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Sample records for matrix rigidity joel

  1. Rigidity percolation in dispersions with a structured viscoelastic matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbrink, M.W.L.; Michels, M.A.J.; Vellinga, W.P.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with rigidity percolation in composite materials consisting of a dispersion of mineral particles in a microstructured viscoelastic matrix. The viscoelastic matrix in this specific case is a hydrocarbon refinery residue. In a set of model random composites the mean interparticle

  2. Matrix rigidity regulates cancer cell growth and cellular phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Tilghman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix have an important role in cell growth and differentiation. However, it is unclear as to what extent cancer cells respond to changes in the mechanical properties (rigidity/stiffness of the microenvironment and how this response varies among cancer cell lines.In this study we used a recently developed 96-well plate system that arrays extracellular matrix-conjugated polyacrylamide gels that increase in stiffness by at least 50-fold across the plate. This plate was used to determine how changes in the rigidity of the extracellular matrix modulate the biological properties of tumor cells. The cell lines tested fall into one of two categories based on their proliferation on substrates of differing stiffness: "rigidity dependent" (those which show an increase in cell growth as extracellular rigidity is increased, and "rigidity independent" (those which grow equally on both soft and stiff substrates. Cells which grew poorly on soft gels also showed decreased spreading and migration under these conditions. More importantly, seeding the cell lines into the lungs of nude mice revealed that the ability of cells to grow on soft gels in vitro correlated with their ability to grow in a soft tissue environment in vivo. The lung carcinoma line A549 responded to culture on soft gels by expressing the differentiated epithelial marker E-cadherin and decreasing the expression of the mesenchymal transcription factor Slug.These observations suggest that the mechanical properties of the matrix environment play a significant role in regulating the proliferation and the morphological properties of cancer cells. Further, the multiwell format of the soft-plate assay is a useful and effective adjunct to established 3-dimensional cell culture models.

  3. Matrix Rigidity Regulates Cancer Cell Growth and Cellular Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilghman, Robert W.; Cowan, Catharine R.; Mih, Justin D.; Koryakina, Yulia; Gioeli, Daniel; Slack-Davis, Jill K.; Blackman, Brett R.; Tschumperlin, Daniel J.; Parsons, J. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Background The mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix have an important role in cell growth and differentiation. However, it is unclear as to what extent cancer cells respond to changes in the mechanical properties (rigidity/stiffness) of the microenvironment and how this response varies among cancer cell lines. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we used a recently developed 96-well plate system that arrays extracellular matrix-conjugated polyacrylamide gels that increase in stiffness by at least 50-fold across the plate. This plate was used to determine how changes in the rigidity of the extracellular matrix modulate the biological properties of tumor cells. The cell lines tested fall into one of two categories based on their proliferation on substrates of differing stiffness: “rigidity dependent” (those which show an increase in cell growth as extracellular rigidity is increased), and “rigidity independent” (those which grow equally on both soft and stiff substrates). Cells which grew poorly on soft gels also showed decreased spreading and migration under these conditions. More importantly, seeding the cell lines into the lungs of nude mice revealed that the ability of cells to grow on soft gels in vitro correlated with their ability to grow in a soft tissue environment in vivo. The lung carcinoma line A549 responded to culture on soft gels by expressing the differentiated epithelial marker E-cadherin and decreasing the expression of the mesenchymal transcription factor Slug. Conclusions/Significance These observations suggest that the mechanical properties of the matrix environment play a significant role in regulating the proliferation and the morphological properties of cancer cells. Further, the multiwell format of the soft-plate assay is a useful and effective adjunct to established 3-dimensional cell culture models. PMID:20886123

  4. Matrix methods applied to engineering rigid body mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, T.

    The purpose of this book is to present the solution of a range of rigorous body mechanics problems using a matrix formulation of vector algebra. Essential theory concerning kinematics and dynamics is formulated in terms of matrix algebra. The solution of kinematics and dynamics problems is discussed, taking into account the velocity and acceleration of a point moving in a circular path, the velocity and acceleration determination for a linkage, the angular velocity and angular acceleration of a roller in a taper-roller thrust race, Euler's theroem on the motion of rigid bodies, an automotive differential, a rotating epicyclic, the motion of a high speed rotor mounted in gimbals, and the vibration of a spinning projectile. Attention is given to the activity of a force, the work done by a conservative force, the work and potential in a conservative system, the equilibrium of a mechanism, bearing forces due to rotor misalignment, and the frequency of vibrations of a constrained rod.

  5. Positive semidefinite matrix completion, universal rigidity and the Strong Arnold Property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Laurent (Monique); A. Varvitsiotis (Antonios)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThis paper addresses the following three topics: positive semidefinite (psd) matrix completions, universal rigidity of frameworks, and the Strong Arnold Property (SAP). We show some strong connections among these topics, using semidefinite programming as unifying theme. Our main

  6. Positive semidefinite matrix completion, universal rigidity and the Strong Arnold Property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurent, Monique; Varvitsiotis, A.

    This paper addresses the following three topics: positive semidefinite (psd) matrix completions, universal rigidity of frameworks, and the Strong Arnold Property (SAP). We show some strong connections among these topics, using semidefinite programming as unifying theme. Our main contribution is a

  7. Flexibility-Rigidity Coordination of the Dense Exopolysaccharide Matrix in Terrestrial Cyanobacteria Acclimated to Periodic Desiccation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Cui, Lijuan; Xu, Haiyan; Zhu, Zhaoxia; Gao, Xiang

    2017-11-15

    A dense exopolysaccharide (EPS) matrix is crucial for cyanobacterial survival in terrestrial xeric environments, in which cyanobacteria undergo frequent expansion and shrinkage processes during environmental desiccation-rehydration cycles. However, it is unclear how terrestrial cyanobacteria coordinate the structural dynamics of the EPS matrix upon expansion and shrinkage to avoid potential mechanical stress while benefiting from the matrix. In the present study, we sought to answer this question by investigating the gene expression, protein dynamics, enzymatic characteristics, and biological roles of WspA, an abundantly secreted protein, in the representative terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme The results demonstrated that WspA is a novel β-galactosidase that facilitates softening of the EPS matrix by breaking the polysaccharide backbone under substantial moisture or facilitates the thickening and relinkage of the broken matrix during the drying process, and thus these regulations are well correlated with moisture availability or desiccation-rehydration cycles. This coordination of flexibility and rigidity of the cyanobacterial extracellular matrix may contribute to a favorable balance of cell growth and stress resistance in xeric environments. IMPORTANCE How the exopolysaccharide matrix is dynamically coordinated by exoproteins to cope with frequent expansion and shrinkage processes in terrestrial colonial cyanobacteria remains unclear. Here we elucidated the biochemical identity and biological roles of a dominant exoprotein in these regulation processes. Our study thus gained insight into this regulative mechanism in cyanobacteria to combat periodic desiccation. In addition, the filamentous drought-adapted cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme serves as an ideal model for us to explore this issue in this study. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Forces and torques on rigid inclusions in an elastic environment: Resulting matrix-mediated interactions, displacements, and rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puljiz, Mate; Menzel, Andreas M.

    2017-05-01

    Embedding rigid inclusions into elastic matrix materials is a procedure of high practical relevance, for instance, for the fabrication of elastic composite materials. We theoretically analyze the following situation. Rigid spherical inclusions are enclosed by a homogeneous elastic medium under stick boundary conditions. Forces and torques are directly imposed from outside onto the inclusions or are externally induced between them. The inclusions respond to these forces and torques by translations and rotations against the surrounding elastic matrix. This leads to elastic matrix deformations, and in turn results in mutual long-ranged matrix-mediated interactions between the inclusions. Adapting a well-known approach from low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics, we explicitly calculate the displacements and rotations of the inclusions from the externally imposed or induced forces and torques. Analytical expressions are presented as a function of the inclusion configuration in terms of displaceability and rotateability matrices. The role of the elastic environment is implicitly included in these relations. That is, the resulting expressions allow a calculation of the induced displacements and rotations directly from the inclusion configuration, without having to explicitly determine the deformations of the elastic environment. In contrast to the hydrodynamic case, compressibility of the surrounding medium is readily taken into account. We present the complete derivation based on the underlying equations of linear elasticity theory. In the future, the method will, for example, be helpful to characterize the behavior of externally tunable elastic composite materials, to accelerate numerical approaches, as well as to improve the quantitative interpretation of microrheological results.

  9. Matrix rigidity regulates cancer cell growth by modulating cellular metabolism and protein synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Tilghman

    Full Text Available Tumor cells in vivo encounter diverse types of microenvironments both at the site of the primary tumor and at sites of distant metastases. Understanding how the various mechanical properties of these microenvironments affect the biology of tumor cells during disease progression is critical in identifying molecular targets for cancer therapy.This study uses flexible polyacrylamide gels as substrates for cell growth in conjunction with a novel proteomic approach to identify the properties of rigidity-dependent cancer cell lines that contribute to their differential growth on soft and rigid substrates. Compared to cells growing on more rigid/stiff substrates (>10,000 Pa, cells on soft substrates (150-300 Pa exhibited a longer cell cycle, due predominantly to an extension of the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and were metabolically less active, showing decreased levels of intracellular ATP and a marked reduction in protein synthesis. Using stable isotope labeling of amino acids in culture (SILAC and mass spectrometry, we measured the rates of protein synthesis of over 1200 cellular proteins under growth conditions on soft and rigid/stiff substrates. We identified cellular proteins whose syntheses were either preferentially inhibited or preserved on soft matrices. The former category included proteins that regulate cytoskeletal structures (e.g., tubulins and glycolysis (e.g., phosphofructokinase-1, whereas the latter category included proteins that regulate key metabolic pathways required for survival, e.g., nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, a regulator of the NAD salvage pathway.The cellular properties of rigidity-dependent cancer cells growing on soft matrices are reminiscent of the properties of dormant cancer cells, e.g., slow growth rate and reduced metabolism. We suggest that the use of relatively soft gels as cell culture substrates would allow molecular pathways to be studied under conditions that reflect the different mechanical

  10. Matrix rigidity induces osteolytic gene expression of metastatic breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin S Ruppender

    Full Text Available Nearly 70% of breast cancer patients with advanced disease will develop bone metastases. Once established in bone, tumor cells produce factors that cause changes in normal bone remodeling, such as parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP. While enhanced expression of PTHrP is known to stimulate osteoclasts to resorb bone, the environmental factors driving tumor cells to express PTHrP in the early stages of development of metastatic bone disease are unknown. In this study, we have shown that tumor cells known to metastasize to bone respond to 2D substrates with rigidities comparable to that of the bone microenvironment by increasing expression and production of PTHrP. The cellular response is regulated by Rho-dependent actomyosin contractility mediated by TGF-ß signaling. Inhibition of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK using both pharmacological and genetic approaches decreased PTHrP expression. Furthermore, cells expressing a dominant negative form of the TGF-ß receptor did not respond to substrate rigidity, and inhibition of ROCK decreased PTHrP expression induced by exogenous TGF-ß. These observations suggest a role for the differential rigidity of the mineralized bone microenvironment in early stages of tumor-induced osteolysis, which is especially important in metastatic cancer since many cancers (such as those of the breast and lung preferentially metastasize to bone.

  11. Capillary network formation from dispersed endothelial cells: Influence of cell traction, cell adhesion, and extracellular matrix rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, João R. D.; Travasso, Rui; Carvalho, João

    2018-01-01

    The formation of a functional vascular network depends on biological, chemical, and physical processes being extremely well coordinated. Among them, the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix and cell adhesion are fundamental to achieve a functional network of endothelial cells, able to fully cover a required domain. By the use of a Cellular Potts Model and Finite Element Method it is shown that there exists a range of values of endothelial traction forces, cell-cell adhesion, and matrix rigidities where the network can spontaneously be formed, and its properties are characterized. We obtain the analytical relation that the minimum traction force required for cell network formation must obey. This minimum value for the traction force is approximately independent on the considered cell number and cell-cell adhesion. We quantify how these two parameters influence the morphology of the resulting networks (size and number of meshes).

  12. Rigid immobilization alters matrix organization in the injured rat medial collateral ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, L R; Dahners, L E

    1992-11-01

    The effects of mobilization on matrix reorganization and density after ligament injury were studied in rat medial collateral ligaments using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both medial collateral ligaments of 14 Sprague-Dawley rats were sharply incised transversely at their midpoint. A 1.14-mm threaded Kirschner wire was driven through the tibia and into the femur of the right leg (through the knee) to immobilize that knee at 90 degrees of flexion. Four additional rats were used as controls. The right medial collateral ligament of the control rats was exposed in the same manner as the experimental rats and the wound closed without damaging the ligament. Rats were sacrificed on the 7th and 14th days postinjury and the ligaments evaluated by SEM. The electron micrographs from this study demonstrated that early on, the tissue at the injury site is disorganized on a gross scale with large bundles of poorly organized matrix. Large "defects" were present between bundles in the substance of the ligament and appeared as holes in the ligament around the injury site. As healing progressed, the matrix in the mobilized specimens appeared to bridge the injury site more rapidly and completely with fewer "defects" and thus higher density than the immobilized specimens.

  13. Efficient Brownian Dynamics of rigid colloids in linear flow fields based on the grand mobility matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, Duraivelan; den Otter, Wouter K.

    2018-05-01

    We present an efficient general method to simulate in the Stokesian limit the coupled translational and rotational dynamics of arbitrarily shaped colloids subject to external potential forces and torques, linear flow fields, and Brownian motion. The colloid's surface is represented by a collection of spherical primary particles. The hydrodynamic interactions between these particles, here approximated at the Rotne-Prager-Yamakawa level, are evaluated only once to generate the body's (11 × 11) grand mobility matrix. The constancy of this matrix in the body frame, combined with the convenient properties of quaternions in rotational Brownian Dynamics, enables an efficient simulation of the body's motion. Simulations in quiescent fluids yield correct translational and rotational diffusion behaviour and sample Boltzmann's equilibrium distribution. Simulations of ellipsoids and spherical caps under shear, in the absence of thermal fluctuations, yield periodic orbits in excellent agreement with the theories by Jeffery and Dorrepaal. The time-varying stress tensors provide the Einstein coefficient and viscosity of dilute suspensions of these bodies.

  14. Joel Martins: Ensaio biográfico sobre um educador

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, José Antonio

    2005-01-01

    O objetivo desta pesquisa é coletar e analisar dados referentes à biografia de Joel Martins, demonstrando sua trajetória e importância para a educação. A contribuição de Joel Martins no contexto da educação brasileira, mais especificamente na área de Psicologia da Educação, caracterizou-se por novas perspectivas e abordagens tanto de questões teóricas quanto práticas, por romper com paradigmas, incentivar e promover pesquisas com espírito empreendedor e, acima de tudo, por sua personalidade m...

  15. Smooth muscle cell rigidity and extracellular matrix organization influence endothelial cell spreading and adhesion formation in coculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Charles S; Strike, Sophie A; Truskey, George A

    2007-09-01

    Efforts to develop functional tissue-engineered blood vessels have focused on improving the strength and mechanical properties of the vessel wall, while the functional status of the endothelium within these vessels has received less attention. Endothelial cell (EC) function is influenced by interactions between its basal surface and the underlying extracellular matrix. In this study, we utilized a coculture model of a tissue-engineered blood vessel to evaluate EC attachment, spreading, and adhesion formation to the extracellular matrix on the surface of quiescent smooth muscle cells (SMCs). ECs attached to and spread on SMCs primarily through the alpha(5)beta(1)-integrin complex, whereas ECs used either alpha(5)beta(1)- or alpha(v)beta(3)-integrin to spread on fibronectin (FN) adsorbed to plastic. ECs in coculture lacked focal adhesions, but EC alpha(5)beta(1)-integrin bound to fibrillar FN on the SMC surface, promoting rapid fibrillar adhesion formation. As assessed by both Western blot analysis and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, coculture suppressed the expression of focal adhesion proteins and mRNA, whereas tensin protein and mRNA expression were elevated. When attached to polyacrylamide gels with similar elastic moduli as SMCs, focal adhesion formation and the rate of cell spreading increased relative to ECs in coculture. Thus, the elastic properties are only one factor contributing to EC spreading and focal adhesion formation in coculture. The results suggest that the softness of the SMCs and the fibrillar organization of FN inhibit focal adhesions and reduce cell spreading while promoting fibrillar adhesion formation. These changes in the type of adhesions may alter EC signaling pathways in tissue-engineered blood vessels.

  16. Parallel O(log n) algorithms for open- and closed-chain rigid multibody systems based on a new mass matrix factorization technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijany, Amir

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, parallel O(log n) algorithms for computation of rigid multibody dynamics are developed. These parallel algorithms are derived by parallelization of new O(n) algorithms for the problem. The underlying feature of these O(n) algorithms is a drastically different strategy for decomposition of interbody force which leads to a new factorization of the mass matrix (M). Specifically, it is shown that a factorization of the inverse of the mass matrix in the form of the Schur Complement is derived as M(exp -1) = C - B(exp *)A(exp -1)B, wherein matrices C, A, and B are block tridiagonal matrices. The new O(n) algorithm is then derived as a recursive implementation of this factorization of M(exp -1). For the closed-chain systems, similar factorizations and O(n) algorithms for computation of Operational Space Mass Matrix lambda and its inverse lambda(exp -1) are also derived. It is shown that these O(n) algorithms are strictly parallel, that is, they are less efficient than other algorithms for serial computation of the problem. But, to our knowledge, they are the only known algorithms that can be parallelized and that lead to both time- and processor-optimal parallel algorithms for the problem, i.e., parallel O(log n) algorithms with O(n) processors. The developed parallel algorithms, in addition to their theoretical significance, are also practical from an implementation point of view due to their simple architectural requirements.

  17. Extracellular matrix composition and rigidity regulate invasive behavior and response to PDT in 3D pancreatic tumor models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Gwendolyn; El-Hamidi, Hamid; Jafari, Seyedehrojin; Jones, Dustin P.; Celli, Jonathan P.

    2016-03-01

    The composition and mechanical compliance of the extracellular matrix (ECM) have been shown to serve as regulators of tumor growth and invasive behavior. These effects may be particularly relevant in tumors of the pancreas, noted for a profound desmoplastic reaction and an abundance of stroma rich in ECM. In view of recent progress in the clinical implementation of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for pancreatic tumors, in this report we examine how ECM composition and rheological properties impact upon invasive behavior and response to PDT in 3D multicellular pancreatic tumor spheroids in ECM environments with characterized rheological properties. Tumor spheroids were cultured initially in attachment-free conditions to form millimeter-sized spheroids that were transplanted into reconstituted ECM microenvironments (Matrigel and Type I Collagen) that were characterized using bulk oscillatory shear rheology. Analysis of growth behavior shows that the soft collagen ECM promoted growth and extensive invasion and this microenvironment was used in subsequent assessment of PDT and chemotherapy response. Evaluation of treatment response revealed that primary tumor nodule growth is inhibited more effectively with PDT, while verteporfin PDT response is significantly enhanced in the ECM-infiltrating populations that are non-responsive to oxaliplatin chemotherapy. This finding is potentially significant, suggesting the potential for PDT to target these clinically problematic invasive populations that are associated with aggressive metastatic progression and chemoresistance. Experiments to further validate and identify the mechanistic basis of this observation are ongoing.

  18. Tänavatants on jõudnud Põlvasse / Joel Juht ; interv. Kadri Luik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juht, Joel

    2006-01-01

    2. veebr. toimus Põlva Tervisekeskuse tantsusaalis esimest korda JJ-Street Dance Company poolt korraldatud tänavatantsu treening, mida viisid läbi tantsustuudio looja Joel Juht ja treener Britta Gassmann

  19. Eesti arhitektid Riia linna projekteerimas / Indrek Allmamm, Joel Kopli ; intervjueerinud Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Allmann, Indrek, 1972-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti arhitektid Indrek Allmann ja Joel Kopli (AB Pluss) võitsid Lätis rahvusvahelise arhitektuurivõistluse, mille eesmärgiks oli leida parim arhitektuurne lahendus hotelliketti Marriott International kuuluvale hotellihoonele Riia vanalinnas. Intervjuu võitjatega sel teemal. Läti arhitektuurist. Riia arhitektuurinõukogust

  20. Anarchism & Educational Policy Studies; A Marxist View of Joel Spring's "The Sorting Machine."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlowitz, Marvin J.

    A critical analysis and interpretation of "The Sorting Machine" by Joel H. Spring is presented. The book, which uses a historical revisionist approach to trace the development and impact of the corporate-government-foundation network on the ideological orientation of the American educational system, makes its greatest contribution by…

  1. Amoralist rationalism? A response to Joel Marks: commentary on "Animal abolitionism meets moral abolitionism: cutting the Gordian knot of applied ethics" by Joel Marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Zohar

    2014-06-01

    In a recent article, Joel Marks presents the amoralist argument against vivisection, or animal laboratory experimentation. He argues that ethical theories that seek to uncover some universal morality are in fact useless and unnecessary for ethical deliberations meant to determine what constitutes an appropriate action in a specific circumstance. I agree with Marks' conclusion. I too believe that vivisection is indefensible, both from a scientific and philosophical perspective. I also believe that we should become vegan (unfortunately, like the two philosophers mentioned by Marks, I too am still struggling to reduce my meat and dairy consumption). However, I am in the dark as to Marks' vision of normative deliberations in the spirit of amoralism and desirism.

  2. Effect of rigid inclusions on sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, M.N.; De Jonghe, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    The predictions of recent theoretical studies on the effect of inert, rigid inclusions on the sintering of ceramic powder matrices are examined and compared with experimental data. The densification of glass matrix composites with inclusion volume fractions of ≤0.15 can be adequately explained by Scherer's theory for viscous sintering with rigid inclusions. Inclusions cause a vast reduction in the densification rates of polycrystalline matrix composites even at low inclusion volume fractions. Models put forward to explain the sintering of polycrystalline matrix composites are discussed

  3. Thinking Globally, Acting Locally: Joel Wegmeister and Modern Hasidic Politics in Warsaw

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    François Guesnet

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This contribution investigates how the emergence of the first modern Jewish metropolis in Warsaw in the second half of the 19th century challenged traditional visions of community cohesion. It argues that the acceleration of political and societal change within the Jewish community allowed observant elites to achieve political and cultural hegemony in Warsaw, and thus offers a sui generis pathway of Jewish metropolitan modernization. This claim is substantiated by following the communal and political involvement of a leading Hasidic civil leader, Joel Wegmeister (1837-1919, co-founder of the first outlets of the Agudat Israel in the Kingdom of Poland before World War One

  4. Review of Stat-Spotting: A Field Guide to Identifying Dubious Data by Joel Best

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Swingle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Best, Joel. Stat-Spotting: A Field Guide to Identifying Dubious Data. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008 144 pp. $19.95. ISBN 1-978-0-520-25746-7.Stat-Spotting is a practical, do-it-yourself manual for detecting questionable claims reported in the media. Using examples drawn mostly from mass media sources, Stat-Spotting provides readers with a number of useful tips for identifying potentially problematic statistics. The author’s skillful analyses and explanations presented in clear and concise prose make Stat-Spotting an ideal guide for anyone who reads a newspaper, watches television, or surfs the Web. In short, everyone.

  5. Maternal infection rates after cesarean delivery by Pfannenstiel or Joel-Cohen incision: a multicenter surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Anne Marie; Girard, Raphaële; Ayzac, Louis; Caillat-Vallet, Emmanuelle; Tissot-Guerraz, Françoise; Vincent-Bouletreau, Agnès; Berland, Michel

    2009-12-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate maternal nosocomial infection rates according to the incision technique used for caesarean delivery, in a routine surveillance study. This was a prospective study of 5123 cesarean deliveries (43.2% Joel-Cohen, 56.8% Pfannenstiel incisions) in 35 maternity units (Mater Sud Est network). Data on routine surveillance variables, operative duration, and three additional variables (manual removal of the placenta, uterine exteriorization, and/or cleaning of the parieto-colic gutter) were collected. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for infection. The overall nosocomial infection and endometritis rates were higher for the Joel-Cohen than Pfannenstiel incision (4.5% vs. 3.3%, 0.8% vs. 0.3%, respectively). The higher rate of nosocomial infections with the Joel-Cohen incision was due to a greater proportion of patients presenting risk factors (i.e., emergency delivery, primary cesarean, blood loss > or =800 mL, no manual removal of the placenta and no uterine exteriorization). However, the Joel-Cohen technique was an independent risk factor for endometritis. The Joel-Cohen technique is faster than the Pfannenstiel technique but is associated with a higher incidence of endometritis.

  6. THE RESTORATION OF JUDAH-JERUSALEM: EXEGETICAL STUDY OF JOEL 4,18-21

    OpenAIRE

    DAVI ALVES MACANEIRO

    2015-01-01

    O presente estudo exegético trata da restauração de Judá-Jerusalém descrita em Jl 4,18-21. A partir de uma concepção unitária dos oráculos do yôm YHWH no livro de Joel, como um anúncio de juízo com duplo efeito, e da estrutura geral do livro como uma lamentação nacional (cf. Jl 1,1–2,18) seguida da resposta de YHWH (cf. Jl 2,19–4,21), compreende-se que a restauração de Judá-Jerusalém é o resultado previsto pelo juízo definitivo no yôm YHWH, consequência da presença salvífica de YHWH no templo...

  7. Dual Quaternion Variational Integrator for Rigid Body Dynamic Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jiafeng; Halse, Karl Henning

    2016-01-01

    In rigid body dynamic simulations, often the algorithm is required to deal with general situations where both reference point and inertia matrix are arbitrarily de- fined. We introduce a novel Lie group variational integrator using dual quaternion for simulating rigid body dynamics in all six degrees of freedom. Dual quaternion is used to represent rigid body kinematics and one-step Lie group method is used to derive dynamic equations. The combination of these two becomes the first Lie group ...

  8. Joel e a esperança em um Deus universal e libertador frente à ambiguidade do monoteísmo

    OpenAIRE

    S. Rossi, Luiz Alexandre; Neves, Natalino das

    2017-01-01

    O artigo tem por objetivo comparar os resultados entre as principais reformas políticoreligiosas em nome do monoteísmo em Israel com a mensagem de Joel. Descrever-se-á as reformas de Ezequias e Josias, e a reforma étnica de Esdras e Neemias. Na sequência, é apresentada a mensagem universalista e libertadora de Joel, com destaque para as perícopes de Joel 3,1-5 e 4,4-8, visando a comparação entre esta e aquelas. Trata-se de uma pesquisa essencialmente bibliográfica. O resultado evidencia que a...

  9. APPLICATION OF RIGID LINKS IN STRUCTURAL DESIGN MODELS

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    Sergey Yu. Fialko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A special finite element modelling rigid links is proposed for the linear static and buckling analysis. Unlike the classical approach based on the theorems of rigid body kinematics, the proposed approach preserves the similarity between the adjacency graph for a sparse matrix and the adjacency graph for nodes of the finite element model, which allows applying sparse direct solvers more effectively. Besides, the proposed approach allows significantly reducing the number of nonzero entries in the factored stiffness matrix in comparison with the classical one, which greatly reduces the duration of the solution. For buckling problems of structures containing rigid bodies, this approach gives correct results. Several examples demonstrate its efficiency.

  10. Interpreting the enigma of media-evangelist Joel Osteen: an analysis of his contexts, expressive theology and media use

    OpenAIRE

    Haire Jr., Earle Ross

    2017-01-01

    This thesis provides an analysis of one of the leading twenty-first century media-evangelists: Joel Osteen. His popularity is worldwide and has only increased over his seventeen years of ministry. His preaching and teachings enjoy sustained popularity resulting in book sales, internet downloads, radio listenership and television viewership in the millions. He has also created arguably the largest interracial congregation in the United States, boasting around 50,000 members, the...

  11. Review Essay
    i. Disrupting the Subject: a plunderverse, after Joel Faflak
    ii. Echoanalysis: "the feminine compulsion to repeat"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandy Ryan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Review of Joel Faflak. Romantic Psychoanalysis: The Burden of the Mystery. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2008. 333 pages; paper $29.95. ISBN 978-0-7914-7269-0.

  12. Rigidity and symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Asia; Whiteley, Walter

    2014-01-01

    This book contains recent contributions to the fields of rigidity and symmetry with two primary focuses: to present the mathematically rigorous treatment of rigidity of structures, and to explore the interaction of geometry, algebra, and combinatorics. Overall, the book shows how researchers from diverse backgrounds explore connections among the various discrete structures with symmetry as the unifying theme.  Contributions present recent trends and advances in discrete geometry, particularly in the theory of polytopes. The rapid development of abstract polytope theory has resulted in a rich theory featuring an attractive interplay of methods and tools from discrete geometry, group theory, classical geometry, hyperbolic geometry and topology.  The volume will also be a valuable source as an introduction to the ideas of both combinatorial and geometric rigidity theory and its applications, incorporating the surprising impact of symmetry. It will appeal to students at both the advanced undergraduate and gradu...

  13. Birationally rigid varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Pukhlikov, Aleksandr

    2013-01-01

    Birational rigidity is a striking and mysterious phenomenon in higher-dimensional algebraic geometry. It turns out that certain natural families of algebraic varieties (for example, three-dimensional quartics) belong to the same classification type as the projective space but have radically different birational geometric properties. In particular, they admit no non-trivial birational self-maps and cannot be fibred into rational varieties by a rational map. The origins of the theory of birational rigidity are in the work of Max Noether and Fano; however, it was only in 1970 that Iskovskikh and Manin proved birational superrigidity of quartic three-folds. This book gives a systematic exposition of, and a comprehensive introduction to, the theory of birational rigidity, presenting in a uniform way, ideas, techniques, and results that so far could only be found in journal papers. The recent rapid progress in birational geometry and the widening interaction with the neighboring areas generate the growing interest ...

  14. Rigid supersymmetry with boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaev, D.V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Van Nieuwenhuizen, P. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). C.N. Yang Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2008-01-15

    We construct rigidly supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary actions, both in x-space and in superspace. For each standard supersymmetric bulk action a minimal supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary action follows from an extended F- or D-term formula. Additional separately supersymmetric boundary actions can be systematically constructed using co-dimension one multiplets (boundary superfields). We also discuss the orbit of boundary conditions which follow from the Euler-Lagrange variational principle. (orig.)

  15. MEMORIAL SOBRE A TRAJETÓRIA ESCOLAR BÁSICA DE ANTÔNIO JOEL MARINHO DE SOUSA

    OpenAIRE

    SOUSA, Antônio Joel Marinh

    2017-01-01

    O presente texto trata do memorial sobre a trajetória escolar de Antônio Joel Marinho de Sousa, ex-integrante do Programa Conexões de Saberes. Tem como objetivo apresentar os passos percorridos desde o início da educação básica até a entrada à UFPA e quais os principais entraves de estudantes das comunidades populares adentrarem o ensino superior público. A memória foi usada como principal referência para construção do material. Em seus resultados, apresenta os esforços individual e coletivo ...

  16. Review of Stat-Spotting: A Field Guide to Identifying Dubious Data by Joel Best

    OpenAIRE

    Joe Swingle

    2009-01-01

    Best, Joel. Stat-Spotting: A Field Guide to Identifying Dubious Data. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008) 144 pp. $19.95. ISBN 1-978-0-520-25746-7.Stat-Spotting is a practical, do-it-yourself manual for detecting questionable claims reported in the media. Using examples drawn mostly from mass media sources, Stat-Spotting provides readers with a number of useful tips for identifying potentially problematic statistics. The author’s skillful analyses and explanations presented in cl...

  17. The Almost Periodic Rigidity of Crystallographic Bar-Joint Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Badri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A crystallographic bar-joint framework, C in Rd, is shown to be almost periodically infinitesimally rigid if and only if it is strictly periodically infinitesimally rigid and the rigid unit mode (RUM spectrum, Ω (C, is a singleton. Moreover, the almost periodic infinitesimal flexes of C are characterised in terms of a matrix-valued function, ΦC(z, on the d-torus, Td, determined by a full rank translation symmetry group and an associated motif of joints and bars.

  18. Torsional Rigidity of Minimal Submanifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, Vicente

    2006-01-01

    We prove explicit upper bounds for the torsional rigidity of extrinsic domains of minimal submanifolds $P^m$ in ambient Riemannian manifolds $N^n$ with a pole $p$. The upper bounds are given in terms of the torsional rigidities of corresponding Schwarz symmetrizations of the domains in warped...

  19. On Politics and Education Finance: A Bibliography of Joel S. Berke, James W. Guthrie, and Michael W. Kirst. Vance Bibliographies, Public Administration Series: Bibliography P-821.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, Richard H.

    A bibliography of Joel S. Berke, James W. Guthrie, and Michael W. Kirst on politics and educational finance is presented. Specific topics include the following: whether financial support of public schools should be assumed completely by states, school finance policies and practices, school finance reform versus the spending and tax limitation…

  20. Quantum charged rigid membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, Ruben [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N., Unidad Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Molgado, Alberto [Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas Zac. (Mexico); Rojas, Efrain, E-mail: cordero@esfm.ipn.mx, E-mail: amolgado@fisica.uaz.edu.mx, E-mail: efrojas@uv.mx [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2011-03-21

    The early Dirac proposal to model the electron as a charged membrane is reviewed. A rigidity term, instead of the natural membrane tension, involving linearly the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the membrane is considered in the action modeling the bubble in the presence of an electromagnetic field. We set up this model as a genuine second-order derivative theory by considering a non-trivial boundary term which plays a relevant part in our formulation. The Lagrangian in question is linear in the bubble acceleration and by means of the Ostrogradski-Hamiltonian approach, we observed that the theory comprises the management of both first- and second-class constraints. We thus show that our second-order approach is robust allowing for a proper quantization. We found an effective quantum potential which permits us to compute bounded states for the system. We comment on the possibility of describing brane world universes by invoking this kind of second-order correction terms.

  1. Quantum charged rigid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero, Ruben; Molgado, Alberto; Rojas, Efrain

    2011-01-01

    The early Dirac proposal to model the electron as a charged membrane is reviewed. A rigidity term, instead of the natural membrane tension, involving linearly the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the membrane is considered in the action modeling the bubble in the presence of an electromagnetic field. We set up this model as a genuine second-order derivative theory by considering a non-trivial boundary term which plays a relevant part in our formulation. The Lagrangian in question is linear in the bubble acceleration and by means of the Ostrogradski-Hamiltonian approach, we observed that the theory comprises the management of both first- and second-class constraints. We thus show that our second-order approach is robust allowing for a proper quantization. We found an effective quantum potential which permits us to compute bounded states for the system. We comment on the possibility of describing brane world universes by invoking this kind of second-order correction terms.

  2. Fiber Optic Systems for Light Curing Rigidization of Inflatable Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Light (UV and visible) curing composite matrix resins are being explored as an attractive means for rigidizing inflatable spacecraft for large space-deployed...

  3. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2010-01-01

    classes. Finally this article wants to claim that the distinction between rigid and flexible noun categories (a) adds a new dimension to current classifications of parts of speech systems, (b) correlates with certain grammatical phenomena (e.g. so-called number discord), and (c) helps to explain the parts......This article argues that in addition to the major flexible lexical categories in Hengeveld’s classification of parts of speech systems (Contentive, Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members...... by the flexible item in the external world. I will then argue that flexible word classes constitute a proper category (i.e. they are not the result of a merger of some rigid word classes) in that members of flexible word categories display the same properties regarding category membership as members of rigid word...

  4. Phosphorus, nitrogen, and radionuclide retention and leaching from a Joel sand amended with red mud/gypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPharlin, L.R.; Jeffery, R.C.; Toussaint, L.F.; Cooper, M.

    1994-01-01

    The leaching of phosphorus (P), nitrogen (N), and radionuclides 232 Th, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, and 40 K from Joel sands amended with red mud/gypsum (RMG) at 9 rates (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, and 256 t/ha) was measured using columns. Intense leaching conditions (34 mm/day for 12 days) and a high rate of applied P (320 kg/ha as superphosphate) and N (680 kg/ha as ammonium nitrate) were used to simulate extremes of irrigated vegetable production on the Swan Coastal Plain. Addition of the highest rate of RMG (256 t/ha) reduced leaching of fertiliser P and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) by 85% and 50%, respectively, compared with 0 t/ha after 12 days. At 64 t RMG/ha P leaching was reduced 50% compared with 0 t/ha. Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) leaching was not affected by addition of RMG. Reduced leaching of NH4-N was attributed to an increase in cation exchange capacity of the soil with the addition of RMG. Bicarbonate-extractable P in the soil increased with rate of RMG to >50 μg P/g soil at 256 t/ha. This indicates that soil testing of residual P could be used to reduce P inputs to vegetable crops after soils were amended with RMG. This would further reduce the impact of vegetable production on the water systems of the Swan Coastal Plain and extend the period of effectiveness of RMG amended soils. The increase in 232 Th specific activity in Joel sand amended with RMG was well below statutory limits even at the highest rate. Neither 40 K nor 226 Ra were detectable in RMG amended sands up to 256 t RMG/ha. There was no evidence of leaching of 226 Ra or 228 Ra at any rate of RMG. These results suggest that the use of RMG amendment on commercial horticultural properties on the Swan Coastal Plain could be feasible. 30 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Elastic properties of rigid fiber-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Thorpe, M. F.; Davis, L. C.

    1995-05-01

    We study the elastic properties of rigid fiber-reinforced composites with perfect bonding between fibers and matrix, and also with sliding boundary conditions. In the dilute region, there exists an exact analytical solution. Around the rigidity threshold we find the elastic moduli and Poisson's ratio by decomposing the deformation into a compression mode and a rotation mode. For perfect bonding, both modes are important, whereas only the compression mode is operative for sliding boundary conditions. We employ the digital-image-based method and a finite element analysis to perform computer simulations which confirm our analytical predictions.

  6. Rigid multibody system dynamics with uncertain rigid bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batou, A., E-mail: anas.batou@univ-paris-est.fr; Soize, C., E-mail: christian.soize@univ-paris-est.fr [Universite Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modelisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS (France)

    2012-03-15

    This paper is devoted to the construction of a probabilistic model of uncertain rigid bodies for multibody system dynamics. We first construct a stochastic model of an uncertain rigid body by replacing the mass, the center of mass, and the tensor of inertia by random variables. The prior probability distributions of the stochastic model are constructed using the maximum entropy principle under the constraints defined by the available information. The generators of independent realizations corresponding to the prior probability distribution of these random quantities are further developed. Then several uncertain rigid bodies can be linked to each other in order to calculate the random response of a multibody dynamical system. An application is proposed to illustrate the theoretical development.

  7. Rigidity of Glasses and Macromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, M. F.

    1998-03-01

    The simple yet powerful ideas of percolation theory have found their way into many different areas of research. In this talk we show how RIGIDITY PERCOLATION can be studied at a similar level of sophistication, using a powerful new program THE PEBBLE GAME (D. J. Jacobs and M. F. Thorpe, Phys. Rev. E) 53, 3682 (1996). that uses an integer algorithm. This program can analyse the rigidity of two and three dimensional networks containing more than one million bars and joints. We find the total number of floppy modes, and find the critical behavior as the network goes from floppy to rigid as more bars are added. We discuss the relevance of this work to network glasses, and how it relates to experiments that involve the mechanical properties like hardness and elasticity of covalent glassy networks like Ge_xAs_ySe_1-x-y and dicuss recent experiments that suggest that the rigidity transition may be first order (Xingwei Feng, W. J.Bresser and P. Boolchand, Phys. Rev. Lett 78), 4422 (1997).. This approach is also useful in macromolecules and proteins, where detailed information about the rigid domain structure can be obtained.

  8. A concise introduction to mechanics of rigid bodies multidisciplinary engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, L

    2017-01-01

    This updated second edition broadens the explanation of rotational kinematics and dynamics — the most important aspect of rigid body motion in three-dimensional space and a topic of much greater complexity than linear motion. It expands treatment of vector and matrix, and includes quaternion operations to describe and analyze rigid body motion which are found in robot control, trajectory planning, 3D vision system calibration, and hand-eye coordination of robots in assembly work, etc. It features updated treatments of concepts in all chapters and case studies. The textbook retains its comprehensiveness in coverage and compactness in size, which make it easily accessible to the readers from multidisciplinary areas who want to grasp the key concepts of rigid body mechanics which are usually scattered in multiple volumes of traditional textbooks. Theoretical concepts are explained through examples taken from across engineering disciplines and links to applications and more advanced courses (e.g. industrial rob...

  9. Rigidly foldable origami gadgets and tessellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Thomas A.; Lang, Robert J.; Magleby, Spencer P.; Howell, Larry L.

    2015-01-01

    Rigidly foldable origami allows for motion where all deflection occurs at the crease lines and facilitates the application of origami in materials other than paper. In this paper, we use a recently discovered method for determining rigid foldability to identify existing flat-foldable rigidly foldable tessellations, which are also categorized. We introduce rigidly foldable origami gadgets which may be used to modify existing tessellations or to create new tessellations. Several modified and new rigidly foldable tessellations are presented. PMID:26473037

  10. Rigidity-tuning conductive elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Wanliang; Diller, Stuart; Tutcuoglu, Abbas; Majidi, Carmel

    2015-06-01

    We introduce a conductive propylene-based elastomer (cPBE) that rapidly and reversibly changes its mechanical rigidity when powered with electrical current. The elastomer is rigid in its natural state, with an elastic (Young’s) modulus of 175.5 MPa, and softens when electrically activated. By embedding the cPBE in an electrically insulating sheet of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), we create a cPBE-PDMS composite that can reversibly change its tensile modulus between 37 and 1.5 MPa. The rigidity change takes ˜6 s and is initiated when a 100 V voltage drop is applied across the two ends of the cPBE film. This magnitude of change in elastic rigidity is similar to that observed in natural skeletal muscle and catch connective tissue. We characterize the tunable load-bearing capability of the cPBE-PDMS composite with a motorized tensile test and deadweight experiment. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to control the routing of internal forces by embedding several cPBE-PDMS ‘active tendons’ into a soft robotic pneumatic bending actuator. Selectively activating the artificial tendons controls the neutral axis and direction of bending during inflation.

  11. Rigidity-tuning conductive elastomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Wanliang; Diller, Stuart; Tutcuoglu, Abbas; Majidi, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a conductive propylene-based elastomer (cPBE) that rapidly and reversibly changes its mechanical rigidity when powered with electrical current. The elastomer is rigid in its natural state, with an elastic (Young’s) modulus of 175.5 MPa, and softens when electrically activated. By embedding the cPBE in an electrically insulating sheet of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), we create a cPBE–PDMS composite that can reversibly change its tensile modulus between 37 and 1.5 MPa. The rigidity change takes ∼6 s and is initiated when a 100 V voltage drop is applied across the two ends of the cPBE film. This magnitude of change in elastic rigidity is similar to that observed in natural skeletal muscle and catch connective tissue. We characterize the tunable load-bearing capability of the cPBE–PDMS composite with a motorized tensile test and deadweight experiment. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to control the routing of internal forces by embedding several cPBE–PDMS ‘active tendons’ into a soft robotic pneumatic bending actuator. Selectively activating the artificial tendons controls the neutral axis and direction of bending during inflation. (paper)

  12. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Studies in Language 32-3 (2008), 727-752. Special issue: Parts of Speech: Descriptive tools, theoretical constructs Jan Rijkhoff - On flexible and rigid nouns This article argues that in addition to the flexible lexical categories in Hengeveld’s classification of parts-of-speech systems (Contentive......, Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members of flexible word classes are characterized by their vague semantics, which in the case of nouns means that values for the semantic features Shape...... and Homogeneity are either left undetermined or they are specified in such a way that they do not quite match the properties of the kind of entity denoted by the flexible item in the external world. I will then argue that flexible word classes constitute a proper category (i.e. they are not the result of a merger...

  13. Elasticity of Relativistic Rigid Bodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-10-01

    In the classical Twin Paradox, according to the Special Theory of Relativity, when the traveling twin blasts off from the Earth to a relative velocity v =√{/3 } 2 c with respect to the Earth, his measuring stick and other physical objects in the direction of relative motion shrink to half their lengths. How is that possible in the real physical world to have let's say a rigid rocket shrinking to half and then later elongated back to normal as an elastic material when it stops? What is the explanation for the traveler's measuring stick and other physical objects, in effect, return to the same length to their original length in the Stay-At-Home, but there is no record of their having shrunk? If it's a rigid (not elastic) object, how can it shrink and then elongate back to normal? It might get broken in such situation.

  14. Functionally rigid bistable [2]rotaxanes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sune; Leung, Ken C-F; Aprahamian, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    defines an unambiguous distance of 1.5 nm over which the ring moves between the MPTTF and NP units. The degenerate NP/NP [2]rotaxane was used to investigate the shuttling barrier by dynamic 1H NMR spectroscopy for the movement of the CBPQT4+ ring across the new rigid spacer. It is evident from...... better control over the position of the ring component in the ground state but also for control over the location of the CBPQT4+ ring during solution-state switching experiments, triggered either chemically (1H NMR) or electrochemically (cyclic voltammetry). In this instance, the use of the rigid spacer......Two-station [2]rotaxanes in the shape of a degenerate naphthalene (NP) shuttle and a nondegenerate monopyrrolotetrathiafulvalene (MPTTF)/NP redox-controllable switch have been synthesized and characterized in solution. Their dumbbell-shaped components are composed of polyether chains interrupted...

  15. Rigid body dynamics of mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Hubert

    2003-01-01

    The second volume of Rigid Body Dynamics of Mechanisms covers applications via a systematic method for deriving model equations of planar and spatial mechanisms. The necessary theoretical foundations have been laid in the first volume that introduces the theoretical mechanical aspects of mechatronic systems. Here the focus is on the application of the modeling methodology to various examples of rigid-body mechanisms, simple planar ones as well as more challenging spatial problems. A rich variety of joint models, active constraints, plus active and passive force elements is treated. The book is intended for self-study by working engineers and students concerned with the control of mechanical systems, i.e. robotics, mechatronics, vehicles, and machine tools. The examples included are a likely source from which to choose models for university lectures.

  16. Associative memory through rigid origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Arvind; Brenner, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Mechanisms such as Miura Ori have proven useful in diverse contexts since they have only one degree of freedom that is easily controlled. We combine the theory of rigid origami and associative memory in frustrated neural networks to create structures that can ``learn'' multiple generic folding mechanisms and yet can be robustly controlled. We show that such rigid origami structures can ``recall'' a specific learned mechanism when induced by a physical impulse that only need resemble the desired mechanism (i.e. robust recall through association). Such associative memory in matter, seen before in self-assembly, arises due to a balance between local promiscuity (i.e., many local degrees of freedom) and global frustration which minimizes interference between different learned behaviors. Origami with associative memory can lead to a new class of deployable structures and kinetic architectures with multiple context-dependent behaviors.

  17. Rigidity spectrum of Forbush decrease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakibara, S.; Munakata, K.; Nagashima, K.

    1985-01-01

    Using data from neutron monitors and muon telescopes at surface and underground stations, the average rigidity spectrum of Forbush decreases (Fds) during the period of 1978-1982 were obtained. Thirty eight Ed-events are classified into two groups, Hard Fd and Soft FD according to size of Fd at the Sakashita station. It is found that a spectral form of a fractional-power type (P to the-gamma sub 1 (P+P sub c) to the -gamma sub2) is more suitable than that of a power-exponential type or of a power type with an upper limiting rigidity. The best fitted spectrum of the fractional-power type is expressed by gamma sub1 = 0.37, gamma sub2 = 0.89 and P subc = 10 GV for Hard Fd and gamma sub1 = 0.77, gamma sub2 = 1.02 and P sub c - 14GV for Soft Fd

  18. Signature of Thermal Rigidity Percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta, Adrián

    2013-01-01

    To explore the role that temperature and percolation of rigidity play in determining the macroscopic properties, we propose a model that adds translational degrees of freedom to the spins of the well known Ising hamiltonian. In particular, the Ising model illustrate the longstanding idea that the growth of correlations on approach to a critical point could be describable in terms of the percolation of some sort of p hysical cluster . For certain parameters of this model we observe two well defined peaks of C V , that suggest the existence of two kinds of p hysical percolation , namely connectivity and rigidity percolation. Thermal fluctuations give rise to two different kinds of elementary excitations, i.e. droplets and configuron, as suggested by Angell in the framework of a bond lattice model approach. The later is reflected in the fluctuations of redundant constraints that gives stability to the structure and correlate with the order parameter

  19. Torsional rigidity, isospectrality and quantum graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colladay, Don; McDonald, Patrick; Kaganovskiy, Leon

    2017-01-01

    We study torsional rigidity for graph and quantum graph analogs of well-known pairs of isospectral non-isometric planar domains. We prove that such isospectral pairs are distinguished by torsional rigidity. (paper)

  20. Rigidity of monodromies for Appell's hypergeometric functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshishige Haraoka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For monodromy representations of holonomic systems, the rigidity can be defined. We examine the rigidity of the monodromy representations for Appell's hypergeometric functions, and get the representations explicitly. The results show how the topology of the singular locus and the spectral types of the local monodromies work for the study of the rigidity.

  1. "Salvation from unhappines by doing one's best" : a rhetorical analysis on Joel Osteen's sermons in the light of the US culture and values

    OpenAIRE

    Iivari, Eeva

    2014-01-01

    Tiivistelmä – Abstract Tämä laadullinen tutkimus keskittyy Joel Osteenin saarnoihin. Hän johtaa maan suurinta seurakuntaa, Lakewood-kirkkoa Texasin Houstonissa, USA:ssa. Tutkielma pyrkii vastaamaan kahteen tutkimuskysymykseen: 1) Mitkä ovat Osteenin eniten käyttämät retoriset keinot, ja kuinka ne näkyvät hänen saarnoissaan? 2) Miten Osteen käyttää hyväkseen kristillisiä oppeja ja Raamatun auktoriteettia vedotakseen kuulijoidensa kulttuurillisiin arvoihin? Aineiston prominentit ret...

  2. Geometry, rigidity, and group actions

    CERN Document Server

    Farb, Benson; Zimmer, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    The study of group actions is more than a hundred years old but remains to this day a vibrant and widely studied topic in a variety of mathematic fields. A central development in the last fifty years is the phenomenon of rigidity, whereby one can classify actions of certain groups, such as lattices in semi-simple Lie groups. This provides a way to classify all possible symmetries of important spaces and all spaces admitting given symmetries. Paradigmatic results can be found in the seminal work of George Mostow, Gergory Margulis, and Robert J. Zimmer, among others.The p

  3. Superplastic flow of two-phase ceramics containing rigid inclusions-zirconia/mullite composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, C.K.; Chen, I.W.

    1990-01-01

    A continuum theory for non-newtonian flow of a two-phase composite containing rigid inclusions is presented. It predicts flow suppression by a factor of (1 - V) q , where V is the volume fraction of the rigid inclusion and q depends on the stress exponent and the inclusion shape. Stress concentrations in the rigid inclusion have also been evaluated. As the stress exponent increases, flow suppression is more pronounced even though stress concentration is less severe. To test this theory, superplastic flow of zirconia/mullite composites, in which zirconia is a soft, non-Newtonian super-plastic matrix and mullite is a rigid phase of various size, shape, and amount, is studied. The continuum theory is found to describe the two-phase superplastic flow reasonably well

  4. Three-dimensional formulation of rigid-flexible multibody systems with flexible beam elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Vallejo, D.; Mayo, J.; Escalona, J. L.; Dominguez, J.

