressable-Matrix Integrated-Circuit Test Structure (United States)

    Sayah, Hoshyar R.; Buehler, Martin G.


    Method of quality control based on use of row- and column-addressable test structure speeds collection of data on widths of resistor lines and coverage of steps in integrated circuits. By use of straightforward mathematical model, line widths and step coverages deduced from measurements of electrical resistances in each of various combinations of lines, steps, and bridges addressable in test structure. Intended for use in evaluating processes and equipment used in manufacture of application-specific integrated circuits.

  4. Peculiarities of the rheological behavior and structure formation of aluminum under deformation at near-solidus temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A S Smirnov; A V Konovalov; G ABelozerov; V P Shveikin; E O Smirnova


    This paper deals with a peculiar rheological behavior of aluminum at near-solidus temperatures.It has been experimentally estab-lished that there is an inverse strain rate dependence of strain resistance at temperatures ranging between 560 and 640°C and strain rates ranging from 0.06 to 1.2 s−1. Electron backscatter diffraction analysis has shown that at temperatures ranging between 540 and 640°C and strain rates ranging from 0.06 to 0.1 s−1, the main process of softening is dynamic polygonization, resulting inin situ recrystallization. At higher strain rates, ranging between 0.8 and 1.2 s−1, and temperatures ranging between 560 and 640°C, the recovery is dynamic. This unusual behavior of the mechanism of softening and the presence of the inverse strain rate dependence of strain resistance can be explained by blocking the motion of free dislocations by foreign atoms, which occurs at strain rates ranging between 0.06 and 0.1 s−1. This process results in dislocation pile-up, thereby causingin situ recrystallization. At strain rates exceeding 0.16 s−1, there is no intensive blocking of dislocations, leading to a direct strain rate dependence of strain resistance.

  5. Ultrastructural studies on the origin and structure of matrix vesicles in bone of young rats. (United States)

    Ornoy, A; Atkin, I; Levy, J


    Tibiae of young rats were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in order to study the origin and structure of matrix vesicles in periosteal bone. SEM studies have shown that periosteal osteoblasts have elongated processes with globular structures of 0.1 micron in diameter attached to the cell surface and processes. Similar structures were found to cover the inner surface of osteoblastic lacunae. The SEM studies have further shown that in the periosteal surface (forming bone) the above-described globules once mineralized, aggregated to form larger, nonhomogeneous mineralized spherules in which, by proper treatment with NaOCl, hydroxyapatite crystals could be exposed. Endosteal osteoblasts had fewer processes, devoid of the globular structures. Similarly, osteocytic and osteoclastic processes, although elongated and numberous, were not covered by the globular structures. In the matrix, collagen fibers of forming bone were randomly orientated, while in the deeper areas of bone they formed bundles with a longitudinal orientation. TEM studies have shown that the structures found on the osteoblastic surface and in the matrix are membrane-bound matrix vesicles which seem to be formed by budding from cell processes. Preformed membrane-bound vesicles were also observed by TEM inside sections of osteoblastic processes. These vesicles resembled the extracellular matrix vesicles in size and shape, thus giving the impression that at least some of the matrix vesicles are preformed cellular structures. While comparing SEM with TEM, it can be conducted that in bone, as in cartilage, matrix vesicles which probably serve as the initial locus of calcification, are formed directly by osteoblasts.

  6. Rheological phenomena in focus

    CERN Document Server

    Boger, DV


    More than possibly any other scientific discipline, rheology is easily visualized and the relevant literature contains many excellent photographs of unusual and often bizarre phenomena. The present book brings together these photographs for the first time. They are supported by a full explanatory text. Rheological Phenomena in Focus will be an indispensable support manual to all those who teach rheology or have to convince colleagues of the practical relevance of the subject within an industrial setting. For those who teach fluid mechanics, the book clearly illustrates the difference be

  7. Flow environment and matrix structure interact to determine spatial competition in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms (United States)

    Nadell, Carey D; Ricaurte, Deirdre; Yan, Jing; Drescher, Knut; Bassler, Bonnie L


    Bacteria often live in biofilms, which are microbial communities surrounded by a secreted extracellular matrix. Here, we demonstrate that hydrodynamic flow and matrix organization interact to shape competitive dynamics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Irrespective of initial frequency, in competition with matrix mutants, wild-type cells always increase in relative abundance in planar microfluidic devices under simple flow regimes. By contrast, in microenvironments with complex, irregular flow profiles – which are common in natural environments – wild-type matrix-producing and isogenic non-producing strains can coexist. This result stems from local obstruction of flow by wild-type matrix producers, which generates regions of near-zero shear that allow matrix mutants to locally accumulate. Our findings connect the evolutionary stability of matrix production with the hydrodynamics and spatial structure of the surrounding environment, providing a potential explanation for the variation in biofilm matrix secretion observed among bacteria in natural environments. DOI: PMID:28084994

  8. Linear low-density polyethylene/silica micro- and nanocomposites: dynamic rheological measurements and modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE based composites were prepared by melt compounding with 1, 2, 3 and 4 vol% of various kinds of amorphous silicon dioxide (SiO2 micro- and nanoparticles. Dynamic rheological tests in parallel plate configuration were conducted in order to detect the role of the filler morphology on the rheological behaviour of the resulting micro- and nanocomposites. A strong dependence of the rheological parameters from the filler surface area was highlighted, with a remarkable enhancement of the storage shear modulus (G′ and of the viscosity (η in fumed silica nanocomposites and in precipitated silica microcomposites, while glass microbeads only marginally affected the rheological properties of the LLDPE matrix. This result was explained considering the formation of a network structure arising from particle-particle interactions due to hydrogen bonding between silanol groups. A detailed analysis of the solid like behaviour for the filled samples at low frequencies was conducted by fitting viscosity data with a new model, based on a modification of the original De Kee-Turcotte expression performed in order to reach a better modelling of the high-frequency region.

  9. Rich structure in the correlation matrix spectra in non-equilibrium steady states. (United States)

    Biswas, Soham; Leyvraz, Francois; Monroy Castillero, Paulino; Seligman, Thomas H


    It has been shown that, if a model displays long-range (power-law) spatial correlations, its equal-time correlation matrix will also have a power law tail in the distribution of its high-lying eigenvalues. The purpose of this paper is to show that the converse is generally incorrect: a power-law tail in the high-lying eigenvalues of the correlation matrix may exist even in the absence of equal-time power law correlations in the initial model. We may therefore view the study of the eigenvalue distribution of the correlation matrix as a more powerful tool than the study of spatial Correlations, one which may in fact uncover structure, that would otherwise not be apparent. Specifically, we show that in the Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process, whereas there are no clearly visible correlations in the steady state, the eigenvalues of its correlation matrix exhibit a rich structure which we describe in detail.

  10. Thermal-Interaction Matrix For Resistive Test Structure (United States)

    Buehler, Martin G.; Dhiman, Jaipal K.; Zamani, Nasser


    Linear mathematical model predicts increase in temperature in each segment of 15-segment resistive structure used to test electromigration. Assumption of linearity based on fact: equations that govern flow of heat are linear and coefficients in equations (heat conductivities and capacities) depend only weakly on temperature and considered constant over limited range of temperature.

  11. Multiwalled carbon nanotube-reinforced ceramic matrix composites as a promising structural material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estili, Mehdi, E-mail: [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Department of Materials Processing, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Kwon, Hansang; Kawasaki, Akira; Cho, Seungchan; Takagi, Kenta; Kikuchi, Keiko [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kawai, Masayoshi [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)


    In this paper, we introduce fully dense, multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-reinforced ceramic matrix composites recently processed by a novel powder technology in our laboratory to be considered as a promising potential structural materials for employment in severe working conditions. A strategy is also offered to investigate the effect of working condition on the mechanical properties of MWCNTs embedded in the ceramic matrix for a reliable material selection for the working conditions needed.

  12. r-Matrix Structure for a Restricted Flow with Bargmann Constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper deals with the integrability of a finite-dimensional Hamiltonian system linked with the generalized coupled KdV hierarchy. For this purpose the associated Lax representation is presented after an elementary calculation. It is shown that the Lax representation enjoys a dynamical r-matrix formula instead of a classical one in the Poisson bracket on R2N. Consequently the resulting system is proved to be completely integrable in view of its r-matrix structure.

  13. Structural and functional features of a collagen-binding matrix protein from the mussel byssus. (United States)

    Suhre, Michael H; Gertz, Melanie; Steegborn, Clemens; Scheibel, Thomas


    Blue mussels adhere to surfaces by the byssus, a holdfast structure composed of individual threads representing a collagen fibre reinforced composite. Here, we present the crystal structure and function of one of its matrix proteins, the proximal thread matrix protein 1, which is present in the proximal section of the byssus. The structure reveals two von Willebrand factor type A domains linked by a two-β-stranded linker yielding a novel structural arrangement. In vitro, the protein binds heterologous collagens with high affinity and affects collagen assembly, morphology and arrangement of its fibrils. By providing charged surface clusters as well as insufficiently coordinated metal ions, the proximal thread matrix protein 1 might interconnect other byssal proteins and thereby contribute to the integrity of the byssal threads in vivo. Moreover, the protein could be used for adjusting the mechanical properties of collagen materials, a function likely important in the natural byssus.

  14. Rheology of fractal networks

    CERN Document Server

    Patricio, Pedro; Duarte, Jorge; Januario, Cristina


    We investigate the rheology of a fractal network, in the framework of the linear theory of viscoelasticity. We identify each segment of the network with a simple Kelvin-Voigt element, with a well defined equilibrium length. The final structure retains the elastic characteristics of a solid or a gel. By considering a very simple regular self-similar structure of segments in series and in parallel, in 1, 2 or 3 dimensions, we are able to express the viscoelasticity of the network as an effective generalised Kelvin-Voigt model with a power law spectrum of retardation times, $\\phi\\sim\\tau^{\\alpha-1}$. We relate the parameter $\\alpha$ with the fractal dimension of the gel. In some regimes ($0<\\alpha<1$), we recover the weak power law behaviours of the elastic and viscous moduli with the angular frequencies, $G'\\sim G''\\sim w^\\alpha$, that occur in a variety of soft materials, including living cells. In other regimes, we find different and interesting power laws for $G'$ and $G''$.

  15. Electronic Structure of Silicon Nanowires Matrix from Ab Initio Calculations. (United States)

    Monastyrskii, Liubomyr S; Boyko, Yaroslav V; Sokolovskii, Bogdan S; Potashnyk, Vasylyna Ya


    An investigation of the model of porous silicon in the form of periodic set of silicon nanowires has been carried out. The electronic energy structure was studied using a first-principle band method-the method of pseudopotentials (ultrasoft potentials in the basis of plane waves) and linearized mode of the method of combined pseudopotentials. Due to the use of hybrid exchange-correlation potentials (B3LYP), the quantitative agreement of the calculated value of band gap in the bulk material with experimental data is achieved. The obtained results show that passivation of dangling bonds with hydrogen atoms leads to substantial transformation of electronic energy structure. At complete passivation of the dangling silicon bonds by hydrogen atoms, the band gap value takes the magnitude which substantially exceeds that for bulk silicon. The incomplete passivation gives rise to opposite effect when the band gap value decreases down the semimetallic range.

  16. Optimal control of large space structures via generalized inverse matrix (United States)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Fang, Xiaowen


    Independent Modal Space Control (IMSC) is a control scheme that decouples the space structure into n independent second-order subsystems according to n controlled modes and controls each mode independently. It is well-known that the IMSC eliminates control and observation spillover caused when the conventional coupled modal control scheme is employed. The independent control of each mode requires that the number of actuators be equal to the number of modelled modes, which is very high for a faithful modeling of large space structures. A control scheme is proposed that allows one to use a reduced number of actuators to control all modeled modes suboptimally. In particular, the method of generalized inverse matrices is employed to implement the actuators such that the eigenvalues of the closed-loop system are as closed as possible to those specified by the optimal IMSC. Computer simulation of the proposed control scheme on a simply supported beam is given.

  17. Freeform fabrication of polymer-matrix composite structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, S.G.; Spletzer, B.L.; Guess, T.L.


    The authors have developed, prototyped, and demonstrated the feasibility of a novel robotic technique for rapid fabrication of composite structures. Its chief innovation is that, unlike all other available fabrication methods, it does not require a mold. Instead, the structure is built patch by patch, using a rapidly reconfigurable forming surface, and a robot to position the evolving part. Both of these components are programmable, so only the control software needs to be changed to produce a new shape. Hence it should be possible to automatically program the system to produce a shape directly from an electronic model of it. It is therefore likely that the method will enable faster and less expensive fabrication of composites.

  18. Micromechanism Based Modeling of Structural Life in Metal Matrix Composites (United States)


    subsequent radial cracking. The work performed under this grant also included a program to experimentally characterize the morphology of Ti02 , one of...experimentally characterize the morphology of Ti02 , one of the primary stoichiometric oxides formed during oxidation of titanium, in order to develop more...accurate oxide layer growth models. An part of dm iffuu, Lhi growtn ana structure uf(thj— Ti02 mrirlr Inyrr, mnnnlilliii, rinmpli i i dlM! lllllilj

  19. Melt rheology and its applications in the plastics industry

    CERN Document Server

    Dealy, John M


    This is the second edition of Melt Rheology and its Role in Plastics Processing, although the title has changed to reflect its broadened scope. Advances in the recent years in rheometer technology and polymer science have greatly enhanced the usefulness of rheology in the plastics industry. It is now possible to design polymers having specific molecular structures and to predict the flow properties of melts having those structures. In addition, rheological properties now provide more precise information about molecular structure. This book provides all the information that is needed for the intelligent application of rheology in the development of new polymers, the determination of molecular structure and the correlation of processability with laboratory test data. Theory and equations are limited to what is essential for the use of rheology in the characterization of polymers, the development of new plastics materials and the prediction of plastics processing behavior. The emphasis is on information that wil...

  20. Rheology of waxy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alicke, Alexandra A.; Marchesini, Flavio H.; Mendes, Paulo R. de Souza [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)], e-mails:,; Ziglio, Claudio [Petrobras Research Center, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail:


    It is well known that below the crystallization temperature the rheology of waxy oils changes from Newtonian to an extremely complex non-Newtonian behavior, which is shear-rate and temperature-history dependent. Along the last decades a lot of effort has been put into obtaining reliable rheological measurements from different oils so as to understand the yielding of waxy oils as well as the effects of shear and temperature histories on rheological properties, such as viscosity, yield stress, storage and loss moduli. In this paper we examine in detail the related literature, discussing the main reasons for some disagreements concerning the history effects on the flow properties of waxy oils. In addition, we performed temperature ramps and stress-amplitude-sweep tests and compared the results obtained with the main trends observed, highlighting the effects of cooling and shear on the microstructure and consequently on the rheological properties of these oils. (author)

  1. Polyelectrolytes thermodynamics and rheology

    CERN Document Server

    P M, Visakh; Picó, Guillermo Alfredo


    This book discusses current development of theoretical models and experimental findings on the thermodynamics of polyelectrolytes. Particular emphasis is placed on the rheological description of polyelectrolyte solutions and hydrogels.

  2. Rheology of Superplastic Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Constitutive equation of rheglogy describing a phenomenological level of superplastic deformation as functional correlation between tensor components of stress and strain rate has been analyzed for the case of superplastic ceramic flow. Rheological properties of material are taken into account by means of scalar rheological coefficients of shear and volume viscosity, which are functions of temperature, effective stress (or strain rate) and density of material.

  3. Condensation versus diffusion. A spatial-scale-independent theory of aggregate structures in edible oils: applications to model systems and commercial shortenings studied via rheology and USAXS (United States)

    Pink, David A.; Peyronel, Fernanda; Quinn, Bonnie; Singh, Pratham; Marangoni, Alejandro G.


    Understanding how solid fats structures come about in edible oils and quantifying their structures is of fundamental importance in developing edible oils with pre-selected characteristics. We considered the great range of fractal dimensions, from 1.91 to 2.90, reported from rheological measurements. We point out that, if the structures arise via DLA/RLA or DLCA/RLCA, as has been established using ultra small angle x-ray scattering (USAXS), we would expect fractal dimensions in the range ~1.7 to 2.1, and ~2.5 or ~3.0. We present new data for commercial fats and show that the fractal dimensions deduced lie outside these values. We have developed a model in which competition between two processes can lead to the range of fractal dimensions observed. The two processes are (i) the rate at which the solid fat particles are created as the temperature is decreased, and (ii) the rate at which these particles diffuse, thereby meeting and forming aggregates. We assumed that aggregation can take place essentially isotropically and we identified two characteristic times: a time characterizing the rate of creation of solid fats, {τ\\text{create}}(T)\\equiv 1/{{R}S}(T) , where {{R}S}(T) is the rate of solid condensation (cm3 s-1), and the diffusion time of solid fats, {τ\\text{diff}}≤ft(T,{{c}S}\\right)= /6{D}≤ft(T,{{c}S}\\right) , where {D}≤ft(T,{{c}S}\\right) is their diffusion coefficient and is the typical average distance that fats must move in order to aggregate. The intent of this model is to show that a simple process can lead to a wide range of fractal dimensions. We showed that in the limit of very fast solid creation, {τ\\text{create}}\\ll {τ\\text{diff}} the fractal dimension is predicted to be that of DLCA, ~1.7, relaxing to that of RLCA, 2.0-2.1, and that in the limit of very slow solid creation, {τ\\text{create}}\\gg {τ\\text{diff}} , the fractal dimension is predicted to be that obtained via DLA, ~2.5, relaxing to that of RLA, 3.0. We predict that

  4. Cataclastic rheology of carbonate rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiancai; SUN Yan; SHU Liangshu; GU Lianxing; GUO Jichun; ZHU Wenbin


    Based on the knowledge of the shallow-level mylonitization of detrital rocks and intrusive rocks, the poorly-known cataclastic rheology of carbonate rocks is discussed comprehensively in this paper. The cases taken from eastern China are analyzed in various aspects including ductile-brittle fault zone, rock texture and structure, clastomylonite layer, leucocratic stress minerals, and frictional dynamometamorphism. It is proposed that the cataclastic flow structure represented by clastomylonite texture is a cooling pattern of flow assemblage characterized by cooling metamorphism, cooling mylonite and cooling stress minerals. Such a pattern is formed generally in mildly reducing physicochemical environments, and is commonly related to regional tectonism and mesothermal and epithermal mineralization.

  5. Effects of the structural nature of the anionic additives on the rheological behavior of bentonite suspensions; Effets de la nature structurelle des additifs anioniques sur le comportement rheologique de suspensions de bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adel Benchabane; Karim Bekkour [institut de mecanique des fluides et des solides, UMR CNRS ULP 7507, 2 rue Boussingault, 67000 Strasbourg (France)


    Different experimental measurements (Theology, granulometry, XRD) were carried out in order to study the main properties of bentonite suspensions in presence of anionic additives at different concentrations. These additives are: Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) as surfactant, a flexible polymer (Sodium Carboxy Methyl Cellulose, CMC) and a semi-rigid polymer (Xanthan gum). It has been shown that the structural nature of anionic additive influences directly the mixtures viscoelastic and flow behavior. The steric effect of the surfactant modifies the Face-Edge interactions and yields changes of the mixtures rheological behavior at low deformation rates. Polymers act by coating each clay particle and prevent their agglomeration. Therefore, bentonite has no direct effect on the rheological behavior of the mixtures: the additives are responsible for the mechanisms of de-structuration and structure reorganization as well as the mixtures viscous and viscoelastic behavior. (author)

  6. Bringing about matrix sparsity in linear-scaling electronic structure calculations. (United States)

    Rubensson, Emanuel H; Rudberg, Elias


    The performance of linear-scaling electronic structure calculations depends critically on matrix sparsity. This article gives an overview of different strategies for removal of small matrix elements, with emphasis on schemes that allow for rigorous control of errors. In particular, a novel scheme is proposed that has significantly smaller computational overhead compared with the Euclidean norm-based truncation scheme of Rubensson et al. (J Comput Chem 2009, 30, 974) while still achieving the desired asymptotic behavior required for linear scaling. Small matrix elements are removed while ensuring that the Euclidean norm of the error matrix stays below a desired value, so that the resulting error in the occupied subspace can be controlled. The efficiency of the new scheme is investigated in benchmark calculations for water clusters including up to 6523 water molecules. Furthermore, the foundation of matrix sparsity is investigated. This includes a study of the decay of matrix element magnitude with distance between basis function centers for different molecular systems and different methods. The studied methods include Hartree–Fock and density functional theory using both pure and hybrid functionals. The relation between band gap and decay properties of the density matrix is also discussed.

  7. Structural organization and dynamics of exopolysaccharide matrix and microcolonies formation by Streptococcus mutans in biofilms. (United States)

    Xiao, J; Koo, H


    To investigate the structural organization and dynamics of exopolysaccharides (EPS) matrix and microcolonies formation by Streptococcus mutans during the biofilm development process. Biofilms of Strep. mutans were formed on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (sHA) discs in the presence of glucose or sucrose (alone or mixed with starch). At specific time points, biofilms were subjected to confocal fluorescence imaging and computational analysis. EPS matrix was steadily formed on sHA surface in the presence of sucrose during the first 8 h followed by a threefold biomass increase between 8 and 30 h of biofilm development. The initial formation and further development of three-dimensional microcolony structure occurred concomitantly with EPS matrix synthesis. Tridimensional renderings showed EPS closely associated with microcolonies throughout the biofilm development process forming four distinct domains (i) between sHA surface and microcolonies, (ii) within, (iii) covering and (iv) filling the spaces between microcolonies. The combination of starch and sucrose resulted in rapid formation of elevated amounts of EPS matrix and faster assembly of microcolonies by Strep. mutans, which altered their structural organization and susceptibility of the biofilm to acid killing (vs sucrose-grown biofilms; P matrix and microcolonies provide a more precise examination of the structural organization of biofilms than labelling bacteria alone, which could be a useful approach to elucidate the exact mechanisms by which Strep. mutans influences oral biofilm formation and possibly identify novel targets for effective antibiofilm therapies.

  8. Multi-shot multi-channel diffusion data recovery using structured low-rank matrix completion

    CERN Document Server

    Mani, Merry; Kelley, Douglas; Magnotta, Vincent


    Purpose: To introduce a novel method for the recovery of multi-shot diffusion weighted (MS-DW) images from echo-planar imaging (EPI) acquisitions. Methods: Current EPI-based MS-DW reconstruction methods rely on the explicit estimation of the motion- induced phase maps to recover the unaliased images. In the new formulation, the k-space data of the unaliased DWI is recovered using a structured low-rank matrix completion scheme, which does not require explicit estimation of the phase maps. The structured matrix is obtained as the lifting of the multi-shot data. The smooth phase-modulations between shots manifest as null-space vectors of this matrix, which implies that the structured matrix is low-rank. The missing entries of the structured matrix are filled in using a nuclear-norm minimization algorithm subject to the data-consistency. The formulation enables the natural introduction of smoothness regularization, thus enabling implicit motion-compensated recovery of fully-sampled as well as under-sampled MS-DW ...

  9. Followee Recommendation in Microblog Using Matrix Factorization Model with Structural Regularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yu


    Full Text Available Microblog that provides us a new communication and information sharing platform has been growing exponentially since it emerged just a few years ago. To microblog users, recommending followees who can serve as high quality information sources is a competitive service. To address this problem, in this paper we propose a matrix factorization model with structural regularization to improve the accuracy of followee recommendation in microblog. More specifically, we adapt the matrix factorization model in traditional item recommender systems to followee recommendation in microblog and use structural regularization to exploit structure information of social network to constrain matrix factorization model. The experimental analysis on a real-world dataset shows that our proposed model is promising.

  10. Rheological and structural characterization of HA/PVA-SbQ composites film-forming solutions and resulting films as affected by UV irradiation time. (United States)

    Bai, Huiyu; Sun, Yunlong; Xu, Jing; Dong, Weifu; Liu, Xiaoya


    Hyaluronan (HA)/poly (vinyl alcohol) bearing styrylpyridinium groups (PVA-SbQ) composites film-forming solutions were prepared by a negatively charged HA and an oppositely charged PVA-SbQ. The rheological properties and structural characterization of HA/PVA-SbQ composites in aqueous solution were investigated. Zeta potential measurements and TEM were utilized to explore the formation of HA/PVA-SbQ complex micelles in aqueous solution. UV spectra and DLS experiments confirmed that the micelles are photo-crosslinkable. HA/PVA-SbQ composites films were prepared by a casting method. The microstructure and properties of the film were analyzed by SEM, optical transmittance, DSC, XRD and tensile testing. The crosslinked HA/PVA-SbQ composites films exhibited higher UV light shielding and visible light transparency and better mechanical and water vapor barrier properties as well as thermal stability than the uncrosslinked HA/PVA-SbQ composites films, indicating the formation of three-dimensional network structure. This work provided a good way for increasing the mechanical, thermal, water vapor barrier, and optical properties of HA materials for the packaging material.

  11. {\\it Ab initio} nuclear structure - the large sparse matrix eigenvalue problem

    CERN Document Server

    Vary, James P; Ng, Esmond; Yang, Chao; Sosonkina, Masha


    The structure and reactions of light nuclei represent fundamental and formidable challenges for microscopic theory based on realistic strong interaction potentials. Several {\\it ab initio} methods have now emerged that provide nearly exact solutions for some nuclear properties. The {\\it ab initio} no core shell model (NCSM) and the no core full configuration (NCFC) method, frame this quantum many-particle problem as a large sparse matrix eigenvalue problem where one evaluates the Hamiltonian matrix in a basis space consisting of many-fermion Slater determinants and then solves for a set of the lowest eigenvalues and their associated eigenvectors. The resulting eigenvectors are employed to evaluate a set of experimental quantities to test the underlying potential. For fundamental problems of interest, the matrix dimension often exceeds $10^{10}$ and the number of nonzero matrix elements may saturate available storage on present-day leadership class facilities. We survey recent results and advances in solving t...

  12. Probing Models of Neutrino Masses via the Flavor Structure of the Mass Matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Kanemura, Shinya


    We discuss what kinds of combinations of Yukawa interactions can generate the Majorana neutrino mass matrix. We concentrate on the flavor structure of the neutrino mass matrix because it does not depend on details of the models except for Yukawa interactions while determination of the overall scale of the mass matrix requires to specify also the scalar potential and masses of new particles. Thus, models to generate Majorana neutrino mass matrix can be efficiently classified according to the combination of Yukawa interactions. We first investigate the case where Yukawa interactions with only leptons are utilized. Next, we consider the case with Yukawa interactions between leptons and gauge singlet fermions, which have the odd parity under the unbroken Z_2 symmetry. We show that combinations of Yukawa interactions for these cases can be classified into only three groups. Our classification would be useful for the efficient discrimination of models via experimental tests for not each model but just three groups ...

  13. Rheological properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) derived composite membranes for fuel cells (United States)

    Remiš, T.


    Rheological properties of new anhydrous proton conducting membrane based on PVA, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS),sulfosuccinic acid (SSA), titanium dioxide (TiO2)was examined at various stoichiometric ratios. SSA was used as sulfonating agents to form a crosslinked structure and as proton source, whereas TEO Sand TiO2were utilized to improve the thermal and mechanical properties of the membrane. In order to verify that all the substances were immobilized into the matrix, the membranes were analysed by means of FT-IR. The rheological, mechanical and thermal properties of the membranes were investigated using rheometer ARES G2 and thermogravimetic analyser (TGA).The analysis of mixed PVA solutions exhibited a unique behaviour of viscosity with increased crosslink density. The dynamic storage modulus G´ of dried composite membranes shows better mechanical resistance and increased tolerance to pressure applied during membrane electrode assembly (MEA).

  14. Transfer-matrix approach for finite-difference time-domain simulation of periodic structures. (United States)

    Deinega, Alexei; Belousov, Sergei; Valuev, Ilya


    Optical properties of periodic structures can be calculated using the transfer-matrix approach, which establishes a relation between amplitudes of the wave incident on a structure with transmitted or reflected waves. The transfer matrix can be used to obtain transmittance and reflectance spectra of finite periodic structures as well as eigenmodes of infinite structures. Traditionally, calculation of the transfer matrix is performed in the frequency domain and involves linear algebra. In this work, we present a technique for calculation of the transfer matrix using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and show the way of its implementation in FDTD code. To illustrate the performance of our technique we calculate the transmittance spectra for opal photonic crystal slabs consisting of multiple layers of spherical scatterers. Our technique can be used for photonic band structure calculations. It can also be combined with existing FDTD methods for the analysis of periodic structures at an oblique incidence, as well as for modeling point sources in a periodic environment.

  15. Assessment of extrusion-sonication process on flame retardant polypropylene by rheological characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Sanchez-Olivares


    Full Text Available In this work, the rheological behavior of flame retardant polypropylene composites produced by two methods: 1 twin-screw extrusion and 2 ultrasound application combined with a static mixer die single-screw extrusion is analyzed in detail; results are related to the morphology of the composites. The flame retardant polymer composites are composed of a polypropylene matrix, an intumescent flame retardant system and functionalized clay. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the combination of the static mixer die and on-line sonication reduced particle size and improved the dispersion and distribution of the intumescent additives in the polypropylene matrix at the micrometric level. From linear viscoelastic properties, the Han, Cole-Cole and van Gurp-Palmen diagrams characterized the improved particle dispersion of the flame retardant additives. Two well-defined rheological behaviors were observed in these diagrams. These behaviors are independent on clay presence and concentration. In fact, the ultrasound device generates a 3D highly interconnected structure similar to a co-continuous pattern observed in polymer blends as evidenced by rheological measurements. This improvement in the dispersion and distribution of the additives is attributed to the combined effect of the static mixer die and on-line sonication that allowed reducing the additive content while achieving the optimum classification UL94-V0.

  16. Giving structure to the biofilm matrix: an overview of individual strategies and emerging common themes. (United States)

    Hobley, Laura; Harkins, Catriona; MacPhee, Cait E; Stanley-Wall, Nicola R


    Biofilms are communities of microbial cells that underpin diverse processes including sewage bioremediation, plant growth promotion, chronic infections and industrial biofouling. The cells resident in the biofilm are encased within a self-produced exopolymeric matrix that commonly comprises lipids, proteins that frequently exhibit amyloid-like properties, eDNA and exopolysaccharides. This matrix fulfils a variety of functions for the community, from providing structural rigidity and protection from the external environment to controlling gene regulation and nutrient adsorption. Critical to the development of novel strategies to control biofilm infections, or the capability to capitalize on the power of biofilm formation for industrial and biotechnological uses, is an in-depth knowledge of the biofilm matrix. This is with respect to the structure of the individual components, the nature of the interactions between the molecules and the three-dimensional spatial organization. We highlight recent advances in the understanding of the structural and functional role that carbohydrates and proteins play within the biofilm matrix to provide three-dimensional architectural integrity and functionality to the biofilm community. We highlight, where relevant, experimental techniques that are allowing the boundaries of our understanding of the biofilm matrix to be extended using Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, and Bacillus subtilis as exemplars. © FEMS 2015.

  17. Structural differences of matrix metalloproteinases. Homology modeling and energy minimization of enzyme-substrate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terp, G E; Christensen, I T; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen


    in the AMBER 4.1 force field, applying a non-bonded approach and a full ion charge representation. Energy minimization of the apoenzymes yielded structures with distorted active sites, while reliable three-dimensional structures of the enzymes containing a substrate in active site were obtained. The structural...... differences between the eight enzyme-substrate complexes were studied with particular emphasis on the active site, and possible sites for obtaining selectivity among the MMP's are discussed. Differences in the P1' pocket are well-documented and have been extensively exploited in inhibitor design. The present......Matrix metalloproteinases are extracellular enzymes taking part in the remodeling of extracellular matrix. The structures of the catalytic domain of MMP1, MMP3, MMP7 and MMP8 are known, but structures of enzymes belonging to this family still remain to be determined. A general approach...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Yuchun; FANG Xiaoping; FENG Yupeng


    The relation between the rheological behavior and various interfacial properties of Kaolin rigid particle toughened polypropylene(PP/Kaolin) composites were studied by means of parallel-plate rheometer, melt flow rate apparatus, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and other testing methods. The results show that addition of interfacial modifier to PP/Kaolin composites is advantageous to homogeneous dispersion of filler in PP matrix,formation of flexible interlayer between Kaolin particles and PP matrix and improvement of the melt processibility of the composites.

