WorldWideScience

Sample records for matrix organic light

  1. A flexible organic active matrix circuit fabricated using novel organic thin film transistors and organic light-emitting diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Gutiérrez-Heredia, Gerardo

    2010-10-04

    We present an active matrix circuit fabricated on plastic (polyethylene naphthalene, PEN) and glass substrates using organic thin film transistors and organic capacitors to control organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The basic circuit is fabricated using two pentacene-based transistors and a capacitor using a novel aluminum oxide/parylene stack (Al2O3/ parylene) as the dielectric for both the transistor and the capacitor. We report that our circuit can deliver up to 15 μA to each OLED pixel. To achieve 200 cd m-2 of brightness a 10 μA current is needed; therefore, our approach can initially deliver 1.5× the required current to drive a single pixel. In contrast to parylene-only devices, the Al2O 3/parylene stack does not fail after stressing at a field of 1.7 MV cm-1 for >10 000 s, whereas \\'parylene only\\' devices show breakdown at approximately 1000 s. Details of the integration scheme are presented. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  2. A flexible organic active matrix circuit fabricated using novel organic thin film transistors and organic light-emitting diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Gutié rrez-Heredia, Gerardo; Gonzá lez, Luis A.; Alshareef, Husam N.; Gnade, Bruce E.; Quevedo-Ló pez, Manuel Angel Quevedo

    2010-01-01

    We present an active matrix circuit fabricated on plastic (polyethylene naphthalene, PEN) and glass substrates using organic thin film transistors and organic capacitors to control organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The basic circuit is fabricated using two pentacene-based transistors and a capacitor using a novel aluminum oxide/parylene stack (Al2O3/ parylene) as the dielectric for both the transistor and the capacitor. We report that our circuit can deliver up to 15 μA to each OLED pixel. To achieve 200 cd m-2 of brightness a 10 μA current is needed; therefore, our approach can initially deliver 1.5× the required current to drive a single pixel. In contrast to parylene-only devices, the Al2O 3/parylene stack does not fail after stressing at a field of 1.7 MV cm-1 for >10 000 s, whereas 'parylene only' devices show breakdown at approximately 1000 s. Details of the integration scheme are presented. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  3. The Matrix Organization Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gattiker, Urs E.; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively).......This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively)....

  4. 3.4-Inch Quarter High Definition Flexible Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Display with Oxide Thin Film Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Kaoru; Chida, Akihiro; Okano, Tatsuya; Sugisawa, Nozomu; Inoue, Tatsunori; Seo, Satoshi; Suzuki, Kunihiko; Oikawa, Yoshiaki; Miyake, Hiroyuki; Koyama, Jun; Yamazaki, Shunpei; Eguchi, Shingo; Katayama, Masahiro; Sakakura, Masayuki

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we report a 3.4-in. flexible active matrix organic light emitting display (AMOLED) display with remarkably high definition (quarter high definition: QHD) in which oxide thin film transistors (TFTs) are used. We have developed a transfer technology in which a TFT array formed on a glass substrate is separated from the substrate by physical force and then attached to a flexible plastic substrate. Unlike a normal process in which a TFT array is directly fabricated on a thin plastic substrate, our transfer technology permits a high integration of high performance TFTs, such as low-temperature polycrystalline silicon TFTs (LTPS TFTs) and oxide TFTs, on a plastic substrate, because a flat, rigid, and thermally-stable glass substrate can be used in the TFT fabrication process in our transfer technology. As a result, this technology realized an oxide TFT array for an AMOLED on a plastic substrate. Furthermore, in order to achieve a high-definition AMOLED, color filters were incorporated in the TFT array and a white organic light-emitting diode (OLED) was combined. One of the features of this device is that the whole body of the device can be bent freely because a source driver and a gate driver can be integrated on the substrate due to the high mobility of an oxide TFT. This feature means “true” flexibility.

  5. Image quality affected by diffraction of aperture structure arrangement in transparent active-matrix organic light-emitting diode displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Hsiang; Huang, Mao-Hsiu; Jeng, Wei-de; Huang, Ting-Wei; Lo, Kuo-Lung; Ou-Yang, Mang

    2015-10-01

    Transparent display is one of the main technologies in next-generation displays, especially for augmented reality applications. An aperture structure is attached on each display pixel to partition them into transparent and black regions. However, diffraction blurs caused by the aperture structure typically degrade the transparent image when the light from a background object passes through finite aperture window. In this paper, the diffraction effect of an active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display (AMOLED) is studied. Several aperture structures have been proposed and implemented. Based on theoretical analysis and simulation, the appropriate aperture structure will effectively reduce the blur. The analysis data are also consistent with the experimental results. Compared with the various transparent aperture structure on AMOLED, diffraction width (zero energy position of diffraction pattern) of the optimize aperture structure can be reduced 63% and 31% in the x and y directions in CASE 3. Associated with a lenticular lens on the aperture structure, the improvement could reach to 77% and 54% of diffraction width in the x and y directions. Modulation transfer function and practical images are provided to evaluate the improvement of image blurs.

  6. Improvement in Brightness Uniformity by Compensating for the Threshold Voltages of Both the Driving Thin-Film Transistor and the Organic Light-Emitting Diode for Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lin Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel pixel circuit design and driving method for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AM-OLED displays that use low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs as driving element. The automatic integrated circuit modeling simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis (AIM-SPICE simulator was used to verify that the proposed pixel circuit, which comprises five transistors and one capacitor, can supply uniform output current. The voltage programming method of the proposed pixel circuit comprises three periods: reset, compensation with data input, and emission periods. The simulated results reflected excellent performance. For instance, when ΔVTH=±0.33 V, the average error rate of the OLED current variation was low (<0.8%, and when ΔVTH_OLED=+0.33 V, the error rate of the OLED current variation was 4.7%. Moreover, when the I×R (current × resistance drop voltage of a power line was 0.3 V, the error rate of the OLED current variation was 5.8%. The simulated results indicated that the proposed pixel circuit exhibits high immunity to the threshold voltage deviation of both the driving poly-Si TFTs and OLEDs, and simultaneously compensates for the I×R drop voltage of a power line.

  7. Effect of pre-drying treatments on solution-coated organic thin films for active-matrix organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongkyun; Hong, Ki-Young; Park, Jongwoon

    2017-12-01

    Due to capillary rise, organic thin films fabricated by solution coating exhibit the concave thickness profile. It is found that the thickness and emission uniformities within pixels vary depending sensitively on the pre-drying treatment that has been done before hard bake. We investigate its effect on the film quality by varying the temperature, time, pressure, fluid flow-related solute concentration, and evaporation-related solvent. To this end, we carry out spin coatings of a non-aqueous poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) for a hole transporting blanket layer. With a low-boiling-point (BP) organic solvent, the pre-drying makes no significant impact on the thickness profiles. With a high-BP organic solvent, the PVK films pre-dried in a vacuum for a sufficient time exhibit very uniform light emission in the central region, but non-emission phenomenon near the perimeter of pixels. It is addressed that such a non-emission phenomenon can be suppressed to some extent by decreasing the vacuum pressure. However, the rapid evaporation by heat conduction during the pre-drying degrades the thickness uniformity due to a rapid microflow of solute from the edge to the center. No further enhancement in the thickness uniformity is obtained by varying the solute concentration and using a mixture of low- and high-BP solvents.

  8. Lattice results for heavy light matrix elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, A.

    1994-09-01

    Lattice results for heavy light matrix elements are reviewed and some of their implications are very briefly discussed. Despite the fact that in most cases the lattice results for weak matrix elements at the moment have only a modest accuracy of about 20--30% they already have important phenomenological repercussions; e.g. for V td /V ts , x s /x d and B → K*γ

  9. A Novel LTPS-TFT Pixel Circuit to Compensate the Electronic Degradation for Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lin Fan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel pixel driving circuit for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED displays with low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFTs is studied. The proposed compensation pixel circuit is driven by voltage programming scheme, which is composed of five TFTs and one capacitor, and has been certified to provide uniform output current by the Automatic Integrated Circuit Modeling Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (AIM-SPICE simulator. The results of simulation show excellent performance, such as the low average error rate of OLED current variation (<0.5% and the low average nonuniformity of OLED current variation (<0.8% while the shift of threshold voltage of the driving poly-Si TFT and the OLED are both in the worst case ( V for TFT and  V for OLED. The proposed pixel circuit shows high immunity to the threshold voltage deviation of both the driving poly-Si TFT and the OLED.

  10. Effects of neutral particle beam on nano-crystalline silicon thin films, with application to thin film transistor backplane for flexible active matrix organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jin Nyoung; Song, Byoung Chul; Lee, Dong Hyeok; Yoo, Suk Jae; Lee, Bonju; Hong, MunPyo

    2011-01-01

    A novel deposition process for nano-crystalline silicon (nc-Si) thin films was developed using neutral beam assisted chemical vapor deposition (NBaCVD) technology for the application of the thin film transistor (TFT) backplane of flexible active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED). During the formation of a nc-Si thin film, the energetic particles enhance nano-sized crystalline rather microcrystalline Si in thin films. Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) affects the crystallinity in two ways: (1) NPB energy enhances nano-crystallinity through kinetic energy transfer and chemical annealing, and (2) heavier NPB (such as Ar) induces damage and amorphization through energetic particle impinging. Nc-Si thin film properties effectively can be changed by the reflector bias. As increase of NPB energy limits growing the crystalline, the performance of TFT supports this NPB behavior. The results of nc-Si TFT by NBaCVD demonstrate the technical potentials of neutral beam based processes for achieving high stability and reduced leakage in TFT backplanes for AMOLEDs.

  11. Using matrix organization to manage health care delivery organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allcorn, S

    1990-01-01

    Matrix organization can provide health care organization managers enhanced information processing, faster response times, and more flexibility to cope with greater organization complexity and rapidly changing operating environments. A review of the literature informed by work experience reveals that the use of matrix organization creates hard-to-manage ambiguity and balances of power in addition to providing positive benefits for health care organization managers. Solutions to matrix operating problems generally rely on the use of superior information and decision support systems and extensive staff training to develop attitudes and behavior consistent with the more collegial matrix organization culture. Further improvement in understanding the suitability of matrix organization for managing health care delivery organizations will involve appreciating the impact of partial implementation of matrix organization, temporary versus permanent uses of matrix organization, and the impact of the ambiguity created by dual lines of authority upon the exercise of power and authority.

  12. A marketing matrix for health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, F J; Gombeski, W R; Fay, G W; Eversman, J J; Cowan-Gascoigne, C

    1986-06-01

    Irrespective of the formal marketing structure successful marketing for health care organizations requires the input on many people. Detailed here is the Marketing Matrix used at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation in Cleveland, Ohio. This Matrix is both a philosophy and a tool for clarifying and focusing the organization's marketing activities.

  13. Light organ symbioses in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haygood, M G

    1993-01-01

    Most bioluminescent fishes are self-luminescent, but a substantial minority of bioluminescent teleosts produce light that is due to symbiotic luminous bacteria housed in elaborate light organs. The majority of symbiotically bioluminescent fishes (ten families in five orders) harbors common free-living species of marine luminous bacteria: Photobacterium phosphoreum, P. leiognathi, and P. fischeri (= Vibrio fischeri). Others, associated with the beryciform family Anomalopidae and nine families in the lophiiform suborder Ceratioidei, have apparently obligate symbionts that have recently been identified by small subunit (16S) rRNA analysis as new groups within the genus Vibrio. This article summarizes what is currently known about relationships between light organ symbionts and their hosts, including characteristics of light organ environments, physiology of light organ symbionts, and the evolution of light organ symbionts and their associations.

  14. Printing method for organic light emitting device lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Hyun Chul; Kim, Seon Hoon; Kim, Doo-Gun; Kim, Tae-Un; Kim, Snag-Gi; Hong, Kyung-Jin; So, Soon-Yeol

    2013-03-01

    Organic Light Emitting Device (OLED) has a characteristic to change the electric energy into the light when the electric field is applied to the organic material. OLED is currently employed as a light source for the lighting tools because research has extensively progressed in the improvement of luminance, efficiency, and life time. OLED is widely used in the plate display device because of a simple manufacture process and high emitting efficiency. But most of OLED lighting projects were used the vacuum evaporator (thermal evaporator) with low molecular. Although printing method has lower efficiency and life time of OLED than vacuum evaporator method, projects of printing OLED actively are progressed because was possible to combine with flexible substrate and printing technology. Printing technology is ink-jet, screen printing and slot coating. This printing method allows for low cost and mass production techniques and large substrates. In this research, we have proposed inkjet printing for organic light-emitting devices has the dominant method of thick film deposition because of its low cost and simple processing. In this research, the fabrication of the passive matrix OLED is achieved by inkjet printing, using a polymer phosphorescent ink. We are measured optical and electrical characteristics of OLED.

  15. Vacuum Deposited Organic Light Emitting Devices on Flexible Substrates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forrest, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this eight year program was to demonstrate both passive and active matrix, flexible, small scale displays based on small molecular weight organic light emitting device (OLED) technology...

  16. Efficient organic light emitting-diodes (OLEDs)

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Yi-Lu

    2015-01-01

    Following two decades of intense research globally, the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) has steadily emerged as the ultimate display technology of choice for the coming decades. Portable active matrix OLED displays have already become prevalent, and even large-sized ultra-high definition 4K TVs are being mass-produced. More exotic applications such as wearable displays have been commercialized recently. With the burgeoning success in displays, researchers are actively bringing the technology forward into the exciting solid-state lighting market. This book presents the knowledge needed for

  17. Experimental investigation of distinguishable and non-distinguishable grayscales applicable in active-matrix organic light-emitting diodes for quality engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Henglong; Chang, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Ming-Hong

    2017-08-01

    The distinguishable and non-distinguishable 6-bit (64) grayscales of green and red organic light-emitting diode (OLED) were experimentally investigated by using high-sensitive photometric instrument. The feasibility of combining external detection system for quality engineering to compensate the grayscale loss based on preset grayscale tables was also investigated by SPICE simulation. The degradation loss of OLED deeply affects image quality as grayscales become inaccurate. The distinguishable grayscales are indicated as those brightness differences and corresponding current increments are differentiable by instrument. The grayscales of OLED in 8-bit (256) or higher may become nondistinguishable as current or voltage increments are in the same order of noise level in circuitry. The distinguishable grayscale tables for individual red, green, blue, and white colors can be experimentally established as preset reference for quality engineering (QE) in which the degradation loss is compensated by corresponding grayscale numbers shown in preset table. The degradation loss of each OLED colors is quantifiable by comparing voltage increments to those in preset grayscale table if precise voltage increments are detectable during operation. The QE of AMOLED can be accomplished by applying updated grayscale tables. Our preliminary simulation result revealed that it is feasible to quantify degradation loss in terms of grayscale numbers by using external detector circuitry.