    2008-01-01

    Multibody systems generally contain solids with appreciable deformations and which decisively influence the dynamics of the system. These solids have to be modeled by means of special formulations for flexible solids. At the same time, other solids are of such a high stiffness that they may be considered rigid, which simplifies their modeling. For these reasons, for a rigid-flexible multibody system, two types of formulations coexist in the equations of the system. Among the different possibilities provided in the literature on the material, the formulation in natural coordinates and the formulation in absolute nodal coordinates are utilized in this paper to model the rigid and flexible solids, respectively. This paper contains a mixed formulation based on the possibility of sharing coordinates between a rigid solid and a flexible solid. The global mass matrix of the system is shown to be constant and, in addition, many of the constraint equations obtained upon utilizing these formulations are linear and can be eliminated

  5. Topological orders in rigid states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, X.G.

    1990-01-01

    The authors study a new kind of ordering topological order in rigid states (the states with no local gapless excitations). This paper concentrates on characterization of the different topological orders. As an example the authors discuss in detail chiral spin states of 2+1 dimensional spin systems. Chiral spin states are described by the topological Chern-Simons theories in the continuum limit. The authors show that the topological orders can be characterized by a non-Abelian gauge structure over the moduli space which parametrizes a family of the model Hamiltonians supporting topologically ordered ground states. In 2 + 1 dimensions, the non-Abelian gauge structure determines possible fractional statistics of the quasi-particle excitations over the topologically ordered ground states. The dynamics of the low lying global excitations is shown to be independent of random spatial dependent perturbations. The ground state degeneracy and the non-Abelian gauge structures discussed in this paper are very robust, even against those perturbations that break translation symmetry. The authors also discuss the symmetry properties of the degenerate ground states of chiral spin states. The authors find that some degenerate ground states of chiral spin states on torus carry non-trivial quantum numbers of the 90 degrees rotation

  6. A conservative quaternion-based time integration algorithm for rigid body rotations with implicit constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Bjerre; Krenk, Steen

    2012-01-01

    A conservative time integration algorithm for rigid body rotations is presented in a purely algebraic form in terms of the four quaternions components and the four conjugate momentum variables via Hamilton’s equations. The introduction of an extended mass matrix leads to a symmetric set of eight...

  7. Effect of chain rigidity on network architecture and deformation behavior of glassy polymer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Kyler Reser

    Processing carbon fiber composite laminates creates molecular-level strains in the thermoset matrix upon curing and cooling which can lead to failures such as geometry deformations, micro-cracking, and other issues. It is known strain creation is attributed to the significant volume and physical state changes undergone by the polymer matrix throughout the curing process, though storage and relaxation of cure-induced strains remain poorly understood. This dissertation establishes two approaches to address the issue. The first establishes testing methods to simultaneously measure key volumetric properties of a carbon fiber composite laminate and its polymer matrix. The second approach considers the rigidity of the polymer matrix in regards to strain storage and relaxation mechanisms which ultimately control composite performance throughout manufacturing and use. Through the use of a non-contact, full-field strain measurement technique known as digital image correlation (DIC), we describe and implement useful experiments which quantify matrix and composite parameters necessary for simulation efforts and failure models. The methods are compared to more traditional techniques and show excellent correlation. Further, we established relationships which represent matrix-fiber compatibility in regards to critical processing constraints. The second approach involves a systematic study of epoxy-amine networks which are chemically-similar but differ in chain segment rigidity. Prior research has investigated the isomer effect of glassy polymers, showing sizeable differences in thermal, volumetric, physical, and mechanical properties. This work builds on these themes and shows the apparent isomer effect is rather an effect of chain rigidity. Indeed, it was found that structurally-dissimilar polymer networks exhibit very similar properties as a consequence of their shared average network rigidity. Differences in chain packing, as a consequence of chain rigidity, were shown to

  8. Analysis of Switched-Rigid Floating Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar R. Marur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In explicit finite element simulations, a technique called deformable-to-rigid (D2R switching is used routinely to reduce the computation time. Using the D2R option, the deformable parts in the model can be switched to rigid and reverted back to deformable when needed during the analysis. The time of activation of D2R however influences the overall dynamics of the system being analyzed. In this paper, a theoretical basis for the selection of time of rigid switching based on system energy is established. A floating oscillator problem is investigated for this purpose and closed-form analytical expressions are derived for different phases in rigid switching. The analytical expressions are validated by comparing the theoretical results with numerical computations.

  9. Rigid pricing and rationally inattentive consumer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    158 B, July (2015), s. 656-678 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : rational inattention * imperfect information * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  10. Rigid pricing and rationally inattentive consumer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    158 B, July (2015), s. 656-678 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : rational inattention * imperfect information * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  11. Soft soils reinforced by rigid vertical inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia-Victoria NEAGOE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement of soft soils by rigid vertical inclusions is an increasingly used technique over the last few years. The system consists of rigid or semi-rigid vertical inclusions and a granular platform for the loads transfer from the structure to the inclusions. This technique aims to reduce the differential settlements both at ground level as below the structure. Reinforcement by rigid inclusions is mainly used for foundation works for large commercial and industrial platforms, storage tanks, wastewater treatment plants, wind farms, bridges, roads, railway embankments. The subject is one of interest as it proves the recently concerns at international level in research and design; however, most studies deal more with the static behavior and less with the dynamic one.

  12. Flexible and rigid cystoscopy in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Jason R; Waterman, Bradley J; Jarrard, David F; Hedican, Sean P; Bruskewitz, Reginald C; Nakada, Stephen Y

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have evaluated the tolerability of rigid versus flexible cystoscopy in men. Similar studies, however, have not been performed in women. We sought to determine whether office-based flexible cystoscopy was better tolerated than rigid cystoscopy in women. Following full IRB approval, women were prospectively randomized in a single-blind manner. Patients were randomized to flexible or rigid cystoscopy and draped in the lithotomy position to maintain blinding of the study. Questionnaires evaluated discomfort before, during, and after cystoscopy. Thirty-six women were randomized to flexible (18) or rigid (18) cystoscopy. Indications were surveillance (16), hematuria (15), recurrent UTIs (2), voiding dysfunction (1), and other (2). All questionnaires were returned by 31/36 women. Using a 10-point visual analog scale (VAS), median discomfort during the procedure for flexible and rigid cystoscopy were 1.4 and 1.8, respectively, in patients perceiving pain. Median recalled pain 1 week later was similar at 0.8 and 1.15, respectively. None of these differences were statistically significant. Flexible and rigid cystoscopy are well tolerated in women. Discomfort during and after the procedure is minimal in both groups. Urologists should perform either procedure in women based on their preference and skill level.

  13. Multiscale multiphysics and multidomain models—Flexibility and rigidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Kelin; Opron, Kristopher; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2013-01-01

    The emerging complexity of large macromolecules has led to challenges in their full scale theoretical description and computer simulation. Multiscale multiphysics and multidomain models have been introduced to reduce the number of degrees of freedom while maintaining modeling accuracy and achieving computational efficiency. A total energy functional is constructed to put energies for polar and nonpolar solvation, chemical potential, fluid flow, molecular mechanics, and elastic dynamics on an equal footing. The variational principle is utilized to derive coupled governing equations for the above mentioned multiphysical descriptions. Among these governing equations is the Poisson-Boltzmann equation which describes continuum electrostatics with atomic charges. The present work introduces the theory of continuum elasticity with atomic rigidity (CEWAR). The essence of CEWAR is to formulate the shear modulus as a continuous function of atomic rigidity. As a result, the dynamics complexity of a macromolecular system is separated from its static complexity so that the more time-consuming dynamics is handled with continuum elasticity theory, while the less time-consuming static analysis is pursued with atomic approaches. We propose a simple method, flexibility-rigidity index (FRI), to analyze macromolecular flexibility and rigidity in atomic detail. The construction of FRI relies on the fundamental assumption that protein functions, such as flexibility, rigidity, and energy, are entirely determined by the structure of the protein and its environment, although the structure is in turn determined by all the interactions. As such, the FRI measures the topological connectivity of protein atoms or residues and characterizes the geometric compactness of the protein structure. As a consequence, the FRI does not resort to the interaction Hamiltonian and bypasses matrix diagonalization, which underpins most other flexibility analysis methods. FRI's computational complexity is of O

  14. Matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Joel N

    2003-01-01

    Mathematically rigorous introduction covers vector and matrix norms, the condition-number of a matrix, positive and irreducible matrices, much more. Only elementary algebra and calculus required. Includes problem-solving exercises. 1968 edition.

  15. Rigid Body Sampling and Individual Time Stepping for Rigid-Fluid Coupling of Fluid Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaokun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an efficient and simple rigid-fluid coupling scheme with scientific programming algorithms for particle-based fluid simulation and three-dimensional visualization. Our approach samples the surface of rigid bodies with boundary particles that interact with fluids. It contains two procedures, that is, surface sampling and sampling relaxation, which insures uniform distribution of particles with less iterations. Furthermore, we present a rigid-fluid coupling scheme integrating individual time stepping to rigid-fluid coupling, which gains an obvious speedup compared to previous method. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  16. Observations on the Darboux coordinates for rigid special geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio; Ferrara, Sergio; Macia, Oscar

    2006-01-01

    We exploit some relations which exist when (rigid) special geometry is formulated in real symplectic special coordinates $P^I=(p^\\Lambda,q_\\Lambda), I=1,...,2n$. The central role of the real $2n\\times 2n$ matrix $M(\\Re \\mathcal{F},\\Im \\mathcal{F})$, where $\\mathcal{F} = \\partial_\\Lambda\\partial_\\Sigma F$ and $F$ is the holomorphic prepotential, is elucidated in the real formalism. The property $M\\Omega M=\\Omega$ with $\\Omega$ being the invariant symplectic form is used to prove several identities in the Darboux formulation. In this setting the matrix $M$ coincides with the (negative of the) Hessian matrix $H(S)=\\frac{\\partial^2 S}{\\partial P^I\\partial P^J}$ of a certain hamiltonian real function $S(P)$, which also provides the metric of the special K\\"ahler manifold. When $S(P)=S(U+\\bar U)$ is regarded as a "K\\"ahler potential'' of a complex manifold with coordinates $U^I=\\frac12(P^I+iZ^I)$, then it provides a K\\"ahler metric of an hyperk\\"ahler manifold which describes the hypermultiplet geometry obtained by...

  17. Identifying Floppy and Rigid Regions in Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, D. J.; Thorpe, M. F.; Kuhn, L. A.

    1998-03-01

    In proteins it is possible to separate hard covalent forces involving bond lengths and bond angles from other weak forces. We model the microstructure of the protein as a generic bar-joint truss framework, where the hard covalent forces and strong hydrogen bonds are regarded as rigid bar constraints. We study the mechanical stability of proteins using FIRST (Floppy Inclusions and Rigid Substructure Topography) based on a recently developed combinatorial constraint counting algorithm (the 3D Pebble Game), which is a generalization of the 2D pebble game (D. J. Jacobs and M. F. Thorpe, ``Generic Rigidity: The Pebble Game'', Phys. Rev. Lett.) 75, 4051-4054 (1995) for the special class of bond-bending networks (D. J. Jacobs, "Generic Rigidity in Three Dimensional Bond-bending Networks", Preprint Aug (1997)). This approach is useful in identifying rigid motifs and flexible linkages in proteins, and thereby determines the essential degrees of freedom. We will show some preliminary results from the FIRST analysis on the myohemerythrin and lyozyme proteins.

  18. Iterative CT reconstruction with correction for known rigid motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuyts, Johan [Katholieke Univ. Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Kim, Jung-Ha; Fulton, Roger [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). School of Physics; Westmead Hospital, Sydney (Australia). Medical Physics

    2011-07-01

    In PET/CT brain imaging, correction for motion may be needed, in particular for children and psychiatric patients. Motion is more likely to occur in the lengthy PET measurement, but also during the short CT acquisition patient motion is possible. Rigid motion of the head can be measured independently from the PET/CT system with optical devices. In this paper, we propose a method and some preliminary simulation results for iterative CT reconstruction with correction for known rigid motion. We implemented an iterative algorithm for fully 3D reconstruction from helical CT scans. The motion of the head is incorporated in the system matrix as a view-dependent motion of the CT-system. The first simulation results indicate that some motion patterns may produce loss of essential data. This loss precludes exact reconstruction and results in artifacts in the reconstruction, even when motion is taken into account. However, by reducing the pitch during acquisition, the same motion pattern no longer caused artifacts in the motion corrected image. (orig.)

  19. Rheology of multiphase polymer systems using novel "melt rigidity" evaluation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracalik, Milan

    2015-04-01

    Multiphase polymer systems like blends, composites and nanocomposites exhibit complex rheological behaviour due to physical and also possibly chemical interactions between individual phases. Up to now, rheology of heterogeneous polymer systems has been usually described by evaluation of viscosity curve (shear thinning phenomenon), storage modulus curve (formation of secondary plateau) or plotting information about damping behaviour (e.g. Van Gurp-Palmen-plot). On the contrary to evaluation of damping behaviour, "melt rigidity" approach has been introduced for description of physical network of rigid particles in polymer matrix as relation of ∫G'/∫G" over specific frequency range. This approach has been experimentally proved for polymer nanocomposites in order to compare shear flow characteristics with elongational flow field. In this contribution, LDPE-clay nanocomposites with different dispersion grades (physical networks) have been prepared and characterized by both conventional as well as novel "melt rigidity" approach.

  20. Controlling elastic waves with small phononic crystals containing rigid inclusions

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai

    2014-05-01

    We show that a two-dimensional elastic phononic crystal comprising rigid cylinders in a solid matrix possesses a large complete band gap below a cut-off frequency. A mechanical model reveals that the band gap is induced by negative effective mass density, which is affirmed by an effective medium theory based on field averaging. We demonstrate, by two examples, that such elastic phononic crystals can be utilized to design small devices to control low-frequency elastic waves. One example is a waveguide made of a two-layer anisotropic elastic phononic crystal, which can guide and bend elastic waves with wavelengths much larger than the size of the waveguide. The other example is the enhanced elastic transmission of a single-layer elastic phononic crystal loaded with solid inclusions. The effective mass density and reciprocal of the modulus of the single-layer elastic phononic crystal are simultaneously near zero. © CopyrightEPLA, 2014.

  1. Quantum mechanics of a generalised rigid body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gripaios, Ben; Sutherland, Dave

    2016-01-01

    We consider the quantum version of Arnold’s generalisation of a rigid body in classical mechanics. Thus, we quantise the motion on an arbitrary Lie group manifold of a particle whose classical trajectories correspond to the geodesics of any one-sided-invariant metric. We show how the derivation of the spectrum of energy eigenstates can be simplified by making use of automorphisms of the Lie algebra and (for groups of type I) by methods of harmonic analysis. We show how the method can be extended to cosets, generalising the linear rigid rotor. As examples, we consider all connected and simply connected Lie groups up to dimension 3. This includes the universal cover of the archetypical rigid body, along with a number of new exactly solvable models. We also discuss a possible application to the topical problem of quantising a perfect fluid. (paper)

  2. Durable bistable auxetics made of rigid solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xiao; Liu, Lu; Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Pasini, Damiano

    2018-02-01

    Bistable Auxetic Metamaterials (BAMs) are a class of monolithic perforated periodic structures with negative Poisson's ratio. Under tension, a BAM can expand and reach a second state of equilibrium through a globally large shape transformation that is ensured by the flexibility of its elastomeric base material. However, if made from a rigid polymer, or metal, BAM ceases to function due to the inevitable rupture of its ligaments. The goal of this work is to extend the unique functionality of the original kirigami architecture of BAM to a rigid solid base material. We use experiments and numerical simulations to assess performance, bistability and durability of rigid BAMs at 10,000 cycles. Geometric maps are presented to elucidate the role of the main descriptors of BAM architecture. The proposed design enables the realization of BAM from a large palette of materials, including elastic-perfectly plastic materials and potentially brittle materials.

  3. Type number and rigidity of fibred surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, P E

    2001-01-01

    Infinitesimal l-th order bendings, 1≤l≤∞, of higher-dimensional surfaces are considered in higher-dimensional flat spaces (for l=∞ an infinitesimal bending is assumed to be an analytic bending). In terms of the Allendoerfer type number, criteria are established for the (r,l)-rigidity (in the terminology of Sabitov) of such surfaces. In particular, an (r,l)-infinitesimal analogue is proved of the classical theorem of Allendoerfer on the unbendability of surfaces with type number ≥3 and the class of (r,l)-rigid fibred surfaces is distinguished

  4. Rigid origami vertices: conditions and forcing sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Abel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We develop an intrinsic necessary and sufficient condition for single-vertex origami crease patterns to be able to fold rigidly.  We classify such patterns in the case where the creases are pre-assigned to be mountains and valleys as well as in the unassigned case.  We also illustrate the utility of this result by applying it to the new concept of minimal forcing sets for rigid origami models, which are the smallest collection of creases that, when folded, will force all the other creases to fold in a prescribed way.

  5. Evaluating a method for automated rigid registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Vester-Christensen, Martin; Larsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    to point distance. T-test for common mean are used to determine the performance of the two methods (supported by a Wilcoxon signed rank test). The performance influence of sampling density, sampling quantity, and norms is analyzed using a similar method.......We evaluate a novel method for fully automated rigid registration of 2D manifolds in 3D space based on distance maps, the Gibbs sampler and Iterated Conditional Modes (ICM). The method is tested against the ICP considered as the gold standard for automated rigid registration. Furthermore...

  6. O reconhecimento da alteridade como possibilidade de construção de um novo paradigma na cultura ocidental em Joel Birman e Emmanuel Lévinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Estevam

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A cultura ocidental, erigida sob a égide da ontologia grega, historicamente relegou o outro em sua alteridade ao esquecimento, numa supremacia do ser que justificou as cruzadas, a colonização, a escravidão, os regimes totalitários como o fascismo e o nazismo, entre outros. Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar as perspectivas do professor Joel Birman e do filósofo Emmanuel Lévinas sobre a importância da construção de um novo paradigma na cultura ocidental. Paradigma que reconheça a alteridade, numa abertura inédita do eu, que supere a lógica egocêntrica do ser. A abordagem de Birman consiste na leitura feita, a partir da psicanálise, das causas e consequências da cultura do narcisismo, que norteia a sociedade do espetáculo na pós-modernidade. Essa cultura, ao centrar-se no eu, faz do outro objeto para suas satisfações egoístas. Já a abordagem de Lévinas é uma crítica filosófica ao primado da ontologia, que desde sua origem na Grécia antiga desconsiderou o outro, numa negação violenta da alteridade. A proposta levinasiana é a de que a ética precede a ontologia, ou seja, a ética como filosofia primeira deve nortear a relação entre os homens, num reconhecimento do outro em sua alteridade. Não se pretende neste breve trabalho analisar de forma minuciosa as concepções de Birman e de Lévinas, mas apontar que, apesar das diferenças de abordagem, ambos se aproximam no que tange à questão da alteridade na cultura ocidental. Palavras-chave: Alteridade; Paradigma; Eu; Narcisismo; Ontologia. Abstract The Western Culture based on the aegis of the Greek ontology, has historically relegated the other in his alterity to the forgetfulness, in supremacy of the Being who justified the crusades, the colonization, the slavery, the totalitarian regimes like the Fascism and the Nazism, among others. It is in this perspective that this article has as objective to present the perspectives of the teacher Joel Birman

  7. Geometric integrators for stochastic rigid body dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Tretyakov, Mikhail

    2016-01-05

    Geometric integrators play an important role in simulating dynamical systems on long time intervals with high accuracy. We will illustrate geometric integration ideas within the stochastic context, mostly on examples of stochastic thermostats for rigid body dynamics. The talk will be mainly based on joint recent work with Rusland Davidchak and Tom Ouldridge.

  8. Combinatorial and Algorithmic Rigidity: Beyond Two Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    44]. Theorems of Maxwell- Laman type were ob- tained in [9, 15, 43]. 2 3. Counting and Enumeration. As anticipated in the project, we relied on methods...decompositions. Graphs and Combinatorics, 25:219–238, 2009. [43] I. Streinu and L. Theran. Slider-pinning rigidity: a Maxwell- Laman -type theorem. Discrete and

  9. Birationally rigid varieties. I. Fano varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukhlikov, A V

    2007-01-01

    The theory of birational rigidity of rationally connected varieties generalises the classical rationality problem. This paper gives a survey of the current state of this theory and traces its history from Noether's theorem and the Lueroth problem to the latest results on the birational superrigidity of higher-dimensional Fano varieties. The main components of the method of maximal singularities are considered.

  10. Rigid polyurethane and kenaf core composite foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigid polyurethane foams are valuable in many construction applications. Kenaf is a bast fiber plant where the surface stem skin provides bast fibers whose strength-to-weight ratio competes with glass fiber. The higher volume product of the kenaf core is an under-investigated area in composite appli...

  11. Geometric integrators for stochastic rigid body dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Tretyakov, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Geometric integrators play an important role in simulating dynamical systems on long time intervals with high accuracy. We will illustrate geometric integration ideas within the stochastic context, mostly on examples of stochastic thermostats for rigid body dynamics. The talk will be mainly based on joint recent work with Rusland Davidchak and Tom Ouldridge.

  12. Rigidity Sensing Explained by Active Matter Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Marcq, Philippe; Yoshinaga, Natsuhiko; Prost, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The magnitude of traction forces exerted by living animal cells on their environment is a monotonically increasing and approximately sigmoidal function of the stiffness of the external medium. We rationalize this observation using active matter theory, and propose that adaptation to substrate rigidity results from an interplay between passive elasticity and active contractility.

  13. About deformation and rigidity in relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coll, Bartolome

    2007-01-01

    The notion of deformation involves that of rigidity. In relativity, starting from Born's early definition of rigidity, some other ones have been proposed, offering more or less interesting aspects but also accompanied of undesired or even pathological properties. In order to clarify the origin of these difficulties presented by the notion of rigidity in relativity, we analyze with some detail significant aspects of the unambiguous classical, Newtonian, notion. In particular, the relative character of its kinetic definition is pointed out, allowing to predict and to understand the limitations imposed by Herglotz-Noether theorem. Also, its equivalent dynamic definition is obtained and, in contrast, its absolute character is shown. But in spite of this absolute character, the dynamic definition is shown to be not extensible to relativity. The metric deformation of Minkowski space by the presence of a gravitational field is interpreted as a universal deformation, and it is shown that, under natural conditions, only a simple deformation law is possible, relating locally, but in an one-to-one way, gravitational fields and gauge classes of two-forms. We argue that fields of unit vectors associated to the internal gauge class of two-forms of every space-time (and, in particular, of Minkowski space-time) are the relativistic analogues of the classical accelerated observers, i.e. of the classical rigid motions. Some other consequences of the universal law of gravitational deformation are commented

  14. Rigid pricing and rationally inattentive consumer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2010), s. 1-40 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : rational inattention * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp409.pdf

  15. Cracking of open traffic rigid pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niken Chatarina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is done by observing the growth of real structure cracking in Natar, Lampung, Indonesia compared to C. Niken’s et al research and literature study. The rigid pavement was done with open traffic system. There are two main crack types on Natar rigid pavement: cracks cross the road, and cracks spreads on rigid pavement surface. The observation of cracks was analyzed by analyzing material, casting, curing, loading and shrinkage mechanism. The relationship between these analysis and shrinkage mechanism was studied in concrete micro structure. Open traffic make hydration process occur under vibration; therefore, fresh concrete was compressed and tensioned alternately since beginning. High temperature together with compression, cement dissociation, the growth of Ca2+ at very early age leads abnormal swelling. No prevention from outside water movement leads hydration process occur with limited water which caused spreads fine cracks. Limited water improves shrinkage and plastic phase becomes shorter; therefore, rigid pavement can’t accommodate the abnormal swelling and shrinking alternately and creates the spread of cracks. Discontinuing casting the concrete makes both mix under different condition, the first is shrink and the second is swell and creates weak line on the border; so, the cracks appear as cracks across the road.

  16. Nouvelles bornes et estimations pour les milieux poreux à matrice rigide parfaitement plastique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilger, Nicolas; Auslender, François; Bornert, Michel; Masson, Renaud

    We derive new rigorous bounds and self-consistent estimates for the effective yield surface of porous media with a rigid perfectly plastic matrix and a microstructure similar to Hashin's composite spheres assemblage. These results arise from a homogenisation technique that combines a pattern-based modelling for linear composite materials and a variational formulation for nonlinear media. To cite this article: N. Bilger et al., C. R. Mecanique 330 (2002) 127-132.

  17. Rigid Spine Syndrome among Children in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Koul

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Rigidity of the spine is common in adults but is rarely observed in children. The aim of this study was to report on rigid spine syndrome (RSS among children in Oman. Methods: Data on children diagnosed with RSS were collected consecutively at presentation between 1996 and 2014 at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH in Muscat, Oman. A diagnosis of RSS was based on the patient’s history, clinical examination, biochemical investigations, electrophysiological findings, neuro-imaging and muscle biopsy. Atrophy of the paraspinal muscles, particularly the erector spinae, was the diagnostic feature; this was noted using magnetic resonance imaging of the spine. Children with disease onset in the paraspinal muscles were labelled as having primary RSS or rigid spinal muscular dystrophy. Secondary RSS was classified as RSS due to the late involvement of other muscle diseases. Results: Over the 18-year period, 12 children were included in the study, with a maleto- female ratio of 9:3. A total of 10 children were found to have primary RSS or rigid spinal muscular dystrophy syndrome while two had secondary RSS. Onset of the disease ranged from birth to 18 months of age. A family history was noted, with two siblings from one family and three siblings from another (n = 5. On examination, children with primary RSS had typical features of severe spine rigidity at onset, with the rest of the neurological examination being normal. Conclusion: RSS is a rare disease with only 12 reported cases found at SQUH during the study period. Cases of primary RSS should be differentiated from the secondary type.

  18. The two-body problem of a pseudo-rigid body and a rigid sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kristian Uldall; Vereshchagin, M.; Gózdziewski, K.

    2012-01-01

    n this paper we consider the two-body problem of a spherical pseudo-rigid body and a rigid sphere. Due to the rotational and "re-labelling" symmetries, the system is shown to possess conservation of angular momentum and circulation. We follow a reduction procedure similar to that undertaken...... in the study of the two-body problem of a rigid body and a sphere so that the computed reduced non-canonical Hamiltonian takes a similar form. We then consider relative equilibria and show that the notions of locally central and planar equilibria coincide. Finally, we show that Riemann's theorem on pseudo......-rigid bodies has an extension to this system for planar relative equilibria....

  19. From Wage Rigidities to Labour Market Rigidities: A Turning-Point in Explaining Equilibrium Unemployment?

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Guerrazzi; Nicola Meccheri

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a critical discussion of the concept of labour market rigidity relevant to explaining unemployment. Starting from Keynes’s own view, we discuss how the concept of labour market flexibility has changed over time, involving nominal or real wage flexibility, contract flexibility or labour market institution flexibility. We also provide a critical assessment of the factors that lead the search framework highlighting labour market rigidities (frictions) to challenge the more wide...

  20. Large scale Brownian dynamics of confined suspensions of rigid particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, Brennan; Balboa Usabiaga, Florencio; Patankar, Neelesh A.; Donev, Aleksandar

    2017-12-01

    We introduce methods for large-scale Brownian Dynamics (BD) simulation of many rigid particles of arbitrary shape suspended in a fluctuating fluid. Our method adds Brownian motion to the rigid multiblob method [F. Balboa Usabiaga et al., Commun. Appl. Math. Comput. Sci. 11(2), 217-296 (2016)] at a cost comparable to the cost of deterministic simulations. We demonstrate that we can efficiently generate deterministic and random displacements for many particles using preconditioned Krylov iterative methods, if kernel methods to efficiently compute the action of the Rotne-Prager-Yamakawa (RPY) mobility matrix and its "square" root are available for the given boundary conditions. These kernel operations can be computed with near linear scaling for periodic domains using the positively split Ewald method. Here we study particles partially confined by gravity above a no-slip bottom wall using a graphical processing unit implementation of the mobility matrix-vector product, combined with a preconditioned Lanczos iteration for generating Brownian displacements. We address a major challenge in large-scale BD simulations, capturing the stochastic drift term that arises because of the configuration-dependent mobility. Unlike the widely used Fixman midpoint scheme, our methods utilize random finite differences and do not require the solution of resistance problems or the computation of the action of the inverse square root of the RPY mobility matrix. We construct two temporal schemes which are viable for large-scale simulations, an Euler-Maruyama traction scheme and a trapezoidal slip scheme, which minimize the number of mobility problems to be solved per time step while capturing the required stochastic drift terms. We validate and compare these schemes numerically by modeling suspensions of boomerang-shaped particles sedimented near a bottom wall. Using the trapezoidal scheme, we investigate the steady-state active motion in dense suspensions of confined microrollers, whose

  1. Matrix calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Bodewig, E

    1959-01-01

    Matrix Calculus, Second Revised and Enlarged Edition focuses on systematic calculation with the building blocks of a matrix and rows and columns, shunning the use of individual elements. The publication first offers information on vectors, matrices, further applications, measures of the magnitude of a matrix, and forms. The text then examines eigenvalues and exact solutions, including the characteristic equation, eigenrows, extremum properties of the eigenvalues, bounds for the eigenvalues, elementary divisors, and bounds for the determinant. The text ponders on approximate solutions, as well

  2. Financial Constraints and Nominal Price Rigidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menno, Dominik Francesco; Balleer, Almut; Hristov, Nikolay

    This paper investigates how financial market imperfections and the frequency of price adjustment interact. Based on new firm-level evidence for Germany, we document that financially constrained firms adjust prices more often than their unconstrained counterparts, both upwards and downwards. We show...... that these empirical patterns are consistent with a partial equilibrium menu-cost model with a working capital constraint. We then use the model to show how the presence of financial frictions changes profits and the price distribution of firms compared to a model without financial frictions. Our results suggest...... that tighter financial constraints are associated with higher nominal rigidities, higher prices and lower output. Moreover, in response to aggregate shocks, aggregate price rigidity moves substantially, the response of inflation is dampened, while output reacts more in the presence of financial frictions...

  3. Rigidity of the magic pentagram game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalev, Amir; Miller, Carl A.

    2018-01-01

    A game is rigid if a near-optimal score guarantees, under the sole assumption of the validity of quantum mechanics, that the players are using an approximately unique quantum strategy. Rigidity has a vital role in quantum cryptography as it permits a strictly classical user to trust behavior in the quantum realm. This property can be traced back as far as 1998 (Mayers and Yao) and has been proved for multiple classes of games. In this paper we prove ridigity for the magic pentagram game, a simple binary constraint satisfaction game involving two players, five clauses and ten variables. We show that all near-optimal strategies for the pentagram game are approximately equivalent to a unique strategy involving real Pauli measurements on three maximally-entangled qubit pairs.

  4. Rigidity of the magic pentagram game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalev, Amir; Miller, Carl A

    2018-01-01

    A game is rigid if a near-optimal score guarantees, under the sole assumption of the validity of quantum mechanics, that the players are using an approximately unique quantum strategy. Rigidity has a vital role in quantum cryptography as it permits a strictly classical user to trust behavior in the quantum realm. This property can be traced back as far as 1998 (Mayers and Yao) and has been proved for multiple classes of games. In this paper we prove ridigity for the magic pentagram game, a simple binary constraint satisfaction game involving two players, five clauses and ten variables. We show that all near-optimal strategies for the pentagram game are approximately equivalent to a unique strategy involving real Pauli measurements on three maximally-entangled qubit pairs.

  5. Rigid cohomology over Laurent series fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lazda, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In this monograph, the authors develop a new theory of p-adic cohomology for varieties over Laurent series fields in positive characteristic, based on Berthelot's theory of rigid cohomology. Many major fundamental properties of these cohomology groups are proven, such as finite dimensionality and cohomological descent, as well as interpretations in terms of Monsky-Washnitzer cohomology and Le Stum's overconvergent site. Applications of this new theory to arithmetic questions, such as l-independence and the weight monodromy conjecture, are also discussed. The construction of these cohomology groups, analogous to the Galois representations associated to varieties over local fields in mixed characteristic, fills a major gap in the study of arithmetic cohomology theories over function fields. By extending the scope of existing methods, the results presented here also serve as a first step towards a more general theory of p-adic cohomology over non-perfect ground fields. Rigid Cohomology over Laurent Series Fields...

  6. Pilguheit eksiilvalitsuse ajalukku / Joel Haukka

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haukka, Joel

    2005-01-01

    Raamatu "Tõotan ustavaks jääda - Eesti Vabariigi Valitsus 1940-1992" tutvustus. Väljaandmist toetasid majanduslikult Mart Laari juhitud Eesti Vabariigi valitsus, samuti Gerhard Kõrbi fond ning Ervin-Jüri ja Eili Nõmmera fond Stockholmis

  7. Modeling the Flexural Rigidity of Rod Photoreceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, Mohammad; Knox, Barry E.; Ahmadi, Aphrodite

    2013-01-01

    In vertebrate eyes, the rod photoreceptor has a modified cilium with an extended cylindrical structure specialized for phototransduction called the outer segment (OS). The OS has numerous stacked membrane disks and can bend or break when subjected to mechanical forces. The OS exhibits axial structural variation, with extended bands composed of a few hundred membrane disks whose thickness is diurnally modulated. Using high-resolution confocal microscopy, we have observed OS flexing and disruption in live transgenic Xenopus rods. Based on the experimental observations, we introduce a coarse-grained model of OS mechanical rigidity using elasticity theory, representing the axial OS banding explicitly via a spring-bead model. We calculate a bending stiffness of ∼105 nN⋅μm2, which is seven orders-of-magnitude larger than that of typical cilia and flagella. This bending stiffness has a quadratic relation to OS radius, so that thinner OS have lower fragility. Furthermore, we find that increasing the spatial frequency of axial OS banding decreases OS rigidity, reducing its fragility. Moreover, the model predicts a tendency for OS to break in bands with higher spring number density, analogous to the experimental observation that transgenic rods tended to break preferentially in bands of high fluorescence. We discuss how pathological alterations of disk membrane properties by mutant proteins may lead to increased OS rigidity and thus increased breakage, ultimately contributing to retinal degeneration. PMID:23442852

  8. Blast wave interaction with a rigid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josey, T.; Whitehouse, D.R.; Ripley, R.C.; Dionne, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    A simple model used to investigate blast wave interactions with a rigid surface is presented. The model uses a constant volume energy source analogue to predict pressure histories at gauges located directly above the charge. A series of two-dimensional axi-symmetric CFD calculations were performed, varying the height of the charge relative to the ground. Pressure histories, along with isopycnic plots are presented to evaluate the effects of placing a charge in close proximity to a rigid surface. When a charge is placed near a solid surface the pressure histories experienced at gauges above the charge indicate the presence of two distinct pressure peaks. The first peak is caused by the primary shock and the second peak is a result of the wave reflections from the rigid surface. As the distance from the charge to the wall is increased the magnitude of the second pressure peak is reduced, provided that the distance between the charge and the gauge is maintained constant. The simple model presented is able to capture significant, predictable flow features. (author)

  9. Lateral rigidity of cracked concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellani, A.; Chesi, C.

    1979-01-01

    Numerical results are discussed on the lateral rigidity of reinforced concrete structures with a given crack distribution. They have been favourably checked with experimental results for cylindrical shells under the effect of a thermal gradient producing vertical cracking or vertical plus horizontal cracking. The main effects characterizing the concrete behaviour are: (1) The shear transfer across a crack; (2) The shear transfer degradation after cyclic loading; (3) The tension stiffening provided by the concrete between crack and crack, in the normal stress transfer; (4) The temperature effect on the elastic moduli of concrete, when cracks are of thermal origin. Only the 1st effect is discussed on an experimental basis. Two broad cathegories of reinforced concrete structures have been investigated in this respect: shear walls of buildings and cylindrical containment structures. The main conclusions so far reached are: (1) Vertical cracks are unlikely to decrease the lateral rigidity to less than 80% of the original one, and to less than 90% when they do not involve the entire thickness of the wall; (2) The appearence of horizontal cracks can reduce the lateral rigidity by some 30% or more; (3) A noticeable but not yet evaluated influence is shown by cyclic loading. (orig.)

  10. Stresses in Circular Plates with Rigid Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikanov, N. L.; Koryagin, S. I.; Sharkov, O. V.

    2018-05-01

    Calculations of residual stress fields are carried out by numerical and static methods, using the flat cross-section hypothesis. The failure of metal when exposed to residual stresses is, in most cases, brittle. The presence in the engineering structures of rigid elements often leads to the crack initiation and structure failure. This is due to the fact that rigid elements under the influence of external stresses are stress concentrators. In addition, if these elements are fixed by welding, the residual welding stresses can lead to an increase in stress concentration and, ultimately, to failure. The development of design schemes for such structures is a very urgent task for complex technical systems. To determine the stresses in a circular plate with a welded circular rigid insert under the influence of an external load, one can use the solution of the plane stress problem for annular plates in polar coordinates. The polar coordinates of the points are the polar radius and the polar angle, and the stress state is determined by normal radial stresses, tangential and shearing stresses. The use of the above mentioned design schemes, formulas, will allow more accurate determination of residual stresses in annular welded structures. This will help to establish the most likely directions of failure and take measures at the stages of designing, manufacturing and repairing engineering structures to prevent these failures. However, it must be taken into account that the external load, the presence of insulation can lead to a change in the residual stress field.

  11. 49 CFR 587.18 - Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) DEFORMABLE BARRIERS Offset Deformable Barrier § 587.18 Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier. (a) The fixed rigid barrier has a mass of not... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier. 587.18 Section...

  12. CT-3DRA registration for radiosurgery treatments: a comparison among rigid, affine and non rigid approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancanello, J.; Loeckx, D.; Francescon, P.; Calvedon, C.; Avanzo, M.; Cora, S.; Scalchi, P.; Cerveri, P.; Ferrigno, G.

    2004-01-01

    This work aims at comparing rigid, affine and Local Non Rigid (LNR) CT-3D Rotational Angiography (CT-3DRA) registrations based on mutual information. 10 cranial and 1 spinal cases have been registered by rigid and affine transformations; while LNR has been applied to the cases where residual deformation must be corrected. An example of CT-3DRA registration without regularization term and an example of LNR using the similarity criterion and the regularization term as well as 3D superposition of the 3DRA before and after the registration without the regularization term are presented. All the registrations performed by rigid transformation converged to an acceptable solution. The results about the robustness test in axial direction are reported. Conclusions: For cranial cases, affine transformation endowed with threshold-segmentation pre-processing can be considered the most favourable solution for almost all registrations; for some cases, LNR provides more accurate results. For the spinal case rigid transformation is the most suitable when immobilizing patient during examinations; in this case the increase of accuracy by using LNR registrations seems to be not significant

  13. Influence of flock coating on bending rigidity of woven fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, O.; Kesimci, M. O.

    2017-10-01

    This work presents the preliminary results of our efforts that focused on the effect of the flock coating on the bending rigidity of woven fabrics. For this objective, a laboratory scale flocking unit is designed and flocked samples of controlled flock density are produced. Bending rigidity of the samples with different flock densities are measured on both flocked and unflocked sides. It is shown that the bending rigidity depends on both flock density and whether the side to be measured is flocked or not. Adhesive layer thickness on the bending rigidity is shown to be dramatic. And at higher basis weights, flock density gets less effective on bending rigidity.

  14. Understanding geological processes: Visualization of rigid and non-rigid transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, T. F.; Atit, K.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Resnick, I.; Tikoff, B.

    2012-12-01

    Visualizations are used in the geological sciences to support reasoning about structures and events. Research in cognitive sciences offers insights into the range of skills of different users, and ultimately how visualizations might support different users. To understand the range of skills needed to reason about earth processes we have developed a program of research that is grounded in the geosciences' careful description of the spatial and spatiotemporal patterns associated with earth processes. In particular, we are pursuing a research program that identifies specific spatial skills and investigates whether and how they are related to each other. For this study, we focus on a specific question: Is there an important distinction in the geosciences between rigid and non-rigid deformation? To study a general spatial thinking skill we employed displays with non-geological objects that had been altered by rigid change (rotation), and two types of non-rigid change ("brittle" (or discontinuous) and "ductile" (or continuous) deformation). Disciplinary scientists (geosciences and chemistry faculty), and novices (non-science faculty and undergraduate psychology students) answered questions that required them to visualize the appearance of the object before the change. In one study, geologists and chemists were found to be superior to non-science faculty in reasoning about rigid rotations (e.g., what an object would look like from a different perspective). Geologists were superior to chemists in reasoning about brittle deformations (e.g., what an object looked like before it was broken - here the object was a word cut into many fragments displaced in different directions). This finding is consistent with two hypotheses: 1) Experts are good at visualizing the types of changes required for their domain; and 2) Visualization of rigid and non-rigid changes are not the same skill. An additional important finding is that there was a broad range of skill in both rigid and non-rigid

  15. Matrix thermalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Nguyen, Kévin

    2017-01-01

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  16. Matrix thermalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Nguyen, Kévin

    2017-02-01

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  17. Matrix thermalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craps, Ben [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Evnin, Oleg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Thanon Phayathai, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Nguyen, Kévin [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-02-08

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  18. Modeling of a light elastic beam by a system of rigid bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šalinić Slaviša

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has shown that a light elastic beam, in the case of small elastic deformations, can be modeled by a kinematic chain without branching composed of rigid bodies which are connected by passive revolute or prismatic joints with corresponding springs in them. Elastic properties of the beam are modeled by the springs introduced. The potential energy of the elastic beam is expressed as a function of components of the vector of elastic displacement and the vector of elastic rotation calculated for the elastic centre of the beam, which results in the diagonal stiffness matrix of the beam. As the potential energy of the introduced system of bodies with springs is expressed in the function of relative joint displacements, the diagonal stiffness matrix is obtained. In addition, these two stiffness matrices are equal. The modeling process has been demonstrated on the example of an elastic beam rotating about a fixed vertical axis, with a rigid body whose mass is considerably larger than the beam mass fixed to its free end. Differential equations of motion have been formed for this mechanical system. The modeling technique described here aims at expanding of usage of well developed methods of dynamics of systems of rigid bodies to the analysis of systems with elastic bodies. .

  19. A rigid porous filter and filtration method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Ta-Kuan; Straub, Douglas, Straub L.; Dennis, Richard A.

    1998-12-01

    The present invention involves a porous rigid filter comprising a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulate from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulate. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area- to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.

  20. Mechanical Characterization of Rigid Polyurethane Foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei-Yang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Mechanics of Materials

    2014-12-01

    Foam materials are used to protect sensitive components from impact loading. In order to predict and simulate the foam performance under various loading conditions, a validated foam model is needed and the mechanical properties of foams need to be characterized. Uniaxial compression and tension tests were conducted for different densities of foams under various temperatures and loading rates. Crush stress, tensile strength, and elastic modulus were obtained. A newly developed confined compression experiment provided data for investigating the foam flow direction. A biaxial tension experiment was also developed to explore the damage surface of a rigid polyurethane foam.

  1. Rigidity of complete generic shrinking Ricci solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yawei; Zhou, Jundong; Wang, Xue

    2018-01-01

    Let (Mn , g , X) be a complete generic shrinking Ricci soliton of dimension n ≥ 3. In this paper, by employing curvature inequalities, the formula of X-Laplacian for the norm square of the trace-free curvature tensor, the weak maximum principle and the estimate of the scalar curvature of (Mn , g) , we prove some rigidity results for (Mn , g , X) . In particular, it is showed that (Mn , g , X) is isometric to Rn or a finite quotient of Sn under a pointwise pinching condition. Moreover, we establish several optimal inequalities and classify those shrinking solitons for equalities.

  2. Public policies targeting labour market rigidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Claudia ŞERBAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Labour market rigidity becomes an issue of increasing importance under conditions of shocks associated with the economic crisis due to the need to increase the adaptability and responsiveness to them. Thus, labour market policies must be directed towards mitigating rigidities caused by institutional or demographic factors or certain mismatch between demand and supply of education qualifications. This paper highlights the major role of the active labour market policies targeting the increase of labour flexibility, stressing the importance and impact on the ability to adapt quickly and effectively to macroeconomic shocks. Located on a declining trend in the years preceding the crisis, spending on labour market policies increased in 2009 in all the Member States of the European Union. Spending differences are significant between countries, Romania being at the lowest end of the European Union. This requires special attention because the increased adaptability of workers through training, as active measure, is of major importance considering the increased speed of changes in the labour market.

  3. Vertebral Column Resection for Rigid Spinal Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifi, Comron; Laratta, Joseph L; Petridis, Petros; Shillingford, Jamal N; Lehman, Ronald A; Lenke, Lawrence G

    2017-05-01

    Broad narrative review. To review the evolution, operative technique, outcomes, and complications associated with posterior vertebral column resection. A literature review of posterior vertebral column resection was performed. The authors' surgical technique is outlined in detail. The authors' experience and the literature regarding vertebral column resection are discussed at length. Treatment of severe, rigid coronal and/or sagittal malalignment with posterior vertebral column resection results in approximately 50-70% correction depending on the type of deformity. Surgical site infection rates range from 2.9% to 9.7%. Transient and permanent neurologic injury rates range from 0% to 13.8% and 0% to 6.3%, respectively. Although there are significant variations in EBL throughout the literature, it can be minimized by utilizing tranexamic acid intraoperatively. The ability to correct a rigid deformity in the spine relies on osteotomies. Each osteotomy is associated with a particular magnitude of correction at a single level. Posterior vertebral column resection is the most powerful posterior osteotomy method providing a successful correction of fixed complex deformities. Despite meticulous surgical technique and precision, this robust osteotomy technique can be associated with significant morbidity even in the most experienced hands.

  4. Optimized imaging using non-rigid registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkels, Benjamin; Binev, Peter; Blom, Douglas A.; Dahmen, Wolfgang; Sharpley, Robert C.; Vogt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The extraordinary improvements of modern imaging devices offer access to data with unprecedented information content. However, widely used image processing methodologies fall far short of exploiting the full breadth of information offered by numerous types of scanning probe, optical, and electron microscopies. In many applications, it is necessary to keep measurement intensities below a desired threshold. We propose a methodology for extracting an increased level of information by processing a series of data sets suffering, in particular, from high degree of spatial uncertainty caused by complex multiscale motion during the acquisition process. An important role is played by a non-rigid pixel-wise registration method that can cope with low signal-to-noise ratios. This is accompanied by formulating objective quality measures which replace human intervention and visual inspection in the processing chain. Scanning transmission electron microscopy of siliceous zeolite material exhibits the above-mentioned obstructions and therefore serves as orientation and a test of our procedures. - Highlights: • Developed a new process for extracting more information from a series of STEM images. • An objective non-rigid registration process copes with distortions. • Images of zeolite Y show retrieval of all information available from the data set. • Quantitative measures of registration quality were implemented. • Applicable to any serially acquired data, e.g. STM, AFM, STXM, etc

  5. Human epithelial cells increase their rigidity with ageing in vitro: direct measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdyyeva, Tamara K; Woodworth, Craig D; Sokolov, Igor

    2005-01-01

    The decrease in elasticity of epithelial tissues with ageing contributes to many human diseases. This change was previously attributed to increased crosslinking of extracellular matrix proteins. Here we show that individual human epithelial cells also become significantly more rigid during ageing in vitro. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we found that the Young's modulus of viable cells was consistently increased two- to four-fold in older versus younger cells. Direct visualization of the cytoskeleton using a novel method involving the AFM suggested that increased rigidity of ageing cells was due to a higher density of cytoskeletal fibres. Our results identify a unique mechanism that might contribute to the age-related loss of elasticity in epithelial tissues

  6. Research on Rigid Body Motion Tracing in Space based on NX MCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjie; Dai, Chunxiang; Shi, Karen; Qin, Rongkang

    2018-03-01

    In the use of MCD (Mechatronics Concept Designer) which is a module belong to SIEMENS Ltd industrial design software UG (Unigraphics NX), user can define rigid body and kinematic joint to make objects move according to the existing plan in simulation. At this stage, user may have the desire to see the path of some points in the moving object intuitively. In response to this requirement, this paper will compute the pose through the transformation matrix which can be available from the solver engine, and then fit these sampling points through B-spline curve. Meanwhile, combined with the actual constraints of rigid bodies, the traditional equal interval sampling strategy was optimized. The result shown that this method could satisfy the demand and make up for the deficiency in traditional sampling method. User can still edit and model on this 3D curve. Expected result has been achieved.

  7. Efficient time-symmetric simulation of torqued rigid bodies using Jacobi elliptic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celledoni, E; Saefstroem, N

    2006-01-01

    If the three moments of inertia are distinct, the solution to the Euler equations for the free rigid body is given in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. Using the arithmetic-geometric mean algorithm (Abramowitz and Stegun 1992 Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables (New York: Dover)), these functions can be calculated efficiently and accurately. Compared to standard numerical ODE and Lie-Poisson solvers, the overall approach yields a faster and more accurate numerical solution to the Euler equations. This approach is designed for mass asymmetric rigid bodies. In the case of symmetric bodies, the exact solution is available in terms of trigonometric functions, see Dullweber et al (1997 J. Chem. Phys. 107 5840-51), Reich (1996 Fields Inst. Commun. 10 181-91) and Benettin et al (2001 SIAM J. Sci. Comp. 23 1189-203) for details. In this paper, we consider the case of asymmetric rigid bodies subject to external forces. We consider a strategy similar to the symplectic splitting method proposed in Reich (1996 Fields Inst. Commun. 10 181-91) and Dullweber et al (1997 J. Chem. Phys. 107 5840-51). The method proposed here is time-symmetric. We decompose the vector field of our problem into a free rigid body (FRB) problem and another completely integrable vector field. The FRB problem consists of the Euler equations and a differential equation for the 3 x 3 orientation matrix. The Euler equations are integrated exactly while the matrix equation is approximated using a truncated Magnus series. In our experiments, we observe that the overall numerical solution benefits greatly from the very accurate solution of the Euler equations. We apply the method to the heavy top and the simulation of artificial satellite attitude dynamics

  8. Matrix inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Xingzhi

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this monograph is to report on recent developments in the field of matrix inequalities, with emphasis on useful techniques and ingenious ideas. Among other results this book contains the affirmative solutions of eight conjectures. Many theorems unify or sharpen previous inequalities. The author's aim is to streamline the ideas in the literature. The book can be read by research workers, graduate students and advanced undergraduates.

  9. Thermostability in rubredoxin and its relationship to mechanical rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, A. J.

    2010-03-01

    The source of increased stability in proteins from organisms that thrive in extreme thermal environments is not well understood. Previous experimental and theoretical studies have suggested many different features possibly responsible for such thermostability. Many of these thermostabilizing mechanisms can be accounted for in terms of structural rigidity. Thus a plausible hypothesis accounting for this remarkable stability in thermophilic enzymes states that these enzymes have enhanced conformational rigidity at temperatures below their native, functioning temperature. Experimental evidence exists to both support and contradict this supposition. We computationally investigate the relationship between thermostability and rigidity using rubredoxin as a case study. The mechanical rigidity is calculated using atomic models of homologous rubredoxin structures from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus and mesophile Clostridium pasteurianum using the FIRST software. A global increase in structural rigidity (equivalently a decrease in flexibility) corresponds to an increase in thermostability. Locally, rigidity differences (between mesophilic and thermophilic structures) agree with differences in protection factors.