  19. Tropical rain-forest matrix quality affects bat assemblage structure in secondary forest patches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleut, I.; Levy-Tacher, I.; Galindo-Gonzalez, J.; Boer, de W.F.; Ramirez-Marcial, N.


    We studied Phyllostomidae bat assemblage structure in patches of secondary forest dominated by the pioneer tree Ochroma pyramidale, largely (.85%) or partially (,35%) surrounded by a matrix of tropical rain forest, to test 3 hypotheses: the highest bat diversity and richness is observed in the matri

  20. Tropical rain-forest matrix quality affects bat assemblage structure in secondary forest patches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleut, I.; Levy-Tacher, I.; Galindo-Gonzalez, J.; Boer, de W.F.; Ramirez-Marcial, N.


    We studied Phyllostomidae bat assemblage structure in patches of secondary forest dominated by the pioneer tree Ochroma pyramidale, largely (.85%) or partially (,35%) surrounded by a matrix of tropical rain forest, to test 3 hypotheses: the highest bat diversity and richness is observed in the matri

  1. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle extracellular matrix with aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Kjaer, M; Mackey, A L


    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of skeletal muscle is critical for force transmission and for the passive elastic response of skeletal muscle. Structural, biochemical, cellular, and functional changes in skeletal muscle ECM contribute to the deterioration in muscle mechanical properties with aging...

  2. Influence of matrix structure on the fatigue properties of an alloyed ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toktas, Guelcan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Balikesir University, 10145 Balikesir (Turkey)], E-mail:; Toktas, Alaaddin; Tayanc, Mustafa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Balikesir University, 10145 Balikesir (Turkey)


    Rotary bending fatigue tests were conducted on ductile iron containing 1.25 wt% nickel, 1.03 wt% copper and 0.18 wt% molybdenum with various matrix structures. Several heat treatments were applied to obtain ferritic, pearlitic/ferritic, pearlitic, tempered martensitic, lower and upper ausferritic structures in the matrix of a pearlitic as-cast alloyed ductile iron. The tensile properties (ultimate tensile strength, 0.2% yield strength and percent elongation), the hardness and the microstructures of the matrixes were also investigated in addition to fatigue properties. Fractured surfaces of the fatigue specimens were examined by the scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the lowest hardness, tensile and fatigue properties were obtained for the ferritic structure and the values of these properties seemed to increase with rising pearlite content in the matrix. While the lower ausferritic structure had the highest fatigue strength, the upper ausferritic one showed low fatigue and tensile properties due to the formation of the second reaction during the austempering process.

  3. A Taxonomy of Latent Structure Assumptions for Probability Matrix Decomposition Models. (United States)

    Meulders, Michel; De Boeck, Paul; Van Mechelen, Iven


    Proposed a taxonomy of latent structure assumptions for probability matrix decomposition (PMD) that includes the original PMD model and a three-way extension of the multiple classification latent class model. Simulation study results show the usefulness of the taxonomy. (SLD)

  4. A regularized matrix factorization approach to induce structured sparse-low-rank solutions in the EEG inverse problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montoya-Martinez, Jair; Artes-Rodriguez, Antonio; Pontil, Massimiliano;


    We consider the estimation of the Brain Electrical Sources (BES) matrix from noisy electroencephalographic (EEG) measurements, commonly named as the EEG inverse problem. We propose a new method to induce neurophysiological meaningful solutions, which takes into account the smoothness, structured...... sparsity, and low rank of the BES matrix. The method is based on the factorization of the BES matrix as a product of a sparse coding matrix and a dense latent source matrix. The structured sparse-low-rank structure is enforced by minimizing a regularized functional that includes the ℓ21-norm of the coding...... matrix and the squared Frobenius norm of the latent source matrix. We develop an alternating optimization algorithm to solve the resulting nonsmooth-nonconvex minimization problem. We analyze the convergence of the optimization procedure, and we compare, under different synthetic scenarios...

  5. The extracellular matrix: Structure, composition, age-related differences, tools for analysis and applications for tissue engineering. (United States)

    Kular, Jaspreet K; Basu, Shouvik; Sharma, Ram I


    The extracellular matrix is a structural support network made up of diverse proteins, sugars and other components. It influences a wide number of cellular processes including migration, wound healing and differentiation, all of which is of particular interest to researchers in the field of tissue engineering. Understanding the composition and structure of the extracellular matrix will aid in exploring the ways the extracellular matrix can be utilised in tissue engineering applications especially as a scaffold. This review summarises the current knowledge of the composition, structure and functions of the extracellular matrix and introduces the effect of ageing on extracellular matrix remodelling and its contribution to cellular functions. Additionally, the current analytical technologies to study the extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix-related cellular processes are also reviewed.

  6. An Introduction to Rheology with an Emphasis on Application to Dispersions (United States)

    Motyka, Andrea L.


    Rheology is the study of the flow and deformation of matter. This interdisciplinary field encompasses many different types of materials and applications, both in academia and industry. One of the most challenging and practical areas in which technical strides have been made is dispersion chemistry. Rheology can be used to characterize not only flow properties of a material, but also structural features. This introduction is intended to help newcomers to the field to comprehend, relatively quickly, the practical nature of rheological information and to recognize the impact of the type of internal structure on rheological properties. This article describes dispersions well-suited to rheological study and the types of interparticle forces responsible for their internal structure. The fundamental terms and concepts of rheology are explained using practical examples to illustrate how rheological techniques distinguish dispersions in terms of both flow properties and structural features.

  7. Thermosetting Polymer-Matrix Composites for Strucutral Repair Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goertzen, William Kirby [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Several classes of thermosetting polymer matrix composites were evaluated for use in structural repair applications. Initial work involved the characterization and evaluation of woven carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites for structural pipeline repair. Cyanate ester resins were evaluated as a replacement for epoxy in composites for high-temperature pipe repair applications, and as the basis for adhesives for resin infusion repair of high-temperature composite materials. Carbon fiber/cyanate ester matrix composites and fumed silica/cyanate ester nanocomposites were evaluated for their thermal, mechanical, viscoelastic, and rheological properties as they relate to their structure, chemistry, and processing characteristics. The bisphenol E cyanate ester under investigation possesses a high glass transition temperature, excellent mechanical properties, and unique ambient temperature processability. The incorporate of fumed silica served to enhance the mechanical and rheological properties of the polymer and reduce thermal expansion without sacrificing glass transition or drastically altering curing kinetics. Characterization of the composites included dynamic mechanical analysis, thermomechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, rheological and rheokinetic evaluation, and transmission electron microscopy.

  8. The matrix representation for the mathematic structure of Shannon's information measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Yan-hua


    Shannon's information measure is a crucial concept in Information Theory. And the research, for the mathematics structure of Shannon's information measure, is to recognize the essence of information measure.The linear relation between Shannon's information measures and some signed measure space by using the formal symbols substitution rule is discussed. Furthermore, the coefficient matrix recurrent formula of the linear relation is obtained. Then the coefficient matrix is proved to be invertible via mathematical induction. This shows that the linear relation is one-to-one, and according to this, it can be concluded that a compact space can be generated from Shannon's information measures.

  9. General structure of democratic mass matrix of quark sector in E{sub 6} model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciftci, R., E-mail: [Ankara (Turkey); Çiftci, A. K., E-mail: [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey)


    An extension of the Standard Model (SM) fermion sector, which is inspired by the E{sub 6} Grand Unified Theory (GUT) model, might be a good candidate to explain a number of unanswered questions in SM. Existence of the isosinglet quarks might explain great mass difference of bottom and top quarks. Also, democracy on mass matrix elements is a natural approach in SM. In this study, we have given general structure of Democratic Mass Matrix (DMM) of quark sector in E6 model.

  10. Effects of mistuning and matrix structure on the topology of frequency response curves (United States)

    Afolabi, Dare


    The stability of a frequency response curve under mild perturbations of the system's matrix is investigated. Using recent developments in the theory of singularities of differentiable maps, it is shown that the stability of a response curve depends on the structure of the system's matrix. In particular, the frequency response curves of a cylic system are shown to be unstable. Consequently, slight parameter variations engendered by mistuning will induce a significant difference in the topology of the forced response curves, if the mistuning transformation crosses the bifurcation set.

  11. In situ rheology of yeast biofilms. (United States)

    Brugnoni, Lorena I; Tarifa, María C; Lozano, Jorge E; Genovese, Diego


    The aim of the present work was to investigate the in situ rheological behavior of yeast biofilms growing on stainless steel under static and turbulent flow. The species used (Rhodototula mucilaginosa, Candida krusei, Candida kefyr and Candida tropicalis) were isolated from a clarified apple juice industry. The flow conditions impacted biofilm composition over time, with a predominance of C. krusei under static and turbulent flow. Likewise, structural variations occurred, with a tighter appearance under dynamic flow. Under turbulent flow there was an increase of 112 μm in biofilm thickness at 11 weeks (p rheology and contribute to a thin body of knowledge about fungal biofilm formation.

  12. Rheology of Supramolecular Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabbir, Aamir

    efficient processes or biomedical areas. Design and development of supramolecular polymers using ionic, hydrogen bonding or transition metal complexes with tailored properties requires deep understanding of dynamics both in linear and non-linear deformations. While linear rheology is important to understand......) hydrogen bonding polymers, and (b) ionic bonding polymers (hereafter termed as ionomers). We study linear and non-linear rheology fora model system of entangled pure poly(n-butyl acrylate), PnBA, homopolymer andfour poly(acrylic acid), PnBA-PAA, copolymers with varying AA side groups synthesizedvia...

  13. A Novel Validity Index for Evaluating the Item Ordering Structure Based on Q-matrix Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Chuan Liu


    Full Text Available Before then, no validity index can be used for evaluating the item ordering structure for cognition diagnosis. In this study, based on the Q-matrix theory, an ideal item ordering structure without slip and guess for an efficient test is proposed by using the set containing relation operation. It can be viewed as a criterion of the item ordering structure for a given test. Furthermore, a novel criterion-related validity index for evaluating the item ordering structure of any item ordering algorithm is proposed, it is more useful for cognition diagnosis.

  14. Investigation of tautomeric structures of thionin by satellite holes: matrix dependence (United States)

    Weng, Kevin C.; Chiang, Chien-Chih; Cheng, Ji-Yen; Cheng, Shao-Ying; Personov, Roman I.; Chang, Ta-Chau


    We have applied the satellite hole spectroscopy to study the tautomeric structures of thionin dye in glycerol:water glass. Slightly different frequencies (˜15 cm -1) are observed for several satellite holes of thionin upon tuning the burning wavelength, implying that two conformational structures exist. However, only one set of satellite holes occurring in the spectrum of thionin doped in polyvinyl butyral film allows us to investigate the tautomeric structures of thionin in different matrices. Our results suggest that the appearance of two tautomeric structures of thionin in glycerol:water glass is due to the proton exchange between different sites of thionin and the matrix through intermolecular hydrogen bond.

  15. Seamless metal-clad fiber-reinforced organic matrix composite structures and process for their manufacture (United States)

    Bluck, Raymond M. (Inventor); Bush, Harold G. (Inventor); Johnson, Robert R. (Inventor)


    A metallic outer sleeve is provided which is capable of enveloping a hollow metallic inner member having continuous reinforcing fibers attached to the distal end thereof. The inner member is then introduced into outer sleeve until inner member is completely enveloped by outer sleeve. A liquid matrix member is then injected into space between inner member and outer sleeve. A pressurized heat transfer medium is flowed through the inside of inner member, thereby forming a fiber reinforced matrix composite material. The wall thicknesses of both inner member and outer sleeve are then reduced to the appropriate size by chemical etching, to adjust the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to the desired value. thereby forming a fiber reinforced matrix composite material. The wall thicknesses of both inner member and outer sleeve are then reduced to the appropriate size by chemical etching, to adjust the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to the desired value. The novelty of this invention resides in the development of a efficient method of producing seamless metal clad fiber reinforced organic matrix composite structures.

  16. Precise integration method without inverse matrix calculation for structural dynamic equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Mengfu; F. T. K. Au


    The precise integration method proposed for linear time-invariant homogeneous dynamic systems can provide accurate numerical results that approach an exact solution at integration points. However, difficulties arise when the algorithm is used for non-homogeneous dynamic systems due to the inverse matrix calculation required. In this paper, the structural dynamic equalibrium equations are converted into a special form, the inverse matrix calculation is replaced by the Crout decomposition method to solve the dynamic equilibrium equations, and the precise integration method without the inverse matrix calculation is obtained. The new algorithm enhances the present precise integration method by improving both the computational accuracy and efficiency. Two numerical examples are given to demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  17. Processing, structure and flexural strength of CNT and carbon fibre reinforced, epoxy-matrix hybrid composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Chandra Shekar; M Sai Priya; P K Subramanian; Anil Kumar; B Anjaneya Prasad; N Eswara Prasad


    Advanced materials such as continuous fibre-reinforced polymer matrix composites offer significant enhancements in variety of properties, as compared to their bulk, monolithic counterparts. These properties include primarily the tensile stress, flexural stress and fracture parameters. However, till date, there are hardly any scientific studies reported on carbon fibre (Cf) and carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced hybrid epoxy matrix composites (unidirectional). The present work is an attempt to bring out the flexural strength properties along with a detailed investigation in the synthesis of reinforced hybrid composite. In this present study, the importance of alignment of fibre is comprehensively evaluated and reported. The results obtained are discussed in terms of material characteristics, microstructure and mode of failure under flexural (3-point bend) loading. The study reveals the material exhibiting exceptionally high strength values and declaring itself as a material with high strength to weight ratio when compared to other competing polymer matrix composites (PMCs); as a novel structural material for aeronautical and aerospace applications.

  18. Graphene nanoplatelets induced heterogeneous bimodal structural magnesium matrix composites with enhanced mechanical properties. (United States)

    Xiang, Shulin; Wang, Xiaojun; Gupta, Manoj; Wu, Kun; Hu, Xiaoshi; Zheng, Mingyi


    In this work, graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) reinforced magnesium (Mg) matrix composites were synthesised using the multi-step dispersion route. Well-dispersed but inhomogeneously distributed GNPs were obtained in the matrix. Compared with the monolithic alloy, the nanocomposites exhibited dramatically enhanced Young's modulus, yield strength and ultimate tensile strength and relatively high plasticity, which mainly attributed to the significant heterogeneous laminated microstructure induced by the addition of GNPs. With increasing of the concentration of GNPs, mechanical properties of the composites were gradually improved. Especially, the strengthening efficiency of all the composites exceeded 100%, which was significantly higher than that of carbon nanotubes reinforced Mg matrix composites. The grain refinement and load transfer provided by the two-dimensional and wrinkled surface structure of GNPs were the dominated strengthening mechanisms of the composites. This investigation develops a new method for incorporating GNPs in metals for fabricating high-performance composites.

  19. Robustly Stable Signal Recovery in Compressed Sensing with Structured Matrix Perturbation

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zai; Xie, Lihua


    The sparse signal recovery in standard compressed sensing (CS) requires that the sensing matrix be known a priori. The CS problem subject to perturbation in the sensing matrix is often encountered in practice and results in the literature have shown that the signal recovery error grows linearly with the perturbation level. This paper assumes a structure for the perturbation. Under mild conditions on the perturbed sensing matrix, it is shown that a sparse signal can be recovered by $\\ell_1$ minimization with the recovery error being at most proportional to the measurement noise level, similar to that in the standard CS. The recovery is exact in the special noise free case provided that the signal is sufficiently sparse with respect to the perturbation level. A similar result holds for compressible signals under an additional assumption of small perturbation. Algorithms are proposed for implementing the $\\ell_1$ minimization problem and numerical simulations are carried out that verify our analysis.

  20. Analysis of metal-matrix composite structures. I - Micromechanics constitutive theory. II - Laminate analyses (United States)

    Arenburg, R. T.; Reddy, J. N.


    The micromechanical constitutive theory is used to examine the nonlinear behavior of continuous-fiber-reinforced metal-matrix composite structures. Effective lamina constitutive relations based on the Abouli micromechanics theory are presented. The inelastic matrix behavior is modeled by the unified viscoplasticity theory of Bodner and Partom. The laminate constitutive relations are incorporated into a first-order deformation plate theory. The resulting boundary value problem is solved by utilizing the finite element method. Attention is also given to computational aspects of the numerical solution, including the temporal integration of the inelastic strains and the spatial integration of bending moments. Numerical results the nonlinear response of metal matrix composites subjected to extensional and bending loads are presented.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khroustalev


    Full Text Available Complex nanodispersed systems with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and nanodispersed silica have a significant impact on the processes of hydration, hardening and strength gain of construction composites predetermining their durability. While using a scanning electron microscope with an attachment for X-ray microanalysis and a device for infrared spectral analysis investigations have shown that the main effect of the cement matrix modification in the case of adding complex nanodispersed systems is provided by direct influence of hydration processes with subsequent crystallization of new formations. It has been noted that while adding carbon nanotube dispersion and nanosized silica a binding matrix is structured in the form of an extremely dense shell from crystalline hydrate new formations on the surface of solid phases that provides strong binding matrix in cement concrete. The addition effect of carbon nanotubes has been analyzed and quantitatively assessed through an investigation for every case of one sample with nanotubes and one sample without them with the help of a nanoindenter and scanning electron microscope. It is necessary to solve rather complicated challenging task in order to assess quantitatively the addition effect of CNT on material characteristics at a micromechanical level. At the same time it is possible to investigate surface of a concrete sample with one-micron resolution. In this case it is necessary to prepare samples for nanoindentation with exclusion of all CNT defectable effects that have been shown by a SEM. So in this case more adequate method for assessment must be a picoindenter , which combines a test method for nanoindentation with an optical SEM potential. Such equipment is in the stage of in-situ testing process at the Vienna University of Technology. The investigation is based on the fact that the main modification effect of mineral binding matrix while using incorporated complex nanodispersed systems and

  2. Experimental Verification of Coupled Stiffness Matrix in Multilayer Composite Structure with Complex Curvature (United States)

    Jang, Jun Hwan; Kim, Jae Hoon

    The paper presents an experimental verification for calculating coupled stiffness matrix in complex curvature composite structure. The results of the analytical procedure using Variational Asymptotic Beam Sectional Analysis also indicate that the calculation of 2-D, beam, cross-sectional properties can then be incorporated into and 1-D beam analysis expressed coupled stiffness matrix. This paper presents the 2-D cross-sectional analysis of active anisotropic beams. Comparison between the analytical and experimental results shows that the proposed analytical procedure can provide an accurate and efficient prediction of the both deflection and flexural stiffness of multilayer composite slender structure. Verified comparison results can be used to efficiently design accurate complex slender structure properties for preliminary design and optimization.

  3. Nanoscale Structural Plasticity of the Active Zone Matrix Modulates Presynaptic Function. (United States)

    Glebov, Oleg O; Jackson, Rachel E; Winterflood, Christian M; Owen, Dylan M; Barker, Ellen A; Doherty, Patrick; Ewers, Helge; Burrone, Juan


    The active zone (AZ) matrix of presynaptic terminals coordinates the recruitment of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and synaptic vesicles to orchestrate neurotransmitter release. However, the spatial organization of the AZ and how it controls vesicle fusion remain poorly understood. Here, we employ super-resolution microscopy and ratiometric imaging to visualize the AZ structure on the nanoscale, revealing segregation between the AZ matrix, VGCCs, and putative release sites. Long-term blockade of neuronal activity leads to reversible AZ matrix unclustering and presynaptic actin depolymerization, allowing for enrichment of AZ machinery. Conversely, patterned optogenetic stimulation of postsynaptic neurons retrogradely enhanced AZ clustering. In individual synapses, AZ clustering was inversely correlated with local VGCC recruitment and vesicle cycling. Acute actin depolymerization led to rapid (5 min) nanoscale AZ matrix unclustering. We propose a model whereby neuronal activity modulates presynaptic function in a homeostatic manner by altering the clustering state of the AZ matrix. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A real-space stochastic density matrix approach for density functional electronic structure. (United States)

    Beck, Thomas L


    The recent development of real-space grid methods has led to more efficient, accurate, and adaptable approaches for large-scale electrostatics and density functional electronic structure modeling. With the incorporation of multiscale techniques, linear-scaling real-space solvers are possible for density functional problems if localized orbitals are used to represent the Kohn-Sham energy functional. These methods still suffer from high computational and storage overheads, however, due to extensive matrix operations related to the underlying wave function grid representation. In this paper, an alternative stochastic method is outlined that aims to solve directly for the one-electron density matrix in real space. In order to illustrate aspects of the method, model calculations are performed for simple one-dimensional problems that display some features of the more general problem, such as spatial nodes in the density matrix. This orbital-free approach may prove helpful considering a future involving increasingly parallel computing architectures. Its primary advantage is the near-locality of the random walks, allowing for simultaneous updates of the density matrix in different regions of space partitioned across the processors. In addition, it allows for testing and enforcement of the particle number and idempotency constraints through stabilization of a Feynman-Kac functional integral as opposed to the extensive matrix operations in traditional approaches.

  5. Homo- and heterodinuclear coordination polymers based on a tritopic cyclam bis-terpyridine unit: Structure and rheological properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Li; Fan, Jiangxia; Ren, Yong; Xiong, Kun [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Yan, Minhao, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Tuo, Xianguo, E-mail: [Laboratory of National Defense for Radioactive Waste and Environmental Security, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Terech, Pierre [SPrAM, UMR CEA/CNRS/UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, Grenoble F-38054 (France); Royal, Guy [Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble I, Département de Chimie Moléculaire, UMR CNRS-5250, Institut de Chimie Moléculaire de Grenoble, FR CNRS-2607, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)


    An innovative coordination polymer based on a tritopic ligand having the bis-terpyridine cyclam (CHTT) unit is explored. Homo- or heteronuclear 1D coordination polymers can be formed with bivalent metal ions such as Co(II) and Ni(II) in solvent DMF. Creep-recovery curves of the (Co{sup II}){sub 2}CHTT gels formed from 1D coordination polymers were analyzed with the Burgers model and demonstrated an original self-healing property, unusual in the class of molecular gels. The influence of the metal type was studied through the structural features using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments. In gels, the corresponding network involves genuine fibers (R ≈ 35 Å), bundles of these fibers and also a fraction of finite size aggregates (rods with aspect ratio f ≈ 3–5). We found that the distribution of these latter structural components is sensitive to the metal ions type. Such tritopic 1D coordination polymers exhibit a range of original structural features and a facile control of the developed structures in solutions and gels by tuning their thermodynamic parameters. The versatility associated to the intrinsic dynamic ability of the systems should pave the way to original properties for molecular devices. - Graphical abstract: A tritopic ligand with a bis-terpyridine cyclam (CHTT) unit can form homo- and heterobinuclear coordination polymers with bivalent metal ions in DMF. Gels exhibit a remarkable self-healing property while structures of solutions and gels are studied by small-angle neutron scattering. - Highlights: • Homo- and heteronuclear coordination polymers based on innovative tritopic ligand. • The gels formed from the coordination polymers demonstrated self-healing property. • Influence of the metal type was studied through the structural properties by SANS. • Versatility of the singular system present original properties for molecular device.

  6. Rheology of unstable mineral emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Dunja S.


    Full Text Available In this paper, the rheology of mineral oils and their unstable water emulsion were investigated. The oil samples were domestic crude oil UA, its fractions UA1, UA4 and blend semi-product UP1, while the concentration of oil in water emulsions was in the range from 1 up to 30%. The results were analyzed based on shear stress. The oil samples UA, UA1 and UP1 are Newtonian fluids, while UA4 is pseudoplastic fluid. The samples UA and UA4 show higher value of shear stress (83.75 Pa, 297 Pa, then other two samples UA1 and UP1 (18.41 Pa, 17.52 Pa. Rheology of investigated oils due to its complex chemical composition should be analyzed as a simultaneous effect of all their components. Therefore, structural composition of the oils was determined, namely content of paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics and asphaltenes. All samples contain paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics but only oils UA and UA4 contain asphaltenes as well. All investigated emulsions except 30% EUA4 are Newtonian fluids. The EUA4 30% emulsion shows pseudoplastic behaviour, and it is the only 30% emulsion among investigated ones that achieves lower shear stress then its oil. The characteristics of oil samples that could have an influence on their properties and their emulsion rheology, were determined. These characteristics are: neutralization number, interfacial tension, dielectric constant, and emulsivity. Oil samples UA and UA4 have significantly higher values of neutralization number, dielectric constants, and emulsivity. The sample UA has the lowest value of interface tension and the greatest emulsivity, indicating that this oil, among all investigated, has the highest preference for building emulsion. This could be the reason why 20% and 30% emulsions of the oil UA achieve the highest shear stress among all investigated emulsions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiryaeva R.N.


    Full Text Available By means of IR-spectrometry general structural fragments of high-viscous oils resins and asphaltenes isolated from oils are stadied. It was determined that differ significantly on content alkil, hydroxide and carbonil groups. Developed reagent OKN allows to improve significantly reological deseription of South- Inzyreyskoy and Usinsk oil and may be recommended for use in oil industry

  8. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd


    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend sedimenta

  9. Activated Sludge Rheology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Horn, Willi; Helmus, Frank


    Rheological behaviour is an important fluid property that severely impacts its flow behaviour and many aspects related to this. In the case of activated sludge, the apparent viscosity has an influence on e.g. pumping, hydrodynamics, mass transfer rates, sludge-water separation (settling and filtr...

  10. Rheology of concentrated biomass (United States)

    J.R. Samaniuk; J. Wang; T.W. Root; C.T. Scott; D.J. Klingenberg


    Economic processing of lignocellulosic biomass requires handling the biomass at high solids concentration. This creates challenges because concentrated biomass behaves as a Bingham-like material with large yield stresses. Here we employ torque rheometry to measure the rheological properties of concentrated lignocellulosic biomass (corn stover). Yield stresses obtained...

  11. A low-complexity adaptive beamformer for ultrasound imaging using structured covariance matrix. (United States)

    Asl, Babak Mohammadzadeh; Mahloojifar, Ali


    In recent years, adaptive beamforming methods have been successfully applied to medical ultrasound imaging, resulting in simultaneous improvement in imaging resolution and contrast. These improvements have been achieved at the expense of higher computational complexity, with respect to the conventional non-adaptive delay-and-sum (DAS) beamformer, in which computational complexity is proportional to the number of elements, O(M). The computational overhead results from the covariance matrix inversion needed for computation of the adaptive weights, the complexity of which is cubic with the subarray size, O(L(3)). This is a computationally intensive procedure, which makes the implementation of adaptive beamformers less attractive in spite of their advantages. Considering that, in medical ultrasound applications, most of the energy is scattered from angles close to the steering angle, assuming spatial stationarity is a good approximation, allowing us to assume the Toeplitz structure for the estimated covariance matrix. Based on this idea, in this paper, we have applied the Toeplitz structure to the spatially smoothed covariance matrix by averaging the entries along all subdiagonals. Because the inverse of the resulting Toeplitz covariance matrix can be computed in O(L(2)) operations, this technique results in a greatly reduced computational complexity. By using simulated and experimental RF data-point targets as well as cyst phantoms-we show that the proposed low-complexity adaptive beamformer significantly outperforms the DAS and its performance is comparable to that of the minimum variance beamformer, with reduced computational complexity.

  12. A comparison of likelihood ratio tests and Rao's score test for three separable covariance matrix structures. (United States)

    Filipiak, Katarzyna; Klein, Daniel; Roy, Anuradha


    The problem of testing the separability of a covariance matrix against an unstructured variance-covariance matrix is studied in the context of multivariate repeated measures data using Rao's score test (RST). The RST statistic is developed with the first component of the separable structure as a first-order autoregressive (AR(1)) correlation matrix or an unstructured (UN) covariance matrix under the assumption of multivariate normality. It is shown that the distribution of the RST statistic under the null hypothesis of any separability does not depend on the true values of the mean or the unstructured components of the separable structure. A significant advantage of the RST is that it can be performed for small samples, even smaller than the dimension of the data, where the likelihood ratio test (LRT) cannot be used, and it outperforms the standard LRT in a number of contexts. Monte Carlo simulations are then used to study the comparative behavior of the null distribution of the RST statistic, as well as that of the LRT statistic, in terms of sample size considerations, and for the estimation of the empirical percentiles. Our findings are compared with existing results where the first component of the separable structure is a compound symmetry (CS) correlation matrix. It is also shown by simulations that the empirical null distribution of the RST statistic converges faster than the empirical null distribution of the LRT statistic to the limiting χ(2) distribution. The tests are implemented on a real dataset from medical studies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A spectral method to detect community structure based on distance modularity matrix (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Xuan; Zhang, Xiao-Dong


    There are many community organizations in social and biological networks. How to identify these community structure in complex networks has become a hot issue. In this paper, an algorithm to detect community structure of networks is proposed by using spectra of distance modularity matrix. The proposed algorithm focuses on the distance of vertices within communities, rather than the most weakly connected vertex pairs or number of edges between communities. The experimental results show that our method achieves better effectiveness to identify community structure for a variety of real-world networks and computer generated networks with a little more time-consumption.

  14. Metallic nanostructures in a polymer matrix and substrate fabrication and structural characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhowmik, Siddhartha; Holm, Arliena; Ostroverkhova, Oksana; Atre, Sundar [Oregon State University, Oregon Nanoscience and Microtechnologies Institute, Corvallis, OR (United States)


    Metal nanostructures are of considerable interest in the field of plasmonics and metamaterials and could have a wider impact if they are successfully embedded in a stable, inert and flexible polymer matrix. Fabrication of such structures is challenging for a variety of reasons including thermal stability, material compatibility with processing steps and general handling of material. In this work we have demonstrated the fabrication of metal nanostructures and embedded them in a polymer. Furthermore, these structures were fabricated on a flexible polymer membrane and detached from a carrier substrate. Characterization of these structures was performed with SEM, TEM and EDS. (orig.)

  15. Structure-performance maps of polymeric, metal, and ceramic matrix composites (United States)

    Chou, Tsu-Wei; Yang, Jenn-Ming


    This paper presents the results of extensive analytical studies of the thermo-elastic properties of unidirectional laminated composites, as well as two-dimensional and three-dimensional textile structural composites with polymeric, metal, and ceramic matrices. Some comparisons of the theoretical predictions with experimental data have been made. By the construction of the structure-performance maps, the effective composite properties based upon various reinforcement forms and fiber and matrix combinations can be easily assessed. The uniqueness of various textile structural reinforcements also has been demonstrated. These comprehensive performance maps can provide the data base necessary for material selections and guidance for future investigations of advanced composites.

  16. Fibronectin alters the rate of formation and structure of the fibrin matrix. (United States)

    Ramanathan, Anand; Karuri, Nancy


    Plasma fibronectin is a vital component of the fibrin clot; however its role on clot structure is not clearly understood. The goal of this study was to examine the influence of fibronectin on the kinetics of formation, structural characteristics and composition of reconstituted fibrin clots or fibrin matrices. Fibrin matrices were formed by adding thrombin to 1, 2 or 4 mg/ml fibrinogen supplemented with 0-0.4 mg/ml fibronectin. The rate of fibrin matrix formation was then monitored by measuring light absorbance properties at different time points. Confocal microscopy of fluorescein conjugated fibrinogen was used to visualize the structural characteristics of fibrin matrices. The amount of fibronectin in fibrin matrices was determined through electrophoresis and immunoblotting of solubilized matrices. Fibronectin concentration positively correlated with the initial rate of fibrin matrix formation and with steady state light absorbance values of fibrin matrices. An increase in fibronectin concentration resulted in thinner and denser fibers in the fibrin matrices. Electrophoresis and immunoblotting showed that fibronectin was covalently and non-covalently bound to fibrin matrices and in the form of high molecular weight multimers. The formation of fibronectin multimers was attributed to cross-linking of fibronectin by trace amounts Factor XIIIa. These findings are novel because they link results from light absorbance studies to microcopy analyses and demonstrate an influence of fibronectin on fibrin matrix structural characteristics. This data is important in developing therapies that destabilize fibrin clots.