  18. High Intensity Organic Light-emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiangfei

    This thesis is dedicated to the fabrication, modeling, and characterization to achieve high efficiency organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) for illumination applications. Compared to conventional lighting sources, OLEDs enabled the direct conversion of electrical energy into light emission and have intrigued the world's lighting designers with the long-lasting, highly efficient illumination. We begin with a brief overview of organic technology, from basic organic semiconductor physics, to its application in optoelectronics, i.e. light-emitting diodes, photovoltaics, photodetectors and thin-film transistors. Due to the importance of phosphorescent materials, we will focus on the photophysics of metal complexes that is central to high efficiency OLED technology, followed by a transient study to examine the radiative decay dynamics in a series of phosphorescent platinum binuclear complexes. The major theme of this thesis is the design and optimization of a novel architecture where individual red, green and blue phosphorescent OLEDs are vertically stacked and electrically interconnected by the compound charge generation layers. We modeled carrier generation from the metal-oxide/doped organic interface based on a thermally assisted tunneling mechanism. The model provides insights to the optimization of a stacked OLED from both electrical and optical point of view. To realize the high intensity white lighting source, the efficient removal of heat is of a particular concern, especially in large-area devices. A fundamental transfer matrix analysis is introduced to predict the thermal properties in the devices. The analysis employs Laplace transforms to determine the response of the system to the combined effects of conduction, convection, and radiation. This perspective of constructing transmission matrices greatly facilitates the calculation of transient coupled heat transfer in a general multi-layer composite. It converts differential equations to algebraic forms, and

  19. Organic light emitting diode with light extracting electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhandari, Abhinav; Buhay, Harry

    2017-04-18

    An organic light emitting diode (10) includes a substrate (20), a first electrode (12), an emissive active stack (14), and a second electrode (18). At least one of the first and second electrodes (12, 18) is a light extracting electrode (26) having a metallic layer (28). The metallic layer (28) includes light scattering features (29) on and/or in the metallic layer (28). The light extracting features (29) increase light extraction from the organic light emitting diode (10).

  20. Project-matrix models of marketing organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutić Dragutin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike theory and practice of corporation organization, in marketing organization numerous forms and contents at its disposal are not reached until this day. It can be well estimated that marketing organization today in most of our companies and in almost all its parts, noticeably gets behind corporation organization. Marketing managers have always been occupied by basic, narrow marketing activities as: sales growth, market analysis, market growth and market share, marketing research, introduction of new products, modification of products, promotion, distribution etc. They rarely found it necessary to focus a bit more to different aspects of marketing management, for example: marketing planning and marketing control, marketing organization and leading. This paper deals with aspects of project - matrix marketing organization management. Two-dimensional and more-dimensional models are presented. Among two-dimensional, these models are analyzed: Market management/products management model; Products management/management of product lifecycle phases on market model; Customers management/marketing functions management model; Demand management/marketing functions management model; Market positions management/marketing functions management model. .

  1. Matrix light and pixel light: optical system architecture and requirements to the light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinger, Benno; Timinger, Andreas L.

    2015-09-01

    Modern Automotive headlamps enable improved functionality for more driving comfort and safety. Matrix or Pixel light headlamps are not restricted to either pure low beam functionality or pure high beam. Light in direction of oncoming traffic is selectively switched of, potential hazard can be marked via an isolated beam and the illumination on the road can even follow a bend. The optical architectures that enable these advanced functionalities are diverse. Electromechanical shutters and lens units moved by electric motors were the first ways to realize these systems. Switching multiple LED light sources is a more elegant and mechanically robust solution. While many basic functionalities can already be realized with a limited number of LEDs, an increasing number of pixels will lead to more driving comfort and better visibility. The required optical system needs not only to generate a desired beam distribution with a high angular dynamic, but also needs to guarantee minimal stray light and cross talk between the different pixels. The direct projection of the LED array via a lens is a simple but not very efficient optical system. We discuss different optical elements for pre-collimating the light with minimal cross talk and improved contrast between neighboring pixels. Depending on the selected optical system, we derive the basic light source requirements: luminance, surface area, contrast, flux and color homogeneity.

  2. Rotational covariance and light-front current matrix elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keister, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Light-front current matrix elements for elastic scattering from hadrons with spin 1 or greater must satisfy a nontrivial constraint associated with the requirement of rotational covariance for the current operator. Using a model ρ meson as a prototype for hadronic quark models, this constraint and its implications are studied at both low and high momentum transfers. In the kinematic region appropriate for asymptotic QCD, helicity rules, together with the rotational covariance condition, yield an additional relation between the light-front current matrix elements

  3. Light Harvesting for Organic Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The field of organic photovoltaics has developed rapidly over the last 2 decades, and small solar cells with power conversion efficiencies of 13% have been demonstrated. Light absorbed in the organic layers forms tightly bound excitons that are split into free electrons and holes using heterojunctions of electron donor and acceptor materials, which are then extracted at electrodes to give useful electrical power. This review gives a concise description of the fundamental processes in photovoltaic devices, with the main emphasis on the characterization of energy transfer and its role in dictating device architecture, including multilayer planar heterojunctions, and on the factors that impact free carrier generation from dissociated excitons. We briefly discuss harvesting of triplet excitons, which now attracts substantial interest when used in conjunction with singlet fission. Finally, we introduce the techniques used by researchers for characterization and engineering of bulk heterojunctions to realize large photocurrents, and examine the formed morphology in three prototypical blends. PMID:27951633

  4. Matrix organization increases physician, management cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissoneau, R; Williams, F G; Cowley, J L

    1984-04-01

    Because of the development of multihospital systems and the establishment of diagnosis related groups, hospitals increasingly will establish matrix organizations for their corporate structures. St. Luke's Hospital adopted the matrix concept in the mid-1970s, utilizing program administrators for each specialty service or "clinical center of excellence." Such centers have been developed in digestive diseases, cardiovascular and pulmonary medicine, orthopedics and rheumatology, ophthalmology, and behavioral health. The program administrator's functions are diverse: To serve as primary liaison between physicians and the hospital; To project levels of program utilization and patient and physician satisfaction, to identify areas requiring administrative and marketing emphasis, and to develop the program's marketing plan; To develop, implement, and evaluate the program's strategic, operational, and financial plans; To recruit physicians to practice at St. Luke's and to cultivate referrals from outside physicians; To participate in selecting members of all board and medical staff committees relating to the particular specialty area; and To determine the need for new programs within the specialty area and to develop services. As indicated by a medical staff survey, most physicians at St. Luke's believe that the program administrator system has improved communication with the hospital administration, that the program administrator is able to respond effectively to physician requests and problems, and that the quality of patient care has been enhanced. A great majority said they would recommend the system to other hospitals.

  5. Developing a Matrix Organization to Unify Learning Support Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John H.; Mansfield, Barry K.

    1988-01-01

    Describes use of matrix management to organize learning support services on a college campus. Claims matrix management, which links support services from academic and student affairs, increases access, improves accountability, and encourages new programs. (Author/ABL)

  6. How to get the Matrix Organization to Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burton, Richard M.; Obel, Børge; Håkonsson, Dorthe Døjbak

    2015-01-01

    a matrix to work, taking a multi-contingency perspective. We translate the matrix concept for designers and managers who are considering a matrix organization and argue that three factors are critical for its success: (1) Strong purpose: Only choose the matrix structure if there are strong reasons...... for doing so, (2) Alignment among contingencies: A matrix can only be successful if key contingencies are aligned with the matrix’s purpose, and (3) Management of junctions: The success of a matrix depends on how well activities at the junctions of the matrix are managed....

  7. Matrix converter applied to energy saving for street lighting systems

    OpenAIRE

    Román Lumbreras, Manuel; Velasco Quesada, Guillermo; Conesa Roca, Alfons

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a three-phase AC-AC converter, with independent phase control, based on matrix-converter structure. This converter is applied to electrical energy saving on the public lighting systems by means of regulation and control of the voltage applied to the lamps. The developed converter represents a technological improvement with respect to the traditional systems based on an autotransformer: it reduces system cost and volume, and increases lamps lifetime.

  8. White organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenow, Thomas Conrad

    2011-03-22

    Three approaches were taken in order to achieve reproducible and highly efficient white OLEDs with excellent colour quality. The first approach is based on the triplet harvesting concept. Otherwise unused triplet excitons are transferred from a fluorescent to a phosphorescent emitter with a smaller triplet energy. Because a blue emitter allowing for triplet transfer to a phosphorescent green emitter was not available, a model system for a three-colour white OLED was developed and investigated. This model device consists of the fluorescent blue emitter 4P-NPD and the phosphorescent emitters Ir(dhfpy){sub 2}acac and Ir(MDQ){sub 2}acac emitting in the yellow and red region, respectively. Here, it was shown that both phosphorescent emitters are excited by triplet diffusion and not by direct charge carrier recombination. The second approach is based on a hybrid white OLED with a single emission layer. This layer is a combination of a fluorescent blue and two phosphorescent emitters in a common matrix material. Because of the above mentioned lack of a blue emitter, which allows for triplet transfer to a green phosphorescent emitter, the concentrations of all emitters were chosen in a way that exciton transfer between the emitters was suppressed. The result is a non-radiative recombination of triplet excitons on the fluorescent blue emitter and an accordingly low quantum efficiency. However, a remarkable colour stability against varying brightness was achieved with this OLED. The most successful approach is based on a stacked OLED. Here, the concept of triplet harvesting is limited to triplet transfer between a fluorescent blue and a phosphorescent red emitter. The resulting spectral gap is filled by a full phosphorescent unit comprising the emission of a green and a yellow emitter, which is stacked on top of the triplet harvesting OLED. By individually optimising both units, it was possible to reach lighting relevant luminous efficacies up to {eta}{sub {nu}}=33 lm/W at

  9. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Matrix Elements in Light Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastore, S.; Carlson, J.; Cirigliano, V.; Dekens, W.; Mereghetti, E.; Wiringa, R. B.

    2018-01-17

    We present the first ab initio calculations of neutrinoless double-β decay matrix elements in A=6-12 nuclei using variational Monte Carlo wave functions obtained from the Argonne v18 two-nucleon potential and Illinois-7 three-nucleon interaction. We study both light Majorana neutrino exchange and potentials arising from a large class of multi-TeV mechanisms of lepton-number violation. Our results provide benchmarks to be used in testing many-body methods that can be extended to the heavy nuclei of experimental interest. In light nuclei we also study the impact of two-body short-range correlations and the use of different forms for the transition operators, such as those corresponding to different orders in chiral effective theory.

  10. Stimulated light emission in a dielectrically disordered composite porous matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, E.; Künzner, N.; Diener, J.; Fujii, Minoru; Timoshenko, V. Yu.; Kovalev, D.

    2005-06-01

    We report on a medium exhibiting extremely efficient light scattering properties: a liquid network formed in a porous matrix. Liquid fragments confined in the solid matrix result in a random fluctuation of the dielectric function and act as scattering objects for photons. The optical scattering efficiency is defined by the filling factor of the liquid in the pores and its dielectric constant. The spectral dependence of the scattering length of photons indicates that the phenomenon is governed by a Mie-type scattering mechanism. The degree of the dielectric disorder of the medium, i.e. the level of opacity is tunable by the ambient vapor pressure of the dielectric substance. In the strongest scattering regime the scattering length of photons is found to be in the micrometer range. By incorporation of dye molecules in the voids of the porous layer a system exhibiting optical gain is realized. In the multiple scattering regime the optical path of diffusively propagating photons is enhanced and light amplification through stimulated emission occurs: a strong intensity enhancement of the dye emission accompanied by significant spectral narrowing is observed above the excitation threshold for a layer being in the opalescence state.

  11. Project-matrix models of marketing organization

    OpenAIRE

    Gutić Dragutin; Rudelj Siniša

    2009-01-01

    Unlike theory and practice of corporation organization, in marketing organization numerous forms and contents at its disposal are not reached until this day. It can be well estimated that marketing organization today in most of our companies and in almost all its parts, noticeably gets behind corporation organization. Marketing managers have always been occupied by basic, narrow marketing activities as: sales growth, market analysis, market growth and market share, marketing research, introdu...

  12. Matrix Organizational Structure and Its Effects Upon Education Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, James R.

    Applying matrix organizational structure to the organization of special education services is the focus of this paper. Beginning with a list of ways in which educational organizations differ from business or military organizations, the author warns that educators must be cautious when transferring organizational structures from other disciplines…

  13. Principles of phosphorescent organic light emitting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaev, Boris; Baryshnikov, Gleb; Agren, Hans

    2014-02-07

    Organic light-emitting device (OLED) technology has found numerous applications in the development of solid state lighting, flat panel displays and flexible screens. These applications are already commercialized in mobile phones and TV sets. White OLEDs are of especial importance for lighting; they now use multilayer combinations of organic and elementoorganic dyes which emit various colors in the red, green and blue parts of the visible spectrum. At the same time the stability of phosphorescent blue emitters is still a major challenge for OLED applications. In this review we highlight the basic principles and the main mechanisms behind phosphorescent light emission of various classes of photofunctional OLED materials, like organic polymers and oligomers, electron and hole transport molecules, elementoorganic complexes with heavy metal central ions, and clarify connections between the main features of electronic structure and the photo-physical properties of the phosphorescent OLED materials.

  14. Weak-microcavity organic light-emitting diodes with improved light out-coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sang-Hwan; Song, Young-Woo; Lee, Joon-gu; Kim, Yoon-Chang; Lee, Jong Hyuk; Ha, Jaeheung; Oh, Jong-Suk; Lee, So Young; Lee, Sun Young; Hwang, Kyu Hwan; Zang, Dong-Sik; Lee, Yong-Hee

    2008-08-18

    We propose and demonstrate weak-microcavity organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays with improved light-extraction and viewing-angle characteristics. A single pair of low- and high-index layers is inserted between indium tin oxide (ITO) and a glass substrate. The electroluminescent (EL) efficiencies of discrete red, green, and blue weak-microcavity OLEDs are enhanced by 56%, 107%, and 26%, respectively, with improved color purity. Moreover, full-color passive-matrix bottom-emitting OLED displays are fabricated by employing low-index layers of two thicknesses. As a display, the EL efficiency of white color was 27% higher than that of a conventional OLED display.

  15. Resilient organizations: matrix model and service line management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Judith A

    2005-09-01

    Resilient organizations modify structures to meet the demands of the marketplace. The author describes a structure that enables multihospital organizations to innovate and rapidly adapt to changes. Service line management within a matrix model is an evolving organizational structure for complex systems in which nurses are pivotal members.