  10. Thermostability in rubredoxin and its relationship to mechanical rigidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rader, A J

    2010-01-01

    The source of increased stability in proteins from organisms that thrive in extreme thermal environments is not well understood. Previous experimental and theoretical studies have suggested many different features possibly responsible for such thermostability. Many of these thermostabilizing mechanisms can be accounted for in terms of structural rigidity. Thus a plausible hypothesis accounting for this remarkable stability in thermophilic enzymes states that these enzymes have enhanced conformational rigidity at temperatures below their native, functioning temperature. Experimental evidence exists to both support and contradict this supposition. We computationally investigate the relationship between thermostability and rigidity using rubredoxin as a case study. The mechanical rigidity is calculated using atomic models of homologous rubredoxin structures from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus and mesophile Clostridium pasteurianum using the FIRST software. A global increase in structural rigidity (equivalently a decrease in flexibility) corresponds to an increase in thermostability. Locally, rigidity differences (between mesophilic and thermophilic structures) agree with differences in protection factors

  11. Coherent distributions for the rigid rotator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigorescu, Marius [CP 15-645, Bucharest 014700 (Romania)

    2016-06-15

    Coherent solutions of the classical Liouville equation for the rigid rotator are presented as positive phase-space distributions localized on the Lagrangian submanifolds of Hamilton-Jacobi theory. These solutions become Wigner-type quasiprobability distributions by a formal discretization of the left-invariant vector fields from their Fourier transform in angular momentum. The results are consistent with the usual quantization of the anisotropic rotator, but the expected value of the Hamiltonian contains a finite “zero point” energy term. It is shown that during the time when a quasiprobability distribution evolves according to the Liouville equation, the related quantum wave function should satisfy the time-dependent Schrödinger equation.

  12. Static friction between rigid fractal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando; Huang, Pengyu; Hanaor, Dorian A H; Flores-Johnson, E A; Proust, Gwénaëlle; Gan, Yixiang; Shen, Luming

    2015-09-01

    Using spheropolygon-based simulations and contact slope analysis, we investigate the effects of surface topography and atomic scale friction on the macroscopically observed friction between rigid blocks with fractal surface structures. From our mathematical derivation, the angle of macroscopic friction is the result of the sum of the angle of atomic friction and the slope angle between the contact surfaces. The latter is obtained from the determination of all possible contact slopes between the two surface profiles through an alternative signature function. Our theory is validated through numerical simulations of spheropolygons with fractal Koch surfaces and is applied to the description of frictional properties of Weierstrass-Mandelbrot surfaces. The agreement between simulations and theory suggests that for interpreting macroscopic frictional behavior, the descriptors of surface morphology should be defined from the signature function rather than from the slopes of the contacting surfaces.

  13. Observational properties of rigidly rotating dust configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilyas, Batyr; Malafarina, Daniele [Nazarbayev University, Department of Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Yang, Jinye [Fudan University, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Bambi, Cosimo [Fudan University, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Eberhard-Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Theoretical Astrophysics, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    We study the observational properties of a class of exact solutions of Einstein's field equations describing stationary, axially symmetric, rigidly rotating dust (i.e. non-interacting particles). We ask the question whether such solutions can describe astrophysical rotating dark matter clouds near the center of galaxies and we probe the possibility that they may constitute an alternative to supermassive black holes at the center of galaxies. We show that light emission from accretion disks made of ordinary baryonic matter in this space-time has several differences with respect to the emission of light from similar accretion disks around black holes. The shape of the iron Kα line in the reflection spectrum of accretion disks can potentially distinguish this class of solutions from the Kerr metric, but this may not be possible with current X-ray missions. (orig.)

  14. On real structures on rigid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikov, Vik S; Kharlamov, V M

    2002-01-01

    We construct examples of rigid surfaces (that is, surfaces whose deformation class consists of a unique surface) with a particular behaviour with respect to real structures. In one example the surface has no real structure. In another it has a unique real structure, which is not maximal with respect to the Smith-Thom inequality. These examples give negative answers to the following problems: the existence of real surfaces in each deformation class of complex surfaces, and the existence of maximal real surfaces in every complex deformation class that contains real surfaces. Moreover, we prove that there are no real surfaces among surfaces of general type with p g =q=0 and K 2 =9. These surfaces also provide new counterexamples to the 'Dif = Def' problem

  15. On real structures on rigid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulikov, Vik S [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Kharlamov, V M [Institut de Recherche Matematique Avanee Universite Louis Pasteur et CNRS 7 rue Rene Descartes (France)

    2002-02-28

    We construct examples of rigid surfaces (that is, surfaces whose deformation class consists of a unique surface) with a particular behaviour with respect to real structures. In one example the surface has no real structure. In another it has a unique real structure, which is not maximal with respect to the Smith-Thom inequality. These examples give negative answers to the following problems: the existence of real surfaces in each deformation class of complex surfaces, and the existence of maximal real surfaces in every complex deformation class that contains real surfaces. Moreover, we prove that there are no real surfaces among surfaces of general type with p{sub g}=q=0 and K{sup 2}=9. These surfaces also provide new counterexamples to the 'Dif = Def' problem.

  16. Management of rigid post-traumatic kyphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S S; Hwa, S Y; Lin, L C; Pai, W M; Chen, P Q; Au, M K

    1996-10-01

    Rigid post-traumatic kyphosis after fracture of the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine represents a failure of initial management of the injury. Kyphosis moves the center of gravity anterior. The kyphosis and instability may result in pain, deformity, and increased neurologic deficits. Management for symptomatic post-traumatic kyphosis always has presented a challenge to orthopedic surgeons. To evaluate the surgical results of one stage posterior correction for rigid symptomatic post-traumatic kyphosis of the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine. The management for post-traumatic kyphosis remains controversial. Anterior, posterior, or combined anterior and posterior procedures have been advocated by different authors and show various degrees of success. One vertebra immediately above and below the level of the deformity was instrumented posteriorly by a transpedicular system (internal fixator AO). Posterior decompression was performed by excision of the spinal process and bilateral laminectomy. With the deformed vertebra through the pedicle, the vertebral body carefully is removed around the pedicle level, approximating a wedge shape. The extent to which the deformed vertebral body should be removed is determined by the attempted correction. Correction of the deformity is achieved by manipulation of the operating table and compression of the adjacent Schanz screws above and below the lesion. Thirteen patients with post-traumatic kyphosis with symptoms of fatigue and pain caused by slow progression of kyphotic deformities received posterior decompression, correction, and stabilization as a definitive treatment. The precorrection kyphosis ranged from 30-60 degrees, with a mean of 40 degrees +/- 10.8 degrees. After correction, kyphosis was reduced to an average of 1.5 degrees +/- 3.8 degrees, with a range from -5 degrees to 5 degrees. The average angle of correction was 38.8 degrees +/- 10.4 degrees, with a range from 25 degrees to 60 degrees. Significant difference was found

  17. Rigid microenvironments promote cardiac differentiation of mouse and human embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshi, Armin; Nakashima, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Haruko; Eaimkhong, Sarayoot; Evseenko, Denis; Reed, Jason; Stieg, Adam Z.; Gimzewski, James K.; Nakano, Atsushi

    2013-04-01

    While adult heart muscle is the least regenerative of tissues, embryonic cardiomyocytes are proliferative, with embryonic stem (ES) cells providing an endless reservoir. In addition to secreted factors and cell-cell interactions, the extracellular microenvironment has been shown to play an important role in stem cell lineage specification, and understanding how scaffold elasticity influences cardiac differentiation is crucial to cardiac tissue engineering. Though previous studies have analyzed the role of matrix elasticity on the function of differentiated cardiomyocytes, whether it affects the induction of cardiomyocytes from pluripotent stem cells is poorly understood. Here, we examine the role of matrix rigidity on cardiac differentiation using mouse and human ES cells. Culture on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates of varied monomer-to-crosslinker ratios revealed that rigid extracellular matrices promote a higher yield of de novo cardiomyocytes from undifferentiated ES cells. Using a genetically modified ES system that allows us to purify differentiated cardiomyocytes by drug selection, we demonstrate that rigid environments induce higher cardiac troponin T expression, beating rate of foci, and expression ratio of adult α- to fetal β- myosin heavy chain in a purified cardiac population. M-mode and mechanical interferometry image analyses demonstrate that these ES-derived cardiomyocytes display functional maturity and synchronization of beating when co-cultured with neonatal cardiomyocytes harvested from a developing embryo. Together, these data identify matrix stiffness as an independent factor that instructs not only the maturation of already differentiated cardiomyocytes but also the induction and proliferation of cardiomyocytes from undifferentiated progenitors. Manipulation of the stiffness will help direct the production of functional cardiomyocytes en masse from stem cells for regenerative medicine purposes.

  18. Tile-based rigidization surface parametric design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner Munoz, Laura; Luntz, Jonathan; Brei, Diann; Kim, Wonhee

    2018-03-01

    Inflatable technologies have proven useful in consumer goods as well as in more recent applications including civil structures, aerospace, medical, and robotics. However, inflatable technologies are typically lacking in their ability to provide rigid structural support. Particle jamming improves upon this by providing structures which are normally flexible and moldable but become rigid when air is removed. Because these are based on an airtight bladder filled with loose particles, they always occupy the full volume of its rigid state, even when not rigidized. More recent developments in layer jamming have created thin, compact rigidizing surfaces replacing the loose volume of particles with thinly layered surface materials. Work in this area has been applied to several specific applications with positive results but have not generally provided the broader understanding of the rigidization performance as a function of design parameters required for directly adapting layer rigidization technology to other applications. This paper presents a parametric design study of a new layer jamming vacuum rigidization architecture: tile-based vacuum rigidization. This form of rigidization is based on layers of tiles contained within a thin vacuum bladder which can be bent, rolled, or otherwise compactly stowed, but when deployed flat, can be vacuumed and form a large, flat, rigid plate capable of supporting large forces both localized and distributed over the surface. The general architecture and operation detailing rigidization and compliance mechanisms is introduced. To quantitatively characterize the rigidization behavior, prototypes rigidization surfaces are fabricated and an experimental technique is developed based on a 3-point bending test. Performance evaluation metrics are developed to describe the stiffness, load-bearing capacity, and internal slippage of tested prototypes. A set of experimental parametric studies are performed to better understand the impact of

  19. A batch Algorithm for Implicit Non-Rigid Shape and Motion Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartoli, Adrien; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    2005-01-01

    The recovery of 3D shape and camera motion for non-rigid scenes from single-camera video footage is a very important problem in computer vision. The low-rank shape model consists in regarding the deformations as linear combinations of basis shapes. Most algorithms for reconstructing the parameters...... of this model along with camera motion are based on three main steps. Given point tracks and the rank, or equivalently the number of basis shapes, they factorize a measurement matrix containing all point tracks, from which the camera motion and basis shapes are extracted and refined in a bundle adjustment...

  20. Matrix analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    1997-01-01

    A good part of matrix theory is functional analytic in spirit. This statement can be turned around. There are many problems in operator theory, where most of the complexities and subtleties are present in the finite-dimensional case. My purpose in writing this book is to present a systematic treatment of methods that are useful in the study of such problems. This book is intended for use as a text for upper division and gradu­ ate courses. Courses based on parts of the material have been given by me at the Indian Statistical Institute and at the University of Toronto (in collaboration with Chandler Davis). The book should also be useful as a reference for research workers in linear algebra, operator theory, mathe­ matical physics and numerical analysis. A possible subtitle of this book could be Matrix Inequalities. A reader who works through the book should expect to become proficient in the art of deriving such inequalities. Other authors have compared this art to that of cutting diamonds. One first has to...

  1. Numerical algorithm for rigid body position estimation using the quaternion approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigic, Miodrag; Grahovac, Nenad

    2017-11-01

    This paper deals with rigid body attitude estimation on the basis of the data obtained from an inertial measurement unit mounted on the body. The aim of this work is to present the numerical algorithm, which can be easily applied to the wide class of problems concerning rigid body positioning, arising in aerospace and marine engineering, or in increasingly popular robotic systems and unmanned aerial vehicles. Following the considerations of kinematics of rigid bodies, the relations between accelerations of different points of the body are given. A rotation matrix is formed using the quaternion approach to avoid singularities. We present numerical procedures for determination of the absolute accelerations of the center of mass and of an arbitrary point of the body expressed in the inertial reference frame, as well as its attitude. An application of the algorithm to the example of a heavy symmetrical gyroscope is presented, where input data for the numerical procedure are obtained from the solution of differential equations of motion, instead of using sensor measurements.

  2. Matrix pentagons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitsky, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    The Operator Product Expansion for null polygonal Wilson loop in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory runs systematically in terms of multi-particle pentagon transitions which encode the physics of excitations propagating on the color flux tube ending on the sides of the four-dimensional contour. Their dynamics was unraveled in the past several years and culminated in a complete description of pentagons as an exact function of the 't Hooft coupling. In this paper we provide a solution for the last building block in this program, the SU(4) matrix structure arising from internal symmetry indices of scalars and fermions. This is achieved by a recursive solution of the Mirror and Watson equations obeyed by the so-called singlet pentagons and fixing the form of the twisted component in their tensor decomposition. The non-singlet, or charged, pentagons are deduced from these by a limiting procedure.

  3. Matrix pentagons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Belitsky

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Operator Product Expansion for null polygonal Wilson loop in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory runs systematically in terms of multi-particle pentagon transitions which encode the physics of excitations propagating on the color flux tube ending on the sides of the four-dimensional contour. Their dynamics was unraveled in the past several years and culminated in a complete description of pentagons as an exact function of the 't Hooft coupling. In this paper we provide a solution for the last building block in this program, the SU(4 matrix structure arising from internal symmetry indices of scalars and fermions. This is achieved by a recursive solution of the Mirror and Watson equations obeyed by the so-called singlet pentagons and fixing the form of the twisted component in their tensor decomposition. The non-singlet, or charged, pentagons are deduced from these by a limiting procedure.

  4. Algebraic Methods for Counting Euclidean Embeddings of Rigid Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.Z. Emiris; E.P. Tsigaridas; A. Varvitsiotis (Antonios); E.R. Gasner

    2009-01-01

    textabstract The study of (minimally) rigid graphs is motivated by numerous applications, mostly in robotics and bioinformatics. A major open problem concerns the number of embeddings of such graphs, up to rigid motions, in Euclidean space. We capture embeddability by polynomial systems

  5. THE RIGIDITY OF THE EARTH'S INNER CORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. BULLEN

    1953-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine and assess, in the
    light of recent evidence, the theory lliat the Earth's inner core has
    a significant rigidity.
    The presenee of an inner core in the Earth is revealed from
    observations of the seismie pliase PKP in the « sliadow zone » for
    which the epicentral distance A lies in the range 105" < A < 143".
    Miss I. Lehmann (r in 1936, followed by Gutenberg and Richter (2
    in 1938, atlrihuted these observations to tlie presence of an inner
    core; and Jeffreys (3 in 1939 applied Airy's theory of diffraetion
    near a caustic to sliow that the alternative theory of diffraetion
    round the outer boundary of the centrai core was not capable of
    explaining tlie observations in the shadow zone. The existence of the
    inner core has been fairly generallv accepted sinee tliis ealculation
    of Jeffreys.

  6. The theory of pseudo-rigid bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Harley

    1988-01-01

    This monograph concerns the development, analysis, and application of the theory of pseudo-rigid bodies. It collects together our work on that subject over the last five years. While some results have appeared else­ where, much of the work is new. Our objective in writing this mono­ graph has been to present a new theory of the deformation of bodies, one that has not only a firm theoretical basis, but also the simplicity to serve as an effective tool in practical problems. Consequently, the main body of the treatise is a multifaceted development of the theory, from foundations to explicit solutions to linearizations to methods of approximation. The fact that this variety of aspects, each examined in considerable detail, can be collected together in a single, unified treat­ ment gives this theory an elegance that we feel sets it apart from many others. While our goal has always been to give a complete treatment of the theory as it now stands, the work here is not meant to be definitive. Theories are not ent...

  7. Almost Poisson integration of rigid body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, M.A.; Krishnaprasad, P.S.; Li-Sheng Wang

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the numerical integration of Lie-Poisson systems using the mid-point rule. Since such systems result from the reduction of hamiltonian systems with symmetry by lie group actions, we also present examples of reconstruction rules for the full dynamics. A primary motivation is to preserve in the integration process, various conserved quantities of the original dynamics. A main result of this paper is an O(h 3 ) error estimate for the Lie-Poisson structure, where h is the integration step-size. We note that Lie-Poisson systems appear naturally in many areas of physical science and engineering, including theoretical mechanics of fluids and plasmas, satellite dynamics, and polarization dynamics. In the present paper we consider a series of progressively complicated examples related to rigid body systems. We also consider a dissipative example associated to a Lie-Poisson system. The behavior of the mid-point rule and an associated reconstruction rule is numerically explored. 24 refs., 9 figs

  8. Rigid multipodal platforms for metal surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Valášek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review the recent progress in molecular platforms that form rigid and well-defined contact to a metal surface are discussed. Most of the presented examples have at least three anchoring units in order to control the spatial arrangement of the protruding molecular subunit. Another interesting feature is the lateral orientation of these foot structures which, depending on the particular application, is equally important as the spatial arrangement of the molecules. The numerous approaches towards assembling and organizing functional molecules into specific architectures on metal substrates are reviewed here. Particular attention is paid to variations of both, the core structures and the anchoring groups. Furthermore, the analytical methods enabling the investigation of individual molecules as well as monomolecular layers of ordered platform structures are summarized. The presented multipodal platforms bearing several anchoring groups form considerably more stable molecule–metal contacts than corresponding monopodal analogues and exhibit an enlarged separation of the functional molecules due to the increased footprint, as well as restrict tilting of the functional termini with respect to the metal surface. These platforms are thus ideally suited to tune important properties of the molecule–metal interface. On a single-molecule level, several of these platforms enable the control over the arrangement of the protruding rod-type molecular structures (e.g., molecular wires, switches, rotors, sensors with respect to the surface of the substrate.

  9. Inflatable Tubular Structures Rigidized with Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Michael L.; Schnell, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Inflatable tubular structures that have annular cross sections rigidized with foams, and the means of erecting such structures in the field, are undergoing development. Although the development effort has focused on lightweight structural booms to be transported in compact form and deployed in outer space, the principles of design and fabrication are also potentially applicable to terrestrial structures, including components of ultralightweight aircraft, lightweight storage buildings and shelters, lightweight insulation, and sales displays. The use of foams to deploy and harden inflatable structures was first proposed as early as the 1960s, and has been investigated in recent years by NASA, the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, industry, and academia. In cases of deployable booms, most of the investigation in recent years has focused on solid cross sections, because they can be constructed relatively easily. However, solid-section foam-filled booms can be much too heavy for some applications. In contrast, booms with annular cross sections according to the present innovation can be tailored to obtain desired combinations of stiffness and weight through choice of diameters, wall thicknesses, and foam densities. By far the most compelling advantage afforded by this innovation is the possibility of drastically reducing weights while retaining or increasing the stiffnesses, relative to comparable booms that have solid foamfilled cross sections. A typical boom according to this innovation includes inner and outer polyimide film sleeves to contain foam that is injected between them during deployment.

  10. Spontaneous droplet trampolining on rigid superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutzius, Thomas M.; Jung, Stefan; Maitra, Tanmoy; Graeber, Gustav; Köhme, Moritz; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2015-11-01

    Spontaneous removal of condensed matter from surfaces is exploited in nature and in a broad range of technologies to achieve self-cleaning, anti-icing and condensation control. But despite much progress, our understanding of the phenomena leading to such behaviour remains incomplete, which makes it challenging to rationally design surfaces that benefit from its manifestation. Here we show that water droplets resting on superhydrophobic textured surfaces in a low-pressure environment can self-remove through sudden spontaneous levitation and subsequent trampoline-like bouncing behaviour, in which sequential collisions with the surface accelerate the droplets. These collisions have restitution coefficients (ratios of relative speeds after and before collision) greater than unity despite complete rigidity of the surface, and thus seemingly violate the second law of thermodynamics. However, these restitution coefficients result from an overpressure beneath the droplet produced by fast droplet vaporization while substrate adhesion and surface texture restrict vapour flow. We also show that the high vaporization rates experienced by the droplets and the associated cooling can result in freezing from a supercooled state that triggers a sudden increase in vaporization, which in turn boosts the levitation process. This effect can spontaneously remove surface icing by lifting away icy drops the moment they freeze. Although these observations are relevant only to systems in a low-pressure environment, they show how surface texturing can produce droplet-surface interactions that prohibit liquid and freezing water-droplet retention on surfaces.

  11. RIGIDITY, SENSITIVITY AND QUALITY OF ATTACHMENT - THE ROLE OF MATERNAL RIGIDITY IN THE EARLY SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF PREMATURE-INFANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUTCHER, PR; KALVERBOER, A; MINDERAA, RB; VANDOORMAAL, EF; TENWOLDE, Y

    1993-01-01

    The associations between a mother's rigidity, her sensitivity in early (3 month) interaction and the quality of her premature infant's attachment at 13 months were investigated. Rigidity as a personality characteristic was not found to be significantly associated with sensitivity or quality of

  12. Fast and anisotropic flexibility-rigidity index for protein flexibility and fluctuation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opron, Kristopher [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, Michigan 48824 (United States); Xia, Kelin [Department of Mathematics, Michigan State University, Michigan 48824 (United States); Wei, Guo-Wei, E-mail: wei@math.msu.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Mathematics, Michigan State University, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2014-06-21

    Protein structural fluctuation, typically measured by Debye-Waller factors, or B-factors, is a manifestation of protein flexibility, which strongly correlates to protein function. The flexibility-rigidity index (FRI) is a newly proposed method for the construction of atomic rigidity functions required in the theory of continuum elasticity with atomic rigidity, which is a new multiscale formalism for describing excessively large biomolecular systems. The FRI method analyzes protein rigidity and flexibility and is capable of predicting protein B-factors without resorting to matrix diagonalization. A fundamental assumption used in the FRI is that protein structures are uniquely determined by various internal and external interactions, while the protein functions, such as stability and flexibility, are solely determined by the structure. As such, one can predict protein flexibility without resorting to the protein interaction Hamiltonian. Consequently, bypassing the matrix diagonalization, the original FRI has a computational complexity of O(N{sup 2}). This work introduces a fast FRI (fFRI) algorithm for the flexibility analysis of large macromolecules. The proposed fFRI further reduces the computational complexity to O(N). Additionally, we propose anisotropic FRI (aFRI) algorithms for the analysis of protein collective dynamics. The aFRI algorithms permit adaptive Hessian matrices, from a completely global 3N × 3N matrix to completely local 3 × 3 matrices. These 3 × 3 matrices, despite being calculated locally, also contain non-local correlation information. Eigenvectors obtained from the proposed aFRI algorithms are able to demonstrate collective motions. Moreover, we investigate the performance of FRI by employing four families of radial basis correlation functions. Both parameter optimized and parameter-free FRI methods are explored. Furthermore, we compare the accuracy and efficiency of FRI with some established approaches to flexibility analysis, namely

  13. Reversible Rigidity Control Using Low Melting Temperature Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Wanliang; Lu, Tong; Majidi, Carmel

    2013-03-01

    Inspired by nature, materials able to achieve rapid rigidity changes have important applications for human body protection in military and many other areas. This talk presents the fabrication and design of soft-matter technologies that exhibit rapid reversible rigidity control. Fabricated with a masked deposition technique, the soft-matter composite contains liquid-phase and phase-changing metal alloys embedded in a soft and highly stretchable elastomer. The composite material can reversibly change its rigidity by three orders of magnitude and sustain large deformation.

  14. Verification of the Rigidity of the Coulomb Field in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinov, S. V.; Bulyzhenkov, I. É.

    2018-06-01

    Laplace, analyzing the stability of the Solar System, was the first to calculate that the velocity of the motion of force fields can significantly exceed the velocity of light waves. In electrodynamics, the Coulomb field should rigidly accompany its source for instantaneous force action in distant regions. Such rigid motion was recently inferred from experiments at the Frascati Beam Test Facility with short beams of relativistic electrons. The comments of the authors on their observations are at odds with the comments of theoreticians on retarded potentials, which motivates a detailed study of the positions of both sides. Predictions of measurements, based on the Lienard-Wiechert potentials, are used to propose an unambiguous scheme for testing the rigidity of the Coulomb field. Realization of the proposed experimental scheme could independently refute or support the assertions of the Italian physicists regarding the rigid motion of Coulomb fields and likewise the nondual field approach to macroscopic reality.

  15. Oscillations of rigid bar in the special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, F.M.; Teixeira, A.F.F.

    2011-12-01

    In the special relativity, a rigid bar slides on herself, with a extreme oscillating harmonically. We have discovered at the movement amplitude and in the bar length, indispensable for the elimination of non physical solutions

  16. Rigid body motion in stereo 3D simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the difficulties experienced by first-grade students studying rigid body motion at Sofia University. Most quantities describing the rigid body are in relations that the students find hard to visualize and understand. They also lose the notion of cause-result relations between vector quantities, such as the relation between torque and angular momentum. Consequently, the understanding of physical laws and conservation principles in free rigid body motion is hampered. This paper presents the capabilities of a 3D simulation, which aims to clarify these questions to the students, who are taught mechanics in the general physics course. The rigid body motion simulations may be observed at http://ialms.net/sim/, and are intended to complement traditional learning practices, not replace them, as the author shares the opinion that no simulation may fully resemble reality.

  17. Resin Infusion Rigidized Inflatable Concept Development and Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel concept utilizing resin infusion to rigidize inflatable structures was developed at JSC ES. This ICA project intends to complete manufacturing of a prototype...

  18. Genus Ranges of 4-Regular Rigid Vertex Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Dorothy; Dolzhenko, Egor; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico; Valencia, Karin

    2015-01-01

    A rigid vertex of a graph is one that has a prescribed cyclic order of its incident edges. We study orientable genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs. The (orientable) genus range is a set of genera values over all orientable surfaces into which a graph is embedded cellularly, and the embeddings of rigid vertex graphs are required to preserve the prescribed cyclic order of incident edges at every vertex. The genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs are sets of consecutive integers, and we address two questions: which intervals of integers appear as genus ranges of such graphs, and what types of graphs realize a given genus range. For graphs with 2 n vertices ( n > 1), we prove that all intervals [ a, b ] for all a genus ranges. For graphs with 2 n - 1 vertices ( n ≥ 1), we prove that all intervals [ a, b ] for all a genus ranges. We also provide constructions of graphs that realize these ranges.

  19. Re-analysis of exponential rigid-rotor astron equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelace, R.V.; Larrabee, D.A.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    Previous studies of exponential rigid-rotor astron equilibria include particles which are not trapped in the self-field of the configuration. The modification of these studies required to exclude untrapped particles is derived

  20. Rigidity theorem for Willmore surfaces in a sphere

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 126; Issue 2. Rigidity ... Center of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, People's Republic of China; College of Mathematics and Information Science, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022, People's Republic of China ...

  1. Role of Rigid Endoscopic Detorsion in the Management of Sigmoid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    had emergency surgery, with gangrenous bowel noted in 43 (72%) ... of any stable patient with clinical and radiological features ... peritonitis, underwent repeat rigid sigmoidoscopy. ... endoscopic detorsion was successful in all six cases.

  2. Magnetism and magnetostriction in a degenerate rigid band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulakowski, K.; Barbara, B.

    1990-09-01

    We investigate the influence of the spin-orbit coupling on the magnetic and magnetoelastic phenomena in ferromagnetic band systems. The description is within the Stoner model of a degenerate rigid band, for temperature T = O. (author). 14 refs

  3. Stabilization of Rigid Body Dynamics by Internal and External Torques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bloch, A. M; Krishnaprasad, P. S; Marsden, J. E; Sanchez de Alvarez, G

    1990-01-01

    ...] with quadratic feedback torques for internal rotors. We show that with such torques, the equations for the rigid body with momentum wheels are Hamiltonian with respect to a Lie-Poisson bracket structure. Further...

  4. Anti-synchronization of the rigid body exhibiting chaotic dynamics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on a method derived from nonlinear control theory, we present a ... In this framework, the active control technique is modified and employed to design control ... state space of the two rigid bodies was verified by numerical simulations.

  5. A coated rigid elliptical inclusion loaded by a couple in the presence of uniform interfacial and hoop stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Schiavone, Peter

    2018-06-01

    We consider a confocally coated rigid elliptical inclusion, loaded by a couple and introduced into a remote uniform stress field. We show that uniform interfacial and hoop stresses along the inclusion-coating interface can be achieved when the two remote normal stresses and the remote shear stress each satisfy certain conditions. Our analysis indicates that: (i) the uniform interfacial tangential stress depends only on the area of the inclusion and the moment of the couple; (ii) the rigid-body rotation of the rigid inclusion depends only on the area of the inclusion, the coating thickness, the shear moduli of the composite and the moment of the couple; (iii) for given remote normal stresses and material parameters, the coating thickness and the aspect ratio of the inclusion are required to satisfy a particular relationship; (iv) for prescribed remote shear stress, moment and given material parameters, the coating thickness, the size and aspect ratio of the inclusion are also related. Finally, a harmonic rigid inclusion emerges as a special case if the coating and the matrix have identical elastic properties.

  6. Matrix remodeling between cells and cellular interactions with collagen bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihan; Sun, Bo

    When cells are surrounded by complex environment, they continuously probe and interact with it by applying cellular traction forces. As cells apply traction forces, they can sense rigidity of their local environment and remodel the matrix microstructure simultaneously. Previous study shows that single human carcinoma cell (MDA-MB-231) remodeled its surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) and the matrix remodeling was reversible. In this study we examined the matrix microstructure between cells and cellular interaction between them using quantitative confocal microscopy. The result shows that the matrix microstructure is the most significantly remodeled between cells consisting of aligned, and densified collagen fibers (collagen bundle)., the result shows that collagen bundle is irreversible and significantly change micromechanics of ECM around the bundle. We further examined cellular interaction with collagen bundle by analyzing dynamics of actin and talin formation along with the direction of bundle. Lastly, we analyzed dynamics of cellular protrusion and migrating direction of cells along the bundle.

  7. RIGID AND NON-RIGID KINEMATIC EXCITATION FOR MULTIPLY-SUPPORTED SYSTEM: ONCE MORE ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTION OF DAMPING TO THE DYNAMIC LOADS IN SEISMIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Tyapin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of linear equations of motion for seismic analysis is discussed in the paper. The paper continues the discussion: the author does not agree with colleagues putting damping matrix into the right-hand part of the equation of motion describing dynamic loads. This disagreement refers to the most popular case of “rigid” motion of multiple supports. In this paper the author follows the logic of general “non-rigid” support motion and points out a step in the equation development when the transition to “rigid” support motion (as a particular case of “non-rigid” motion is spoiled by the opponents. In the author’s opinion, the mistake is in the implementation of the Rayleigh damping model for the right-hand part of the equation. This is in the contradiction with physical logic, as damping in the Rayleigh model is not really “internal”: due to the participation of mass matrix it works on rigid displacements, which is impossible for internal damping.

  8. Soft-matter composites with electrically tunable elastic rigidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Wanliang; Lu, Tong; Majidi, Carmel

    2013-01-01

    We use a phase-changing metal alloy to reversibly tune the elastic rigidity of an elastomer composite. The elastomer is embedded with a sheet of low-melting-point Field’s metal and an electric Joule heater composed of a serpentine channel of liquid-phase gallium–indium–tin (Galinstan ® ) alloy. At room temperature, the embedded Field’s metal is solid and the composite remains elastically rigid. Joule heating causes the Field’s metal to melt and allows the surrounding elastomer to freely stretch and bend. Using a tensile testing machine, we measure that the effective elastic modulus of the composite reversibly changes by four orders of magnitude when powered on and off. This dramatic change in rigidity is accurately predicted with a model for an elastic composite. Reversible rigidity control is also accomplished by replacing the Field’s metal with shape memory polymer. In addition to demonstrating electrically tunable rigidity with an elastomer, we also introduce a new technique to rapidly produce soft-matter electronics and multifunctional materials in several minutes with laser-patterned adhesive film and masked deposition of liquid-phase metal alloy. (paper)

  9. Soft-matter composites with electrically tunable elastic rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Wanliang; Lu, Tong; Majidi, Carmel

    2013-08-01

    We use a phase-changing metal alloy to reversibly tune the elastic rigidity of an elastomer composite. The elastomer is embedded with a sheet of low-melting-point Field’s metal and an electric Joule heater composed of a serpentine channel of liquid-phase gallium-indium-tin (Galinstan®) alloy. At room temperature, the embedded Field’s metal is solid and the composite remains elastically rigid. Joule heating causes the Field’s metal to melt and allows the surrounding elastomer to freely stretch and bend. Using a tensile testing machine, we measure that the effective elastic modulus of the composite reversibly changes by four orders of magnitude when powered on and off. This dramatic change in rigidity is accurately predicted with a model for an elastic composite. Reversible rigidity control is also accomplished by replacing the Field’s metal with shape memory polymer. In addition to demonstrating electrically tunable rigidity with an elastomer, we also introduce a new technique to rapidly produce soft-matter electronics and multifunctional materials in several minutes with laser-patterned adhesive film and masked deposition of liquid-phase metal alloy.

  10. Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) Model for Rigid Polyurethane Foams.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, Michael K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lu, Wei-Yang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scherzinger, William M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hinnerichs, Terry D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lo, Chi S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Numerous experiments were performed to characterize the mechanical response of several different rigid polyurethane foams (FR3712, PMDI10, PMDI20, and TufFoam35) to large deformation. In these experiments, the effects of load path, loading rate, and temperature were investigated. Results from these experiments indicated that rigid polyurethane foams exhibit significant volumetric and deviatoric plasticity when they are compressed. Rigid polyurethane foams were also found to be very strain-rate and temperature dependent. These foams are also rather brittle and crack when loaded to small strains in tension or to larger strains in compression. Thus, a new Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) model was developed and implemented into SIERRA with the name Foam Damage to describe the mechanical response of these foams to large deformation at a variety of temperatures and strain rates. This report includes a description of recent experiments and experimental findings. Next, development of a UCPD model for rigid, polyurethane foams is described. Selection of material parameters for a variety of rigid polyurethane foams is then discussed and finite element simulations with the new UCPD model are compared with experimental results to show behavior that can be captured with this model.

  11. Evaluation for rigidity of box construction of nuclear reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Tetsuo

    1979-01-01

    A huge box-shaped structure (hereafter, called box construction) of reinforced concrete is presently utilized as the reactor building structure in nuclear power plants. Evaluation of the rigidity of the huge box construction is required for making a vibration analysis model of nuclear reactor buildings. It is necessary to handle the box construction as the plates to which the force in plane is applied. This paper describes that the bending theory in elementary beam theory is equivalent to a peculiar, orthogonally anisotropic plate, the shearing rigidity and film rigidity in y direction of which are put to infinity and the Poisson's ratio is put to zero, viewed from the two-dimensional theory of elasticity. The form factor of 1.2 for shearing deformation in rectangular cross section was calculated from the parabolic distribution of shearing stress intensity, and it is the maximum value. The factor is equal to 1.2 for slender beams, but smaller than 1.2 for short and thick beams, having tendency to converge to 1.0. The non-conformity of boundary conditions regarding the shearing force at the both ends of cantilevers does not affect very seriously the evaluation of shearing rigidity. From the above results, it was found that the application of the theory to the box construction was able to give the rigidity evaluation with sufficient engineering accuracy. The theory can also be applied to the evaluation of tube type ultrahigh buildings. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  12. Arbitrary scattering of an acoustical Bessel beam by a rigid spheroid with large aspect-ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhixiong; Li, Wei; Mitri, Farid G.; Chai, Yingbin; Zhao, Yao

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the T-matrix (null-field) method is applied to investigate the acoustic scattering by a large-aspect-ratio rigid spheroid immersed in a non-viscous fluid under the illumination of an unbounded zeroth-order Bessel beam with arbitrary orientation. Based on the proposed method, a MATLAB software package is constructed accordingly, and then verified and validated to compute the acoustic scattering by a rigid oblate or prolate spheroid in the Bessel beam. Several numerical examples are carried out to investigate the novel phenomenon of acoustic scattering by spheroids in Bessel beams with arbitrary incidence, with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio (i.e. the ratio of the polar radius over the equatorial radius of the spheroid), the half-cone angle of Bessel beam, the dimensionless frequency, as well as the angle of incidence. The quasi-periodic oscillations are observed in the plots of the far-field backscattering form function modulus versus the dimensionless frequency, owing to the interference between the specular reflection and the Franz wave circumnavigating the spheroid in the surrounding fluid. Furthermore, the 3D far-field scattering directivity patterns at end-on incidence and 2D polar plots at arbitrary angles of incidence are exhibited, which could provide new insights into the physical mechanisms of Bessel beam scattering by flat or elongated spheroid. This research work may provide an impetus for the application of acoustic Bessel beam in engineering practices.

  13. Rigid muffin-tin approximation for the electron-phonon interaction in transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in calculating the electron-phonon parameters of transition metals has been based on either the rigid muffin-tin approximation (RMTA) or the fitted modified tight-binding approximation (FMTBA). The RMTA has been shown to be remarkably accurate for average electron-phonon properties, but there are indications that RMTA matrix elements may be too small at low momentum transfer. An attempt is made to demonstrate these assertions concerning the accuracy of RMTA and the numerous electron-phonon calculations are placed in a broader perspective by a demonstration of how they can be used to explain the trends in the strength of the electron-phonon coupling among the transition metals and the A-15 compounds

  14. Conservative integration of rigid body motion by quaternion parameters with implicit constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Bjerre; Krenk, Steen

    2012-01-01

    An angular momentum and energy‐conserving time integration algorithm for rigid body rotation is formulated in terms of the quaternion parameters and the corresponding four‐component conjugate momentum vector via Hamilton's equations. The introduction of an extended mass matrix leads to a symmetric...... these equations via the set of momentum equations. Initially, the normalization of the quaternion array is introduced via a Lagrange multiplier. However, this Lagrange multiplier can be expressed explicitly in terms of the gradient of the external load potential, and elimination of the Lagrange multiplier from...... the final format leaves only an explicit projection applied to the external load potential gradient. An algorithm is developed by forming a finite increment of the Hamiltonian. This procedure identifies the proper selection of increments and mean values, and leads to an algorithm with conservation...

  15. Rigid muffin-tin approximation for the electron-phonon interaction in transition metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in calculating the electron-phonon parameters of transition metals has been based on either the rigid muffin-tin approximation (RMTA) or the fitted modified tight-binding approximation (FMTBA). The RMTA has been shown to be remarkably accurate for average electron-phonon properties, but there are indications that RMTA matrix elements may be too small at low momentum transfer. An attempt is made to demonstrate these assertions concerning the accuracy of RMTA and the numerous electron-phonon calculations are placed in a broader perspective by a demonstration of how they can be used to explain the trends in the strength of the electron-phonon coupling among the transition metals and the A-15 compounds. (GHT)

  16. Rigid external maxillary distraction and rhinoplasty for pyknodysostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Altan; Sabuncuoglu, Fidan Alakus; Sencimen, Metin; Akcam, Timur; Olmez, Hüseyin; Basa, Selçuk

    2011-05-01

    This article reports the treatment of an 33-year-old female patient with pyknodysostosis by rigid external distraction II midface distraction system. The patient with pyknodysostosis described in this report had severe midfacial hypoplasia. Correction of this by use of routine orthognathic surgery would require osteosynthesis and bone grafting. Risk of infection and/or nonunion after such a surgical procedure was considered too great, and therefore the possibility of treatment by distraction osteogenesis of the maxilla was evaluated. The rigid external distraction II midface distraction system was used to relocate the hypoplastic maxilla at anterior-inferior projection. Distraction osteogenesis should be considered as the primary reconstructive method for maxillofacial deformities in patients with sclerosing bone dysplasias, since this is the second reported case treated successfully with rigid external distraction.

  17. Rigidity of outermost MOTS: the initial data version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Gregory J.

    2018-03-01

    In the paper Commun Anal Geom 16(1):217-229, 2008, a rigidity result was obtained for outermost marginally outer trapped surfaces (MOTSs) that do not admit metrics of positive scalar curvature. This allowed one to treat the "borderline case" in the author's work with R. Schoen concerning the topology of higher dimensional black holes (Commun Math Phys 266(2):571-576, 2006). The proof of this rigidity result involved bending the initial data manifold in the vicinity of the MOTS within the ambient spacetime. In this note we show how to circumvent this step, and thereby obtain a pure initial data version of this rigidity result and its consequence concerning the topology of black holes.

  18. Authoritarianism, cognitive rigidity, and the processing of ambiguous visual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lauren E; Peterson, Bill E

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of ambiguity and cognitive rigidity are unifying aspects of authoritarianism as defined by Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, and Sanford (1982/1950), who hypothesized that authoritarians view the world in absolute terms (e.g., good or evil). Past studies have documented the relationship between authoritarianism and intolerance of ambiguity and rigidity. Frenkel-Brunswik (1949) hypothesized that this desire for absolutism was rooted in perceptual processes. We present a study with three samples that directly tests the relationship between right wing authoritarianism (RWA) and the processing of ideologically neutral but ambiguous visual stimuli. As hypothesized, in all three samples we found that RWA was related to the slower processing of visual information that required participants to recategorize objects. In a fourth sample, RWA was unrelated to speed of processing visual information that did not require recategorization. Overall, results suggest a relationship between RWA and rigidity in categorization.

  19. Mitral stenosis due to pannus overgrowth after rigid ring annuloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Takeshi; Kato, Seiya; Tayama, Eiki; Fukunaga, Shuji; Akashi, Hidetoshi; Aoyagi, Shigeaki

    2010-03-01

    Although mitral stenosis (MS) due to pannus overgrowth after mitral valve repair for rheumatic mitral regurgitation (MR) is not uncommon, it is extremely rare in relation to non-rheumatic mitral regurgitation. Whilst it has been suggested that the rigid annuloplasty ring induces pannus overgrowth in the same manner as the flexible ring, to date only in cases using the flexible ring has pannus formation been confirmed by a pathological examination after redo surgery. The case is described of a woman who had undergone mitral valve repair using a 28 mm rigid ring three years previously because of non-rheumatic MR, and subsequently suffered from MS due to pannus formation over the annuloplasty ring. To the present authors' knowledge, this is the first report of MS due to pannus formation after mitral valve repair using a rigid annuloplasty ring to treat non-rheumatic MR documented at reoperation.

  20. Rigid-plastic seismic design of reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Joao Domingues; Bento, R.; Levtchitch, V.

    2007-01-01

    structural strength with respect to a pre-defined performance parameter using a rigid-plastic response spectrum, which is characteristic of the ground motion alone. The maximum strength demand at any point is solely dependent on the intensity of the ground motion, which facilitates the task of distributing......In this paper a new seismic design procedure for Reinforced Concrete (R/C) structures is proposed-the Rigid-Plastic Seismic Design (RPSD) method. This is a design procedure based on Non-Linear Time-History Analysis (NLTHA) for systems expected to perform in the non-linear range during a lifetime...... earthquake event. The theoretical background is the Theory of Plasticity (Rigid-Plastic Structures). Firstly, a collapse mechanism is chosen and the corresponding stress field is made safe outside the regions where plastic behaviour takes place. It is shown that this allows the determination of the required...

  1. Topology-Preserving Rigid Transformation of 2D Digital Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Phuc; Passat, Nicolas; Kenmochi, Yukiko; Talbot, Hugues

    2014-02-01

    We provide conditions under which 2D digital images preserve their topological properties under rigid transformations. We consider the two most common digital topology models, namely dual adjacency and well-composedness. This paper leads to the proposal of optimal preprocessing strategies that ensure the topological invariance of images under arbitrary rigid transformations. These results and methods are proved to be valid for various kinds of images (binary, gray-level, label), thus providing generic and efficient tools, which can be used in particular in the context of image registration and warping.

  2. Non-rigid image registration using bone growth model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Nielsen, Morten; Gramkow, Claus; Kreiborg, Sven

    1997-01-01

    Non-rigid registration has traditionally used physical models like elasticity and fluids. These models are very seldom valid models of the difference between the registered images. This paper presents a non-rigid registration algorithm, which uses a model of bone growth as a model of the change...... between time sequence images of the human mandible. By being able to register the images, this paper at the same time contributes to the validation of the growth model, which is based on the currently available medical theories and knowledge...

  3. Rigid particle revisited: Extrinsic curvature yields the Dirac equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deriglazov, Alexei, E-mail: alexei.deriglazov@ufjf.edu.br [Depto. de Matemática, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk, Lenin Ave. 30 (Russian Federation); Nersessian, Armen, E-mail: arnerses@ysu.am [Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian St., Yerevan 0025 (Armenia); Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk, Lenin Ave. 30 (Russian Federation)

    2014-03-01

    We reexamine the model of relativistic particle with higher-derivative linear term on the first extrinsic curvature (rigidity). The passage from classical to quantum theory requires a number of rather unexpected steps which we report here. We found that, contrary to common opinion, quantization of the model in terms of so(3.2)-algebra yields massive Dirac equation. -- Highlights: •New way of canonical quantization of relativistic rigid particle is proposed. •Quantization made in terms of so(3.2) angular momentum algebra. •Quantization yields massive Dirac equation.

  4. Extremal surfaces and the rigidity of null geodesic incompleteness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, I P Costa e; Flores, J L

    2015-01-01

    An important, if relatively less well known aspect of the singularity theorems in Lorentzian geometry, is to understand how their conclusions fare upon weakening or suppression of one or more of their hypotheses. Then, theorems with modified conclusion may arise, showing that those conclusions will fail only in special cases, at least some of which may be described. These are the so-called rigidity theorems, and have many important examples in the specialized literature. In this paper, we prove rigidity results for generalized plane waves and certain globally hyperbolic spacetimes in the presence of extremal compact surfaces. (paper)

  5. Efficiency criterion for teleportation via channel matrix, measurement matrix and collapsed matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Wei Zha

    Full Text Available In this paper, three kinds of coefficient matrixes (channel matrix, measurement matrix, collapsed matrix associated with the pure state for teleportation are presented, the general relation among channel matrix, measurement matrix and collapsed matrix is obtained. In addition, a criterion for judging whether a state can be teleported successfully is given, depending on the relation between the number of parameter of an unknown state and the rank of the collapsed matrix. Keywords: Channel matrix, Measurement matrix, Collapsed matrix, Teleportation

  6. Extended biorthogonal matrix polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Shehata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials for commutative matrices were first introduced by Varma and Tasdelen in [22]. The main aim of this paper is to extend the properties of the pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials of Varma and Tasdelen and certain generating matrix functions, finite series, some matrix recurrence relations, several important properties of matrix differential recurrence relations, biorthogonality relations and matrix differential equation for the pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials J(A,B n (x, k and K(A,B n (x, k are discussed. For the matrix polynomials J(A,B n (x, k, various families of bilinear and bilateral generating matrix functions are constructed in the sequel.

  7. Matrix completion by deep matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jicong; Cheng, Jieyu

    2018-02-01

    Conventional methods of matrix completion are linear methods that are not effective in handling data of nonlinear structures. Recently a few researchers attempted to incorporate nonlinear techniques into matrix completion but there still exists considerable limitations. In this paper, a novel method called deep matrix factorization (DMF) is proposed for nonlinear matrix completion. Different from conventional matrix completion methods that are based on linear latent variable models, DMF is on the basis of a nonlinear latent variable model. DMF is formulated as a deep-structure neural network, in which the inputs are the low-dimensional unknown latent variables and the outputs are the partially observed variables. In DMF, the inputs and the parameters of the multilayer neural network are simultaneously optimized to minimize the reconstruction errors for the observed entries. Then the missing entries can be readily recovered by propagating the latent variables to the output layer. DMF is compared with state-of-the-art methods of linear and nonlinear matrix completion in the tasks of toy matrix completion, image inpainting and collaborative filtering. The experimental results verify that DMF is able to provide higher matrix completion accuracy than existing methods do and DMF is applicable to large matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrochemical synthesis of polyaniline in the presence of poly(amidosulfonic acid)s with different rigidity of polymer backbone and characterization of the films obtained

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekrasov, A.A.; Gribkova, O.L.; Eremina, T.V.; Isakova, A.A.; Ivanov, V.F.; Tverskoj, V.A.; Vannikov, A.V.

    2008-01-01

    We have studied electrochemical matrix polymerization of aniline in the presence of poly(amidosulfonic acid)s of different nature: poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanosulfonic acid) (PAMPSA, flexible backbone); poly(p,p'-(2,2'-disulfoacid)-diphenylene-iso-phthalamid) (i-PASA, semi-rigid backbone); poly(p,p'-(2,2'-disulfoacid)-diphelylene-tere-phthalamid) (t-PASA, rigid backbone). Also, we have investigated spectral and electrochemical properties of the films obtained, as well as their surface morphology. The matrix polymerization results in the formation of interpolymer complexes of polyaniline (PANI) and the above-cited polyacids. The acceleration of aniline electropolymerization in the presence of poly(amidosulfonic acid)s was observed due to association of aniline molecules to sulfonic groups of the polyacid and higher local concentration of protons near the polyacid backbone. The rigid-chain polyacids interfere with the normal course of the electropolymerization, which manifests itself in the changes of the shape of time dependences of absorbance and charge. Cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemical experiments showed that the formation of interpolymer complex with rigid-chain polyacids distorts spectroelectrochemical characteristics of PANI. This evidently results from steric hindrances in the formation of quinoid units

  9. Inelastic behaviour of collagen networks in cell–matrix interactions and mechanosensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Hamid; Arora, Pamma D.; Simmons, Craig A.; Janmey, Paul A.; McCulloch, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical properties of extracellular matrix proteins strongly influence cell-induced tension in the matrix, which in turn influences cell function. Despite progress on the impact of elastic behaviour of matrix proteins on cell–matrix interactions, little is known about the influence of inelastic behaviour, especially at the large and slow deformations that characterize cell-induced matrix remodelling. We found that collagen matrices exhibit deformation rate-dependent behaviour, which leads to a transition from pronounced elastic behaviour at fast deformations to substantially inelastic behaviour at slow deformations (1 μm min−1, similar to cell-mediated deformation). With slow deformations, the inelastic behaviour of floating gels was sensitive to collagen concentration, whereas attached gels exhibited similar inelastic behaviour independent of collagen concentration. The presence of an underlying rigid support had a similar effect on cell–matrix interactions: cell-induced deformation and remodelling were similar on 1 or 3 mg ml−1 attached collagen gels while deformations were two- to fourfold smaller in floating gels of high compared with low collagen concentration. In cross-linked collagen matrices, which did not exhibit inelastic behaviour, cells did not respond to the presence of the underlying rigid foundation. These data indicate that at the slow rates of collagen compaction generated by fibroblasts, the inelastic responses of collagen gels, which are influenced by collagen concentration and the presence of an underlying rigid foundation, are important determinants of cell–matrix interactions and mechanosensation. PMID:25392399

  10. Viscoelastic materials with anisotropic rigid particles: stress-deformation behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.; Linden, van der E.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we have derived constitutive equations for the stress tensor of a viscoelastic material with anisotropic rigid particles. We have assumed that the material has fading memory. The expressions are valid for slow and small deformations from equilibrium, and for systems that are nearly

  11. Rigidity and bradykinesia reduce interlimb coordination in Parkinsonian gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winogrodzka, Ania; Wagenaar, Robert C.; Booij, Jan; Wolters, Eric C.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the influence of rigidity and bradykinesia and the extent of dopaminergic degeneration on interlimb coordination during walking in early, drug-naive patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Design: The interlimb coordination was examined during a systematic manipulation of

  12. Calculating ensemble averaged descriptions of protein rigidity without sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C González

    Full Text Available Previous works have demonstrated that protein rigidity is related to thermodynamic stability, especially under conditions that favor formation of native structure. Mechanical network rigidity properties of a single conformation are efficiently calculated using the integer body-bar Pebble Game (PG algorithm. However, thermodynamic properties require averaging over many samples from the ensemble of accessible conformations to accurately account for fluctuations in network topology. We have developed a mean field Virtual Pebble Game (VPG that represents the ensemble of networks by a single effective network. That is, all possible number of distance constraints (or bars that can form between a pair of rigid bodies is replaced by the average number. The resulting effective network is viewed as having weighted edges, where the weight of an edge quantifies its capacity to absorb degrees of freedom. The VPG is interpreted as a flow problem on this effective network, which eliminates the need to sample. Across a nonredundant dataset of 272 protein structures, we apply the VPG to proteins for the first time. Our results show numerically and visually that the rigidity characterizations of the VPG accurately reflect the ensemble averaged [Formula: see text] properties. This result positions the VPG as an efficient alternative to understand the mechanical role that chemical interactions play in maintaining protein stability.