  17. Matrix factorization to time-frequency distribution for structural health monitoring (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Ming; Huang, Shieh-Kung


    Structural health monitoring enables structural information to be acquired through sensing technology, and is of need to early detect problems and damages in structures. Health monitoring strategies are often realized through a combination of qualitative sensing systems and high-performance structural integrity assessment methods. Structural deviations can be then effectively identified by interpreting the raw sensor measurements using signal processing techniques. The objective of this study is to develop a new structural health monitoring method that applies a matrix factorization algorithm to a time-frequency representation of multi-channel signals measured from a structure. This method processes vibrational input and/or output responses of structures to improve raw data quality, to estimate structural responses, to derive signal features, and to detect structural variations. For example, the proposed method can reduce the signal noise by utilizing first few principle vectors to reconstruct the measured signals. For frequency-domain responses, this method can smooth the phase to obtain a better input-output relationship of a structure. Additionally, the method removes abnormal signals in time series, allowing better understanding of structural behavior. Due to communication loss, this method is able to recover lost data from other channel measurements in a structure. Moreover, the proposed method transforms the signal components into a specific domain and then yield meaningful characteristics. All these features are numerically verified using experimental data, and the proposed method permits more detailed investigation of structural behavior.

  18. Structure and function of the interphotoreceptor matrix surrounding retinal photoreceptor cells. (United States)

    Ishikawa, Makoto; Sawada, Yu; Yoshitomi, Takeshi


    The interphotoreceptor matrix (IPM) is a highly organized structure with interconnected domains surrounding cone and rod photoreceptor cells and extends throughout the subretinal space. Based on known roles of the extracellular matrix in other tissues, the IPM is thought to have several prominent functions including serving as a receptor for growth factors, regulating retinoid transport, participating in cytoskeletal organization in surrounding cells, and regulation of oxygen and nutrient transport. In addition, a number of studies suggest that the IPM also may play a significant role in the etiology of retinal degenerative disorders. In this review, we describe the present knowledge concerning the structure and function of the IPM under physiological and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Generic uniqueness of a structured matrix factorization and applications in blind source separation


    Domanov, Ignat; De Lathauwer, Lieven


    Algebraic geometry, although little explored in signal processing, provides tools that are very convenient for investigating generic properties in a wide range of applications. Generic properties are properties that hold "almost everywhere". We present a set of conditions that are sufficient for demonstrating the generic uniqueness of a certain structured matrix factorization. This set of conditions may be used as a checklist for generic uniqueness in different settings. We discuss two partic...

  20. A matrix structured LED backlight system with 2D-DHT local dimming method (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Li, Yang; Du, Sidan

    To reduce the number of the drivers in the conventional local dimming method for LCDs, a novel LED backlight local dimming system is proposed in this paper. The backlight of this system is generated by 2D discrete Hadamard transform and its matrix structured LED modules. Compared with the conventional 2D local dimming method, the proposed method costs much fewer drivers but with little degradation.

  1. Incommensurate structures studied by a modified Density Matrix Renormalization Group Method



    A modified density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method is introduced and applied to classical two-dimensional models: the anisotropic triangular nearest- neighbor Ising (ATNNI) model and the anisotropic triangular next-nearest-neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model. Phase diagrams of both models have complex structures and exhibit incommensurate phases. It was found that the incommensurate phase completely separates the disordered phase from one of the commensurate phases, i. e. the non-existenc...

  2. Study on band gap structure of Fibonacci quantum superlattices by using the transfer matrix method (United States)

    Ferrando, V.; Castro-Palacio, J. C.; Marí, B.; Monsoriu, J. A.


    The scattering properties of particles in a one-dimensional Fibonacci sequence based potential have been analyzed by means of the Transfer Matrix Method. The electronic band gaps are examined comparatively with those obtained using the corresponding periodic potentials. The reflection coefficient shows self-similar properties for the Fibonacci superlattices. Moreover, by using the generalized Bragg's condition, the band gaps positions are derived from the golden mean involved in the design of the superlattice structure.

  3. Crystal Structures of Al-Nd Codoped Zirconolite Derived from Glass Matrix and Powder Sintering. (United States)

    Liao, Chang-Zhong; Shih, Kaimin; Lee, William E


    Zirconolite is a candidate host for immobilizing long-lived radionuclides. Zirconolite-based glass-ceramics in the CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-TiO2-ZrO2-Nd2O3-Na2O matrix are a potential waste form for immobilizing actinide radionuclides and can offer double barriers to immobilize radioactive elements. However, the X-ray diffraction patterns of the zirconolite derived from the glass matrix (glass ceramic, GC) are significantly different from those prepared by powder sintering (PS). In this Article, the crystal structures of Al-Nd codoped zirconolite grown via the glass matrix route and the powder sintering route are investigated in detail. Two samples of Al-Nd codoped zirconolite were prepared: one was grown from a CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-TiO2-ZrO2-Nd2O3-Na2O glass matrix, and the other was prepared with a Ca0.75Nd0.25ZrTi1.75Al0.25O7 composition by powder sintering. The samples were then characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDX), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The chemical composition of the 100-500 nm zirconolite crystals grown from a glass matrix was determined by TEM-EDX to be Ca0.83Nd0.25Zr0.85Ti1.95Al0.11O7. PXRD and SAED results showed that these two Al-Nd codoped zirconolite phases were crystallized in space group C12/c1. The HRTEM images and SAED results showed that there were heavy stacking faults in the zirconolite crystals grown from the glass matrix. In contrast, far fewer defects were found in the zirconolite crystals prepared by powder sintering. The split-atom model was adopted for the first time to construct the Al-Nd codoped zirconolite structure grown from glass during the Rietveld refinement. The isostructural method assisted by Rietveld refinement was used to resolve the Al-Nd codoped zirconolite structures prepared by different methods. The occupancies of the cation sites were identified, and the distribution behavior of Nd


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Vizireanu


    Full Text Available The increased social and economic importance of ready–made food production, together with the complexity of production technology, processing, handling and acceptance of these fragile and perishable products requires extensive knowledge of their physical properties. Viscoelastic properties play an important role in the handling and quality attributes of creams.Our study was to investigate the rheological properties of different confectionary creams, by scanning the field of shear rates at constant temperature and frequency, angular frequency scanning at small deformations and quantification of rheological changes during application of deformation voltages. The creams tested were made in the laboratory using specific concentrates as fine powders, marketed by the company “Dr. Oetker” compared with similar creams based on traditional recipes and techniques. Following the researches conducted we could conclude that both traditional creams and the instant ones are semi fluid food products with pseudoplastic and thixotropic shear flow behavior, with structural viscosity. Instant and traditional creams behaved as physical gels with links susceptible to destruction, when subjected to deformation forces.

  5. Polystyrene-Poly(sodium methacrylate) Amphiphilic Block Copolymers by ATRP : Effect of Structure, pH, and Ionic Strength on Rheology of Aqueous Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raffa, Patrizio; Brandenburg, Piter; Wever, Diego A. Z.; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Picchioni, Francesco


    Three well-defined polystyrene-poly(sodium methacrylate) amphiphilic block copolymers characterized by different molecular architecture (diblock, triblock, and four-arm star) have been synthesized by ATRP. The rheology of their water solutions has been evaluated by measuring dynamic moduli and shear


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chen; Yu-fang Xiang; Ke Wang; Qin Zhang; Rong-ni Du; Qiang Fu


    Three types of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with different molecular weights (high, medium and Iow) were adopted to evaluate the influence of matrix molecular weight on the structure-property relation of injection-molded HDPE/mica composites through a combination of SEM, 2d-WAXS, DSC, DMA and tensile testing. Various structural factors including orientation, filler dispersion, interfacial interaction between HDPE and mica, etc., which can impact the macroscopic mechanics, were compared in detail among the three HDPE/mica composites. The transcrystallization of HDPE on the mica surface was observed and it exhibited strong matrix molecular weight dependence. Obvious transcrystalline structure was found in the composite with Iow molecular weight HDPE, whereas it was hard to be detected in the composites with increased HDPE molecular weight. The best reinforcement effect in the composite with low molecular weight HDPE can be understood as mainly due to substantially improved interracial adhesion between matrix and mica filler, which arises from the transerystallization mechanism.

  7. Derris (Lonchocarpus urucu (Leguminosae Extract Modifies the Peritrophic Matrix Structure of Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusmão Desiely Silva


    Full Text Available Aqueous suspension of ethanol extracts of Derris (Lonchocarpus urucu (Leguminosae, collected in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, were tested for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae. The aim of this study was to observe the alterations of peritrophic matrix in Ae. aegypti larvae treated with an aqueous suspension of D. urucu extract. Different concentrations of D. urucu root extract were tested against fourth instar larvae. One hundred percent mortality was observed at 150 µg/ml (LC50 17.6 µg/ml 24 h following treatment. In response to D. urucu feeding, larvae excreted a large amount of amorphous feces, while control larvae did not produce feces during the assay period. Ultrastructural studies showed that larvae fed with 150 µg/ml of D. urucu extract for 4 h have an imperfect peritrophic matrix and extensive damage of the midgut epithelium. Data indicate a protective role for the peritrophic matrix. The structural modification of the peritrophic matrix is intrinsically associated with larval mortality.

  8. Structural and thermo-rheological analysis of solutions and gels of a β-lactoglobulin fraction isolated from bovine whey. (United States)

    Estévez, Natalia; Fuciños, Pablo; Bargiela, Verónica; Pastrana, Lorenzo; Tovar, Clara Asunción; Luisa Rúa, M


    A β-Lactoglobulin fraction (r-βLg) was isolated from milk whey hydrolysates produced with cardosins from Cynara cardunculus. The impact of the technological process on the r-βLg structure and how in turn this determined its heat-induced gelation was investigated. Results were analysed taking pure β-Lg (p-βLg) as control sample. The process induced changes in the r-βLg native conformation causing exposure of hydrophobic groups, lower thermal stability and also, shorter thermal treatments needed to give rise to non-native and aggregated species. At pH 3.2, r-βLg and p-βLg solutions exhibited two gelation steps, with the advantage that r-βLg protein may form stable gels at lower temperature than p-βLg. At pH 7.2, a specific thermo-viscoelastic stability to 73 °C was found, which corresponded to the gel point in both protein solutions. The difference was that while for p-βLg solution in sol state δ45° (fluid-like).

  9. Integral equation analysis of complex (MMIC-structures with optimized system matrix decomposition and novel quadrature techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Vaupel


    Full Text Available Using integral equation methods for the analysis of complex (MMIC structures, the computation and storage effort for the solution of the linear systems of equations with their fully populated matrices still forms the main bottleneck. In the last years, remarkable improvements could be achieved by means of diakoptic methods and related preconditiners. In this contribution, we present a method based on the optimized decomposition of the system matrix depending on the circuit topology. The system matrix is splitted in a densely populated matrix and a mainly blockdiagonal matrix with overlapping submatrices. The latter matrix is used for the generation of high performance preconditioners within Krylov subspace methods using sparsified matrix storage methods, adaptive Cholesky decompositions and optimized forward/backward substitutions. Furthermore, we present an integration technique using a complete analytical treatment for the strongly oscillating parts of the spectral domain integrands allowing the analysis of very large structures as compared to the wavelength.

  10. Structural characterization of PTX3 disulfide bond network and its multimeric status in cumulus matrix organization. (United States)

    Inforzato, Antonio; Rivieccio, Vincenzo; Morreale, Antonio P; Bastone, Antonio; Salustri, Antonietta; Scarchilli, Laura; Verdoliva, Antonio; Vincenti, Silvia; Gallo, Grazia; Chiapparino, Caterina; Pacello, Lucrezia; Nucera, Eleonora; Serlupi-Crescenzi, Ottaviano; Day, Anthony J; Bottazzi, Barbara; Mantovani, Alberto; De Santis, Rita; Salvatori, Giovanni


    PTX3 is an acute phase glycoprotein that plays key roles in resistance to certain pathogens and in female fertility. PTX3 exerts its functions by interacting with a number of structurally unrelated molecules, a capacity that is likely to rely on its complex multimeric structure stabilized by interchain disulfide bonds. In this study, PAGE analyses performed under both native and denaturing conditions indicated that human recombinant PTX3 is mainly composed of covalently linked octamers. The network of disulfide bonds supporting this octameric assembly was resolved by mass spectrometry and Cys to Ser site-directed mutagenesis. Here we report that cysteine residues at positions 47, 49, and 103 in the N-terminal domain form three symmetric interchain disulfide bonds stabilizing four protein subunits in a tetrameric arrangement. Additional interchain disulfide bonds formed by the C-terminal domain cysteines Cys(317) and Cys(318) are responsible for linking the PTX3 tetramers into octamers. We also identified three intrachain disulfide bonds within the C-terminal domain that we used as structural constraints to build a new three-dimensional model for this domain. Previously it has been shown that PTX3 is a key component of the cumulus oophorus extracellular matrix, which forms around the oocyte prior to ovulation, because cumuli from PTX3(-/-) mice show defective matrix organization. Recombinant PTX3 is able to restore the normal phenotype ex vivo in cumuli from PTX3(-/-) mice. Here we demonstrate that PTX3 Cys to Ser mutants, mainly assembled into tetramers, exhibited wild type rescue activity, whereas a mutant, predominantly composed of dimers, had impaired functionality. These findings indicate that protein oligomerization is essential for PTX3 activity within the cumulus matrix and implicate PTX3 tetramers as the functional molecular units required for cumulus matrix organization and stabilization.

  11. Development of damped metal-matrix composites for advanced structural applications. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Updike, C.A.; Bhagat, R.B.


    The development of damped metal matrix composite structures for advanced applications has been investigated by the use of two different approaches: (1) the development of metal matrix composites with high intrinsic damping compared to that of the matrix material, and (2) the development of coated metal matrix composites with high structural damping compared to that of the composite substrates. The two different approaches are analyzed in terms of their potential for improved damping and feasibility for structural applications. Damping was measured by the transverse vibration of free-free beams using the bandwidth technique by a laser vibrometer under ambient conditions. The damping measurements were made over a wide range of frequencies (.7 kHz to 25.6 kHz) at low strain amplitudes (10 to the -10 power to 10 to the -7 power). Materials investigated for their tensile stiffness, strength, and damping performance include mechanically alloyed (MA) Aluminum-Magnesium, SiC(p)/Aluminum-Copper (MA), SiC(p)/AL, AL2O3(p)/AL, SiC(W)/AL, planar random Gr/AL, unidirectional Gr/AL and unidirectional SiC(Nicalon)/AL composites. The effects of coatings of high damping metals (nitinol and incramute) on 6061-T6 AL and AL2O3(p)/AL substrates have also been studied. The AL-Mg (MA), SiC(p)/AL (MA), SiC(W)/AL and th AL2O3(p)/AL composites show no significant improvement in damping compared with that of the 6061-T6 AL.

  12. Multi-Scale CNT-Based Reinforcing Polymer Matrix Composites for Lightweight Structures (United States)

    Eberly, Daniel; Ou, Runqing; Karcz, Adam; Skandan, Ganesh; Mather, Patrick; Rodriguez, Erika


    Reinforcing critical areas in carbon polymer matrix composites (PMCs), also known as fiber reinforced composites (FRCs), is advantageous for structural durability. Since carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have extremely high tensile strength, they can be used as a functional additive to enhance the mechanical properties of FRCs. However, CNTs are not readily dispersible in the polymer matrix, which leads to lower than theoretically predicted improvement in mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of CNT composites. The inability to align CNTs in a polymer matrix is also a known issue. The feasibility of incorporating aligned CNTs into an FRC was demonstrated using a novel, yet commercially viable nanofiber approach, termed NRMs (nanofiber-reinforcing mats). The NRM concept of reinforcement allows for a convenient and safe means of incorporating CNTs into FRC structural components specifically where they are needed during the fabrication process. NRMs, fabricated through a novel and scalable process, were incorporated into FRC test panels using layup and vacuum bagging techniques, where alternating layers of the NRM and carbon prepreg were used to form the reinforced FRC structure. Control FRC test panel coupons were also fabricated in the same manner, but comprised of only carbon prepreg. The FRC coupons were machined to size and tested for flexural, tensile, and compression properties. This effort demonstrated that FRC structures can be fabricated using the NRM concept, with an increased average load at break during flexural testing versus that of the control. The NASA applications for the developed technologies are for lightweight structures for in-space and launch vehicles. In addition, the developed technologies would find use in NASA aerospace applications such as rockets, aircraft, aircraft/spacecraft propulsion systems, and supporting facilities. The reinforcing aspect of the technology will allow for more efficient joining of fiber composite parts, thus offering


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘保国; 殷学纲; 蹇开林; 吴永


    A general method based on Riccati transfer matrix is presented to calculate the2 nd order perturbations of eigendatas for one-dimensional structural system with parameteruncertainties. The method is applicable to both real and complex eigendatas of any one-dimensional structural system. The formulas for calculating the sensitivity derivatives ofeigendatas based on this method are also presented. The method is applied to theperturbation analysis for the eigendatas of a rotor with gyroscopic moment, and thedifferences between the perturbation results and the accurate calculating results are small.

  14. Method and apparatus for evaluating structural weakness in polymer matrix composites (United States)

    Wachter, E.A.; Fisher, W.G.


    A method and apparatus for evaluating structural weaknesses in polymer matrix composites is described. An object to be studied is illuminated with laser radiation and fluorescence emanating therefrom is collected and filtered. The fluorescence is then imaged and the image is studied to determine fluorescence intensity over the surface of the object being studied and the wavelength of maximum fluorescent intensity. Such images provide a map of the structural integrity of the part being studied and weaknesses, particularly weaknesses created by exposure of the object to heat, are readily visible in the image. 6 figs.

  15. Rheological and microstructural properties of porcine myofibrillar protein-lipid emulsion composite gels. (United States)

    Wu, Mangang; Xiong, Youling L; Chen, Jie; Tang, Xueyan; Zhou, Guanghong


    The objective of the study was to investigate the role of emulsified fat (lard) and oil (peanut oil) in the rheology and microstructure of porcine myofibrillar protein (MP) gels. Heat-induced composite gels were prepared from 2% MP with 0% to 15% pre-emulsified lipids at 0.6 M NaCl, pH 6.2. Dynamic rheological testing upon temperature sweeping (20 to 80 degrees C at 2 degrees C/min) showed substantial increases in G' (an elastic modulus) of MP sols/gels with the addition of emulsions. Gel hardness was markedly enhanced (P or=10% emulsions, and the composite gel with 15% lard was 33% more rigid (P gels by 28% to 44% (P gel structure filled with protein-coated fat/oil globules that interacted with the protein matrix via disulfide bonds. The results indicated that both physical and chemical forces contributed to the enhancements in the rheology, moisture retention, and lipid stabilization in the MP-emulsion composite gels.

  16. Structural characterization of membrane-bound human immunodeficiency virus-1 Gag matrix with neutron reflectometry (United States)

    Eells, Rebecca; Barros, Marilia; Scott, Kerry M.; Karageorgos, Ioannis; Heinrich, Frank; Lösche, Mathias


    The structural characterization of peripheral membrane proteins represents a tremendous challenge in structural biology due to their transient interaction with the membrane and the potential multitude of protein conformations during this interaction. Neutron reflectometry is uniquely suited to address this problem because of its ability to structurally characterize biological model systems nondestructively and under biomimetic conditions that retain full protein functionality. Being sensitive to only the membrane-bound fraction of a water-soluble peripheral protein, neutron reflectometry obtains a low-resolution average structure of the protein-membrane complex that is further refined using integrative modeling strategies. Here, the authors review the current technological state of biological neutron reflectometry exemplified by a detailed report on the structure determination of the myristoylated human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) Gag matrix associated with phosphoserine-containing model membranes. The authors found that the HIV-1 Gag matrix is able to adopt different configurations at the membrane in a pH-dependent manner and that the myristate group orients the protein in a way that is conducive to PIP2-binding. PMID:28511544

  17. Rheology in lubrication (United States)

    Cheng, H. S.


    The rheological effects on lubrication are discussed. The types of lubrication considered are thick film hydrodynamic lubrication and thin film elastohydrodynamic lubrication. The temperature-viscosity, viscoelastic, shear-thinning, and normal stess effects on the lubrication of journal bearings are analyzed. A graph of the pressure distribution of viscoelastic liquids in journal bearings is provided. Mathematical models are developed to define the effects of various properties of the lubricants on friction reduction.

  18. Blood rheology and aging


    Oğuz K. Başkurt; Simmonds, Michael J. ; Meiselman, Herbert J.


    Journal of Geriatric Cardiology (2013) 10: 291301 ©2013 JGC All rights reserved;; | Journal of Geriatric Cardiology Review  Open Access  Blood rheology and aging Michael J. Simmonds1, Herbert J. Meiselman2, Oguz K. Baskurt3 1Heart Foundation Research Centre, Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222, Australia 2Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Keck School of Medicine, University of S...

  19. A unified approach to modeling delamination and matrix cracking in smart composite structures (United States)

    Thornburgh, Robert Preston

    The development of smart structures technology has coincided with the increased use of composite materials in structural design. Composite laminates have forms of damage that are not found in other materials, specifically delamination and transverse matrix cracking. An in-depth understanding of the effects of damage on smart composite structures is necessary for predicting not only the life of the structure, but also for modeling any method to be used for damage detection. The objective of this research was to develop a comprehensive model for accurately and efficiently modeling smart composite structures including the effects of composite damage. First, a new, efficient method for modeling smart structures with piezoelectric devices was developed. The coupled model simultaneously solves for the mechanical and electrical response of the system using mechanical displacements and electrical displacements. The developed theory utilizes a refined higher order displacement field that accurately captures the transverse shear deformation in moderately thick laminates. The model was then extended to include internal damage in the form of delamination and matrix cracking. When delamination is present, the sublaminates are modeled as individual plates and continuity is enforced at the interfaces. Matrix cracking was modeled as a reduction in laminate stiffness using parameters determined using finite element analysis of a representative crack. Finally, the simultaneous optimization of both mechanical and electrical parameters in an adaptive structural system was studied. This study demonstrates how multidisciplinary optimization techniques, such as the Kreisselmeier-Steinhauser function, can be utilized to optimize both structural and electrical aspects of an adaptive structural system. Optimization of piezoelectric actuator placement and electrical circuitry was performed on passive electrical damping systems. Results show that the developed model is capable of accurately

  20. Experiments on Paint Rheology (United States)

    Hartranft, Thomas J.; Settles, Gary S.


    We seek a better understanding of the atomization of paints for purposes of limiting the environmental impact of spray painting. However, to do so one must confront both the shear and extensional rheology of mobile non-Newtonian fluids whose very composition is often complex and even unknown. A conventional Couette rheometer yields data on paint shear behavior, but no commercial instrument is available to measure the extensional viscosity, which is believed to govern ligamentary breakup in spray painting. Here a converging-flow extensional rheometer has been built for this purpose. Flow rate and orifice pressure drop are measured and related to the rheological properties of the fluid. At first, experience was gained by visualizing in this device the flow of clear aqueous solutions of both Newtonian (glycerol) and non-Newtonian (polyacrylamide) thickeners. Commercial latex and marine paints were then tested, with the goal of characterizing their extensional behavior and the hope that they might be replaceable by simpler aqueous rheological "substitute" fluids insofar as their atomization behavior is concerned. (Research supported by the US Navy via the Penn State Applied Research Laboratory.)

  1. [Rheology and hyaluronic acid in inflammatory joint effusions (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Zeidler, H; Altmann, S


    The Weissenberg rheogoniometer was used to measure viscosity, normal force and the number of molecular entanglements, calculated from a shear modulus obtained by prestationary experiments, in inflammatory and non-inflammatory synovial fluid effusions. The rheological properties show greater pathological change in the inflammatory synovial fluid samples than in the non-inflammatory. Variation in the hyaluronic acid concentration is only partly responsible for the pathological rheology. Initial experiments with a normalization method for the viscosity flow curves suggest the possibility of determining changes in polymerization or structure of the hyaluronic acid by rheological measurements.

  2. Development of a model colloidal system for rheology simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunk, Peter Randall; Tallant, David Robert; Piech, Martin (United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT); Bell, Nelson Simmons; Frischknecht, Amalie Lucile


    The objective of the experimental effort is to provide a model particle system that will enable modeling of the macroscopic rheology from the interfacial and environmental structure of the particles and solvent or melt as functions of applied shear and volume fraction of the solid particles. This chapter describes the choice of the model particle system, methods for synthesis and characterization, and results from characterization of colloidal dispersion, particle film formation, and the shear and oscillatory rheology in the system. Surface characterization of the grafted PDMS interface, dispersion characterization of the colloids, and rheological characterization of the dispersions as a function of volume fraction were conducted.

  3. Phase Structure of the T-matrix and Multichannel Unitary Isobar Model (United States)

    Razavi, S.; Nakayama, K.


    By exploiting the full phase structure of the meson-baryon coupled channels reaction amplitude-here including also the photon-baryon channel-an isobar model is constructed which fulfills automatically the unitarity and analyticity conditions of the S-matrix, in addition to gauge invariance in the case of photoproduction. In particular, it is shown that the unitarity of the (resonance) pole amplitude arises from the dressing mechanism inherent in the basic T-matrix equation, requiring no extra unitarity condition on the pole amplitude as is the case in earlier works on isobar models. As an example, the present model is applied in the description of the meson-nucleon reactions including the πN , ηN , σN , ρN and πΔ channels. The latter three account effectively for the ππN channel. FFE-COSY Grant No. 41788390.

  4. Generic Uniqueness of a Structured Matrix Factorization and Applications in Blind Source Separation (United States)

    Domanov, Ignat; Lathauwer, Lieven De


    Algebraic geometry, although little explored in signal processing, provides tools that are very convenient for investigating generic properties in a wide range of applications. Generic properties are properties that hold "almost everywhere". We present a set of conditions that are sufficient for demonstrating the generic uniqueness of a certain structured matrix factorization. This set of conditions may be used as a checklist for generic uniqueness in different settings. We discuss two particular applications in detail. We provide a relaxed generic uniqueness condition for joint matrix diagonalization that is relevant for independent component analysis in the underdetermined case. We present generic uniqueness conditions for a recently proposed class of deterministic blind source separation methods that rely on mild source models. For the interested reader we provide some intuition on how the results are connected to their algebraic geometric roots.

  5. The Google matrix controls the stability of structured ecological and biological networks (United States)

    Stone, Lewi


    May's celebrated theoretical work of the 70's contradicted the established paradigm by demonstrating that complexity leads to instability in biological systems. Here May's random-matrix modelling approach is generalized to realistic large-scale webs of species interactions, be they structured by networks of competition, mutualism or both. Simple relationships are found to govern these otherwise intractable models, and control the parameter ranges for which biological systems are stable and feasible. Our analysis of model and real empirical networks is only achievable on introducing a simplifying Google-matrix reduction scheme, which in the process, yields a practical ecological eigenvalue stability index. These results provide an insight into how network topology, especially connectance, influences species stable coexistence. Constraints controlling feasibility (positive equilibrium populations) in these systems are found more restrictive than those controlling stability, helping explain the enigma of why many classes of feasible ecological models are nearly always stable.

  6. From Function to System: Advances in Choosing a Matrix Structure of the Translation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Николаевна Ремхе


    Full Text Available This article presents the authors’ view on the transition towards a new paradigm in the study of the translation process based on synergy, collaboration, networking and the cognitive structure of the translator’s mind. In the search for a hypothetical cognitive model of translation, a matrix model is represented to further enrich the interdisciplinary platform through understanding the conglomerate of the many sources involved in the act of translation and focusing on the role of the individual human being in translational cognition. The Map-Matrix Model comprises three levels of the translator’s mental space: Neurological, Representational and Conceptual. Each level corresponds to the inheritance relations between mapping patterns, clusters and frames. The model will be presented and interrogated through the results of a practical Think-aloud protocols experiment in order to give a better insight into the translation efficiency in terms of information processing and a clearer assumption of the feasibility of the concept.

  7. Matrix metalloproteinases: a review of their structure and role in systemic sclerosis. (United States)

    Peng, Wen-jia; Yan, Jun-wei; Wan, Ya-nan; Wang, Bing-xiang; Tao, Jin-hui; Yang, Guo-jun; Pan, Hai-feng; Wang, Jing


    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the main enzymes involved in arterial wall extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and remodeling, whose activity has been involved in various normal and pathologic processes, such as inflammation, fibrosis. As a result, the MMPs have come to consider as both therapeutic targets and diagnostic tools for the treatment and diagnosis of autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare autoimmune disease of unknown etiology characterized by an excessive over-production of collagen and other ECM, resulting in skin thickening and fibrosis of internal organs. In recent years, abnormal expression of MMPs has been demonstrated with the pathogenesis of SSc, and the association of different polymorphisms on MMPs genes with SSc has been extensively studied. This review describes the structure, function and regulation of MMPs and shortly summarizes current understanding on experimental findings, genetic associations of MMPs in SSc.

  8. Permanent dissipative structures in water: the matrix of life? Experimental evidences and their quantum origin. (United States)

    Elia, V; Germano, R; Napoli, E


    This paper presents a short review of the evidence - both experimental and theoretical - of the formation of dissipative structures in liquid water induced by three kinds of physical perturbations having a low energy content: extremely diluted solution (EDS), iteratively filtered water (IFW), and iteratively nafionated water (INW). Particular attention is devoted to the very recent discovery that such structures are tremendously persistent even in the solid phase: large ponderal quantities of supramolecular aggregates of water (with each nucleus hundreds of nanometers in size) have been observed - at ambient pressure and temperature - using easily-reproducible experimental methods. The nature of these dissipative structures is analyzed and explained in terms of the thermodynamics of far-from-equilibrium systems and irreversible processes, showing their spontaneous quantum origin. Are these kinds of structures the matrix itself of life?.

  9. Orthogonality of Modes of Structures When Using the Exact Transcendental Stiffness Matrix Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L. Chan


    Full Text Available This paper presents theory, physical insight and results for mode orthogonality of piecewise continuous structures, including both coincident and non-coincident natural frequencies. The structures are ones for which exact member equations have been obtained by solving the governing differential equations, e.g. as can be done for members of plane frames or prismatic plate assemblies. Such member equations are transcendental functions of the distributed member mass and the frequency. They are used to obtain a transcendental overall stiffness matrix for the structure, from which the natural frequencies are extracted by using the Wittrick-Williams algorithm, prior to using any existing method to find the modes which are examined from the orthogonality viewpoint in this paper. The natural frequencies and modes found are the exact values for the structure in the sense that the usual finite element method approximations are avoided.

  10. Community structure discovery method based on the Gaussian kernel similarity matrix (United States)

    Guo, Chonghui; Zhao, Haipeng


    Community structure discovery in complex networks is a popular issue, and overlapping community structure discovery in academic research has become one of the hot spots. Based on the Gaussian kernel similarity matrix and spectral bisection, this paper proposes a new community structure discovery method. First, by adjusting the Gaussian kernel parameter to change the scale of similarity, we can find the corresponding non-overlapping community structure when the value of the modularity is the largest relatively. Second, the changes of the Gaussian kernel parameter would lead to the unstable nodes jumping off, so with a slight change in method of non-overlapping community discovery, we can find the overlapping community nodes. Finally, synthetic data, karate club and political books datasets are used to test the proposed method, comparing with some other community discovery methods, to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of this method.

  11. Ataxin-1 with an expanded glutamine tract alters nuclear matrix-associated structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, P J; Koshy, B T; Cummings, C J


    the subcellular localization of wild-type human ataxin-1 (the protein encoded by the SCA1 gene) and mutant ataxin-1 in the Purkinje cells of transgenic mice. We found that ataxin-1 localizes to the nuclei of cerebellar Purkinje cells. Normal ataxin-1 localizes to several nuclear structures approximately 0.......5 microm across, whereas the expanded ataxin-1 localizes to a single approximately 2-microm structure, before the onset of ataxia. Mutant ataxin-1 localizes to a single nuclear structure in affected neurons of SCA1 patients. Similarly, COS-1 cells transfected with wild-type or mutant ataxin-1 show...... a similar pattern of nuclear localization; with expanded ataxin-1 occurring in larger structures that are fewer in number than those of normal ataxin-1. Colocalization studies show that mutant ataxin-1 causes a specific redistribution of the nuclear matrix-associated domain containing promyelocytic...