  16. Light emitting diode excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sean J; JiJi, Renée D

    2002-12-01

    An excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence instrument has been developed using a linear array of light emitting diodes (LED). The wavelengths covered extend from the upper UV through the visible spectrum: 370-640 nm. Using an LED array to excite fluorescence emission at multiple excitation wavelengths is a low-cost alternative to an expensive high power lamp and imaging spectrograph. The LED-EEM system is a departure from other EEM spectroscopy systems in that LEDs often have broad excitation ranges which may overlap with neighboring channels. The LED array can be considered a hybrid between a spectroscopic and sensor system, as the broad LED excitation range produces a partially selective optical measurement. The instrument has been tested and characterized using fluorescent dyes: limits of detection (LOD) for 9,10-bis(phenylethynyl)-anthracene and rhodamine B were in the mid parts-per-trillion range; detection limits for the other compounds were in the low parts-per-billion range (LED-EEMs were analyzed using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), which allowed the mathematical resolution of the individual contributions of the mono- and dianion fluorescein tautomers a priori. Correct identification and quantitation of six fluorescent dyes in two to six component mixtures (concentrations between 12.5 and 500 ppb) has been achieved with root mean squared errors of prediction (RMSEP) of less than 4.0 ppb for all components.

  17. Anisotropic properties of the enamel organic extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Espírito Santo, Alexandre R; Novaes, Pedro D; Line, Sérgio R P

    2006-05-01

    Enamel biosynthesis is initiated by the secretion, processing, and self-assembly of a complex mixture of proteins. This supramolecular ensemble controls the nucleation of the crystalline mineral phase. The detection of anisotropic properties by polarizing microscopy has been extensively used to detect macromolecular organizations in ordinary histological sections. The aim of this work was to study the birefringence of enamel organic matrix during the development of rat molar and incisor teeth. Incisor and molar teeth of rats were fixed in 2% paraformaldehyde/0.5% glutaraldehyde in 0.2 M phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.2, and decalcified in 5% nitric acid/4% formaldehyde. After paraffin embedding, 5-microm-thick sections were obtained, treated with xylene, and hydrated. Form birefringence curves were obtained after measuring optical retardations in imbibing media, with different refractive indices. Our observations showed that enamel organic matrix of rat incisor and molar teeth is strongly birefringent, presenting an ordered supramolecular structure. The birefringence starts during the early secretion phase and disappears at the maturation phase. The analysis of enamel organic matrix birefringence may be used to detect the effects of genetic and environmental factors on the supramolecular orientation of enamel matrix and their effects on the structure of mature enamel.

  18. Matrix effects on organic pollutants analysis in marine sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azis, M. Y.; Asia, L.; Piram, A.; Buchari, B.; Doumenq, P.; Setiyanto, H.

    2018-05-01

    Interference from the matrix sample can influence of the accurate analytical method. Accelerated Solvent Extraction and their purification methods were tried to separate the organic micropollutants respectively in marine sediment. Those matrix were as organic pollutants evaluation in marine environment. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are two examples organic pollutant in environment which are carcinogenic and mutagenic. Marine sediments are important matrices of information regarding the human activities in coastal areas as well as the fate and behavior of organic pollutants, which are persistent in long-term. This research purpose to evaluate the matrice effect and the recovery from marine sediment spiking with several standar solution and deuterium of molecular target from organic pollutants in not polluted sample of sediment. Matrice samples was tested from indicate in unpolluted location. The methods were evaluated with standard calibration curve (linearity LOQ). Recovery (YE) relative, Matrice Effect (ME) relative correction with deuteriated standar were evaluated the interference the matrix. Interference effect for OCPs compounds were higher than PCBs in marine sediment.

  19. Organic bistable light-emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liping; Liu, Jie; Pyo, Seungmoon; Yang, Yang

    2002-01-01

    An organic bistable device, with a unique trilayer structure consisting of organic/metal/organic sandwiched between two outmost metal electrodes, has been invented. [Y. Yang, L. P. Ma, and J. Liu, U.S. Patent Pending, U.S. 01/17206 (2001)]. When the device is biased with voltages beyond a critical value (for example 3 V), the device suddenly switches from a high-impedance state to a low-impedance state, with a difference in injection current of more than 6 orders of magnitude. When the device is switched to the low-impedance state, it remains in that state even when the power is off. (This is called "nonvolatile" phenomenon in memory devices.) The high-impedance state can be recovered by applying a reverse bias; therefore, this bistable device is ideal for memory applications. In order to increase the data read-out rate of this type of memory device, a regular polymer light-emitting diode has been integrated with the organic bistable device, such that it can be read out optically. These features make the organic bistable light-emitting device a promising candidate for several applications, such as digital memories, opto-electronic books, and recordable papers.

  20. Light extraction enhancement from organic light-emitting diodes with randomly scattered surface fixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Dong-Ying; Shi, Xiao-Bo; Gao, Chun-Hong; Cai, Shi-Duan; Jin, Yue; Liao, Liang-Sheng, E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn

    2014-09-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A combination of scattering layer and roughened substrate is used for light extraction from OLEDs. • The scattering layer is readily achieved by spin-coating the TiO{sub 2} sol. • The enhancement relying scattering depends on the size of TiO{sub 2} nano particles. • With the light extraction techniques the uniform emission is achieved. - Abstract: A combination of a scattering medium layer and a roughened substrate was proposed to enhance the light extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Comparing with a reference OLED without any scattering layer, 65% improvement in the forward emission has been achieved with a scattering layer formed on an intentionally roughened external substrate surface of the OLED by spin-coating a sol–gel fabricated matrix containing well dispersed titania (TiO{sub 2}) particles. Such a combination method not only demonstrated efficient extraction of the light trapped in the glass substrate but also achieved homogenous emission from the OLED panel. The proposed technique, convenient and inexpensive, is believed to be suitable for the large area OLED production in lighting applications.

  1. [Nuclear matrix organization of the chromocenters in cultured murine fibroblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheval', E V; Poliakov, V Iu

    2010-01-01

    In the current work, the structural organization of nuclear matrix of pericentromeric heterochromatin blocks (chromocenters) inside cultured murine fibroblasts was investigated. After 2 M NaCl extraction without DNase I treatment, chromocenters were extremely swelled, and it was impossible to detect them using conventional electron microscopy. Using immunogolding with anti-topoisomerase IIalpha antibody, we demonstrated that residual chromocenters were subdivided into numerous discrete aggregates. After 2 M NaCl extraction with DNase I treatment, the residual chromocenters appeared as a dense meshwork of thin fibers, and using this feature, the residual chromocenters were easily distinguished from the rest of nuclear matrix. After extraction with dextran sulfate and heparin, the chromocenters were decondensed, and chromatin complexes having rosette organization (central core from which numerous DNA fibers radiated) were seen. Probably, the appearance of these rosettes was a consequence of incomplete chromatin extraction. Thus, the nuclear matrix of pericentromeric chromosome regions in cultured murine fibroblasts differs morphologically from the rest of nuclear matrix.

  2. Development of organic tritium light technology at Ontario Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullins, D.F.; Krasznai, J.P.; Mueller, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Tritium is a by-product of CANDU heavy water reactor operations and is the major contributor to internal dose for plant workers. The Darlington Tritium Removal Facility (DTRF) is decontaminating heavy water by removing tritium and storing it as a metal hydride. In view of the large tritium separation capacity, (24 MCi/a, 888 PBq/a). This paper reports that Ontario Hydro is interested in pursuing markets for the peaceful uses of tritium. One of these peaceful uses is in self-luminous lighting. The state of the art at present is a phosphor coated tube filled with tritium gas. However, safety considerations have restricted the use of these lights to outdoor or essential safety applications. Binding the tritium to a solid non-volatile matrix would increase the safety of tritium lights and allow the use of other phosphors, matrices and construction geometries. Solid, organic based tritium lights were produced using two different polymer matrices. While both these materials produced visible light, the intensity was low and radiolytic damage to the polymers was evident

  3. Extracellular matrix organization modulates fibroblast growth and growth factor responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, S; Pawelek, P; Grinnell, F

    1989-06-01

    To learn more about the relationship between extracellular matrix organization, cell shape, and cell growth control, we studied DNA synthesis by fibroblasts in collagen gels that were either attached to culture dishes or floating in culture medium during gel contraction. After 4 days of contraction, the collagen density (initially 1.5 mg/ml) reached 22 mg/ml in attached gels and 55 mg/ml in floating gels. After contraction, attached collagen gels were well organized; collagen fibrils were aligned in the plane of cell spreading; and fibroblasts had an elongated, bipolar morphology. Floating collagen gels, however, were unorganized; collagen fibrils were arranged randomly; and fibroblasts had a stellate morphology. DNA synthesis by fibroblasts in contracted collagen gels was suppressed if the gels were floating in medium but not if the gels were attached, and inhibition was independent of the extent of gel contraction. Therefore, growth of fibroblasts in contracted collagen gels could be regulated by differences in extracellular matrix organization and cell shape independently of extracellular matrix density. We also compared the responses of fibroblasts in contracted collagen gels and monolayer culture to peptide growth factors including fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta, and interleukin 1. Cells in floating collagen gels were generally unresponsive to any of the growth factors. Cells in attached collagen gels and monolayer culture were affected similarly by fibroblast growth factor but not by the others. Our results indicate that extracellular matrix organization influenced not only cell growth, but also fibroblast responsiveness to peptide growth factors.

  4. Recovery of light oil from organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, E; Schultz, E L

    1927-10-04

    To recover a high percentage of light oil from organic materials, such as crude oil, shale, and the like, the raw material, as crude oil, is vaporized in a still. The vapors are passed into a converter constructed of zinc, nickel, and lead, or sherardized steel, and contain lime and zinc chloride or zinc oxide and are agitated by paddles. The gases react under pressure which is maintained therein and gradually increased, as the temperatures in the still and converter are both gradually increased, so that after the gases have been condensed an odorless high grade light oil is produced. A pressure of from 2 to 10 lb per square inch is maintained in the converter by means of an expansion valve of the needle type, which is located in the vapor outlet pipe between the converter and the condenser. In a modified form of apparatus, a dephlegmator is located between the converter and the condenser.

  5. High efficient white organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Stefan; Krause, Ralf [Department of Materials Science VI, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Kozlowski, Fryderyk; Schmid, Guenter; Hunze, Arvid [Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Winnacker, Albrecht [Department of Materials Science VI, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Due to the rapid progress in the last years the performance of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) has reached a level where general lighting presents a most interesting application target. We demonstrate, how the color coordinates of the emission spectrum can be adjusted using a combinatorial evaporation tool to lie on the desired black body curve representing cold and warm white, respectively. The evaluation includes phosphorescent and fluorescent dye approaches to optimize lifetime and efficiency, simultaneously. Detailed results are presented with respect to variation of layer thicknesses and dopant concentrations of each layer within the OLED stack. The most promising approach contains phosphorescent red and green dyes combined with a fluorescent blue one as blue phosphorescent dopants are not yet stable enough to achieve long lifetimes.

  6. Nanopatterned organic semiconductors for visible light communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xilu; Dong, Yurong; Zeng, Pan; Yu, Yan; Xie, Yujun; Gong, Junyi; Shi, Meng; Liang, Rongqing; Ou, Qiongrong; Chi, Nan; Zhang, Shuyu

    2018-03-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) is becoming an important and promising supplement to the existing Wi-Fi network for the coming 5G communications. Organic light-emitting semiconductors present much fast fluorescent decay rates compared to those of conventional colour-converting phosphors, therefore capable of achieving much higher bandwidths. Here we explore how nanopatterned organic semiconductors can further enhance the data rates of VLC links by improving bandwidths and signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and by supporting spatial multiplexing. We first demonstrate a colour-converting VLC system based on nanopatterned hyperbolic metamaterials (HMM), the bandwidth of which is enhanced by 50%. With regard to enhancing SNRs, we achieve a tripling of optical gain by integrating a nanopatterned luminescent concentrator to a signal receiver. In addition, we demonstrate highly directional fluorescent VLC antennas based on nanoimprinted polymer films, paving the way to achieving parallel VLC communications via spatialmultiplexing. These results indicate nanopatterned organic semiconductors provide a promising route to high speed VLC links.

  7. Array of organic thin film transistors integrated with organic light emitting diodes on a plastic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Gi-Seong; Choe, Ki-Beom; Song, Chung-Kun

    2006-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the possible application of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT) to a flexible active matrix organic light emitting diode (OLED) an array of 64 x 64 pixels was fabricated on a 4-in. size poly-ethylene-terephehalate substrate. Each pixel was composed of one OTFT integrated with one OLED. OTFTs successfully drove OLEDs by varying current in a wide range and some images were displayed on the array by emitting green light. The OTFTs used poly(4-vinylphenol) for the gate and pentacene for the semiconductor taking account compatibility with the PET substrate. The average mobility in the array was 0.2 cm 2 /V.s, which was reduced from 1.0 cm 2 /V.s in a single OTFT, and its variation over the entire substrate was 10%

  8. Disorganized collagen scaffold interferes with fibroblast mediated deposition of organized extracellular matrix in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi, Nima; Guo, Xiaoqing; Hutcheon, Audrey E K; Sander, Edward A; Bale, Shyam Sundar; Melotti, Suzanna A; Zieske, James D; Trinkaus-Randall, Vickery; Ruberti, Jeffrey W

    2012-10-01

    -based constructs was significantly lower than that produced by scaffold-free constructs (controls). We also observed significant variability in the remodeling of RCS scaffold by PHCFCs. PHCFCs which penetrated the RCS scaffold did exert robust local control over secreted collagen but did not appear to globally reorganize the scaffold effectively in the time period of the study. Consistent with our hypothesis, the results demonstrate that the presence of the scaffold appears to interfere with the global organization of the cell-derived matrix. The production of highly organized local matrix by fibroblasts which penetrated the scaffold suggests that there is a mechanism which operates close to the cell membrane capable of controlling fibril organization. Nonetheless, the local control of the collagen alignment produced by cells within the scaffold was not continuous and did not result in overall global organization of the construct. Using a disorganized scaffold as a guide to produce highly organized tissue has the potential to delay the production of useful matrix or prevent uniform remodeling. The results of this study may shed light on the recent attempts to use disorganized collagenous matrix as a temporary corneal replacement in vivo which led to a variable remodeling response. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Light-like big bang singularities in string and matrix theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg

    2011-01-01

    Important open questions in cosmology require a better understanding of the big bang singularity. In string and matrix theories, light-like analogues of cosmological singularities (singular plane wave backgrounds) turn out to be particularly tractable. We give a status report on the current understanding of such light-like big bang models, presenting both solved and open problems.

  10. Organic light emitting diode with light extracting layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Songwei

    2016-06-14

    A light extraction substrate includes a glass substrate having a first surface and a second surface. A light extraction layer is formed on at least one of the surfaces. The light extraction layer is a coating, such as a silicon-containing coating, incorporating nanoparticles.