  13. Calculating ensemble averaged descriptions of protein rigidity without sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Luis C; Wang, Hui; Livesay, Dennis R; Jacobs, Donald J

    2012-01-01

    Previous works have demonstrated that protein rigidity is related to thermodynamic stability, especially under conditions that favor formation of native structure. Mechanical network rigidity properties of a single conformation are efficiently calculated using the integer body-bar Pebble Game (PG) algorithm. However, thermodynamic properties require averaging over many samples from the ensemble of accessible conformations to accurately account for fluctuations in network topology. We have developed a mean field Virtual Pebble Game (VPG) that represents the ensemble of networks by a single effective network. That is, all possible number of distance constraints (or bars) that can form between a pair of rigid bodies is replaced by the average number. The resulting effective network is viewed as having weighted edges, where the weight of an edge quantifies its capacity to absorb degrees of freedom. The VPG is interpreted as a flow problem on this effective network, which eliminates the need to sample. Across a nonredundant dataset of 272 protein structures, we apply the VPG to proteins for the first time. Our results show numerically and visually that the rigidity characterizations of the VPG accurately reflect the ensemble averaged [Formula: see text] properties. This result positions the VPG as an efficient alternative to understand the mechanical role that chemical interactions play in maintaining protein stability.

  14. Patient satisfaction related to rigid external distraction osteogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eggermont, Bas; Jansma, J.; Bierman, M. W. J.; Stegenga, B.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate satisfaction with treatment among cleft lip and palate patients who underwent maxillary advancement using a rigid external distraction (RED) device. Nine patients (four boys, five girls), mean age 17.7 years (SD 4.0), were included in the study. Outcome measures

  15. Short Communication: Statistical determination of the rigidity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the graph of load against displacement, the rigidity in flexion at different moisture levels was determined from which the Young modulus was calculated. Linear regression models were fitted to the data and the results showed significant correlation coefficients between the Young modulus and moisture content for each ...

  16. Connect-disconnect coupling for preadjusted rigid shafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajkowski, F. W.; Holmberg, A.

    1969-01-01

    Coupling device enables a rigid shaft to be connected to or disconnected from a fixed base without disturbing the point of adjustment of the shaft in a socket or causing the shaft to rotate. The coupling consists of an externally threaded, internally slotted boss extending from the fixed base.

  17. Centrifuge modelling of rigid piles in soft clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkvort, R.T.; Poder, M.; Truong, P.

    2016-01-01

    of this study is to employ centrifuge modelling in order to derive experimental p-y curves for rigid piles embedded in over-consolidated soft clay. A kaolin clay sample was prepared and pre-consolidated by applying a constant pressure at the soil surface, while different over-consolidation ratios were achieved...

  18. Customizable rigid head fixation for infants: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayakumaran, Suhas; Onyia, Chiazor U

    2016-01-01

    The need and advantages of rigid fixation of the head in cranial surgeries are well documented (Berryhill et al., Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 121:269-273, 1999). Head fixation for neurosurgical procedures in infants and in early years has been a challenge and is fraught with risk. Despite the fact that pediatric pins are designed, rigid head fixation involving direct application of pins to the head of infants and slightly older children is still generally not safe (Agrawal and Steinbok, Childs Nerv Syst 22:1473-1474, 2006). Yet, there are some surgeries in which some form of rigid fixation is required (Agrawal and Steinbok, Childs Nerv Syst 22:1473-1474, 2006). We describe a simple technique to achieve rigid fixation of the head in infants for neurosurgical procedures. This involves applying a head band made of Plaster of Paris (POP) around the head and then applying the fixation pins of the fixation frame directly on to the POP. We have used this technique of head fixation successfully for infants with no complications.

  19. Study of rigidity of semiconducting vanadate glasses and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These parameters along with the coordination number of the glasses affect the glass transition temperature. The correlation between the elastic moduli and thermal properties of these samples showed that 0.25MoO3–0.25PbO–0.5V2O5 glass is the most rigid and has an applicable glass transition temperature for coating.

  20. Rigidity theorem for Willmore surfaces in a sphere

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (Math. Sci.) Vol. 126, No. 2, May 2016, pp. 253–260. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Rigidity theorem for Willmore surfaces in a sphere. HONGWEI XU1 and DENGYUN YANG2,∗. 1Center of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027,. People's Republic of China. 2College of Mathematics and ...

  1. Accuracy limit of rigid 3-point water models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Saeed; Onufriev, Alexey V.

    2016-08-01

    Classical 3-point rigid water models are most widely used due to their computational efficiency. Recently, we introduced a new approach to constructing classical rigid water models [S. Izadi et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5, 3863 (2014)], which permits a virtually exhaustive search for globally optimal model parameters in the sub-space that is most relevant to the electrostatic properties of the water molecule in liquid phase. Here we apply the approach to develop a 3-point Optimal Point Charge (OPC3) water model. OPC3 is significantly more accurate than the commonly used water models of same class (TIP3P and SPCE) in reproducing a comprehensive set of liquid bulk properties, over a wide range of temperatures. Beyond bulk properties, we show that OPC3 predicts the intrinsic charge hydration asymmetry (CHA) of water — a characteristic dependence of hydration free energy on the sign of the solute charge — in very close agreement with experiment. Two other recent 3-point rigid water models, TIP3PFB and H2ODC, each developed by its own, completely different optimization method, approach the global accuracy optimum represented by OPC3 in both the parameter space and accuracy of bulk properties. Thus, we argue that an accuracy limit of practical 3-point rigid non-polarizable models has effectively been reached; remaining accuracy issues are discussed.

  2. Rigid rod spaced fullerene as building block for nanoclusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By using phenylacetylene based rigid-rod linkers (PhA), we have successfully synthesized two fullerene derivatives, C60-PhA and C60-PhA-C60. The absorption spectral features of C60, as well as that of the phenylacetylene moiety are retained in the monomeric forms of these fullerene derivatives, ruling out the possibility ...

  3. Hydrodynamics of a flexible plate between pitching rigid plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junyoung; Kim, Daegyoum

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of a flexible plate have been studied as a model problem in swimming and flying of animals and fluid-structure interaction of plants and flags. Motivated by fish schooling and an array of sea grasses, we investigate the dynamics of a flexible plate closely placed between two pitching rigid plates. In most studies on passive deformation of the flexible plate, the plate is immersed in a uniform flow or a wavy flow. However, in this study, the flexible plate experiences periodic deformation by the oscillatory flow generated by the prescribed pitching motion of the rigid plates. In our model, the pitching axes of the rigid plates and the clamping position of the flexible plate are aligned on the same line. The flexible plate shows various responses depending on length and pitching frequency of rigid plates, thickness of a flexible plate, and free-stream velocity. To find the effect of each variable on the response of the flexible plate, amplitude of a trailing edge and modal contribution of a flapping motion are compared, and flow structure around the flexible plate is examined.

  4. Flexible (Polyactive®) versus rigid (hydroxyapatite) dental implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G.J.; Heethaar, J.; Cune, M.S.; de Putter, C.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    1997-01-01

    In a beagle dog study, the peri-implant bone changes around flexible (Polyactive®) and rigid hydroxyapatite (HA) implants were investigated radiographically by quantitative digital subtraction analysis and by assessment of marginal bone height, with the aid of a computerized method. A loss of

  5. "Mind the trap": mindfulness practice reduces cognitive rigidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Greenberg

    Full Text Available Two experiments examined the relation between mindfulness practice and cognitive rigidity by using a variation of the Einstellung water jar task. Participants were required to use three hypothetical jars to obtain a specific amount of water. Initial problems were solvable by the same complex formula, but in later problems ("critical" or "trap" problems solving was possible by an additional much simpler formula. A rigidity score was compiled through perseverance of the complex formula. In Experiment 1, experienced mindfulness meditators received significantly lower rigidity scores than non-meditators who had registered for their first meditation retreat. Similar results were obtained in randomized controlled Experiment 2 comparing non-meditators who underwent an eight meeting mindfulness program with a waiting list group. The authors conclude that mindfulness meditation reduces cognitive rigidity via the tendency to be "blinded" by experience. Results are discussed in light of the benefits of mindfulness practice regarding a reduced tendency to overlook novel and adaptive ways of responding due to past experience, both in and out of the clinical setting.

  6. A survey on stability and rigidity results for Lie algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crainic, Marius; Schätz, Florian; Struchiner, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    We give simple and unified proofs of the known stability and rigidity results for Lie algebras, Lie subalgebras and Lie algebra homomorphisms. Moreover, we investigate when a Lie algebra homomorphism is stable under all automorphisms of the codomain (including outer automorphisms).

  7. 21 CFR 886.5916 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rigid gas permeable contact lens. 886.5916 Section 886.5916 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... against the cornea of the eye to correct vision conditions. The device is made of various materials, such...

  8. Knowledge-In-Action: An Example with Rigid Body Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, Sayonara Salvador Cabral; Moreira, Marco Antonio

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the analysis of the resolution of a paper-and-pencil problem, by eight undergraduate students majoring in engineering (six) and physics (two) at the Pontifcia Universidade Catlica do Rio Grande do Sul, in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The problem concerns kinetics of a rigid body, and the analysis was done in the light of Johnson-Lairds…

  9. Non-rigid registration by geometry-constrained diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Per Rønsholt; Nielsen, Mads

    1999-01-01

    Assume that only partial knowledge about a non-rigid registration is given so that certain point, curves, or surfaces in one 3D image map to certain points, curves, or surfaces in another 3D image. We are facing the aperture problem because along the curves and surfaces, point correspondences...

  10. The Matrix Cookbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kaare Brandt; Pedersen, Michael Syskind

    Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices.......Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices....

  11. Strategic rigidity and foresight for technology adoption among electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Arsalan Nisar; Palacios, Miguel; Ruiz, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    The variation in the adoption of a technology as a major source of competitive advantage has been attributed to the wide-ranging strategic foresight and the integrative capability of a firm. These possible areas of competitive advantage can exist in the periphery of the firm's strategic vision and can get easily blurred as a result of rigidness and can permeate in the decision-making process of the firm. This article explores how electric utility firms with a renewable energy portfolio can become strategically rigid in terms of adoption of newer technologies. The reluctance or delay in the adoption of new technology can be characterized as strategic rigidness, brought upon as a result of a firm's core competence or core capability in the other, more conventional technology arrangement. This paper explores the implications of such rigidness on the performance of a firm and consequently on the energy eco-system. The paper substantiates the results by emphasizing the case of Iberdrola S.A., an incumbent firm as a wind energy developer and its adoption decision behavior. We illustrate that the very routines that create competitive advantage for firms in the electric utility industry are vulnerable as they might also develop as sources of competitive disadvantage, when firms confront environmental change and uncertainty. - Highlights: • Present a firm-level perspective on technology adoption behavior among electric utilities. • Firms with mature technology can become rigid towards newer technologies. • Case study analysis of a major electric utility firm. • Implications of ‘technology rigidness’ on the energy eco-system

  12. Initial Development of an Electronic Testis Rigidity Tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Mirilas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to develop our previously presented mechanical device, the Testis Rigidity Tester (TRT, into an electronic system (Electronic Testis Rigidity Tester, ETRT by applying tactile imaging, which has been used successfully with other solid organs. A measuring device, located at the front end of the ETRT incorporates a tactile sensor comprising an array of microsensors. By application of a predetermined deformation of 2 mm, increased pressure alters linearly the resistance of each microsensor, producing changes of voltage. These signals were amplified, filtered, and digitized, and then processed by an electronic collector system, which presented them as a color-filled contour plot of the area of the testis coming into contact with the sensor. Testis models of different rigidity served for initial evaluation of ETRT; their evacuated central spaces contained different, increasing glue masses. An independent method of rigidity measurement, using an electric weight scale and a micrometer, showed that the more the glue injected, the greater the force needed for a 2-mm deformation. In a preliminary test, a single sensor connected to a multimeter showed similar force measurement for the same deformation in these phantoms. For each of the testis models compressed in the same manner, the ETRT system offered a map of pressures, represented by a color scale within the contour plot of the contact area with the sensor. ETRT found certain differences in rigidity between models that had escaped detection by a blind observer. ETRT is easy to use and provides a color-coded “insight“ of the testis internal structure. After experimental testing, it could be valuable in intraoperative evaluation of testes, so that the surgeon can decide about orchectomy or orcheopexy.

  13. Carbonate fuel cell matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooque, Mohammad; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    1996-01-01

    A carbonate fuel cell matrix comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles.

  14. Matrix with Prescribed Eigenvectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faiz

    2011-01-01

    It is a routine matter for undergraduates to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a given matrix. But the converse problem of finding a matrix with prescribed eigenvalues and eigenvectors is rarely discussed in elementary texts on linear algebra. This problem is related to the "spectral" decomposition of a matrix and has important technical…

  15. Triangularization of a Matrix

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Much of linear algebra is devoted to reducing a matrix (via similarity or unitary similarity) to another that has lots of zeros. The simplest such theorem is the Schur triangularization theorem. This says that every matrix is unitarily similar to an upper triangular matrix. Our aim here is to show that though it is very easy to prove it ...

  16. Effect of inertia on laminar swimming and flying of an assembly of rigid spheres in an incompressible viscous fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felderhof, B. U.

    2015-11-01

    A mechanical model of swimming and flying in an incompressible viscous fluid in the absence of gravity is studied on the basis of assumed equations of motion. The system is modeled as an assembly of rigid spheres subject to elastic direct interactions and to periodic actuating forces which sum to zero. Hydrodynamic interactions are taken into account in the virtual mass matrix and in the friction matrix of the assembly. An equation of motion is derived for the velocity of the geometric center of the assembly. The mean power is calculated as the mean rate of dissipation. The full range of viscosity is covered, so that the theory can be applied to the flying of birds, as well as to the swimming of fish or bacteria. As an example a system of three equal spheres moving along a common axis is studied.

  17. Reactions of laser ablated uranium with nitrogen studied using matrix isolation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaran, K.; Sundararajan, K.; Viswanathan, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    Unusual reactions were found to occur when uranium was laser ablated in the presence of nitrogen. The reaction products were trapped in a rigid inert gas matrix and studied using infrared spectroscopy. The species formed were strongly dependent on the partial pressure of nitrogen in the matrix gas used during the ablation process; at low nitrogen partial pressures uranium dinitride (NUN) was the major reaction product, while at high partial pressures of nitrogen the mononitride, UN, was the predominant product. (author)

  18. Pediatric mandibular fractures treated by rigid internal fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G B

    1993-09-01

    Mandibular fractures in the pediatric patient population are relatively uncommon. These patients present with their own unique treatment requirements. Most fractures have been treated conservatively by dental splints. Closed reduction techniques with maxillomandibular fixation (MMF) in very young children can pose several concerns, including cooperation, compliance and adequate nutritional intake. Rigid internal fixation of unstable mandibular fractures using miniplates and screws circumvents the need for MMF and allows immediate jaw mobilization. At major pediatric trauma institutions, there has been an increasing trend toward the use of this treatment when open reduction is necessary. This article presents a report of a five-year-old child who presented with bilateral mandibular fractures and was treated by rigid internal fixation and immediate mandibular mobilization.

  19. Handedness in shearing auxetics creates rigid and compliant structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Jeffrey Ian; MacCurdy, Robert; Manchester, Zachary; Chin, Lillian; Cellucci, Daniel; Rus, Daniela

    2018-05-01

    In nature, repeated base units produce handed structures that selectively bond to make rigid or compliant materials. Auxetic tilings are scale-independent frameworks made from repeated unit cells that expand under tension. We discovered how to produce handedness in auxetic unit cells that shear as they expand by changing the symmetries and alignments of auxetic tilings. Using the symmetry and alignment rules that we developed, we made handed shearing auxetics that tile planes, cylinders, and spheres. By compositing the handed shearing auxetics in a manner inspired by keratin and collagen, we produce both compliant structures that expand while twisting and deployable structures that can rigidly lock. This work opens up new possibilities in designing chemical frameworks, medical devices like stents, robotic systems, and deployable engineering structures.

  20. Rigid inclusions-Comparison between analytical and numerical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Perez, R.; Melentijevic, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares different analytical methods for analysis of rigid inclusions with finite element modeling. First of all, the load transfer in the distribution layer is analyzed for its different thicknesses and different inclusion grids to define the range between results obtained by analytical and numerical methods. The interaction between the soft soil and the inclusion in the estimation of settlements is studied as well. Considering different stiffness of the soft soil, settlements obtained analytical and numerically are compared. The influence of the soft soil modulus of elasticity on the neutral point depth was also performed by finite elements. This depth has a great importance for the definition of the total length of rigid inclusion. (Author)

  1. Rigidity of complete noncompact bach-flat n-manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yawei; Feng, Pinghua

    2012-11-01

    Let (Mn,g) be a complete noncompact Bach-flat n-manifold with the positive Yamabe constant and constant scalar curvature. Assume that the L2-norm of the trace-free Riemannian curvature tensor R∘m is finite. In this paper, we prove that (Mn,g) is a constant curvature space if the L-norm of R∘m is sufficiently small. Moreover, we get a gap theorem for (Mn,g) with positive scalar curvature. This can be viewed as a generalization of our earlier results of 4-dimensional Bach-flat manifolds with constant scalar curvature R≥0 [Y.W. Chu, A rigidity theorem for complete noncompact Bach-flat manifolds, J. Geom. Phys. 61 (2011) 516-521]. Furthermore, when n>9, we derive a rigidity result for R<0.

  2. Rigid-beam model of a high-efficiency magnicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, D.E.; Tallerico, P.J.; Humphries, S.J. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The magnicon is a new type of high-efficiency deflection-modulated amplifier developed at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk, Russia. The prototype pulsed magnicon achieved an output power of 2.4 MW and an efficiency of 73% at 915 MHz. This paper presents the results of a rigid-beam model for a 700-MHz, 2.5-MW 82%-efficient magnicon. The rigid-beam model allows for characterization of the beam dynamics by tracking only a single electron. The magnicon design presented consists of a drive cavity; passive cavities; a pi-mode, coupled-deflection cavity; and an output cavity. It represents an optimized design. The model is fully self-consistent, and this paper presents the details of the model and calculated performance of a 2.5-MW magnicon

  3. MRS2016: Rigid Moon Rotation Series in the Relativistic Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkevich, V. V.

    2017-03-01

    The rigid Moon rotation problem is studied for the relativistic (kinematical) case, in which the geodetic perturbations in the Moon rotation are taken into account. As the result of this research the high-precision Moon Rotation Series MRS2016 in the relativistic approximation was constructed for the first time and the discrepancies between the high-precision numerical and the semi-analytical solutions of the rigid Moon rotation were investigated with respect to the fixed ecliptic of epoch J2000, by the numerical and analytical methods. The residuals between the numerical solution and MRS2016 in the perturbing terms of the physical librations do not exceed 80 mas and 10 arc seconds over 2000 and 6000 years, respectively.

  4. Partial ring currents and cosmic ray magnetic cutoff rigidity variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arens, M.

    1978-01-01

    A short introduction on cosmic ray modulation and a description of the magnetosphere, and of some physical processes occurring within its boundaries are presented. 20 geomagnetic storms are analysed together with the cosmic ray intensities during these storms as measured by Neutron Monitors. Using a semi-empirical method, the variations in the magnetic cutoff rigidity for the mountain stations Pic du Midi and Jungfraujoch are deduced. These stations are the most sensitive for measuring these variations. The analysis shows that all analyzed storms have an asymmetric development phase. Often the asymmetry even continues during part of the recovery phase. It is shown that variations in magnetic cutoff rigidity occur only during the asymmetric phase of the storm. The largest variations are found when the cosmic ray station is located in the late afternoon-midnight sector. (Auth.)

  5. Hispanos en la EPA: Joel Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    La diversidad de la fuerza laboral es importante para la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de EE.UU. (EPA, por sus siglas en inglés). Los empleados hispanos de la EPA contribuyen diariamente hacia la protección de la salud y el medio ambiente.

  6. 1992-IJBCS-Article-Joel Okon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    effectuée le soir à partir de 17 h. De l'eau potable est distribuée à volonté aux aulacodes. - des activités hebdomadaires et mensuelles: lavage des mangeoires et abreuvoirs 2 à 3 fois par semaine, désinfection des aulacodères 1 fois par semaine, désinfection de l'aulacoderie. 1 fois par mois, déparasitage des aulacodes 1.

  7. Estonia addresses its redneck problem / Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Noore filmirežissööri Rasmus Merivoo bakalaureusetöö - lühimängufilm "Tulnukas ehk Valdise pääsemine 11 osas". Filmi populaarsuse fenomenist, "rullnokkade" subkultuuri tutvustus, laulja Vaiko Eplik taolise subkultuuri tekke võimalikest põhjustest ja muustki

  8. Railway bribery investigation falls through / Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Kaitsepolitsei ei alustanud Reformierakonna võimaliku altkäemaksu nõudmise uurimist. Raudteeärimees Edward Burkhardt väitis, et Reformierakond küsis miljon eurot altkäemaksu raudtee erastamise ajal

  9. Cinematic rebels without a cause / Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Joel

    2007-01-01

    2.-9. veebr. on kinos "Sõprus" ja 11.-15. veebr. Tartu Sadamateatris 5. kultusfilmide festival Manifest, seekord 8 USA filmi aastaist 1946-2006, teemaks sõnavabadus. Filminädalale valitud filmide valikuprintsiipidest räägib Mihkel Randruut, ka näidatavate filmide lühike tutvustus

  10. Academics protest election ploys / Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Üle 200 Eesti haritlase kirjutasid alla avalikule kirjale, milles kutsutakse üles presidenti Riigikogus valima, samuti osalema praegust presidenti Arnold Rüütlit mitte ainult presidendivalimistel valimiskogus. Allakirjutanute seas oli ka TLÜ rektor Rein Raud

  11. Kriis paljastas Euroopa killustatuse / Joel Haukka

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haukka, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Autori sõnul on uues Euroopas ülekaalus arusaam Venemaast kui ähvardavast naabrist, kes on endale võtnud õiguse sekkuda lähivälismaa asjadesse. Euroopa Venemaale suunatud teesklemisstrateegia on olnud ebaõnnestunud kompromiss koostöö ja konfrontatsiooni vahel

  12. A rigid lamb syndrome in sheep in Rhodesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudert, C P; Lawrence, J A; Foggin, C; Barlow, R M

    1978-04-29

    A syndrome characterised by the birth of lambs with varying degrees of rigidity of the limbs and spine has been encountered on several occasions in Rhodesia. Outbreaks have occurred in autumn-born lambs from Dorper ewes grazing heavily fertilised Star grass cv No 2 (Cynodon aethiopicus) pastures. The condition appears to be exacerbated by the application of sulphur to the pasture and is partly prevented by the administration of selenium and vitamin E to the ewes before lambing. The aetiology is unknown.

  13. Nonlinear dynamics mathematical models for rigid bodies with a liquid

    CERN Document Server

    Lukovsky, Ivan A

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to analytically approximate methods in the nonlinear dynamics of a rigid body with cavities partly filled by liquid. It combines several methods and compares the results with experimental data. It is useful for experienced and early-stage readers interested in analytical approaches to fluid-structure interaction problems, the fundamental mathematical background and modeling the dynamics of such complex mechanical systems.

  14. Steady fall of a rigid body in viscous fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečasová, Šárka

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 63, Sp. Is. (2005), s. 2113-2119 ISSN 0362-546X. [Invited Talks from the Fourth World Congress of Nonlinear Analysts (WCNA 2004). Orlando , 30.7.2004-7.8.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/02/0684 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : steady fall * rigid body * viscous fluid Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.519, year: 2005

  15. NOLB: Nonlinear Rigid Block Normal Mode Analysis Method

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann , Alexandre; Grudinin , Sergei

    2017-01-01

    International audience; We present a new conceptually simple and computationally efficient method for nonlinear normal mode analysis called NOLB. It relies on the rotations-translations of blocks (RTB) theoretical basis developed by Y.-H. Sanejouand and colleagues. We demonstrate how to physically interpret the eigenvalues computed in the RTB basis in terms of angular and linear velocities applied to the rigid blocks and how to construct a nonlinear extrapolation of motion out of these veloci...

  16. Oscillations of manometric tubular springs with rigid end

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherentsov, D. A.; Pirogov, S. P.; Dorofeev, S. M.; Ryabova, Y. S.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents a mathematical model of attenuating oscillations of manometric tubular springs (MTS) taking into account the rigid tip. The dynamic MTS model is presented in the form of a thin-walled curved rod oscillating in the plane of curvature of the central axis. Equations for MTS oscillations are obtained in accordance with the d’Alembert principle in projections onto the normal and tangential. The Bubnov-Galerkin method is used to solve the equations obtained.

  17. On Polya's inequality for torsional rigidity and first Dirichlet eigenvalue

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, M. van den; Ferone, V.; Nitsch, C.; Trombetti, C.

    2016-01-01

    Let $\\Omega$ be an open set in Euclidean space with finite Lebesgue measure $|\\Omega|$. We obtain some properties of the set function $F:\\Omega\\mapsto \\R^+$ defined by $$ F(\\Omega)=\\frac{T(\\Omega)\\lambda_1(\\Omega)}{|\\Omega|} ,$$ where $T(\\Omega)$ and $\\lambda_1(\\Omega)$ are the torsional rigidity and the first eigenvalue of the Dirichlet Laplacian respectively. We improve the classical P\\'olya bound $F(\\Omega)\\le 1,$ and show that $$F(\\Omega)\\le 1- \

  18. Vortex statistics for turbulence in a container with rigid boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clercx, H.J.H.; Nielsen, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    The evolution of vortex statistics for decaying two-dimensional turbulence in a square container with rigid no-slip walls is compared with a few available experimental results and with the scaling theory of two-dimensional turbulent decay as proposed by Carnevale et al. Power-law exponents......, computed from an ensemble average of several numerical runs, coincide with some experimentally obtained values, but not with data obtained from numerical simulations of decaying two-dimensional turbulence with periodic boundary conditions....

  19. Gas-induced friction and diffusion of rigid rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinetz, Lukas; Hornberger, Klaus; Stickler, Benjamin A.

    2018-05-01

    We derive the Boltzmann equation for the rotranslational dynamics of an arbitrary convex rigid body in a rarefied gas. It yields as a limiting case the Fokker-Planck equation accounting for friction, diffusion, and nonconservative drift forces and torques. We provide the rotranslational friction and diffusion tensors for specular and diffuse reflection off particles with spherical, cylindrical, and cuboidal shape, and show that the theory describes thermalization, photophoresis, and the inverse Magnus effect in the free molecular regime.

  20. Polyester Polyols from Waste PET Bottles for Polyurethane Rigid Foams

    OpenAIRE

    Evtimova, Rozeta; Lozeva, Yordanka; Schmidt, Karl-Heinz; Wotzka, Michael; Wagner, Peter; Behrendt, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a modified process to produce polyester polyols from PET wastes derived from the “bottle fraction residue” of the German Dual System (DSD) [11] employing a waste oligoester condensate of the polyesterification process with the addition of some glycols of longer chain and occasional modification with further dicarboxylic acids to produce polyester polyols of a broad range of properties which are further reacted to form polyurethane or polyisocyanurate rigid foams for insul...

  1. Modyfication of the Rigid Polyurethane-Polyisocyanurate Foams

    OpenAIRE

    Bogusław Czupryński; Joanna Liszkowska; Joanna Paciorek-Sadowska

    2014-01-01

    The effect of polyethylene glycol 1500 on physicomechanical properties of rigid polyurethane-polyisocyanurate (PUR-PIR) foams has been studied. It was found that application of polyethylene glycol 1500 for synthesis of foams in amount from 0% to 20% w/w had an effect on reduction of brittleness and softening point, while the greater the increase in compressive strength the higher its content in foam composition was. Wastes from production of these foams were ground and subjected to glycolysis...

  2. Rigid or flexible sigmoidoscopy in colorectal clinics? Appraisal through a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ahmad, Nasir Zaheer

    2012-06-01

    Rigid sigmoidoscopy is sometimes performed at first presentation in colorectal clinics. We assessed the feasibility of flexible sigmoidoscopy in similar situations by comparing it with rigid sigmoidoscopy as a first investigative tool.

  3. Towards Sub-Microarsecond Rigid Earth Nutation Series in the Hamiltonian Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Souchay, Jean; Folgueira, M

    2000-01-01

    ...) are based on the works of Kinoshita (1977) and Wahr (1979). In Kinoshita's work, the rigid Earth nutation series were calculated by the application of the Hamiltonian canonical equations to the rotation of the rigid and elliptical Earth...

  4. Chiral Orientation of Skeletal Muscle Cells Requires Rigid Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninghao Zhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reconstitution of tissue morphology with inherent left–right (LR asymmetry is essential for tissue/organ functions. For skeletal muscle, the largest tissue in mammalian organisms, successful myogenesis requires the regulation of the LR asymmetry to form the appropriate muscle alignment. However, the key factor for reproducing the LR asymmetry of skeletal tissues in a controllable, engineering context remains largely unknown. Recent reports indicate that cell chirality may underlie the LR development in tissue morphogenesis. Here, we report that a rigid substrate is required for the chirality of skeletal muscle cells. By using alternating micropatterned cell-adherent and cell-repellent stripes on a rigid substrate, we found that C2C12 skeletal muscle myoblasts exhibited a unidirectional tilted orientation with respect to the stripe boundary. Importantly, such chiral orientation was reduced when soft substrates were used instead. In addition, we demonstrated the key role of actin stress fibers in the formation of the chiral orientation. This study reveals that a rigid substrate is required for the chiral pattern of myoblasts, paving the way for reconstructing damaged muscle tissue with inherent LR asymmetry in the future.

  5. Experimental consequences of predicted charge rigidity of superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, J.E., E-mail: jhirsch@ucsd.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0319 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    The theory of hole superconductivity predicts that in superconductors the charged superfluid is about a million times more rigid than the normal electron fluid. We point out that this physics should give rise to large changes in the bulk and surface plasmon dispersion relations of metals entering the superconducting state, that have not yet been experimentally detected and would be in stark contradiction with the expected behavior within conventional BCS-London theory. We also propose that this explains the puzzling experimental observations of Avramenko et al. on electron sound propagation in superconductors and the puzzling experiments of de Heer et al. detecting large electric dipole moments in small metal clusters, as well as the Tao effect on aggregation of superconducting microparticles in an electric field. Associated with the enhanced charge rigidity is a large increase in the electric screening length of superconductors at low temperatures that has not yet been experimentally detected. The physical origin of the enhanced charge rigidity and its relation to other aspects of the theory of hole superconductivity is discussed.

  6. Field dependent cosmic ray streaming at high rigidities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinson, D.B.

    1976-01-01

    Data from underground μ meson telescopes at depths of 25, 40, and 80 mwe covering the period 1965--1973 have been analyzed as a function of interplanetary magnetic field direction. Cosmic ray streaming both in and perpendicular to the ecliptic plane, with directions dependent on the sense of the interplanetary magnetic field, is observed throughout the period at all depths. The field dependent streaming in the ecliptic plane exhibits some variability in amplitude and phase but contains a component in the direction perpendicular to the interplanetary magnetic field direction which is consistent with B x delN streaming due to a perpendicular cosmic ray density gradient pointing southward (higher density below the ecliptic plane than above it). In the case of the field dependent streaming perpendicular to the ecliptic plane the direction of the streaming has remained remarkably consistent over the 9-year period. One possible source of this streaming is B x delN streaming due to a radial heliocentric cosmic ray density gradient; this possibility is discussed along with other possible sources. There does not appear to be an obvious variation in the amplitude of the field dependent streaming either in or perpendicular to the ecliptic plane with increasing rigidity; both effects are still apparent at rigidities well above the 52-GV threshold rigidity of the Socorro 80-mwe telescope. The amplitudes of both anisotropies appear larger at solar maximum than at solar minimum

  7. Rigid Body Energy Minimization on Manifolds for Molecular Docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Hanieh; Beglov, Dmitri; Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch; Vajda, Sandor; Vakili, Pirooz; Kozakov, Dima

    2012-11-13

    Virtually all docking methods include some local continuous minimization of an energy/scoring function in order to remove steric clashes and obtain more reliable energy values. In this paper, we describe an efficient rigid-body optimization algorithm that, compared to the most widely used algorithms, converges approximately an order of magnitude faster to conformations with equal or slightly lower energy. The space of rigid body transformations is a nonlinear manifold, namely, a space which locally resembles a Euclidean space. We use a canonical parametrization of the manifold, called the exponential parametrization, to map the Euclidean tangent space of the manifold onto the manifold itself. Thus, we locally transform the rigid body optimization to an optimization over a Euclidean space where basic optimization algorithms are applicable. Compared to commonly used methods, this formulation substantially reduces the dimension of the search space. As a result, it requires far fewer costly function and gradient evaluations and leads to a more efficient algorithm. We have selected the LBFGS quasi-Newton method for local optimization since it uses only gradient information to obtain second order information about the energy function and avoids the far more costly direct Hessian evaluations. Two applications, one in protein-protein docking, and the other in protein-small molecular interactions, as part of macromolecular docking protocols are presented. The code is available to the community under open source license, and with minimal effort can be incorporated into any molecular modeling package.

  8. Crack identification for rigid pavements using unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaddin Ersoz, Ahmet; Pekcan, Onur; Teke, Turker

    2017-09-01

    Pavement condition assessment is an essential piece of modern pavement management systems as rehabilitation strategies are planned based upon its outcomes. For proper evaluation of existing pavements, they must be continuously and effectively monitored using practical means. Conventionally, truck-based pavement monitoring systems have been in-use in assessing the remaining life of in-service pavements. Although such systems produce accurate results, their use can be expensive and data processing can be time consuming, which make them infeasible considering the demand for quick pavement evaluation. To overcome such problems, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can be used as an alternative as they are relatively cheaper and easier-to-use. In this study, we propose a UAV based pavement crack identification system for monitoring rigid pavements’ existing conditions. The system consists of recently introduced image processing algorithms used together with conventional machine learning techniques, both of which are used to perform detection of cracks on rigid pavements’ surface and their classification. Through image processing, the distinct features of labelled crack bodies are first obtained from the UAV based images and then used for training of a Support Vector Machine (SVM) model. The performance of the developed SVM model was assessed with a field study performed along a rigid pavement exposed to low traffic and serious temperature changes. Available cracks were classified using the UAV based system and obtained results indicate it ensures a good alternative solution for pavement monitoring applications.

  9. Green waste cooking oil-based rigid polyurethane foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderus, N. F.; Tahir, S. M.

    2017-11-01

    Polyurethane is a versatile polymer traditionally prepared using petroleum-based raw material. Petroleum, however, is a non-renewable material and polyurethane produced was found to be non-biodegradable. In quest for a more environmentally friendly alternative, wastecooking oil, a highly abundant domestic waste with easily derivatized structure, is a viable candidate to replace petroleum. In this study,an investigation to determine physical and chemical properties of rigid polyurethane (PU) foam from waste cooking oil (WCO) was carried out. WCO was first adsorbed by using coconut husk activated carbon adsorbent prior to be used for polyol synthesis. The purified WCO was then used to synthesize polyol via transesterification reaction to yield alcohol groups in the WCO chains structure. Finally, the WCO-based polyol was used to prepare rigid PU foam. The optimum formulation for PU formation was found to be 90 polyol: 60 glycerol: 54 water: 40 diethanolamine: 23 diisocyanate. The rigid PU foam has density of 208.4 kg/m3 with maximum compressive strength and capability to receive load at 0.03 MPa and 0.09 kN, respectively. WCO-based PU can potentially be used to replace petroleum-based PU as house construction materials such as insulation panels.

  10. Parallelism in matrix computations

    CERN Document Server

    Gallopoulos, Efstratios; Sameh, Ahmed H

    2016-01-01

    This book is primarily intended as a research monograph that could also be used in graduate courses for the design of parallel algorithms in matrix computations. It assumes general but not extensive knowledge of numerical linear algebra, parallel architectures, and parallel programming paradigms. The book consists of four parts: (I) Basics; (II) Dense and Special Matrix Computations; (III) Sparse Matrix Computations; and (IV) Matrix functions and characteristics. Part I deals with parallel programming paradigms and fundamental kernels, including reordering schemes for sparse matrices. Part II is devoted to dense matrix computations such as parallel algorithms for solving linear systems, linear least squares, the symmetric algebraic eigenvalue problem, and the singular-value decomposition. It also deals with the development of parallel algorithms for special linear systems such as banded ,Vandermonde ,Toeplitz ,and block Toeplitz systems. Part III addresses sparse matrix computations: (a) the development of pa...

  11. Neutrino mass matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    Given the many conflicting experimental results, examination is made of the neutrino mass matrix in order to determine possible masses and mixings. It is assumed that the Dirac mass matrix for the electron, muon, and tau neutrinos is similar in form to those of the quarks and charged leptons, and that the smallness of the observed neutrino masses results from the Gell-Mann-Ramond-Slansky mechanism. Analysis of masses and mixings for the neutrinos is performed using general structures for the Majorana mass matrix. It is shown that if certain tentative experimental results concerning the neutrino masses and mixing angles are confirmed, significant limitations may be placed on the Majorana mass matrix. The most satisfactory simple assumption concerning the Majorana mass matrix is that it is approximately proportional to the Dirac mass matrix. A very recent experimental neutrino mass result and its implications are discussed. Some general properties of matrices with structure similar to the Dirac mass matrices are discussed

  12. Bang-Bang Practical Stabilization of Rigid Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpelloni, Edoardo

    In this thesis, we study the problem of designing a practical stabilizer for a rigid body equipped with a set of actuators generating only constant thrust. Our motivation stems from the fact that modern space missions are required to accurately control the position and orientation of spacecraft actuated by constant-thrust jet-thrusters. To comply with the performance limitations of modern thrusters, we design a feedback controller that does not induce high-frequency switching of the actuators. The proposed controller is hybrid and it asymptotically stabilizes an arbitrarily small compact neighborhood of the target position and orientation of the rigid body. The controller is characterized by a hierarchical structure comprising of two control layers. At the low level of the hierarchy, an attitude controller stabilizes the target orientation of the rigid body. At the high level, after the attitude controller has steered the rigid body sufficiently close to its desired orientation, a position controller stabilizes the desired position. The size of the neighborhood being stabilized by the controller can be adjusted via a proper selection of the controller parameters. This allows us to stabilize the rigid body to virtually any degree of accuracy. It is shown that the controller, even in the presence of measurement noise, does not induce high-frequency switching of the actuators. The key component in the design of the controller is a hybrid stabilizer for the origin of double-integrators affected by bounded external perturbations. Specifically, both the position and the attitude stabilizers consist of multiple copies of such a double-integrator controller. The proposed controller is applied to two realistic spacecraft control problems. First, we apply the position controller to the problem of stabilizing the relative position between two spacecraft flying in formation in the vicinity of the L2 libration point of the Sun-Earth system as a part of a large space telescope

  13. The diagnostic role of thoracoscope in undiagnosed pleural effusion: Rigid versus flexible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mahmoud Abdel Mageid Shaheen

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: Thoracoscopy using either fibreoptic bronchoscope or rigid thoracoscope is safe and well tolerated. Rigid thoracoscope has a higher diagnostic yield, easier handling, better orientation and is less expensive. Nevertheless, fibreoptic bronchoscope is an alternative technique if rigid thoracoscopy is not available.

  14. Cell stiffness, contractile stress and the role of extracellular matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Steven S.; Kim, Jina; Ahn, Kwangmi; Trepat, Xavier; Drake, Kenneth J.; Kumar, Sarvesh; Ling, Guoyu; Purington, Carolyn; Rangasamy, Tirumalai; Kensler, Thomas W.; Mitzner, Wayne; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Biswal, Shyam

    2009-01-01

    Here we have assessed the effects of extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and rigidity on mechanical properties of the human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell. Cell stiffness and contractile stress showed appreciable changes from the most relaxed state to the most contracted state: we refer to the maximal range of these changes as the cell contractile scope. The contractile scope was least when the cell was adherent upon collagen V, followed by collagen IV, laminin, and collagen I, and greatest for fibronectin. Regardless of ECM composition, upon adherence to increasingly rigid substrates, the ASM cell positively regulated expression of antioxidant genes in the glutathione pathway and heme oxygenase, and disruption of a redox-sensitive transcription factor, nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor (Nrf2), culminated in greater contractile scope. These findings provide biophysical evidence that ECM differentially modulates muscle contractility and, for the first time, demonstrate a link between muscle contractility and Nrf2-directed responses.

  15. Cell stiffness, contractile stress and the role of extracellular matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Steven S., E-mail: san@jhsph.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Room E-7616, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Kim, Jina [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Room E-7616, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Ahn, Kwangmi [Division of Biostatistics, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Trepat, Xavier [CIBER, Enfermedades Respiratorias, 07110 Bunyola (Spain); Drake, Kenneth J. [Division of Molecular and Integrative Physiological Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kumar, Sarvesh; Ling, Guoyu; Purington, Carolyn; Rangasamy, Tirumalai; Kensler, Thomas W.; Mitzner, Wayne [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Room E-7616, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Fredberg, Jeffrey J. [Division of Molecular and Integrative Physiological Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Biswal, Shyam [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Room E-7616, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Here we have assessed the effects of extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and rigidity on mechanical properties of the human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell. Cell stiffness and contractile stress showed appreciable changes from the most relaxed state to the most contracted state: we refer to the maximal range of these changes as the cell contractile scope. The contractile scope was least when the cell was adherent upon collagen V, followed by collagen IV, laminin, and collagen I, and greatest for fibronectin. Regardless of ECM composition, upon adherence to increasingly rigid substrates, the ASM cell positively regulated expression of antioxidant genes in the glutathione pathway and heme oxygenase, and disruption of a redox-sensitive transcription factor, nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor (Nrf2), culminated in greater contractile scope. These findings provide biophysical evidence that ECM differentially modulates muscle contractility and, for the first time, demonstrate a link between muscle contractility and Nrf2-directed responses.

  16. Patience of matrix games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Podolskii, Vladimir V.

    2013-01-01

    For matrix games we study how small nonzero probability must be used in optimal strategies. We show that for image win–lose–draw games (i.e. image matrix games) nonzero probabilities smaller than image are never needed. We also construct an explicit image win–lose game such that the unique optimal...

  17. Matrix comparison, Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Borlund, Pia

    2007-01-01

    The present two-part article introduces matrix comparison as a formal means for evaluation purposes in informetric studies such as cocitation analysis. In the first part, the motivation behind introducing matrix comparison to informetric studies, as well as two important issues influencing such c...

  18. Unitarity of CKM Matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Saleem, M

    2002-01-01

    The Unitarity of the CKM matrix is examined in the light of the latest available accurate data. The analysis shows that a conclusive result cannot be derived at present. Only more precise data can determine whether the CKM matrix opens new vistas beyond the standard model or not.

  19. Fuzzy risk matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowski, Adam S.; Mannan, M. Sam

    2008-01-01

    A risk matrix is a mechanism to characterize and rank process risks that are typically identified through one or more multifunctional reviews (e.g., process hazard analysis, audits, or incident investigation). This paper describes a procedure for developing a fuzzy risk matrix that may be used for emerging fuzzy logic applications in different safety analyses (e.g., LOPA). The fuzzification of frequency and severity of the consequences of the incident scenario are described which are basic inputs for fuzzy risk matrix. Subsequently using different design of risk matrix, fuzzy rules are established enabling the development of fuzzy risk matrices. Three types of fuzzy risk matrix have been developed (low-cost, standard, and high-cost), and using a distillation column case study, the effect of the design on final defuzzified risk index is demonstrated

  20. Fuzzy vulnerability matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, Jorge H.; Rivera, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    The so-called vulnerability matrix is used in the evaluation part of the probabilistic safety assessment for a nuclear power plant, during the containment event trees calculations. This matrix is established from what is knows as Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement. This matrix is usually established with numerical values obtained with traditional arithmetic using the set theory. The representation of this matrix with fuzzy numbers is much more adequate, due to the fact that the Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement are better represented with linguistic variables, such as 'highly probable', 'probable', 'impossible', etc. In the present paper a methodology to obtain a Fuzzy Vulnerability Matrix is presented, starting from the recommendations on the Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement. (author)

  1. Cohomological rigidity of manifolds defined by 3-dimensional polytopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchstaber, V. M.; Erokhovets, N. Yu.; Masuda, M.; Panov, T. E.; Park, S.

    2017-04-01

    A family of closed manifolds is said to be cohomologically rigid if a cohomology ring isomorphism implies a diffeomorphism for any two manifolds in the family. Cohomological rigidity is established here for large families of 3-dimensional and 6-dimensional manifolds defined by 3-dimensional polytopes. The class \\mathscr{P} of 3-dimensional combinatorial simple polytopes P different from tetrahedra and without facets forming 3- and 4-belts is studied. This class includes mathematical fullerenes, that is, simple 3- polytopes with only 5-gonal and 6-gonal facets. By a theorem of Pogorelov, any polytope in \\mathscr{P} admits in Lobachevsky 3-space a right-angled realisation which is unique up to isometry. Our families of smooth manifolds are associated with polytopes in the class \\mathscr{P}. The first family consists of 3-dimensional small covers of polytopes in \\mathscr{P}, or equivalently, hyperbolic 3-manifolds of Löbell type. The second family consists of 6-dimensional quasitoric manifolds over polytopes in \\mathscr{P}. Our main result is that both families are cohomologically rigid, that is, two manifolds M and M' from either family are diffeomorphic if and only if their cohomology rings are isomorphic. It is also proved that if M and M' are diffeomorphic, then their corresponding polytopes P and P' are combinatorially equivalent. These results are intertwined with classical subjects in geometry and topology such as the combinatorics of 3-polytopes, the Four Colour Theorem, aspherical manifolds, a diffeomorphism classification of 6-manifolds, and invariance of Pontryagin classes. The proofs use techniques of toric topology. Bibliography: 69 titles.

  2. Vertical dimensional stability and rigidity of occlusal registration materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mary P; Wu, Edis; Heckman, M Elizabeth; Alderman, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Dimensionally accurate occlusal registration records are essential for restorative dentistry; moreover, since records are not used immediately or may be used more than once, the registration material should exhibit accuracy over time (a concept known as dimensional stability). It has been speculated that materials with increased hardness or rigidity should produce more accurate registration records due to an increased resistance to distortion. This study compared the rigidity and associated dimensional accuracy of a recently marketed bisacrylic occlusal registration material and a vinyl polysiloxane (VPS). Maxillary and mandibular typodont arches were mounted on a plasterless articulator from which teeth No. 3, 13, and 15 had been removed to simulate edentulous spaces. After preparing teeth No. 2, 4, 12, and 14 as bridge abutments, the remaining teeth were equilibrated selectively to produce even anterior contact. Four digital photographs were taken to make vertical interarch measurements at four locations (teeth No. 3, 7, 10, and 14). Following initial photos (controls), 10 interocclusal records were made using each registration material, with material placed only in the segments in which teeth were prepared. The records were used for mounting the maxillary arch against the mandibular arch after 48, 72, and 120 hours. There were significant effects on vertical dimensional change related to arch location, material, and mounting time. Both materials demonstrated significantly larger posterior vertical openings than anterior vertical openings, while the bisacrylate produced a larger posterior opening than VPS at 48 and 72 hours and a larger anterior opening at all mounting times. There also was a significant difference in hardness/rigidity due to material and measurement time; at all measurement times, bisacrylate exhibited a significantly higher hardness number.

  3. Rigid body formulation in a finite element context with contact interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refachinho de Campos, Paulo R.; Gay Neto, Alfredo

    2018-03-01

    The present work proposes a formulation to employ rigid bodies together with flexible bodies in the context of a nonlinear finite element solver, with contact interactions. Inertial contributions due to distribution of mass of a rigid body are fully developed, considering a general pole position associated with a single node, representing a rigid body element. Additionally, a mechanical constraint is proposed to connect a rigid region composed by several nodes, which is useful for linking rigid/flexible bodies in a finite element environment. Rodrigues rotation parameters are used to describe finite rotations, by an updated Lagrangian description. In addition, the contact formulation entitled master-surface to master-surface is employed in conjunction with the rigid body element and flexible bodies, aiming to consider their interaction in a rigid-flexible multibody environment. New surface parameterizations are presented to establish contact pairs, permitting pointwise interaction in a frictional scenario. Numerical examples are provided to show robustness and applicability of the methods.

  4. Nonlinear behavior of matrix-inclusion composites under high confining pressure: application to concrete and mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tuan Hung; Dormieux, Luc; Jeannin, Laurent; Burlion, Nicolas; Barthélémy, Jean-François

    2008-08-01

    This paper is devoted to a micromechanics-based simulation of the response of concrete to hydrostatic and oedometric compressions. Concrete is described as a composite made up of a cement matrix in which rigid inclusions are embedded. The focus is put on the role of the interface between matrix and inclusion which represent the interfacial transition zone (ITZ). A plastic behavior is considered for both the matrix and the interfaces. The effective response of the composite is derived from the modified secant method adapted to the situation of imperfect interfaces. To cite this article: T.H. Le et al., C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  5. Hadron matrix elements of quark operators in the relativistic quark model, 2. Model calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arisue, H; Bando, M; Toya, M [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Sugimoto, H

    1979-11-01

    Phenomenological studies of the matrix elements of two- and four-quark operators are made on the basis of relativistic independent quark model for typical three cases of the potentials: rigid wall, linearly rising and Coulomb-like potentials. The values of the matrix elements of two-quark operators are relatively well reproduced in each case, but those of four-quark operators prove to be too small in the independent particle treatment. It is suggested that the short-range two-quark correlations must be taken into account in order to improve the values of the matrix elements of the four-quark operators.

  6. Friction effects on lateral loading behavior of rigid piles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Hededal, Ole

    2012-01-01

    taking into account the shear frictional resistance along the pile. For this purpose efficient three dimensional finite element models of different diameter have been developed. The increase of the side friction and of the diameter of the pile is shown to alter the failure pattern and increase...... the lateral capacity of the pile. The obtained p - y curves demonstrate the importance of the aforementioned parameters in the design of rigid piles, as the reduction of friction along the interface reduces not only the ultimate load but also the stiffness of the soil-pile response. Read More: http...

  7. Cosmic ray fluctuations at rigidities 4 to 180 GV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benko, G.; Erdoes, G.; Stehlik, M.; Katz, M.E.; Nosov, S.F.