  12. Structural damage detection based on covariance of covariance matrix with general white noise excitation (United States)

    Hui, Yi; Law, Siu Seong; Ku, Chiu Jen


    Covariance of the auto/cross-covariance matrix based method is studied for the damage identification of a structure with illustrations on its advantages and limitations. The original method is extended for structures under direct white noise excitations. The auto/cross-covariance function of the measured acceleration and its corresponding derivatives are formulated analytically, and the method is modified in two new strategies to enable successful identification with much fewer sensors. Numerical examples are adopted to illustrate the improved method, and the effects of sampling frequency and sampling duration are discussed. Results show that the covariance of covariance calculated from responses of higher order modes of a structure play an important role to the accurate identification of local damage in a structure.

  13. Aggregate of nanoparticles: rheological and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yu


    Full Text Available Abstract The understanding of the rheological and mechanical properties of nanoparticle aggregates is important for the application of nanofillers in nanocompoistes. In this work, we report a rheological study on the rheological and mechanical properties of nano-silica agglomerates in the form of gel network mainly constructed by hydrogen bonds. The elastic model for rubber is modified to analyze the elastic behavior of the agglomerates. By this modified elastic model, the size of the network mesh can be estimated by the elastic modulus of the network which can be easily obtained by rheology. The stress to destroy the aggregates, i.e., the yield stress (σy , and the elastic modulus (G' of the network are found to be depended on the concentration of nano-silica (ϕ, wt.% with the power of 4.02 and 3.83, respectively. Via this concentration dependent behavior, we can extrapolate two important mechanical parameters for the agglomerates in a dense packing state (ϕ = 1: the shear modulus and the yield stress. Under large deformation (continuous shear flow, the network structure of the aggregates will experience destruction and reconstruction, which gives rise to fluctuations in the viscosity and a shear-thinning behavior.

  14. Rheology of nanofluids: a review. (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Chen, Haisheng; Witharana, Sanjeeva


    The rheological behavior of nanofluids published in recent research papers and the relevant patents are reviewed in this article. Effects of various factors such as preparation, nanoparticle and base fluid properties, concentration, temperature, surface charge, and aggregation etc. on the rheological behavior of nanofluids are discussed. Brownian motion and nanoparticle aggregation are found to be the major mechanisms for rheological properties of nanofluids compared to the micro-sized suspensions. The importance of microstructure as means of understanding the mechanisms behind the rheological and heat transfer behavior of nanofluids is also disclosed.

  15. A randomized Mirror-Prox method for solving structured large-scale matrix saddle-point problems

    CERN Document Server

    Baes, Michel; Nemirovski, Arkadi


    In this paper, we derive a randomized version of the Mirror-Prox method for solving some structured matrix saddle-point problems, such as the maximal eigenvalue minimization problem. Deterministic first-order schemes, such as Nesterov's Smoothing Techniques or standard Mirror-Prox methods, require the exact computation of a matrix exponential at every iteration, limiting the size of the problems they can solve. Our method allows us to use stochastic approximations of matrix exponentials. We prove that our randomized scheme decreases significantly the complexity of its deterministic counterpart for large-scale matrix saddle-point problems. Numerical experiments illustrate and confirm our theoretical results.

  16. Shear rheology and in-vitro release kinetic study of apigenin from lyotropic liquid crystal. (United States)

    Fan, Jun; Liu, Feng; Wang, Zhongni


    Apigenin is a flavonoid compound with diverse pharmacological functions which could develop health benefit products, but its formulation is hampered by its poor water solubility and bioavailability. In this paper, in order to overcome these difficulties, apigenin was encapsulated in LLC formed by polyoxyethylene-10-oleyl ether (Brij 97) and sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) mixtures. The hexagonal liquid crystalline phase (H) and the cubic liquid crystalline phase (C) were found in this system. The shear rheology was used to study the structure change with temperature. It was shown that C3 (Brij 97-NaDC/IPM-PEG400/H2O=36:9:55) was C at low temperature. But above 35.6°C, the matrix of C3 completely transformed to polymer solution. The matrix of H3 was H (Brij 97-NaDC:IPM-PEG 400:H2O=50:9:41) below 50°C, but the structural strength change was obvious. Vitro release experiment was used to study drug release kinetics. It was indicated that apigenin encapsulated in LLC conformed to the concentration diffusion model, and cumulative percentage of apigenin released from C3 and H3 had corresponding relationship with the shear rheology at different temperatures. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Theory of rheology in confinement. (United States)

    Aerov, Artem A; Krüger, Matthias


    The viscosity of fluids is generally understood in terms of kinetic mechanisms, i.e., particle collisions, or thermodynamic ones as imposed through structural distortions upon, e.g., applying shear. Often the latter are more relevant, which allows a simpler theoretical description, and, e.g., (damped) Brownian particles can be considered good fluid model systems. We formulate a general theoretical approach for rheology in confinement, based on microscopic equations of motion and classical density functional theory. Specifically, we discuss the viscosity for the case of two parallel walls in relative motion as a function of the wall-to-wall distance, analyzing its relation to the slip length found for a single wall. The previously observed [A. A. Aerov and M. Krüger, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 094701 (2014).] deficiency of inhomogeneous (unphysical) stresses under naive application of shear in confinement is healed when hydrodynamic interactions are included.

  18. Rheological Properties of Enzymatically Isolated Tomato Fruit Cuticle. (United States)

    Petracek, P. D.; Bukovac, M. J.


    Rheological properties were determined for cuticular membranes (CMs) enzymatically isolated from mature tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Pik Red) fruit. The cuticle responded as a viscoelastic polymer in stress-strain studies. Both CM and dewaxed CM expanded and became more elastic and susceptible to fracture when hydrated, suggesting that water plasticized the cuticle. Dewaxing of the CM caused similar changes in elasticity and fracturing, indicating that wax may serve as a supporting filler in the cutin matrix. Exposure of the cuticle to the surfactant Triton X-100 did not significantly affect its rheological properties.

  19. Size-dependent rheology of type-I collagen networks. (United States)

    Arevalo, Richard C; Urbach, Jeffrey S; Blair, Daniel L


    We investigate the system size-dependent rheological response of branched type I collagen gels. When subjected to a shear strain, the highly interconnected mesh dynamically reorients, resulting in overall stiffening of the network. When a continuous shear strain is applied to a collagen network, we observe that the local apparent modulus, in the strain-stiffening regime, is strongly dependent on the gel thickness. In addition, we demonstrate that the overall network failure is determined by the ratio of the gel thickness to the mesh size. These findings have broad implications for cell-matrix interactions, the interpretation of rheological tissue data, and the engineering of biomimetic scaffolds.

  20. Rheological Behavior for Mica-filled Polypropylene Composite Melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Xia CAO; Miao DU; Qiang ZHENG


    The study on rheological properties of a series of mica-filled polypropylene ( PP ) composites was carried out. The influence of surface-treatment of mica particles on dynamic rheological behavior of the composites were dealt with. The viscosity ( η ) and dynamic modulus ( G′ ) of the composite melts were higher than those of PP matrix, especially those for systems treated with silane, which was attributed to the interfacial adhesion enhancement. However, surface-treatment of mica by titanate resulted in lower η and G′, as compared with the treatment by silane. The reason for this is believed to be the formation of the mono-molecular layer on the mica surface.

  1. Improved Fabrication of Ceramic Matrix Composite/Foam Core Integrated Structures (United States)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.


    The use of hybridized carbon/silicon carbide (C/SiC) fabric to reinforce ceramic matrix composite face sheets and the integration of such face sheets with a foam core creates a sandwich structure capable of withstanding high-heatflux environments (150 W/cm2) in which the core provides a temperature drop of 1,000 C between the surface and the back face without cracking or delamination of the structure. The composite face sheet exhibits a bilinear response, which results from the SiC matrix not being cracked on fabrication. In addition, the structure exhibits damage tolerance under impact with projectiles, showing no penetration to the back face sheet. These attributes make the composite ideal for leading edge structures and control surfaces in aerospace vehicles, as well as for acreage thermal protection systems and in high-temperature, lightweight stiffened structures. By tailoring the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of a carbon fiber containing ceramic matrix composite (CMC) face sheet to match that of a ceramic foam core, the face sheet and the core can be integrally fabricated without any delamination. Carbon and SiC are woven together in the reinforcing fabric. Integral densification of the CMC and the foam core is accomplished with chemical vapor deposition, eliminating the need for bond-line adhesive. This means there is no need to separately fabricate the core and the face sheet, or to bond the two elements together, risking edge delamination during use. Fibers of two or more types are woven together on a loom. The carbon and ceramic fibers are pulled into the same pick location during the weaving process. Tow spacing may be varied to accommodate the increased volume of the combined fiber tows while maintaining a target fiber volume fraction in the composite. Foam pore size, strut thickness, and ratio of face sheet to core thickness can be used to tailor thermal and mechanical properties. The anticipated CTE for the hybridized composite is managed by

  2. Graphene networks and their influence on free-volume properties of graphene-epoxidized natural rubber composites with a segregated structure: rheological and positron annihilation studies. (United States)

    He, Canzhong; She, Xiaodong; Peng, Zheng; Zhong, Jieping; Liao, Shuangquan; Gong, Wei; Liao, Jianhe; Kong, Lingxue


    Epoxidized natural rubber-graphene (ENR-GE) composites with segregated GE networks were successfully fabricated using the latex mixing combined in situ reduced technology. The rheological behavior and electrical conductivity of ENR-GE composites were investigated. At low frequencies, the storage modulus (G') became frequency-independent suggesting a solid-like rheological behavior and the formation of GE networks. According to the percolation theory, the rheological threshold of ENR-GE composites was calculated to be 0.17 vol%, which was lower than the electrical threshold of 0.23 vol%. Both percolation thresholds depended on the evolution of the GE networks in the composites. At low GE concentrations (<0.17 vol%), GE existed as individual units, while a "polymer-bridged GE network" was constructed in the composites when GE concentrations exceeded 0.17 vol%. Finally, a "three-dimensional GE network" with percolation conductive paths was formed with a GE concentration of 0.23 vol%, where a remarkable increase in the conductivity of ENR-GE composites was observed. The effect of GE on the atom scale free-volume properties of composites was further studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and positron age momentum correlation measurements. The motion of ENR chains was retarded by the geometric confinement of "GE networks", producing a high-density interfacial region in the vicinity of GE nanoplatelets, which led to a lower ortho-positronium lifetime intensity and smaller free-volume hole size.

  3. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva


    Vijay, Amrita; Inui, Taichi; Dodds, Michael; Proctor, Gordon; Carpenter, Guy


    The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic st...

  4. Probing Models of Dirac Neutrino Masses via the Flavor Structure of the Mass Matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Kanemura, Shinya; Sugiyama, Hiroaki


    We classify models of the Dirac neutrino mass by concentrating on flavor structures of the mass matrix. The advantage of our classification is that we do not need to specify detail of models except for Yukawa interactions because flavor structures can be given only by products of Yukawa matrices. All possible Yukawa interactions between leptons (including the right-handed neutrino) are taken into account by introducing appropriate scalar fields. We also take into account the case with Yukawa interactions of leptons with the dark matter candidate. Then, we see that flavor structures can be classified into seven groups. The result is useful for the efficient test of models of the neutrino mass. One of seven groups can be tested by measuring the absolute neutrino mass. Other two can be tested by probing the violation of the lepton universality in $\\ell \\to \\ell^\\prime \

  5. Non-negative matrix factorization and term structure of interest rates (United States)

    Takada, Hellinton H.; Stern, Julio M.


    Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (NNMF) is a technique for dimensionality reduction with a wide variety of applications from text mining to identification of concentrations in chemistry. NNMF deals with non-negative data and results in non-negative factors and factor loadings. Consequently, it is a natural choice when studying the term structure of interest rates. In this paper, NNMF is applied to obtain factors from the term structure of interest rates and the procedure is compared with other very popular techniques: principal component analysis and Nelson-Siegel model. The NNMF approximation for the term structure of interest rates is better in terms of fitting. From a practitioner point of view, the NNMF factors and factor loadings obtained possess straightforward financial interpretations due to their non-negativeness.

  6. A variable transverse stiffness sandwich structure using fluidic flexible matrix composites (F2MC) (United States)

    Li, Suyi; Lotfi, Amir; Shan, Ying; Wang, K. W.; Rahn, Christopher D.; Bakis, Charles E.


    Presented in this paper is the development of a novel honeycomb sandwich panel with variable transverse stiffness. In this structure, the traditional sandwich face sheets are replaced by the fluidic flexible matrix composite (F2MC) tube layers developed in recent studies. The F2MC layers, combined with the anisotropic honeycomb core material properties, provide a new sandwich structure with variable stiffness properties for transverse loading. In this research, an analytical model is derived based on Lekhitskii's anisotropic pressurized tube solution and Timoshenko beam theory. Experimental investigations are also conducted to verify the analytical findings. A segmented multiple-F2MC-tube configuration is synthesized to increase the variable stiffness range. The analysis shows that the new honeycomb sandwich structure using F2MC tubes of 10 segments can provide a high/low transverse stiffness ratio of 60. Segmentation and stiffness control can be realized by an embedded valve network, granting a fast response time.

  7. Application of Transfer Matrix Approach to Modeling and Decentralized Control of Lattice-Based Structures (United States)

    Cramer, Nick; Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Cheung, Kenny; Teodorescu, Mircea


    This paper presents a modeling and control of aerostructure developed by lattice-based cellular materials/components. The proposed aerostructure concept leverages a building block strategy for lattice-based components which provide great adaptability to varying ight scenarios, the needs of which are essential for in- ight wing shaping control. A decentralized structural control design is proposed that utilizes discrete-time lumped mass transfer matrix method (DT-LM-TMM). The objective is to develop an e ective reduced order model through DT-LM-TMM that can be used to design a decentralized controller for the structural control of a wing. The proposed approach developed in this paper shows that, as far as the performance of overall structural system is concerned, the reduced order model can be as e ective as the full order model in designing an optimal stabilizing controller.

  8. Biofilms of non-Candida albicans Candida species: quantification, structure and matrix composition. (United States)

    Silva, Sónia; Henriques, Mariana; Martins, António; Oliveira, Rosário; Williams, David; Azeredo, Joana


    Most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to C. albicans, but recently, non- Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species have been identified as common pathogens. The ability of Candida species to form biofilms has important clinical repercussions due to their increased resistance to antifungal therapy and the ability of yeast cells within the biofilms to withstand host immune defenses. Given this clinical importance of the biofilm growth form, the aim of this study was to characterize biofilms produced by three NCAC species, namely C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. The biofilm forming ability of clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata recovered from different sources, was evaluated by crystal violet staining. The structure and morphological characteristics of the biofilms were also assessed by scanning electron microscopy and the biofilm matrix composition analyzed for protein and carbohydrate content. All NCAC species were able to form biofilms although these were less extensive for C. glabrata compared with C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. It was evident that C. parapsilosis biofilm production was highly strain dependent, a feature not evident with C. glabrata and C. tropicalis. Scanning electron microscopy revealed structural differences for biofilms with respect to cell morphology and spatial arrangement. Candida parapsilosis biofilm matrices had large amounts of carbohydrate with less protein. Conversely, matrices extracted from C. tropicalis biofilms had low amounts of carbohydrate and protein. Interestingly, C. glabrata biofilm matrix was high in both protein and carbohydrate content. The present work demonstrates that biofilm forming ability, structure and matrix composition are highly species dependent with additional strain variability occurring with C. parapsilosis.

  9. Osteoblasts extracellular matrix induces vessel like structures through glycosylated collagen I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmieri, D. [Genetics, DIBIO, University of Genova, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genova (Italy); Valli, M.; Viglio, S. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Pavia (Italy); Ferrari, N. [Istituto Nazionale per la ricerca sul Cancro, Genova (Italy); Ledda, B.; Volta, C. [Genetics, DIBIO, University of Genova, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genova (Italy); Manduca, P., E-mail: [Genetics, DIBIO, University of Genova, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genova (Italy)


    Extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a fundamental role in angiogenesis affecting endothelial cells proliferation, migration and differentiation. Vessels-like network formation in vitro is a reliable test to study the inductive effects of ECM on angiogenesis. Here we utilized matrix deposed by osteoblasts as substrate where the molecular and structural complexity of the endogenous ECM is preserved, to test if it induces vessel-like network formation by endothelial cells in vitro. ECM is more similar to the physiological substrate in vivo than other substrates previously utilized for these studies in vitro. Osteogenic ECM, prepared in vitro from mature osteoblasts at the phase of maximal deposition and glycosylation of collagen I, induces EAhy926, HUVEC, and HDMEC endothelial cells to form vessels-like structures and promotes the activation of metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2); the functionality of the p-38/MAPK signaling pathway is required. Osteogenic ECM also induces a transient increase of CXCL12 and a decrease of the receptor CXCR4. The induction of vessel-like networks is dependent from proper glycosylation of collagens and does not occur on osteogenic ECMs if deglycosylated by -galactosidase or on less glycosylated ECMs derived from preosteoblasts and normal fibroblasts, while is sustained on ECM from osteogenesis imperfecta fibroblasts only when their mutation is associated with over-glycosylation of collagen type I. These data support that post-translational glycosylation has a role in the induction in endothelial cells in vitro of molecules conductive to self-organization in vessels-like structures.

  10. Structure combinatorics and thermodynamics of a matrix model with Penner interaction inspired by interacting RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhadola, P.; Garg, I. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Deo, N., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)


    In this manuscript, we study the logarithmic Penner type nonlinear interaction in the random matrix model for interacting RNA folding and structure combinatorics. The Penner interaction originally appeared in the studies of moduli space of punctured surfaces and has been applied here in the context of RNA folding for the first time. An exact analytic formula for the generating function is derived using the orthogonal polynomial method. The partition function for a given length L of the RNA chain, derived from the generating function enumerates all possible topological structures as well as the pairings. The partition function and the asymptotic large length distribution functions are found and show a change in the critical exponent of the secondary structure contribution from L{sup −3/2} for large N (size of matrix, N>L) to L{sup −1/2} for small N (N≪L). The exact analytic results calculated in the proposed model allow evaluation of the specific heat versus T curve for large interaction strength. In particular, the second derivative of specific heat shows a striking behavior, changing from single peaked function for large N to a double peak for small N.

  11. Classification of Structure Defects of Metal Matrix Castings with Saturated Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gawdzińska


    Full Text Available Definition of a composite [1] describes an ideal composite material with perfect structure. In real composite materials, structure isusually imperfect – composites contain various types of defects [2, 3–5], especially as the casted composites are of concern. The reason for this is a specific structure of castings, related to course of the manufacturing process. In case of metal matrix composite castings, especially regarding these manufactured by saturation, there is no classification of these defects [2, 4]. Classification of defects in castings of classic materials (cast iron, cast steel, non-ferrous alloys is insufficient and requires completion of specific defects of mentioned materials. This problem (noted during manufacturing metal matrix composite castings with saturated reinforcement in Institute of Basic Technical Sciences of Maritime University Szczecin has become a reason of starting work aimed at creating such classification. As a result, this paper was prepared. It can contribute to improvement of quality of studied materials and, as a consequence, improve the environment protection level.

  12. Classification of Structure Defects of Metal Matrix Castings with Saturated Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawdzińska K.


    Full Text Available Definition of a composite [1] describes an ideal composite material with perfect structure. In real composite materials, structure is usually imperfect - composites contain various types of defects [2, 3-5], especially as the casted composites are of concern. The reason for this is a specific structure of castings, related to course of the manufacturing process. In case of metal matrix composite castings, especially regarding these manufactured by saturation, there is no classification of these defects [2, 4]. Classification of defects in castings of classic materials (cast iron, cast steel, non-ferrous alloys is insufficient and requires completion of specific defects of mentioned materials. This problem (noted during manufacturing metal matrix composite castings with saturated reinforcement in Institute of Basic Technical Sciences of Maritime University Szczecin has become a reason of starting work aimed at creating such classification. As a result, this paper was prepared. It can contribute to improvement of quality of studied materials and, as a consequence, improve the environment protection level.

  13. Influence of blending sequence on the rheological behavior of HDPE/LLDPE/MMT nano composites; Influencia da sequencia de mistura no comportamento reologico de nanocompositos HDPE/LLDPE/MMT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passador, F.R.; Pessan, L.A., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMA/UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Ruvolo Filho, A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (PPGCEM/UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais


    The blending sequence affects the rheological behavior and the morphology formation of the nanocomposites. In this work, the blending sequences were explored to see its influence in the rheological behavior of HDPE/LLDPE/MMT nanocomposites. The nanocomposites were obtained by melt-intercalation using HDPE-g-MA as a compatibilizer in a torque rheometer (Haake Rheomix 600p at 180 deg C and rotor speed of 80rpm) and five blending sequences were studied. The materials structures were characterized by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and by rheological properties. The nanoclay's addition increased the shear viscosity at low shear rates, changing the behavior of HDPE/LLDPE matrix to a Bingham model behavior with an apparent yield stress. Intense interactions were obtained for the blending sequence where HDPE and HDPE-g-MA were first reinforced with organoclay and then the HDPE/HDPE-g-MA/organoclay nanocomposite was later blended with LLDPE. (author)

  14. Mueller-matrix ellipsometry studies of optically active structures in scarab beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwin H.


    Full Text Available The complexity of multilayers, photonic crystals, metamaterials and other artificial materials has promoted the use of spectroscopic, variable angle, generalized and Mueller-matrix ellipsometry. Naturally occurring structures may show even higher complexity than artificial structures but with a more narrow range of constituent materials. Fascinating reflection properties result from intricate photonic structures in, for instance, the wing scales and cuticles of insects. Currently there is a large interest to explore such functional supramolecular architectures for exploitation in nanotechnology. In this study, Mueller-matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry is applied in the spectral range of 250 to 1000 nm to investigate optical response and structures of the cuticle of Scarab beetles of the Cetoniinae subfamily. The cuticle of Cetonia aurata (the rose chafer, la cétoine dorée is green with a metallic appearance and reflects left-handed circular/elliptically polarized light. It has been suggested that the polarization of this metallic gloss is caused by a helical structure in the chitinous cuticle. We find that the polarization effect is limited to the narrow spectral range 470-550 nm whereas for shorter or longer wavelengths the reflection properties are similar to those from a near-dielectric material. Model calculations and parameterization of the nanostructure employing a heliocoidal structure are discussed. As a comparison the polarization effects from light reflected from two other beetles will be presented. Coptomia laevis has a similar appearance as Cetonia aurata but has very different polarization properties. The golden Plusiotis argentiola has very interesting properties showing both left and right-handed polarization depending on incidence angle and wavelength.

  15. Mueller-matrix ellipsometry studies of optically active structures in scarab beetles (United States)

    Järrendahl, K.; Landin, J.; Arwin, H.


    The complexity of multilayers, photonic crystals, metamaterials and other artificial materials has promoted the use of spectroscopic, variable angle, generalized and Mueller-matrix ellipsometry. Naturally occurring structures may show even higher complexity than artificial structures but with a more narrow range of constituent materials. Fascinating reflection properties result from intricate photonic structures in, for instance, the wing scales and cuticles of insects. Currently there is a large interest to explore such functional supramolecular architectures for exploitation in nanotechnology. In this study, Mueller-matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry is applied in the spectral range of 250 to 1000 nm to investigate optical response and structures of the cuticle of Scarab beetles of the Cetoniinae subfamily. The cuticle of Cetonia aurata (the rose chafer, la cétoine dorée) is green with a metallic appearance and reflects left-handed circular/elliptically polarized light. It has been suggested that the polarization of this metallic gloss is caused by a helical structure in the chitinous cuticle. We find that the polarization effect is limited to the narrow spectral range 470-550 nm whereas for shorter or longer wavelengths the reflection properties are similar to those from a near-dielectric material. Model calculations and parameterization of the nanostructure employing a heliocoidal structure are discussed. As a comparison the polarization effects from light reflected from two other beetles will be presented. Coptomia laevis has a similar appearance as Cetonia aurata but has very different polarization properties. The golden Plusiotis argentiola has very interesting properties showing both left and right-handed polarization depending on incidence angle and wavelength.

  16. Analytic structure of the S-matrix for singular quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camblong, Horacio E. [Department of Physics, University of San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94117-1080 (United States); Epele, Luis N.; Fanchiotti, Huner; García Canal, Carlos A. [Laboratorio de Física Teórica, Departamento de Física, IFLP, CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67–1900 La Plata (Argentina)


    The analytic structure of the S-matrix of singular quantum mechanics is examined within a multichannel framework, with primary focus on its dependence with respect to a parameter (Ω) that determines the boundary conditions. Specifically, a characterization is given in terms of salient mathematical and physical properties governing its behavior. These properties involve unitarity and associated current-conserving Wronskian relations, time-reversal invariance, and Blaschke factorization. The approach leads to an interpretation of effective nonunitary solutions in singular quantum mechanics and their determination from the unitary family.

  17. Roundtrip matrix method for calculating the leaky resonant modes of open nanophotonic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mørk, Jesper


    We present a numerical method for calculating quasi-normal modes of open nanophotonic structures. The method is based on scattering matrices and a unity eigenvalue of the roundtrip matrix of an internal cavity, and we develop it in detail with electromagnetic fields expanded on Bloch modes...... cavities are side-coupled and in-line-coupled to an infinite W1 waveguide and show that the scattering spectrum of these types of cavities can be reconstructed from the complex quasi-normal mode frequency....

  18. Poisson structures on affine spaces and flag varieties. I. Matrix affine Poisson space


    K. A. Brown; Goodearl, K. R.; Yakimov, M


    The standard Poisson structure on the rectangular matrix variety Mm,n(C) is\\ud investigated, via the orbits of symplectic leaves under the action of the maximal torus T ⊂\\ud GLm+n(C). These orbits, finite in number, are shown to be smooth irreducible locally closed\\ud subvarieties of Mm,n(C), isomorphic to intersections of dual Schubert cells in the full flag\\ud variety of GLm+n(C). Three different presentations of the T-orbits of symplectic leaves in\\ud Mm,n(C) are obtained – (a) as pu...

  19. Extension of standard transfer-matrix method for three-wave mixing for plasmonic structures (United States)

    Loot, A.; Hizhnyakov, V.


    Fast and accurate modeling of three-wave mixing processes in arbitrary stratified medium has significant practical and scientific importance. Several attempts to generalize transfer-matrix method (TMM) for nonlinear interactions have been made; however, none suits for easy-to-use modeling of plasmonic structures which requires oblique angle of incidence, p-polarization and minimal approximations. In this work, an easy-to-use extension to standard TMM is proposed. The proposed method is used to study the strength of unconventional plasmonic enhancement of second harmonic generation.

  20. Passivity-Based Nonlinear Excitation Control of Power Systems with Structure Matrix Reassignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Chu


    Full Text Available Passivity-based control is widely used in electronic circuit systems because it can utilize their internal structures to facilitate the controller design. In this paper, we first propose a dissipative Hamiltonian realization of power systems and discuss the disadvantages of the traditional passivity-based excitation controller. Then, a novel excitation controller is put forward to reassign the interconnection and dissipative matrix, and the corresponding Hamiltonian function. Simulation results verify that the proposed controller can effectively improve the transient stability of the power system.

  1. Structure of Hamiltonian Matrix and the Shape of Eigenfunctions: Nuclear Octupole Deformation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Yong-Zhong; LI Jun-Qing; LIU Fang; ZUO Wei


    The structure of a Hamiltonian matrix for a quantum chaotic system, the nuclear octupole deformationmodel, has been discussed in detail. The distribution of the eigenfunctions of this system expanded by the eigenstates ofa quantum integrable system is studied with the help ofgeneralized Brillouin-Wigner pcrturbation theory. The resultsshow that a significant randomness in this distribution can be observed when its classical counterpart is under the strongchaotic condition. The averaged shape of the eigenfunctions fits with the Gaussian distribution only when the effects ofthe symmetry have been removed.

  2. Biophysical characterization and crystal structure of the Feline Immunodeficiency Virus p15 matrix protein. (United States)

    Serrière, Jennifer; Robert, Xavier; Perez, Magali; Gouet, Patrice; Guillon, Christophe


    Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) is a viral pathogen that infects domestic cats and wild felids. During the viral replication cycle, the FIV p15 matrix protein oligomerizes to form a closed matrix that underlies the lipidic envelope of the virion. Because of its crucial role in the early and late stages of viral morphogenesis, especially in viral assembly, FIV p15 is an interesting target in the development of potential new therapeutic strategies. Our biochemical study of FIV p15 revealed that it forms a stable dimer in solution under acidic conditions and at high concentration, unlike other retroviral matrix proteins. We determined the crystal structure of full-length FIV p15 to 2 Å resolution and observed a helical organization of the protein, typical for retroviral matrix proteins. A hydrophobic pocket that could accommodate a myristoyl group was identified, and the C-terminal end of FIV p15, which is mainly unstructured, was visible in electron density maps. As FIV p15 crystallizes in acidic conditions but with one monomer in the asymmetric unit, we searched for the presence of a biological dimer in the crystal. No biological assembly was detected by the PISA server, but the three most buried crystallographic interfaces have interesting features: the first one displays a highly conserved tryptophan acting as a binding platform, the second one is located along a 2-fold symmetry axis and the third one resembles the dimeric interface of EIAV p15. Because the C-terminal end of p15 is involved in two of these three interfaces, we investigated the structure and assembly of a C-terminal-truncated form of p15 lacking 14 residues. The truncated FIV p15 dimerizes in solution at a lower concentration and crystallizes with two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The EIAV-like dimeric interface is the only one to be retained in the new crystal form. The dimeric form of FIV p15 in solution and its extended C-terminal end are characteristic among lentiviral matrix proteins

  3. Effect of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on rheological and mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of PLA/CNC nanocomposites. (United States)

    Kamal, Musa R; Khoshkava, Vahid


    In earlier work, we reported that spray freeze drying of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) yields porous agglomerate structures. On the other hand, the conventional spray dried CNC (CNCSD) and the freeze dried CNC (CNCFD) produce compact solid structures with very low porosity. As it is rather difficult to obtain direct microscopic evidence of the quality of dispersion of CNC in polymer nanocomposites, it was shown that supporting evidence of the quality and influence of dispersion in a polypropylene (PP)/CNC nanocomposite could be obtained by studying the rheological behavior, mechanical properties and crystallization characteristics of PP/CNC nanocomposites. In an effort to produce a sustainable, fully biosourced, biodegradable nanocomposite, this manuscript presents the results of a study of the rheological, mechanical and crystallization behavior of PLA/CNCSFD nanocomposites obtained by melt processing. The results are analyzed to determine CNC network formation, rheological percolation threshold concentrations, mechanical properties in the rubbery and glassy states, and the effect of CNCSFD on crystalline nucleation and crystallization rates of PLA. These results suggest that the porosity and network structure of CNCSFD agglomerates contribute significantly to good dispersion of CNC in the PLA matrix.