  11. Cell differentiation and matrix organization in engineered teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nait Lechguer, A; Couble, M L; Labert, N; Kuchler-Bopp, S; Keller, L; Magloire, H; Bleicher, F; Lesot, H

    2011-05-01

    Embryonic dental cells were used to check a series of criteria to be achieved for tooth engineering. Implantation of cultured cell-cell re-associations led to crown morphogenesis, epithelial histogenesis, organ vascularization, and root and periodontium development. The present work aimed to investigate the organization of predentin/dentin, enamel, and cementum which formed and mineralized after implantation. These implants were processed for histology, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray microanalysis, and electron diffraction. After two weeks of implantation, the re-associations showed gradients of differentiating odontoblasts. There were ciliated, polarized, and extended cell processes in predentin/dentin. Ameloblasts became functional. Enamel crystals showed a typical oriented arrangement in the inner and outer enamel. In the developing root, odontoblasts differentiated, cementogenesis occurred, and periodontal ligament fibroblasts interacted with the root surface and newly formed bone. The implantation of cultured dental cell re-associations allows for reproduction of complete functional differentiation at the cell, matrix, and mineral levels.

  12. Keratins as components of the enamel organic matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duverger, Olivier; Beniash, Elia; Morasso, Maria I.

    2016-01-01

    Dental enamel is a hardest tissue in the human body, and although it starts as a tissue rich in proteins, by the time of eruption of the tooth in the oral cavity only a small fraction of the protein remains. While this organic matrix of enamel represents less than 1% by weight it plays essential roles in improving both toughness and resilience to chemical attacks. Despite the fact that the first studies of the enamel matrix began in the 19th century its exact composition and mechanisms of its function remain poorly understood. It was proposed that keratin or a keratin-like primitive epithelial component exists in mature enamel, however due to the extreme insolubility of its organic matrix the presence of keratins there was never clearly established. We have recently identified expression of a number of hair keratins in ameloblasts, the enamel secreting cells, and demonstrated their incorporation into mature enamel. Mutation in epithelial hair keratin KRT75 leads to a skin condition called pseudofollicularis barbae. Carriers of this mutation have an altered enamel structure and mechanical properties. Importantly, these individuals have a much higher prevalence of caries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing a direct link between a mutation in a protein-coding region of a gene and increased caries rates. In this paper we present an overview of the evidence of keratin-like material in enamel that has accumulated over the last 150 years. Furthermore, we propose potential mechanisms of action of KTR75 in enamel and highlight the clinical implications of the link between mutations in KRT75 and caries. Finally, we discuss the potential use of keratins for enamel repair. PMID:26709044

  13. Aggregation in organic light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Abigail

    Organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology has great potential for becoming a solid state lighting source. However, there are inefficiencies in OLED devices that need to be understood. Since these inefficiencies occur on a nanometer scale there is a need for structural data on this length scale in three dimensions which has been unattainable until now. Local Electron Atom Probe (LEAP), a specific implementation of Atom Probe Tomography (APT), is used in this work to acquire morphology data in three dimensions on a nanometer scale with much better chemical resolution than is previously seen. Before analyzing LEAP data, simulations were used to investigate how detector efficiency, sample size and cluster size affect data analysis which is done using radial distribution functions (RDFs). Data is reconstructed using the LEAP software which provides mass and position data. Two samples were then analyzed, 3% DCM2 in C60 and 2% DCM2 in Alq3. Analysis of both samples indicated little to no clustering was present in this system.

  14. Nanoengineering of organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupton, J.M.

    2000-11-01

    This thesis reports nanoengineerging of the emission and transport properties of organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs). This is achieved by a control of the electronic material properties and the photonic device properties. A novel class of conjugated materials for electroluminescence (EL) applications is presented, based on successively branching, or dendritic, materials comprising an emissive core and a shielding dendritic architecture. Exciton localisation at the centre of these dendrimers is observed in both luminescence and absorption. A detailed quantum chemical investigation using an exciton model supports these findings and accurately describes the energies and oscillator strengths of transitions in the core and branches. The dendrimer generation describes the degree of branching and gives a direct measure of the separation and interaction between chromophores. Increasing generation is found to lead to a reduction in red tail emission. This correlates with an increase in operating field and LED efficiency. Dendrimer blends with triplet harvesting dendritic phosphors are also investigated and found to exhibit unique emission properties. A numerical device model is presented, which is used to describe the temperature dependence of single layer polymer LEDs by fitting the field-dependent mobility and the barrier to hole injection. The device model is also used to obtain mobility values for the dendrimer materials, which are in excellent agreement with results obtained from time-of-flight measurements. The dendrimer generation is shown to provide a direct control of hopping mobility, which decreases by two orders of magnitude as the dendrimer generation increases from 0 to 3. The photonic properties and spontaneous emission of an LED are modified by incorporating a periodic wavelength scale microstructure into the emitting film. This is found to double the amount of light emitted with no effect on the device current. An investigation of the angular dependence

  15. Degradation in organic light emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Vincent Vinh

    This thesis is about the fundamental causes of degradation in tris(8-Hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum (Alq3)-based organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Degradation typically occurs when a current is forced through an insulating material. Since the insulator does not support conduction waves (in its ground state), chemical restructuring must occur to accommodate the current. OLEDs have many technical advantages over the well known semiconductor-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). OLEDs have quantum efficiencies ˜1% (˜10 times higher than the LEDs), and operational power thresholds ˜.05mW (˜100 lower than the LEDs). OLEDs are preferred in power limited and portable devices; devices such as laptops and displays consume ˜1/4 of the supplied power---any power saving is significant. Other advantages, like better compliance to curved surfaces and ease of fabrication, give the OLEDs an even greater edge over the LEDs. OLEDs must have at least comparable or better lifetimes to remain attractive. Typical OLEDs last several 100hrs compared to the several 1000hrs for the LEDs. For reliable OLED application, it is necessary to understand the above breakdown mechanism. In this thesis, we attempt to understand the breakdown by looking at how OLEDs are made, how they work, and when they don't. In the opening sections, we give an overview of OLEDs and LEDs, especially how sustained luminescence is achieved through current circulation. Then in Chapter 2, we look at the basic components in the OLEDs. In Chapter 3 we look at how a hole material (like poly-vinyl carbazole or PVK) establishes an excitonic environment for the sustained luminescence in Alq3. We then approximate how potential is distributed when a simple luminescence system is in operation. In Chapter 4, we look at ways of measuring this distribution via the OLED impedance. Finally in Chapter 5, we look at the OLED stability under light emission conditions via PVK and Alq3 photoemission and photoabsorption spectra

  16. Pancreatic morphogenesis and extracellular matrix organization during rat development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisaoka, M; Haratake, J; Hashimoto, H

    1993-07-01

    We investigated the rat pancreatic morphology at various developmental stages ranging from 12 days of gestation to the neonatal stage, with special emphasis on alterations in extracellular matrix organization in vivo. The rat pancreatic development in utero could be divided into four representative stages as follows: (1) initial epithelial buds (12 days of gestation), (2) elongated and branching epithelium (13-14 days), (3) tubular structure (15-16 days), and (4) acinar structure (17 days or more). Ultrastructurally, the fetal and neonatal pancreata were almost constantly encompassed by continuous basal lamina, except for the earliest stage, in which minute disruptions of basal lamina were observed. Through the disruption, the direct epithelial-mesenchymal contact was formed between an endocrine cell and an adjacent mesenchymal cell, which implied epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in processes of endocrine cell differentiation. Collagen fibrils were frequently accumulated at the cleft (branchpoint) of the branching epithelium during the second and third stages mentioned above. Immunohistochemically, fibronectin and collagen type-I were localized particularly beside the neck (narrow part) or cleft of the pancreatic epithelium at these stages, although continuous linear localization of these matrices was noted around the initial pancreatic bud. This was in contrast to invariable linear localization of laminin and collagen type-IV at the epithelial/mesenchymal interface throughout the pancreatic development. Diffuse fibrillar localization of fibronectin and collagen type-I in the mesenchyme was pronounced at the later stages and after birth. Collagen type-III was only focally detectable around the pancreatic epithelium from the second stage, and its distinct localization was noted in the interlobular connective tissue after birth. Thus, chronological changes in extracellular matrix organization seemed to be closely related to morphogenetic processes of the rat

  17. Axial-Current Matrix Elements in Light Nuclei from Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, Martin [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Shanahan, Phiala E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Tiburzi, Brian C. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Wagman, Michael L. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Winter, Frank T. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Beane, Silas [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Chang, Emmanuel [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Davoudi, Zohreh; Detmold, William [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Orginos, Konstantinos [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    I present results from the first lattice QCD calculations of axial-current matrix elements in light nuclei, performed by the NPLQCD collaboration. Precision calculations of these matrix elements, and the subsequent extraction of multi-nucleon axial-current operators, are essential in refining theoretical predictions of the proton-proton fusion cross section, neutrino-nucleus cross sections and $\\beta\\beta$-decay rates of nuclei. In addition, they are expected to shed light on the phenomenological quenching of $g_A$ that is required in nuclear many-body calculations.

  18. Magnetoelectroluminescence in organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Joseph E.; Lewis, Alan M.; Manolopoulos, David E.; Hore, P. J.

    2016-06-01

    The magnetoelectroluminescence of conjugated organic polymer films is widely accepted to arise from a polaron pair mechanism, but their magnetoconductance is less well understood. Here we derive a new relationship between the experimentally measurable magnetoelectroluminescence and magnetoconductance and the theoretically calculable singlet yield of the polaron pair recombination reaction. This relationship is expected to be valid regardless of the mechanism of the magnetoconductance, provided the mobilities of the free polarons are independent of the applied magnetic field (i.e., provided one discounts the possibility of spin-dependent transport). We also discuss the semiclassical calculation of the singlet yield of the polaron pair recombination reaction for materials such as poly(2,5-dioctyloxy-paraphenylene vinylene) (DOO-PPV), the hyperfine fields in the polarons of which can be extracted from light-induced electron spin resonance measurements. The resulting theory is shown to give good agreement with experimental data for both normal (H-) and deuterated (D-) DOO-PPV over a wide range of magnetic field strengths once singlet-triplet dephasing is taken into account. Without this effect, which has not been included in any previous simulation of magnetoelectroluminescence, it is not possible to reproduce the experimental data for both isotopologues in a consistent fashion. Our results also indicate that the magnetoconductance of DOO-PPV cannot be solely due to the effect of the magnetic field on the dissociation of polaron pairs.

  19. Magnetoelectroluminescence in organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Joseph E.; Lewis, Alan M.; Manolopoulos, David E.; Hore, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    The magnetoelectroluminescence of conjugated organic polymer films is widely accepted to arise from a polaron pair mechanism, but their magnetoconductance is less well understood. Here we derive a new relationship between the experimentally measurable magnetoelectroluminescence and magnetoconductance and the theoretically calculable singlet yield of the polaron pair recombination reaction. This relationship is expected to be valid regardless of the mechanism of the magnetoconductance, provided the mobilities of the free polarons are independent of the applied magnetic field (i.e., provided one discounts the possibility of spin-dependent transport). We also discuss the semiclassical calculation of the singlet yield of the polaron pair recombination reaction for materials such as poly(2,5-dioctyloxy-paraphenylene vinylene) (DOO-PPV), the hyperfine fields in the polarons of which can be extracted from light-induced electron spin resonance measurements. The resulting theory is shown to give good agreement with experimental data for both normal (H-) and deuterated (D-) DOO-PPV over a wide range of magnetic field strengths once singlet-triplet dephasing is taken into account. Without this effect, which has not been included in any previous simulation of magnetoelectroluminescence, it is not possible to reproduce the experimental data for both isotopologues in a consistent fashion. Our results also indicate that the magnetoconductance of DOO-PPV cannot be solely due to the effect of the magnetic field on the dissociation of polaron pairs.

  20. Light incoupling in small molecule organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allinger, Nikola; Meiss, Jan; Riede, Moritz; Leo, Karl [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Gnehr, Wolf-Michael [Heliatek GmbH, Liebigstrasse 26, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Light incoupling is an essential topic for optimization of organic solar cells. In our group, we examine light incoupling of different kinds of transparent contacting materials as well as external dielectric coatings, using optical simulation of thin film systems and experimental methods. Thin films of small molecules are prepared by thermal evaporation in a multi-chamber UHV system. Complex refraction indices of various materials are calculated from reflection and transmission measurements of monolayers. For modelling of optical properties of thin film systems, we developed a numerical simulation program based on the transfer matrix method. The cell structures investigated consist of nanolayers of small molecules, using ZnPc/C60 as an acceptor-donor heterojunction. As contact materials, we compare the expensive standard material indium tin oxide (ITO) with more cost-efficient alternatives like thin Ag layers or spin-coated layers of the polymer PEDOT:PSS, and discuss the resulting cell properties. Additional dielectric layers of varying materials, like tris(8-hydroxy-quinolinate)-aluminum (Alq3) or N,N'-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)-benzidine (MeO-TPD), are deposited on top of the stack and their influence on cell efficiencies is investigated.

  1. Connective matrix organization in human pulmonary fibrosis. Collagen polymorphism analysis in fibrotic deposits by immunohistological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiya, C; Peyrol, S; Cordier, J F; Grimaud, J A

    1983-01-01

    In the interstitium of the alveolar septa in the peripheral parts of the lung, four molecular types of collagen (I, III, IV and V) each with different morphological appearances, can be identified. The structural integrity of collagens accounts for the physiological efficiency of the lung. Fibrous thickening of alveolar septa is an invariable result of various diseases affecting the interstitium of the lung. The light and electron microscopic findings, and the immunological typing of collagens in six cases of fibrotic alveolar disease, are described. In the alveolar septa, two different compartments (the alveolo-capillary junction and the supportive axis) were affected by fibrosis: the alveolo-capillary junction was widened by the addition of interstitial collagens to basement membranes. In the axis, the increase of interstitial (types I and III) collagen gave rise to different patterns of connective matrix organization, graded as Loose or Dense depending on quantitative alterations of the type I/III ratio. The mode of organization of the fibrotic lung connective matrix, which depends on the quality of deposits in the matrix, may be correlated with the evolution of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, in terms of its stability, remodelling ability and reversibility.