    1986-07-01

    The power spectral density of cosmic ray fluctuations observed at both underground and ground level during the years 1976-1980 was calculated. The spectral index is independent of the phase of solar cycle in the frequency range of 5x10 -7 - 5x10 -5 Hz and its value is equal to 2. The level of fluctuations shows a weak dependence on the rigidity (R) of the particles P∼R -2/3 . The obtained experimental results are in agreement with the theoretical predictions. (author)

  8. Microstructural Dynamics and Rheology of Suspensions of Rigid Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Jason E.; Snook, Braden

    2018-01-01

    The dynamics and rheology of suspensions of rigid, non-Brownian fibers in Newtonian fluids are reviewed. Experiments, theories, and computer simulations are considered, with an emphasis on suspensions at semidilute and concentrated conditions. In these suspensions, interactions between the particles strongly influence the microstructure and rheological properties of the suspension. The interactions can arise from hydrodynamic disturbances, giving multibody interactions at long ranges and pairwise lubrication forces over short distances. For concentrated suspensions, additional interactions due to excluded volume (contacts) and adhesive forces are addressed. The relative importance of the various interactions as a function of fiber concentration is assessed.

  9. On the surprising rigidity of the Pauli exclusion principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, O.W.

    1989-01-01

    I review recent attempts to construct a local quantum field theory of small violations of the Pauli exclusion principle and suggest a qualitative reason for the surprising rigidity of the Pauli principle. I suggest that small violations can occur in our four-dimensional world as a consequence of the compactification of a higher-dimensional theory in which the exclusion principle is exactly valid. I briefly mention a recent experiment which places a severe limit on possible violations of the exclusion principle. (orig.)

  10. Rigidity of minimal submanifolds with flat normal bundle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rigidity of minimal submanifolds with flat normal bundle. 461. = a. ∫. M u2(1+q)+ 2 a f 2 − 2. ∫. M u2q+1f 〈∇f, ∇u〉. − (2q + 1). ∫. M u2qf 2|∇u|2, which gives a .... that depends on n, ϵ and q. We now try to transform (2.15) the right hand side only involved u in the power two. For that, we use Young's inequality: ab ≤ βsas.

  11. Tilting mode in rigidly rotating field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, R.A.; Milovich, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    The tilting-mode stability of field-reversed configurations is analyzed taking into account plasma rotational effects that had not been included in previous theoretical treatments. It is shown that for a rigidly rotating plasma in stationary equilibrium, stability can be attained if the plasma rotational energy is of the same order as the thermal energy. Since presently available values of the rotational velocities are quite lower than required by the stabilization mechanism considered here, the contribution of this effect to the overall stability of the mode does not appear to be significant

  12. Rigid supersymmetry from conformal supergravity in five dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pini, Alessandro; Rodriguez-Gomez, Diego; Schmude, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    We study the rigid limit of 5d conformal supergravity with minimal supersymmetry on Riemannian manifolds. The necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a solution is the existence of a conformal Killing vector. Whenever a certain SU(2) curvature becomes abelian the backgrounds define a transversally holomorphic foliation. Subsequently we turn to the question under which circumstances these backgrounds admit a kinetic Yang-Mills term in the action of a vector multiplet. Here we find that the conformal Killing vector has to be Killing. We supplement the discussion with various appendices.

  13. Numerical rigid plastic modelling of shear capacity of keyed joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herfelt, Morten Andersen; Poulsen, Peter Noe; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2015-01-01

    Keyed shear joints are currently designed using simple and conservative design formulas, yet these formulas do not take the local mechanisms in the concrete core of the joint into account. To investigate this phenomenon a rigid, perfectly plastic finite element model of keyed joints is used....... The model is formulated for second-order conic optimisation as a lower bound problem, which yields a statically admissible stress field that satisfies the yield condition in every point. The dual solution to the problem can be interpreted as the collapse mode and will be used to analyse the properties...

  14. Nonlinear complex dynamics and Keynesian rigidity: A short introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovero, Edgardo

    2005-09-01

    The topic of this paper is to show that the greater acceptance and intense use of complex nonlinear dynamics in macroeconomics makes sense only within the neoKeynesian tradition. An example is presented regarding the behavior of an open-economy two-sector growth model endowed with Keynesian rigidity. The Keynesian view that structural instability globally exists in the aggregate economy is put forward, and therefore the need arises for policy to alleviate this instability in the form of dampened fluctuations is presented as an alternative view for macroeconomic theorizing.

  15. Euler-Poincare Reduction of Externall Forced Rigid Body Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.

    2004-01-01

    If a mechanical system experiences symmetry, the Lagrangian becomes invariant under a certain group action. This property leads to substantial simplification of the description of movement. The standpoint in this article is a mechanical system affected by an external force of a control action....... Assuming that the system possesses symmetry and the configuration manifold corresponds to a Lie group, the Euler-Poincaré reduction breaks up the motion into separate equations of dynamics and kinematics. This becomes of particular interest for modelling, estimation and control of mechanical systems......-known Euler-Poincaré reduction to a rigid body motion with forcing....

  16. Euler-Poincare Reduction of a Rigid Body Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.

    2005-01-01

    |If a mechanical system experiences symmetry, the Lagrangian becomes invariant under a certain group action. This property leads to substantial simplification of the description of movement. The standpoint in this article is a mechanical system afected by an external force of a control action....... Assuming that the system possesses symmetry and the configuration manifold corresponds to a Lie group, the Euler-Poincare reduction breaks up the motion into separate equations of dynamics and kinematics. This becomes of particular interest for modeling, estimation and control of mechanical systems......-known Euler-Poincare reduction to a rigid body motion with forcing....

  17. Euler-Poincaré Reduction of a Rigid Body Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.

    2004-01-01

    If a mechanical system experiences symmetry, the Lagrangian becomes invariant under a certain group action. This property leads to substantial simplification of the description of movement. The standpoint in this article is a mechanical system affected by an external force of a control action....... Assuming that the system possesses symmetry and the configuration manifold corresponds to a Lie group, the Euler-Poincaré reduction breaks up the motion into separate equations of dynamics and kinematics. This becomes of particular interest for modelling, estimation and control of mechanical systems......-known Euler-Poincaré reduction to a rigid body motion with forcing....

  18. Mechanosensing of matrix by stem cells: From matrix heterogeneity, contractility, and the nucleus in pore-migration to cardiogenesis and muscle stem cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lucas; Cho, Sangkyun; Discher, Dennis E

    2017-11-01

    Stem cells are particularly 'plastic' cell types that are induced by various cues to become specialized, tissue-functional lineages by switching on the expression of specific gene programs. Matrix stiffness is among the cues that multiple stem cell types can sense and respond to. This seminar-style review focuses on mechanosensing of matrix elasticity in the differentiation or early maturation of a few illustrative stem cell types, with an intended audience of biologists and physical scientists. Contractile forces applied by a cell's acto-myosin cytoskeleton are often resisted by the extracellular matrix and transduced through adhesions and the cytoskeleton ultimately into the nucleus to modulate gene expression. Complexity is added by matrix heterogeneity, and careful scrutiny of the evident stiffness heterogeneity in some model systems resolves some controversies concerning matrix mechanosensing. Importantly, local stiffness tends to dominate, and 'durotaxis' of stem cells toward stiff matrix reveals a dependence of persistent migration on myosin-II force generation and also rigid microtubules that confer directionality. Stem and progenitor cell migration in 3D can be further affected by matrix porosity as well as stiffness, with nuclear size and rigidity influencing niche retention and fate choices. Cell squeezing through rigid pores can even cause DNA damage and genomic changes that contribute to de-differentiation toward stem cell-like states. Contraction of acto-myosin is the essential function of striated muscle, which also exhibit mechanosensitive differentiation and maturation as illustrated in vivo by beating heart cells and by the regenerative mobilization of skeletal muscle stem cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Regulation of Breast Cancer Stem Cell by Tissue Rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    desensitize mammary epithelial cells to changes in matrix stiffness?” As described in the 2014 progress report, to accomplish this, we substituted a...to dynamic mechanics. Nat Commun. 2012;3:792. 4. Lucero HA, Kagan HM. Lysyl oxidase: an oxidative enzyme and effector of cell function. Cell Mol Life...of human TWIST1, is predicted as a potential phosphorylation site. This provided a very attractive potential mechanism by which increased matrix

  20. The nuclear reaction matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenciglowa, E.M.; Kung, C.L.; Kuo, T.T.S.; Osnes, E.; and Department of Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794)

    1976-01-01

    Different definitions of the reaction matrix G appropriate to the calculation of nuclear structure are reviewed and discussed. Qualitative physical arguments are presented in support of a two-step calculation of the G-matrix for finite nuclei. In the first step the high-energy excitations are included using orthogonalized plane-wave intermediate states, and in the second step the low-energy excitations are added in, using harmonic oscillator intermediate states. Accurate calculations of G-matrix elements for nuclear structure calculations in the Aapprox. =18 region are performed following this procedure and treating the Pauli exclusion operator Q 2 /sub p/ by the method of Tsai and Kuo. The treatment of Q 2 /sub p/, the effect of the intermediate-state spectrum and the energy dependence of the reaction matrix are investigated in detail. The present matrix elements are compared with various matrix elements given in the literature. In particular, close agreement is obtained with the matrix elements calculated by Kuo and Brown using approximate methods

  1. Design of semi-rigid type of flexible pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranshoo Solanki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the study presented in this paper is to develop design curves for performance prediction of stabilized layers and to compare semi-rigid flexible pavement designs between the empirical AASHTO 1993 and the mechanistic-empirical pavement design methodologies. Specifically, comparisons were made for a range of different sections consisting of cementitious layers stabilized with different types and percentages of additives. It is found that the design thickness is influenced by the type of soil, additive, selection of material property and design method. Cost comparisons of sections stabilized with different percentage and type of additives showed that CKD-stabilization provides economically low cost sections as compared to lime- and CFA-stabilized sections. Knowledge gained from the parametric analysis of different sections using AASHTO 1993 and MEPDG is expected to be useful to pavement designers and others in implementation of the new MEPDG for future pavement design. Keywords: Semi-rigid, Mechanistic, Resilient modulus, Fatigue life, Reliability, Traffic

  2. Normalized inverse characterization of sound absorbing rigid porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Tomasz G

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the inverse characterization of sound absorbing rigid porous media, based on standard measurements of the surface acoustic impedance of a porous sample. The model parameters need to be normalized to have a robust identification procedure which fits the model-predicted impedance curves with the measured ones. Such a normalization provides a substitute set of dimensionless (normalized) parameters unambiguously related to the original model parameters. Moreover, two scaling frequencies are introduced, however, they are not additional parameters and for different, yet reasonable, assumptions of their values, the identification procedure should eventually lead to the same solution. The proposed identification technique uses measured and computed impedance curves for a porous sample not only in the standard configuration, that is, set to the rigid termination piston in an impedance tube, but also with air gaps of known thicknesses between the sample and the piston. Therefore, all necessary analytical formulas for sound propagation in double-layered media are provided. The methodology is illustrated by one numerical test and by two examples based on the experimental measurements of the acoustic impedance and absorption of porous ceramic samples of different thicknesses and a sample of polyurethane foam.

  3. Dynamic response and stability of semi-rigid frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Yasein, Omar Ali

    This dissertation presents a method to determine the load capacity as well as end member forces and deformations of frames with partial rigid joint connections by using the direct stiffness method. The connections are modeled as rotational springs attached at the ends of framed members. The lumped mass method, which is an approximate method, and the distributed mass method, which is an exact method, are also presented to compute the natural frequency of frames. The effects of the axial forces and the flexibility of joint connections are both included. Furthermore, the time-dependent response of semi-rigid frames subjected to periodic axial forces is formulated. The harmonic function is approximated by dividing the periodic function into n intervals and the periodic axial forces are evaluated at each time interval as constant forces using 'piecewise approximation'. The regions of instability of frames with different joint stiffness were determined using the characteristic equation method. The time-dependent part of the differential equation for free vibration of a framed member subjected to a harmonic force can be written in the form of the Mathieu-Hill equation where all characteristics of the Mathieu-Hill equation solutions can be used to determine the boundaries of instability regions.

  4. A Soft Gripper with Rigidity Tunable Elastomer Strips as Ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasab, Amir Mohammadi; Sabzehzar, Amin; Tatari, Milad; Majidi, Carmel; Shan, Wanliang

    2017-12-01

    Like their natural counterparts, soft bioinspired robots capable of actively tuning their mechanical rigidity can rapidly transition between a broad range of motor tasks-from lifting heavy loads to dexterous manipulation of delicate objects. Reversible rigidity tuning also enables soft robot actuators to reroute their internal loading and alter their mode of deformation in response to intrinsic activation. In this study, we demonstrate this principle with a three-fingered pneumatic gripper that contains "programmable" ligaments that change stiffness when activated with electrical current. The ligaments are composed of a conductive, thermoplastic elastomer composite that reversibly softens under resistive heating. Depending on which ligaments are activated, the gripper will bend inward to pick up an object, bend laterally to twist it, and bend outward to release it. All of the gripper motions are generated with a single pneumatic source of pressure. An activation-deactivation cycle can be completed within 15 s. The ability to incorporate electrically programmable ligaments in a pneumatic or hydraulic actuator has the potential to enhance versatility and reduce dependency on tubing and valves.

  5. Jet Ventilation during Rigid Bronchoscopy in Adults: A Focused Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Putz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The indications for rigid bronchoscopy for interventional pulmonology have increased and include stent placements and transbronchial cryobiopsy procedures. The shared airway between anesthesiologist and pulmonologist and the open airway system, requiring specific ventilation techniques such as jet ventilation, need a good understanding of the procedure to reduce potentially harmful complications. Appropriate adjustment of the ventilator settings including pause pressure and peak inspiratory pressure reduces the risk of barotrauma. High frequency jet ventilation allows adequate oxygenation and carbon dioxide removal even in cases of tracheal stenosis up to frequencies of around 150 min−1; however, in an in vivo animal model, high frequency jet ventilation along with normal frequency jet ventilation (superimposed high frequency jet ventilation has been shown to improve oxygenation by increasing lung volume and carbon dioxide removal by increasing tidal volume across a large spectrum of frequencies without increasing barotrauma. General anesthesia with a continuous, intravenous, short-acting agent is safe and effective during rigid bronchoscopy procedures.

  6. Non-rigid registration of tomographic images with Fourier transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, Ar; Isoardi, Ra; Mato, G

    2007-01-01

    Spatial image registration of deformable body parts such as thorax and abdomen has important medical applications, but at the same time, it represents an important computational challenge. In this work we propose an automatic algorithm to perform non-rigid registration of tomographic images using a non-rigid model based on Fourier transforms. As a measure of similarity, we use the correlation coefficient, finding that the optimal order of the transformation is n = 3 (36 parameters). We apply this method to a digital phantom and to 7 pairs of patient images corresponding to clinical CT scans. The preliminary results indicate a fairly good agreement according to medical experts, with an average registration error of 2 mm for the case of clinical images. For 2D images (dimensions 512x512), the average running time for the algorithm is 15 seconds using a standard personal computer. Summarizing, we find that intra-modality registration of the abdomen can be achieved with acceptable accuracy for slight deformations and can be extended to 3D with a reasonable execution time

  7. Biomimetic model systems of rigid hair beds: Part II - Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammalamadaka, Mani S. S.; Hood, Kaitlyn; Hosoi, Anette

    2017-11-01

    Crustaceans - such as lobsters, crabs and stomapods - have hairy appendages that they use to recognize and track odorants in the surrounding fluid. An array of rigid hairs impedes flow at different rates depending on the spacing between hairs and the Reynolds number, Re. At larger Reynolds number (Re>1), fluid travels through the hairs rather than around them, a phenomenon called leakiness. Crustaceans flick their appendages at different speeds in order to manipulate the leakiness between the hairs, allowing the hairs to either detect the odors in a sample of fluid or collect a new sample. Theoretical and numerical studies predict that there is a fast flow region near the hairs that moves closer to the hairs as Re increases. Here, we test this theory experimentally. We 3D printed rigid hairs with an aspect ratio of 30:1 in rectangular arrays with different hair packing fractions. We custom built an experimental setup which establishes poiseuille flow at intermediate Re, Re <=200. We track the flow dynamics through the hair beds using tracer particles and Particle Imaging Velocimetry. We will then compare the modelling predictions with the experimental outcomes.

  8. Modyfication of the Rigid Polyurethane-Polyisocyanurate Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Czupryński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of polyethylene glycol 1500 on physicomechanical properties of rigid polyurethane-polyisocyanurate (PUR-PIR foams has been studied. It was found that application of polyethylene glycol 1500 for synthesis of foams in amount from 0% to 20% w/w had an effect on reduction of brittleness and softening point, while the greater the increase in compressive strength the higher its content in foam composition was. Wastes from production of these foams were ground and subjected to glycolysis in diethylene glycol with the addition of ethanolamine and zinc stearate. Liquid brown products were obtained. Properties of the resulting products were defined in order to determine their suitability for synthesis of new foams. It was found that glycolysate 6 was the most suitable for reuse and its application in different amounts allowed us to prepare 4 new foams (nos. 25, 26, 27, and 28. Properties of foams prepared in this manner were determined and, on their basis, the suitability of glycolysates for production of rigid PUR-PIR foams was evaluated.

  9. Heat Transfer Modeling for Rigid High-Temperature Fibrous Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Cunnington, George R.; Knutson, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Combined radiation and conduction heat transfer through a high-temperature, high-porosity, rigid multiple-fiber fibrous insulation was modeled using a thermal model previously used to model heat transfer in flexible single-fiber fibrous insulation. The rigid insulation studied was alumina enhanced thermal barrier (AETB) at densities between 130 and 260 kilograms per cubic meter. The model consists of using the diffusion approximation for radiation heat transfer, a semi-empirical solid conduction model, and a standard gas conduction model. The relevant parameters needed for the heat transfer model were estimated from steady-state thermal measurements in nitrogen gas at various temperatures and environmental pressures. The heat transfer modeling methodology was evaluated by comparison with standard thermal conductivity measurements, and steady-state thermal measurements in helium and carbon dioxide gases. The heat transfer model is applicable over the temperature range of 300 to 1360 K, pressure range of 0.133 to 101.3 x 10(exp 3) Pa, and over the insulation density range of 130 to 260 kilograms per cubic meter in various gaseous environments.

  10. Finite-difference analysis of shells impacting rigid barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirotin, S.D.; Witmer, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear power plants must be protected from the adverse effects of missile impacts. A significant category of missile impact involves deformable structures (pressure vessel components, whipping pipes) striking relatively rigid targets (concrete walls, bumpers) which act as protective devices. The response and interaction of these structures is needed to assess the adequacy of these barriers for protecting vital safety related equipment. The present investigation represents an initial attempt to develop an efficient numerical procedure for predicting the deformations and impact force time-histories of shells which impact upon a rigid target. The general large-deflection equations of motion of the shell are expressed in finite-difference form in space and integrated in time through application of the central-difference temporal operator. The effect of material nonlinearities is treated by a mechanical sublayer material model which handles the strain-hardening, Bauschinger, and strain-rate effects. The general adequacy of this shell treatment has been validated by comparing predictions with the results of various experiments in which structures have been subjected to well-defined transient forcing functions (typically high-explosive impulse loading). The 'new' ingredient addressed in the present study involves an accounting for impact interaction and response of both the target structure and the attacking body. (Auth.)

  11. Origami-Inspired Folding of Thick, Rigid Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trease, Brian P.; Thomson, Mark W.; Sigel, Deborah A.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Zirbel, Shannon; Howell, Larry; Lang, Robert

    2014-01-01

    To achieve power of 250 kW or greater, a large compression ratio of stowed-to-deployed area is needed. Origami folding patterns were used to inspire the folding of a solar array to achieve synchronous deployment; however, origami models are generally created for near-zero-thickness material. Panel thickness is one of the main challenges of origami-inspired design. Three origami-inspired folding techniques (flasher, square twist, and map fold) were created with rigid panels and hinges. Hinge components are added to the model to enable folding of thick, rigid materials. Origami models are created assuming zero (or near zero) thickness. When a material with finite thickness is used, the panels are required to bend around an increasingly thick fold as they move away from the center of the model. The two approaches for dealing with material thickness are to use membrane hinges to connect the panels, or to add panel hinges, or hinges of the same thickness, at an appropriate width to enable folding.

  12. Awake craniotomy using electromagnetic navigation technology without rigid pin fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Ahmed A; Ng, Wai Hoe

    2015-11-01

    We report our institutional experience using an electromagnetic navigation system, without rigid head fixation, for awake craniotomy patients. The StealthStation® S7 AxiEM™ navigation system (Medtronic, Inc.) was used for this technique. Detailed preoperative clinical and neuropsychological evaluations, patient education and contrast-enhanced MRI (thickness 1.5mm) were performed for each patient. The AxiEM Mobile Emitter was typically placed in a holder, which was mounted to the operating room table, and a non-invasive patient tracker was used as the patient reference device. A monitored conscious sedation technique was used in all awake craniotomy patients, and the AxiEM Navigation Pointer was used for navigation during the procedure. This offers the same accuracy as optical navigation, but without head pin fixation or interference with intraoperative neurophysiological techniques and surgical instruments. The application of the electromagnetic neuronavigation technology without rigid head fixation during an awake craniotomy is accurate, and offers superior patient comfort. It is recommended as an effective adjunctive technique for the conduct of awake surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantum theory of gauge fields and rigid processes calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, I.V.

    1981-01-01

    Elementary statement of the basic data on the nature of quark interactions and their role in the high energy processes is presented in the first part of the paper. The second part of the paper deals with gauge theory (GT) of strong interactions (chromodynamics (CD)) and its application in calculation of rigid processes with quark participation. It is based on the method of functional integration (MFI). A comparatively simple representation of the MFI in the quantum theory and formulation of the perturbation theory for gauge fields are given. A derivation of the rules of diagram technique is presented. Renormalization invariance of the theory and the basic for CD phenomenon of asymptotical freedom are discussed. Theory application in calculation of certain effects at high energies is considered. From the CD view point considered is a parton model on the base of which ''rigid'' stage of evolution of quark and gluon jets produced at high energies can be quantitatively described and some quantitative experimental tests of the CD are suggested [ru

  14. Collisions of Constrained Rigid Body Systems with Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Shen

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach is developed for the general collision problem of two rigid body systems with constraints (e.g., articulated systems, such as massy linkages in which the relative tangential velocity at the point of contact and the associated friction force can change direction during the collision. This is beyond the framework of conventional methods, which can give significant and very obvious errors for this problem, and both extends and consolidates recent work. A new parameterization and theory characterize if, when and how the relative tangential velocity changes direction during contact. Elastic and dissipative phenomena and different values for static and kinetic friction coefficients are included. The method is based on the explicitly physical analysis of events at the point of contact. Using this method, Example 1 resolves (and corrects a paradox (in the literature of the collision of a double pendulum with the ground. The method fundamentally subsumes other recent models and the collision of rigid bodies; it yields the same results as conventional methods when they would apply (Example 2. The new method reformulates and extends recent approaches in a completely physical context.

  15. Dynamics of parallel robots from rigid bodies to flexible elements

    CERN Document Server

    Briot, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    This book starts with a short recapitulation on basic concepts, common to any types of robots (serial, tree structure, parallel, etc.), that are also necessary for computation of the dynamic models of parallel robots. Then, as dynamics requires the use of geometry and kinematics, the general equations of geometric and kinematic models of parallel robots are given. After, it is explained that parallel robot dynamic models can be obtained by decomposing the real robot into two virtual systems: a tree-structure robot (equivalent to the robot legs for which all joints would be actuated) plus a free body corresponding to the platform. Thus, the dynamics of rigid tree-structure robots is analyzed and algorithms to obtain their dynamic models in the most compact form are given. The dynamic model of the real rigid parallel robot is obtained by closing the loops through the use of the Lagrange multipliers. The problem of the dynamic model degeneracy near singularities is treated and optimal trajectory planning for cro...

  16. A method for measuring the inertia properties of rigid bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, M.; Mastinu, G.; Previati, G.

    2011-01-01

    A method for the measurement of the inertia properties of rigid bodies is presented. Given a rigid body and its mass, the method allows to measure (identify) the centre of gravity location and the inertia tensor during a single test. The proposed technique is based on the analysis of the free motion of a multi-cable pendulum to which the body under consideration is connected. The motion of the pendulum and the forces acting on the system are recorded and the inertia properties are identified by means of a proper mathematical procedure based on a least square estimation. After the body is positioned on the test rig, the full identification procedure takes less than 10 min. The natural frequencies of the pendulum and the accelerations involved are quite low, making this method suitable for many practical applications. In this paper, the proposed method is described and two test rigs are presented: the first is developed for bodies up to 3500 kg and the second for bodies up to 400 kg. A validation of the measurement method is performed with satisfactory results. The test rig holds a third part quality certificate according to an ISO 9001 standard and could be scaled up to measure the inertia properties of huge bodies, such as trucks, airplanes or even ships.

  17. Measurement of Spindle Rigidity by using a Magnet Loader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Taku; Matsubara, Atsushi; Fujita, Tomoya; Muraki, Toshiyuki; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Kazuyuki

    The static rigidity of a rotating spindle in the radial direction is investigated in this research. A magnetic loading device (magnet loader) has been developed for the measurement. The magnet loader, which has coils and iron cores, generates the electromagnetic force and attracts a dummy tool attached to the spindle. However, the eddy current is generated in the dummy tool with the spindle rotation and reduces the attractive force at high spindle speed. In order to understand the magnetic flux and eddy current in the dummy tool, the electromagnetic field analysis by FEM was carried out. Grooves on the attraction surface of the dummy tool were designed to cut the eddy current flow. The dimension of the groove were decided based on the FEM analysis, and the designed tool were manufactured and tested. The test result shows that the designed tool successfully reduces the eddy current and recovers the attractive force. By using the magnet loader and the grooved tool, the spindle rigidity can be measured when the spindle rotates with a speed up to 10,000 min-1.

  18. Synthesis of rigid polyurethane foams from phosphorylated biopolyols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro, Juan Carlos; López-Pedrajas, Daniel; Pérez, Ángel; Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Carmona, Manuel

    2017-08-18

    Renewable resources are playing a key role on the synthesis of biodegradable polyols. Moreover, the incorporation of covalently linked additives is increasing in importance in the polyurethane (PU) market. In this work, previously epoxidized grape seed oil and methyl oleate were transformed into phosphorylated biopolyols through an acid-catalyzed ring-opening hydrolysis in the presence of H 3 PO 4 . The formation of phosphate polyesters was confirmed by FT-IR and 31 P-NMR. However, the synthesis of a high-quality PU rigid foam was not possible using exclusively these polyols attending to their low hydroxyl value. In that way, different rigid PU foams were prepared from the phosphorylated biopolyols and the commercial polyol Alcupol R4520. It was observed that phosphorylated biopolyols can be incorporated up to a 57 wt.% in the PU synthesis without significant structural changes with respect to the commercial foam. Finally, thermogravimetric and EDAX analyses revealed an improvement of thermal stability by the formation of a protective phosphorocarbonaceous char layer.

  19. Matrix Metalloproteinase Enzyme Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Goruroglu Ozturk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases play an important role in many biological processes such as embriogenesis, tissue remodeling, wound healing, and angiogenesis, and in some pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis, arthritis and cancer. Currently, 24 genes have been identified in humans that encode different groups of matrix metalloproteinase enzymes. This review discuss the members of the matrix metalloproteinase family and their substrate specificity, structure, function and the regulation of their enzyme activity by tissue inhibitors. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(2.000: 209-220

  20. Matrix groups for undergraduates

    CERN Document Server

    Tapp, Kristopher

    2005-01-01

    Matrix groups touch an enormous spectrum of the mathematical arena. This textbook brings them into the undergraduate curriculum. It makes an excellent one-semester course for students familiar with linear and abstract algebra and prepares them for a graduate course on Lie groups. Matrix Groups for Undergraduates is concrete and example-driven, with geometric motivation and rigorous proofs. The story begins and ends with the rotations of a globe. In between, the author combines rigor and intuition to describe basic objects of Lie theory: Lie algebras, matrix exponentiation, Lie brackets, and maximal tori.

  1. Elementary matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Eves, Howard

    1980-01-01

    The usefulness of matrix theory as a tool in disciplines ranging from quantum mechanics to psychometrics is widely recognized, and courses in matrix theory are increasingly a standard part of the undergraduate curriculum.This outstanding text offers an unusual introduction to matrix theory at the undergraduate level. Unlike most texts dealing with the topic, which tend to remain on an abstract level, Dr. Eves' book employs a concrete elementary approach, avoiding abstraction until the final chapter. This practical method renders the text especially accessible to students of physics, engineeri

  2. Optimal identification of semi-rigid domains in macromolecules from molecular dynamics simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Bernhard

    Full Text Available Biological function relies on the fact that biomolecules can switch between different conformations and aggregation states. Such transitions involve a rearrangement of parts of the biomolecules involved that act as dynamic domains. The reliable identification of such domains is thus a key problem in biophysics. In this work we present a method to identify semi-rigid domains based on dynamical data that can be obtained from molecular dynamics simulations or experiments. To this end the average inter-atomic distance-deviations are computed. The resulting matrix is then clustered by a constrained quadratic optimization problem. The reliability and performance of the method are demonstrated for two artificial peptides. Furthermore we correlate the mechanical properties with biological malfunction in three variants of amyloidogenic transthyretin protein, where the method reveals that a pathological mutation destabilizes the natural dimer structure of the protein. Finally the method is used to identify functional domains of the GroEL-GroES chaperone, thus illustrating the efficiency of the method for large biomolecular machines.

  3. Vascular smooth muscle cells exhibit a progressive loss of rigidity with serial culture passaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinardo, Carla Luana; Venturini, Gabriela; Omae, Samantha Vieira; Zhou, Enhua H; da Motta-Leal-Filho, Joaquim Maurício; Dariolli, Rafael; Krieger, José Eduardo; Alencar, Adriano Mesquita; Costa Pereira, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    One drawback of in vitro cell culturing is the dedifferentiation process that cells experience. Smooth muscle cells (SMC) also change molecularly and morphologically with long term culture. The main objective of this study was to evaluate if culture passages interfere in vascular SMC mechanical behavior. SMC were obtained from five different porcine arterial beds. Optical magnetic twisting cytometry (OMTC) was used to characterize mechanically vascular SMC from different cultures in distinct passages and confocal microscopy/western blotting, to evaluate cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix proteins. We found that vascular SMC rigidity or viscoelastic complex modulus (G) decreases with progression of passages. A statistically significant negative correlation between G and passage was found in four of our five cultures studied. Phalloidin-stained SMC from higher passages exhibited lower mean signal intensity per cell (confocal microscopy) and quantitative western blotting analysis showed a decrease in collagen I content throughout passages. We concluded that vascular SMC progressively lose their stiffness with serial culture passaging. Thus, limiting the number of passages is essential for any experiment measuring viscoelastic properties of SMC in culture.

  4. Three-dimensional rigid multiphase networks providing high-temperature strength to cast AlSi10Cu5Ni1-2 piston alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, Z.; Requena, G.; Boller, E.

    2011-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3-D) architecture of rigid multiphase networks present in AlSi10Cu5Ni1 and AlSi10Cu5Ni2 piston alloys in as-cast condition and after 4 h spheroidization treatment is characterized by synchrotron tomography in terms of the volume fraction of rigid phases, interconnectivity, contiguity and morphology. The architecture of both alloys consists of α-Al matrix and a rigid long-range 3-D network of Al 7 Cu 4 Ni, Al 4 Cu 2 Mg 8 Si 7 , Al 2 Cu, Al 15 Si 2 (FeMn) 3 and AlSiFeNiCu aluminides and Si. The investigated architectural parameters of both alloys studied are correlated with room-temperature and high-temperature (300 deg. C) strengths as a function of solution treatment time. The AlSi10Cu5Ni1 and AlSi10Cu5Ni2 alloys behave like metal matrix composites with 16 and 20 vol.% reinforcement, respectively. Both alloys have similar strengths in the as-cast condition, but the AlSi10Cu5Ni2 is able to retain ∼15% higher high temperature strength than the AlSi10Cu5Ni1 alloy after more than 4 h of spheroidization treatment. This is due to the preservation of the 3-D interconnectivity and the morphology of the rigid network, which is governed by the higher degree of contiguity between aluminides and Si.

  5. Translational and rotational diffusion of flexible PEG and rigid dendrimer probes in sodium caseinate dispersions and acid gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Souad; Rondeau-Mouro, Corinne; Barhoum, Myriam; van Duynhoven, John; Mariette, François

    2014-09-01

    The dynamics of rigid dendrimer and flexible PEG probes in sodium caseinate dispersions and acid gels, including both translational diffusion and rotational diffusion, were studied by NMR. Above the onset of the close-packing limit (C ∼ 10 g/100 g H2 O), translational diffusion of the probe depended on its flexibility and on the fluctuations of the matrix chains. The PEG probe diffused more rapidly than the spherical dendrimer probe of corresponding hydrodynamic radius. The greater conformational flexibility of PEG facilitated its motion through the crowded casein matrix. Rotational diffusion was, however, substantially less hindered than the translational diffusion and depended on the local protein-probe friction which became high when the casein concentration increased. The coagulation of the matrix led to the formation of large voids, which resulted in an increase in the translational diffusion of the probes, whereas the rotational diffusion of the probes was retarded in the gel, which could be attributed to the immobilized environment surrounding the probe. Quantitative information from PFG-NMR and SEM micrographs have been combined for characterizing microstructural details in SC acid gels. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Hacking the Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Michael; Spence, Jason R

    2017-01-05

    Recently in Nature, Gjorevski et al. (2016) describe a fully defined synthetic hydrogel that mimics the extracellular matrix to support in vitro growth of intestinal stem cells and organoids. The hydrogel allows exquisite control over the chemical and physical in vitro niche and enables identification of regulatory properties of the matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Matrix Organization Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gattiker, Urs E.; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively).......This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively)....

  8. The Exopolysaccharide Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, H.; Falsetta, M.L.; Klein, M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Many infectious diseases in humans are caused or exacerbated by biofilms. Dental caries is a prime example of a biofilm-dependent disease, resulting from interactions of microorganisms, host factors, and diet (sugars), which modulate the dynamic formation of biofilms on tooth surfaces. All biofilms have a microbial-derived extracellular matrix as an essential constituent. The exopolysaccharides formed through interactions between sucrose- (and starch-) and Streptococcus mutans-derived exoenzymes present in the pellicle and on microbial surfaces (including non-mutans) provide binding sites for cariogenic and other organisms. The polymers formed in situ enmesh the microorganisms while forming a matrix facilitating the assembly of three-dimensional (3D) multicellular structures that encompass a series of microenvironments and are firmly attached to teeth. The metabolic activity of microbes embedded in this exopolysaccharide-rich and diffusion-limiting matrix leads to acidification of the milieu and, eventually, acid-dissolution of enamel. Here, we discuss recent advances concerning spatio-temporal development of the exopolysaccharide matrix and its essential role in the pathogenesis of dental caries. We focus on how the matrix serves as a 3D scaffold for biofilm assembly while creating spatial heterogeneities and low-pH microenvironments/niches. Further understanding on how the matrix modulates microbial activity and virulence expression could lead to new approaches to control cariogenic biofilms. PMID:24045647

  9. Influence of lipid membranes rigidity on properties of supporting polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majewski, Jaroslaw [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Singh, Saurabh [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dubey, Manish [Intel, Pheonix, AZ

    2012-06-18

    The motivation of this study is: (1) Controllable release of cultured cell sheets - (a) NIPAAm is non-toxic and collapsed at physiological Temp, (b) good platform for cell adherence and growth, (c) below polymer transition temp, cultured sheets are released, (d) hydration of matrix possible cause of cell attachment/detachment, (e) need for understanding hydration of underlying support; (2) Matrix elasticity plays an important role in cell lineage specification - (a) matrices of known stiffness are utilized as supports to understand physical effect of in-vivo tissue microenvironment for therapeutic uses of stem cells, (b) it is believed that stem cells 'sense' the elasticity and transduce the information into morphological changes, (c) Imperative to consider the changes induced in matrix as a result of immobilized cells.

  10. Rigid Polyurethane Nanocomposites Prepared by Direct Incorporation: Effects of Nanoclay, Carbon Nanotubes and Mixing Speed on Physical and Morphological Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhoni, Benni; Ujianto, Onny; Nadapdap, Maxwell

    2018-03-01

    Rigid polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites were fabricated via solution mixing of PU, nanoclay and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) according to full factorial DoE. The nanoclay and MWCNT concentration as well as mixing speed were varied. The effects of controlled variables on reduced compressive strength, fire retardancy, hardness and morphological properties were analized. In general, the results showed that incorporation of nanofillers into PU matrix successfully elevated nanocomposites performance. The properties changed from -12% to 45% for reduced compressive strength, 9% to 30% for reduced fire retardancy and -32% to 101% for reduced hardness. The results suggested that the improvements were affected by nanoclay dispersion that acted as nucleating agent which resulted in smaller close cells of PU structures.

  11. Second-Order Inelastic Dynamic Analysis of 3D Semi-Rigid Steel Frames Under Earthquake Loads with Three Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozakgul, Kadir

    2008-01-01

    In this study, it has been presented an algorithm for second-order elastoplastic dynamic time-history analysis of three dimensional frames that have steel members with semirigid joints. The proposed analysis accounts for material, geometric and connection nonlinearities. Material nonlinearity have been modeled by the Ramberg-Osgood relation. While the geometric nonlinearity caused by axial force has been described by the use of the geometric stiffness matrix, the nonlinearity caused by the interaction between the axial force and bending moment has been also described by the use of the stability functions. The independent hardening model has been used to describe the nonlinear behaviour of semi-rigid connections. Dynamic equation of motion has been solved by Newmark's constant acceleration method in time history domain

  12. Leonhard Euler and the mechanics of rigid bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquina, J. E.; Marquina, M. L.; Marquina, V.; Hernández-Gómez, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    In this work we present the original ideas and the construction of the rigid bodies theory realised by Leonhard Euler between 1738 and 1775. The number of treatises written by Euler on this subject is enormous, including the most notorious Scientia Navalis (1749), Decouverte d’un noveau principe de mecanique (1752), Du mouvement de rotation des corps solides autour d’un axe variable (1765), Theoria motus corporum solidorum seu rigidorum (1765) and Nova methodus motu corporum rigidorum determinandi (1776), in which he developed the ideas of the instantaneous rotation axis, the so-called Euler equations and angles, the components of what is now known as the inertia tensor, the principal axes of inertia, and, finally, the generalisation of the translation and rotation movement equations for any system. Euler, the man who ‘put most of mechanics into its modern form’ (Truesdell 1968 Essays in the History of Mechanics (Berlin: Springer) p 106).

  13. Investigation of Drag Coefficient for Rigid Ballute-like Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnasciali, Maria-Isabel; Mastromarino, Anthony

    2014-11-01

    One common method of decelerating an object during atmospheric entry, descent, and landing is the use of parachutes. Another deceleration technology is the ballute - a combination of balloon and parachute. A CFD study was conducted using commercially available software to investigate the flow-field and the coefficient of drag for various rigid ballute-like shapes at varying Reynolds numbers. The impact of size and placement of the burble-fence as well as number, size, and shape of inlets was considered. Recent experimental measurements conducted during NASA's Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator program revealed a much higher coefficient of drag (Cd) for ballutes than previously encountered. Using atmospheric drag to slow down and land reduces the need for heavy fuel and rocket engines and thus, high values of drag are desired. Funding for this work, in part, provided by the CT Space Grant Consortium.

  14. Technical rigidity and appropriate technology in less-developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, D J.C. [Univ. of Strathyclyde, England; McBain, N S; Solomon, R F

    1980-05-01

    The extent to which the use of capital-intensive methods in LDCs can properly be ascribed to the inherent rigidity of the factor proportions embodied in modern technology - rather than to distortions and aberrrations in the process of technology choice - is still a matter of considerable uncertainty after two decades of debate. In this study, an engineering-based index is developed to summarize the opportunities for, and barriers to, substitution of labor for capital in a wide range of industries. The index is used to compare the technology actually installed in manufacturing in Ghana, the Philippines, Turkey, and Malaysia with the feasible alternatives. The finding that opportunities for use of labor-intensive methods are to a large extent exploited is interpreted as casting doubt on the ability of even the most appropriate choice from currently feasible technologies to reduce unemployment significantly. 46 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

  15. On the dynamics of semi-rigid chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Talavera, R.; Alexander-Katz, R.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamics of a semi-rigid polymer chain is studied. The force structure of the chain is derived from the statistics generated through a Wiener measure whose end-to-end distance is that of a Kratky-Porod chain. Additionally, the dissipative terms in the equation of motion will contain, besides the usual Stokes' term, a non-local friction term (internal viscosity) which is quadratic in the normal mode q, in order to take into account the resistance to changes in curvature. The analytical shape of this term is the same as the one introduced by Edwards and Freed. We show that this model of stiff chain reproduces both asymptotic limits: the flexible and the rod limits for the elastic moduli. A form for the internal viscosity coefficient is deduced from a phenomenological approach, which has the right solvent viscosity dependency as obtained by MacInnes. (Author)

  16. Radiographic evaluation of fracture healing after rigid plate fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paavolainen, P.; Karaharju, E.; Slaetis, P.; Waris, P.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental osteotomies were made in 35 rabbit tibio-fibular bones and fixed with rigid stainless steel osteosynthesis plates (DCP/ASIF). The radiographic and histopathologic appearances in the healing osteotomies and adjacent bone were analysed at intervals from 3 up to 24 weeks postoperatively. Radiologically the osteotomy had closed at 9 weeks and microscopically this could be confirmed as longitudinal orientation of the cutter heads across the osteotomy gap with longitudinal orientation of the bone structure. The healing of the osteotomy was accompanied by gross structural changes in the adjacent cortical bone with loss of intracortical and subendosteal osteons, cementing lines and intermediate tissue between the osteons. This was characterized by decreasing attenuation of the cortical bone after healing of the osteotomy and should clinically be regarded as an indication for removal of the implant. (Auth.)

  17. Rigid Calabi-Yau threefolds, Picard Eisenstein series and instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, L; Kleinschmidt, A; Nilsson, B E W; Persson, D; Pioline, B

    2013-01-01

    Type IIA string theory compactified on a rigid Calabi-Yau threefold gives rise to a classical moduli space that carries an isometric action of U(2, 1). Various quantum corrections break this continuous isometry to a discrete subgroup. Focussing on the case where the intermediate Jacobian of the Calabi-Yau admits complex multiplication by the ring of quadratic imaginary integers O_d, we argue that the remaining quantum duality group is an arithmetic Picard modular group PU(2, 1; O_d). Based on this proposal we construct an Eisenstein series invariant under this duality group and study its non-Abelian Fourier expansion. This allows the prediction of non-perturbative effects, notably the contribution of D2- and NS5-brane instantons. The present work extends our previous analysis in 0909.4299 which was restricted to the special case of the Gaussian integers O_1 = Z[i].

  18. Rigid Calabi-Yau threefolds, Picard Eisenstein series and instantons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, L.; Kleinschmidt, A.; Nilsson, B. E. W.; Persson, D.; Pioline, B.

    2013-12-01

    Type IIA string theory compactified on a rigid Calabi-Yau threefold gives rise to a classical moduli space that carries an isometric action of U(2, 1). Various quantum corrections break this continuous isometry to a discrete subgroup. Focussing on the case where the intermediate Jacobian of the Calabi-Yau admits complex multiplication by the ring of quadratic imaginary integers d, we argue that the remaining quantum duality group is an arithmetic Picard modular group PU(2, 1; d). Based on this proposal we construct an Eisenstein series invariant under this duality group and study its non-Abelian Fourier expansion. This allows the prediction of non-perturbative effects, notably the contribution of D2- and NS5-brane instantons. The present work extends our previous analysis in 0909.4299 which was restricted to the special case of the Gaussian integers 1 = Bbb Z[i].

  19. Slip Morphology of Elastic Strips on Frictional Rigid Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Tomohiko G; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Wada, Hirofumi

    2017-04-28

    The morphology of an elastic strip subject to vertical compressive stress on a frictional rigid substrate is investigated by a combination of theory and experiment. We find a rich variety of morphologies, which-when the bending elasticity dominates over the effect of gravity-are classified into three distinct types of states: pinned, partially slipped, and completely slipped, depending on the magnitude of the vertical strain and the coefficient of static friction. We develop a theory of elastica under mixed clamped-hinged boundary conditions combined with the Coulomb-Amontons friction law and find excellent quantitative agreement with simulations and controlled physical experiments. We also discuss the effect of gravity in order to bridge the difference in the qualitative behaviors of stiff strips and flexible strings or ropes. Our study thus complements recent work on elastic rope coiling and takes a significant step towards establishing a unified understanding of how a thin elastic object interacts vertically with a solid surface.

  20. Persistence-Driven Durotaxis: Generic, Directed Motility in Rigidity Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, Elizaveta A.; Raab, Matthew; Discher, Dennis E.; Storm, Cornelis

    2017-02-01

    Cells move differently on substrates with different rigidities: the persistence time of their motion is higher on stiffer substrates. We show that this behavior—in and of itself—results in a net flux of cells directed up a soft-to-stiff gradient. Using simple random walk models with varying persistence and stochastic simulations, we characterize the propensity to move in terms of the durotactic index also measured in experiments. A one-dimensional model captures the essential features and highlights the competition between diffusive spreading and linear, wavelike propagation. Persistence-driven durokinesis is generic and may be of use in the design of instructive environments for cells and other motile, mechanosensitive objects.

  1. JOINT RIGIDITY ASSESSMENT WITH PIEZOELECTRIC WAFERS AND ACOUSTIC WAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, Angela C.; Maji, Arup K.

    2010-01-01

    There has been an interest in the development of rapid deployment satellites. In a modular satellite design, different panels of specific functions can be pre-manufactured. The satellite can then be assembled and tested just prior to deployment. Traditional vibration testing is time-consuming and expensive. An alternative test method to evaluate the connection between two plates will be proposed. The method investigated and described employs piezoelectric wafers to induce and sense lamb waves in two aluminum plates, which were joined by steel brackets to form an 'L-Style' joint. Lamb wave behavior and piezoelectric material properties will be discussed; the experimental setup and results will be presented. A set of 4 piezoelectric ceramic wafers were used alternately as source and sensor. The energy transmitted was shown to correlate with a mechanical assessment of the joint, demonstrating that this method of testing is a feasible and reliable way to inspect the rigidity of joints.

  2. Capital-Skill Complementarity and Rigid Relative Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose Skaksen, Jan; Sørensen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    be countercyclical. The labor market is competitivein the United States and therefore relative wages of skilled labor are expected to becountercyclical. We find that the business cycle development of the two economiesis consistent with capital-skill complementarity.Keywords: capital-skill complementarity, relative......The relative demand for skills has increased considerably in many OECD countriesduring recent decades. This development is potentially explained by capital-skillcomplementarity and high growth rates of capital equipment. When productionfunctions are characterized by capital-skill complementarity......, relative wages and employmentof skilled labor are countercyclical because capital equipment is a quasi-fixed factor in the short run. The exact behavior of the two variables depends onrelative wage flexibility. Relative wages are rigid in Denmark, implying that the employmentshare of skills should...

  3. Percutaneous antegrade ureteric stent removal using a rigid alligator forceps.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Given, M F

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous antegrade ureteric stent removal using a rigid alligator forceps. Twenty patients were included in our study. Indications for ureteric stent insertion included stone disease (n = 7), malignancy (n = 8) and transplant anastomotic strictures (n = 5). Stent retrieval was carried out for proximal stent placement\\/migration in seven patients and encrustation in the remaining 13. Twenty-two stents were successfully retrieved in 20 patients. There was one technical failure (5%). There were no major complications. We had four minor complications, which included nephrostomy site pain (n = 2), periprocedural sepsis (n = 1) and a small urinoma (n = 1). All patients settled with conservative management. Percutaneous radiologically guided antegrade ureteric stent removal with an alligator forceps is safe and effective, particularly when initial surgical removal has failed.

  4. Dynamics of Rigid Bodies and Flexible Beam Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Bjerre

    of rigid bodies and flexible beam structures with emphasis on the rotational motion. The first part deals with motion in a rotating frame of reference. A novel approach where the equations of motion are formulated in a hybrid state-space in terms of local displacements and global velocities is presented...... quaternion parameters or nine convected base vector components. In both cases, the equations of motion are obtained via Hamilton’s equations by including the kinematic constraints associated with the redundant rotation description by means of Lagrange multipliers. A special feature of the formulation...... of the global components of the position vectors and associated convected base vectors for the element nodes. The kinematics is expressed in a homogeneous quadratic form and the constitutive stiffness is derived from complementary energy of a set of equilibrium modes, each representing a state of constant...

  5. Liquid crystallinity in flexible and rigid rod polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, Galen T.; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    2000-01-01

    We apply an anisotropic version of the polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) integral equation description of flexible polymers to analyze athermal liquid crystallinity. The polymers are characterized by a statistical segment length, σ o , and by a physical hard-core thickness, d, that prevents the overlap of monomers on different chains. At small segment densities, ρ, the microscopic length scale d is irrelevant (as it must be in the universal semidilute regime), but becomes important in concentrated solutions and melts. Under the influence of the excluded volume interactions alone, the chains undergo a lyotropic, first-order isotropic-nematic transition at a concentration dependent upon the dimensionless ''aspect ratio,'' σ o /d. The transition becomes weaker as d→0, becoming second order, as has been previously shown. We extend the theory to describe the transition of rigid, thin rods, and discuss the evolution of the anisotropic liquid structure in the ordered phase. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  6. Equilibrium stability of strained epitaxial layers on a rigid substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granato, E.; Kosterlitz, J.M.; Ying, S.C.

    1987-07-01

    A simple theory of the equilibrium stability of an strained epitaxial layer on a rigid substrate is presented. We generalise the Frankvan der Merwe model of a single layer and consider N layers of adsorbate on a substrate. Continuum elasticity theory is used to describe each layer, but the coupling between layers is treated ina discrete fashion. Our method interpolates between a few layers and the thick film limit of standard dislocation theory, and in this limit the standard results are obtained. In addition, we developed a variational approach which agrees well with our exact calculations. The advantage of our method over previous ores is that it allows to perform stability analyses of arbitrary superlattice configurations. (author) [pt

  7. Damageable contact between an elastic body and a rigid foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, M.; Fernández, J. R.; Silva, A.

    2009-02-01

    In this work, the contact problem between an elastic body and a rigid obstacle is studied, including the development of material damage which results from internal compression or tension. The variational problem is formulated as a first-kind variational inequality for the displacements coupled with a parabolic partial differential equation for the damage field. The existence of a unique local weak solution is stated. Then, a fully discrete scheme is introduced using the finite element method to approximate the spatial variable and an Euler scheme to discretize the time derivatives. Error estimates are derived on the approximate solutions, from which the linear convergence of the algorithm is deduced under suitable regularity conditions. Finally, three two-dimensional numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the accuracy and the behaviour of the scheme.