  4. Geometry and kinematics of accretionary wedge faults inherited from the structure and rheology of the incoming sedimentary section; insights from 3D seismic reflection data (United States)

    Bell, Rebecca; Orme, Haydn; Lenette, Kathryn; Jackson, Christopher; Fitch, Peter; Phillips, Thomas; Moore, Gregory


    Intra-wedge thrust faults represent important conduits for fluid flow in accretionary prisms, modulating pore fluid pressure, effective stress and, ultimately, the seismic hazard potential of convergent plate boundaries. Despite its importance, we know surprisingly little regarding the 3D geometry and kinematics of thrust networks in accretionary prisms, largely due to a lack of 3D seismic reflection data providing high-resolution, 3D images. To address this we here present observations from two subduction zones, the Nankai and Lesser Antilles margins, where 3D seismic and borehole data allow us to constrain the geometry and kinematics of intra-wedge fault networks and to thus shed light on the mechanisms responsible for their structural style variability. At the Muroto transect, Nankai margin we find that the style of protothrust zone deformation varies markedly along-strike over distances of only a few km. Using structural restoration and quantitative fault analysis, we reveal that in the northern part of the study area deformation occurred by buckle folding followed by faulting. Further south, intra-wedge faults nucleate above the décollement and propagate radially with no folding, resulting in variable connectivity between faults and the décollement. The seismic facies character of sediments immediately above the décollement varies along strike, with borehole data revealing that, in the north, where buckle folding dominates un-cemented Lower Shikoku Basin sediments overlie the décollement. In contrast, further south, Opal CT-cemented, and thus rigid Upper Shikoku Basin sediments overlie the décollement. We suggest these along-strike variations in diagenesis and thus rheology control the observed structural style variability. Near Barbados, at the Lesser Antilles margin, rough subducting plate relief is blanketed by up to 700 m of sediment. 3D seismic data reveal that basement relief is defined by linear normal fault blocks and volcanic ridges, and sub

  5. 5th European Rheology Conference

    CERN Document Server


    Global sustainable development of the world economy requires better understanding and utilization of natural recourses. In this endeavor rheology has an indispensable role. The Rheology Conferences are therefore always an important event for science and technology. The Fifth European Rheology Conference, held from September 6 to 11 in the Portoro-z, Slovenia, will be the first AlI-European rheology meeting after the formal constitution of the European Society ofRheology. As such it will be a special historical event. At this meeting the European Society of Rheology will introduce the Weissenberg Medal, to be bestowed every four years to an individual for hislhers contribution to the field of Rheology. The recipient ofthe first award will be professor G. Marrucci ofthe Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Italy. Two mini Symposia will be part of the Conference. The first, on Industrial Rheology, will commemorate the late professor G. Astarita. The second will honor the eightieth birthday of professor N.W. Tschoeg...

  6. Molecule-Based Rheology Switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulusse, Jos M.J.; Sijbesma, Rint P.


    Sound-activated switching: The rheological behavior of fluids can be affected by external stimuli, as demonstrated by electrochemically and photochemically induced changes in viscosity and sol–gel transitions. Recently, ultrasound has emerged as a novel rheology switch for supramolecular polymers an

  7. User-inspired design methodology using Affordance Structure Matrix (ASM for construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheswari J. Uma


    Full Text Available Traditionally, design phase of construction projects is often performed with incomplete and inaccurate user preferences. This is due to inefficiencies in the methodologies used for capturing the user requirements that can subsequently lead to inconsistencies and result in non-optimised end-result. Iterations and subsequent reworks due to such design inefficiencies is one of the major reasons for unsuccessful project delivery as they impact project performance measures such as time and cost among others. The existing design theories and practice are primarily based on functional requirements. Function-based design deals with design of artifact alone, which may yield favourable or unfavourable consequences with the design artifact. However, incorporating other interactions such as interactions between user & designer is necessary for optimised end-result. Hence, the objective of this research work is to devise a systematic design methodology considering all the three interactions among users, designers and artefacts for improved design efficiency. In this study, it has been attempted to apply the theory of affordances in a case project that involves the design of an offshore facility. A step-by-step methodology for developing Affordance Structure Matrix (ASM, which integrates House of Quality (HOQ and Design Structure Matrix (DSM, is proposed that can effectively capture the user requirements. HOQ is a popular quality management tool for capturing client requirements and DSM is a matrix-based tool that can capture the interdependency among the design entities. The proposed methodology utilises the strengths of both the tools, as DSM compliments HOQ in the process. In this methodology, different affordances such as AUA (Artifact-User-Affordance, AAA (Artifact-Artifact-Affordance and DDA (Designer-Designer-Affordance are captured systematically. Affordance is considered to be user-driven in this context that is in contrast to prevailing design

  8. Matrix Metalloproteinases as Regulators of Vein Structure and Function: Implications in Chronic Venous Disease. (United States)

    MacColl, Elisabeth; Khalil, Raouf A


    Lower-extremity veins have efficient wall structure and function and competent valves that permit upward movement of deoxygenated blood toward the heart against hydrostatic venous pressure. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in maintaining vein wall structure and function. MMPs are zinc-binding endopeptidases secreted as inactive pro-MMPs by fibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle (VSM), and leukocytes. Pro-MMPs are activated by various activators including other MMPs and proteinases. MMPs cause degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as collagen and elastin, and could have additional effects on the endothelium, as well as VSM cell migration, proliferation, Ca(2+) signaling, and contraction. Increased lower-extremity hydrostatic venous pressure is thought to induce hypoxia-inducible factors and other MMP inducers/activators such as extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, prostanoids, chymase, and hormones, leading to increased MMP expression/activity, ECM degradation, VSM relaxation, and venous dilation. Leukocyte infiltration and inflammation of the vein wall cause further increases in MMPs, vein wall dilation, valve degradation, and different clinical stages of chronic venous disease (CVD), including varicose veins (VVs). VVs are characterized by ECM imbalance, incompetent valves, venous reflux, wall dilation, and tortuosity. VVs often show increased MMP levels, but may show no change or decreased levels, depending on the VV region (atrophic regions with little ECM versus hypertrophic regions with abundant ECM) and MMP form (inactive pro-MMP versus active MMP). Management of VVs includes compression stockings, venotonics, and surgical obliteration or removal. Because these approaches do not treat the causes of VVs, alternative methods are being developed. In addition to endogenous tissue inhibitors of MMPs, synthetic MMP inhibitors have been developed, and their effects in the treatment of VVs need to be examined.

  9. Carbon fiber polymer-matrix structural composites tailored for multifunctionality by filler incorporation (United States)

    Han, Seungjin

    This dissertation provides multifunctional carbon fiber polymer-matrix structural composites for vibration damping, thermal conduction and thermoelectricity. Specifically, (i) it has strengthened and stiffened carbon fiber polymer-matrix structural composites by the incorporation of halloysite nanotubes, carbon nanotubes and silicon carbide whiskers, (ii) it has improved mechanical energy dissipation using carbon fiber polymer-matrix structural composites with filler incorporation, (iii) it has increased the through-thickness thermal conductivity of carbon fiber polymer-matrix composite by curing pressure increase and filler incorporation, and (iv) it has enhanced the thermoelectric behavior of carbon fiber polymer-matrix structural composites. Low-cost natural halloysite nanotubes (0.1 microm diameter) were effective for strengthening and stiffening continuous fiber polymer-matrix composites, as shown for crossply carbon fiber (5 microm diameter, ˜59 vol.%) epoxy-matrix composites under flexure, giving 17% increase in strength, 11% increase in modulus and 21% decrease in ductility. They were less effective than expensive multiwalled carbon nanotubes (0.02 microm diameter), which gave 25% increase in strength, 11% increase in modulus and 14% decrease in ductility. However, they were more effective than expensive silicon carbide whiskers (1 microm diameter), which gave 15% increase in strength, 9% increase in modulus and 20% decrease in ductility. Each filler, at ˜2 vol.%, was incorporated in the composite at every interlaminar interface by fiber prepreg surface modification. The flexural strength increase due to halloysite nanotubes incorporation related to the interlaminar shear strength increase. The measured values of the composite modulus agreed roughly with the calculated values based on the Rule of Mixtures. Continuous carbon fiber composites with enhanced vibration damping under flexure are provided by incorporation of fillers between the laminae

  10. Rheology and Structure of Chlorine, Fluorine and Water-Bearing Na2O-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 Melts (United States)

    Baasner, A.; Schmidt, B.; Webb, S. L.; Dupree, R.


    The effect of chlorine (Cl), fluorine (F) and water (H2O), alone and in combination, on the rheology and structure of synthetic peralkaline Na2O-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 melts as an analog for highly evolved alkaline melts is investigated. We also investigated a peraluminous counterpart to study how the effect of Cl and F depends on the (Na+Ca)/Al ratio. The volatile-free melts were produced from oxide and carbonate powders at 1 atm and temperatures between 1200 and 1650 °C. Amounts of 0.5 to 1.3 mol% of Cl and 0.5 to 18 mol% F were added as NH4Cl, NH4F, NaCl, NaF, CaCl2 and CaF2. The composition of the samples was analysed by electron microprobe. The melts were hydrated with 0.5 to 4 wt% H2O. For the hydration of the peralkaline melts we used an internally heated pressure vessel at 1200 to 1250 °C and 1.5 to 3 kbar. Because of their high liquidus temperatures, the peraluminous melts were hydrated at 1600 to 1675°C and 5 kbar in a piston cylinder apparatus. Water contents were determined by Karl-Fischer-titration, thermogravimetry and IR-spectroscopy. The viscosities of the dry and hydrous peralkaline and peraluminous melts were measured with micropenetration and parallel plate techniques between 13 log10(Pa s) and 5.5 log10(Pa s). We found that the addition of 1.1 mol% Cl to peralkaline melts increased the viscosity by 0.8 log10(Pa s) while 1.9 mol% F decreased the viscosity by 1.2 log10(Pa s) relative to a viscosity of 12 log10(Pa s) of the halogen-free melt. In peralkaline melts containing equal amounts of both, Cl and F, the viscosity is 0.5 log10(Pa s) lower than the volatile-free melt, independent of the total amount of halogens. The effects of Cl and F seem to buffer each other. If there is twice as much F in the melt as Cl, the viscosity is reduced by 0.7 log10(Pa s). In peraluminous melts containing Cl and F the viscosity decreases with increasing volatile content independent of the ratio between the two volatiles. The addition of H2O decreases the viscosity of

  11. Role of interfacial rheological properties in oil field chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos-Szabo, J.; Lakatos, I.; Kosztin, B.


    Interfacial rheological properties of different Hungarian crude oil/water systems were determined in wide temperature and shear rate range and in presence of inorganic electrolytes, tensides, alkaline materials and polymers. The detailed laboratory study definitely proved that the interfacial rheological properties are extremely sensitive parameters towards the chemical composition of inmiscible formation liquids. Comparison and interpretation of the interfacial rheological properties may contribute significantly to extension of the weaponry of the reservoir characterization, better understanding of the displacement mechanism, development of the more profitable EOR/IOR methods, intensification of the surface technologies, optimization of the pipeline transportation and improvement of the refinery operations. It was evidenced that the interfacial rheology is an efficient and powerful detection technique, which may enhance the knowledge on formation, structure, properties and behaviour of interfacial layers. 17 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Structure and dynamics of spin-labeled insulin entrapped in a silica matrix by the sol-gel method. (United States)

    Vanea, E; Gruian, C; Rickert, C; Steinhoff, H-J; Simon, V


    The structure and conformational dynamics of insulin entrapped into a silica matrix was monitored during the sol to maturated-gel transition by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Insulin was successfully spin-labeled with iodoacetamide and the bifunctional nitroxide reagent HO-1944. Room temperature continuous wave (cw) EPR spectra of insulin were recorded to assess the mobility of the attached spin labels. Insulin conformation and its distribution within the silica matrix were studied using double electron-electron resonance (DEER) and low-temperature cw-EPR. A porous oxide matrix seems to form around insulin molecules with pore diameters in the order of a few nanometers. Secondary structure of the encapsulated insulin investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy proved a high structural integrity of insulin even in the dried silica matrix. The results show that silica encapsulation can be used as a powerful tool to effectively isolate and functionally preserve biomolecules during preparation, storage, and release.

  13. Topology optimization of support structure of telescope skin based on bit-matrix representation NSGA-II

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Weidong; Zhu Hua; Wang Yiping; Zhou Shengqiang; Bai Yalei; Zhao Chunsheng


    Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) with multiple constraints han-dling is employed for multi-objective optimization of the topological structure of telescope skin, in which a bit-matrix is used as the representation of a chromosome, and genetic algorithm (GA) operators are introduced based on the matrix. Objectives including mass, in-plane performance, and out-of-plane load-bearing ability of the individuals are obtained by finite element analysis (FEA) using ANSYS, and the matrix-based optimization algorithm is realized in MATLAB by han-dling multiple constraints such as structural connectivity and in-plane strain requirements. Feasible configurations of the support structure are achieved. The results confirm that the matrix-based NSGA-II with multiple constraints handling provides an effective method for two-dimensional multi-objective topology optimization.

  14. Ultra-structural defects cause low bone matrix stiffness despite high mineralization in osteogenesis imperfecta mice☆ (United States)

    Vanleene, Maximilien; Porter, Alexandra; Guillot, Pascale-Valerie; Boyde, Alan; Oyen, Michelle; Shefelbine, Sandra


    Bone is a complex material with a hierarchical multi-scale organization from the molecule to the organ scale. The genetic bone disease, osteogenesis imperfecta, is primarily caused by mutations in the collagen type I genes, resulting in bone fragility. Because the basis of the disease is molecular with ramifications at the whole bone level, it provides a platform for investigating the relationship between structure, composition, and mechanics throughout the hierarchy. Prior studies have individually shown that OI leads to: 1. increased bone mineralization, 2. decreased elastic modulus, and 3. smaller apatite crystal size. However, these have not been studied together and the mechanism for how mineral structure influences tissue mechanics has not been identified. This lack of understanding inhibits the development of more accurate models and therapies. To address this research gap, we used a mouse model of the disease (oim) to measure these outcomes together in order to propose an underlying mechanism for the changes in properties. Our main finding was that despite increased mineralization, oim bones have lower stiffness that may result from the poorly organized mineral matrix with significantly smaller, highly packed and disoriented apatite crystals. Using a composite framework, we interpret the lower oim bone matrix elasticity observed as the result of a change in the aspect ratio of apatite crystals and a disruption of the crystal connectivity. PMID:22449447

  15. Matrix composition and community structure analysis of a novel bacterial pyrite leaching community. (United States)

    Ziegler, Sibylle; Ackermann, Sonia; Majzlan, Juraj; Gescher, Johannes


    Here we describe a novel bacterial community that is embedded in a matrix of carbohydrates and bio/geochemical products of pyrite (FeS(2)) oxidation. This community grows in stalactite-like structures--snottites--on the ceiling of an abandoned pyrite mine at pH values of 2.2-2.6. The aqueous phase in the matrix contains 200 mM of sulfate and total iron concentrations of 60 mM. Micro-X-ray diffraction analysis showed that jarosite [(K,Na,H(3)O)Fe(3)(SO(4))(2)(OH)(6)] is the major mineral embedded in the snottites. X-ray absorption near-edge structure experiments revealed three different sulfur species. The major signal can be ascribed to sulfate, and the other two features may correspond to thiols and sulfoxides. Arabinose was detected as the major sugar component in the extracellular polymeric substance. Via restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, a community was found that mainly consists of iron oxidizing Leptospirillum and Ferrovum species but also of bacteria that could be involved in dissimilatory sulfate and dissimilatory iron reduction. Each snottite can be regarded as a complex, self-contained consortium of bacterial species fuelled by the decomposition of pyrite.

  16. Process for the manufacture of seamless metal-clad fiber-reinforced organic matrix composite structures (United States)

    Bluck, Raymond M. (Inventor); Bush, Harold G. (Inventor); Johnson, Robert R. (Inventor)


    A process for producing seamless metal-clad composite structures includes providing a hollow, metallic inner member and an outer sleeve to surround the inner member and define an inner space therebetween. A plurality of continuous reinforcing fibers is attached to the distal end of the outside diameter of the inner member, and the inner member is then introduced, distal end first, into one end of the outer sleeve. The inner member is then moved, distal end first, into the outer sleeve until the inner member is completely enveloped by the outer sleeve. A liquid matrix material is then injected into the space containing the reinforcing fibers between the inner member and the outer sleeve. Next a pressurized heat transfer medium is passed through the inner member to cure the liquid matrix material. Finally, the wall thickness of both the inner member and the outer sleeve are reduced to desired dimensions by chemical etching, which adjusts the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to a desired value.

  17. CH{sub 3} spin probe in solid Kr: Matrix structure and guest–host interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriev, Yu.A., E-mail: [Ioffe Institute, 26 Politekhnicheskaya ul., 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Melnikov, V.D. [Ioffe Institute, 26 Politekhnicheskaya ul., 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Styrov, K.G. [Institute of Computing and Control, St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 29 Politekhnicheskaya ul., 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Benetis, N.P. [Department of Pollution Control, Technological Education Institution, TEI, West Macedonia, Kozani 501 00 (Greece)


    Experimental EPR data obtained for the methyl, CH{sub 3}, radical trapped in quench condensed solid Kr are analyzed rendering the radical a probe for determination of regional disorder in Kr and similar solid matrices. Formation of regions of a highly disordered local matrix structure is proved. An attempt is presented of assessing a disorder parameter, based on the line broadening. The new structure is shown to be very effective in accumulating the radicals which are transiently mobile at the Kr 4.2 K surface. We discuss a model of the trapped radical rotation, which includes somewhat different mechanism than the hindrance of the rotation about the C{sub 3} axis and the rotation about the in-plane C{sub 2} axes. The level of the thermal contact of the radical spin-rotation motion with the lattice degrees of freedom in regions of varying order in the Kr solid matrix was assessed by progressive saturation curve-fitting parameters related to the spin-lattice relaxation time T{sub 1} of the radical.

  18. The structure and function of the pericellular matrix of articular cartilage. (United States)

    Wilusz, Rebecca E; Sanchez-Adams, Johannah; Guilak, Farshid


    Chondrocytes in articular cartilage are surrounded by a narrow pericellular matrix (PCM) that is both biochemically and biomechanically distinct from the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the tissue. While the PCM was first observed nearly a century ago, its role is still under investigation. In support of early hypotheses regarding its function, increasing evidence indicates that the PCM serves as a transducer of biochemical and biomechanical signals to the chondrocyte. Work over the past two decades has established that the PCM in adult tissue is defined biochemically by several molecular components, including type VI collagen and perlecan. On the other hand, the biomechanical properties of this structure have only recently been measured. Techniques such as micropipette aspiration, in situ imaging, computational modeling, and atomic force microscopy have determined that the PCM exhibits distinct mechanical properties as compared to the ECM, and that these properties are influenced by specific PCM components as well as disease state. Importantly, the unique relationships among the mechanical properties of the chondrocyte, PCM, and ECM in different zones of cartilage suggest that this region significantly influences the stress-strain environment of the chondrocyte. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the measurement of PCM mechanical properties and structure that further increase our understanding of PCM function. Taken together, these studies suggest that the PCM plays a critical role in controlling the mechanical environment and mechanobiology of cells in cartilage and other cartilaginous tissues, such as the meniscus or intervertebral disc.

  19. Rheology of nanocrystalline cellulose aqueous suspensions. (United States)

    Shafiei-Sabet, Sadaf; Hamad, Wadood Y; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G


    The rheological properties and microstructure of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) aqueous suspensions have been investigated at different concentrations. The suspension is isotropic up to 3 wt %, and phase separates to liquid crystalline and isotropic domains at higher concentrations where the samples exhibit a fingerprint texture and the viscosity profile shows a three-region behavior, typical of liquid crystals. The suspension behaves as a rheological gel at even higher concentrations where the viscosity profile shows a single shear thinning behavior over the whole range of shear rates investigated. The effects of ultrasound energy and temperature on the rheological properties and structure of these suspensions were studied using polarized optical microscopy and rheometry. Our results indicate that the amount of applied ultrasound energy affects the microstructure of the suspensions and the pitch of the chiral nematic domains. The viscosity profile is changed significantly at low shear rates, whereas the viscosity of biphasic suspensions at intermediate and high shear rates decreased with increasing temperature. This suggests that, between 30 and 40 °C, structural rearrangement takes place. At higher concentrations of about 10 wt %, the temperature has no significant effect on viscosity; however, a marked increase in viscosity has been observed at around 50 °C. Finally, the Cox-Merz rule was found to fail after a critical concentration, thereby implying significant structural formation. This critical concentration is much higher for sonicated compared to unsonicated suspensions.

  20. Spatially-explicit matrix models. A mathematical analysis of stage-structured integrodifference equations. (United States)

    Lutscher, Frithjof; Lewis, Mark A


    This paper is concerned with mathematical analysis of the 'critical domain-size' problem for structured populations. Space is introduced explicitly into matrix models for stage-structured populations. Movement of individuals is described by means of a dispersal kernel. The mathematical analysis investigates conditions for existence, stability and uniqueness of equilibrium solutions as well as some bifurcation behaviors. These mathematical results are linked to species persistence or extinction in connected habitats of different sizes or fragmented habitats; hence the framework is given for application of such models to ecology. Several approximations which reduce the complexity of integrodifference equations are given. A simple example is worked out to illustrate the analytical results and to compare the behavior of the integrodifference model to that of the approximations.

  1. An Enhanced Collaborative Optimization Approach with Design Structure Matrix Algorithms to Group and Decouple Multidisciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xifan Yao


    Full Text Available To improve the solution efficiency and reliability of multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO, an enhanced MDO approach, called sequenced collaborative optimization (SCO, is proposed. The proposed approach introduces the design structure matrix (DSM to describe the coupling effects among disciplines and aggregates those mutually coupling disciplines into the strong tie groups among similar ones and the weak tie among heterogeneous ones through clustering algorithms. Further, those in the same group are sequenced by the DSM division algorithm. Moreover, by adding constraints, the groups are made independent, resulting in a tree structure without loops, thus decoupling the original multidisciplinary problem into several independent collaborative optimization modules. In the end, an example is employed to verify the efficiency and reliability of the approach.

  2. Applications of multiple-constraint matrix updates to the optimal control of large structures (United States)

    Smith, S. W.; Walcott, B. L.


    Low-authority control or vibration suppression in large, flexible space structures can be formulated as a linear feedback control problem requiring computation of displacement and velocity feedback gain matrices. To ensure stability in the uncontrolled modes, these gain matrices must be symmetric and positive definite. In this paper, efficient computation of symmetric, positive-definite feedback gain matrices is accomplished through the use of multiple-constraint matrix update techniques originally developed for structural identification applications. Two systems were used to illustrate the application: a simple spring-mass system and a planar truss. From these demonstrations, use of this multiple-constraint technique is seen to provide a straightforward approach for computing the low-authority gains.

  3. A structure-based extracellular matrix expansion mechanism of fibrous tissue growth. (United States)

    Kalson, Nicholas S; Lu, Yinhui; Taylor, Susan H; Starborg, Tobias; Holmes, David F; Kadler, Karl E


    Embryonic growth occurs predominately by an increase in cell number; little is known about growth mechanisms later in development when fibrous tissues account for the bulk of adult vertebrate mass. We present a model for fibrous tissue growth based on 3D-electron microscopy of mouse tendon. We show that the number of collagen fibrils increases during embryonic development and then remains constant during postnatal growth. Embryonic growth was explained predominately by increases in fibril number and length. Postnatal growth arose predominately from increases in fibril length and diameter. A helical crimp structure was established in embryogenesis, and persisted postnatally. The data support a model where the shape and size of tendon is determined by the number and position of embryonic fibroblasts. The collagen fibrils that these cells synthesise provide a template for postnatal growth by structure-based matrix expansion. The model has important implications for growth of other fibrous tissues and fibrosis.

  4. Ordered mixed-layer structures in the Mighei carbonaceous chondrite matrix (United States)

    Mackinnon, I. D. R.


    High resolution transmission electron microscopy of the Mighei carbonaceous chondrite matrix has revealed the presence of a new mixed layer structure material. This mixed-layer material consists of an ordered arrangement of serpentine-type (S) and brucite-type (B) layers in the sequence SBBSBB. Electron diffraction and imaging techniques show that the basal periodicity is approximately 17 A. Discrete crystals of SBB-type material are typically curved, of small size (less than 1 micron) and show structural variations similar to the serpentine group minerals. Mixed-layer material also occurs in association with planar serpentine. Characteristics of SBB-type material are not consistent with known terrestrial mixed-layer clay minerals. Evidence for formation by a condensation event or by subsequent alteration of pre-existing material is not yet apparent.

  5. Some advances in crude oil rheology and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张劲军; 柳歆


    Waxy crude oil exhibits complex shear-and-thermal-history-dependent non-Newtonian behaviors.In the past 10 years,driven by the petroleum industry,crude oil rheology has been an active field.Studies on crude oil rheology have been passing a way from simply relying on rheological measurements,through quantitative experimental simulation of shear and thermal history effects in pipelining,to recent development of correlation between flow properties and shear and thermal history.Currently,the study is toward quantitative inquiry of relations between the rheological behaviors and micro-structures of wax crystals as well as oil compositions.Advances achieved by the author’ team are summarized,including simulation of the thermal and shear history effects,correlations and computation of flow properties,fractal characterization of morphology and structure of wax crystals,relations of rheological behaviors to fractal dimension and oil compositions,and the most successful example of the application of rheology in crude oil pipelining.Future studies are prospected.

  6. Insights into the structure and composition of the peritubular dentin organic matrix and the lamina limitans. (United States)

    Bertassoni, Luiz Eduardo; Stankoska, Katerina; Swain, Michael Vincent


    Dentin is a mineralized dental tissue underlying the outer enamel that has a peculiar micro morphology. It is composed of micrometer sized tubules that are surrounded by a highly mineralized structure, called peritubular dentin (PTD), and embedded in a collagen-rich matrix, named intertubular dentin. The PTD has been thought to be composed of a highly mineralized collagen-free organic matrix with unknown composition. Here we tested the hypothesis that proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans, two important organic structural features found in dentin, are key participants in the microstructure and composition of the PTD. To test this hypothesis dentin blocks were demineralized with 10 vol% citric acid for 2 min and either digested with 1mg/ml TPCK-treated trypsin with 0.2 ammonium bicarbonate at pH 7.9 (TRY) or 0.1 U/mL C-ABC with 50mM Tris, 60mM sodium acetate and 0.02% bovine serum albumin at pH 8.0 (C-ABC). TRY is known to cleave the protein core of dentin proteoglycans, whereas C-ABC is expected to selectively remove glycosaminoglycans. All specimens were digested for 48 h in 37°C, dehydrated in ascending grades of acetone, immersed in HMDS, platinum coated and imaged using an FE-SEM. Images of demineralized dentin revealed a meshwork of noncollagenous fibrils protruding towards the tubule lumen following removal of the peritubular mineral and confirmed the lack of collagen in the peritubular matrix. Further, images revealed that the peritubular organic network originates from a sheet-like membrane covering the entire visible length of tubule, called lamina limitans. Confirming our initial hypothesis, after the digestion with C-ABC the organic network appeared to vanish, while the lamina limitans was preserved. This suggests that glycosaminoglycans are the main component of the PTD organic network. Following digestion with TRY, both the organic network and the lamina limitans disappeared, thus suggesting that the lamina limitans may be primarily composed of

  7. Short Oligonucleotides Aligned in Stretched Humid Matrix: Secondary DNA Structure in Poly(vinyl alcohol) Environment

    KAUST Repository

    Hanczyc, Piotr


    We report that short, synthetic, double- as well as single-stranded DNA can be aligned in stretched humid poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix, and the secondary structure (nucleobase orientation) can be characterized with linear dichroism (LD) spectroscopy. Oligonucleotides of lengths varying between 10 (3.4 nm) and 60 bases (20.4 nm) were investigated with respect to structural properties in the gel-like polymer environment. The DNA conformation as a function of relative humidity reveals a strong dependence of helical structure of DNA on PVA hydration level, results of relevance for nanotechnical studies of DNA-based supramolecular systems. Also, the PVA gel could provide possibilities to test models for nucleic acid interactions and distribution in cell contexts, including structural stability of genetic material in the cell and PVA-packaging for gene delivery. A method by which duplex oligonucleotides, with sequences designed to provide specific binding sites, become amenable to polarized-light spectroscopy opens up new possibilities for studying structure in DNA complexes with small adduct molecules as well as proteins. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  8. Rheology and Confocal Reflectance Microscopy as Probes of Mechanical Properties and Structure during Collagen and Collagen/Hyaluronan Self-Assembly


    Yang, Ya-Li; Kaufman, Laura J.


    In this work, the gelation of three-dimensional collagen and collagen/hyaluronan (HA) composites is studied by time sweep rheology and time lapse confocal reflectance microscopy (CRM). To investigate the complementary nature of these techniques, first collagen gel formation is investigated at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mg/mL at 37°C and 32°C. The following parameters are used to describe the self-assembly process in all gels: the crossover time (tc), the slope of the growth phase (kg...

  9. Modeling and Analysis of Granite Matrix Pore Structure and Hydraulic Characteristics in 2D and 3D Networks (United States)

    Gvozdik, L.; Polak, M.; Zaruba, J.; Vanecek, M.


    A geological environment labeled as a Granite massif represents in terms of groundwater flow and transport a distinct hydrogeological environment from that of sedimentary basins, the characterisation of which is generally more complex and uncertain. Massifs are composed of hard crystalline rocks with the very low effective porosity. Due to their rheological properties such rocks are predisposed to brittle deformation resulting from changes in stress conditions. Our specific research project (Research on the influence of intergrangular porosity on deep geological disposal: geological formations, methodology and the development of measurement apparatus) is focussed on the problem of permeable zones within apparently undisturbed granitic rock matrix. The project including the both laboratory and in-situ tracer tests study migration along and through mineral grains in fresh and altered granite. The objective of the project is to assess whether intergranular porosity is a general characteristic of the granitic rock matrix or subject to significant evolution resulting from geochemical and/or hydrogeochemical processes, geotechnical and/or mechanical processes. Moreover, the research is focussed on evaluating methods quantifying intergranular porosity by both physical testing and mathematical modelling using verified standard hydrological software tools. Groundwater flow in microfractures and intergranular pores in granite rock matrix were simulated in three standard hydrogeological modeling programs with completely different conceptual approaches: MODFLOW (Equivalent Continuum concept), FEFLOW (Discrete Fracture and Equivalent Continuum concepts) and NAPSAC (Discrete Fracture Network concept). Specialized random fracture generators were used for creation of several 2D and 3D models in each of the chosen program. Percolation characteristics of these models were tested and analyzed. Several scenarios of laboratory tests of the rock samples permeability made in triaxial

  10. Introduction to Rheology for Ultrasonic Engineers (United States)

    Ueda, Takanobu


    Here, I introduce the fundamental concept and methodology of rheology measurement especially to researchers in the field of ultrasonic engineering. Althogh we consider the material as fluid and characterize it in terms of viscosity accompanied by its complex part representing elasticity, ultrasonic spectroscopy regards the material as solid with elasticity, which determines ultrasonic velocity. Although these two research fields have contrary viewpoints, they share the purpose of the study, that is, to characterize the mechanical properties of the material as a function of frequency or shear rate and to reveal its mechanism and structure at the molecular level. In this paper, I show the basic methods of rheology measurement and analysis in relation to ultrasonic technology.