  2. FT-Raman spectroscopy study of organic matrix degradation in nanofilled resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Nahórny, Sídnei; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2013-04-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of light curing unit (LCU) type, mouthwashes, and soft drink on chemical degradation of a nanofilled resin composite. Samples (80) were divided into eight groups: halogen LCU, HS--saliva (control); HPT--Pepsi Twist®; HLC--Listerine®; HCP--Colgate Plax®; LED LCU, LS--saliva (control); LPT--Pepsi Twist®; LLC--Listerine®; LCP--Colgate Plax®. The degree of conversion analysis and the measure of the peak area at 2,930 cm-1 (organic matrix) of resin composite were done by Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy (baseline, after 7 and 14 days). The data were subjected to multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a 95% confidence followed by Tukey's HSD post-hoc test. The DC ranged from 58.0% (Halogen) to 59.3% (LED) without significance. Differences in the peak area between LCUs were found after 7 days of storage in S and PT. A marked increase in the peak intensity of HLC and LLC groups was found. The soft-start light-activation may influence the chemical degradation of organic matrix in resin composite. Ethanol contained in Listerine® Cool Mint mouthwash had the most significant degradation effect. Raman spectroscopy is shown to be a useful tool to investigate resin composite degradation.

  3. The Community Mental Health Center as a Matrix Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stephen L.

    1978-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the literature on matrix organizational designs and discusses the ways in which the matrix design might be applied to the special features of a community mental health center. The phases of one community mental health center's experience in adopting a matrix organizational structure are described. (Author)

  4. A Review of Irradiation Effects on Organic-Matrix Insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, N.J.

    1993-01-01

    This review assesses the data base on epoxy and polyimide matrix insulation to determine whether organic electric insulation systems can be used in the toroidal field (TF) magnets of next generation fusion devices such as ITER* and TPX*. Owing to the difficulties of testing insulation under fusion reactor conditions, there is a considerable mismatch between the ITER requirements and the data that are currently available. For example, nearly all of the high-dose (5 x 10 7 to 10 8 Gy) data obtained on epoxy and polyimide matrix insulation employed gamma irradiation, electron irradiation, or reactor irradiation with a fast neutron fluence far below 10 23 /m 2 , the fluence expected for the insulation at the TF magnets, as set forth in ITER conceptual design documents. Also, the neutron spectrum did not contain a very high energy (E (ge) 5 MeV) component. Such data underestimate the actual damage that would be obtained with the neutron fluence and spectrum expected at a TF magnet. Experiments on a polyimide (Kapton) indicate that gamma or electron doses or mixed gamma and neutron reactor doses would have to be downgraded by a factor of up to ten to simulate fusion neutron doses. Even when neutrons did constitute a significant portion of the total dose, B-containing E-glass reinforcement was often used; therefore, excess damage from the 10 B + n → 7 Li + α reaction occurred near the glass-epoxy interface. This problem can easily be avoided by substituting B-free glass (R, S, or T types)

  5. Usage of ray tracing transfer matrix to mitigate the stray light for ITER spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajita, S.; Veshchev, E.; Barnsley, R.; Walsh, M.

    2016-01-01

    Stray light formed by the reflection of photons on inner wall from a bright divertor region can be a serious issue in spectroscopic measurement systems in ITER. In this study, we propose a method to mitigate the influence of stray light using a ray tracing analysis. Usually, a ray tracing simulation requires a time consuming runs. We constructed transfer matrices based on the ray tracing simulation results and used them to demonstrate the influence of stray light. It is shown that the transfer matrix can be used to reconstruct the emission profile by considering the influence of the stray light without any additional ray tracing runs. Mitigation of the stray light in ITER divertor impurity monitor was demonstrated, and a method of prediction of the stray light level for the scrape off layer spectroscopy from divertor region was proposed. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Periodically arranged colloidal gold nanoparticles for enhanced light harvesting in organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirsafaei, Mina; Fernandes Cauduro, André Luis; Kunstmann-Olsen, Casper

    2016-01-01

    Although organic solar cells show intriguing features such as low-cost, mechanical flexibility and light weight, their efficiency is still low compared to their inorganic counterparts. One way of improving their efficiency is by the use of light-trapping mechanisms from nano- or microstructures......, which makes it possible to improve the light absorption and charge extraction in the device’s active layer. Here, periodically arranged colloidal gold nanoparticles are demonstrated experimentally and theoretically to improve light absorption and thus enhance the efficiency of organic solar cells....... Surface-ordered gold nanoparticle arrangements are integrated at the bottom electrode of organic solar cells. The resulting optical interference and absorption effects are numerically investigated in bulk hetero-junction solar cells based on the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) and Transfer Matrix...

  7. Models based on multichannel R-matrix theory for evaluating light element reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodder, D.C.; Hale, G.M.; Nisley, R.A.; Witte, K.; Young, P.G.

    1975-01-01

    Multichannel R-matrix theory has been used as a basis for models for analysis and evaluation of light nuclear systems. These models have the characteristic that data predictions can be made utilizing information derived from other reactions related to the one of primary interest. Several examples are given where such an approach is valid and appropriate. (auth.)

  8. Diamond xenolith and matrix organic matter in the Sutter's Mill meteorite measured by C-XANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Zolensky, Michael E.; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Rahman, Zia; Jenniskens, Peter; Cody, George D.

    2014-11-01

    The Sutter's Mill (SM) meteorite fell in El Dorado County, California, on April 22, 2012. This meteorite is a regolith breccia composed of CM chondrite material and at least one xenolithic phase: oldhamite. The meteorite studied here, SM2 (subsample 5), was one of three meteorites collected before it rained extensively on the debris site, thus preserving the original asteroid regolith mineralogy. Two relatively large (10 μm sized) possible diamond grains were observed in SM2-5 surrounded by fine-grained matrix. In the present work, we analyzed a focused ion beam (FIB) milled thin section that transected a region containing these two potential diamond grains as well as the surrounding fine-grained matrix employing carbon and nitrogen X-ray absorption near-edge structure (C-XANES and N-XANES) spectroscopy using a scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) (Beamline 5.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). The STXM analysis revealed that the matrix of SM2-5 contains C-rich grains, possibly organic nanoglobules. A single carbonate grain was also detected. The C-XANES spectrum of the matrix is similar to that of insoluble organic matter (IOM) found in other CM chondrites. However, no significant nitrogen-bearing functional groups were observed with N-XANES. One of the possible diamond grains contains a Ca-bearing inclusion that is not carbonate. C-XANES features of the diamond-edges suggest that the diamond might have formed by the CVD process, or in a high-temperature and -pressure environment in the interior of a much larger parent body.

  9. Dextran derivatives modulate collagen matrix organization in dermal equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Laetitia; Lebreton-Decoster, Corinne; Godeau, Gaston; Coulomb, Bernard; Jozefonvicz, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    Dextran derivatives can protect heparin binding growth factor implied in wound healing, such as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). The first aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these compounds on human dermal fibroblasts in culture with or without TGF-beta1. Several dextran derivatives obtained by substitution of methylcarboxylate (MC), benzylamide (B) and sulphate (Su) groups were used to determine the effects of each compound on fibroblast growth in vitro. The data indicate that sulphate groups are essential to act on the fibroblast proliferation. The dextran derivative LS21 DMCBSu has been chosen to investigate its effect on dermal wound healing process. Fibroblasts cultured in collagenous matrices named dermal equivalent were treated with the bioactive polymer alone or associated to TGF-beta1 or FGF-2. Cross-sections of dermal equivalent observed by histology or immunohistochemistry, demonstrated that the bioactive polymer accelerates the collagen matrices organization and stimulates the human type-III collagen expression. This bioactive polymer induces apoptosis of myofibroblast, property which may be beneficial in treatment of hypertrophic scar. Culture media analyzed by zymography and Western blot showed that this polymer significantly increases the secretion of zymogen and active form of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), involved in granulation tissue formation. These data suggest that this bioactive polymer has properties which may be beneficial in the treatment of wound healing.

  10. Characterization of organic matrix extracted from fresh water pearls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yufei; Gao Yonghua; Feng Qingling

    2011-01-01

    Aragonite pearl and vaterite pearl from cultured Hyriopsis cumingii in Zhuji (Zhejiang province, China) were chosen for the study. The matrix proteins were extracted using water and weak acid, and classified as water soluble matrix (WSM), acid soluble matrix (ASM) and acid insoluble matrix (AIM). The proteins from both pearls were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformation infrared spectra (FTIR). The results showed that, AIM of aragonite pearl and vaterite pearl had an ordered structure of α-helix. ASM conformations of these two pearls were different from each other. WSM differed the most between these two pearls. - Research Highlights: → We use a specific method for extracting matrix proteins from aragonite pearl and vaterite pearl respectively. → The matrix proteins are extracted by water and weak acid, and classified as water soluble matrix (WSM), acid soluble matrix (ASM) and acid insoluble matrix (AIM). → AIM of aragonite pearl and vaterite pearl have an ordered structure. ASM conformations of the two pearls are different from each other. WSM differ the most between these two pearls.

  11. Effectiveness of Matrix Organizations at the TACOM LCMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    those in the TARDEC 91% 9% Matrix Employee who think Supvr can Resolve issues at their level Yes No UNCLASSIFIED Effectiveness of Matrix...Journal, 51-54. Randolph, W. A., & Blackburn , R. S. (1989). Managing organizational behavior. Homewood: Irwin. Randolph, W. A., & Dess, G. G. (1984...engine performance. PERSONAL:  Golf, Skiing, Fatherhood (two boys Jordan and Simon ), Spouse Anne

  12. Light-harvesting organic photoinitiators of polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalevée, Jacques; Tehfe, Mohamad-Ali; Dumur, Frédéric; Gigmes, Didier; Graff, Bernadette; Morlet-Savary, Fabrice; Fouassier, Jean-Pierre

    2013-02-12

    Two new photoinitiators with unprecedented light absorption properties are proposed on the basis of a suitable truxene skeleton where several UV photoinitiators PI units such as benzophenone and thioxanthone are introduced at the periphery and whose molecular orbitals MO can be coupled with those of the PI units: a red-shifted absorption and a strong increase of the molecular extinction coefficients (by a ≈ 20-1000 fold factor) are found. These compounds are highly efficient light-harvesting photoinitiators. The scope and practicality of these photoinitiators of polymerization can be dramatically expanded, that is, both radical and cationic polymerization processes are accessible upon very soft irradiation conditions (halogen lamp, LED…︁) thanks to the unique light absorption properties of the new proposed structures. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Characteristics of global organic matrix in normal and pimpled chicken eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Song, L; Zhang, F; He, W; Linhardt, R J

    2017-10-01

    The organic matrix from normal and pimpled calcified chicken eggshells were dissociated into acid-insoluble, water-insoluble, and facultative-soluble (both acid- and water-soluble) components, to understand the influence of shell matrix on eggshell qualities. A linear correlation was shown among these 3 matrix components in normal eggshells but was not observed in pimpled eggshells. In pimpled eggshells, the percentage contents of all 4 groups of matrix (the total matrix, acid-insoluble matrix, water-insoluble matrix, and facultative-soluble matrix) were significantly higher than that in normal eggshells. The amounts of both total matrix and acid-insoluble matrix in individual pimpled calcified shells were high, even though their weight was much lower than a normal eggshell. In both normal and pimpled eggshells, the calcified eggshell weight and shell thickness significantly and positively correlated with the amounts of all 4 groups of matrix in an individual calcified shell. In normal eggshells, the calcified shell thickness and shell breaking strength showed no significant correlations with the percentage contents of all 4 groups of matrix. In normal eggshells, only the shell membrane weight significantly correlated with the constituent ratios of both acid-insoluble matrix and facultative-soluble matrix in the whole matrix. In pimpled eggshells, 3 variables (calcified shell weight, shell thickness, and breaking strength) were significantly correlated with the constituent proportions of both acid-insoluble matrix and facultative-matrix. This study suggests that mechanical properties of normal eggshells may not linearly depend on the organic matrix content in the calcified eggshells and that pimpled eggshells might result by the disequilibrium enrichment of some proteins with negative effects. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases in the murine zymosan-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volman, T.J.H.; Goris, R.J.A.; Lomme, R.M.L.M.; Groot, J. de; Verhofstad, A.A.J.; Hendriks, T.

    2004-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated as mediators of tissue damage in several inflammatory diseases. Since the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is thought to result from systemic inflammation, overactivation of MMPs could contribute to the organ damage observed. The

  15. Light Scattering Studies of Organic Field Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, Danish

    Organic semiconductors hold a great promise of enabling new technology based on low cost and flexible electronic devices. While much work has been done in the field of organic semiconductors, the field is still quite immature when compared to that of traditional inorganic based devices. More work is required before the full potential of organic field effect transistors (OFETs), organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is realized. Among such work, a further development of diagnostic tools that characterize charge transport and device robustness more efficiently is required. Charge transport in organic semiconductors is limited by the nature of the metal-semiconductor interfaces where charge is injected into the semiconductor film and the semiconductor-dielectric interface where the charge is accumulated and transported. This, combined with that fact that organic semiconductors are especially susceptible to having structural defects induced via oxidation, charge transport induced damage, and metallization results in a situation where a semiconductor film's ability to conduct charge can degrade over time. This degradation manifests itself in the electrical device characteristics of organic based electronic devices. OFETs, for example, may display changes in threshold voltage, lowering of charge carrier mobilities, or a decrease in the On/Off ratio. All these effects sum together to result in degradation in device performance. The work begins with a study where matrix assisted pulsed laser deposition (MAPLE), an alternative organic semiconductor thin film deposition method, is used to fabricate OFETs with improved semiconductor-dielectric interfaces. MAPLE allows for the controlled layer-by-layer growth of the semiconductor film. Devices fabricated using this technique are shown to exhibit desirable characteristics that are otherwise only achievable with additional surface treatments. MAPLE is shown to be viable alternative to other

  16. Stage-structured matrix models for organisms with non-geometric development times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Birt; Richard M. Feldman; David M. Cairns; Robert N. Coulson; Maria Tchakerian; Weimin Xi; James M. Guldin

    2009-01-01

    Matrix models have been used to model population growth of organisms for many decades. They are popular because of both their conceptual simplicity and their computational efficiency. For some types of organisms they are relatively accurate in predicting population growth; however, for others the matrix approach does not adequately model...

  17. Potential Applications of Matrix Organization Theory for the New Jersey Department of Education. Position Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, J. Robert

    Matrix organization focuses on the shift from cost center or process input planning to product output or results planning. Matrix organization puts the personnel and the resources where they are needed to get the job done. This management efficiency is brought about by dividing all organizational activities into two areas: (1) input or maintenance…

  18. Matrix Organization of a Residency Program in an Academic Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ellen S.; Eisenberg, John M.

    1980-01-01

    Matrix organization offers a structure that can facilitate coordination and cooperation in health care educational administration. Its application within the health care system is reviewed, the matrix organization of the primary care residency at the University of Pennsylvania is reported, and advantages and disadvantages are discussed.…

  19. Full color organic light-emitting devices with microcavity structure and color filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Liu, Hongyu; Sun, Runguang

    2009-05-11

    This letter demonstrated the fabrication of the full color passive matrix organic light-emitting devices based on the combination of the microcavity structure, color filter and a common white polymeric OLED. In the microcavity structure, patterned ITO terraces with different thickness were used as the anode as well as cavity spacer. The primary color emitting peaks were originally generated by the microcavity and then the second resonance peak was absorbed by the color filter.