  8. A virtual pebble game to ensemble average graph rigidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Luis C; Wang, Hui; Livesay, Dennis R; Jacobs, Donald J

    2015-01-01

    The body-bar Pebble Game (PG) algorithm is commonly used to calculate network rigidity properties in proteins and polymeric materials. To account for fluctuating interactions such as hydrogen bonds, an ensemble of constraint topologies are sampled, and average network properties are obtained by averaging PG characterizations. At a simpler level of sophistication, Maxwell constraint counting (MCC) provides a rigorous lower bound for the number of internal degrees of freedom (DOF) within a body-bar network, and it is commonly employed to test if a molecular structure is globally under-constrained or over-constrained. MCC is a mean field approximation (MFA) that ignores spatial fluctuations of distance constraints by replacing the actual molecular structure by an effective medium that has distance constraints globally distributed with perfect uniform density. The Virtual Pebble Game (VPG) algorithm is a MFA that retains spatial inhomogeneity in the density of constraints on all length scales. Network fluctuations due to distance constraints that may be present or absent based on binary random dynamic variables are suppressed by replacing all possible constraint topology realizations with the probabilities that distance constraints are present. The VPG algorithm is isomorphic to the PG algorithm, where integers for counting "pebbles" placed on vertices or edges in the PG map to real numbers representing the probability to find a pebble. In the VPG, edges are assigned pebble capacities, and pebble movements become a continuous flow of probability within the network. Comparisons between the VPG and average PG results over a test set of proteins and disordered lattices demonstrate the VPG quantitatively estimates the ensemble average PG results well. The VPG performs about 20% faster than one PG, and it provides a pragmatic alternative to averaging PG rigidity characteristics over an ensemble of constraint topologies. The utility of the VPG falls in between the most

  9. A rigid motion correction method for helical computed tomography (CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J-H; Kyme, A; Fulton, R; Nuyts, J; Kuncic, Z

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method to compensate for six degree-of-freedom rigid motion in helical CT of the head. The method is demonstrated in simulations and in helical scans performed on a 16-slice CT scanner. Scans of a Hoffman brain phantom were acquired while an optical motion tracking system recorded the motion of the bed and the phantom. Motion correction was performed by restoring projection consistency using data from the motion tracking system, and reconstructing with an iterative fully 3D algorithm. Motion correction accuracy was evaluated by comparing reconstructed images with a stationary reference scan. We also investigated the effects on accuracy of tracker sampling rate, measurement jitter, interpolation of tracker measurements, and the synchronization of motion data and CT projections. After optimization of these aspects, motion corrected images corresponded remarkably closely to images of the stationary phantom with correlation and similarity coefficients both above 0.9. We performed a simulation study using volunteer head motion and found similarly that our method is capable of compensating effectively for realistic human head movements. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first practical demonstration of generalized rigid motion correction in helical CT. Its clinical value, which we have yet to explore, may be significant. For example it could reduce the necessity for repeat scans and resource-intensive anesthetic and sedation procedures in patient groups prone to motion, such as young children. It is not only applicable to dedicated CT imaging, but also to hybrid PET/CT and SPECT/CT, where it could also ensure an accurate CT image for lesion localization and attenuation correction of the functional image data. (paper)

  10. Inertial modes of rigidly rotating neutron stars in Cowling approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastaun, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we investigate inertial modes of rigidly rotating neutron stars, i.e. modes for which the Coriolis force is dominant. This is done using the assumption of a fixed spacetime (Cowling approximation). We present frequencies and eigenfunctions for a sequence of stars with a polytropic equation of state, covering a broad range of rotation rates. The modes were obtained with a nonlinear general relativistic hydrodynamic evolution code. We further show that the eigenequations for the oscillation modes can be written in a particularly simple form for the case of arbitrary fast but rigid rotation. Using these equations, we investigate some general characteristics of inertial modes, which are then compared to the numerically obtained eigenfunctions. In particular, we derive a rough analytical estimate for the frequency as a function of the number of nodes of the eigenfunction, and find that a similar empirical relation matches the numerical results with unexpected accuracy. We investigate the slow rotation limit of the eigenequations, obtaining two different sets of equations describing pressure and inertial modes. For the numerical computations we only considered axisymmetric modes, while the analytic part also covers nonaxisymmetric modes. The eigenfunctions suggest that the classification of inertial modes by the quantum numbers of the leading term of a spherical harmonic decomposition is artificial in the sense that the largest term is not strongly dominant, even in the slow rotation limit. The reason for the different structure of pressure and inertial modes is that the Coriolis force remains important in the slow rotation limit only for inertial modes. Accordingly, the scalar eigenequation we obtain in that limit is spherically symmetric for pressure modes, but not for inertial modes

  11. Matrix stiffness reverses the effect of actomyosin tension on cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mih, Justin D; Marinkovic, Aleksandar; Liu, Fei; Sharif, Asma S; Tschumperlin, Daniel J

    2012-12-15

    The stiffness of the extracellular matrix exerts powerful effects on cell proliferation and differentiation, but the mechanisms transducing matrix stiffness into cellular fate decisions remain poorly understood. Two widely reported responses to matrix stiffening are increases in actomyosin contractility and cell proliferation. To delineate their relationship, we modulated cytoskeletal tension in cells grown across a physiological range of matrix stiffnesses. On both synthetic and naturally derived soft matrices, and across a panel of cell types, we observed a striking reversal of the effect of inhibiting actomyosin contractility, switching from the attenuation of proliferation on rigid substrates to the robust promotion of proliferation on soft matrices. Inhibiting contractility on soft matrices decoupled proliferation from cytoskeletal tension and focal adhesion organization, but not from cell spread area. Our results demonstrate that matrix stiffness and actomyosin contractility converge on cell spreading in an unexpected fashion to control a key aspect of cell fate.

  12. Psychological Prices and Price Rigidity in Grocery Retailing: Analysis of German Scanner Data

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Roland; Moeser, Anke

    2005-01-01

    A substantial degree of price rigidity has been reported for branded foods in various studies with scanner data. One possible explanation for price rigidity is the existence of psychological pricing points. We analyze to which extent psychological pricing plays a role in grocery retailing and whether it contributes to price rigidity of branded foods in Germany. Psychological pricing defined here as just-below-the-round-figure-pricing is empirically analyzed with scanner data of weekly prices ...

  13. Use of beam probes for rigidity calibration of the A1900 fragment separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginter, T.N. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Farinon, F. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Baumann, T. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Hausmann, M. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kwan, E.; Naviliat Cuncic, O. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Portillo, M. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Rogers, A.M.; Stetson, J.; Sumithrarachchi, C. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Villari, A.C.C. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Williams, S.J. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Use of a beam-based approach is presented for establishing a rigidity calibration for the A1900 fragment separator located at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. Also presented is why an alternative approach to the rigidity calibration – using detailed field maps of individual magnetic components – is not a feasible basis for deriving an accurate calibration. The level of accuracy achieved for the rigidity calibration is ±0.1%.

  14. Sensing of substratum rigidity and directional migration by fast-crawling cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okimura, Chika; Sakumura, Yuichi; Shimabukuro, Katsuya; Iwadate, Yoshiaki

    2018-05-01

    Living cells sense the mechanical properties of their surrounding environment and respond accordingly. Crawling cells detect the rigidity of their substratum and migrate in certain directions. They can be classified into two categories: slow-moving and fast-moving cell types. Slow-moving cell types, such as fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, mesenchymal stem cells, etc., move toward rigid areas on the substratum in response to a rigidity gradient. However, there is not much information on rigidity sensing in fast-moving cell types whose size is ˜10 μ m and migration velocity is ˜10 μ m /min . In this study, we used both isotropic substrata with different rigidities and an anisotropic substratum that is rigid on the x axis but soft on the y axis to demonstrate rigidity sensing by fast-moving Dictyostelium cells and neutrophil-like differentiated HL-60 cells. Dictyostelium cells exerted larger traction forces on a more rigid isotropic substratum. Dictyostelium cells and HL-60 cells migrated in the "soft" direction on the anisotropic substratum, although myosin II-null Dictyostelium cells migrated in random directions, indicating that rigidity sensing of fast-moving cell types differs from that of slow types and is induced by a myosin II-related process.

  15. An evaluation of canonical forms for non-rigid 3D shape retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Pickup, David; Liu, Juncheng; Sun, Xianfang; Rosin, Paul L.; Martin, Ralph R.; Cheng, Zhiquan; Lian, Zhouhui; Nie, Sipin; Jin, Longcun; Shamai, Gil; Sahillioğlu, Yusuf; Kavan, Ladislav

    2018-01-01

    Canonical forms attempt to factor out a non-rigid shape’s pose, giving a pose-neutral shape. This opens up the\\ud possibility of using methods originally designed for rigid shape retrieval for the task of non-rigid shape retrieval.\\ud We extend our recent benchmark for testing canonical form algorithms. Our new benchmark is used to evaluate a\\ud greater number of state-of-the-art canonical forms, on five recent non-rigid retrieval datasets, within two different\\ud retrieval frameworks. A tota...

  16. Rigid-Plastic Post-Buckling Analysis of Columns and Quadratic Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    2008-01-01

    the compressive load as a function of the transverse displacement. An estimate of the magnitude of the transverse displacement prior to the forming of the collapse mechanism is introduced into the compressive load function, determined by the virtual work equation, thereby revealing a qualified estimate...... yield lines accommodate differential rotations of rigid parts and the area “collapse” yield lines accommodate local area changes of the rigid parts thereby preserving compatibility of the rigid parts of a plate. The approach will be illustrated for rigid plastic column analysis and for a quadratic plate...

  17. Botulinum toxin in myotonia congenita: it does not help against rigidity and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Dirk; Adib Saberi, Fereshte

    2014-05-01

    Botulinum toxin (BT) is a potent local muscle relaxant with analgetic properties. Myotonia congenita (MC) is a genetic disorder producing muscle rigidity and pain. BT injected into the trapezius produced mild paresis, but no effect on rigidity and pain. There were no signs of systemic effects. Lack of BT efficacy on MC rigidity confirms its origin from muscle membrane dysfunction rather than from inappropriate neuromuscular activation. Lack of BT efficacy on pain could be caused by lack of anti-rigidity effect. It could also be due to separate non-muscular pain mechanisms unresponsive to BT.

  18. Matrix Information Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    This book is an outcome of the Indo-French Workshop on Matrix Information Geometries (MIG): Applications in Sensor and Cognitive Systems Engineering, which was held in Ecole Polytechnique and Thales Research and Technology Center, Palaiseau, France, in February 23-25, 2011. The workshop was generously funded by the Indo-French Centre for the Promotion of Advanced Research (IFCPAR).  During the event, 22 renowned invited french or indian speakers gave lectures on their areas of expertise within the field of matrix analysis or processing. From these talks, a total of 17 original contribution or state-of-the-art chapters have been assembled in this volume. All articles were thoroughly peer-reviewed and improved, according to the suggestions of the international referees. The 17 contributions presented  are organized in three parts: (1) State-of-the-art surveys & original matrix theory work, (2) Advanced matrix theory for radar processing, and (3) Matrix-based signal processing applications.  

  19. 2016 MATRIX annals

    CERN Document Server

    Praeger, Cheryl; Tao, Terence

    2018-01-01

    MATRIX is Australia’s international, residential mathematical research institute. It facilitates new collaborations and mathematical advances through intensive residential research programs, each lasting 1-4 weeks. This book is a scientific record of the five programs held at MATRIX in its first year, 2016: Higher Structures in Geometry and Physics (Chapters 1-5 and 18-21); Winter of Disconnectedness (Chapter 6 and 22-26); Approximation and Optimisation (Chapters 7-8); Refining C*-Algebraic Invariants for Dynamics using KK-theory (Chapters 9-13); Interactions between Topological Recursion, Modularity, Quantum Invariants and Low-dimensional Topology (Chapters 14-17 and 27). The MATRIX Scientific Committee selected these programs based on their scientific excellence and the participation rate of high-profile international participants. Each program included ample unstructured time to encourage collaborative research; some of the longer programs also included an embedded conference or lecture series. The artic...

  20. Matrix interdiction problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    In the matrix interdiction problem, a real-valued matrix and an integer k is given. The objective is to remove k columns such that the sum over all rows of the maximum entry in each row is minimized. This combinatorial problem is closely related to bipartite network interdiction problem which can be applied to prioritize the border checkpoints in order to minimize the probability that an adversary can successfully cross the border. After introducing the matrix interdiction problem, we will prove the problem is NP-hard, and even NP-hard to approximate with an additive n{gamma} factor for a fixed constant {gamma}. We also present an algorithm for this problem that achieves a factor of (n-k) mUltiplicative approximation ratio.

  1. Dynamic Matrix Rank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Frandsen, Peter Frands

    2009-01-01

    We consider maintaining information about the rank of a matrix under changes of the entries. For n×n matrices, we show an upper bound of O(n1.575) arithmetic operations and a lower bound of Ω(n) arithmetic operations per element change. The upper bound is valid when changing up to O(n0.575) entries...... in a single column of the matrix. We also give an algorithm that maintains the rank using O(n2) arithmetic operations per rank one update. These bounds appear to be the first nontrivial bounds for the problem. The upper bounds are valid for arbitrary fields, whereas the lower bound is valid for algebraically...... closed fields. The upper bound for element updates uses fast rectangular matrix multiplication, and the lower bound involves further development of an earlier technique for proving lower bounds for dynamic computation of rational functions....

  2. MATLAB matrix algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez López, César

    2014-01-01

    MATLAB is a high-level language and environment for numerical computation, visualization, and programming. Using MATLAB, you can analyze data, develop algorithms, and create models and applications. The language, tools, and built-in math functions enable you to explore multiple approaches and reach a solution faster than with spreadsheets or traditional programming languages, such as C/C++ or Java. MATLAB Matrix Algebra introduces you to the MATLAB language with practical hands-on instructions and results, allowing you to quickly achieve your goals. Starting with a look at symbolic and numeric variables, with an emphasis on vector and matrix variables, you will go on to examine functions and operations that support vectors and matrices as arguments, including those based on analytic parent functions. Computational methods for finding eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices are detailed, leading to various matrix decompositions. Applications such as change of bases, the classification of quadratic forms and ...

  3. Parallel algorithms for computation of the manipulator inertia matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin-Javaheri, Masoud; Orin, David E.

    1989-01-01

    The development of an O(log2N) parallel algorithm for the manipulator inertia matrix is presented. It is based on the most efficient serial algorithm which uses the composite rigid body method. Recursive doubling is used to reformulate the linear recurrence equations which are required to compute the diagonal elements of the matrix. It results in O(log2N) levels of computation. Computation of the off-diagonal elements involves N linear recurrences of varying-size and a new method, which avoids redundant computation of position and orientation transforms for the manipulator, is developed. The O(log2N) algorithm is presented in both equation and graphic forms which clearly show the parallelism inherent in the algorithm.

  4. Elementary matrix algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Hohn, Franz E

    2012-01-01

    This complete and coherent exposition, complemented by numerous illustrative examples, offers readers a text that can teach by itself. Fully rigorous in its treatment, it offers a mathematically sound sequencing of topics. The work starts with the most basic laws of matrix algebra and progresses to the sweep-out process for obtaining the complete solution of any given system of linear equations - homogeneous or nonhomogeneous - and the role of matrix algebra in the presentation of useful geometric ideas, techniques, and terminology.Other subjects include the complete treatment of the structur

  5. Complex matrix model duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.W.

    2010-11-01

    The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  6. Complex matrix model duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.W.

    2010-11-15

    The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  7. Résistance d'un composite à renforts rigides : le cas d'une matrice de Drucker Prager avec règle d'écoulement plastique non associée

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormieux, Luc; Barthélémy, Jean-François; Maghous, Samir

    2006-02-01

    A rigid plastic behavior characterized by a failure criterion of the Drucker-Prager type and a non associated flow rule is considered. The latter can be viewed formally as the limit of a sequence of viscous behaviors with isotropic prestress. The limit states of a composite made up of such a material reinforced by rigid inclusions are then determined. The latter lie on a Drucker-Prager cone which friction coefficient is greater than that of the matrix and depends on the characteristics of the strength and of the flow rule of the matrix, as well as on the volume fraction of the inclusions. To cite this article: L. Dormieux et al., C. R. Mecanique 334 (2006).

  8. Ethical Matrix Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mepham, B.; Kaiser, M.; Thorstensen, E.; Tomkins, S.; Millar, K.

    2006-01-01

    The ethical matrix is a conceptual tool designed to help decision-makers (as individuals or working in groups) reach sound judgements or decisions about the ethical acceptability and/or optimal regulatory controls for existing or prospective technologies in the field of food and agriculture.

  9. Combinatorial matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mitjana, Margarida

    2018-01-01

    This book contains the notes of the lectures delivered at an Advanced Course on Combinatorial Matrix Theory held at Centre de Recerca Matemàtica (CRM) in Barcelona. These notes correspond to five series of lectures. The first series is dedicated to the study of several matrix classes defined combinatorially, and was delivered by Richard A. Brualdi. The second one, given by Pauline van den Driessche, is concerned with the study of spectral properties of matrices with a given sign pattern. Dragan Stevanović delivered the third one, devoted to describing the spectral radius of a graph as a tool to provide bounds of parameters related with properties of a graph. The fourth lecture was delivered by Stephen Kirkland and is dedicated to the applications of the Group Inverse of the Laplacian matrix. The last one, given by Ángeles Carmona, focuses on boundary value problems on finite networks with special in-depth on the M-matrix inverse problem.

  10. Visualizing Matrix Multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugulis, Peteris; Sondore, Anita

    2018-01-01

    Efficient visualizations of computational algorithms are important tools for students, educators, and researchers. In this article, we point out an innovative visualization technique for matrix multiplication. This method differs from the standard, formal approach by using block matrices to make computations more visual. We find this method a…

  11. Challenging the CSCW matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørnø, Rasmus Leth Vergmann; Gynther, Karsten; Christensen, Ove

    2014-01-01

    useful information, we question whether the axis of time and space comprising the matrix pertains to relevant defining properties of the tools, technology or learning environments to which they are applied. Subsequently we offer an example of an Adobe Connect e-learning session as an illustration...

  12. Regulation of Breast Cancer Stem Cells by Tissue Rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    of acini having no1mal aspect ratios. as determined in panel (C). ***P<O.OOl. mamma1y acinar structme desensitize mammaty epithelial cells to...mechanics. Nat Commun. 2012;3:792. 4. Lucero HA, Kagan HM. Lysyl oxidase: an oxidative enzyme and effector of cell function. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006;63(19...predicted as a potential phosphorylation site. This provided a very attractive potential mechanism by which increased matrix stiffness activates

  13. Mixed Volume and Distance Geometry Techniques for Counting Euclidean Embeddings of Rigid Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.Z. Emiris; E.P. Tsigaridas; A. Varvitsiotis (Antonios); A. Mucherino (Antonio); C. Lavor; L. Liberti; N. Maculan

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractA graph G is called generically minimally rigid in Rd if, for any choice of sufficiently generic edge lengths, it can be embedded in Rd in a finite number of distinct ways, modulo rigid transformations. Here, we deal with the problem of determining tight bounds on the number of such

  14. Non-rigid connector: The wand to allay the stresses on abutment

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Saurav; Khongshei, Arlingstone; Gupta, Tapas; Banerjee, Ardhendu

    2011-01-01

    The use of rigid connectors in 5-unit fixed dental prosthesis with a pier abutment can result in failure of weaker retainer in the long run as the pier abutment acts as a fulcrum. Non-rigid connector placed on the distal aspect of pier seems to reduce potentially excess stress concentration on the pier abutment.

  15. Mental set and creative thought in social conflict : Threat rigidity versus motivated focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Nijstad, Bernard A.

    According to the traditional threat-rigidity reasoning, people in social conflict will be less flexible, less creative, more narrow-minded, and more rigid in their thinking when they adopt a conflict rather than a cooperation mental set. The authors propose and test an alternative, motivated focus

  16. On the rigidity of rank gradient in a group of intermediate growth

    OpenAIRE

    Grigorchuk, Rostislav; Kravchenko, Rostyslav

    2018-01-01

    We introduce and investigate the rigidity property of rank gradient in the case of the group $\\mathcal G$ of intermediate growth constructed by the first author. We show that $\\mathcal G$ is normally $(f,g)$-RG rigid where $f(n)=\\log(n)$ and $g(n) =\\log(\\log(n)).$

  17. Risk of perforation using rigid oesophagoscopy in the distal part of oesophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennervaldt, Kasper; Melchiors, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic examination and treatment of disorders in the oesophagus have been a part of the otolaryngological specialty since the introduction of the rigid endoscope. Today, both flexible and rigid oesophagoscopy (RO) is used to that end. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of the RO....

  18. 21 CFR 178.3790 - Polymer modifiers in semirigid and rigid vinyl chloride plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polymer modifiers in semirigid and rigid vinyl...: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3790 Polymer modifiers in semirigid and rigid vinyl chloride plastics. The polymers identified in paragraph (a) of this...

  19. Study on the effect of testing machine rigidity on strength and ductility temperature dependences obtained

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krashchenko, V.P.; Statsenko, V.E.; Rudnitskij, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    Investigation procedures are described for rigidity of testing machines and mechanical properties of tantalum and nickel in the temperature range 293-1873K. Temperature dependences are presented for strength characteristics of the investigated materials obtained with the use of installations of different rigidity. Dependence analysis is carried out and recommendations are given as to the characteristics application

  20. Gauge dependence of world lines and invariance of the S-matrix in relativistic classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molotkov, V.V.; Todorov, I.T.

    1980-07-01

    The notion of world lines is studied in the constraint Hamiltonian formulation of relativistic point particle dynamics. The particle world lines are shown to depend in general (in the presence of interaction) on the choice of the equal-time hyperplane (the only exception being the elastic scattering of rigid balls). However, the relative motion of a two-particle system and the (classical) S-matrix are indepent of this choice. (author)

  1. Unifying Rigid and Soft Bodies Representation: The Sulfur Physics Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Maggiorini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Video games are (also real-time interactive graphic simulations: hence, providing a convincing physics simulation for each specific game environment is of paramount importance in the process of achieving a satisfying player experience. While the existing game engines appropriately address many aspects of physics simulation, some others are still in need of improvements. In particular, several specific physics properties of bodies not usually involved in the main game mechanics (e.g., properties useful to represent systems composed by soft bodies, are often poorly rendered by general-purpose engines. This issue may limit game designers when imagining innovative and compelling video games and game mechanics. For this reason, we dug into the problem of appropriately representing soft bodies. Subsequently, we have extended the approach developed for soft bodies to rigid ones, proposing and developing a unified approach in a game engine: Sulfur. To test the engine, we have also designed and developed “Escape from Quaoar,” a prototypal video game whose main game mechanic exploits an elastic rope, and a level editor for the game.

  2. Use of Terrestrial Laser Scanner for Rigid Airport Pavement Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarella, Maurizio; D'Amico, Fabrizio; De Blasiis, Maria Rosaria; Di Benedetto, Alessandro; Fiani, Margherita

    2017-12-26

    The evaluation of the structural efficiency of airport infrastructures is a complex task. Faulting is one of the most important indicators of rigid pavement performance. The aim of our study is to provide a new method for faulting detection and computation on jointed concrete pavements. Nowadays, the assessment of faulting is performed with the use of laborious and time-consuming measurements that strongly hinder aircraft traffic. We proposed a field procedure for Terrestrial Laser Scanner data acquisition and a computation flow chart in order to identify and quantify the fault size at each joint of apron slabs. The total point cloud has been used to compute the least square plane fitting those points. The best-fit plane for each slab has been computed too. The attitude of each slab plane with respect to both the adjacent ones and the apron reference plane has been determined by the normal vectors to the surfaces. Faulting has been evaluated as the difference in elevation between the slab planes along chosen sections. For a more accurate evaluation of the faulting value, we have then considered a few strips of data covering rectangular areas of different sizes across the joints. The accuracy of the estimated quantities has been computed too.

  3. Evolution of flexibility and rigidity in retaliatory punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Adam; MacGlashan, James; Littman, Michael L; Cushman, Fiery

    2017-09-26

    Natural selection designs some social behaviors to depend on flexible learning processes, whereas others are relatively rigid or reflexive. What determines the balance between these two approaches? We offer a detailed case study in the context of a two-player game with antisocial behavior and retaliatory punishment. We show that each player in this game-a "thief" and a "victim"-must balance two competing strategic interests. Flexibility is valuable because it allows adaptive differentiation in the face of diverse opponents. However, it is also risky because, in competitive games, it can produce systematically suboptimal behaviors. Using a combination of evolutionary analysis, reinforcement learning simulations, and behavioral experimentation, we show that the resolution to this tension-and the adaptation of social behavior in this game-hinges on the game's learning dynamics. Our findings clarify punishment's adaptive basis, offer a case study of the evolution of social preferences, and highlight an important connection between natural selection and learning in the resolution of social conflicts.

  4. Obstacles to developing sustainable cities: the real estate rigidity trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kelly Turner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sprawl patterns of urbanization have large environmental consequences, and sustainable alternatives to conventional urban patterns of development have been promoted by a subset of planners, design professionals, and municipalities. These alternatives have not been widely adopted among real estate developers, actors with large influence over urban form and function. Existing explanations for this failure enumerate market and regulatory barriers but do not sufficiently describe the institutional structures that allow conventional approaches to prevail. A failure of real estate developers to adopt alternative forms of development can best be described in terms of a rigidity trap. Specifically, norms of practice within the real estate development industry combine with market and regulatory factors to favor existing practices and limit innovation. Moreover, these institutional factors also buffer the real estate development industry from feedback mechanisms and external signals that might otherwise trigger adaptation. Addressing the environmental consequences of urbanization not only requires novel approaches to urban design, but will also necessitate addressing systemic pathologies in the design implementation process.

  5. Use of Terrestrial Laser Scanner for Rigid Airport Pavement Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Barbarella

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the structural efficiency of airport infrastructures is a complex task. Faulting is one of the most important indicators of rigid pavement performance. The aim of our study is to provide a new method for faulting detection and computation on jointed concrete pavements. Nowadays, the assessment of faulting is performed with the use of laborious and time-consuming measurements that strongly hinder aircraft traffic. We proposed a field procedure for Terrestrial Laser Scanner data acquisition and a computation flow chart in order to identify and quantify the fault size at each joint of apron slabs. The total point cloud has been used to compute the least square plane fitting those points. The best-fit plane for each slab has been computed too. The attitude of each slab plane with respect to both the adjacent ones and the apron reference plane has been determined by the normal vectors to the surfaces. Faulting has been evaluated as the difference in elevation between the slab planes along chosen sections. For a more accurate evaluation of the faulting value, we have then considered a few strips of data covering rectangular areas of different sizes across the joints. The accuracy of the estimated quantities has been computed too.

  6. Ultimate Lateral Capacity of Rigid Pile in c- φ Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-min

    2018-03-01

    To date no analytical solution of the pile ultimate lateral capacity for the general c- φ soil has been obtained. In the present study, a new dimensionless embedded ratio was proposed and the analytical solutions of ultimate lateral capacity and rotation center of rigid pile in c- φ soils were obtained. The results showed that both the dimensionless ultimate lateral capacity and dimensionless rotation center were the univariate functions of the embedded ratio. Also, the ultimate lateral capacity in the c- φ soil was the combination of the ultimate lateral capacity ( f c ) in the clay, and the ultimate lateral capacity ( f φ ) in the sand. Therefore, the Broms chart for clay, solution for clay ( φ=0) put forward by Poulos and Davis, solution for sand ( c=0) obtained by Petrasovits and Awad, and Kondner's ultimate bending moment were all proven to be the special cases of the general solution in the present study. A comparison of the field and laboratory tests in 93 cases showed that the average ratios of the theoretical values to the experimental value ranged from 0.85 to 1.15. Also, the theoretical values displayed a good agreement with the test values.

  7. Biomimetic model systems of rigid hair beds: Part I - Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Kaitlyn; Jammalamadaka, Mani S. S.; Hosoi, Anette

    2017-11-01

    Crustaceans - such as lobsters, crabs, and stomapods - have hairy appendages that they use to recognize and track odorants in the surrounding fluid. An array of rigid hairs impedes flow at different rates depending on the spacing between hairs and the Reynolds number, Re. At larger Reynolds numbers (Re >1), fluid travels through the hairs rather than around them, a phenomenon called leakiness. Crustaceans flick their appendages at different speeds in order to manipulate the leakiness between the hairs, allowing the hairs to either detect odors in a sample of fluid or collect a new sample. A single hair can be represented as a slender body attached at one end to a wall. Using both slender body theory and numerical methods, we observe that there is a region of flow around the hair that speeds up relative to the unobstructed flow. As the Reynolds number increases, this fast flow region moves closer to the hair. Using this model, we predict that an array of hairs can be engineered to have a desired leakiness profile.

  8. Homogenization models for thin rigid structured surfaces and films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigo, Jean-Jacques; Maurel, Agnès

    2016-07-01

    A homogenization method for thin microstructured surfaces and films is presented. In both cases, sound hard materials are considered, associated with Neumann boundary conditions and the wave equation in the time domain is examined. For a structured surface, a boundary condition is obtained on an equivalent flat wall, which links the acoustic velocity to its normal and tangential derivatives (of the Myers type). For a structured film, jump conditions are obtained for the acoustic pressure and the normal velocity across an equivalent interface (of the Ventcels type). This interface homogenization is based on a matched asymptotic expansion technique, and differs slightly from the classical homogenization, which is known to fail for small structuration thicknesses. In order to get insight into what causes this failure, a two-step homogenization is proposed, mixing classical homogenization and matched asymptotic expansion. Results of the two homogenizations are analyzed in light of the associated elementary problems, which correspond to problems of fluid mechanics, namely, potential flows around rigid obstacles.

  9. Thermally-Induced Structural Disturbances of Rigid Panel Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, John D.; Thornton, Earl A.

    1997-01-01

    The performance of a significant number of spacecraft has been impacted negatively by attitude disturbances resulting from thermally-induced motions of flexible structures. Recent examples of spacecraft affected by these disturbances include the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Thermally-induced structural disturbances occur as the result of rapid changes in thermal loading typically initiated as a satellite exits or enters the Earth's shadow. Temperature differences in flexible appendages give rise to structural deformations, which in turn result in disturbance torques reacting back on the spacecraft. Structures which have proven susceptible to these disturbances include deployable booms and solar arrays. This paper investigates disturbances resulting from thermally-induced deformations of rigid panel solar arrays. An analytical model for the thermal-structural response of the solar array and the corresponding disturbance torque are presented. The effect of these disturbances on the attitude dynamics of a simple spacecraft is then investigated using a coupled system of governing equations which includes the effects of thermally-induced deformations. Numerical results demonstrate the effect of varying solar array geometry on the dynamic response of the system.

  10. Plasma surface modification of rigid contact lenses decreases bacterial adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingming; Qian, Xuefeng; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xia, Wei; Zhong, Lei; Sun, Zhengtai; Xia, Jing

    2013-11-01

    Contact lens safety is an important topic in clinical studies. Corneal infections usually occur because of the use of bacteria-carrying contact lenses. The current study investigated the impact of plasma surface modification on bacterial adherence to rigid contact lenses made of fluorosilicone acrylate materials. Boston XO and XO2 contact lenses were modified using plasma technology (XO-P and XO2-P groups). Untreated lenses were used as controls. Plasma-treated and control lenses were incubated in solutions containing Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MTT colorimetry, colony-forming unit counting method, and scanning electron microscopy were used to measure bacterial adhesion. MTT colorimetry measurements showed that the optical density (OD) values of XO-P and XO2-P were significantly lower than those of XO and XO2, respectively, after incubation with S. aureus (P lenses and to the XO2-P versus XO2 lenses incubated with S. aureus (P lenses incubated with P. aeruginosa (P lenses. Plasma surface modification can significantly decrease bacterial adhesion to fluorosilicone acrylate contact lenses. This study provides important evidence of a unique benefit of plasma technology in contact lens surface modification.

  11. Multiscale weighted colored graphs for protein flexibility and rigidity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramer, David; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2018-02-01

    Protein structural fluctuation, measured by Debye-Waller factors or B-factors, is known to correlate to protein flexibility and function. A variety of methods has been developed for protein Debye-Waller factor prediction and related applications to domain separation, docking pose ranking, entropy calculation, hinge detection, stability analysis, etc. Nevertheless, none of the current methodologies are able to deliver an accuracy of 0.7 in terms of the Pearson correlation coefficients averaged over a large set of proteins. In this work, we introduce a paradigm-shifting geometric graph model, multiscale weighted colored graph (MWCG), to provide a new generation of computational algorithms to significantly change the current status of protein structural fluctuation analysis. Our MWCG model divides a protein graph into multiple subgraphs based on interaction types between graph nodes and represents the protein rigidity by generalized centralities of subgraphs. MWCGs not only predict the B-factors of protein residues but also accurately analyze the flexibility of all atoms in a protein. The MWCG model is validated over a number of protein test sets and compared with many standard methods. An extensive numerical study indicates that the proposed MWCG offers an accuracy of over 0.8 and thus provides perhaps the first reliable method for estimating protein flexibility and B-factors. It also simultaneously predicts all-atom flexibility in a molecule.

  12. On removing interpolation and resampling artifacts in rigid image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aganj, Iman; Yeo, Boon Thye Thomas; Sabuncu, Mert R; Fischl, Bruce

    2013-02-01

    We show that image registration using conventional interpolation and summation approximations of continuous integrals can generally fail because of resampling artifacts. These artifacts negatively affect the accuracy of registration by producing local optima, altering the gradient, shifting the global optimum, and making rigid registration asymmetric. In this paper, after an extensive literature review, we demonstrate the causes of the artifacts by comparing inclusion and avoidance of resampling analytically. We show the sum-of-squared-differences cost function formulated as an integral to be more accurate compared with its traditional sum form in a simple case of image registration. We then discuss aliasing that occurs in rotation, which is due to the fact that an image represented in the Cartesian grid is sampled with different rates in different directions, and propose the use of oscillatory isotropic interpolation kernels, which allow better recovery of true global optima by overcoming this type of aliasing. Through our experiments on brain, fingerprint, and white noise images, we illustrate the superior performance of the integral registration cost function in both the Cartesian and spherical coordinates, and also validate the introduced radial interpolation kernel by demonstrating the improvement in registration.

  13. [The development of gender identity beyond rigid dichotomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quindeau, Ilka

    2014-01-01

    The conflicts individuals with ambiguous sexual characteristics suffer from are not the result of genetic features but of the rigid and dichotomous gender order, which is currently undergoing a renaissance. This also applies to individuals with an uncertain gender identity. In the best interests of the child a concept of gender seems necessary, that goes beyond a binary separation and allows gender-specific intermediary stages in the personal development of identity. Such a gender concept can be developed following psychoanalytic theories. The present discourse contains a scale of connecting factors for a differentiated and less normative conceptualization of gender development. Starting from Freud's concept of constitutional bisexuality, Robert Stoller's theory, which has been firmly rooted in the mainstream of psychoanalysis for more than 40 years, will be critically reviewed. By involving Reimut Reiche's and Jean Laplanche's arguments, a continuative psychological gender theory will be drafted, which does not normatively and reductively claim the demarcation of gender, but rather opens up a space for gender diversity.

  14. Super rigid nature of super-deformed bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Neha; Mittal, H.M.; Jain, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of high-spin super-deformation represents one of the most remarkable discoveries in nuclear physics. A large number of SD bands have been observed in A = 60, 80, 130, 150, 190 mass regions. The cascades of SD bands are known to be connected by electric quadruple E2 transitions. Because of absence of linking transitions between superdeformed (SD) and normal deformed (ND) levels, the spin assignments of most of these bands carry a minimum uncertainty ≈ 1-2ħ. It was found in an analysis of SD bands in the context of semi classical approach that moment of inertia comes close to the rigid body value in most of the cases. Lack of knowledge of spins has led to an emphasis on the study of dynamical moment of inertia of SD bands and systematic of kinematic moment of inertia has not been examined so far. In this paper, we extract the band moment of inertia J 0 and softness parameter (σ) of all the SD bands corresponding to axes ratio (x) = 1.5 and present their systematic

  15. Optical characterization and polarization calibration for rigid endoscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Missael; Gruev, Viktor

    2017-02-01

    Polarization measurements give orthogonal information to spectral images making them a great tool in the characterization of environmental parameters in nature. Thus, polarization imagery has proven to be remarkably useful in a vast range of biomedical applications. One such application is the early diagnosis of flat cancerous lesions in murine colorectal tumor models, where polarization data complements NIR fluorescence analysis. Advances in nanotechnology have led to compact and precise bio-inspired imaging sensors capable of accurately co-registering multidimensional spectral and polarization information. As more applications emerge for these imagers, the optics used in these instruments get very complex and can potentially compromise the original polarization state of the incident light. Here we present a complete optical and polarization characterization of three rigid endoscopes of size 1.9mm x 10cm (Karl Storz, Germany), 5mm x 30cm, and 10mm x 33cm (Olympus, Germany), used in colonoscopy for the prevention of colitis-associated cancer. Characterization results show that the telescope optics act as retarders and effectively depolarize the linear component. These incorrect readings can cause false-positives or false-negatives leading to an improper diagnosis. In this paper, we offer a polarization calibration scheme for these endoscopes based on Mueller calculus. By modeling the optical properties from training data as real-valued Mueller matrices, we are able to successfully reconstruct the initial polarization state acquired by the imaging system.

  16. Non-Invasive Ocular Rigidity Measurement: A Differential Tonometry Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstathios T. Detorakis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Taking into account the fact that Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT geometrically deforms the corneal apex and displaces volume from the anterior segment whereas Dynamic Contour Tonometry (DCT does not, we aimed at developing an algorithm for the calculation of ocular rigidity (OR based on the differences in pressure and volume between deformed and non-deformed status according to the general Friedenwald principle of differential tonometry. Methods: To avoid deviations of GAT IOP from true IOP in eyes with corneas different from the “calibration cornea” we applied the previously described Orssengo-Pye algorithm to calculate an error coefficient “C/B”. To test the feasibility of the proposed model, we calculated the OR coefficient (r in 17 cataract surgery candidates (9 males and 8 females. Results: The calculated r according to our model (mean ± SD, range was 0.0174 ± 0.010 (0.0123–0.022 mmHg/μL. A negative statistically significant correlation between axial length and r was detected whereas correlations between r and other biometric parameters examined were statistically not significant. Conclusions: The proposed method may prove a valid non-invasive tool for the measurement method of OR, which could help in introducing OR in the decision-making of the routine clinical practice.

  17. Dynamical analysis of an orbiting three-rigid-body system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagnozzi, Daniele, E-mail: daniele.pagnozzi@strath.ac.uk, E-mail: james.biggs@strath.ac.uk; Biggs, James D., E-mail: daniele.pagnozzi@strath.ac.uk, E-mail: james.biggs@strath.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-10

    The development of multi-joint-spacecraft mission concepts calls for a deeper understanding of their nonlinear dynamics to inform and enhance system design. This paper presents a study of a three-finite-shape rigid-body system under the action of an ideal central gravitational field. The aim of this paper is to gain an insight into the natural dynamics of this system. The Hamiltonian dynamics is derived and used to identify relative attitude equilibria of the system with respect to the orbital reference frame. Then a numerical investigation of the behaviour far from the equilibria is provided using tools from modern dynamical systems theory such as energy methods, phase portraits and Poincarè maps. Results reveal a complex structure of the dynamics as well as the existence of connections between some of the equilibria. Stable equilibrium configurations appear to be surrounded by very narrow regions of regular and quasi-regular motions. Trajectories evolve on chaotic motions in the rest of the domain.

  18. A Condition Number for Non-Rigid Shape Matching

    KAUST Repository

    Ovsjanikov, Maks

    2011-08-01

    © 2011 The Author(s). Despite the large amount of work devoted in recent years to the problem of non-rigid shape matching, practical methods that can successfully be used for arbitrary pairs of shapes remain elusive. In this paper, we study the hardness of the problem of shape matching, and introduce the notion of the shape condition number, which captures the intuition that some shapes are inherently more difficult to match against than others. In particular, we make a connection between the symmetry of a given shape and the stability of any method used to match it while optimizing a given distortion measure. We analyze two commonly used classes of methods in deformable shape matching, and show that the stability of both types of techniques can be captured by the appropriate notion of a condition number. We also provide a practical way to estimate the shape condition number and show how it can be used to guide the selection of landmark correspondences between shapes. Thus we shed some light on the reasons why general shape matching remains difficult and provide a way to detect and mitigate such difficulties in practice.

  19. H infinity controller design to a rigid-flexible satellite with two vibration modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Souza, A G; De Souza, L C G

    2015-01-01

    The satellite attitude control system (ACS) design becomes more complex when the satellite structure has components like, flexible solar panels, antennas and mechanical manipulators. These flexible structures can interact with the satellite rigid parts during translational and/or rotational manoeuvre damaging the ACS pointing accuracy. Although, a well-designed controller can suppress such disturbances quickly, the controller error pointing may be limited by the minimum time necessary to suppress such disturbances thus affecting the satellite attitude acquisition. This paper deals with the rigid-flexible satellite ACS design using the H infinity method. The rigid-flexible satellite is represented by a beam connected to a central rigid hub at one end and free at the other one. The equations of motions are obtained considering small flexible deformations and the Euler-Bernoulli hypothesis. The results of the simulations have shown that the H-infinity controller was able to control the rigid motion and suppress the vibrations. (paper)

  20. Acoustic backscattering and radiation force on a rigid elliptical cylinder in plane progressive waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F G

    2016-03-01

    This work proposes a formal analytical theory using the partial-wave series expansion (PWSE) method in cylindrical coordinates, to calculate the acoustic backscattering form function as well as the radiation force-per-length on an infinitely long elliptical (non-circular) cylinder in plane progressive waves. The major (or minor) semi-axis of the ellipse coincides with the direction of the incident waves. The scattering coefficients for the rigid elliptical cylinder are determined by imposing the Neumann boundary condition for an immovable surface and solving a resulting system of linear equations by matrix inversion. The present method, which utilizes standard cylindrical (Bessel and Hankel) wave functions, presents an advantage over the solution for the scattering that is ordinarily expressed in a basis of elliptical Mathieu functions (which are generally non-orthogonal). Furthermore, an integral equation showing the direct connection of the radiation force function with the square of the scattering form function in the far-field from the scatterer (applicable for plane waves only), is noted and discussed. An important application of this integral equation is the adequate evaluation of the radiation force function from a bistatic measurement (i.e., in the polar plane) of the far-field scattering from any 2D object of arbitrary shape. Numerical predictions are evaluated for the acoustic backscattering form function and the radiation force function, which is the radiation force per unit length, per characteristic energy density, and per unit cross-sectional surface of the ellipse, with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio a/b, where a and b are the semi-axes, as well as the dimensionless size parameter kb, without the restriction to a particular range of frequencies. The results are particularly relevant in acoustic levitation, acousto-fluidics and particle dynamics applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of Weight Suspension Rigidity in the Transport-Erector Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Zverev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to determine weight suspension rigidity in aggregates designed to perform technological transport-erector operations at the miscellaneous launch complexes.We consider the weight suspension comprising the following distinctive structural components: the executive weight-lowering mechanism, polyspast mechanism, rope, traverse, and rods. A created structural dynamic model of suspension allowed us to define weight suspension rigidity. Within the framework of design analysis of a dynamic model we determined the rigidity of its structural units, i.e. traverse, rope, and polyspast.Known analytical relationships were used to calculate the rope rigidity. To determine rigidity of polyspast and traverse have been created special models based on the finite element method. For each model deformation in the specific points under the test load have been defined. Data obtained were used to determine trigidity of traverses and polyspast, and also rigidity of suspension in total. The rigidity models of polispast mechanism and traverse have been developed and calculated using the software complex "Zenit-95".As the research results, the paper presents a dynamic model of the weight suspension of the transport-erector aggregate, the finite element models of the polispast mechanism and traverse, an algorithm for determining the weight suspension rigidity and relevant analytical relationships.Independent calculation of weight suspension rigidity enables us to simplify further dynamic calculation of the aggregate-weight system because it allows attaining a simpler model of the aggregate-weight system that uses the weight suspension model as an element of equivalent rigidity. Despite this simplification the model allows us to determine correctly weight movement parameters and overloads in the aggregate-weight system in the process of technical operations.

  2. Inverse consistent non-rigid image registration based on robust point set matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Robust point matching (RPM) has been extensively used in non-rigid registration of images to robustly register two sets of image points. However, except for the location at control points, RPM cannot estimate the consistent correspondence between two images because RPM is a unidirectional image matching approach. Therefore, it is an important issue to make an improvement in image registration based on RPM. Methods In our work, a consistent image registration approach based on the point sets matching is proposed to incorporate the property of inverse consistency and improve registration accuracy. Instead of only estimating the forward transformation between the source point sets and the target point sets in state-of-the-art RPM algorithms, the forward and backward transformations between two point sets are estimated concurrently in our algorithm. The inverse consistency constraints are introduced to the cost function of RPM and the fuzzy correspondences between two point sets are estimated based on both the forward and backward transformations simultaneously. A modified consistent landmark thin-plate spline registration is discussed in detail to find the forward and backward transformations during the optimization of RPM. The similarity of image content is also incorporated into point matching in order to improve image matching. Results Synthetic data sets, medical images are employed to demonstrate and validate the performance of our approach. The inverse consistent errors of our algorithm are smaller than RPM. Especially, the topology of transformations is preserved well for our algorithm for the large deformation between point sets. Moreover, the distance errors of our algorithm are similar to that of RPM, and they maintain a downward trend as whole, which demonstrates the convergence of our algorithm. The registration errors for image registrations are evaluated also. Again, our algorithm achieves the lower registration errors in same iteration number

  3. A class of parallel algorithms for computation of the manipulator inertia matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijany, Amir; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1989-01-01

    Parallel and parallel/pipeline algorithms for computation of the manipulator inertia matrix are presented. An algorithm based on composite rigid-body spatial inertia method, which provides better features for parallelization, is used for the computation of the inertia matrix. Two parallel algorithms are developed which achieve the time lower bound in computation. Also described is the mapping of these algorithms with topological variation on a two-dimensional processor array, with nearest-neighbor connection, and with cardinality variation on a linear processor array. An efficient parallel/pipeline algorithm for the linear array was also developed, but at significantly higher efficiency.

  4. Paths correlation matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Weixian; Zhou, Xiaojun; Lu, Yingcheng; Xu, Jiang

    2015-09-15

    Both the Jones and Mueller matrices encounter difficulties when physically modeling mixed materials or rough surfaces due to the complexity of light-matter interactions. To address these issues, we derived a matrix called the paths correlation matrix (PCM), which is a probabilistic mixture of Jones matrices of every light propagation path. Because PCM is related to actual light propagation paths, it is well suited for physical modeling. Experiments were performed, and the reflection PCM of a mixture of polypropylene and graphite was measured. The PCM of the mixed sample was accurately decomposed into pure polypropylene's single reflection, pure graphite's single reflection, and depolarization caused by multiple reflections, which is consistent with the theoretical derivation. Reflection parameters of rough surface can be calculated from PCM decomposition, and the results fit well with the theoretical calculations provided by the Fresnel equations. These theoretical and experimental analyses verify that PCM is an efficient way to physically model light-matter interactions.

  5. Partially separable t matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasakawa, T.; Okuno, H.; Ishikawa, S.; Sawada, T.

    1982-01-01

    The off-shell t matrix is expressed as a sum of one nonseparable and one separable terms so that it is useful for applications to more-than-two body problems. All poles are involved in this one separable term. Both the nonseparable and the separable terms of the kernel G 0 t are regular at the origin. The nonseparable term of this kernel vanishes at large distances, while the separable term behaves asymptotically as the spherical Hankel function. These properties make our expression free from defects inherent in the Jost or the K-matrix expressions, and many applications are anticipated. As the application, a compact expression of the many-level formula is presented. Also the application is suggested to the breakup threebody problem based on the Faddeev equation. It is demonstrated that the breakup amplitude is expressed in a simple and physically interesting form and we can calculate it in coordinate space

  6. Exactly soluble matrix models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju Viswanathan, R.

    1991-09-01

    We study examples of one dimensional matrix models whose potentials possess an energy spectrum that can be explicitly determined. This allows for an exact solution in the continuum limit. Specifically, step-like potentials and the Morse potential are considered. The step-like potentials show no scaling behaviour and the Morse potential (which corresponds to a γ = -1 model) has the interesting feature that there are no quantum corrections to the scaling behaviour in the continuum limit. (author). 5 refs

  7. Inside the NIKE matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, Barbara; Schlegelmilch, Bodo B.; Ambos, Björn

    2013-01-01

    This case describes how Nike, a consumer goods company with an ever expanding portfolio and a tremendous brand value, manages the tradeoff between local responsiveness and global integration. In particular, the case highlights Nike's organizational structure that consists of a global matrix organization that is replicated at a regional level for the European market. While this organizational structure allows Nike to respond to local consumer tastes it also ensures that the company benefits f...

  8. A matrix contraction process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Michael; Grant, John

    2018-03-01

    We consider a stochastic process in which independent identically distributed random matrices are multiplied and where the Lyapunov exponent of the product is positive. We continue multiplying the random matrices as long as the norm, ɛ, of the product is less than unity. If the norm is greater than unity we reset the matrix to a multiple of the identity and then continue the multiplication. We address the problem of determining the probability density function of the norm, \

  9. Matrix String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R; Verlinde, Herman L

    1997-01-01

    Via compactification on a circle, the matrix model of M-theory proposed by Banks et al suggests a concrete identification between the large N limit of two-dimensional N=8 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIA string theory. In this paper we collect evidence that supports this identification. We explicitly identify the perturbative string states and their interactions, and describe the appearance of D-particle and D-membrane states.

  10. Matrix groups for undergraduates

    CERN Document Server

    Tapp, Kristopher

    2016-01-01

    Matrix groups touch an enormous spectrum of the mathematical arena. This textbook brings them into the undergraduate curriculum. It makes an excellent one-semester course for students familiar with linear and abstract algebra and prepares them for a graduate course on Lie groups. Matrix Groups for Undergraduates is concrete and example-driven, with geometric motivation and rigorous proofs. The story begins and ends with the rotations of a globe. In between, the author combines rigor and intuition to describe the basic objects of Lie theory: Lie algebras, matrix exponentiation, Lie brackets, maximal tori, homogeneous spaces, and roots. This second edition includes two new chapters that allow for an easier transition to the general theory of Lie groups. From reviews of the First Edition: This book could be used as an excellent textbook for a one semester course at university and it will prepare students for a graduate course on Lie groups, Lie algebras, etc. … The book combines an intuitive style of writing w...

  11. Extracellular matrix structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theocharis, Achilleas D; Skandalis, Spyros S; Gialeli, Chrysostomi; Karamanos, Nikos K

    2016-02-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a non-cellular three-dimensional macromolecular network composed of collagens, proteoglycans/glycosaminoglycans, elastin, fibronectin, laminins, and several other glycoproteins. Matrix components bind each other as well as cell adhesion receptors forming a complex network into which cells reside in all tissues and organs. Cell surface receptors transduce signals into cells from ECM, which regulate diverse cellular functions, such as survival, growth, migration, and differentiation, and are vital for maintaining normal homeostasis. ECM is a highly dynamic structural network that continuously undergoes remodeling mediated by several matrix-degrading enzymes during normal and pathological conditions. Deregulation of ECM composition and structure is associated with the development and progression of several pathologic conditions. This article emphasizes in the complex ECM structure as to provide a better understanding of its dynamic structural and functional multipotency. Where relevant, the implication of the various families of ECM macromolecules in health and disease is also presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Vision based tunnel inspection using non-rigid registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badshah, Amir; Ullah, Shan; Shahzad, Danish

    2015-04-01

    Growing numbers of long tunnels across the globe has increased the need for safety measurements and inspections of tunnels in these days. To avoid serious damages, tunnel inspection is highly recommended at regular intervals of time to find any deformations or cracks at the right time. While following the stringent safety and tunnel accessibility standards, conventional geodetic surveying using techniques of civil engineering and other manual and mechanical methods are time consuming and results in troublesome of routine life. An automatic tunnel inspection by image processing techniques using non rigid registration has been proposed. There are many other image processing methods used for image registration purposes. Most of the processes are operation of images in its spatial domain like finding edges and corners by Harris edge detection method. These methods are quite time consuming and fail for some or other reasons like for blurred or images with noise. Due to use of image features directly by these methods in the process, are known by the group, correlation by image features. The other method is featureless correlation, in which the images are converted into its frequency domain and then correlated with each other. The shift in spatial domain is the same as in frequency domain, but the processing is order faster than in spatial domain. In the proposed method modified normalized phase correlation has been used to find any shift between two images. As pre pre-processing the tunnel images i.e. reference and template are divided into small patches. All these relative patches are registered by the proposed modified normalized phase correlation. By the application of the proposed algorithm we get the pixel movement of the images. And then these pixels shifts are converted to measuring units like mm, cm etc. After the complete process if there is any shift in the tunnel at described points are located.