  11. Fast pairwise structural RNA alignments by pruning of the dynamical programming matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob H Havgaard


    Full Text Available It has become clear that noncoding RNAs (ncRNA play important roles in cells, and emerging studies indicate that there might be a large number of unknown ncRNAs in mammalian genomes. There exist computational methods that can be used to search for ncRNAs by comparing sequences from different genomes. One main problem with these methods is their computational complexity, and heuristics are therefore employed. Two heuristics are currently very popular: pre-folding and pre-aligning. However, these heuristics are not ideal, as pre-aligning is dependent on sequence similarity that may not be present and pre-folding ignores the comparative information. Here, pruning of the dynamical programming matrix is presented as an alternative novel heuristic constraint. All subalignments that do not exceed a length-dependent minimum score are discarded as the matrix is filled out, thus giving the advantage of providing the constraints dynamically. This has been included in a new implementation of the FOLDALIGN algorithm for pairwise local or global structural alignment of RNA sequences. It is shown that time and memory requirements are dramatically lowered while overall performance is maintained. Furthermore, a new divide and conquer method is introduced to limit the memory requirement during global alignment and backtrack of local alignment. All branch points in the computed RNA structure are found and used to divide the structure into smaller unbranched segments. Each segment is then realigned and backtracked in a normal fashion. Finally, the FOLDALIGN algorithm has also been updated with a better memory implementation and an improved energy model. With these improvements in the algorithm, the FOLDALIGN software package provides the molecular biologist with an efficient and user-friendly tool for searching for new ncRNAs. The software package is available for download at

  12. Environmental, physical and structural characterisation of geopolymer matrixes synthesised from coal (co-)combustion fly ashes. (United States)

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E; Querol, X; Plana, F; Alastuey, A; Moreno, N; Izquierdo, M; Font, O; Moreno, T; Diez, S; Vázquez, E; Barra, M


    The synthesis of geopolymer matrixes from coal (co-)combustion fly ashes as the sole source of silica and alumina has been studied in order to assess both their capacity to immobilise the potentially toxic elements contained in these coal (co-)combustion by-products and their suitability to be used as cement replacements. The geopolymerisation process has been performed using (5, 8 and 12 M) NaOH solutions as activation media and different curing time (6-48 h) and temperature (40-80 degrees C) conditions. Synthesised geopolymers have been characterised with regard to their leaching behaviour, following the DIN 38414-S4 [DIN 38414-S4, Determination of leachability by water (S4), group S: sludge and sediments. German standard methods for the examination of water, waste water and sludge. Institut für Normung, Berlin, 1984] and NEN 7375 [NEN 7375, Leaching characteristics of moulded or monolithic building and waste materials. Determination of leaching of inorganic components with the diffusion test. Netherlands Normalisation Institute, Delft, 2004] procedures, and to their structural stability by means of compressive strength measurements. In addition, geopolymer mineralogy, morphology and structure have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. It was found that synthesised geopolymer matrixes were only effective in the chemical immobilisation of a number of elements of environmental concern contained in fly ashes, reducing (especially for Ba), or maintaining their leachable contents after the geopolymerisation process, but not for those elements present as oxyanions. Physical entrapment does not seem either to contribute in an important way, in general, to the immobilisation of oxyanions. The structural stability of synthesised geopolymers was mainly dependent on the glass content of fly ashes, attaining at the optimal activation conditions (12 M NaOH, 48 h, 80

  13. Finding Imaging Patterns of Structural Covariance via Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (United States)

    Sotiras, Aristeidis; Resnick, Susan M.; Davatzikos, Christos


    In this paper, we investigate the use of Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (NNMF) for the analysis of structural neuroimaging data. The goal is to identify the brain regions that co-vary across individuals in a consistent way, hence potentially being part of underlying brain networks or otherwise influenced by underlying common mechanisms such as genetics and pathologies. NNMF offers a directly data-driven way of extracting relatively localized co-varying structural regions, thereby transcending limitations of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and other related methods that tend to produce dispersed components of positive and negative loadings. In particular, leveraging upon the well known ability of NNMF to produce parts-based representations of image data, we derive decompositions that partition the brain into regions that vary in consistent ways across individuals. Importantly, these decompositions achieve dimensionality reduction via highly interpretable ways and generalize well to new data as shown via split-sample experiments. We empirically validate NNMF in two data sets: i) a Diffusion Tensor (DT) mouse brain development study, and ii) a structural Magnetic Resonance (sMR) study of human brain aging. We demonstrate the ability of NNMF to produce sparse parts-based representations of the data at various resolutions. These representations seem to follow what we know about the underlying functional organization of the brain and also capture some pathological processes. Moreover, we show that these low dimensional representations favorably compare to descriptions obtained with more commonly used matrix factorization methods like PCA and ICA. PMID:25497684

  14. Rheological approach to targeting phenomena of lipoplexes. (United States)

    Sun, Yan


    Lipoplexes, the complexes of plasmid DNA with cationic lipids, are considered as an attractive alternative to viral delivery systems. However, synthesized lipoplexes showed several limitations including insufficient transfection, low reproducibility and low stability. Here we attempt to delineate the relationships between the synthesis process, morphology (e.g., shape and liquid crystal structure), and the transfection efficiency of lipoplexes with rheological technology. Mini-capillary viscometers with automatic measurement and control components were designed and used to study the morphology of lipoplexes at a macroscopical scale. In such a dilute macromolecule suspension system, the shape factor of lipoplex was correlated with the viscosity measurement. The results showed that the shape factors of lipoplexes were different with various molecular structures of cationic lipid and helper lipid. A quantitative relation was set up between the shape factors and the length of DNA/polyelectrolytes, which may help better explain lipoplexes formation. To improve the stability and reproducibility of lipoplexes, an incubation period was suggested before the use of lipoplex. A rheological method was introduced to fix the hydromechanical parameters so that the entire preparation and incubation process was carried out consistently. A laminar flow incubation environment was showed suitable for lipoplex preparation and helped improve lipoplex stability and minimize aggregation. Other flow incubations, such as turbulent flow or impinging flow, were more complicated and further study is necessary to fully understand them. In brief, the rheological methods can help reveal the mechanisms of lipoplex formation and advance the rational design of lipoplexes for pharmaceutical applications.

  15. Complex rheological behaviors of loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) skin mucus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiang, E-mail:; Su, Heng, E-mail:; Lv, Weiyang, E-mail:; Du, Miao, E-mail:; Song, Yihu, E-mail:; Zheng, Qiang, E-mail: [MOE Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)


    The functions and structures of biological mucus are closely linked to rheology. In this article, the skin mucus of loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) was proved to be a weak hydrogel susceptible to shear rate, time, and history, exhibiting: (i) Two-region breakdown of its gel structure during oscillatory strain sweep; (ii) rate-dependent thickening followed by three-region thinning with increased shear rate, and straight thinning with decreased shear rate; and (iii) time-dependent rheopexy at low shear rates, and thixotropy at high shear rates. An interesting correlation between the shear rate- and time-dependent rheological behaviors was also revealed, i.e., the rheopexy-thixotropy transition coincided with the first-second shear thinning region transition. Apart from rheology, a structure of colloidal network was observed in loach skin mucus using transmission electron microscopy. The complex rheology was speculated to result from inter- and intracolloid structural alterations. The unique rheology associated with the colloidal network structure, which has never been previously reported in vertebrate mucus, may play a key role in the functions (e.g., flow, reannealing, lubrication, and barrier) of the mucus.

  16. Micromechanics and Structural Response of Functionally Graded, Particulate-Matrix, Fiber-Reinforced Composites. (United States)

    Genin, Guy M; Birman, Victor


    Reinforcement of fibrous composites by stiff particles embedded in the matrix offers the potential for simple, economical functional grading, enhanced response to mechanical loads, and improved functioning at high temperatures. Here, we consider laminated plates made of such a material, with spherical reinforcement tailored by layer. The moduli for this material lie within relatively narrow bounds. Two separate moduli estimates are considered: a "two-step" approach in which fibers are embedded in a homogenized particulate matrix, and the Kanaun-Jeulin (2001) approach, which we re-derive in a simple way using the Benveniste (1988) method. Optimal tailoring of a plate is explored, and functional grading is shown to improve the performance of the structures considered. In the example of a square, simply supported, cross-ply laminated panel subjected to uniform transverse pressure, a modest functional grading offers significant improvement in performance. A second example suggests superior blast resistance of the panel achieved at the expense of only a small increase in weight.

  17. In silico study on the effects of matrix structure in controlled drug release (United States)

    Villalobos, Rafael; Cordero, Salomón; Maria Vidales, Ana; Domínguez, Armando


    Purpose: To study the effects of drug concentration and spatial distribution of the medicament, in porous solid dosage forms, on the kinetics and total yield of drug release. Methods: Cubic networks are used as models of drug release systems. They were constructed by means of the dual site-bond model framework, which allows a substrate to have adequate geometrical and topological distribution of its pore elements. Drug particles can move inside the networks by following a random walk model with excluded volume interactions between the particles. The drug release time evolution for different drug concentration and different initial drug spatial distribution has been monitored. Results: The numerical results show that in all the studied cases, drug release presents an anomalous behavior, and the consequences of the matrix structural properties, i.e., drug spatial distribution and drug concentration, on the drug release profile have been quantified. Conclusions: The Weibull function provides a simple connection between the model parameters and the microstructure of the drug release device. A critical modeling of drug release from matrix-type delivery systems is important in order to understand the transport mechanisms that are implicated, and to predict the effect of the device design parameters on the release rate.

  18. Accurate variational electronic structure calculations with the density matrix renormalization group

    CERN Document Server

    Wouters, Sebastian


    During the past 15 years, the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) has become increasingly important for ab initio quantum chemistry. The underlying matrix product state (MPS) ansatz is a low-rank decomposition of the full configuration interaction tensor. The virtual dimension of the MPS controls the size of the corner of the many-body Hilbert space that can be reached. Whereas the MPS ansatz will only yield an efficient description for noncritical one-dimensional systems, it can still be used as a variational ansatz for other finite-size systems. Rather large virtual dimensions are then required. The two most important aspects to reduce the corresponding computational cost are a proper choice and ordering of the active space orbitals, and the exploitation of the symmetry group of the Hamiltonian. By taking care of both aspects, DMRG becomes an efficient replacement for exact diagonalization in quantum chemistry. DMRG and Hartree-Fock theory have an analogous structure. The former can be interpreted a...

  19. From nano to macro: studying the hierarchical structure of the corneal extracellular matrix. (United States)

    Quantock, Andrew J; Winkler, Moritz; Parfitt, Geraint J; Young, Robert D; Brown, Donald J; Boote, Craig; Jester, James V


    In this review, we discuss current methods for studying ocular extracellular matrix (ECM) assembly from the 'nano' to the 'macro' levels of hierarchical organization. Since collagen is the major structural protein in the eye, providing mechanical strength and controlling ocular shape, the methods presented focus on understanding the molecular assembly of collagen at the nanometre level using X-ray scattering through to the millimetre to centimetre level using non-linear optical (NLO) imaging of second harmonic generated (SHG) signals. Three-dimensional analysis of ECM structure is also discussed, including electron tomography, serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM) and digital image reconstruction. Techniques to detect non-collagenous structural components of the ECM are also presented, and these include immunoelectron microscopy and staining with cationic dyes. Together, these various approaches are providing new insights into the structural blueprint of the ocular ECM, and in particular that of the cornea, which impacts upon our current understanding of the control of corneal shape, pathogenic mechanisms underlying ectatic disorders of the cornea and the potential for corneal tissue engineering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Structure and self-assembly of the calcium binding matrix protein of human metapneumovirus. (United States)

    Leyrat, Cedric; Renner, Max; Harlos, Karl; Huiskonen, Juha T; Grimes, Jonathan M


    The matrix protein (M) of paramyxoviruses plays a key role in determining virion morphology by directing viral assembly and budding. Here, we report the crystal structure of the human metapneumovirus M at 2.8 Å resolution in its native dimeric state. The structure reveals the presence of a high-affinity Ca²⁺ binding site. Molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) predict a secondary lower-affinity site that correlates well with data from fluorescence-based thermal shift assays. By combining small-angle X-ray scattering with MDS and ensemble analysis, we captured the structure and dynamics of M in solution. Our analysis reveals a large positively charged patch on the protein surface that is involved in membrane interaction. Structural analysis of DOPC-induced polymerization of M into helical filaments using electron microscopy leads to a model of M self-assembly. The conservation of the Ca²⁺ binding sites suggests a role for calcium in the replication and morphogenesis of pneumoviruses.

  1. Collagen-binding VEGF mimetic peptide: Structure, matrix interaction, and endothelial cell activation (United States)

    Chan, Tania R.

    Long term survival of artificial tissue constructs depends greatly on proper vascularization. In nature, differentiation of endothelial cells and formation of vasculature are directed by dynamic spatio-temporal cues in the extracellular matrix that are difficult to reproduce in vitro. In this dissertation, we present a novel bifunctional peptide that mimics matrix-bound vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which can be used to encode spatially controlled angiogenic signals in collagen-based scaffolds. The peptide, QKCMP, contains a collagen mimetic domain (CMP) that binds to type I collagen by a unique triple helix hybridization mechanism and a VEGF mimetic domain (QK) with pro-angiogenic activity. We demonstrate QKCMP's ability to hybridize with native and heat denatured collagens through a series of binding studies on collagen and gelatin substrates. Circular dichroism experiments show that the peptide retains the triple helical structure vital for collagen binding, and surface plasmon resonance study confirms the molecular interaction between the peptide and collagen strands. Cell culture studies demonstrate QKCMP's ability to induce endothelial cell morphogenesis and network formation as a matrix-bound factor in 2D and 3D collagen scaffolds. We also show that the peptide can be used to spatially modify collagen-based substrates to promote localized endothelial cell activation and network formation. To probe the biological events that govern these angiogenic cellular responses, we investigated the cell signaling pathways activated by collagen-bound QKCMP and determined short and long-term endothelial cell response profiles for p38, ERK1/2, and Akt signal transduction cascades. Finally, we present our efforts to translate the peptide's in vitro bioactivity to an in vivo burn injury animal model. When implanted at the wound site, QKCMP functionalized biodegradable hydrogels induce enhanced neovascularization in the granulation tissue. The results show QKCMP

  2. Unifying suspension and granular rheology. (United States)

    Boyer, François; Guazzelli, Élisabeth; Pouliquen, Olivier


    Using an original pressure-imposed shear cell, we study the rheology of dense suspensions. We show that they exhibit a viscoplastic behavior similarly to granular media successfully described by a frictional rheology and fully characterized by the evolution of the friction coefficient μ and the volume fraction ϕ with a dimensionless viscous number I(v). Dense suspension and granular media are thus unified under a common framework. These results are shown to be compatible with classical empirical models of suspension rheology and provide a clear determination of constitutive laws close to the jamming transition.

  3. Universal matrix of structural-logic transformations of n-measuring cube En of uniform coding format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov Yu. D.


    Full Text Available The universal matrix of structural-logic transformations of the discrete information in the terms of n-measuring cube En, intended for construction of a uniform coding format, code combination of a structural-logic code (SLC, and correction of mistakes of transformation in code combinations SLC is developed. The matrix can be realized on the basis of modern microcontrollers at the appropriate software, that defines an opportunity of its wide use in computing structures for maintenance of a necessary noise stability of the processable discrete data.

  4. Robust Sensorless Control for Induction Motor Drives Fed by a Matrix Converter with Variable Structure Model Reference Adaptive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Won-Sang; Lee, Kyo-Beum; Huh, Sunghoi;


    This paper presents a new robust sensorless control system for high performance induction motor drives fed by a matrix converter with variable structure. The lumped disturbances such as parameter variation and load disturbance of the system are estimated by a variable structure approach based...

  5. Quantum and classical correlations for a two-qubit X structure density matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Bang-Fu; Wang Xiao-Yun; Zhao He-Ping


    We derive explicit expressions for quantum discord and classical correlation for an X structure density matrix.Based on the characteristics of the expressions,the quantum discord and the classical correlation are easily obtained and compared under different initial conditions using a novel analytical method.We explain the relationships among quantum discord,classical correlation,and entanglement,and further find that the quantum discord is not always larger than the entanglement measured by concurrence in a general two-qubit X state.The new method,which is different from previous approaches,has certain guiding significance for analysing quantum discord and classical correlation of a two-qubit X state,such as a mixed state.

  6. Mueller matrix ellipsometric detection of profile asymmetry in nanoimprinted grating structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiuguo; Ma, Zhichao; Xu, Zhimou [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang, Chuanwei; Jiang, Hao [State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Shiyuan, E-mail: [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)


    Mueller matrix ellipsometry (MME) is applied to detect foot-like asymmetry encountered in nanoimprint lithography (NIL) processes. We present both theoretical and experimental results which show that MME has good sensitivity to both the magnitude and direction of asymmetric profiles. The physics behind the use of MME for asymmetry detection is the breaking of electromagnetic reciprocity theorem for the zeroth-order diffraction of asymmetric gratings. We demonstrate that accurate characterization of asymmetric nanoimprinted gratings can be achieved by performing MME measurements in a conical mounting with the plane of incidence parallel to grating lines and meanwhile incorporating depolarization effects into the optical model. The comparison of MME-extracted asymmetric profile with the measurement by cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy also reveals the strong potential of this technique for in-line monitoring NIL processes, where symmetric structures are desired.

  7. Monolithic ionizing particle detector based on active matrix of functionally integrated structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murashev, V.N. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS” (Russian Federation); Legotin, S.A., E-mail: [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS” (Russian Federation); Karmanov, D.E. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (MSU SINP) (Russian Federation); Baryshnikov, F.M.; Didenko, S.I. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS” (Russian Federation)


    Highlights: • A new type of monolithic silicon position detector is presented. • An operating principle, design and technology of the detector are described. • Calculated estimations of the detecting efficiency are carried out. • Experimental results of alpha-particle and electron detection are shown. -- Abstract: An operating principle, design and technology of a new type of the monolithic silicon position detector (MSPD) for registration of ionizing particles and photons are described. The detector represents a specialized monolithic silicon VLSI that contains a two-dimensional detecting matrix of active functionally integrated bipolar structures and peripheral electronic circuitry for signal amplification and processing. This paper presents experimental results of α-particles and electrons detection with position accuracy and operation speed better than 12.5 μm and 1 ns, respectively. The given estimations show the capabilities of this detector and its advantages in comparison with analogs.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫庆友; 熊西文


    An efficient and stable structure preserving algorithm, which is a variant of the QR like (SR) algorithm due to Bunse-Gerstner and Mehrmann, is presented for computing the eigenvalues and stable invariant subspaces of a Hamiltonian matrix. In the algorithm two strategies are employed, one of which is called dis- unstabilization technique and the other is preprocessing technique. Together with them, a so-called ratio-reduction equation and a backtrack technique are introduced to avoid the instability and breakdown in the original algorithm. It is shown that the new algorithm can overcome the instability and breakdown at low cost. Numerical results have demonstrated that the algorithm is stable and can compute the eigenvalues to very high accuracy.

  9. The Role of Structural Extracellular Matrix Proteins in Urothelial Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Brunner


    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix (ECM plays a key role in the modulation of cancer cell invasion. In urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UC the role of ECM proteins has been widely studied. The mechanisms, which are involved in the development of invasion, progression and generalization, are complex, depending on the interaction of ECM proteins with each other as well as with cancer cells. The following review will focus on the pathogenetic role and prognostic value of structural proteins, such as laminins, collagens, fi bronectin (FN, tenascin (Tn-C and thrombospondin 1 (TSP1 in UC. In addition, the role of integrins mediating the interaction of ECM molecules and cancer cells will be addressed, since integrin-mediated FN, Tn-C and TSP1 interactions seem to play an important role during tumor cell invasion and angiogenesis.

  10. Development of a Genetic Algorithm to Automate Clustering of a Dependency Structure Matrix (United States)

    Rogers, James L.; Korte, John J.; Bilardo, Vincent J.


    Much technology assessment and organization design data exists in Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. Tools are needed to put this data into a form that can be used by design managers to make design decisions. One need is to cluster data that is highly coupled. Tools such as the Dependency Structure Matrix (DSM) and a Genetic Algorithm (GA) can be of great benefit. However, no tool currently combines the DSM and a GA to solve the clustering problem. This paper describes a new software tool that interfaces a GA written as an Excel macro with a DSM in spreadsheet format. The results of several test cases are included to demonstrate how well this new tool works.

  11. Patchwork structure-function analysis of the Sendai virus matrix protein. (United States)

    Mottet-Osman, Geneviève; Miazza, Vincent; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Roux, Laurent


    Paramyxoviruses contain a bi-lipidic envelope decorated by two transmembrane glycoproteins and carpeted on the inner surface with a layer of matrix proteins (M), thought to bridge the glycoproteins with the viral nucleocapsids. To characterize M structure-function features, a set of M domains were mutated or deleted. The genes encoding these modified M were incorporated into recombinant Sendai viruses and expressed as supplemental proteins. Using a method of integrated suppression complementation system (ISCS), the functions of these M mutants were analyzed in the context of the infection. Cellular membrane association, localization at the cell periphery, nucleocapsid binding, cellular protein interactions and promotion of viral particle formation were characterized in relation with the mutations. At the end, lack of nucleocapsid binding go together with lack of cell surface localization and both features definitely correlate with loss of M global function estimated by viral particle production.

  12. Novel matrix resins for composites for aircraft primary structures, phase 1 (United States)

    Woo, Edmund P.; Puckett, P. M.; Maynard, S.; Bishop, M. T.; Bruza, K. J.; Godschalx, J. P.; Mullins, M. J.


    The objective of the contract is the development of matrix resins with improved processability and properties for composites for primarily aircraft structures. To this end, several resins/systems were identified for subsonic and supersonic applications. For subsonic aircraft, a series of epoxy resins suitable for RTM and powder prepreg was shown to give composites with about 40 ksi compressive strength after impact (CAI) and 200 F/wet mechanical performance. For supersonic applications, a thermoplastic toughened cyanate prepreg system has demonstrated excellent resistance to heat aging at 360 F for 4000 hours, 40 ksi CAI and useful mechanical properties at greater than or equal to 310 F. An AB-BCB-maleimide resin was identified as a leading candidate for the HSCT. Composite panels fabricated by RTM show CAI of approximately 50 ksi, 350 F/wet performance and excellent retention of mechanical properties after aging at 400 F for 4000 hours.

  13. Avaliações térmica e reológica da matriz termoplástica PEKK utilizada em compósitos aeronáuticos Thermal and rheological evaluation of PEKK thermoplastic matrix for aeronautical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério L. Mazur


    Full Text Available A matriz termoplástica semicristalina PEKK (poli (éter-cetona-cetona tem recebido nos últimos anos uma atenção crescente pelas indústrias aeronáutica e espacial, no processamento de compósitos poliméricos avançados. As características de elevados valores de temperatura de transição vítrea, de resistência mecânica e de módulo de elasticidade, baixa absorção de umidade, excelente resistência a variações de condições climáticas, combinadas a uma relativa baixa massa específica faz do PEKK uma atrativa opção para uma variedade de aplicações, principalmente na área aeronáutica. O objetivo deste trabalho é correlacionar parâmetros térmicos e reológicos do PEKK, por meio das técnicas de calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC, termogravimetria (TG e reológica, no estabelecimento de um ciclo térmico de processamento, a ser utilizado na obtenção de laminados de PEKK com fibras de carbono, pela técnica de moldagem por compressão a quente de compósitos termoplásticos. Os resultados obtidos mostram que o PEKK apresenta um excelente balanço de propriedades, tais como elevada temperatura de transição vítrea (153-156 °C e moderadas temperaturas de processamento, localizadas entre suas temperaturas de fusão (310-325 °C e de degradação (352-366 °C, principalmente quando comparado com as matrizes atualmente mais utilizadas no setor aeronáutico: o PEEK (poli (éter-éter-cetona; o PEI (poli (éter-imida e o PPS(poli(sulfona. A partir dos resultados térmicos e reológicos obtidos estabeleceu-se um ciclo térmico a ser utilizado no processamento de laminados PEKK/fibras de carbono pelo uso da moldagem por compressão a quente.Semi-crystalline PEKK thermoplastic matrix used in advanced polymeric composites have received a lot of interest for aerospace application in the last years. The higher glass transition temperature, high strength and stiffness, low moisture absorption, excellent environmental

  14. Vibration analysis of fluid -structure interaction in water hammer based on transfer matrix method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hui; TANG Xuelin


    In consideration of the problem that the effect of conduit structure on water hammer has been ignored in the classical theory,the Poisson coupling between the fluid and the pipeline was stu-died and a fourteen-equation mathematical model of fluid -structure interaction (FSI)was developed. Then,the transfer matrix method (TMM)was used to calculate the modal frequency,modal shape and frequency response.The results were compared with that in experiment to verify the correctness of the TMMand the results show that the fluid -structure coupling has a greater impact on the modal frequen-cies than the modal shape.Finally,the influence on the response spectrum of different damping ratios was studied and the results show that the natural frequency under different damping ratios has changed little but there is a big difference for the pressure spectrum.With the decreasing of damping ratio,the damping of the system on frequency spectrum is more and more significant and the dispersion and dissi-pation is more and more apparent.Therefore the appropriate damping ratio should be selected to mini-mize the effects of the vibration of the FSI.The results provide references for the theory research of FSI in the transient process.

  15. On the structure and functions of gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase-9 in neuroinflammation. (United States)

    Vandooren, Jennifer; Van Damme, Jo; Opdenakker, Ghislain


    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a specific structure that is composed of two basement membranes (BMs) and that contributes to the control of neuroinflammation. As long as the BBB is intact, extravasated leukocytes may accumulate between two BMs, generating vascular cuffs. Specific matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-2 and MMP-9, have been shown to cleave BBB beta-dystroglycan and to disintegrate thereby the parenchymal BM, resulting in encephalomyelitis. This knowledge has been added to the molecular basis of the REGA model to understand the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, and it gives further ground for the use of MMP inhibitors for the treatment of acute neuroinflammation. MMP-9 is associated with central nervous system inflammation and occurs in various forms: monomers and multimers. None of the various neurological and neuropathologic functions of MMP-9 have been associated with either molecular structure or molecular form, and therefore, in-depth structure-function studies are needed before medical intervention with MMP-9-specific inhibitors is initiated.

  16. Composition of the Extracellular Matrix of Lymphatic Novel Threadlike Structures: Is It Keratin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyub Huh


    Full Text Available Background. The lumen of novel threadlike structures (NTSs is enclosed by a single layer of endothelial cells surrounded by extracellular matrix (ECM. We hypothesized that collagen may be a component of the ECM associated with lymphatic NTSs. Methods. Six female New Zealand white rabbits were anesthetized, and the NTS structures within lymphatic vessels were identified by contrast-enhanced stereomicroscopy or alcian blue staining. Isolated NTS specimens were stained with acridine orange, YOYO-1, and 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI. The structural and molecular composition of the ECM was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, and proteomic analysis. Results. The lymph vessel wall was stained red by DiI, and rod-shaped nuclei were stained green by YOYO-1. The area surrounding the NTS was also stained red and contained green rod-shaped nuclei. TEM images showed that the NTS consisted of many ECM fibers and the ECM fibers appeared to be ~100 nm in diameter and had narrowly spaced striated bands. Proteomic analysis of the lymphatic NTS-associated ECM identified 4 proteins: keratin 10, cytokeratin 3, cytokeratin 12, and soluble adenylyl cyclase. Conclusion. The TEM study suggested that the lymphatic NTS-associated ECM did not contain collagen. This was confirmed by proteomic analysis, which showed that keratin was the major component of the ECM.

  17. Carbon fiber polymer-matrix structural composites for electrical-resistance-based sensing (United States)

    Wang, Daojun

    This dissertation has advanced the science and technology of electrical-resistance-based sensing of strain/stress and damage using continuous carbon fiber epoxy-matrix composites, which are widely used for aircraft structures. In particular, it has extended the technology of self-sensing of carbon fiber polymer-matrix composites from uniaxial longitudinal loading and flexural loading to uniaxial through-thickness loading and has extended the technology from structural composite self-sensing to the use of the composite (specifically a one-lamina composite) as an attached sensor. Through-thickness compression is encountered in the joining of composite components by fastening. Uniaxial through-thickness compression results in strain-induced reversible decreases in the through-thickness and longitudinal volume resistivities, due to increase in the fiber-fiber contact in the through-thickness direction, and minor-damage-induced irreversible changes in these resistivities. The Poisson effect plays a minor role. The effects in the longitudinal resistivity are small compared to those in the through-thickness direction, but longitudinal resistance measurement is more amenable to practical implementation in structures than through-thickness resistance measurement. The irreversible effects are associated with an increase in the through-thickness resistivity and a decrease in the longitudinal resistivity. The through-thickness gage factor is up to 5.1 and decreases with increasing compressive strain above 0.2%. The reversible fractional change in through-thickness resistivity per through-thickness strain is up to 4.0 and decreases with increasing compressive strain. The irreversible fractional change in through-thickness resistivity per unit through-thickness strain is around -1.1 and is independent of the strain. The sensing is feasible by measuring the resistance away from the stressed region, though the effectiveness is less than that at the stressed region. A one

  18. Rheological properties of Cubic colloidal suspensions (United States)

    Boromand, Arman; Maia, Joao


    Colloidal and non-colloidal suspensions are ubiquitous in many industrial application. There are numerous studies on these systems to understand and relate their complex rheological properties to their microstructural evolution under deformation. Although most of the experimental and simulation studies are centered on spherical particles, in most of the industrial applications the geometry of the colloidal particles deviate from the simple hard sphere and more complex geometries exist. Recent advances in microfabrication paved the way to fabricate colloidal particles with complex geometries for applications in different areas such as drug delivery where the fundamental understanding of their dynamics has remained unexplored. In this study, using dissipative particle dynamics, we investigate the rheological properties of cubic (superball) particles which are modeled as the cluster of core-modified DPD particles. Explicit representation of solvent particles in the DPD scheme will conserve the full hydrodynamic interactions between colloidal particles. Rheological properties of these cubic suspensions are investigated in the dilute and semi-dilute regimes. The Einstein and Huggins coefficients for these particles with different superball exponent will be calculate which represent the effect of single particle's geometry and multibody interactions on viscosity, respectively. The response of these suspensions is investigated under simple shear and oscillatory shear where it is shown that under oscillation these particles tend to form crystalline structure giving rise to stronger shear-thinning behavior recently measured experimentally.

  19. Mode Characterization for Planar and Corrugated Multilayer Structures via Scattering Matrix Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kneale, Casey; Booksh, Karl S


    The construction of the unconditionally stable planar rank 2 scattering matrix for stratified systems is detailed from Fresnel equations. Several matrix decompositions and numerical calculations performed on the planar S matrix allow for the expedient characterization of purely absorbing, brewster, surface plasmon, and wave-guide modes. A figure of merit is presented from the decompositions of the scattering matrix constructed from the Chandezon method for corrugated surfaces. This figure of merit represents the hyper-area of the scattering matrix transform and allows for rapid distinguishability between lossy absorption phenomena, and surface plasmons. Some extension of this technique is possible for surface plasmon polaritons in the infrared region.

  20. Trace Element Geochemistry of Matrix Glass from the Bedout Impact Structure,Canning Basin NW Australia (United States)

    Poreda, R. J.; Basu, A. R.; Chakrabarti, R.; Becker, L.


    We report on geochemical and petrographic analysis of separated matrix glass from Lagrange-1 and Bedout-1 drill cores that penetrated the Bedout structure offshore NW Australia. The results support the conclusion that the Bedout structure was produced by a a major ET impact at the end-Permian that generated shock melted glass and impact breccias (Becker et al., Science, v.304, p.1469, 2004) The Bedout structure is a 30 km, circular, 1.5 km uplifted basment high that occurs on the passive margin offshore NW Australia. The isolated feature, covered by 3 km of Triassic to Recent sediments,is not consistent with any typical volcanic province (i.e. arc or hotspot volcanism). This hypothesis is supported by the unique mineralogy and chemistry of the matrix glass. At Lagrange, major elements crudely resemble low-K, Fe-Ti basalts while the trace element patterns have two distinct signatures. The lower 250 m of Lagrange (3260 - 3010 m depth) have essentially flat REE and "spider" patterns that superficially resemble some E-MORB; a signal not typically found in arc, hotspot or continental margin settings. The upper 150 meters (3000 - 2850m) of Lagrange and the entire Bedout core (3030 - 3070m) have similar light REE-enriched patterns but low levels of alkalis, alkaline-earths and high field strength elements. Again, the chemistry is not consistent with an arc or hotspot setting, based on the low Ba and extremely low Sr (30-110 ppm) concentrations. Based on the geophysical, chemical and petrologic evidence, we hypothesize that the Bedout structure formed as the result` of an ET impact with Permian age rift margin basalts and continental sediment. The basalts did not completely melt as evidenced by the abundance of large (1 mm) An50 plagioclase,that exist as both crystalline plag and shock melted maskelynite. Plagioclase is the major repository of Sr in basalts and the lack of a plagioclase contribution to the melt glass is reflected in the low Sr abundance. Shock

  1. Rheological characterization of dental waxes


    Zhang, Kehao


    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rheological behaviour of new experimental dental waxes in dependent on temperature. Material and method Seven experimental dental waxes, provided by Dentaurum GmbH, were tested. No.018 was chosen as a control. Rheological experiments were performed at different temperatures using a Paar Physica Rheometer UDS200 equiped with a parallel plate cell. The temperature was regulated with a Peltier system (TEK130P) and a thermostat un...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Xue; XU Yuanze; QIAN Renyuan


    Rheological investigation on a series of unvulcanized polybutadiene elastomers of different processability has been carried out by means of a capillary extrusion rheometer. It is found that the processability of unvulcanized polybutadiene can be correlated with the occurrence of unsteadyflow and the wall stress, dependence of the dimensionless number e characterizing the entrance elongational elasticity which has been found to be sensitive to the branching structure and the molecular weight distribution of the samples. Interpretations based on the structural data of unvulcanized polybutadiene were discussed.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-zhong Yang; Yuan-ze Xu; De-lu Zhao


    The waterborne dispersions of epoxy resin were prepared by the phase inversion emulsification technique.Rheological behavior and its relationship with the structural change of the systems were studied. It was shown that the concentrated dispersions were highly viscoelastic and pseudoplastic, which was attributed to the formation of a physical network among the waterborne particles via hydrogen bond. The dilute dispersions were Newtonian fluids. The discrete clusters composed of small waterborne particles were found in diluted dispersions. With increasing solid content, there existed a structural transition via percolation through a cluster-cluster aggregation mode to form the physical network, which was qualitatively evidenced by the TEM morphologies.``

  4. Use of Synthetic Peptides to Study Structure-Function Relationships of Matrix Metalloproteinases and Their Substrates. (United States)

    Netzel-Arnett, Sarah Joann

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc proteinases that is collectively capable of degrading the major components of the extracellular matrix. A variety of synthetic peptides has been prepared which are models for the human MMP and their substrates to study structure -function relationships in this enzyme-substrate system. To elucidate the sequence specificity of the MMP, the k _{cat}/K_ M values for the hydrolysis of over 50 synthetic octapeptides has been investigated. Similarities, as well as distinct differences have been found between the individual MMP with the largest differences occurring at subsites P_1, P_1^' and P_3 ^'. Based on these data, quenched -fluorescence substrates with optimized sequences have been developed for five human MMP. The key features of these heptapeptides are a tryptophan on the P_ n^' side and a dinitrophenol quenching group on the amino terminus. To assess the role of the triple helical conformation in the collagenase-collagen system, a series of triple helical peptides has been prepared and shown to compete with collagen in collagenase assays. This provides evidence for the existence of a triple helical recognition site distinct from the active site. All of the MMP are secreted as zymogens and it has been postulated that the portion of the propeptide surrounding a critical cysteine is responsible for maintaining latency. Conformational energy calculations and mutagenesis studies have suggested that this region adopts a specific conformation that stabilizes the latent form. Peptide models of this region of the propeptide have been prepared and shown to inhibit the MMP. CD and NMR studies, however, have failed to provide evidence for the predicted peptide conformation. Thus, the observed inhibition may reflect their propensity to adopt the propeptide conformation upon binding to the enzyme.