  20. Improved light extraction from white organic light-emitting devices using a binary random phase array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, Yasuhisa, E-mail: inada.yasuhisa@jp.panasonic.com; Nishiwaki, Seiji; Hirasawa, Taku; Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Hashiya, Akira; Wakabayashi, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Masa-aki [R and D Division, Panasonic Corporation, 1006 Kadoma, Kadoma City, Osaka 571-8501 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Jumpei [Device Development Center, Eco Solutions Company, Panasonic Corporation, 1048 Kadoma, Osaka 571-8686 Japan (Japan)

    2014-02-10

    We have developed a binary random phase array (BRPA) to improve the light extraction performance of white organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs). We demonstrated that the scattering of incoming light can be controlled by employing diffraction optics to modify the structural parameters of the BRPA. Applying a BRPA to the substrate of the WOLED leads to enhanced extraction efficiency and suppression of angle-dependent color changes. Our systematic study clarifies the effect of scattering on the light extraction of WOLEDs.

  1. Improved light extraction from white organic light-emitting devices using a binary random phase array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Yasuhisa; Nishiwaki, Seiji; Hirasawa, Taku; Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Hashiya, Akira; Wakabayashi, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Masa-aki; Matsuzaki, Jumpei

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a binary random phase array (BRPA) to improve the light extraction performance of white organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs). We demonstrated that the scattering of incoming light can be controlled by employing diffraction optics to modify the structural parameters of the BRPA. Applying a BRPA to the substrate of the WOLED leads to enhanced extraction efficiency and suppression of angle-dependent color changes. Our systematic study clarifies the effect of scattering on the light extraction of WOLEDs

  2. Designing matrix organizations that work: Lessons from the P&G case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Jean Degen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The matrix organization concept emerged from the US aerospace industry in the 1960s and was adopted by many companies in the early 1970s. In the late 1970s and early 1980s many companies were experiencing trouble with its operation and many argued like Peters & Waterman in their bestseller In search of excellence in 1982 (p. 306 that the matrix was too complex to work properly. Galbraith (2009, p. 10-14 explains that the reason for the problems were that the matrix in these organizations was wrongly adopted, hastily installed, and inappropriately implemented. He explains that adopting a matrix structure requires a collaborative organization form, proper power, and accountability distribution, complementing changes to the information systems, planning and budgeting process, the performance evaluation and bonus system, and so on. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate why companies adopted the matrix, what problems they had, the solutions for these problems based on Galbraith (2009 and other authors like Davis & Lawrence (1977, and the state of the art of matrix structure design today like the P&G front-back hybrid matrix organization. To illustrate the historical evolution of organization structure to the simple matrix and then to more complex matrix organizations we used the P&G case (Piskorski & Spadini 2007.

  3. Colour tuning in white hybrid inorganic/organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckbauer, Jochen; Brasser, Catherine; Edwards, Paul R; Martin, Robert W; Findlay, Neil J; Skabara, Peter J; Wallis, David J

    2016-01-01

    White hybrid inorganic/organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated by combining a novel organic colour converter with a blue inorganic LED. An organic small molecule was specifically synthesised to act as down-converter. The characteristics of the white colour were controlled by changing the concentration of the organic molecule based on the BODIPY unit, which was embedded in a transparent matrix, and volume of the molecule and encapsulant mixture. The concentration has a critical effect on the conversion efficiency, i.e. how much of the absorbed blue light is converted into yellow light. With increasing concentration the conversion efficiency decreases. This quenching effect is due to aggregation of the organic molecule at higher concentrations. Increasing the deposited amount of the converter does not increase the yellow emission despite more blue light being absorbed. Degradation of the organic converter was also observed during a period of 15 months from LED fabrication. Angular-dependent measurements revealed slight deviation from a Lambertian profile for the blue and yellow emission peaks leading to a small change in ‘whiteness’ with emission angle. Warm white and cool white light with correlated colour temperatures of 2770 K and 7680 K, respectively, were achieved using different concentrations of the converter molecule. Although further work is needed to improve the lifetime and poor colour rendering, these hybrid LEDs show promising results as an alternative approach for generating white LEDs compared with phosphor-based white LEDs. (paper)

  4. High performance organic transistor active-matrix driver developed on paper substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Boyu; Ren, Xiaochen; Wang, Zongrong; Wang, Xinyu; Roberts, Robert C.; Chan, Paddy K. L.

    2014-09-01

    The fabrication of electronic circuits on unconventional substrates largely broadens their application areas. For example, green electronics achieved through utilization of biodegradable or recyclable substrates, can mitigate the solid waste problems that arise at the end of their lifespan. Here, we combine screen-printing, high precision laser drilling and thermal evaporation, to fabricate organic field effect transistor (OFET) active-matrix (AM) arrays onto standard printer paper. The devices show a mobility and on/off ratio as high as 0.56 cm2V-1s-1 and 109 respectively. Small electrode overlap gives rise to a cut-off frequency of 39 kHz, which supports that our AM array is suitable for novel practical applications. We demonstrate an 8 × 8 AM light emitting diode (LED) driver with programmable scanning and information display functions. The AM array structure has excellent potential for scaling up.

  5. Organic/hybrid thin films deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.; Ge, Wangyao

    2017-12-01

    Some of the most exciting materials research in the 21st century attempts to resolve the challenge of simulating, synthesizing, and characterizing new materials with unique properties designed from first principles. Achievements in such development for organic and organic-inorganic hybrid materials make them important options for electronic and/or photonic devices because they can impart multi-functionality, flexibility, transparency, and sustainability to emerging systems, such as wearable electronics. Functional organic materials include small molecules, oligomers, and polymers, while hybrid materials include inorganic nanomaterials (such as zero-dimensional quantum dots, one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, or two-dimensional nanosheets) combined with organic matrices. A critically important step to implementing new electronic and photonic devices using such materials is the processing of thin films. While solution-based processing is the most common laboratory technique for organic and hybrid materials, vacuum-based deposition has been critical to the commercialization of organic light emitting diodes based on small molecules, for example. Therefore, it is desirable to explore vacuum-based deposition of organic and hybrid materials that include larger macromolecules, such as polymers. This review article motivates the need for physical vapor deposition of polymeric and hybrid thin films using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), which is a type of pulsed laser deposition. This review describes the development of variations in the MAPLE technique, discusses the current understanding of laser-target interactions and growth mechanisms for different MAPLE variations, surveys demonstrations of MAPLE-deposited organic and hybrid materials for electronic and photonic devices, and provides a future outlook for the technique.

  6. EDITORIAL Light-induced material organization Light-induced material organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainos, Nikos; Rode, Andrei V.

    2010-12-01

    Light-induced material organization extends over a broad area of research, from photon momentum transfer to atoms, molecules and particles, serving the basis for optical trapping, and expands into the laser-induced changes of material properties through photopolymerization, photodarkening, and materials ablation. Relevant phenomena are observed over many orders of magnitude of light intensity, from a few kW cm-2 for the optical trapping of living cells to 1014 W cm-2 encountered in femtosecond laser micromachining and micro-explosion. Relevant interactions reveal a rich palette of novel phenomena in the solid state, from subtle excitations and material organization to phase transformations, non-equilibrium and transient states. The laser-induced material modifications relate to changes in the crystal structure and the molecular bonding, phase transitions in liquid state, ablation and plasma production associated with extreme pressure and temperature conditions towards entirely new states of matter. The underlying physical mechanisms form the foundations for micro-engineering photonic and other functional devices and lead the way to relevant applications. At the same time, they hold the potential for creating non-equilibrium material states and a range of fundamentally new products not available by other means. The fundamental understanding of both materials nature and functional behaviour will ultimately yield novel devices and improved performance in several fields. The far reaching goals of these studies relate to the development of new methods and technologies for micro- and nano-fabrication, not only offering a significant reduction of cost, but also expanding the fabrication capabilities into unexplored areas of biophotonics and nanotechnology. This special issue of Journal of Optics presents some very recent and exciting advances in the field of materials manipulation by laser beams, aiming to underline its current trends. In optical trapping research we

  7. Organic light-emitting diodes for lighting: High color quality by controlling energy transfer processes in host-guest-systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichsel, Caroline; Reineke, Sebastian; Furno, Mauro; Lüssem, Björn; Leo, Karl

    2012-02-01

    Exciton generation and transfer processes in a multilayer organic light-emitting diode (OLED) are studied in order to realize OLEDs with warm white color coordinates and high color-rendering index (CRI). We investigate a host-guest-system containing four phosphorescent emitters and two matrix materials with different transport properties. We show, by time-resolved spectroscopy, that an energy back-transfer from the blue emitter to the matrix materials occurs, which can be used to transport excitons to the other emitter molecules. Furthermore, we investigate the excitonic and electronic transfer processes by designing suitable emission layer stacks. As a result, we obtain an OLED with Commission Internationale de lÉclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.444;0.409), a CRI of 82, and a spectrum independent of the applied current. The OLED shows an external quantum efficiency of 10% and a luminous efficacy of 17.4 lm/W at 1000 cd/m2.

  8. Light emission from organic single crystals operated by electrolyte doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuki, Keiichiro; Sakanoue, Tomo; Yomogida, Yohei; Hotta, Shu; Takenobu, Taishi

    2018-03-01

    Light-emitting devices based on electrolytes, such as light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) and electric double-layer transistors (EDLTs), are solution-processable devices with a very simple structure. Therefore, it is necessary to apply this device structure into highly fluorescent organic materials for future printed applications. However, owing to compatibility problems between electrolytes and organic crystals, electrolyte-based single-crystal light-emitting devices have not yet been demonstrated. Here, we report on light-emitting devices based on organic single crystals and electrolytes. As the fluorescent materials, α,ω-bis(biphenylyl)terthiophene (BP3T) and 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene (rubrene) single crystals were selected. Using ionic liquids as electrolytes, we observed clear light emission from BP3T LECs and rubrene EDLTs.

  9. Irradiation of skin with visible light induces reactive oxygen species and matrix-degrading enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebel, Frank; Kaur, Simarna; Ruvolo, Eduardo; Kollias, Nikiforos; Southall, Michael D

    2012-07-01

    Daily skin exposure to solar radiation causes cells to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are a primary factor in skin damage. Although the contribution of the UV component to skin damage has been established, few studies have examined the effects of non-UV solar radiation on skin physiology. Solar radiation comprises UV, and thus the purpose of this study was to examine the physiological response of skin to visible light (400-700 nm). Irradiation of human skin equivalents with visible light induced production of ROS, proinflammatory cytokines, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression. Commercially available sunscreens were found to have minimal effects on reducing visible light-induced ROS, suggesting that UVA/UVB sunscreens do not protect the skin from visible light-induced responses. Using clinical models to assess the generation of free radicals from oxidative stress, higher levels of free radical activity were found after visible light exposure. Pretreatment with a photostable UVA/UVB sunscreen containing an antioxidant combination significantly reduced the production of ROS, cytokines, and MMP expression in vitro, and decreased oxidative stress in human subjects after visible light irradiation. Taken together, these findings suggest that other portions of the solar spectrum aside from UV, particularly visible light, may also contribute to signs of premature photoaging in skin.

  10. Fabrication of organic light emitting diode using Molybdenum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    65

    out by measuring sheet resistance, optical transmittance and surface ... role in the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) performance because it determines the .... coated glass by thermal vacuum deposition method and optimize it by using ...

  11. A tunable lighting system integrated by inorganic and transparent organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-jing; Zhang, Tao; Jin, Ya-fang; Liu, Shi-shen; Yuan, Shi-dong; Cui, Zhao; Zhang, Li; Wang, Wei-hui

    2014-05-01

    A tunable surface-emitting integrated lighting system is constructed using a combination of inorganic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and transparent organic LEDs (OLEDs). An RB two-color LED is used to supply red and blue light emission, and a green organic LED is used to supply green light emission. Currents of the LED and OLED are tuned to produce a white color, showing different Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates and correlated color temperatures with a wide adjustable range. Such an integration can compensate for the lack of the LED's luminance uniformity and the transparent OLED's luminance intensity.

  12. Organic light emitting diode with surface modification layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil, John D.; Bhandari, Abhinav; Buhay, Harry; Arbab, Mehran; Marietti, Gary J.

    2017-09-12

    An organic light emitting diode (10) includes a substrate (12) having a first surface (14) and a second surface (16), a first electrode (32), and a second electrode (38). An emissive layer (36) is located between the first electrode (32) and the second electrode (38). The organic light emitting diode (10) further includes a surface modification layer (18). The surface modification layer (18) includes a non-planar surface (30, 52).

  13. Complexity of matrix organization and problems caused by its inadequate implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janićijević Nebojša

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix organization model is a sophisticated structure intended to combine both the efficiency and effectiveness of the functional and the product/service/customer/area dimensions. From the moment it was introduced in practice, this organizational architecture was accepted with enthusiasm, because it represented a complex organizational response adequate to the conditions which most of the companies in the world have been facing since 1970s. Although matrix organization is not a novelty, it is still a controversial model of organization design. The aim of this paper is to provide a deeper insight into the causes and effects of organizational misfits which appear in the implementation phase of three-dimensional matrix organization, as well as to offer some practical recommendations for managers on how to improve their capacities for successful management of complex matrix organization architecture in their organizations.

  14. Syndecans as receptors and organizers of the extracellular matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xian, Xiaojie; Gopal, Sandeep; Couchman, John

    2009-01-01

    , the collagens and glycoproteins of the extracellular matrix are prominent. Frequently, they do so in conjunction with other receptors, most notably the integrins. For this reason, they are often referred to as "co-receptors". However, just as with integrins, syndecans can interact with actin-associated proteins...... and signalling molecules, such as protein kinases. Some aspects of syndecan signalling are understood but much remains to be learned. The functions of syndecans in regulating cell adhesion and extracellular matrix assembly are described here. Evidence from null mice suggests that syndecans have roles...