  13. Survey of Non-Rigid Registration Tools in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszei, András P; Berkels, Benjamin; Deserno, Thomas M

    2017-02-01

    We catalogue available software solutions for non-rigid image registration to support scientists in selecting suitable tools for specific medical registration purposes. Registration tools were identified using non-systematic search in Pubmed, Web of Science, IEEE Xplore® Digital Library, Google Scholar, and through references in identified sources (n = 22). Exclusions are due to unavailability or inappropriateness. The remaining (n = 18) tools were classified by (i) access and technology, (ii) interfaces and application, (iii) living community, (iv) supported file formats, and (v) types of registration methodologies emphasizing the similarity measures implemented. Out of the 18 tools, (i) 12 are open source, 8 are released under a permissive free license, which imposes the least restrictions on the use and further development of the tool, 8 provide graphical processing unit (GPU) support; (ii) 7 are built on software platforms, 5 were developed for brain image registration; (iii) 6 are under active development but only 3 have had their last update in 2015 or 2016; (iv) 16 support the Analyze format, while 7 file formats can be read with only one of the tools; and (v) 6 provide multiple registration methods and 6 provide landmark-based registration methods. Based on open source, licensing, GPU support, active community, several file formats, algorithms, and similarity measures, the tools Elastics and Plastimatch are chosen for the platform ITK and without platform requirements, respectively. Researchers in medical image analysis already have a large choice of registration tools freely available. However, the most recently published algorithms may not be included in the tools, yet.

  14. Post-Newtonian conservation laws in rigid quasilocal frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, Paul L; Chanona, Melanie; Epp, Richard J; Mann, Robert B; Koop, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    In recent work we constructed completely general conservation laws for energy (McGrath et al 2012 Class. Quantum Grav. 29 215012) and linear and angular momentum (Epp et al 2013 Class. Quantum Grav. 30 195019) of extended systems in general relativity based on the notion of a rigid quasilocal frame (RQF). We argued at a fundamental level that these RQF conservation laws are superior to conservation laws based on the local stress–energy–momentum tensor of matter because (1) they do not rely on spacetime symmetries and (2) they properly account for both matter and gravitational effects. Moreover, they provide simple, exact, operational expressions for fluxes of gravitational energy and linear and angular momentum. In this paper we derive the form of these laws in a general first post-Newtonian (1PN) approximation, and then apply these approximate laws to the problem of gravitational tidal interactions. We obtain formulas for tidal heating and tidal torque that agree with the literature, but without resorting to the use of pseudotensors. We describe the physical mechanism of these tidal interactions not in the traditional terms of a Newtonian gravitational force, but in terms of a much simpler and universal mechanism that is an exact, quasilocal manifestation of the equivalence principle in general relativity. As concrete examples, we look at the tidal heating of Jupiter’s moon Io and angular momentum transfer in the Earth–Moon system that causes a gradual spin-down of the Earth and recession of the Moon. In both examples we find agreement with observation. (paper)

  15. Radiation reaction of a classical quasi-rigid extended particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Rodrigo

    2006-01-01

    The problem of the self-interaction of a quasi-rigid classical particle with an arbitrary spherically symmetric charge distribution is completely solved up to the first order in the acceleration. No ad hoc assumptions are made. The relativistic equations of conservation of energy and momentum in a continuous medium are used. The electromagnetic fields are calculated in the reference frame of instantaneous rest using the Coulomb gauge; in this way the troublesome power expansion is avoided. Most of the puzzles that this problem has aroused are due to the inertia of the negative pressure that equilibrates the electrostatic repulsion inside the particle. The effective mass of this pressure is -U e /(3c 2 ), where U e is the electrostatic energy. When the pressure mass is taken into account the dressed mass m turns out to be the bare mass plus the electrostatic mass m = m 0 + U e /c 2 . It is shown that a proper mechanical behaviour requires that m 0 > U e /3c 2 . This condition poses a lower bound on the radius that a particle of a given bare mass and charge may have. The violation of this condition is the reason why the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac formula for the radiation reaction of a point charge predicts unphysical motions that run away or violate causality. Provided the mass condition is met the solutions of the exact equation of motion never run away and conform to causality and conservation of energy and momentum. When the radius is much smaller than the wavelength of the radiated fields, but the mass condition is still met, the exact expression reduces to the formula that Rohrlich (2002 Phys. Lett. A 303 307) has advocated for the radiation reaction of a quasi-point charge

  16. Noise characteristics of barium ferrite particulate rigid disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Naoki; Inoue, Hitoshi; Spratt, Geoffrey; Uesaka, Yasutaro; Katsumoto, Masayuki

    1991-04-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between the noise characteristics and magnetic properties of longitudinal barium ferrite (Ba-F) rigid disks with different switching field distributions (SFD). The magnetomotive force dependencies of reverse dc-erase (RDC) noise are measured and compared with SFD values. Coated disks with acicular magnetic particles have dips and thin-film disks peaks in the RDC. In Ba-F disks, both cases are observed depending on the SFD values, though the depths or heights of the RDC noise are much smaller than those of coated disks with acicular particles or thin-film disks. Disks with small SFD values have peaks, and disks with large SFD values have dips. In order to find the relationship between noise properties and magnetic properties, interparticle interactions in Ba-F disks are investigated. Reverse dc remanence Id(H) and ac-demagnetized isothermal remanence Ir(H) are measured. Both are normalized by the saturation remanence. The deviation from the noninteracting system, ΔM = Id(H) - [1ΔM=Id(H)-[1- 2Ir(H)] and an interaction field factor (IFF) given by (H'r - Hr)/Hc, are derived from these remanent properties. Here, H'r is the field corresponding to 50% of the remanent magnetization, Hr is remanence coercivity. In Ba-F disks, ΔM shows positive interactions, and the peak heights of ΔM increase and IFF decrease with decreasing SFD values. Positive interactions between Ba-F particles seem to be caused by particle stacking. Therefore, particle stacking results in small SFD values and peak-type RDC noise.

  17. Rigid Polyurethane Foam Thermal Insulation Protected with Mineral Intumescent Mat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirpluks Mikelis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest disadvantages of rigid polyurethane (PU foams is its low thermal resistance, high flammability and high smoke production. Greatest advantage of this thermal insulation material is its low thermal conductivity (λ, which at 18-28 mW/(m•K is superior to other materials. To lower the flammability of PU foams, different flame retardants (FR are used. Usually, industrially viable are halogenated liquid FRs but recent trends in EU regulations show that they are not desirable any more. Main concern is toxicity of smoke and health hazard form volatiles in PU foam materials. Development of intumescent passive fire protection for foam materials would answer problems with flammability without using halogenated FRs. It is possible to add expandable graphite (EG into PU foam structure but this increases the thermal conductivity greatly. Thus, the main advantage of PU foam is lost. To decrease the flammability of PU foams, three different contents 3%; 9% and 15% of EG were added to PU foam formulation. Sample with 15% of EG increased λ of PU foam from 24.0 to 30.0 mW/(m•K. This paper describes the study where PU foam developed from renewable resources is protected with thermally expandable intumescent mat from Technical Fibre Products Ltd. (TFP as an alternative to EG added into PU material. TFP produces range of mineral fibre mats with EG that produce passive fire barrier. Two type mats were used to develop sandwich-type PU foams. Also, synergy effect of non-halogenated FR, dimethyl propyl phosphate and EG was studied. Flammability of developed materials was assessed using Cone Calorimeter equipment. Density, thermal conductivity, compression strength and modulus of elasticity were tested for developed PU foams. PU foam morphology was assessed from scanning electron microscopy images.

  18. Standard Errors for Matrix Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Haruhiko

    1999-01-01

    Derives the asymptotic standard errors and intercorrelations for several matrix correlations assuming multivariate normality for manifest variables and derives the asymptotic standard errors of the matrix correlations for two factor-loading matrices. (SLD)

  19. Rigidity spectrum of Forbush decrease calculated by neutron monitors data corrected and uncorrected for geomagnetic disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alania, M V; Wawrzynczak, A; Sdobnov, V E; Kravtsova, M V

    2013-01-01

    Forbush decreases (Fd) of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity and geomagnetic storms are observed almost at the same time. Geomagnetic storm is a reason of significant disturbances of the magnetic cut off rigidity causing the distortion of the time profile of the Fd of the GCR intensity. We show some differences in the temporal changes of the rigidity spectra of Fd calculated by neutron monitors experimental data corrected and uncorrected for the changes of the geomagnetic cut off rigidity. Nevertheless, the general features of the temporal changes of the rigidity spectrum of Fd maintain as it was found in our previous investigations. Namely, at the beginning phase of Fd rigidity spectrum is relatively soft and gradually becomes hard up to reaching the minimum level of the GCR intensity; then the rigidity spectrum gradually becomes soft during the recovery phase of Fd. We also confirm that for the established temporal profiles of the rigidity spectrum of Fd a structural changes of the interplanetary magnetic field turbulence in the range of frequencies, 10 −-6 ÷10 −-5 Hz are responsible.

  20. Calculations of critical micelle concentration by dissipative particle dynamics simulations: the role of chain rigidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Tsung; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V

    2013-09-05

    Micelle formation in surfactant solutions is a self-assembly process governed by complex interplay of solvent-mediated interactions between hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, which are commonly called heads and tails. However, the head-tail repulsion is not the only factor affecting the micelle formation. For the first time, we present a systematic study of the effect of chain rigidity on critical micelle concentration and micelle size, which is performed with the dissipative particle dynamics simulation method. Rigidity of the coarse-grained surfactant molecule was controlled by the harmonic bonds set between the second-neighbor beads. Compared to flexible molecules with the nearest-neighbor bonds being the only type of bonded interactions, rigid molecules exhibited a lower critical micelle concentration and formed larger and better-defined micelles. By varying the strength of head-tail repulsion and the chain rigidity, we constructed two-dimensional diagrams presenting how the critical micelle concentration and aggregation number depend on these parameters. We found that the solutions of flexible and rigid molecules that exhibited approximately the same critical micelle concentration could differ substantially in the micelle size and shape depending on the chain rigidity. With the increase of surfactant concentration, primary micelles of more rigid molecules were found less keen to agglomeration and formation of nonspherical aggregates characteristic of flexible molecules.

  1. Connections rigidity effect on probability of fracture in steel moment frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Abdollahzadeh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Connections in steel moment frames are idealized in full pinned and full rigid conditions. Because with this assumption, in spite of real behavior of connection, real story drifts are less anticipated and maybe frame is designed without performance of bracing. There are several methods for modeling actual behavior of semi rigid connections. In this method a connection with certain rigidity is modeled by a rotational spring with corresponding stiffness. This stiffness is achieved by certain formula. In other words, each percent of rigidity corresponds to one rotational spring stiffness. In this research in order to evaluate the real behavior of connection in analysis and designing process and fracture probability one frame including four stories and one bay with three types of connection has been modeled and designed in ETABS. Each model has an individual rigidity which is equal to 10, 75 and 90 percent. With respect to maximum drift and different PGA in roof, probabilities of low, medium, high and complete fracture were calculated. For this purpose, with applying different PGA to modeled frames, amounts of drift in the roof are achieved. Then these values are compared with given values in American code. Finally, investigation showed that when rigidity in frame connections increases, the probability of frame fracture decreases. In other words, fully rigid assumption of connection in analysis process leads to decreasing in real probability of fracture in frames which is a noticeable risk in building designing processes.

  2. A rigidity transition and glassy dynamics in a model for confluent 3D tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Matthias; Manning, M. Lisa

    The origin of rigidity in disordered materials is an outstanding open problem in statistical physics. Recently, a new type of rigidity transition was discovered in a family of models for 2D biological tissues, but the mechanisms responsible for rigidity remain unclear. This is not just a statistical physics problem, but also relevant for embryonic development, cancer growth, and wound healing. To gain insight into this rigidity transition and make new predictions about biological bulk tissues, we have developed a fully 3D self-propelled Voronoi (SPV) model. The model takes into account shape, elasticity, and self-propelled motion of the individual cells. We find that in the absence of self-propulsion, this model exhibits a rigidity transition that is controlled by a dimensionless model parameter describing the preferred cell shape, with an accompanying structural order parameter. In the presence of self-propulsion, the rigidity transition appears as a glass-like transition featuring caging and aging effects. Given the similarities between this transition and jamming in particulate solids, it is natural to ask if the two transitions are related. By comparing statistics of Voronoi geometries, we show the transitions are surprisingly close but demonstrably distinct. Furthermore, an index theorem used to identify topologically protected mechanical modes in jammed systems can be extended to these vertex-type models. In our model, residual stresses govern the transition and enter the index theorem in a different way compared to jammed particles, suggesting the origin of rigidity may be different between the two.

  3. Dynamic Multi-Rigid-Body Systems with Concurrent Distributed Contacts: Theory and Examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRINKLE, JEFFREY C.; TZITZOURIS, J.A.; PANG, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Consider a system of rigid bodies with multiple concurrent contacts. The multi-rigid-body contact problem is to predict the accelerations of the bodies and the normal friction loads acting at the contacts. This paper presents theoretical results for the multi-rigid-body contact problem under the assumptions that one or more contacts occur over locally planar, finite regions and that friction forces are consistent with the maximum work inequality. Existence and uniqueness results are presented for this problem under mild assumptions on the system inputs. In addition, the performance of two different time-stepping methods for integrating the dynamics are compared on two simple multi-body systems

  4. High frequency permeameter with semi-rigid pick-up coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sung-Yong; Shin, Kwang-Ho . E-mail : khshin@star.ks.ac.kr; Kim, Jong-sung; Kim, Young-Hak; Lim, Sang-Ho; Sa-gong, Geon

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we propose the application of semi-rigid cable loop as a single turn shielded loop pick-up coil for the high frequency permeameter. Since the semi-rigid cable pick-up coil has simple structure, it is very easy to make the pick-up coil with bending and conventional soldering. The permeability of cobalt base amorphous ribbon was investigated using the developed permeameter for demonstrating its performance. The permeability of the amorphous ribbon was driven from the S-parameters measured using a network analyzer and permameter having the semi-rigid pick-up coil

  5. Wobbling motion: A γ-rigid or γ-soft mode?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casten, R.F.; McCutchan, E.A.; Beausang, C.W.; Zamfir, N.V.; Zhang Jingye

    2003-01-01

    For even-even nuclei, it is shown that the predicted B(E2) values from the odd spin states of the quasi-γ band in a γ-soft nucleus to the yrast band are quite similar to those predicted for the one-phonon wobbling mode of a rigidly triaxial nucleus. This suggests that the observation of wobbling points to axial asymmetry, but not necessarily to rigid triaxiality. However, another observable that does distinguish γ-soft from γ-rigid structure is identified

  6. The cellulose resource matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Edwin R P; Yılmaz, Gülden; van Dam, Jan E G

    2013-03-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where large scale competition can be expected and already is observed for the traditional industries such as the paper industry. Cellulose and lignocellulosic raw materials (like wood and non-wood fibre crops) are being utilised in many industrial sectors. Due to the initiated transition towards biobased economy, these raw materials are intensively investigated also for new applications such as 2nd generation biofuels and 'green' chemicals and materials production (Clark, 2007; Lange, 2007; Petrus & Noordermeer, 2006; Ragauskas et al., 2006; Regalbuto, 2009). As lignocellulosic raw materials are available in variable quantities and qualities, unnecessary competition can be avoided via the choice of suitable raw materials for a target application. For example, utilisation of cellulose as carbohydrate source for ethanol production (Kabir Kazi et al., 2010) avoids the discussed competition with easier digestible carbohydrates (sugars, starch) deprived from the food supply chain. Also for cellulose use as a biopolymer several different competing markets can be distinguished. It is clear that these applications and markets will be influenced by large volume shifts. The world will have to reckon with the increase of competition and feedstock shortage (land use/biodiversity) (van Dam, de Klerk-Engels, Struik, & Rabbinge, 2005). It is of interest - in the context of sustainable development of the bioeconomy - to categorize the already available and emerging lignocellulosic resources in a matrix structure. When composing such "cellulose resource matrix" attention should be given to the quality aspects as well as to the available quantities and practical possibilities of processing the

  7. Random matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Deift, Percy

    2009-01-01

    This book features a unified derivation of the mathematical theory of the three classical types of invariant random matrix ensembles-orthogonal, unitary, and symplectic. The authors follow the approach of Tracy and Widom, but the exposition here contains a substantial amount of additional material, in particular, facts from functional analysis and the theory of Pfaffians. The main result in the book is a proof of universality for orthogonal and symplectic ensembles corresponding to generalized Gaussian type weights following the authors' prior work. New, quantitative error estimates are derive

  8. Matrix vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenman, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    This outstanding text and reference applies matrix ideas to vector methods, using physical ideas to illustrate and motivate mathematical concepts but employing a mathematical continuity of development rather than a physical approach. The author, who taught at the U.S. Air Force Academy, dispenses with the artificial barrier between vectors and matrices--and more generally, between pure and applied mathematics.Motivated examples introduce each idea, with interpretations of physical, algebraic, and geometric contexts, in addition to generalizations to theorems that reflect the essential structur

  9. Matrix Encryption Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhakim Chillali

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In classical cryptography, the Hill cipher is a polygraphic substitution cipher based on linear algebra. In this work, we proposed a new problem applicable to the public key cryptography, based on the Matrices, called “Matrix discrete logarithm problem”, it uses certain elements formed by matrices whose coefficients are elements in a finite field. We have constructed an abelian group and, for the cryptographic part in this unreliable group, we then perform the computation corresponding to the algebraic equations, Returning the encrypted result to a receiver. Upon receipt of the result, the receiver can retrieve the sender’s clear message by performing the inverse calculation.

  10. Matrix string partition function

    CERN Document Server

    Kostov, Ivan K; Kostov, Ivan K.; Vanhove, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    We evaluate quasiclassically the Ramond partition function of Euclidean D=10 U(N) super Yang-Mills theory reduced to a two-dimensional torus. The result can be interpreted in terms of free strings wrapping the space-time torus, as expected from the point of view of Matrix string theory. We demonstrate that, when extrapolated to the ultraviolet limit (small area of the torus), the quasiclassical expressions reproduce exactly the recently obtained expression for the partition of the completely reduced SYM theory, including the overall numerical factor. This is an evidence that our quasiclassical calculation might be exact.

  11. Observation of the Identical Rigidity Dependence of He, C, and O Cosmic Rays at High Rigidities by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M.; Ali Cavasonza, L.; Alpat, B.; Ambrosi, G.; Arruda, L.; Attig, N.; Aupetit, S.; Azzarello, P.; Bachlechner, A.; Barao, F.; Barrau, A.; Barrin, L.; Bartoloni, A.; Basara, L.; Başeǧmez-du Pree, S.; Battarbee, M.; Battiston, R.; Becker, U.; Behlmann, M.; Beischer, B.; Berdugo, J.; Bertucci, B.; Bindel, K. F.; Bindi, V.; de Boer, W.; Bollweg, K.; Bonnivard, V.; Borgia, B.; Boschini, M. J.; Bourquin, M.; Bueno, E. F.; Burger, J.; Burger, W. J.; Cadoux, F.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caroff, S.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cervelli, F.; Chae, M. J.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, A. I.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Cheng, L.; Chou, H. Y.; Choumilov, E.; Choutko, V.; Chung, C. H.; Clark, C.; Clavero, R.; Coignet, G.; Consolandi, C.; Contin, A.; Corti, C.; Creus, W.; Crispoltoni, M.; Cui, Z.; Dadzie, K.; Dai, Y. M.; Datta, A.; Delgado, C.; Della Torre, S.; Demakov, O.; Demirköz, M. B.; Derome, L.; Di Falco, S.; Dimiccoli, F.; Díaz, C.; von Doetinchem, P.; Dong, F.; Donnini, F.; Duranti, M.; D'Urso, D.; Egorov, A.; Eline, A.; Eronen, T.; Feng, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fisher, P.; Formato, V.; Galaktionov, Y.; Gallucci, G.; García-López, R. J.; Gargiulo, C.; Gast, H.; Gebauer, I.; Gervasi, M.; Ghelfi, A.; Giovacchini, F.; Gómez-Coral, D. M.; Gong, J.; Goy, C.; Grabski, V.; Grandi, D.; Graziani, M.; Guo, K. H.; Haino, S.; Han, K. C.; He, Z. H.; Heil, M.; Hoffman, J.; Hsieh, T. H.; Huang, H.; Huang, Z. C.; Huh, C.; Incagli, M.; Ionica, M.; Jang, W. Y.; Jia, Yi; Jinchi, H.; Kang, S. C.; Kanishev, K.; Khiali, B.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, K. S.; Kirn, Th.; Konak, C.; Kounina, O.; Kounine, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Kulemzin, A.; La Vacca, G.; Laudi, E.; Laurenti, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, H. T.; Lee, S. C.; Leluc, C.; Li, H. S.; Li, J. Q.; Li, Q.; Li, T. X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. H.; Li, Z. Y.; Lim, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lipari, P.; Lippert, T.; Liu, D.; Liu, Hu; Lordello, V. D.; Lu, S. Q.; Lu, Y. S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luo, F.; Luo, J. Z.; Lyu, S. S.; Machate, F.; Mañá, C.; Marín, J.; Martin, T.; Martínez, G.; Masi, N.; Maurin, D.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meng, Q.; Mikuni, V. M.; Mo, D. C.; Mott, P.; Nelson, T.; Ni, J. Q.; Nikonov, N.; Nozzoli, F.; Oliva, A.; Orcinha, M.; Palmonari, F.; Palomares, C.; Paniccia, M.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perrina, C.; Phan, H. D.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Pilo, F.; Pizzolotto, C.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Poireau, V.; Quadrani, L.; Qi, X. M.; Qin, X.; Qu, Z. Y.; Räihä, T.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rapin, D.; Ricol, J. S.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rozhkov, A.; Rozza, D.; Sagdeev, R.; Schael, S.; Schmidt, S. M.; Schulz von Dratzig, A.; Schwering, G.; Seo, E. S.; Shan, B. S.; Shi, J. Y.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Song, J. W.; Tacconi, M.; Tang, X. W.; Tang, Z. C.; Tescaro, D.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tomassetti, N.; Torsti, J.; Türkoǧlu, C.; Urban, T.; Vagelli, V.; Valente, E.; Valtonen, E.; Vázquez Acosta, M.; Vecchi, M.; Velasco, M.; Vialle, J. P.; Vitale, V.; Vitillo, S.; Wang, L. Q.; Wang, N. H.; Wang, Q. L.; Wang, X.; Wang, X. Q.; Wang, Z. X.; Wei, C. C.; Weng, Z. L.; Whitman, K.; Wu, H.; Wu, X.; Xiong, R. Q.; Xu, W.; Yan, Q.; Yang, J.; Yang, M.; Yang, Y.; Yi, H.; Yu, Y. J.; Yu, Z. Q.; Zannoni, M.; Zeissler, S.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. H.; Zhang, S. W.; Zhang, Z.; Zheng, Z. M.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zhukov, V.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, N.; Zuccon, P.; AMS Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    We report the observation of new properties of primary cosmic rays He, C, and O measured in the rigidity (momentum/charge) range 2 GV to 3 TV with 90 ×106 helium, 8.4 ×106 carbon, and 7.0 ×106 oxygen nuclei collected by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) during the first five years of operation. Above 60 GV, these three spectra have identical rigidity dependence. They all deviate from a single power law above 200 GV and harden in an identical way.

  12. Rigid Basement and the Evolution of the Pakistani Convergent Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, S. S.; Davis, D. M.

    2007-12-01

    In Pakistan, along the western edge of the Indian-Eurasian collision there are a series of fold-and-thrust belts that have highly variable strikes and shortening directions with respect to the local relative plate motion. Much of the complexity in the deformation of this margin can easily be explained by the shape, location, and long-term motion of a fragment of relatively rigid oceanic lithosphere that is believed to underlie the Katawaz Basin. In particular, the deformation that has formed the Sulaiman Range and Lobe is a direct consequence of the Katawaz Basin's over all higher strength. The presence of deformed sedimentary strata in the basin comparable to those presently found in the Indus delta are indicative of the basins long-term motion parallel to the Chaman fault zone. In Pakistan, the transition in the strike and shortening directions occurs over a short distance compared to the width of the fold-belts and the length of the margin. We present a series of analog models along with detailed quantitative analysis that we compare to the observed deformation as indicated by both geologic and geophysical data. By quantitatively distinguishing the style and magnitude of deformation in each of a variety of analog experiments we are able to evaluate the viability of various alternative models that have been proposed for fold- belt formation and evolution of the Pakistani margin, including our favored model. The model that best fits the geological and geophysical evidence suggests that the complexity of the Pakistani margin is a result of the long- term northeastward migration of the Katawaz basin along the curving trend of the Chaman fault zone. The vertically integrated mechanical strength of the Katawaz basin allows it to act as a strong 'backstop' that has relative motion to both stable India and stable Eurasia. This northeastward motion and the resulting clockwise rotation of the Katawaz 'block' during the margin's development can explain the location and

  13. A sequence-dependent rigid-base model of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, O.; Petkevičiutė, D.; Maddocks, J. H.

    2013-02-01

    A novel hierarchy of coarse-grain, sequence-dependent, rigid-base models of B-form DNA in solution is introduced. The hierarchy depends on both the assumed range of energetic couplings, and the extent of sequence dependence of the model parameters. A significant feature of the models is that they exhibit the phenomenon of frustration: each base cannot simultaneously minimize the energy of all of its interactions. As a consequence, an arbitrary DNA oligomer has an intrinsic or pre-existing stress, with the level of this frustration dependent on the particular sequence of the oligomer. Attention is focussed on the particular model in the hierarchy that has nearest-neighbor interactions and dimer sequence dependence of the model parameters. For a Gaussian version of this model, a complete coarse-grain parameter set is estimated. The parameterized model allows, for an oligomer of arbitrary length and sequence, a simple and explicit construction of an approximation to the configuration-space equilibrium probability density function for the oligomer in solution. The training set leading to the coarse-grain parameter set is itself extracted from a recent and extensive database of a large number of independent, atomic-resolution molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of short DNA oligomers immersed in explicit solvent. The Kullback-Leibler divergence between probability density functions is used to make several quantitative assessments of our nearest-neighbor, dimer-dependent model, which is compared against others in the hierarchy to assess various assumptions pertaining both to the locality of the energetic couplings and to the level of sequence dependence of its parameters. It is also compared directly against all-atom MD simulation to assess its predictive capabilities. The results show that the nearest-neighbor, dimer-dependent model can successfully resolve sequence effects both within and between oligomers. For example, due to the presence of frustration, the model can

  14. A sequence-dependent rigid-base model of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, O; Petkevičiūtė, D; Maddocks, J H

    2013-02-07

    A novel hierarchy of coarse-grain, sequence-dependent, rigid-base models of B-form DNA in solution is introduced. The hierarchy depends on both the assumed range of energetic couplings, and the extent of sequence dependence of the model parameters. A significant feature of the models is that they exhibit the phenomenon of frustration: each base cannot simultaneously minimize the energy of all of its interactions. As a consequence, an arbitrary DNA oligomer has an intrinsic or pre-existing stress, with the level of this frustration dependent on the particular sequence of the oligomer. Attention is focussed on the particular model in the hierarchy that has nearest-neighbor interactions and dimer sequence dependence of the model parameters. For a Gaussian version of this model, a complete coarse-grain parameter set is estimated. The parameterized model allows, for an oligomer of arbitrary length and sequence, a simple and explicit construction of an approximation to the configuration-space equilibrium probability density function for the oligomer in solution. The training set leading to the coarse-grain parameter set is itself extracted from a recent and extensive database of a large number of independent, atomic-resolution molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of short DNA oligomers immersed in explicit solvent. The Kullback-Leibler divergence between probability density functions is used to make several quantitative assessments of our nearest-neighbor, dimer-dependent model, which is compared against others in the hierarchy to assess various assumptions pertaining both to the locality of the energetic couplings and to the level of sequence dependence of its parameters. It is also compared directly against all-atom MD simulation to assess its predictive capabilities. The results show that the nearest-neighbor, dimer-dependent model can successfully resolve sequence effects both within and between oligomers. For example, due to the presence of frustration, the model can

  15. Matrix algebra for linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Gruber, Marvin H J

    2013-01-01

    Matrix methods have evolved from a tool for expressing statistical problems to an indispensable part of the development, understanding, and use of various types of complex statistical analyses. This evolution has made matrix methods a vital part of statistical education. Traditionally, matrix methods are taught in courses on everything from regression analysis to stochastic processes, thus creating a fractured view of the topic. Matrix Algebra for Linear Models offers readers a unique, unified view of matrix analysis theory (where and when necessary), methods, and their applications. Written f

  16. Characterization of supercapacitors matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakka, Monzer Al, E-mail: Monzer.Al.Sakka@vub.ac.b [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); FEMTO-ST Institute, ENISYS Department, FCLAB, UFC-UTBM, bat.F, 90010 Belfort (France); Gualous, Hamid, E-mail: Hamid.Gualous@unicaen.f [Laboratoire LUSAC, Universite de Caen Basse Normandie, Rue Louis Aragon - BP 78, 50130 Cherbourg-Octeville (France); Van Mierlo, Joeri [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-10-30

    This paper treats supercapacitors matrix characterization. In order to cut off transient power peaks and to compensate for the intrinsic limitations in embedded sources, the use of supercapacitors as a storage system is quite suitable, because of their appropriate electrical characteristics (huge capacitance, small series resistance, high specific energy, high specific power), direct storage (energy ready for use), and easy control by power electronic conversion. This use requires supercapacitors modules where several cells connected in serial and/or in parallel, thus a bypass system to balance the charging or the discharging of supercapacitors is required. In the matrix of supercapacitors, six elements of three parallel BCAP0350 supercapacitors in serial connections have been considered. This topology permits to reduce the number of the bypass circuits and it can work in degraded mode. Actually, it allows the system to have more reliability by providing power continually to the load even when there are one or more cells failed. Simulation and experimental results are presented and discussed.

  17. Characterization of supercapacitors matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakka, Monzer Al; Gualous, Hamid; Van Mierlo, Joeri

    2010-01-01

    This paper treats supercapacitors matrix characterization. In order to cut off transient power peaks and to compensate for the intrinsic limitations in embedded sources, the use of supercapacitors as a storage system is quite suitable, because of their appropriate electrical characteristics (huge capacitance, small series resistance, high specific energy, high specific power), direct storage (energy ready for use), and easy control by power electronic conversion. This use requires supercapacitors modules where several cells connected in serial and/or in parallel, thus a bypass system to balance the charging or the discharging of supercapacitors is required. In the matrix of supercapacitors, six elements of three parallel BCAP0350 supercapacitors in serial connections have been considered. This topology permits to reduce the number of the bypass circuits and it can work in degraded mode. Actually, it allows the system to have more reliability by providing power continually to the load even when there are one or more cells failed. Simulation and experimental results are presented and discussed.

  18. Frontal Tasks and Behavior in Rigid or Tremor-Dominant Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Rita; Milner, Vera; Caruso, Paola; Gazzin, Silvia; Rumiati, Raffaella

    2017-08-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is not an unambiguous entity, and there is a general consensus for the statement that an akinetic-rigid dominant type of presentation has a worse prognosis, in the follow-up. The aim of our study was to examine the differences in frontal tasks and behavior, in 2 PD naive groups: the rigid and the tremor-dominant types of presentation, according to motor scores. Our study has showed some important differences in frontal tasks and in behavior, performing more apathy, aggressiveness, and irritability in the rigid type, and more depression and anxiety in the tremor-dominant type. The former group causes the caregiver more distress and has a very rapid disease progression. It can be argued that rigid type PD presentation needs specific dedicated cares and more strong clinical attention.

  19. Effort Flow Analysis: A Methodology for Directed Product Evolution Using Rigid Body and Compliant Mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greer, James

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation presents a systematic design methodology for directed product evolution that uses both rigid body and compliant mechanisms to facilitate component combination in the domain of mechanical products...

  20. Frictionless contact of a rigid punch indenting a transversely isotropic elastic layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Patra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the study of frictionless contact between a rigid punch and a transversely isotropic elastic layer. The rigid punch is assumed to be axially symmetric and is being pressed towards the layer by an applied concentrated load. The layer is resting on a rigid base and is assumed to be ufficiently thick in comparison with the amount of indentation by the rigid punch. The relationship between the applied load $P$ and the contact area is obtained by solving the mathematically formulated problem through use of Hankel transform of different order. Effect of indentation on the distribution of normal stress at the surface as well as the relationship between the applied load and the area of contact have been shown graphically.

  1. Market structure, price rigidity, and performance in the Indonesian food and beverages industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Keywords: industrial concentration, price rigidity, technical efficiency, price-cost margin, Structure-Conduct-Performance (SCP), new empirical industrial organization (NEIO), Indonesian food and beverages industry, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), system of equations

  2. Heat Transfer Measurement and Modeling in Rigid High-Temperature Reusable Surface Insulation Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Knutson, Jeffrey R.; Cunnington, George R.

    2011-01-01

    Heat transfer in rigid reusable surface insulations was investigated. Steady-state thermal conductivity measurements in a vacuum were used to determine the combined contribution of radiation and solid conduction components of heat transfer. Thermal conductivity measurements at higher pressures were then used to estimate the effective insulation characteristic length for gas conduction modeling. The thermal conductivity of the insulation can then be estimated at any temperature and pressure in any gaseous media. The methodology was validated by comparing estimated thermal conductivities with published data on a rigid high-temperature silica reusable surface insulation tile. The methodology was also applied to the alumina enhanced thermal barrier tiles. Thermal contact resistance for thermal conductivity measurements on rigid tiles was also investigated. A technique was developed to effectively eliminate thermal contact resistance on the rigid tile s cold-side surface for the thermal conductivity measurements.

  3. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS FOR THE CASE OF RIGID ROTATING KINEMATIC COUPLING WITH BIG CLEARANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Cristian GRIGORE

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an algorithm based on [1] [2] are numerical simulations, achieving generalized coordinates of motion, positions, speeds of a rigid rotating kinematic coupling with big clearance in joint, case without friction

  4. A model for an acoustically driven microbubble inside a rigid tube

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan; Samtaney, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical framework to model the dynamics of acoustically driven microbubble inside a rigid tube is presented. The proposed model is not a variant of the conventional Rayleigh-Plesset category of models. It is derived from the reduced Navier

  5. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – Exterior Rigid Insulation Best Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    In this Top Innovation profile, field and lab studies by BSC, PHI, and NorthernSTAR characterize the thermal, air, and vapor resistance properties of rigid foam insulation and describe best practices for their use on walls, roofs, and foundations.

  6. Advanced Pavement Design: Finite Element Modeling for Rigid Pavement Joints, Report II: Model Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hammons, Michael

    1998-01-01

    .... The objective of this research was to obtain data on the response of the ng'id pavement slab-joint-foundation system by conducting laboratory-scale experiments on jointed rigid pavement models...

  7. Body fixed frame, rigid gauge rotations and large N random fields in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levit, S.

    1995-01-01

    The ''body fixed frame'' with respect to local gauge transformations is introduced. Rigid gauge ''rotations'' in QCD and their Schroedinger equation are studied for static and dynamic quarks. Possible choices of the rigid gauge field configuration corresponding to a non-vanishing static colormagnetic field in the ''body fixed'' frame are discussed. A gauge invariant variational equation is derived in this frame. For large number N of colors the rigid gauge field configuration is regarded as random with maximally random probability distribution under constraints on macroscopic-like quantities. For the uniform magnetic field the joint probability distribution of the field components is determined by maximizing the appropriate entropy under the area law constraint for the Wilson loop. In the quark sector the gauge invariance requires the rigid gauge field configuration to appear not only as a background but also as inducing an instantaneous quark-quark interaction. Both are random in the large N limit. (orig.)

  8. Composite Sliding Mode Control for a Free-Floating Space Rigid-Flexible Coupling Manipulator System

    OpenAIRE

    Congqing, Wang; Pengfei, Wu; Xin, Zhou; Xiwu, Pei

    2013-01-01

    The flexible space manipulator is a highly nonlinear and coupled dynamic system. This paper proposes a novel composite sliding mode control to deal with the vibration suppression and trajectory tracking of a free-floating space rigid-flexible coupling manipulator with a rigid payload. First, the dynamic equations of this system are established by using Lagrange and assumed mode methods and in the meantime this dynamic modelling allows consideration of the modelling errors, the external distur...

  9. Spontaneous breaking of N=2 to N=1 in rigid and local supersymmetric theories

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio; Porrati, Massimo

    1996-01-01

    We analyze the relation between rigid and local supersymmetric N=2 field theories, when half of the supersymmetries are spontaneously broken. In particular, we show that the recently found partial supersymmety breaking induced by electric and magnetic Fayet-Iliopoulos terms in rigid theories can be obtained by a suitable flat limit of previously constructed N=2 supergravity models with partial super-Higgs in the observable sector.

  10. Fluctuations and rigidities in local labor markets. Part 2: reinterpreting contracts

    OpenAIRE

    G L Clark

    1983-01-01

    Local labor markets are characterized by rigidities in their patterns of adjustment to short-run fluctuations. With or without unions, fluctuations in employment, hours worked, and money wages are unlike the patterns predicted by conventional discrete-exchange labor-market theories. Moreover there are distinct geographical and industrial patterns in the observed rigidities. Neoclassical implicit contract theory has been vindicated. Or has it? Obvious empirical difficulties remain, especially ...

  11. Almost-global tracking for a rigid body with internal rotors

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Aradhana; Banavar, Ravi N.

    2017-01-01

    Almost-global orientation trajectory tracking for a rigid body with external actuation has been well studied in the literature, and in the geometric setting as well. The tracking control law relies on the fact that a rigid body is a simple mechanical system (SMS) on the $3-$dimensional group of special orthogonal matrices. However, the problem of designing feedback control laws for tracking using internal actuation mechanisms, like rotors or control moment gyros, has received lesser attention...

  12. Psychological prices of branded foods and price rigidity : evidence from German scanner data

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Roland; Möser, Anke

    2004-01-01

    There is increasing evidence from scanner data that branded foods in the grocery retailing sector contain a substantial amount of price rigidity (HERRMANN/MÖSER 2003). One of the many alternative explanations for price rigidity is the existence of psychological pricing points. The economic literature has been most hesitant against this theory and, in a survey, BLINDER et al. (1998) found no confirmation at all based on the views of business managers. In that study, however, retail trade is un...

  13. Tidal Evolution of Asteroidal Binaries. Ruled by Viscosity. Ignorant of Rigidity

    OpenAIRE

    Efroimsky, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The rate of tidal evolution of asteroidal binaries is defined by the dynamical Love numbers divided by quality factors. Common is the (often illegitimate) approximation of the dynamical Love numbers with their static counterparts. As the static Love numbers are, approximately, proportional to the inverse rigidity, this renders a popular fallacy that the tidal evolution rate is determined by the product of the rigidity by the quality factor: $\\,k_l/Q\\propto 1/(\\mu Q)\\,$. In reality, the dynami...

  14. Truncated exponential-rigid-rotor model for strong electron and ion rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrabee, D.A.; Lovelace, R.V.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive study of exponential-rigid-rotor equilibria for strong electron and ion rings indicates the presence of a sizeable percentage of untrapped particles in all equilibria with aspect-ratios R/a approximately <4. Such aspect-ratios are required in fusion-relevant rings. Significant changes in the equilibria are observed when untrapped particles are excluded by the use of a truncated exponential-rigid-rotor distribution function. (author)

  15. ANALYTIC EVALUATION OF RECTILINEARITY OF LOW RIGIDITY SHAFT DURING HARDENING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Świć

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential influence of the unevenness of temperature distribution while heating in the technological process on dimensions stability of low rigidity elements was shown. The new approach was applied to formulate mathematical models, which describe the elastic and inelastic behaviour of piece using transfer functions and block diagrams, allowing to use frequency method for evaluation of the behaviour of dynamic semi-finished element as the rigid body.

  16. Utility of semi-rigid thoracoscopy in undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattusamy, Loganathan; Madan, Karan; Mohan, Anant; Hadda, Vijay; Jain, Deepali; Madan, Neha Kawatra; Arava, Sudheer; Khilnani, Gopi C; Guleria, Randeep

    2015-01-01

    Semi-rigid thoracoscopy is a safe and efficacious procedure in patients with undiagnosed pleural effusion. Literature on its utility from developing countries is limited. We herein describe our initial experience on the utility of semi-rigid thoracoscopy from a tertiary care teaching and referral center in north India. We also perform a systematic review of studies reporting the utility of semi-rigid thoracoscopy from India. The primary objective was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of semi-rigid thoracoscopy in patients with undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion. Semi-rigid thoracoscopy was performed under local anesthesia and conscious sedation in the bronchoscopy suite. A total of 48 patients underwent semi-rigid thoracoscopy between August 2012 and December 2013 for undiagnosed pleural effusion. Mean age was 50.9 ± 14.1 years (range: 17-78 years). Pre-procedure clinico-radiological diagnoses were malignant pleural effusion [36 patients (75%)], tuberculosis (TB) [10 (20.83%) patients], and empyema [2 patients (4.17%)]. Patients with empyema underwent the procedure for pleural biopsy, optimal placement of intercostal tube and adhesiolysis. Thoracoscopic pleural biopsy diagnosed pleural malignancy in 30 (62.5%) patients and TB in 2 (4.17%) patients. Fourteen (29.17%) patients were diagnosed with non-specific pleuritis and normal pleura was diagnosed on a pleural biopsy in 2 (4.17%) patients. Overall, a definitive diagnosis of either pleural malignancy or TB was obtained in 32 (66.7%) patients. Combined overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of thoracoscopic pleural biopsy for malignant pleural effusion were 96.77%, 100%, 100% and 66.67%, respectively. There was no procedure-related mortality. On performing a systematic review of literature, four studies on semi-rigid thoracoscopy from India were identified. Semi-rigid thoracoscopy is a safe and efficacious procedure in patients with undiagnosed exudative

  17. Rigid body displacement fields of an in-plane-deformable curved beam based on conventional strain definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Won Joo; Min, Oak Key; Kim, Yong Woo

    1998-01-01

    To improve the convergence and the accuracy of a finite element, the finite element has to describe not only displacement and stress distributions in a static analysis but also rigid body displacements. In this paper, we consider the in-plane-deformable curved beam element to understand the descriptive capability of rigid body displacements of a finite element. We derive the rigid body displacement fields of a single finite element under various essential boundary conditions when the nodal displacements are caused by the rigid body displacement. We also examine the rigid body displacement fields of a quadratic curved beam element by employing the reduced minimization theory

  18. Pharmacological targeting of membrane rigidity: implications on cancer cell migration and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braig, Simone; Stoiber, Katharina; Zahler, Stefan; Vollmar, Angelika M

    2015-01-01

    The invasive potential of cancer cells strongly depends on cellular stiffness, a physical quantity that is not only regulated by the mechanical impact of the cytoskeleton but also influenced by the membrane rigidity. To analyze the specific role of membrane rigidity in cancer progression, we treated cancer cells with the Acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitor Soraphen A and revealed an alteration of the phospholipidome via mass spectrometry. Migration, invasion, and cell death assays were employed to relate this alteration to functional consequences, and a decrease of migration and invasion without significant impact on cell death has been recorded. Fourier fluctuation analysis of giant plasma membrane vesicles showed that Soraphen A increases membrane rigidity of carcinoma cell membranes. Mechanical measurements of the creep deformation response of whole intact cells were performed using the optical stretcher. The increase in membrane rigidity was observed in one cell line without changing the creep deformation response indicating no restructuring of the cytoskeleton. These data indicate that the increase of membrane rigidity alone is sufficient to inhibit invasiveness of cancer cells, thus disclosing the eminent role of membrane rigidity in migratory processes. (paper)

  19. Ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites - A comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    1987-01-01

    The underlying theory of continuous fiber reinforcement of ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites, their fabrication, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties are contrasted. The growing use of organometallic polymers as precursors to ceramic matrices is discussed as a means of providing low temperature processing capability without the fiber degradation encountered with more conventional ceramic processing techniques. Examples of ceramic matrix composites derived from particulate-filled, high char yield polymers and silsesquioxane precursors are provided.

  20. Ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites: A comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    1987-01-01

    The underlying theory of continuous fiber reinforcement of ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites, their fabrication, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties are contrasted. The growing use of organometallic polymers as precursors to ceramic matrices is discussed as a means of providing low temperature processing capability without the fiber degradation encountered with more conventional ceramic processing techniques. Examples of ceramic matrix composites derived from particulate-filled, high char yield polymers and silsesquioxane precursors are provided.

  1. Study of drug release and tablet characteristics of silicone adhesive matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolia, Gaurav; Li, S Kevin

    2012-11-01

    Matrix tablets of a model drug acetaminophen (APAP) were prepared using a highly compressible low glass transition temperature (T(g)) polymer silicone pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) at various binary mixtures of silicone PSA/APAP ratios. Matrix tablets of a rigid high T(g) matrix forming polymer ethyl cellulose (EC) were the reference for comparison. Drug release study was carried out using USP Apparatus 1 (basket), and the relationship between the release kinetic parameters of APAP and polymer/APAP ratio was determined to estimate the excipient percolation threshold. The critical points attributed to both silicone PSA and EC tablet percolation thresholds were found to be between 2.5% and 5% w/w. For silicone PSA tablets, satisfactory mechanical properties were obtained above the polymer percolation threshold; no cracking or chipping of the tablet was observed above this threshold. Rigid EC APAP tablets showed low tensile strength and high friability. These results suggest that silicone PSA could eliminate issues related to drug compressibility in the formulation of directly compressed oral controlled release tablets of poorly compressible drug powder such as APAP. No routinely used excipients such as binders, granulating agents, glidants, or lubricants were required for making an acceptable tablet matrix of APAP using silicone PSA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A matrix big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craps, Ben; Sethi, Savdeep; Verlinde, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type-IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matrix theory description in terms of a (1+1)-d supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a time-dependent world-sheet given by the Milne orbifold of (1+1)-d Minkowski space. Our model provides a framework in which the physics of the singularity appears to be under control

  3. A matrix big bang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craps, Ben [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sethi, Savdeep [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Verlinde, Erik [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-10-15

    The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type-IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matrix theory description in terms of a (1+1)-d supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a time-dependent world-sheet given by the Milne orbifold of (1+1)-d Minkowski space. Our model provides a framework in which the physics of the singularity appears to be under control.

  4. Rotation of hard particles in a soft matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weizhu; Liu, Qingchang; Yue, Zhufeng; Li, Xiaodong; Xu, Baoxing

    Soft-hard materials integration is ubiquitous in biological materials and structures in nature and has also attracted growing attention in the bio-inspired design of advanced functional materials, structures and devices. Due to the distinct difference in their mechanical properties, the rotation of hard phases in soft matrixes upon deformation has been acknowledged, yet is lack of theory in mechanics. In this work, we propose a theoretical mechanics framework that can describe the rotation of hard particles in a soft matrix. The rotation of multiple arbitrarily shaped, located and oriented particles with perfectly bonded interfaces in an elastic soft matrix subjected to a far-field tensile loading is established and analytical solutions are derived by using complex potentials and conformal mapping methods. Strong couplings and competitions of the rotation of hard particles among each other are discussed by investigating numbers, relative locations and orientations of particles in the matrix at different loading directions. Extensive finite element analyses are performed to validate theoretical solutions and good agreement of both rotation and stress field between them are achieved. Possible extensions of the present theory to non-rigid particles, viscoelastic matrix and imperfect bonding are also discussed. Finally, by taking advantage of the rotation of hard particles, we exemplify an application in a conceptual design of soft-hard material integrated phononic crystal and demonstrate that phononic band gaps can be successfully tuned with a high accuracy through the mechanical tension-induced rotation of hard particles. The present theory established herein is expected to be of immediate interests to the design of soft-hard materials integration based functional materials, structures and devices with tunable performance via mechanical rotation of hard phases.

  5. Matrix metalloproteinases outside vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino-Puertas, Laura; Goulas, Theodoros; Gomis-Rüth, F Xavier

    2017-11-01

    The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family belongs to the metzincin clan of zinc-dependent metallopeptidases. Due to their enormous implications in physiology and disease, MMPs have mainly been studied in vertebrates. They are engaged in extracellular protein processing and degradation, and present extensive paralogy, with 23 forms in humans. One characteristic of MMPs is a ~165-residue catalytic domain (CD), which has been structurally studied for 14 MMPs from human, mouse, rat, pig and the oral-microbiome bacterium Tannerella forsythia. These studies revealed close overall coincidence and characteristic structural features, which distinguish MMPs from other metzincins and give rise to a sequence pattern for their identification. Here, we reviewed the literature available on MMPs outside vertebrates and performed database searches for potential MMP CDs in invertebrates, plants, fungi, viruses, protists, archaea and bacteria. These and previous results revealed that MMPs are widely present in several copies in Eumetazoa and higher plants (Tracheophyta), but have just token presence in eukaryotic algae. A few dozen sequences were found in Ascomycota (within fungi) and in double-stranded DNA viruses infecting invertebrates (within viruses). In contrast, a few hundred sequences were found in archaea and >1000 in bacteria, with several copies for some species. Most of the archaeal and bacterial phyla containing potential MMPs are present in human oral and gut microbiomes. Overall, MMP-like sequences are present across all kingdoms of life, but their asymmetric distribution contradicts the vertical descent model from a eubacterial or archaeal ancestor. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Matrix Metalloproteinases edited by Rafael Fridman. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of rigid and non-rigid connections between implants and teeth on biological and technical complications: a systematic review and a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaousoglou, Phoebus; Michalakis, Konstantinos; Kang, Kiho; Weber, Hans-Peter; Sculean, Anton

    2017-07-01

    To assess survival, as well as technical and biological complication rates of partial fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) supported by implants and teeth. An electronic Medline search was conducted to identify articles, published in dental journals from January 1980 to August 2015, reporting on partial FDPs supported by implants and teeth. The search terms were categorized into four groups comprising the PICO question. Manual searches of published full-text articles and related reviews were also performed. The initial database search produced 3587 relevant titles. Three hundred and eighty-six articles were retrieved for abstract review, while 39 articles were selected for full-text review. A total of 10 studies were selected for inclusion. Overall survival rate for implants ranged between 90% and 100%, after follow-up periods with a mean range of 18-120 months. The survival of the abutment teeth was 94.1-100%, while the prostheses survival was 85-100% for the same time period. The most frequent complications were "periapical lesions" (11.53%). The most frequent technical complication was "porcelain occlusal fracture" (16.6%), followed by "screw loosening" (15%). According to the meta-analysis, no intrusion was noted on the rigid connection group, while five teeth (8.19%) were intruded in the non-rigid connection group [95% CI (0.013-0.151)]. The tooth-implant FDP seems to be a possible alternative to an implant-supported FDP. There is limited evidence that rigid connection between teeth and implants presents better results when compared with the non-rigid one. The major drawback of non-rigidly connected FDPs is tooth intrusion. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The effect of rigid fixation on growth of the neurocranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L; Dufresne, C R; Richtsmeier, J T; Manson, P N

    1991-09-01

    The effects on skull growth of plating the coronal suture and frontal bone were studied in New Zealand White rabbits. Three-dimensional coordinate landmarks were digitized and analyzed to determine the differences in form between operated and unoperated animals using Euclidian distance matrix analysis. This method compares sets of interlandmark distances in three dimensions and was used to demonstrate changes induced by plating. We interpret these changes in morphology to be the result of differences in growth between the operated and unoperated groups. Periosteal elevation alone (n = 6) resulted in a minimal local growth increase. Coronal suture plating (n = 8) resulted in local growth restriction with contralateral and adjacent size increases. Frontal bone plating (n = 6) without crossing a suture line also resulted in local growth restriction and adjacent bone size increases. The timing of intervention in relation to the completion of bone growth may explain the magnitude of clinically apparent effects. Changes in bones adjacent to those directly manipulated may be an attempt to maintain a normal skull volume.