  5. Effects of the implantation of Sn ions on W matrix's chemical state, crystal structure and hardness (United States)

    Mu, Z. X.; Sun, J. Z.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y. M.


    Prior to the practical application of liquid metals as facing material for fusion reactor, the nature of the interaction layer between liquid metal and tungsten substrate should be studied deeply. In the present work, by means of ion implantation technique using a metal vapor vacuum arc source (MEVVA), Sn ions were injected into a W matrix and a W-Sn modified layer was prepared. The chemical state, crystal structure and nano-indentation hardness of the modified layer were investigated and characterized with the use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), an X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and a nano-indentor. The results indicate that, after the injection of Sn ions into the W matrix, Sn atoms interacted intensively with W, leading to the generation of a large number of point defects (such as vacancies and self-interstitial atoms) and the decrease of average grain size from 16.7 to 11.9 nm. Additionally, chemical shifts appeared, i.e., the binding energy values of W 4f7/2, W 4f5/2, W 5p3/2 and W 4p1/2 in the modified layer was reduced by 0.3 eV, 0.3 eV, 0.4 eV, 1-1.4 eV, respectively. The binding energy values of Sn 3d5/2 and Sn 3d3/2 decreased, with a chemical shift of 0.6-0.7 eV and 0.1-0.3 eV, respectively. The nano-indentation hardness of the modified layer was enhanced; specifically, when the indentation depth was 26.3 nm, the hardness reached a peak value of 13.8 GPa. In the modified layer, the surface chemical states are quite complex, mainly including SnO, WO3, SnO2 and WC.

  6. Structural damage detection using sparse sensors installation by optimization procedure based on the modal flexibility matrix (United States)

    Zare Hosseinzadeh, A.; Ghodrati Amiri, G.; Seyed Razzaghi, S. A.; Koo, K. Y.; Sung, S. H.


    This paper is aimed at presenting a novel and effective method to detect and estimate structural damage by introducing an efficient objective function which is based on Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC) and modal flexibility matrix. The main strategy in the proposed objective function relies on searching a geometrical correlation between two vectors. Democratic Particle Swarm Optimization (DPSO) algorithm, a modified version of original PSO approach, is used to minimize the objective function resulting in the assessment of damage in different structure types. Finally, the presented method is generalized for a condition in which a limited number of sensors are installed on the structure using Neumann Series Expansion-based Model Reduction (NSEMR) approach. To evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method, different damage patterns in three numerical examples of engineering structures are simulated and the proposed method is employed for damage identification. Moreover, the stability of the method is investigated by considering the effects of a number of important challenges such as effects of different locations for sensor installation, prevalent modeling errors and presence of random noises in the input data. It is followed by different comparative studies to evaluate not only the robustness of the proposed method, but also the necessity of using introduced techniques for problem solution. Finally, the applicability of the presented method in real conditions is also verified by an experimental study of a five-story shear frame on a shaking table utilizing only three sensors. All of the obtained results demonstrate that the proposed method precisely identifies damages by using only the first several modes' data, even when incomplete noisy modal data are considered as input data.

  7. Structural and thermophysical properties characterization of continuously reinforced cast Al matrix composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Gordon


    Full Text Available In this work the process of manufacturing a continuously reinforced cast Al matrix composite and its properties are presented. The described technology permits obtaining a structural material of competitive properties compared to either heat treatable aluminum alloys or polymer composites for several types of applications. The examined thermophysical properties and structural characterization, including material anisotropy, coupled with the results of previous measurements of the mechanical properties of both Al2O3 reinforcing filaments and metallic prepregs have proven the high quality of this material and the possibility of its operation under special loading modes and environmental conditions. Microscopic examinations (LM, SEM were carried out to reveal the range of morphological homogeneity of the microstructure, the anisotropy of the filament band distribution, and simultaneously the adhesive behavior of the metal/fiber interface. The 3D morphology of the chosen microstructure components was revealed by computed tomography. The obtained results indicate that special properties of the examined prepreg materials have been strongly influenced, on the one hand, by the geometry of its internal microstructure, i.e. spatial distribution and volume fraction of the Al2O3 reinforcing filaments and, on the other hand, by a very good compatibility obtained between the individual metal prepreg components.

  8. Structural and optical properties of cordierite glass-ceramic doped in polyurethane matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Nadafan


    Full Text Available The cordierite (2Mg.2Al2O3.5SiO2 was synthesized by the Pechini method and added to polyurethane open cell (PUOC foam in three different percentages. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR was employed to evaluate the bonding characteristics of PUOC/cordierites. The effect of temperature on the synthesis of cordierite and crystallographic structure of the final product were studied by XRD. By increasing the temperature, the widths of the XRD peaks decreased, approaching the single crystal spectrum. The SEM results show that by increasing of cordierite percentage in PUOC foam, the matrix structure was much damaged. Using Z-scan method, optical nonlinearities of samples were measured by continues wave (CW laser at the wavelength of 532 nm. The nonlinear refractive (NLR indices and nonlinear absorption (NLA coefficients of the synthesized samples are obtained in the order of 10−8 (cm2/W with negative sign and 10−5 (cm/W, respectively. The origin of optical nonlinearity may be attributed to the presence of strong saturable absorption (SA effect.

  9. The structure-function relationship of MSI7, a matrix protein from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiaoli Feng; Zi Fang; Zhenguang Yan; Rui Xing; Liping Xie; Rongqing Zhang


    We previously identified a matrix protein, MSI7, from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. According to the struc-tural analysis, the DGD site in the N-terminal of MSI7 is crucial for its role in the shell formation. In this study, we expressed a series of recombinant MSI7 pro-teins, including the wild-type and several mutants directed at the DGD site, using an Escherichia coli expression system to reveal the structure-function relationship of MSI7. Furthermore, in vitro crystalliza-tion, crystallization speed assay, and circular dichroism spectrometry were carried out. Results indicated that wild-type MSI7 could induce the nucleation of arago-nite and inhibit the crystallization of calcite. However, none of the mutants could induce the nucleation of ara-gonite, but all of them could inhibit the crystallization of calcite to some extent. And all the proteins acceler-ated the crystallization process. Taken together, the results indicated that MSI7 could contribute to arago-nite crystallization by inducing the nucleation of arago-nite and inhibiting the crystallization of calcite, which agrees with our prediction about its role in the nacr-eous layer formation of the shell. The DGD site was critical for the induction of the nucleation of aragonite.

  10. Effects of Mutations on Structure-Function Relationships of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1. (United States)

    Singh, Warispreet; Fields, Gregg B; Christov, Christo Z; Karabencheva-Christova, Tatyana G


    Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) is one of the most widely studied enzymes involved in collagen degradation. Mutations of specific residues in the MMP-1 hemopexin-like (HPX) domain have been shown to modulate activity of the MMP-1 catalytic (CAT) domain. In order to reveal the structural and conformational effects of such mutations, a molecular dynamics (MD) study was performed of in silico mutated residues in the X-ray crystallographic structure of MMP-1 complexed with a collagen-model triple-helical peptide (THP). The results indicate an important role of the mutated residues in MMP-1 interactions with the THP and communication between the CAT and the HPX domains. Each mutation has a distinct impact on the correlated motions in the MMP-1•THP. An increased collagenase activity corresponded to the appearance of a unique anti-correlated motion and decreased correlated motions, while decreased collagenase activity corresponded both to increased and decreased anti-correlated motions.

  11. Extracellular matrix control of dendritic spine and synapse structure and plasticity in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D Levy


    Full Text Available Dendritic spines are the receptive contacts at most excitatory synapses in the central nervous system. Spines are dynamic in the developing brain, changing shape as they mature as well as appearing and disappearing as they make and break connections. Spines become much more stable in adulthood, and spine structure must be actively maintained to support established circuit function. At the same time, adult spines must retain some plasticity so their structure can be modified by activity and experience. As such, the regulation of spine stability and remodeling in the adult animal is critical for normal function, and disruption of these processes is associated with a variety of late onset diseases including schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease. The extracellular matrix (ECM, composed of a meshwork of proteins and proteoglycans, is a critical regulator of spine and synapse stability and plasticity. While the role of ECM receptors in spine regulation has been extensively studied, considerably less research has focused directly on the role of specific ECM ligands. Here, we review the evidence for a role of several brain ECM ligands and remodeling proteases in the regulation of dendritic spine and synapse formation, plasticity, and stability in adults.

  12. Categorization of rheological scaling models for particle gels applied to casein gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellema, M.; Opheusden, van J.H.J.; Vliet, van T.


    Rennet-induced casein gels made from skim milk were studied rheologically. A scaling model or framework for describing the rheological behavior of gels is discussed and used for classification of the structure of casein gels. There are two main parameters in the model that describe the number of def

  13. Finding structure with randomness: Stochastic algorithms for constructing approximate matrix decompositions

    CERN Document Server

    Halko, Nathan; Tropp, Joel A


    Low-rank matrix approximations, such as the truncated singular value decomposition and the rank-revealing QR decomposition, play a central role in data analysis and scientific computing. This work surveys recent research which demonstrates that \\emph{randomization} offers a powerful tool for performing low-rank matrix approximation. These techniques exploit modern computational architectures more fully than classical methods and open the possibility of dealing with truly massive data sets. In particular, these techniques offer a route toward principal component analysis (PCA) for petascale data. This paper presents a modular framework for constructing randomized algorithms that compute partial matrix decompositions. These methods use random sampling to identify a subspace that captures most of the action of a matrix. The input matrix is then compressed - either explicitly or implicitly - to this subspace, and the reduced matrix is manipulated deterministically to obtain the desired low-rank factorization. In ...

  14. A Novel Riemannian Metric Based on Riemannian Structure and Scaling Information for Fixed Low-Rank Matrix Completion. (United States)

    Mao, Shasha; Xiong, Lin; Jiao, Licheng; Feng, Tian; Yeung, Sai-Kit


    Riemannian optimization has been widely used to deal with the fixed low-rank matrix completion problem, and Riemannian metric is a crucial factor of obtaining the search direction in Riemannian optimization. This paper proposes a new Riemannian metric via simultaneously considering the Riemannian geometry structure and the scaling information, which is smoothly varying and invariant along the equivalence class. The proposed metric can make a tradeoff between the Riemannian geometry structure and the scaling information effectively. Essentially, it can be viewed as a generalization of some existing metrics. Based on the proposed Riemanian metric, we also design a Riemannian nonlinear conjugate gradient algorithm, which can efficiently solve the fixed low-rank matrix completion problem. By experimenting on the fixed low-rank matrix completion, collaborative filtering, and image and video recovery, it illustrates that the proposed method is superior to the state-of-the-art methods on the convergence efficiency and the numerical performance.

  15. Surface rheology and interface stability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaklin, Melissa A.; Cote, Raymond O.; Moffat, Harry K.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Walker, Lynn; Koehler, Timothy P.; Reichert, Matthew D. (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA); Castaneda, Jaime N.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Brooks, Carlton, F.


    We have developed a mature laboratory at Sandia to measure interfacial rheology, using a combination of home-built, commercially available, and customized commercial tools. An Interfacial Shear Rheometer (KSV ISR-400) was modified and the software improved to increase sensitivity and reliability. Another shear rheometer, a TA Instruments AR-G2, was equipped with a du Nouey ring, bicone geometry, and a double wall ring. These interfacial attachments were compared to each other and to the ISR. The best results with the AR-G2 were obtained with the du Nouey ring. A Micro-Interfacial Rheometer (MIR) was developed in house to obtain the much higher sensitivity given by a smaller probe. However, it was found to be difficult to apply this technique for highly elastic surfaces. Interfaces also exhibit dilatational rheology when the interface changes area, such as occurs when bubbles grow or shrink. To measure this rheological response we developed a Surface Dilatational Rheometer (SDR), in which changes in surface tension with surface area are measured during the oscillation of the volume of a pendant drop or bubble. All instruments were tested with various surfactant solutions to determine the limitations of each. In addition, foaming capability and foam stability were tested and compared with the rheology data. It was found that there was no clear correlation of surface rheology with foaming/defoaming with different types of surfactants, but, within a family of surfactants, rheology could predict the foam stability. Diffusion of surfactants to the interface and the behavior of polyelectrolytes were two subjects studied with the new equipment. Finally, surface rheological terms were added to a finite element Navier-Stokes solver and preliminary testing of the code completed. Recommendations for improved implementation were given. When completed we plan to use the computations to better interpret the experimental data and account for the effects of the underlying bulk

  16. Structure of collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrix and the influence to its integrity and stability. (United States)

    Bi, Yuying; Patra, Prabir; Faezipour, Miad


    Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) is a chain-like disaccharide that is linked to polypeptide core to connect two collagen fibrils/fibers and provide the intermolecular force in Collagen-GAG matrix (C-G matrix). Thus, the distribution of GAG in C-G matrix contributes to the integrity and mechanical properties of the matrix and related tissue. This paper analyzes the transverse isotropic distribution of GAG in C-G matrix. The angle of GAGs related to collagen fibrils is used as parameters to qualify the GAGs isotropic characteristic in both 3D and 2D rendering. Statistical results included that over one third of GAGs were perpendicular directed to collagen fibril with symmetrical distribution for both 3D matrix and 2D plane cross through collagen fibrils. The three factors tested in this paper: collagen radius, collagen distribution, and GAGs density, were not statistically significant for the strength of Collagen-GAG matrix in 3D rendering. However in 2D rendering, a significant factor found was the radius of collagen in matrix for the GAGs directed to orthogonal plane of Collagen-GAG matrix. Between two cross-section selected from Collagen-GAG matrix model, the plane cross through collagen fibrils was symmetrically distributed but the total percentage of perpendicular directed GAG was deducted by decreasing collagen radius. There were some symmetry features of GAGs angle distribution in selected 2D plane that passed through space between collagen fibrils, but most models showed multiple peaks in GAGs angle distribution. With less GAGs directed to perpendicular of collagen fibril, strength in collagen cross-section weakened. Collagen distribution was also a factor that influences GAGs angle distribution in 2D rendering. True hexagonal collagen packaging is reported in this paper to have less strength at collagen cross-section compared to quasi-hexagonal collagen arrangement. In this work focus is on GAGs matrix within the collagen and its relevance to anisotropy.

  17. Behaviour of a new material for the oil well cementing. Relations between particle structure and rheological properties; Comportement d'un nouveau materiau pour la cimentation de puits de petrole. Relations entre la structure particulaire et les proprietes rheologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, N.


    This work focuses on the control and the characterization of the rheological behaviour of Ultra High Performances Concretes (UHPC) for oil well during the dormant period, in the first moments following malaxation. Cement, sand, silica fume, water and a super-plasticizer were principally used in this study. We sought to control their rheological behaviour with simple macroscopic data, such as dry compactness and diameters of the particles. Viscosity and yield stress measurements were determined with controlled stress or controlled rotational speed viscosimeters, by using parallel plates, concentric cylinders, or a vane. We highlight the experimental difficulties generated by the characterization of such mixtures and describe the precautions to take in order to carry out significant measurements. First, we explain the rheological behaviour by traditional granular interactions, such as wall and loosening effects. These interactions allow to predict dry compactness and the rheological behaviour of certain granular mixtures, whose diameters ratio of two successive classes n-1 and n satisfies D{sub n-1}/D{sub n}<0,2 with D{sub n}>D{sub n-1}. The introduction of another concept, named 'spacing', enabled us to evaluate the viscosity of suspension whose diameters ratio of two successive size ranges are large (D{sub n-1}/D{sub n}>0,2), and to predict the behaviour of hollow mixtures. We show moreover that it is possible to lower the viscosity and the yield stress of BUHP, by modifying the granulometric distribution of the components, while preserving the same quantity of water. Finally we highlight the particular action of the silica fume, consisted of welded spherical particles and forming not easily breakable clusters, onto the rheological behaviour of BUHP. (author)

  18. Structural differences of matrix metalloproteinases with potential implications for inhibitor selectivity examined by the GRID/CPCA approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terp, Gitte Elgaard; Cruciani, Gabriele; Christensen, Inge Thøger


    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteolytic enzymes, which have been the focus of a lot of research in recent years because of their involvement in various disease conditions. In this study, structures of 10 enzymes (MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, MMP7, MMP8, MMP9, MMP12, MMP13, MMP14...

  19. Detection of Q-Matrix Misspecification Using Two Criteria for Validation of Cognitive Structures under the Least Squares Distance Model (United States)

    Romero, Sonia J.; Ordoñez, Xavier G.; Ponsoda, Vincente; Revuelta, Javier


    Cognitive Diagnostic Models (CDMs) aim to provide information about the degree to which individuals have mastered specific attributes that underlie the success of these individuals on test items. The Q-matrix is a key element in the application of CDMs, because contains links item-attributes representing the cognitive structure proposed for solve…

  20. Composition Feature of the Element Tangent Stiffness Matrix of Geometrically Nonlinear 2D Frame Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanas Karkauskas


    Full Text Available The expressions of the finite element method tangent stiffness matrix of geometrically nonlinear constructions are not fully presented in publications. The matrixes of small displacements stiffness are usually presented only. To solve various problems of construction analysis or design and to specify the mode of the real deflection of construction, it is necessary to have a fully described tangent matrix analytical expression. This paper presents a technique of tangent stiffness matrix generation using discrete body total potential energy stationary conditions considering geometrically nonlinear 2D frame element taking account of interelement interaction forces only. The obtained vector-function derivative of internal forces considering nodal displacements is the tangent stiffness matrix. The analytical expressions having nodal displacements of matrixes forming the content of the 2D frame construction element tangent stiffness matrix are presented in the article. The suggested methodology has been checked making symbolical calculations in the medium of MatLAB calculation complex. The analytical expression of the stiffness matrix has been obtained.Article in Lithuanian

  1. Stage-structured matrix models for organisms with non-geometric development times (United States)

    Andrew Birt; Richard M. Feldman; David M. Cairns; Robert N. Coulson; Maria Tchakerian; Weimin Xi; James M. Guldin


    Matrix models have been used to model population growth of organisms for many decades. They are popular because of both their conceptual simplicity and their computational efficiency. For some types of organisms they are relatively accurate in predicting population growth; however, for others the matrix approach does not adequately model...

  2. The Application of Concurrent Engineering Tools and Design Structure Matrix in Designing Tire (United States)

    Ginting, Rosnani; Fachrozi Fitra Ramadhan, T.


    The development of automobile industry in Indonesia is growing rapidly. This phenomenon causes companies related to the automobile industry such as tire industry must develop products based on customers’ needs and considering the timeliness of delivering the product to the customer. It could be reached by applying strategic planning in developing an integrated concept of product development. This research was held in PT. XYZ that applied the sequential approach in designing and developing products. The need to improve in one stage of product development could occur re-designing that needs longer time in developing a new product. This research is intended to get an integrated product design concept of tire pertaining to the customer's needs using Concurrent Engineering Tools by implementing the two-phased of product development. The implementation of Concurrent Engineering approach results in applying the stage of project planning, conceptual design, and product modules. The product modules consist of four modules that using Product Architecture - Design Structure Matrix to ease the designing process of new product development.

  3. Fibroblastic Transformation of Corneal Keratocytes by Rac Inhibition is Modulated by Extracellular Matrix Structure and Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Matthew Petroll


    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate how alterations in extracellular matrix (ECM biophysical properties modulate corneal keratocyte phenotypes in response to specific wound healing cytokines and Rho GTPases. Rabbit corneal keratocytes were plated within standard collagen matrices (2.5 mg/mL or compressed collagen matrices (~100 mg/mL and cultured in serum-free media, PDGF BB, IGF, FGF2 or TGFβ1, with or without the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 and/or the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632. After 1 to 4 days, cells were labeled for F-actin and imaged using confocal microscopy. Keratocytes within standard collagen matrices (which are highly compliant maintained a dendritic phenotype following culture in serum-free media, PDGF, IGF and FGF, but developed stress fibers in TGFβ1. Keratocytes within compressed collagen (which has high stiffness and low porosity maintained a dendritic phenotype following culture in serum-free media, PDGF and IGF, but developed stress fibers in both FGF and TGFβ1. The Rac inhibitor had no significant impact on growth factor responses in compliant matrices. Within compressed collagen matrices however, the Rac inhibitor induced fibroblastic transformation in serum-free media, PDGF and IGF. Fibroblast and myofibroblast transformation was blocked by Rho kinase inhibition. Overall, keratocyte growth factor responses appear to be regulated by both the interplay between Rho and Rac signaling, and the structural and mechanical properties of the ECM.

  4. On the structure of positive maps. II. Low dimensional matrix algebras (United States)

    Majewski, Władysław A.; Tylec, Tomasz I.


    We use a new idea that emerged in the examination of exposed positive maps between matrix algebras to investigate in more detail the differences and similarities between unital positive maps on M2 ({C}) and M3({C}). Our main tool stems from classical Grothendieck theorem on tensor product of Banach spaces and is an older and more general version of Choi-Jamiołkowski isomorphism between positive maps and block positive Choi matrices. It takes into account the correct topology on the latter set that is induced by the uniform topology on positive maps. In this setting, we show that in M2({C}) case a large class of nice positive maps can be generated from the small set of maps represented by self-adjoint unitaries, 2Px with x maximally entangled vector and p⊗ {1} with p rank 1 projector. We indicate problems with passing this result to M3({C}) case. Among similarities, in both M2({C}) and M3({C}) cases any unital positive map represented by self-adjoint unitary is unitarily equivalent to the transposition map. Consequently, we obtain a large family of exposed maps. Furthermore, for M3({C}) there appear new non-trivial class of maps represented by Choi matrices with square equal to a projector. We examine this case. We also investigate a convex structure of the Choi map, the first example of non-decomposable map. As a result the nature of the Choi map will be explained.

  5. Partial volume correction using structural-functional synergistic resolution recovery: comparison with geometric transfer matrix method. (United States)

    Kim, Euitae; Shidahara, Miho; Tsoumpas, Charalampos; McGinnity, Colm J; Kwon, Jun Soo; Howes, Oliver D; Turkheimer, Federico E


    We validated the use of a novel image-based method for partial volume correction (PVC), structural-functional synergistic resolution recovery (SFS-RR) for the accurate quantification of dopamine synthesis capacity measured using [(18)F]DOPA positron emission tomography. The bias and reliability of SFS-RR were compared with the geometric transfer matrix (GTM) method. Both methodologies were applied to the parametric maps of [(18)F]DOPA utilization rates (ki(cer)). Validation was first performed by measuring repeatability on test-retest scans. The precision of the methodologies instead was quantified using simulated [(18)F]DOPA images. The sensitivity to the misspecification of the full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) of the scanner point-spread-function on both approaches was also assessed. In the in-vivo data, the ki(cer) was significantly increased by application of both PVC procedures while the reliability remained high (intraclass correlation coefficients >0.85). The variability was not significantly affected by either PVC approach (<10% variability in both cases). The corrected ki(cer) was significantly influenced by the FWHM applied in both the acquired and simulated data. This study shows that SFS-RR can effectively correct for partial volume effects to a comparable degree to GTM but with the added advantage that it enables voxelwise analyses, and that the FWHM used can affect the PVC result indicating the importance of accurately calibrating the FWHM used in the recovery model.

  6. Laser structuring of carbon nanotubes in the albumin matrix for the creation of composite biostructures (United States)

    Gerasimenko, Alexander Yu.; Glukhova, Olga E.; Savostyanov, Georgy V.; Podgaetsky, Vitaly M.


    This paper presents the composite biostructures created by laser structuring of the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in an albumin matrix. Under the exposure of femtosecond laser radiation, the heating of the albumin aqueous solution causes liquid water to evaporate. As a result, we obtained a solid-state composite in the bulk or film form. Using the molecular dynamic method, we showed the formation of a framework from SWCNTs by the example of splicing of the open end of one nanotube with the defect region of another nanotube under the action of the laser heating. Laser heating of SWCNTs up to a temperature of 80°C to 100°C causes the C-C bond formation. Raman spectra measured for the composite biostructures allowed us to describe the binding of oxygen atoms of amino acid residues of the albumin with the carbon atoms of the SWCNTs. It is found that the interaction energy of the nanotube atoms and albumin atoms amounts up to 580 kJ/mol. We used atomic force microscopy to investigate the surface of the composite biostructures. The pore size is in the range of 30 to 120 nm. It is proved that the proliferation of the fibroblasts occurred on the surface of the composite biostructures during 72 h of incubation.

  7. Effects of Complex Structured Anodic Oxide Dielectric Layer Grown in Pore Matrix for Aluminum Capacitor. (United States)

    Shin, Jin-Ha; Yun, Sook Young; Lee, Chang Hyoung; Park, Hwa-Sun; Suh, Su-Jeong


    Anodization of aluminum is generally divided up into two types of anodic aluminum oxide structures depending on electrolyte type. In this study, an anodization process was carried out in two steps to obtain high dielectric strength and break down voltage. In the first step, evaporated high purity Al on Si wafer was anodized in oxalic acidic aqueous solution at various times at a constant temperature of 5 degrees C. In the second step, citric acidic aqueous solution was used to obtain a thickly grown sub-barrier layer. During the second anodization process, the anodizing potential of various ranges was applied at room temperature. An increased thickness of the sub-barrier layer in the porous matrix was obtained according to the increment of the applied anodizing potential. The microstructures and the growth of the sub-barrier layer were then observed with an increasing anodizing potential of 40 to 300 V by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). An impedance analyzer was used to observe the change of electrical properties, including the capacitance, dissipation factor, impedance, and equivalent series resistance (ESR) depending on the thickness increase of the sub-barrier layer. In addition, the breakdown voltage was measured. The results revealed that dielectric strength was improved with the increase of sub-barrier layer thickness.

  8. Global rescue of defects in HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein incorporation: implications for matrix structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip R Tedbury

    Full Text Available The matrix (MA domain of HIV-1 Gag plays key roles in membrane targeting of Gag, and envelope (Env glycoprotein incorporation into virions. Although a trimeric MA structure has been available since 1996, evidence for functional MA trimers has been elusive. The mechanism of HIV-1 Env recruitment into virions likewise remains unclear. Here, we identify a point mutation in MA that rescues the Env incorporation defects imposed by an extensive panel of MA and Env mutations. Mapping the mutations onto the putative MA trimer reveals that the incorporation-defective mutations cluster at the tips of the trimer, around the perimeter of a putative gap in the MA lattice into which the cytoplasmic tail of gp41 could insert. By contrast, the rescue mutation is located at the trimer interface, suggesting that it may confer rescue of Env incorporation via modification of MA trimer interactions, a hypothesis consistent with additional mutational analysis. These data strongly support the existence of MA trimers in the immature Gag lattice and demonstrate that rescue of Env incorporation defects is mediated by modified interactions at the MA trimer interface. The data support the hypothesis that mutations in MA that block Env incorporation do so by imposing a steric clash with the gp41 cytoplasmic tail, rather than by disrupting a specific MA-gp41 interaction. The importance of the trimer interface in rescuing Env incorporation suggests that the trimeric arrangement of MA may be a critical factor in permitting incorporation of Env into the Gag lattice.

  9. Effect of host glass matrix on structural and optical behavior of glass-ceramic nanocomposite scintillators (United States)

    Brooke Barta, M.; Nadler, Jason H.; Kang, Zhitao; Wagner, Brent K.; Rosson, Robert; Kahn, Bernd


    Composite scintillator systems have received increased attention in recent years due to their promise for merging the radioisotope discrimination capabilities of single crystal scintillators with the high throughput scanning capabilities of portal monitors. However, producing the high light yield required for good energy resolution has proven challenging as scintillation photons are often scattered by variations in refractive index and agglomerated scintillator crystals within the composite. This investigation sought to mitigate these common problems by using glass-ceramic nanocomposite materials systems in which nanoscale scintillating crystallites are precipitated in a controlled manner from a transparent glass matrix. Precipitating crystallites in situ precludes nanoparticle agglomeration, and limiting crystallite size to 50 nm or less mitigates the effect of refractive index mismatch between the crystals and host glass. Cerium-doped gadolinium bromide (GdBr3(Ce)) scintillating crystals were incorporated into sodium-aluminosilicate (NAS) and alumino-borosilicate (ABS) host glass matrices, and the resulting glass-ceramic structures and luminescence behavior were characterized. The as-cast glass from the ABS system displayed a highly ordered microstructure that produced the highest luminescence intensity (light yield) of the samples studied. However, heat treating to form the glass-ceramic precipitated rare-earth oxide crystallites rather than rare-earth halides. This degraded light yield relative to the unaged sample.

  10. Matrix metalloproteinases and left ventricular function and structure in spinal cord injured subjects. (United States)

    Schreiber, Roberto; Paim, Layde R; de Rossi, Guilherme; Matos-Souza, José R; Costa E Silva, Anselmo de A; Souza, Cristiane M; Borges, Mariane; Azevedo, Eliza R; Alonso, Karina C; Gorla, José I; Cliquet, Alberto; Nadruz, Wilson


    Subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) exhibit impaired left ventricular (LV) diastolic function, which has been reported to be attenuated by regular physical activity. This study investigated the relationship between circulating matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) and echocardiographic parameters in SCI subjects and the role of physical activity in this regard. Forty-two men with SCI [19 sedentary (S-SCI) and 23 physically-active (PA-SCI)] were evaluated by clinical, anthropometric, laboratory, and echocardiographic analysis. Plasmatic pro-MMP-2, MMP-2, MMP-8, pro-MMP-9, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and zymography. PA-SCI subjects presented lower pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-2/TIMP-2 levels and improved markers of LV diastolic function (lower E/Em and higher Em and E/A values) than S-SCI ones. Bivariate analysis showed that pro-MMP-2 correlated inversely with Em and directly with E/Em, while MMP-9 correlated directly with LV mass index and LV end-diastolic diameter in the whole sample. Following multiple regression analysis, pro-MMP-2, but not physical activity, remained associated with Em, while MMP-9 was associated with LV mass index in the whole sample. These findings suggest differing roles for MMPs in LV structure and function regulation and an interaction among pro-MMP-2, diastolic function and physical activity in SCI subjects.