  15. Fast space-varying convolution using matrix source coding with applications to camera stray light reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jianing; Bouman, Charles A; Allebach, Jan P

    2014-05-01

    Many imaging applications require the implementation of space-varying convolution for accurate restoration and reconstruction of images. Here, we use the term space-varying convolution to refer to linear operators whose impulse response has slow spatial variation. In addition, these space-varying convolution operators are often dense, so direct implementation of the convolution operator is typically computationally impractical. One such example is the problem of stray light reduction in digital cameras, which requires the implementation of a dense space-varying deconvolution operator. However, other inverse problems, such as iterative tomographic reconstruction, can also depend on the implementation of dense space-varying convolution. While space-invariant convolution can be efficiently implemented with the fast Fourier transform, this approach does not work for space-varying operators. So direct convolution is often the only option for implementing space-varying convolution. In this paper, we develop a general approach to the efficient implementation of space-varying convolution, and demonstrate its use in the application of stray light reduction. Our approach, which we call matrix source coding, is based on lossy source coding of the dense space-varying convolution matrix. Importantly, by coding the transformation matrix, we not only reduce the memory required to store it; we also dramatically reduce the computation required to implement matrix-vector products. Our algorithm is able to reduce computation by approximately factoring the dense space-varying convolution operator into a product of sparse transforms. Experimental results show that our method can dramatically reduce the computation required for stray light reduction while maintaining high accuracy.

  16. Lectures on light nonlinear and quantum optics using the density matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Rand, Stephen C.

    2016-01-01

    This book bridges the gap between introductory quantum mechanics and the research front of modern optics and scientific fields that make use of light. While suitable as a reference for the specialist in quantum optics, it also targets non-specialists from other disciplines who need to understand light and its uses in research. It introduces a single analytic tool, the density matrix, to analyze complex optical phenomena encountered in traditional as well as cross-disciplinary research. It moves swiftly in a tight sequence from elementary to sophisticated topics in quantum optics, including optical tweezers, laser cooling, coherent population transfer, optical magnetism, electromagnetically induced transparency, squeezed light, and cavity quantum electrodynamics. A systematic approach starts with the simplest systems—stationary two-level atoms—then introduces atomic motion, adds more energy levels, and moves on to discuss first-, second-, and third-order coherence effects that are the basis for analyzing n...

  17. University Organization. A Matrix Analysis of the Academic Professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, James L.

    Using the latest research instruments, including questionnaires, interviews, factor analysis, and matrix construction, the present restraints on professorial effectiveness and the contributions of departmental and university structures to professorial malaise is examined for the purpose of improving ways that administrators can increase faculty…

  18. Standard error propagation in R-matrix model fitting for light elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhenpeng; Zhang Rui; Sun Yeying; Liu Tingjin

    2003-01-01

    The error propagation features with R-matrix model fitting 7 Li, 11 B and 17 O systems were researched systematically. Some laws of error propagation were revealed, an empirical formula P j = U j c / U j d = K j · S-bar · √m / √N for describing standard error propagation was established, the most likely error ranges for standard cross sections of 6 Li(n,t), 10 B(n,α0) and 10 B(n,α1) were estimated. The problem that the standard error of light nuclei standard cross sections may be too small results mainly from the R-matrix model fitting, which is not perfect. Yet R-matrix model fitting is the most reliable evaluation method for such data. The error propagation features of R-matrix model fitting for compound nucleus system of 7 Li, 11 B and 17 O has been studied systematically, some laws of error propagation are revealed, and these findings are important in solving the problem mentioned above. Furthermore, these conclusions are suitable for similar model fitting in other scientific fields. (author)

  19. Light-emission from in-situ grown organic nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Hansen, Roana Melina de; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2011-01-01

    Organic crystalline nanofibers made from phenylene-based molecules exhibit a wide range of extraordinary optical properties such as intense, anisotropic and polarized luminescence that can be stimulated either optically or electrically, waveguiding and random lasing. For lighting and display...... of morphological characterization and demonstrate how appropriate biasing with an AC gate voltage enables electroluminescence from these in-situ grown organic nanostructures....

  20. An Investigation of the Distribution of Power and Leader Effectiveness in Matrix Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Administrative Sciences, 5: 113-129 (No. 1 1974). Vasconcellos , Eduardo . "A Model for a Better Understanding of the Matrix Structure," IEEE Transactions on...Engineering Management, EM-26: 56-64 (August 1979). Vasconcellos , Eduardo and James Hemsley. "The Design of the Matrix Structure for R&D Organizations...research on project and matrix management (Leclaire, 1977; Melhart, 1976; Moyer, 1974; Peterson, 1986; Tesch, 1970; Tsukamoto, 1973; Vasconcellos , 1979

  1. GREEN LIGHT EMITTING TRICOMPONENT LUMINOPHORS OF 2-NAPHTHOL FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ORGANIC LIGHT EMITTING DEVICES

    OpenAIRE

    K. G. MANE , P. B. NAGORE , DR. S. R. PUJARI

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a previous study and incredible progress in basic theoretical modeling, and working for organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) including preparation and characteristic studies of Organo- Luminescent Materials by conventional solid state reaction technique.

  2. Organic Light-Emitting Transistors: Materials, Device Configurations, and Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Congcong; Chen, Penglei; Hu, Wenping

    2016-03-09

    Organic light-emitting transistors (OLETs) represent an emerging class of organic optoelectronic devices, wherein the electrical switching capability of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and the light-generation capability of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are inherently incorporated in a single device. In contrast to conventional OFETs and OLEDs, the planar device geometry and the versatile multifunctional nature of OLETs not only endow them with numerous technological opportunities in the frontier fields of highly integrated organic electronics, but also render them ideal scientific scaffolds to address the fundamental physical events of organic semiconductors and devices. This review article summarizes the recent advancements on OLETs in light of materials, device configurations, operation conditions, etc. Diverse state-of-the-art protocols, including bulk heterojunction, layered heterojunction and laterally arranged heterojunction structures, as well as asymmetric source-drain electrodes, and innovative dielectric layers, which have been developed for the construction of qualified OLETs and for shedding new and deep light on the working principles of OLETs, are highlighted by addressing representative paradigms. This review intends to provide readers with a deeper understanding of the design of future OLETs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Connective matrix organization in chronic granulomas of experimental paracoccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, I B; de Oliveira, P C; Lenzi, H L

    1988-07-01

    The histological and ultrastructural aspects of chronic granulomas from rats infected intraperitoneally with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis are described with special emphasis on the composition of the extracellular matrix. The granulomas were structurally arranged in two zones, one central containing fungi, and the other peripheral. The extracellular matrix was composed of collagen types I and III, proteoglycans, glycoprotein, and an undefined amorphous substance. The main cellular population was represented by macrophages, epithelioid cells, and giant cells in the central zone, and fibroblasts in the peripheral zone. The fibrotic process was a critical event in this stage of the infection, and showed a centrifugal direction. This might be provoked by direct stimulus from the fungi or by macrophage-fibroblastic interaction.

  4. Conformational changes in matrix-isolated 6-methoxyindole: Effects of the thermal and infrared light excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes Jesus, A. J. [CQC, Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); CQC, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, 3004-295 Coimbra (Portugal); Reva, I., E-mail: reva@qui.uc.pt; Fausto, R. [CQC, Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Araujo-Andrade, C. [CQC, Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Unidad Académica de Física de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico); ICFO–The Institute of Photonic Sciences, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2016-03-28

    Conformational changes induced thermally or upon infrared excitation of matrix-isolated 6-methoxyindole were investigated. Narrowband near-infrared excitation of the first overtone of the N–H stretching vibration of each one of the two identified conformers is found to induce a selective large-scale conversion of the pumped conformer into the other one. This easily controllable bidirectional process consists in the intramolecular reorientation of the methoxy group and allowed a full assignment of the infrared spectra of the two conformers. Matrices with different conformational compositions prepared by narrow-band irradiations were subsequently used to investigate the effects of both thermal and broadband infrared excitations on the conformational mixtures. Particular attention is given to the influence of the matrix medium (Ar vs. Xe) and conformational effects of exposition of the sample to the spectrometer light source during the measurements.

  5. Ultra High Temperature and Multifunctional Ceramic Matrix Composite – Coating Systems for Light-Weight Space and Aero Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Revolutionary ultra-high temperature, high mechanical loading capable, oxidation resistant, durable ceramic coatings and light-weight fiber-reinforced Ceramic Matrix...

  6. Studying of Perovskite Nanoparticles in PMMA Matrix Used As Light Converter for Silicon Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipiński M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The nanoparticles of CH3NH3PbBr3 hybrid perovskites were synthesized. These perovskite nanoparticles we embedded in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA in order to obtain the composite, which we used as light converter for silicon solar cells. It was shown that the composite emit the light with the intensity maximum at about 527 nm when exited by a short wavelength (300÷450 nm of light. The silicon solar cells were used to examine the effect of down-conversion (DC process by perovskite nanoparticles embedded in PMMA. For experiments, two groups of monocrystalline silicon solar cells were used. The first one included the solar cells without surface texturization and antireflection coating. The second one included the commercial cells with surface texturization and antireflection coating. In every series of the cells one part of the cells were covered by composite (CH3NH3PbBr3 in PMMA layer and second part of cells by pure PMMA for comparison. It was shown that External Quantum Efficiency EQE of the photovoltaic cells covered by composite (CH3NH3PbBr3 in PMMA layer was improved in both group of the cells but unfortunately the Internal Quantum Efficiency was reduced. This reduction was caused by high absorption of the short wavelength light and reabsorption of the luminescence light. Therefore, the CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite nanoparticles embedded in PMMA matrix were unable to increase silicon solar cell efficiency in the tested systems.

  7. Stimulated Light Emission in Dense Fog Confined inside a Porous Glass Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, E.; Kovalev, D.; Künzner, N.; Diener, J.; Koch, F.; Fujii, M.

    2002-12-01

    We report on light amplification through stimulated emission in a dielectrically disordered medium. Liquid fragments confined in the solid matrix of porous quartz layers result in a random fluctuation of the dielectric function, and dye molecules embedded in the voids yield optical gain. The level of opacity is tunable by the ambient vapor pressure of the dielectric substance. In the multiple scattering regime, a strong intensity enhancement of the dye emission accompanied by significant spectral narrowing is observed above the threshold for a layer being in the opalescence state.

  8. Intermediate-band photosensitive device with quantum dots having tunneling barrier embedded in organic matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R.

    2008-08-19

    A plurality of quantum dots each have a shell. The quantum dots are embedded in an organic matrix. At least the quantum dots and the organic matrix are photoconductive semiconductors. The shell of each quantum dot is arranged as a tunneling barrier to require a charge carrier (an electron or a hole) at a base of the tunneling barrier in the organic matrix to perform quantum mechanical tunneling to reach the respective quantum dot. A first quantum state in each quantum dot is between a lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and a highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the organic matrix. Wave functions of the first quantum state of the plurality of quantum dots may overlap to form an intermediate band.

  9. [A novel yellow organic light-emitting device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chen; Wang, Hua; Hao, Yu-Ying; Gao, Zhi-Xiang; Zhou, He-Feng; Xu, Bing-She

    2008-07-01

    The fabrication of a novel organic yellow-light-emitting device using Rhodamine B as dopant with double quantum-well (DQW) structure was introduced in the present article. The structure and thickness of this device is ITO/CuPc (6 nm) /NPB (20 nm) /Alq3 (3 nm)/Alq3 : Rhodamine B (3 nm) /Alq3 (3 nm) /Al q3 : Rhodamine B(3 nm) /Alq3 (30 nm) /Liq (5 nm)/Al (30 nm). With the detailed investigation of electroluminescence of the novel organic yellow-light-emitting device, the authors found that the doping concentration of Rhodamine B (RhB) had a very big influence on luminance and efficiency of the organic yellow-light-emitting device. When doping concentration of Rhodamine B (RhB) was 1.5 wt%, the organic yellow-light-emitting device was obtained with the maximum current efficiency of 1.526 cd x A(-1) and the maximum luminance of 1 309 cd x m(-2). It can be seen from the EL spectra of the devices that there existed energy transferring from Alq3 to RhB in the organic light-emitting layers. When the doping concentration of RhB increased, lambda(max) of EL spectra redshifted obviously. The phenomenon was attributed to the Stokes effect of quantum wells and self-polarization of RhB dye molecules.

  10. Light Regimes Shape Utilization of Extracellular Organic C and N in a Cyanobacterial Biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, Rhona K.; Mayali, Xavier; Boaro, Amy A.; Zemla, Adam; Everroad, R. Craig; Nilson, Daniel; Weber, Peter K.; Lipton, Mary; Bebout, Brad M.; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Thelen, Michael P.

    2016-06-28

    >IMPORTANCECyanobacteria are globally distributed primary producers, and the fate of their fixed C influences microbial biogeochemical cycling. This fate is complicated by cyanobacterial degradation and assimilation of organic matter, but because cyanobacteria are assumed to be poor competitors for organic matter consumption, regulation of this process is not well tested. In mats and biofilms, this is especially relevant because cyanobacteria produce an extensive organic extracellular matrix, providing the community with a rich source of nutrients. Light is a well-known regulator of cyanobacterial metabolism, so we characterized the effects of light availability on the incorporation of organic matter. Using stable isotope tracing at the single-cell level, we quantified photoautotroph assimilation under different metabolic conditions and integrated the results with proteomics to elucidate metabolic status. We found that cyanobacteria effectively compete for organic matter in the light and the dark and that nutrient requirements and community interactions contribute to cycling of extracellular organic matter.

  11. Syndecans as receptors and organizers of the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Xiaojie; Gopal, Sandeep; Couchman, John R

    2010-01-01

    Syndecans are type I transmembrane proteins having a core protein modified with glycosaminoglycan chains, most commonly heparan sulphate. They are an ancient group of molecules, present in invertebrates and vertebrates. Among the plethora of molecules that can interact with heparan sulphate, the collagens and glycoproteins of the extracellular matrix are prominent. Frequently, they do so in conjunction with other receptors, most notably the integrins. For this reason, they are often referred to as "co-receptors". However, just as with integrins, syndecans can interact with actin-associated proteins and signalling molecules, such as protein kinases. Some aspects of syndecan signalling are understood but much remains to be learned. The functions of syndecans in regulating cell adhesion and extracellular matrix assembly are described here. Evidence from null mice suggests that syndecans have roles in postnatal tissue repair, inflammation and tumour progression. Developmental deficits in lower vertebrates in which syndecans are eliminated are also informative and suggest that, in mammals, redundancy is a key issue.

  12. Domain organizations of modular extracellular matrix proteins and their evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, J

    1996-11-01

    Multidomain proteins which are composed of modular units are a rather recent invention of evolution. Domains are defined as autonomously folding regions of a protein, and many of them are similar in sequence and structure, indicating common ancestry. Their modular nature is emphasized by frequent repetitions in identical or in different proteins and by a large number of different combinations with other domains. The extracellular matrix is perhaps the largest biological system composed of modular mosaic proteins, and its astonishing complexity and diversity are based on them. A cluster of minireviews on modular proteins is being published in Matrix Biology. These deal with the evolution of modular proteins, the three-dimensional structure of domains and the ways in which these interact in a multidomain protein. They discuss structure-function relationships in calcium binding domains, collagen helices, alpha-helical coiled-coil domains and C-lectins. The present minireview is focused on some general aspects and serves as an introduction to the cluster.