  8. Phenomenology of the CKM matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nir, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The way in which an exact determination of the CKM matrix elements tests the standard Model is demonstrated by a two-generation example. The determination of matrix elements from meson semileptonic decays is explained, with an emphasis on the respective reliability of quark level and meson level calculations. The assumptions involved in the use of loop processes are described. Finally, the state of the art of the knowledge of the CKM matrix is presented. 19 refs., 2 figs

  9. On matrix fractional differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Adem Kılıçman; Wasan Ajeel Ahmood

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study the matrix fractional differential equations and to find the exact solution for system of matrix fractional differential equations in terms of Riemann–Liouville using Laplace transform method and convolution product to the Riemann–Liouville fractional of matrices. Also, we show the theorem of non-homogeneous matrix fractional partial differential equation with some illustrative examples to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new methodology. The main objec...

  10. Matrix transformations and sequence spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, S.

    1983-06-01

    In most cases the most general linear operator from one sequence space into another is actually given by an infinite matrix and therefore the theory of matrix transformations has always been of great interest in the study of sequence spaces. The study of general theory of matrix transformations was motivated by the special results in summability theory. This paper is a review article which gives almost all known results on matrix transformations. This also suggests a number of open problems for further study and will be very useful for research workers. (author)

  11. Multivariate Matrix-Exponential Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2010-01-01

    be written as linear combinations of the elements in the exponential of a matrix. For this reason we shall refer to multivariate distributions with rational Laplace transform as multivariate matrix-exponential distributions (MVME). The marginal distributions of an MVME are univariate matrix......-exponential distributions. We prove a characterization that states that a distribution is an MVME distribution if and only if all non-negative, non-null linear combinations of the coordinates have a univariate matrix-exponential distribution. This theorem is analog to a well-known characterization theorem...

  12. A matrix model for WZW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorey, Nick; Tong, David; Turner, Carl

    2016-01-01

    We study a U(N) gauged matrix quantum mechanics which, in the large N limit, is closely related to the chiral WZW conformal field theory. This manifests itself in two ways. First, we construct the left-moving Kac-Moody algebra from matrix degrees of freedom. Secondly, we compute the partition function of the matrix model in terms of Schur and Kostka polynomials and show that, in the large N limit, it coincides with the partition function of the WZW model. This same matrix model was recently shown to describe non-Abelian quantum Hall states and the relationship to the WZW model can be understood in this framework.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF THE STRUCTURAL MATRIX APPROACH IN ORGANIZATIONAL DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishlanova Marina Yur'evna

    2012-07-01

    The proposed approach discloses private constituents of elements, communications, organizational layers, generalized characteristics of layers, and partial effects. This approach may be used to simulate a system of forces, items of pressure, and organizational problems. The most advanced state of stability and sustainable development is now provided with the structure within which the elements remain in certain natural interdependence (symmetry, or balance. Formation of this model is based on thorough diagnostics of an organization through the employment of the structural matrix approach and the audit of the following characteristics: labour efficiency, reliability and flexibility of communications, uniformity of distribution of communications and their coordination, connectivity of elements and layers with account for their impact, degree of freedom of elements, layers and the system as a whole, reliability, rigidity, adaptability, stability of the organizational structure.

  14. Testing non-rigid registration of nuclear medicine data using synthetic derived SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd-Pokropek, A.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Non-rigid registration is needed to build atlas data to make statistical tests of significance of uptake in nuclear medicine (NM). Non-rigid registration is much more difficult than rigid registration to validate since some kind of matching function must be defined throughout the volume being registered, and no suitable gold standards exist. The aim here has been to assess non-rigid methods of registration and deformation for NM to NM and NM to MRI data. An additional aim has been to derive good synthetic SPECT images from other NM and MRI data to be used after as reference standards. Material and Methods: Phantom and patient test images have been acquired for both NM and MRI, which are then used to generate projections, where the characteristics of the images are modified to change both signal and noise properties. These derived images are different in character but perfectly registered with the original data, and can then be deformed in a known manner. The registration algorithm is then run backwards to re-register the modified deformed data with the original images. A technique has been developed to assess the vector fields of the original deformation to the reverse non-rigid registration field. Results: The main purpose of this paper is to describe a methodology for optimising algorithms, not to develop the algorithms themselves. Two different algorithms based on optic flow and thin plate spline interpolation have been intercompared and in particular the constraints imposed tested. Considerable differences in matching can be observed in different regions for example edge and centre of brain. Conclusions: Quadratic distance between known makers is a bad estimate to use to assess non-rigid registration. A robust statistic has been developed which can be used to optimise non-rigid algorithms based on the use of synthetic SPECT reference datasets. While the task being tested is simpler than the real clinical task, it is the first essential step in the

  15. Remifentanil-based total intravenous anesthesia for pediatric rigid bronchoscopy: comparison of adjuvant propofol and ketamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mefkur Bakan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:Laryngoscopy and stimuli inside the trachea cause an intense sympatho-adrenal response. Remifentanil seems to be the optimal opioid for rigid bronchoscopy due to its potent and short-acting properties. The purpose of this study was to compare bolus propofol and ketamine as an adjuvant to remifentanil-based total intravenous anesthesia for pediatric rigid bronchoscopy.MATERIALS AND METHODS:Forty children under 12 years of age who had been scheduled for a rigid bronchoscopy were included in this study. After midazolam premedication, a 1 µg/kg/min remifentanil infusion was started, and patients were randomly allocated to receive either propofol (Group P or ketamine (Group K as well as mivacurium for muscle relaxation. Anesthesia was maintained with a 1 µg/kg/min remifentanil infusion and bolus doses of propofol or ketamine. After the rigid bronchoscopy, 0.05 µg/kg/min of remifentanil was maintained until extubation. Hemodynamic parameters, emergence characteristics, and adverse events were evaluated.RESULTS:The demographic variables were comparable between the two groups. The decrease in mean arterial pressure from baseline values to the lowest values during rigid bronchoscopy was greater in Group P (p= 0.049, while the reduction in the other parameters and the incidence of adverse events were comparable between the two groups. The need for assisted or controlled mask ventilation after extubation was higher in Group K.CONCLUSION:Remifentanil-based total intravenous anesthesia with propofol or ketamine as an adjuvant drug along with controlled ventilation is a viable technique for pediatric rigid bronchoscopy. Ketamine does not provide a definite advantage over propofol with respect to hemodynamic stability during rigid bronchoscopy, while propofol seems more suitable during the recovery period.

  16. Temperature-dependent rigidity and magnetism of polyamide 6 nanocomposites based on nanocrystalline Fe-Ni alloy of various geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. A. Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is to explore the potential use of Polyamide 6 nanocomposite reinforced with nanocrystalline (nc Fe20Ni80 alloy (Fe20Ni80/PA6 PNC in electromagnetic applications and provide understanding of how the alloy particle geometry is controlling the nanocomposite’s physical properties. Thermomechanical rigidity, room-temperature soft magnetic performance and thermal soft magnetic stability of Fe20Ni80/PA6 PNCs based on spherical-sea urchin alloy particles (UMB2-SU and necklace-like alloy chains (UMB2-NC have been investigated. Both PNCs have considerably superior bulk properties compared to neat PA6 and UMB2-SU exhibits the most remarkable overall performance. Morphological observations disclose two relevant phenomena: i improved dispersion and distribution of the SU alloy particles than the NC ones within PA6 matrix, leading to stronger filler-matrix interfacial interactions within the UMB2-SU as compared to the UMB2-NC and ii presence of constraint polymer regions in between alloy segments within the UMB2-SU that provide secondary reinforcing and soft magnetic mechanisms. Such phenomena along with the lower alloy crystallite size and PA6 γ-crystal type content within the UMB2-SU than in the UMB2-NC, are considered the main responsible factors for the distinctive performance of UMB2-SU. Overall, compared to various ferromagnetic nanocrystalline metallic materials, the research proposes the SU nc Fe20Ni80 alloy as a valuable nanofiller in polymers for electromagnetic applications.

  17. In vitro model to study the effects of matrix stiffening on Ca2+ handling and myofilament function in isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deel, Elza D; Najafi, Aref; Fontoura, Dulce; Valent, Erik; Goebel, Max; Kardux, Kim; Falcão-Pires, Inês; van der Velden, Jolanda

    2017-07-15

    This paper describes a novel model that allows exploration of matrix-induced cardiomyocyte adaptations independent of the passive effect of matrix rigidity on cardiomyocyte function. Detachment of adult cardiomyocytes from the matrix enables the study of matrix effects on cell shortening, Ca 2+ handling and myofilament function. Cell shortening and Ca 2+ handling are altered in cardiomyocytes cultured for 24 h on a stiff matrix. Matrix stiffness-impaired cardiomyocyte contractility is reversed upon normalization of extracellular stiffness. Matrix stiffness-induced reduction in unloaded shortening is more pronounced in cardiomyocytes isolated from obese ZSF1 rats with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction compared to lean ZSF1 rats. Extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffening is a key element of cardiac disease. Increased rigidity of the ECM passively inhibits cardiac contraction, but if and how matrix stiffening also actively alters cardiomyocyte contractility is incompletely understood. In vitro models designed to study cardiomyocyte-matrix interaction lack the possibility to separate passive inhibition by a stiff matrix from active matrix-induced alterations of cardiomyocyte properties. Here we introduce a novel experimental model that allows exploration of cardiomyocyte functional alterations in response to matrix stiffening. Adult rat cardiomyocytes were cultured for 24 h on matrices of tuneable stiffness representing the healthy and the diseased heart and detached from their matrix before functional measurements. We demonstrate that matrix stiffening, independent of passive inhibition, reduces cell shortening and Ca 2+ handling but does not alter myofilament-generated force. Additionally, detachment of adult cultured cardiomyocytes allowed the transfer of cells from one matrix to another. This revealed that stiffness-induced cardiomyocyte changes are reversed when matrix stiffness is normalized. These matrix stiffness-induced changes in cardiomyocyte

  18. Clay matrix voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdicakis, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In many countries, it is planned that the long life highly radioactive nuclear spent fuel will be stored in deep argillaceous rocks. The sites selected for this purpose are anoxic and satisfy several recommendations as mechanical stability, low permeability and low redox potential. Pyrite (FeS 2 ), iron(II) carbonate, iron(II) bearing clays and organic matter that are present in very small amounts (about 1% w:w) in soils play a major role in their reactivity and are considered today as responsible for the low redox potential values of these sites. In this communication, we describe an electrochemical technique derived from 'Salt matrix voltammetry' and allowing the almost in-situ voltammetric characterization of air-sensitive samples of soils after the only addition of the minimum humidity required for electrolytic conduction. Figure 1 shows the principle of the developed technique. It consists in the entrapment of the clay sample between a graphite working electrode and a silver counter/quasi-reference electrode. The sample was previously humidified by passing a water saturated inert gas through the electrochemical cell. The technique leads to well-defined voltammetric responses of the electro-active components of the clays. Figure 2 shows a typical voltammogram relative to a Callovo-Oxfordian argillite sample from Bure, the French place planned for the underground nuclear waste disposal. During the direct scan, one can clearly distinguish the anodic voltammetric signals for the oxidation of the iron (II) species associated with the clay and the oxidation of pyrite. The reverse scan displays a small cathodic signal for the reduction of iron (III) associated with the clay that demonstrates that the majority of the previously oxidized iron (II) species were transformed into iron (III) oxides reducible at lower potentials. When a second voltammetric cycle is performed, one can notice that the signal for iron (II

  19. Ceramic matrix composite article and process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Ronald Robert; DiMascio, Paul Stephen; Parolini, Jason Robert

    2016-01-12

    A ceramic matrix composite article and a process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite are disclosed. The ceramic matrix composite article includes a matrix distribution pattern formed by a manifold and ceramic matrix composite plies laid up on the matrix distribution pattern, includes the manifold, or a combination thereof. The manifold includes one or more matrix distribution channels operably connected to a delivery interface, the delivery interface configured for providing matrix material to one or more of the ceramic matrix composite plies. The process includes providing the manifold, forming the matrix distribution pattern by transporting the matrix material through the manifold, and contacting the ceramic matrix composite plies with the matrix material.

  20. Strategy BMT Al-Ittihad Using Matrix IE, Matrix SWOT 8K, Matrix SPACE and Matrix TWOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nofrizal Nofrizal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to formulate and select BMT Al-Ittihad Rumbai strategy to face the changing of business environment both from internal environment such as organization resources, finance, member and external business such as competitor, economy, politics and others. This research method used Analysis of EFAS, IFAS, IE Matrix, SWOT-8K Matrix, SPACE Matrix and TWOS Matrix. our hope from this research it can assist BMT Al-Ittihad in formulating and selecting strategies for the sustainability of BMT Al-Ittihad in the future. The sample in this research is using purposive sampling technique that is the manager and leader of BMT Al-IttihadRumbaiPekanbaru. The result of this research shows that the position of BMT Al-Ittihad using IE Matrix, SWOT-8K Matrix and SPACE Matrix is in growth position, stabilization and aggressive. The choice of strategy after using TWOS Matrix is market penetration, market development, vertical integration, horizontal integration, and stabilization (careful.

  1. How to Study a Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairam, Dharmananda; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Kauffman, Douglas F.; Zhao, Ruomeng

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how best to study a matrix. Fifty-three participants studied a matrix topically (1 column at a time), categorically (1 row at a time), or in a unified way (all at once). Results revealed that categorical and unified study produced higher: (a) performance on relationship and fact tests, (b) study material satisfaction, and…

  2. A geometrically controlled rigidity transition in a model for confluent 3D tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Matthias; Manning, M. Lisa

    2018-02-01

    The origin of rigidity in disordered materials is an outstanding open problem in statistical physics. Previously, a class of 2D cellular models has been shown to undergo a rigidity transition controlled by a mechanical parameter that specifies cell shapes. Here, we generalize this model to 3D and find a rigidity transition that is similarly controlled by the preferred surface area S 0: the model is solid-like below a dimensionless surface area of {s}0\\equiv {S}0/{\\bar{V}}2/3≈ 5.413 with \\bar{V} being the average cell volume, and fluid-like above this value. We demonstrate that, unlike jamming in soft spheres, residual stresses are necessary to create rigidity. These stresses occur precisely when cells are unable to obtain their desired geometry, and we conjecture that there is a well-defined minimal surface area possible for disordered cellular structures. We show that the behavior of this minimal surface induces a linear scaling of the shear modulus with the control parameter at the transition point, which is different from the scaling observed in particulate matter. The existence of such a minimal surface may be relevant for biological tissues and foams, and helps explain why cell shapes are a good structural order parameter for rigidity transitions in biological tissues.

  3. A DNA Origami Mechanical Device for the Regulation of Microcosmic Structural Rigidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Neng; Hong, Zhouping; Wang, Huading; Fu, Xin; Zhang, Ziyue; Li, Chao; Xia, Han; Fang, Yan; Li, Maoteng; Zhan, Yi; Yang, Xiangliang

    2017-11-01

    DNA origami makes it feasible to fabricate a tremendous number of DNA nanostructures with various geometries, dimensions, and functionalities. Moreover, an increasing amount of research on DNA nanostructures is focused on biological and biomedical applications. Here, the reversible regulation of microcosmic structural rigidity is accomplished using a DNA origami device in vitro. The designed DNA origami monomer is composed of an internal central axis and an external sliding tube. Due to the external tube sliding, the device transforms between flexible and rigid states. By transporting the device into the liposome, the conformational change of the origami device induces a structural change in the liposome. The results obtained demonstrate that the programmed DNA origami device can be applied to regulate the microcosmic structural rigidity of liposomes. Because microcosmic structural rigidity is important to cell proliferation and function, the results obtained potentially provide a foundation for the regulation of cell microcosmic structural rigidity using DNA nanostructures. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. [Doppler ultrasound evaluation of aortic insufficiency using half-pressure time. Absence of arterial rigidity influence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalotka-Bratek, H; Drobinski, G; Klimczak, K; Busquet, P; Fraysse, J B; Bejean-Lebuisson, A; Grosgogeat, Y

    1989-02-01

    In 20 patients with pure aortic regurgitation we studied the relationship between the severity of regurgitation, as assessed haemodynamically by the percentage of leakage (%L), and the half-pressure (T 1/2 P) and half-velocity (T 1/2 V) times, as obtained from doppler aortic blood velocity curves, taking into account the rigidity of the systemic vascular circuit characterized by the pressure wave propagation velocity (PWPV). The systemic arterial circuit was supple in 14 patients (PWPV less than 7.5 m/sec) and rigid in 6 patients (PWPV greater than 7.5 m/sec). The regression slopes between %L and T 1/2 P and between %L and T 1/2 V were calculated with their confidence limits in the 14 patients with supple arteries. The 6 patients with rigid arteries fitted into this nomogram, thus demonstrating that systemic arterial rigidity makes no difference in the relationship between %L and doppler indices. The half-velocity and half-pressure times measured by doppler ultrasound were acquired from a velocity signal directly determined by the aortic regurgitation, without any detectable effect of vascular circuit rigidity. Being equivalent by nature to the signal decrease time constant, they are independent of the absolute protodiastolic value of diastolic pressure gradient or blood flow velocity. For this reason these two doppler parameters are reliable to evaluate the severity of aortic regurgitation.

  5. Nonlinear static analysis of steel frames with semi rigid beam to column connections using cruciform element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Reza Afkhami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the steel frames, beam-column connections are traditionally assumed to be rigid or pinned, but in the steel frames, most types of beam-column connections are semi-rigid. Recent studies and some new codes, especially EC3 and EC4, include methods and formulas to estimate the resistance and stiffness of the panel zone. Because of weaknesses of EC3 and EC4 in some cases, Bayo et al.  proposed a new component-based method (cruciform element method to model internal and external semi-rigid connections that revived and modified EC methods. The nonlinear modelling of structures plays an important role in the analysis and design of structures and nonlinear static analysis is a rather simple and efficient technique for analysis of structures. This paper presents nonlinear static (pushover analysis technique by new nonlinearity factor and Bayo et al. model of two types of semi-rigid connections, end plate connection and top and seat angles connection. Two types of lateral loading, uniform and triangular distributions are considered.  Results show that the frames with top and seat angles connection have fewer initial stiffness than frames with semi-rigid connection and P-Δ effect more decreases base shear capacity in the case of top and seat angles connection. P-Δ effect in decrease of base shear capacity increases with the increase of number of stories.

  6. Bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi-Yim, H.; Johnson, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    Composites with a bulk metallic glass matrix were synthesized and characterized. This was made possible by the recent development of bulk metallic glasses that exhibit high resistance to crystallization in the undercooled liquid state. In this letter, experimental methods for processing metallic glass composites are introduced. Three different bulk metallic glass forming alloys were used as the matrix materials. Both ceramics and metals were introduced as reinforcement into the metallic glass. The metallic glass matrix remained amorphous after adding up to a 30 vol% fraction of particles or short wires. X-ray diffraction patterns of the composites show only peaks from the second phase particles superimposed on the broad diffuse maxima from the amorphous phase. Optical micrographs reveal uniformly distributed particles in the matrix. The glass transition of the amorphous matrix and the crystallization behavior of the composites were studied by calorimetric methods. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  7. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Machining of Metal Matrix Composites provides the fundamentals and recent advances in the study of machining of metal matrix composites (MMCs). Each chapter is written by an international expert in this important field of research. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites gives the reader information on machining of MMCs with a special emphasis on aluminium matrix composites. Chapter 1 provides the mechanics and modelling of chip formation for traditional machining processes. Chapter 2 is dedicated to surface integrity when machining MMCs. Chapter 3 describes the machinability aspects of MMCs. Chapter 4 contains information on traditional machining processes and Chapter 5 is dedicated to the grinding of MMCs. Chapter 6 describes the dry cutting of MMCs with SiC particulate reinforcement. Finally, Chapter 7 is dedicated to computational methods and optimization in the machining of MMCs. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and materials researchers, manu...

  8. Quantum mechanics in matrix form

    CERN Document Server

    Ludyk, Günter

    2018-01-01

    This book gives an introduction to quantum mechanics with the matrix method. Heisenberg's matrix mechanics is described in detail. The fundamental equations are derived by algebraic methods using matrix calculus. Only a brief description of Schrödinger's wave mechanics is given (in most books exclusively treated), to show their equivalence to Heisenberg's matrix  method. In the first part the historical development of Quantum theory by Planck, Bohr and Sommerfeld is sketched, followed by the ideas and methods of Heisenberg, Born and Jordan. Then Pauli's spin and exclusion principles are treated. Pauli's exclusion principle leads to the structure of atoms. Finally, Dirac´s relativistic quantum mechanics is shortly presented. Matrices and matrix equations are today easy to handle when implementing numerical algorithms using standard software as MAPLE and Mathematica.

  9. GENERAL THEORY OF THE ROTATION OF THE NON-RIGID EARTH AT THE SECOND ORDER. I. THE RIGID MODEL IN ANDOYER VARIABLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getino, J.; Miguel, D.; Escapa, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the first part of an investigation where we will present an analytical general theory of the rotation of the non-rigid Earth at the second order, which considers the effects of the interaction of the rotation of the Earth with itself, also named as the spin-spin coupling. Here, and as a necessary step in the development of that theory, we derive complete, explicit, analytical formulae of the rigid Earth rotation that account for the second-order rotation-rotation interaction. These expressions are not provided in this form by any current rigid Earth model. Working within the Hamiltonian framework established by Kinoshita, we study the second-order effects arising from the interaction of the main term in the Earth geopotential expansion with itself, and with the complementary term arising when referring the rotational motion to the moving ecliptic. To this aim, we apply a canonical perturbation method to solve analytically the canonical equations at the second order, determining the expressions that provide the nutation-precession, the polar motion, and the length of day. In the case of the motion of the equatorial plane, nutation-precession, we compare our general approach with the particular study for this motion developed by Souchay et al., showing the existence of new terms whose numerical values are within the truncation level of 0.1 μas adopted by those authors. These terms emerge as a consequence of not assuming in this work the same restrictive simplifications taken by Souchay et al. The importance of these additional contributions is that, as the analytical formulae show, they depend on the Earth model considered, in such a way that the fluid core resonance could amplify them significatively when extending this theory to the non-rigid Earth models.

  10. A new technique for dynamic load distribution when two manipulators mutually lift a rigid object. Part 2, Derivation of entire system model and control architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unseren, M.A.

    1994-04-01

    A rigid body model for the entire system which accounts for the load distribution scheme proposed in Part 1 as well as for the dynamics of the manipulators and the kinematic constraints is derived in the joint space. A technique is presented for expressing the object dynamics in terms of the joint variables of both manipulators which leads to a positive definite and symmetric inertia matrix. The model is then transformed to obtain reduced order equations of motion and a separate set of equations which govern the behavior of the internal contact forces. The control architecture is applied to the model which results in the explicit decoupling of the position and internal contact force-controlled degrees of freedom (DOF).

  11. PRICE RIGIDITY AND MONETARY NON-NEUTRALITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: EVIDENCE FROM NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel E. Urama

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to find out the degree of monetary non-neutrality in Nigeria we started from finding out the size of price rigidity in the country. Computation with Ball and Romer method showed that price rigidity is optimal decision for firms in Nigeria only when the menu cost is well above 2.28% of the firm’s revenue which is on the high side, showing the likelihood of weak price rigidity in the country. Confirming this, the IRFs of the SVAR shows that the response of inflation to nominal shock has only one period lag. These combined results led to a small though persistent response of output to the nominal shock. The result of the study therefore points towards large nominal and small real effect of monetary policy in Nigeria and conclude that monetary policy will be a better option for contractionary plan but not for an expansionary plan.

  12. Student understanding of the application of Newton's second law to rotating rigid bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Hunter G.; Gomez, Luanna S.; Heron, Paula R. L.

    2013-06-01

    We report on an investigation of student understanding of rigid body dynamics in which we asked students in introductory calculus-based physics to compare the translational motions of identical rigid bodies subject to forces that differed only in the point of contact at which they were applied. There was a widespread tendency to claim that forces that cause rotational motion have a diminished effect on translational motion. A series of related problems was developed to examine whether similar errors would be made in other contexts, and interviews were conducted to probe student thinking in greater depth. In this paper, we describe the results of our investigation and also describe a series of different interventions that culminated in the development of a tutorial that improves student ability to apply Newton's second law to rotating rigid bodies.

  13. Comparison and Implementation of a Rigid and a Flexible Multibody Planetary Gearbox Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Felix; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2014-01-01

    We propose algorithms for developing (1) a rigid (constrained) and (2) a flexible planetary gearbox model. The two methods are compared against each other and advantages/disadvantages of each method are discussed. The rigid model (1) has gear tooth reaction forces expressed by Lagrange multipliers...... between one and two gear teeth in mesh. The final results are from modelling the planetary gearbox in a 500 kW wind turbine which we also described in Jørgensen et al. (2013)........ The flexible approach (2) is being compared with the gear tooth forces from the rigid approach, first without damping and second the influence of damping is examined. Variable stiffness as a function of base circle arc length is implemented in the flexible approach such that it handles the realistic switch...

  14. [Non-rigid medical image registration based on mutual information and thin-plate spline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guo-gang; Luo, Li-min

    2009-01-01

    To get precise and complete details, the contrast in different images is needed in medical diagnosis and computer assisted treatment. The image registration is the basis of contrast, but the regular rigid registration does not satisfy the clinic requirements. A non-rigid medical image registration method based on mutual information and thin-plate spline was present. Firstly, registering two images globally based on mutual information; secondly, dividing reference image and global-registered image into blocks and registering them; then getting the thin-plate spline transformation according to the shift of blocks' center; finally, applying the transformation to the global-registered image. The results show that the method is more precise than the global rigid registration based on mutual information and it reduces the complexity of getting control points and satisfy the clinic requirements better by getting control points of the thin-plate transformation automatically.

  15. Exotic distributions of rigid unit modes in the reciprocal spaces of framework aluminosilicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, Martin T; Pryde, Alexandra K A; Heine, Volker; Hammonds, Kenton D

    2007-01-01

    Until recently it was assumed that rigid unit modes, defined as the zero-frequency solutions to the dynamical equations for an infinite framework of rigid corner-linked tetrahedra, were confined to a small set of normal modes with wavevectors on lines or planes of special symmetry in reciprocal space. Using a search method that explores the full three-dimensional reciprocal space, we have located rigid unit modes with wavevectors on exotic curved surfaces in reciprocal space for a range of silicate minerals. This has led to the realization that the crystal structures of these minerals contain rather more topological floppiness than had previously been realized. The origin of the exotic RUM surfaces remains to be understood

  16. Estimating the orientation of a rigid body moving in space using inertial sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Peng, E-mail: peng.he.1@ulaval.ca; Cardou, Philippe, E-mail: pcardou@gmc.ulaval.ca [Université Laval, Robotics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Canada); Desbiens, André, E-mail: andre.desbiens@gel.ulaval.ca [Université Laval, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (Canada); Gagnon, Eric, E-mail: Eric.Gagnon@drdc-rddc.gc.ca [RDDC Valcartier (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    This paper presents a novel method of estimating the orientation of a rigid body moving in space from inertial sensors, by discerning the gravitational and inertial components of the accelerations. In this method, both a rigid-body kinematics model and a stochastic model of the human-hand motion are formulated and combined in a nonlinear state-space system. The state equation represents the rigid body kinematics and stochastic model, and the output equation represents the inertial sensor measurements. It is necessary to mention that, since the output equation is a nonlinear function of the state, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) is applied. The absolute value of the error from the proposed method is shown to be less than 5 deg in simulation and in experiments. It is apparently stable, unlike the time-integration of gyroscope measurements, which is subjected to drift, and remains accurate under large accelerations, unlike the tilt-sensor method.

  17. The evaluation of cutoff rigidities and reentrant albedo calculations for Palestine, Dallas, and Midland, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, M.A.; Smart, D.F.

    1975-01-01

    By using the trajectory-tracing technique, cutoff rigidities for Palestine, Dallas, and Midland, Texas, have been calculated as a function of various zenith and azimuth angles. Extensive analysis of the trajectory calculations shows that there is a systematic uncertainty involved in computing the lowest allowed rigidity, and this uncertainty may be a significant fraction of the penumbral width. Continuation of the trajectory-tracing process below the Stormer cutoff allows an evaluation of the reentrant albedo, showing that the average invariant latitude of the guiding center of the trajectory at the albedo origin is the same as the average invariant latitude of the guiding center of the particle trajectory at the detection point. No significant difference in the cutoff rigidities for these locations is found when the external magnetic fields present in the magnetosphere are added to the geomagnetic field of internal origin

  18. Estimating the orientation of a rigid body moving in space using inertial sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Peng; Cardou, Philippe; Desbiens, André; Gagnon, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method of estimating the orientation of a rigid body moving in space from inertial sensors, by discerning the gravitational and inertial components of the accelerations. In this method, both a rigid-body kinematics model and a stochastic model of the human-hand motion are formulated and combined in a nonlinear state-space system. The state equation represents the rigid body kinematics and stochastic model, and the output equation represents the inertial sensor measurements. It is necessary to mention that, since the output equation is a nonlinear function of the state, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) is applied. The absolute value of the error from the proposed method is shown to be less than 5 deg in simulation and in experiments. It is apparently stable, unlike the time-integration of gyroscope measurements, which is subjected to drift, and remains accurate under large accelerations, unlike the tilt-sensor method

  19. Technical characteristics of rigid sprayed PUR and PIR foams used in construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravit, Marina; Kuleshin, Aleksey; Khametgalieva, Elina; Karakozova, Irina

    2017-10-01

    The article describes the distinctive properties of rigid polyurethane foam and polyisocyanurate (PUR and PIR). A brief review of the research was carried out on their modification with an objective to improve the thermal insulation properties and reducing the combustibility. A comparative analysis of the technical characteristics of rigid PUR and PIR foams of various manufacturers is presented. The problems of the state of the market for the production of polyurethane foam and polyisocyanurate in Russia have been marked. It is established that the further development of the fabrication technology of heat-insulating sprayed rigid PUR and PIR foams requires uniformity of technical characteristics of original components and finished products. Moreover, it requires the creation of unified information base for raw materials and auxiliary materials used in the production of PUR and PIR foam.

  20. Herbal Prescriptions and Medicinal Herbs for Parkinson-Related Rigidity in Korean Medicine: Identification of Candidates Using Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Hyun; Hwang, Min Seob; Park, Hye Jin; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Baek, Jin Ung; Choi, Byung Tae

    2018-03-27

    Dongeuibogam (DongYiBaoGian), one of the most important books in Korean medicine, comprises a comprehensive summary of all traditional medicines of North-East Asia before the 17th century. This medicinal literature was mined to establish a list of candidate herbs to treat Parkinson-related rigidity. A systematic search for terms describing Parkinson-related rigidity and candidate prescriptions for the treatment of Parkinson-related rigidity in the Dongeuibogam was performed. A high-frequency medicinal herb combination group and candidates for the treatment of Parkinson-related rigidity were also selected through an analysis of medicinal herb combination frequencies. The existing literature pertaining to the potential effects of candidate herbs for Parkinson-related rigidity was reviewed. Ten medicinal herb candidates for the treatment of Parkinson-related rigidity were selected, and their respective precedent studies were analyzed.

  1. Emotional rigidity negatively impacts remission from anxiety and recovery of well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltgen, Anika; Shepard, Christopher; Smith, Ryan; Fowler, J Christopher

    2018-08-15

    Emotional rigidity is described in clinical literature as a significant barrier to recovery; however, few there are few empirical measures of the construct. The current study had two aims: Study 1 aimed to identify latent factors that may bear on the construct of emotional rigidity while Study 2 assessed the potential impact of the latent factor(s) on anxiety remission rates and well-being. This study utilized data from 2472 adult inpatients (1176 females and 1296 males) with severe psychopathology. Study 1 utilized exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to identify latent factors of emotional rigidity. Study 2 utilized hierarchical logistic regression analyses to assess the relationships among emotional rigidity factors and anxiety remission and well-being recovery at discharge. Study 1 yielded a two-factor solution identified in EFA was confirmed with CFA. Factor 1 consisted of neuroticism, experiential avoidance, non-acceptance of emotions, impaired goal-directed behavior, impulse control difficulties and limited access to emotion regulation strategies when experiencing negative emotions. Factor 2 consisted of lack of emotional awareness and lack of emotional clarity when experiencing negative emotions. Results of Study 2 indicated higher scores on Factor 1 was associated with lower remission rates from anxiety and poorer well-being upon discharge. Factor 2 was not predictive of outcome. Emotional rigidity appears to be a latent construct that negatively impacts remission rates from anxiety. Limitations of the present study include its retrospective design, and inefficient methods of assessing emotional rigidity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Rigid Residue Scan Simulations Systematically Reveal Residue Entropic Roles in Protein Allostery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kalescky

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intra-protein information is transmitted over distances via allosteric processes. This ubiquitous protein process allows for protein function changes due to ligand binding events. Understanding protein allostery is essential to understanding protein functions. In this study, allostery in the second PDZ domain (PDZ2 in the human PTP1E protein is examined as model system to advance a recently developed rigid residue scan method combining with configurational entropy calculation and principal component analysis. The contributions from individual residues to whole-protein dynamics and allostery were systematically assessed via rigid body simulations of both unbound and ligand-bound states of the protein. The entropic contributions of individual residues to whole-protein dynamics were evaluated based on covariance-based correlation analysis of all simulations. The changes of overall protein entropy when individual residues being held rigid support that the rigidity/flexibility equilibrium in protein structure is governed by the La Châtelier's principle of chemical equilibrium. Key residues of PDZ2 allostery were identified with good agreement with NMR studies of the same protein bound to the same peptide. On the other hand, the change of entropic contribution from each residue upon perturbation revealed intrinsic differences among all the residues. The quasi-harmonic and principal component analyses of simulations without rigid residue perturbation showed a coherent allosteric mode from unbound and bound states, respectively. The projection of simulations with rigid residue perturbation onto coherent allosteric modes demonstrated the intrinsic shifting of ensemble distributions supporting the population-shift theory of protein allostery. Overall, the study presented here provides a robust and systematic approach to estimate the contribution of individual residue internal motion to overall protein dynamics and allostery.

  3. Computing the Free Energy along a Reaction Coordinate Using Rigid Body Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Peng; Sodt, Alexander J; Shao, Yihan; König, Gerhard; Brooks, Bernard R

    2014-10-14

    The calculations of potential of mean force along complex chemical reactions or rare events pathways are of great interest because of their importance for many areas in chemistry, molecular biology, and material science. The major difficulty for free energy calculations comes from the great computational cost for adequate sampling of the system in high-energy regions, especially close to the reaction transition state. Here, we present a method, called FEG-RBD, in which the free energy gradients were obtained from rigid body dynamics simulations. Then the free energy gradients were integrated along a reference reaction pathway to calculate free energy profiles. In a given system, the reaction coordinates defining a subset of atoms (e.g., a solute, or the quantum mechanics (QM) region of a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulation) are selected to form a rigid body during the simulation. The first-order derivatives (gradients) of the free energy with respect to the reaction coordinates are obtained through the integration of constraint forces within the rigid body. Each structure along the reference reaction path is separately subjected to such a rigid body simulation. The individual free energy gradients are integrated along the reference pathway to obtain the free energy profile. Test cases provided demonstrate both the strengths and weaknesses of the FEG-RBD method. The most significant benefit of this method comes from the fast convergence rate of the free energy gradient using rigid-body constraints instead of restraints. A correction to the free energy due to approximate relaxation of the rigid-body constraint is estimated and discussed. A comparison with umbrella sampling using a simple test case revealed the improved sampling efficiency of FEG-RBD by a factor of 4 on average. The enhanced efficiency makes this method effective for calculating the free energy of complex chemical reactions when the reaction coordinate can be unambiguously defined by a

  4. Dimensional Metrology of Non-rigid Parts Without Specialized Inspection Fixtures =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Vahid

    Quality control is an important factor for manufacturing companies looking to prosper in an era of globalization, market pressures and technological advances. Functionality and product quality cannot be guaranteed without this important aspect. Manufactured parts have deviations from their nominal (CAD) shape caused by the manufacturing process. Thus, geometric inspection is a very important element in the quality control of mechanical parts. We will focus here on the geometric inspection of non-rigid (flexible) parts which are widely used in the aeronautic and automotive industries. Non-rigid parts can have different forms in a free-state condition compared with their nominal models due to residual stress and gravity loads. To solve this problem, dedicated inspection fixtures are generally used in industry to compensate for the displacement of such parts for simulating the use state in order to perform geometric inspections. These fixtures and the installation and inspection processes are expensive and time-consuming. Our aim in this thesis is therefore to develop an inspection method which eliminates the need for specialized fixtures. This is done by acquiring a point cloud from the part in a free-state condition using a contactless measuring device such as optical scanning and comparing it with the CAD model for the deviation identification. Using a non-rigid registration method and finite element analysis, we numerically inspect the profile of a non-rigid part. To do so, a simulated displacement is performed using an improved definition of displacement boundary conditions for simulating unfixed parts. In addition, we propose a numerical method for dimensional metrology of non-rigid parts in a free-state condition based on the arc length measurement by calculating the geodesic distance using the Fast Marching Method (FMM). In this thesis, we apply our developed methods on industrial non-rigid parts with free-form surfaces simulated with different types of

  5. Statistical Analysis of Bending Rigidity Coefficient Determined Using Fluorescence-Based Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doskocz, Joanna; Drabik, Dominik; Chodaczek, Grzegorz; Przybyło, Magdalena; Langner, Marek

    2018-06-01

    Bending rigidity coefficient describes propensity of a lipid bilayer to deform. In order to measure the parameter experimentally using flickering noise spectroscopy, the microscopic imaging is required, which necessitates the application of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV) lipid bilayer model. The major difficulty associated with the application of the model is the statistical character of GUV population with respect to their size and the homogeneity of lipid bilayer composition, if a mixture of lipids is used. In the paper, the bending rigidity coefficient was measured using the fluorescence-enhanced flicker-noise spectroscopy. In the paper, the bending rigidity coefficient was determined for large populations of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine vesicles. The quantity of obtained experimental data allows to perform statistical analysis aiming at the identification of the distribution, which is the most appropriate for the calculation of the value of the membrane bending rigidity coefficient. It has been demonstrated that the bending rigidity coefficient is characterized by an asymmetrical distribution, which is well approximated with the gamma distribution. Since there are no biophysical reasons for that we propose to use the difference between normal and gamma fits as a measure of the homogeneity of vesicle population. In addition, the effect of a fluorescent label and types of instrumental setups on determined values has been tested. Obtained results show that the value of the bending rigidity coefficient does not depend on the type of a fluorescent label nor on the type of microscope used.

  6. Dimensionality controls cytoskeleton assembly and metabolism of fibroblast cells in response to rigidity and shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Ochsner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Various physical parameters, including substrate rigidity, size of adhesive islands and micro-and nano-topographies, have been shown to differentially regulate cell fate in two-dimensional (2-D cell cultures. Cells anchored in a three-dimensional (3-D microenvironment show significantly altered phenotypes, from altered cell adhesions, to cell migration and differentiation. Yet, no systematic analysis has been performed that studied how the integrated cellular responses to the physical characteristics of the environment are regulated by dimensionality (2-D versus 3-D.Arrays of 5 or 10 microm deep microwells were fabricated in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS. The actin cytoskeleton was compared for single primary fibroblasts adhering either to microfabricated adhesive islands (2-D or trapped in microwells (3-D of controlled size, shape, and wall rigidity. On rigid substrates (Young's Modulus = 1 MPa, cytoskeleton assembly within single fibroblast cells occurred in 3-D microwells of circular, rectangular, square, and triangular shapes with 2-D projected surface areas (microwell bottom surface area and total surface areas of adhesion (microwell bottom plus wall surface area that inhibited stress fiber assembly in 2-D. In contrast, cells did not assemble a detectable actin cytoskeleton in soft 3-D microwells (20 kPa, regardless of their shapes, but did so on flat, 2-D substrates. The dependency on environmental dimensionality was also reflected by cell viability and metabolism as probed by mitochondrial activities. Both were upregulated in 3-D cultured cells versus cells on 2-D patterns when surface area of adhesion and rigidity were held constant.These data indicate that cell shape and rigidity are not orthogonal parameters directing cell fate. The sensory toolbox of cells integrates mechanical (rigidity and topographical (shape and dimensionality information differently when cell adhesions are confined to 2-D or occur in a 3-D space.

  7. Network rigidity and properties of SiO2 and GeO2 glasses under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachenko, Kostya; Dove, Martin T; Brazhkin, Vadim; El'kin, F S

    2004-09-24

    We report in situ studies of SiO2 glass under pressure and find that temperature-induced densification takes place in a pressure window. To explain this effect, we study how rigidity of glasses changes under pressure, with rigidity percolation affecting the dynamics of local relaxation events. We link rigidity percolation in glasses to other effects, including a large increase of crystallization temperature and logarithmic relaxation under pressure.

  8. Evolution of motions of a rigid body about its center of mass

    CERN Document Server

    Chernousko, Felix L; Leshchenko, Dmytro D

    2017-01-01

    The book presents a unified and well-developed approach to the dynamics of angular motions of rigid bodies subjected to perturbation torques of different physical nature. It contains both the basic foundations of the rigid body dynamics and of the asymptotic method of averaging. The rigorous approach based on the averaging procedure is applicable to bodies with arbitrary ellopsoids of inertia. Action of various perturbation torques, both external (gravitational, aerodynamical, solar pressure) and internal (due to viscous fluid in tanks, elastic and visco-elastic properties of a body) is considered in detail. The book can be used by researchers, engineers and students working in attitude dynamics of spacecraft.

  9. Method of convex rigid frames and applications in studies of multipartite quNit pure states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Zaizhe

    2005-01-01

    In this letter, we suggest a method of convex rigid frames in the studies of multipartite quNit pure states. We illustrate what the convex rigid frames are, and what is their method. As applications, we use this method to solve some basic problems and give some new results (three theorems): the problem of the partial separability of the multipartite quNit pure states and its geometric explanation; the problem of the classification of multipartite quNit pure states, giving a perfect explanation of the local unitary transformations; thirdly, we discuss the invariants of classes and give a possible physical explanation. (letter to the editor)

  10. Thermal Behaviour of a Gypsum Fibre Board Associated with Rigid Polyurethane Foam under Standard Fire Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreau, Jerome Le; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Kolding, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Due to its low thermal conductivity (λ ≈ 20 mW/m.K), rigid polyurethane (PUR) foam has the potential to improve the thermal performance of buildings without increasing the thickness of construction elements. Nevertheless, PUR foam has the drawback of having a low resistance to fire: non-flaming t......Due to its low thermal conductivity (λ ≈ 20 mW/m.K), rigid polyurethane (PUR) foam has the potential to improve the thermal performance of buildings without increasing the thickness of construction elements. Nevertheless, PUR foam has the drawback of having a low resistance to fire: non...

  11. Wave energy absorption by a submerged air bag connected to a rigid float

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurniawan, Adi; Chaplin, J. R.; Hann, M. R.

    2017-01-01

    A new wave energy device features a submerged ballasted air bag connected at the top to a rigid float. Under wave action, the bag expands and contracts, creating a reciprocating air flow through a turbine between the bag and another volume housed within the float. Laboratory measurements are gene......A new wave energy device features a submerged ballasted air bag connected at the top to a rigid float. Under wave action, the bag expands and contracts, creating a reciprocating air flow through a turbine between the bag and another volume housed within the float. Laboratory measurements...

  12. High precision NC lathe feeding system rigid-flexible coupling model reduction technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, He; Hua, Qingsong; Cheng, Lianjun; Zhang, Hongxin; Zhao, Qinghai; Mao, Xinkai

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes the use of dynamic substructure method of reduction of order to achieve effective reduction of feed system for high precision NC lathe feeding system rigid-flexible coupling model, namely the use of ADAMS to establish the rigid flexible coupling simulation model of high precision NC lathe, and then the vibration simulation of the period by using the FD 3D damper is very effective for feed system of bolt connection reduction of multi degree of freedom model. The vibration simulation calculation is more accurate, more quickly.

  13. Topology Optimization of a Vibrating System of Rigid and Flexible Bodies for Maximizing Repeated Eigenfrequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byungseong; Kim, Suh In; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-01-01

    When a system consisting of rigid and flexible bodies is optimized to improve its dynamic characteristics, its eigenfrequencies are typically maximized. While topology optimization formulations dealing with simultaneous design of a system of rigid and flexible bodies are available, studies on eigenvalue maximization of the system are rare. In particular, no work has solved for the case when the target frequency becomes one of the repeated eigenfrequencies. The problem involving repeated eigenfrequencies is solved in this study, and a topology optimization formulation and sensitivity analysis are presented. Further, several numerical case studies are considered to demonstrate the validity of the proposed formulation

  14. Numerical procedure for fluid-structure interaction with structure displacements limited by a rigid obstacle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakhlef O.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A fixed point algorithmis proposed to solve a fluid-structure interaction problem with the supplementary constraint that the structure displacements are limited by a rigid obstacle. Fictitious domain approach with penalization is used for the fluid equations. The surface forces from the fluid acting on the structure are computed using the fluid solution in the structure domain. The continuity of the fluid and structure velocities is imposed through the penalization parameter. The constraint of non-penetration of the elastic structure into the rigid obstacle is treated weakly. A convex constrained optimization problem is solved in order to get the structure displacements. Numerical results are presented.

  15. A comparative study of velocity increment generation between the rigid body and flexible models of MMET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Norilmi Amilia, E-mail: aenorilmi@usm.my [School of Aerospace Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2016-02-01

    The motorized momentum exchange tether (MMET) is capable of generating useful velocity increments through spin–orbit coupling. This study presents a comparative study of the velocity increments between the rigid body and flexible models of MMET. The equations of motions of both models in the time domain are transformed into a function of true anomaly. The equations of motion are integrated, and the responses in terms of the velocity increment of the rigid body and flexible models are compared and analysed. Results show that the initial conditions, eccentricity, and flexibility of the tether have significant effects on the velocity increments of the tether.

  16. Dynamic response characteristics of steel portal frames having semi-rigid joints under sinusoidal wave excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Abdul Qadir

    2017-12-01

    To demonstrate the characteristics of the nonlinear response of steel frames, an elastic dynamic response analysis of the semi-rigid frame is performed under the harmonic wave. The semi-rigid contact is represented by the alternating spring which is given stiffness by a three-parameter energy model which approaches the hysterical curve by hardening model. The properties of spectra and hysteric curves are presented. This study shows that (1) the greater the acceleration input capacitance the smaller the instant connection capability and the smaller is the response. (2) However, by allowing an extreme increase in capacitance input acceleration, response spectra can be increased as the contact stiffness results near zero.

  17. Analysis on the resistive force in penetration of a rigid projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-wei Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the dimensionless formulae of DOP (depth of penetration of a rigid projectile into different targets, the resistive force which a target exerts on the projectile during the penetration of rigid projectile is theoretically analyzed. In particular, the threshold Vc of impact velocity applicable for the assumption of constant resistive force is formulated through impulse analysis. The various values of Vc corresponding to different pairs of projectile-target are calculated, and the consistency of the relative test data and numerical results is observed.

  18. Maxwell rigidity and topological constraints in amorphous phase-change networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micoulaut, M.; Otjacques, C.; Raty, J.-Y.; Bichara, C.

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing first-principles molecular-dynamics simulations of different telluride amorphous networks, we develop a method for the enumeration of radial and angular topological constraints, and show that the phase diagram of the most popular system Ge-Sb-Te can be split into two compositional elastic phases: a tellurium rich flexible phase and a stressed rigid phase that contains most of the materials used in phase-change applications. This sound atomic scale insight should open new avenues for the understanding of phase-change materials and other complex amorphous materials from the viewpoint of rigidity.

  19. Progressive Encephalomyelitis with Rigidity and Myoclonus in an Intellectually Disabled Patient Mimicking Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheyu Xu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of 32-year-old male with profound mental retardation and autism spectrum disorder who had presented with seizures, rigidity and elevated creatine kinase and was initially diagnosed as neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS. The patient subsequently had a complicated clinical course, developing refractory status epilepticus, which lead to the eventual diagnosis of progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM. We discuss the clinical similarities and differences between NMS and PERM, and highlight the need to consider alternative diagnoses when the clinical picture of NMS is atypical, particularly in this patient group where the history and clinical examination may be challenging.

  20. Containment Code Validation Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Yu-Shan; Mathew, P.M.; Glowa, Glenn; Dickson, Ray; Liang, Zhe; Leitch, Brian; Barber, Duncan; Vasic, Aleks; Bentaib, Ahmed; Journeau, Christophe; Malet, Jeanne; Studer, Etienne; Meynet, Nicolas; Piluso, Pascal; Gelain, Thomas; Michielsen, Nathalie; Peillon, Samuel; Porcheron, Emmanuel; Albiol, Thierry; Clement, Bernard; Sonnenkalb, Martin; Klein-Hessling, Walter; Arndt, Siegfried; Weber, Gunter; Yanez, Jorge; Kotchourko, Alexei; Kuznetsov, Mike; Sangiorgi, Marco; Fontanet, Joan; Herranz, Luis; Garcia De La Rua, Carmen; Santiago, Aleza Enciso; Andreani, Michele; Paladino, Domenico; Dreier, Joerg; Lee, Richard; Amri, Abdallah

    2014-01-01

    The Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) formed the CCVM (Containment Code Validation Matrix) task group in 2002. The objective of this group was to define a basic set of available experiments for code validation, covering the range of containment (ex-vessel) phenomena expected in the course of light and heavy water reactor design basis accidents and beyond design basis accidents/severe accidents. It was to consider phenomena relevant to pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR), pressurised water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) designs of Western origin as well as of Eastern European VVER types. This work would complement the two existing CSNI validation matrices for thermal hydraulic code validation (NEA/CSNI/R(1993)14) and In-vessel core degradation (NEA/CSNI/R(2001)21). The report initially provides a brief overview of the main features of a PWR, BWR, CANDU and VVER reactors. It also provides an overview of the ex-vessel corium retention (core catcher). It then provides a general overview of the accident progression for light water and heavy water reactors. The main focus is to capture most of the phenomena and safety systems employed in these reactor types and to highlight the differences. This CCVM contains a description of 127 phenomena, broken down into 6 categories: - Containment Thermal-hydraulics Phenomena; - Hydrogen Behaviour (Combustion, Mitigation and Generation) Phenomena; - Aerosol and Fission Product Behaviour Phenomena; - Iodine Chemistry Phenomena; - Core Melt Distribution and Behaviour in Containment Phenomena; - Systems Phenomena. A synopsis is provided for each phenomenon, including a description, references for further information, significance for DBA and SA/BDBA and a list of experiments that may be used for code validation. The report identified 213 experiments, broken down into the same six categories (as done for the phenomena). An experiment synopsis is provided for each test. Along with a test description