  11. Distribution volumes of macromolecules in human ovarian and endometrial cancers--effects of extracellular matrix structure. (United States)

    Haslene-Hox, Hanne; Oveland, Eystein; Woie, Kathrine; Salvesen, Helga B; Tenstad, Olav; Wiig, Helge


    Elements of the extracellular matrix (ECM), notably collagen and glucosaminoglycans, will restrict part of the space available for soluble macromolecules simply because the molecules cannot occupy the same space. This phenomenon may influence macromolecular drug uptake. To study the influence of steric and charge effects of the ECM on the distribution volumes of macromolecules in human healthy and malignant gynecologic tissues we used as probes 15 abundant plasma proteins quantified by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The available distribution volume (VA) of albumin was increased in ovarian carcinoma compared with healthy ovarian tissue. Furthermore, VA of plasma proteins between 40 and 190 kDa decreased with size for endometrial carcinoma and healthy ovarian tissue, but was independent of molecular weight for the ovarian carcinomas. An effect of charge on distribution volume was only found in healthy ovaries, which had lower hydration and high collagen content, indicating that a condensed interstitium increases the influence of negative charges. A number of earlier suggested biomarker candidates were detected in increased amounts in malignant tissue, e.g., stathmin and spindlin-1, showing that interstitial fluid, even when unfractionated, can be a valuable source for tissue-specific proteins. We demonstrate that the distribution of abundant plasma proteins in the interstitium can be elucidated by mass spectrometry methods and depends markedly on hydration and ECM structure. Our data can be used in modeling of drug uptake, and give indications on ECM components to be targeted to increase the uptake of macromolecular substances.

  12. Rheological Behavior of the Guanidio Polyelectrolytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-mei; JIANG Jian-ming; CHEN Yan-mo


    The rheological behavior of polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHGC) and polyethylene guanidine stearate (PHGS) has been investigated using the capillary rheometer. It is shown that the polyelectrolyte melts are non-Newtonian of shear. thinning fluid. The melt viscosity, the flow activation energy and the flow temperature are high even if the molecular weight is not high. The melting viscosity of PHGC is higher than that of PHGS at the same experimental conditions. By comparison with the case of PHGS the non-Newtonian index of PHGC is smaller, the flow activation energy and the flow temperature of PHGC are higher, which was caused by the difference in their molecular structure.

  13. Structure constrained semi-nonnegative matrix factorization for EEG-based motor imagery classification. (United States)

    Lu, Na; Li, Tengfei; Pan, Jinjin; Ren, Xiaodong; Feng, Zuren; Miao, Hongyu


    Electroencephalogram (EEG) provides a non-invasive approach to measure the electrical activities of brain neurons and has long been employed for the development of brain-computer interface (BCI). For this purpose, various patterns/features of EEG data need to be extracted and associated with specific events like cue-paced motor imagery. However, this is a challenging task since EEG data are usually non-stationary time series with a low signal-to-noise ratio. In this study, we propose a novel method, called structure constrained semi-nonnegative matrix factorization (SCS-NMF), to extract the key patterns of EEG data in time domain by imposing the mean envelopes of event-related potentials (ERPs) as constraints on the semi-NMF procedure. The proposed method is applicable to general EEG time series, and the extracted temporal features by SCS-NMF can also be combined with other features in frequency domain to improve the performance of motor imagery classification. Real data experiments have been performed using the SCS-NMF approach for motor imagery classification, and the results clearly suggest the superiority of the proposed method. Comparison experiments have also been conducted. The compared methods include ICA, PCA, Semi-NMF, Wavelets, EMD and CSP, which further verified the effectivity of SCS-NMF. The SCS-NMF method could obtain better or competitive performance over the state of the art methods, which provides a novel solution for brain pattern analysis from the perspective of structure constraint. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Atomic and electronic structure of silicon nanocrystals embedded in a silica matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Bich; Dufour, Christian [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Materiaux et la Photonique, 6 boulevard Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Petit, Sebastien [Laboratoire de Cristallographie et Sciences des Materiaux, 6 boulevard Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France)


    The atomic structures and the optical and electronic properties of silicon nanocrystals (nc-Si) in a {beta} cristobalite matrix are studied using DFT calculations provided by the AIMPRO code. Five atomic models are considered (two nanocrystal diameters of 5.6 and 11 A with and without interface defects). After total relaxation, the mean Si-Si distances in nc-Si are found to be 6% higher than those in perfect bulk silicon. The optical and electronic properties are influenced by many parameters, among which are the nanograin density and size. The quantum confinement effect is demonstrated by the increase of energy gap when decreasing nanograin size. The energy gap of nc-Si is adjusted by using B3LYP functional calculations; the energy gap of 5.6 A nc-Si is found to be equal to 3.4 eV while that of 11 A nc-Si is equal to 3.1 eV. In the band structure, the levels due to nc-Si appear in the forbidden band of SiO{sub 2}. The electronic density of these levels is presented in 3D. A redshift is observed in the optical absorption spectrum as the nc-Si size increases, and the absorbance of nc-Si/SiO{sub 2} is proportional to the nanograin density. The system is more stable as the distance between nanograins increases. We have also studied two kinds of nc-Si/SiO{sub 2} interface defects (Si-O-Si and Si = O bonds). It is found that the Si-O-Si bridge bond leads to the most stable configuration. The presence of Si = O double bonds reduces the nc-Si energy gap and leads to a redshift in the absorption spectrum. The Si-O-Si bonds produce the inverse effect, i.e. an energy gap increase associated with a blueshift in the absorption spectrum.

  15. Exact matrix treatment of an osmotic ensemble model of adsorption and pressure induced structural transitions in metal organic frameworks. (United States)

    Dunne, Lawrence J; Manos, George


    Here we present an exactly treated quasi-one dimensional statistical mechanical osmotic ensemble model of pressure and adsorption induced breathing structural transformations of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The treatment uses a transfer matrix method. The model successfully reproduces the gas and pressure induced structural changes which are observed experimentally in MOFs. The model treatment presented here is a significant step towards analytical statistical mechanical treatments of flexible metal-organic frameworks.

  16. Formation and vibrational structure of Si nano-clusters in ZnO matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Serrano, J. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Hidalgo (Mexico); Pal, U. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Koshizaki, N.; Sasaki, T. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Ibaraki (Japan)


    We have studied the formation and vibrational structure of Si nano-clusters in ZnO matrix prepared by radio-frequency (r.f.) co-sputtering, and characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Infrared (IR) spectroscopy techniques. The composite films of Si/ZnO were grown o quartz substrates by co-sputtering of Si and ZnO targets. TEM images show a homogeneous distribution of clusters in the matrix with average size varied from 3.7 nm to 34 nm depending on the temperature of annealing. IR absorption measurements revealed the bands correspond to the modes of vibrations of Si{sub 3} in its triangular geometrical structure. By analysing the IR absorption and XPS spectra we found that the nano-clusters consist of a Si{sub 3} core and a SiO{sub x} cap layer. With the increase of annealing temperature, the vibrational states of Si changed from the triplet {sup 3}B1(C2{sub v}) and {sup 3}A'{sub 2}(D{sub 3h}) states to its singlet ground state {sup 1}A{sub 1}(C2{sub v}) and the oxidation state of Si in SiO{sub x} increased. The evolution of the local atomic structure of the Si nano-clusters with the variation of Si content in the film and with the variation of the temperature of annealing are discussed. [Spanish] Se estudia la formacion y estructura vibracional de nano-cumulos de Si en matriz de ZnO preparados por la tecnica de radio-frecuencia (r.f.) co-sputtering, y caracterizados por Microscopia Electronica de Transmision (TEM), Espectroscopia Fotoelectronica de rayos X (XPS) y Espectroscopia de Infrarrojo (IR). Las peliculas compositas de Si/ZnO fueron crecidas sobre sustratos de cuarzo mediante el co-sputtering de blancos de Si y ZnO. Las imagenes de TEM mostraron una distribucion homogenea de cumulos en la matriz con un tamano promedio de 3.7 nm a 34 nm dependiendo de la temperatura de tratamiento. Las mediciones de IR relevaron las bandas correspondientes a los modos de vibracion de Si{sub 3} en su estructura

  17. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva. (United States)

    Vijay, Amrita; Inui, Taichi; Dodds, Michael; Proctor, Gordon; Carpenter, Guy


    The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste) salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva.

  18. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Vijay

    Full Text Available The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva.

  19. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva (United States)

    Vijay, Amrita; Inui, Taichi; Dodds, Michael; Proctor, Gordon; Carpenter, Guy


    The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste) salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva. PMID:26305698

  20. Rheology of Biopolymer Solutions and Gels


    David R. Picout; Ross-Murphy, Simon B.


    Rheological techniques and methods have been employed for many decades in the characterization of polymers. Originally developed and used on synthetic polymers, rheology has then found much interest in the field of natural (bio) polymers. This review concentrates on introducing the fundamentals of rheology and on discussing the rheological aspects and properties of the two major classes of biopolymers: polysaccharides and proteins. An overview of both their solution properties (dilute to semi...

  1. Rheology of Biopolymer Solutions and Gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Picout


    Full Text Available Rheological techniques and methods have been employed for many decades in the characterization of polymers. Originally developed and used on synthetic polymers, rheology has then found much interest in the field of natural (bio polymers. This review concentrates on introducing the fundamentals of rheology and on discussing the rheological aspects and properties of the two major classes of biopolymers: polysaccharides and proteins. An overview of both their solution properties (dilute to semi-dilute and gel properties is described.

  2. Study of the rheological properties of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewulski, J.


    The author describes industrial research into the process of disturbing the thixotropic structure of oil in well L-3 during constant oil coagulation inside the ''Rheostat'' rotating cylindrical viscosity meter. This oil, containing paraffin, has a high viscosity and corresponds to the chemical classification for pseudo water plastic thixotropic flowing liquid. This research was conducted at temperatures of 15,20,25, and 30 degrees C. The final time period is determined for the disintegration of the oil structure, during which almost no indicator changes are detected by industrial metering devices. This process of disintegration was viewed by the author as a breakdown of the thixotropic structure during the given rate of coagulation. Metering results were approximated and found to be most significant in non-stationary processes over a relatively short period of time. The rheological curve is then often replaced by a straight angle. This article also examines certain factors in the transport of such oil and trunklines and the resulting effects upon that oil's rheological composition.

  3. Nanocomposites based on opal matrixes with 3D-structure formed by mangnetic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinkevich A. B.


    Full Text Available Interaction of electromagnetic waves with nanocomposites of materials obtained by doping of opal matrixes with nickel-zinc and manganese-zinc ferrite has been studied. The opal matrixes contain of SiO2 nanospheres with diameter about 250 nm with ferrite nanoparticles in the nanosphere voids. The measurements are carried out in frequency range from 26 to 38 GHz in magnetic fields up to 30 kOe. It was shown that magnetic resonance in the doped matrix is the main reason for microwave variations.

  4. Structure and properties of a pulp fibre-reinforced composite with regenerated cellulose matrix (United States)

    Gindl, W.; Schöberl, T.; Keckes, J.


    Fully bio-based cellulose cellulose composites were produced by partly dissolving beech pulp fibres in lithium chloride/dimethylacetamide (LiCl/DMAc) and subsequent regeneration of matrix cellulose in the presence of undissolved fibres. Compared to cellulose epoxy composites produced from the same fibres, a two-fold increase in tensile strength and elastic modulus was observed for cellulose cellulose composites. From scanning electron microscopy and nanoindentation it is concluded that changes in the fibre cell wall during LiCl/DMAc treatment, improved matrix properties of regenerated cellulose compared to epoxy, and improved fibre matrix adhesion are responsible for the superior properties of cellulose cellulose composites.

  5. Flight-vehicle materials, structures, and dynamics - Assessment and future directions. Vol. 3 - Ceramics and ceramic-matrix composites (United States)

    Levine, Stanley R. (Editor)


    The present volume discusses ceramics and ceramic-matrix composites in prospective aerospace systems, monolithic ceramics, transformation-toughened and whisker-reinforced ceramic composites, glass-ceramic matrix composites, reaction-bonded Si3N4 and SiC composites, and chemical vapor-infiltrated composites. Also discussed are the sol-gel-processing of ceramic composites, the fabrication and properties of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites with directed metal oxidation, the fracture behavior of ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs), the fatigue of fiber-reinforced CMCs, creep and rupture of CMCs, structural design methodologies for ceramic-based materials systems, the joining of ceramics and CMCs, and carbon-carbon composites.

  6. The rheology and composition of cryovolcanic flows on icy satellites (United States)

    Kargel, Jeffrey S.


    The rheologic properties of terrestrial lavas have been related to morphologic features of their flows, such as levees, banked surfaces, multilobate structures, and compressible folds. These features also have been used to determine rheologies and constrain the compositions of extraterrestrial flows. However, with rare exceptions, such features are not resolvable in Voyager images of the satellites of outer planets. Often only flow length and edge thickness of cryovolcanic flows can be measured reasonably accurately from Voyager images. The semiempirical lava-flow model presented here is a renewed effort to extract useful information from such measurements.

  7. On the Adjacency Matrix of RyR2 Cluster Structures. (United States)

    Walker, Mark A; Kohl, Tobias; Lehnart, Stephan E; Greenstein, Joseph L; Lederer, W J; Winslow, Raimond L


    In the heart, electrical stimulation of cardiac myocytes increases the open probability of sarcolemmal voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels and flux of Ca2+ into the cells. This increases Ca2+ binding to ligand-gated channels known as ryanodine receptors (RyR2). Their openings cause cell-wide release of Ca2+, which in turn causes muscle contraction and the generation of the mechanical force required to pump blood. In resting myocytes, RyR2s can also open spontaneously giving rise to spatially-confined Ca2+ release events known as "sparks." RyR2s are organized in a lattice to form clusters in the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. Our recent work has shown that the spatial arrangement of RyR2s within clusters strongly influences the frequency of Ca2+ sparks. We showed that the probability of a Ca2+ spark occurring when a single RyR2 in the cluster opens spontaneously can be predicted from the precise spatial arrangements of the RyR2s. Thus, "function" follows from "structure." This probability is related to the maximum eigenvalue (λ1) of the adjacency matrix of the RyR2 cluster lattice. In this work, we develop a theoretical framework for understanding this relationship. We present a stochastic contact network model of the Ca2+ spark initiation process. We show that λ1 determines a stability threshold for the formation of Ca2+ sparks in terms of the RyR2 gating transition rates. We recapitulate these results by applying the model to realistic RyR2 cluster structures informed by super-resolution stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy. Eigendecomposition of the linearized mean-field contact network model reveals functional subdomains within RyR2 clusters with distinct sensitivities to Ca2+. This work provides novel perspectives on the cardiac Ca2+ release process and a general method for inferring the functional properties of transmembrane receptor clusters from their structure.

  8. On the Adjacency Matrix of RyR2 Cluster Structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Walker


    Full Text Available In the heart, electrical stimulation of cardiac myocytes increases the open probability of sarcolemmal voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels and flux of Ca2+ into the cells. This increases Ca2+ binding to ligand-gated channels known as ryanodine receptors (RyR2. Their openings cause cell-wide release of Ca2+, which in turn causes muscle contraction and the generation of the mechanical force required to pump blood. In resting myocytes, RyR2s can also open spontaneously giving rise to spatially-confined Ca2+ release events known as "sparks." RyR2s are organized in a lattice to form clusters in the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. Our recent work has shown that the spatial arrangement of RyR2s within clusters strongly influences the frequency of Ca2+ sparks. We showed that the probability of a Ca2+ spark occurring when a single RyR2 in the cluster opens spontaneously can be predicted from the precise spatial arrangements of the RyR2s. Thus, "function" follows from "structure." This probability is related to the maximum eigenvalue (λ1 of the adjacency matrix of the RyR2 cluster lattice. In this work, we develop a theoretical framework for understanding this relationship. We present a stochastic contact network model of the Ca2+ spark initiation process. We show that λ1 determines a stability threshold for the formation of Ca2+ sparks in terms of the RyR2 gating transition rates. We recapitulate these results by applying the model to realistic RyR2 cluster structures informed by super-resolution stimulated emission depletion (STED microscopy. Eigendecomposition of the linearized mean-field contact network model reveals functional subdomains within RyR2 clusters with distinct sensitivities to Ca2+. This work provides novel perspectives on the cardiac Ca2+ release process and a general method for inferring the functional properties of transmembrane receptor clusters from their structure.

  9. Friction Stir Welding of Metal Matrix Composites for use in aerospace structures (United States)

    Prater, Tracie


    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a relatively nascent solid state joining technique developed at The Welding Institute (TWI) in 1991. The process was first used at NASA to weld the super lightweight external tank for the Space Shuttle. Today FSW is used to join structural components of the Delta IV, Atlas V, and Falcon IX rockets as well as the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle. A current focus of FSW research is to extend the process to new materials which are difficult to weld using conventional fusion techniques. Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) consist of a metal alloy reinforced with ceramics and have a very high strength to weight ratio, a property which makes them attractive for use in aerospace and defense applications. MMCs have found use in the space shuttle orbiter's structural tubing, the Hubble Space Telescope's antenna mast, control surfaces and propulsion systems for aircraft, and tank armors. The size of MMC components is severely limited by difficulties encountered in joining these materials using fusion welding. Melting of the material results in formation of an undesirable phase (formed when molten Aluminum reacts with the reinforcement) which leaves a strength depleted region along the joint line. Since FSW occurs below the melting point of the workpiece material, this deleterious phase is absent in FSW-ed MMC joints. FSW of MMCs is, however, plagued by rapid wear of the welding tool, a consequence of the large discrepancy in hardness between the steel tool and the reinforcement material. This work characterizes the effect of process parameters (spindle speed, traverse rate, and length of joint) on the wear process. Based on the results of these experiments, a phenomenological model of the wear process was constructed based on the rotating plug model for FSW. The effectiveness of harder tool materials (such as Tungsten Carbide, high speed steel, and tools with diamond coatings) to combat abrasive wear is explored. In-process force, torque, and

  10. Analysis of X-ray Structures of Matrix Metalloproteinases via Chaotic Map Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargano Gianfranco


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are well-known biological targets implicated in tumour progression, homeostatic regulation, innate immunity, impaired delivery of pro-apoptotic ligands, and the release and cleavage of cell-surface receptors. With this in mind, the perception of the intimate relationships among diverse MMPs could be a solid basis for accelerated learning in designing new selective MMP inhibitors. In this regard, decrypting the latent molecular reasons in order to elucidate similarity among MMPs is a key challenge. Results We describe a pairwise variant of the non-parametric chaotic map clustering (CMC algorithm and its application to 104 X-ray MMP structures. In this analysis electrostatic potentials are computed and used as input for the CMC algorithm. It was shown that differences between proteins reflect genuine variation of their electrostatic potentials. In addition, the analysis has been also extended to analyze the protein primary structures and the molecular shapes of the MMP co-crystallised ligands. Conclusions The CMC algorithm was shown to be a valuable tool in knowledge acquisition and transfer from MMP structures. Based on the variation of electrostatic potentials, CMC was successful in analysing the MMP target family landscape and different subsites. The first investigation resulted in rational figure interpretation of both domain organization as well as of substrate specificity classifications. The second made it possible to distinguish the MMP classes, demonstrating the high specificity of the S1' pocket, to detect both the occurrence of punctual mutations of ionisable residues and different side-chain conformations that likely account for induced-fit phenomena. In addition, CMC demonstrated a potential comparable to the most popular UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean method that, at present, represents a standard clustering bioinformatics approach. Interestingly, CMC and

  11. Flexible and rigid structures in HIV-1 p17 matrix protein monitored by relaxation and amide proton exchange with NMR. (United States)

    Ohori, Yuka; Okazaki, Honoka; Watanabe, Satoru; Tochio, Naoya; Arai, Munehito; Kigawa, Takanori; Nishimura, Chiaki


    The HIV-1 p17 matrix protein is a multifunctional protein that interacts with other molecules including proteins and membranes. The dynamic structure between its folded and partially unfolded states can be critical for the recognition of interacting molecules. One of the most important roles of the p17 matrix protein is its localization to the plasma membrane with the Gag polyprotein. The myristyl group attached to the N-terminus on the p17 matrix protein functions as an anchor for binding to the plasma membrane. Biochemical studies revealed that two regions are important for its function: D14-L31 and V84-V88. Here, the dynamic structures of the p17 matrix protein were studied using NMR for relaxation and amide proton exchange experiments at the physiological pH of 7.0. The results revealed that the α12-loop, which includes the 14-31 region, was relatively flexible, and that helix 4, including the 84-88 region, was the most protected helix in this protein. However, the residues in the α34-loop near helix 4 had a low order parameter and high exchange rate of amide protons, indicating high flexibility. This region is probably flexible because this loop functions as a hinge for optimizing the interactions between helices 3 and 4. The C-terminal long region of K113-Y132 adopted a disordered structure. Furthermore, the C-terminal helix 5 appeared to be slightly destabilized due to the flexible C-terminal tail based on the order parameters. Thus, the dynamic structure of the p17 matrix protein may be related to its multiple functions.

  12. Rheological Properties of Aging Thermosensitive Suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnomo, E.H; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mellema, J.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther


    Aging observed in soft glassy materials inherently affects the rheological properties of these systems and has been described by the soft glassy rheology (SGR) model [S. M. Fielding et al., J. Rheol. 44, 323 (2000)]. In this paper, we report the measured linear rheological behavior of

  13. Oxidation modifies the structure and function of the extracellular matrix generated by human coronary artery endothelial cells. (United States)

    Chuang, Christine Y; Degendorfer, Georg; Hammer, Astrid; Whitelock, John M; Malle, Ernst; Davies, Michael J


    ECM (extracellular matrix) materials, such as laminin, perlecan, type IV collagen and fibronectin, play a key role in determining the structure of the arterial wall and the properties of cells that interact with the ECM. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of peroxynitrous acid, an oxidant generated by activated macrophages, on the structure and function of the ECM laid down by HCAECs (human coronary artery endothelial cells) in vitro and in vivo. We show that exposure of HCAEC-derived native matrix components to peroxynitrous acid (but not decomposed oxidant) at concentrations >1 μM results in a loss of antibody recognition of perlecan, collagen IV, and cell-binding sites on laminin and fibronectin. Loss of recognition was accompanied by decreased HCAEC adhesion. Real-time PCR showed up-regulation of inflammation-associated genes, including MMP7 (matrix metalloproteinase 7) and MMP13, as well as down-regulation of the laminin α2 chain, in HCAECs cultured on peroxynitrous acid-treated matrix compared with native matrix. Immunohistochemical studies provided evidence of co-localization of laminin with 3-nitrotyrosine, a biomarker of peroxynitrous acid damage, in type II-III/IV human atherosclerotic lesions, consistent with matrix damage occurring during disease development in vivo. The results of the present study suggest a mechanism through which peroxynitrous acid modifies endothelial cell-derived native ECM proteins of the arterial basement membrane in atherosclerotic lesions. These changes to ECM and particularly perlecan and laminin may be important in inducing cellular dysfunction and contribute to atherogenesis.

  14. Market Correlation Structure Changes Around the Great Crash: A Random Matrix Theory Analysis of the Chinese Stock Market (United States)

    Han, Rui-Qi; Xie, Wen-Jie; Xiong, Xiong; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    The correlation structure of a stock market contains important financial contents, which may change remarkably due to the occurrence of financial crisis. We perform a comparative analysis of the Chinese stock market around the occurrence of the 2008 crisis based on the random matrix analysis of high-frequency stock returns of 1228 Chinese stocks. Both raw correlation matrix and partial correlation matrix with respect to the market index in two time periods of one year are investigated. We find that the Chinese stocks have stronger average correlation and partial correlation in 2008 than in 2007 and the average partial correlation is significantly weaker than the average correlation in each period. Accordingly, the largest eigenvalue of the correlation matrix is remarkably greater than that of the partial correlation matrix in each period. Moreover, each largest eigenvalue and its eigenvector reflect an evident market effect, while other deviating eigenvalues do not. We find no evidence that deviating eigenvalues contain industrial sectorial information. Surprisingly, the eigenvectors of the second largest eigenvalues in 2007 and of the third largest eigenvalues in 2008 are able to distinguish the stocks from the two exchanges. We also find that the component magnitudes of the some largest eigenvectors are proportional to the stocks’ capitalizations.

  15. A Random Matrix Approach to Differential Privacy and Structure Preserved Social Network Graph Publishing

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Faraz; Liu, Alex X


    Online social networks are being increasingly used for analyzing various societal phenomena such as epidemiology, information dissemination, marketing and sentiment flow. Popular analysis techniques such as clustering and influential node analysis, require the computation of eigenvectors of the real graph's adjacency matrix. Recent de-anonymization attacks on Netflix and AOL datasets show that an open access to such graphs pose privacy threats. Among the various privacy preserving models, Differential privacy provides the strongest privacy guarantees. In this paper we propose a privacy preserving mechanism for publishing social network graph data, which satisfies differential privacy guarantees by utilizing a combination of theory of random matrix and that of differential privacy. The key idea is to project each row of an adjacency matrix to a low dimensional space using the random projection approach and then perturb the projected matrix with random noise. We show that as compared to existing approaches for ...

  16. The influence of fibrous elastomer structure and porosity on matrix organization. (United States)

    Ifkovits, Jamie L; Wu, Katherine; Mauck, Robert L; Burdick, Jason A


    Fibrous scaffolds are finding wide use in the field of tissue engineering, as they can be designed to mimic many native tissue properties and structures (e.g., cardiac tissue, meniscus). The influence of fiber alignment and scaffold architecture on cellular interactions and matrix organization was the focus of this study. Three scaffolds were fabricated from the photocrosslinkable elastomer poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS), with changes in fiber alignment (non-aligned (NA) versus aligned (AL)) and the introduction of a PEO sacrificial polymer population to the AL scaffold (composite (CO)). PEO removal led to an increase in scaffold porosity and maintenance of scaffold anisotropy, as evident through visualization, mechanical testing, and mass loss studies. Hydrated scaffolds possessed moduli that ranged between ∼3-240 kPa, failing within the range of properties (<300 kPa) appropriate for soft tissue engineering. CO scaffolds were completely degraded as early as 16 days, whereas NA and AL scaffolds had ∼90% mass loss after 21 days when monitored in vitro. Neonatal cardiomyocytes, used as a representative cell type, that were seeded onto the scaffolds maintained their viability and aligned along the surface of the AL and CO fibers. When implanted subcutaneously in rats, a model that is commonly used to investigate in vivo tissue responses to biomaterials, CO scaffolds were completely integrated at 2 weeks, whereas ∼13% and ∼16% of the NA and AL scaffolds, respectively remained acellular. However, all scaffolds were completely populated with cells at 4 weeks post-implantation. Polarized light microscopy was used to evaluate the collagen elaboration and orientation within the scaffold. An increase in the amount of collagen was observed for CO scaffolds and enhanced alignment of the nascent collagen was observed for AL and CO scaffolds compared to NA scaffolds. Thus, these results indicate that the scaffold architecture and porosity are important considerations in

  17. The influence of fibrous elastomer structure and porosity on matrix organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie L Ifkovits

    Full Text Available Fibrous scaffolds are finding wide use in the field of tissue engineering, as they can be designed to mimic many native tissue properties and structures (e.g., cardiac tissue, meniscus. The influence of fiber alignment and scaffold architecture on cellular interactions and matrix organization was the focus of this study. Three scaffolds were fabricated from the photocrosslinkable elastomer poly(glycerol sebacate (PGS, with changes in fiber alignment (non-aligned (NA versus aligned (AL and the introduction of a PEO sacrificial polymer population to the AL scaffold (composite (CO. PEO removal led to an increase in scaffold porosity and maintenance of scaffold anisotropy, as evident through visualization, mechanical testing, and mass loss studies. Hydrated scaffolds possessed moduli that ranged between ∼3-240 kPa, failing within the range of properties (<300 kPa appropriate for soft tissue engineering. CO scaffolds were completely degraded as early as 16 days, whereas NA and AL scaffolds had ∼90% mass loss after 21 days when monitored in vitro. Neonatal cardiomyocytes, used as a representative cell type, that were seeded onto the scaffolds maintained their viability and aligned along the surface of the AL and CO fibers. When implanted subcutaneously in rats, a model that is commonly used to investigate in vivo tissue responses to biomaterials, CO scaffolds were completely integrated at 2 weeks, whereas ∼13% and ∼16% of the NA and AL scaffolds, respectively remained acellular. However, all scaffolds were completely populated with cells at 4 weeks post-implantation. Polarized light microscopy was used to evaluate the collagen elaboration and orientation within the scaffold. An increase in the amount of collagen was observed for CO scaffolds and enhanced alignment of the nascent collagen was observed for AL and CO scaffolds compared to NA scaffolds. Thus, these results indicate that the scaffold architecture and porosity are important

  18. Domain structure and function of matrix metalloprotease 23 (MMP23): role in potassium channel trafficking. (United States)

    Galea, Charles A; Nguyen, Hai M; George Chandy, K; Smith, Brian J; Norton, Raymond S


    MMP23 is a member of the matrix metalloprotease family of zinc- and calcium-dependent endopeptidases, which are involved in a wide variety of cellular functions. Its catalytic domain displays a high degree of structural homology with those of other metalloproteases, but its atypical domain architecture suggests that it may possess unique functional properties. The N-terminal MMP23 pro-domain contains a type-II transmembrane domain that anchors the protein to the plasma membrane and lacks the cysteine-switch motif that is required to maintain other MMPs in a latent state during passage to the cell surface. Instead of the C-terminal hemopexin domain common to other MMPs, MMP23 contains a small toxin-like domain (TxD) and an immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule (IgCAM) domain. The MMP23 pro-domain can trap Kv1.3 but not closely-related Kv1.2 channels in the endoplasmic reticulum, preventing their passage to the cell surface, while the TxD can bind to the channel pore and block the passage of potassium ions. The MMP23 C-terminal IgCAM domain displays some similarity to Ig-like C2-type domains found in IgCAMs of the immunoglobulin superfamily, which are known to mediate protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions. MMP23 and Kv1.3 are co-expressed in a variety of tissues and together are implicated in diseases including cancer and inflammatory disorders. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanism of action of this unique member of the MMP family.

  19. Metal- and Polymer-Matrix Composites: Functional Lightweight Materials for High-Performance Structures (United States)

    Gupta, Nikhil; Paramsothy, Muralidharan


    The special topic "Metal- and Polymer-Matrix Composites" is intended to capture the state of the art in the research and practice of functional composites. The current set of articles related to metal-matrix composites includes reviews on functionalities such as self-healing, self-lubricating, and self-cleaning capabilities; research results on a variety of aluminum-matrix composites; and investigations on advanced composites manufacturing methods. In addition, the processing and properties of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer-matrix composites and adhesive bonding of laminated composites are discussed. The literature on functional metal-matrix composites is relatively scarce compared to functional polymer-matrix composites. The demand for lightweight composites in the transportation sector is fueling the rapid development in this field, which is captured in the current set of articles. The possibility of simultaneously tailoring several desired properties is attractive but very challenging, and it requires significant advancements in the science and technology of composite materials. The progress captured in the current set of articles shows promise for developing materials that seem capable of moving this field from laboratory-scale prototypes to actual industrial applications.

  20. Effects of stress conditions on rheological properties of granular soil in large triaxial rheology laboratory tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓斌; 张家生; 刘宝琛; 唐孟雄


    In order to study the rheological properties of red stone granular soil,a series of rheological experiments were executed on large tri-axial rheological apparatus.Under 100,200 and 300 kPa confining stress conditions,the rheological tests were carried out.These experiment results showed that the stress conditions,especially the stress level were the critical influencing factors of the rheological deformation properties.Under the low stress level(S=0.1),the granular soil showed the elastic properties,and there was no obvious rheological deformation.Under the middle stress level(0.2rheological properties.However,under the high stress level(S>0.8) creep curves showed the non-linear viscous plastic rheological properties.Especially,under the stress level of S=1.0,the accelerated rheological phase of creep curves occurred at early time with a trend of failure.The stress level had obvious effects on the final rheological deformation of the soil sample,and the final rheological deformation increments nonlinearly increased with stress level.The final rheological deformation increment and step was little under low stress level,while it became large under high stress level,which showed the nonlinearly rheological properties of the granular soil.The confining pressure also had direct effects on final rheological deformation,and the final rheological deformation linearly increased with confining pressure increments.