  13. Evolution of project planning tools in a matrix organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furaus, J.P.; Figueroa-McInteer, C.; McKeever, P.S.; Wisler, D.B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zavadil, J.T. [Infomatrix (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Until recently, the Corporate Construction Program at Sandia was experiencing difficulties in managing projects: poor planning and cost estimating caused schedule and budget problems. The first step taken was a Microsoft {reg_sign} Project schedule that provides a standard template for scheduling individual construction projects. It is broken down according to the life cycle of the project and prevents the project team from leaving out an important item. A WBS (work breakdown structure) dictionary was also developed that describes how capital and operating funds are used to develop, design, construct, equip, and manage projects. We also developed a matrix chart that maps the planning guide against the major types of construction projects at Sandia. The guide, dictionary, and matrix chart offer enough flexibility that the project manager can make choices about how to structure work, yet ensure that all work rolls up to the cost categories and key DOE WBS elements. As requirements change, the tools can be updated; they also serve as training tools for new project team members.

  14. Near-field photometry for organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Harikumar, Krishnan; Isphording, Alexandar; Venkataramanan, Venkat

    2013-03-01

    Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) technology is rapidly maturing to be ready for next generation of light source for general lighting. The current standard test methods for solid state lighting have evolved for semiconductor sources, with point-like emission characteristics. However, OLED devices are extended surface emitters, where spatial uniformity and angular variation of brightness and colour are important. This necessitates advanced test methods to obtain meaningful data for fundamental understanding, lighting product development and deployment. In this work, a near field imaging goniophotometer was used to characterize lighting-class white OLED devices, where luminance and colour information of the pixels on the light sources were measured at a near field distance for various angles. Analysis was performed to obtain angle dependent luminous intensity, CIE chromaticity coordinates and correlated colour temperature (CCT) in the far field. Furthermore, a complete ray set with chromaticity information was generated, so that illuminance at any distance and angle from the light source can be determined. The generated ray set is needed for optical modeling and design of OLED luminaires. Our results show that luminance non-uniformity could potentially affect the luminaire aesthetics and CCT can vary with angle by more than 2000K. This leads to the same source being perceived as warm or cool depending on the viewing angle. As OLEDs are becoming commercially available, this could be a major challenge for lighting designers. Near field measurement can provide detailed specifications and quantitative comparison between OLED products for performance improvement.

  15. Designing matrix organizations that work: Lessons from the P&G case

    OpenAIRE

    Degen, Ronald Jean

    2009-01-01

    The matrix organization concept emerged from the US aerospace industry in the 1960s and was adopted by many companies in the early 1970s. In the late 1970s and early 1980s many companies were experiencing trouble with its operation and many argued like Peters & Waterman in their bestseller In search of excellence in 1982 (p. 306) that the matrix was too complex to work properly. Galbraith (2009, p. 10-14) explains that the reason for the problems were that the matrix in these organization...

  16. Investigation of organic light emitting diodes for interferometric purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakula, Anna; Zimak, Marzena; Sałbut, Leszek

    2011-05-01

    Recently the new type of light source has been introduced to the market. Organic light emitting diode (OLED) is not only interesting because of the low applying voltage, wide light emitting areas and emission efficiency. It gives the possibility to create a light source of a various shape, various color and in the near future very likely even the one that will change shape and spectrum in time in controlled way. Those opportunities have not been in our reach until now. In the paper authors try to give an answer to the question if the new light source -OLED - is suitable for interferometric purposes. Tests cover the short and long term spectrum stability, spectrum changes due to the emission area selection. In the paper the results of two OLEDs (red and white) are shown together with the result of an attempt to use them in an interferometric setup.

  17. Light emission mechanism of mixed host organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wook; Lee, Jun Yeob

    2015-03-01

    Light emission mechanism of organic light-emitting diodes with a mixed host emitting layer was studied using an exciplex type mixed host and an exciplex free mixed host. Monitoring of the current density and luminance of the two type mixed host devices revealed that the light emission process of the exciplex type mixed host was dominated by energy transfer, while the light emission of the exciplex free mixed host was controlled by charge trapping. Mixed host composition was also critical to the light emission mechanism, and the contribution of the energy transfer process was maximized at 50:50 mixed host composition. Therefore, it was possible to manage the light emission process of the mixed host devices by managing the mixed host composition.

  18. Light amplification in a liquid network confined in a porous matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Egon; Kovalev, Dmitri; Kuenzner, Nicolai; Diener, Joachim; Koch, Frederick; Timoshenko, Victor Y.; Fujii, Minoru

    2003-11-01

    We report on a medium exhibiting extremely efficient light scattering properties: a liquid network formed in a porous matrix. Liquid fragments confined in the solid matrix result in a random fluctuation of the dielectric function and act as scattering objects for photons. The optical scattering efficiency is defined by the filling factor of the liquid in the pores and its dielectric constant. The spectral dependence of the scattering length of photons indicates that the phenomenon is governed by a Mie-type scattering mechanism. The degree of the dielectric disorder of the medium, i.e. the level of opacity is tunable by the ambient vapor pressure of the dielectric substance. In the strongest scattering regime the scattering length of photons is found to be in the micrometer range. By incorporation of dye molecules in the voids of the porous layer a system exhibiting optical gain is realized. In the multiple scattering regime the optical path of diffusively propagating photons is enhanced and light amplification through stimulated emission occurs: a strong intensity enhancement of the dye emission accompanied by significant spectral narrowing is observed above the excitation threshold for a layer being in the opalescence state.

  19. In-depth, high-accuracy proteomics of sea urchin tooth organic matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Matthias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The organic matrix contained in biominerals plays an important role in regulating mineralization and in determining biomineral properties. However, most components of biomineral matrices remain unknown at present. In sea urchin tooth, which is an important model for developmental biology and biomineralization, only few matrix components have been identified. The recent publication of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome sequence rendered possible not only the identification of genes potentially coding for matrix proteins, but also the direct identification of proteins contained in matrices of skeletal elements by in-depth, high-accuracy proteomic analysis. Results We identified 138 proteins in the matrix of tooth powder. Only 56 of these proteins were previously identified in the matrices of test (shell and spine. Among the novel components was an interesting group of five proteins containing alanine- and proline-rich neutral or basic motifs separated by acidic glycine-rich motifs. In addition, four of the five proteins contained either one or two predicted Kazal protease inhibitor domains. The major components of tooth matrix were however largely identical to the set of spicule matrix proteins and MSP130-related proteins identified in test (shell and spine matrix. Comparison of the matrices of crushed teeth to intact teeth revealed a marked dilution of known intracrystalline matrix proteins and a concomitant increase in some intracellular proteins. Conclusion This report presents the most comprehensive list of sea urchin tooth matrix proteins available at present. The complex mixture of proteins identified may reflect many different aspects of the mineralization process. A comparison between intact tooth matrix, presumably containing odontoblast remnants, and crushed tooth matrix served to differentiate between matrix components and possible contributions of cellular remnants. Because LC-MS/MS-based methods directly

  20. White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reineke, Sebastian; Lindner, Frank; Schwartz, Gregor; Seidler, Nico; Walzer, Karsten; Lüssem, Björn; Leo, Karl

    2009-05-14

    The development of white organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) holds great promise for the production of highly efficient large-area light sources. High internal quantum efficiencies for the conversion of electrical energy to light have been realized. Nevertheless, the overall device power efficiencies are still considerably below the 60-70 lumens per watt of fluorescent tubes, which is the current benchmark for novel light sources. Although some reports about highly power-efficient white OLEDs exist, details about structure and the measurement conditions of these structures have not been fully disclosed: the highest power efficiency reported in the scientific literature is 44 lm W(-1) (ref. 7). Here we report an improved OLED structure which reaches fluorescent tube efficiency. By combining a carefully chosen emitter layer with high-refractive-index substrates, and using a periodic outcoupling structure, we achieve a device power efficiency of 90 lm W(-1) at 1,000 candelas per square metre. This efficiency has the potential to be raised to 124 lm W(-1) if the light outcoupling can be further improved. Besides approaching internal quantum efficiency values of one, we have also focused on reducing energetic and ohmic losses that occur during electron-photon conversion. We anticipate that our results will be a starting point for further research, leading to white OLEDs having efficiencies beyond 100 lm W(-1). This could make white-light OLEDs, with their soft area light and high colour-rendering qualities, the light sources of choice for the future.

  1. Extracellular matrix organization in developing muscle: correlation with acetylcholine receptor aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, E K; Anderson, M J; Fambrough, D M

    1984-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies recognizing laminin, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, fibronectin, and two apparently novel connective tissue components have been used to examine the organization of extracellular matrix of skeletal muscle in vivo and in vitro. Four of the five monoclonal antibodies are described for the first time here. Immunocytochemical experiments with frozen-sectioned muscle demonstrated that both the heparan sulfate proteoglycan and laminin exhibited staining patterns identical to that expected for components of the basal lamina. In contrast, the remaining matrix constituents were detected in all regions of muscle connective tissue: the endomysium, perimysium, and epimysium. Embryonic muscle cells developing in culture elaborated an extracellular matrix, each antigen exhibiting a unique distribution. Of particular interest was the organization of extracellular matrix on myotubes: the build-up of matrix components was most apparent in plaques overlying clusters of an integral membrane protein, the acetylcholine receptor (AChR). The heparan sulfate proteoglycan was concentrated at virtually all AChR clusters and showed a remarkable level of congruence with receptor organization; laminin was detected at 70-95% of AChR clusters but often was not completely co-distributed with AChR within the cluster; fibronectin and the two other extracellular matrix antigens occurred at approximately 20, 8, and 2% of the AChR clusters, respectively, and showed little or no congruence with AChR. From observations on the distribution of extracellular matrix components in tissue cultured fibroblasts and myogenic cells, several ideas about the organization of extracellular matrix are suggested. (a) Congruence between AChR clusters and heparan sulfate proteoglycan suggests the existence of some linkage between the two molecules, possibly important for regulation of AChR distribution within the muscle membrane. (b) The qualitatively different patterns of extracellular matrix

  2. Fibroblast Cluster Formation on 3D Collagen Matrices Requires Cell Contraction-Dependent Fibronectin Matrix Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha-Azevedo, Bruno; Ho, Chin-Han; Grinnell, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblasts incubated on 3D collagen matrices in serum or lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-containing medium self-organize into clusters through a mechanism that requires cell contraction. However, in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-containing medium, cells migrate as individuals and do not form clusters even though they constantly encounter each other. Here, we present evidence that a required function of cell contraction in clustering is formation of fibronectin fibrillar matrix. We found that in serum or LPA but not in PDGF or basal medium, cells organized FN (both serum and cellular) into a fibrillar, detergent-insoluble matrix. Cell clusters developed concomitant with FN matrix formation. FN fibrils accumulated beneath cells and along the borders of cell clusters in regions of cell-matrix tension. Blocking Rho kinase or myosin II activity prevented FN matrix assembly and cell clustering. Using siRNA silencing and function-blocking antibodies and peptides, we found that cell clustering and FN matrix assembly required α5β1 integrins and fibronectin. Cells were still able to exert contractile force and compact the collagen matrix under the latter conditions, which showed that contraction was not sufficient for cell clustering to occur. Our findings provide new insights into how procontractile (serum/LPA) and promigratory (PDGF) growth factor environments can differentially regulate FN matrix assembly by fibroblasts interacting with collagen matrices and thereby influence mesenchymal cell morphogenetic behavior under physiologic circumstances such as wound repair, morphogenesis and malignancy. PMID:23117111

  3. Fibroblast cluster formation on 3D collagen matrices requires cell contraction dependent fibronectin matrix organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha-Azevedo, Bruno; Ho, Chin-Han; Grinnell, Frederick

    2013-02-15

    Fibroblasts incubated on 3D collagen matrices in serum or lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-containing medium self-organize into clusters through a mechanism that requires cell contraction. However, in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-containing medium, cells migrate as individuals and do not form clusters even though they constantly encounter each other. Here, we present evidence that a required function of cell contraction in clustering is formation of fibronectin (FN) fibrillar matrix. We found that in serum or LPA but not in PDGF or basal medium, cells organized FN (both serum and cellular) into a fibrillar, detergent-insoluble matrix. Cell clusters developed concomitant with FN matrix formation. FN fibrils accumulated beneath cells and along the borders of cell clusters in regions of cell-matrix tension. Blocking Rho kinase or myosin II activity prevented FN matrix assembly and cell clustering. Using siRNA silencing and function-blocking antibodies and peptides, we found that cell clustering and FN matrix assembly required α5β1 integrins and fibronectin. Cells were still able to exert contractile force and compact the collagen matrix under the latter conditions, which showed that contraction was not sufficient for cell clustering to occur. Our findings provide new insights into how procontractile (serum/LPA) and promigratory (PDGF) growth factor environments can differentially regulate FN matrix assembly by fibroblasts interacting with collagen matrices and thereby influence mesenchymal cell morphogenetic behavior under physiologic circumstances such as wound repair, morphogenesis and malignancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Organic light emitting diodes with spin polarized electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arisi, E.; Bergenti, I.; Dediu, V.; Loi, M.A.; Muccini, M.; Murgia, M.; Ruani, G.; Taliani, C.; Zamboni, R.

    2003-01-01

    Electrical and optical properties of Alq3 based organic light emitting diodes with normal and spin polarized electrodes are presented. Epitaxial semitransparent highly spin polarized La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 were used as hole injector, substituting the traditional indium tin oxide electrode. A comparison of

  5. Light fraction of soil organic matter under different management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on light fraction organic matter was carried out on the soil from three different management systems namely; Gmelina arborea, Tectona grandis and Leucaena leucocephala plantations in the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta Nigeria. Soil samples were collected in each of the three management site at five auger ...

  6. Matrix Organization and Merit Factor Evaluation as a Method to Address the Challenge of Finding a Polymer Material for Roll Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Eva; Livi, Francesco; Hagemann, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The results presented demonstrate how the screening of 104 light-absorbing low band gap polymers for suitability in roll coated polymer solar cells can be accomplished through rational synthesis according to a matrix where 8 donor and 13 acceptor units are organized in rows and columns. Synthesis...... silver comb back electrode structure. The matrix organization enables fast identification of active layer materials according to a weighted merit factor that includes more than simply the power conversion efficiency and is used as a method to identify the lead candidates. Based on several characteristics...

  7. The skeletal organic matrix from Mediterranean coral Balanophyllia europaea influences calcium carbonate precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredo, Stefano; Vergni, Patrizia; Reggi, Michela; Caroselli, Erik; Sparla, Francesca; Levy, Oren; Dubinsky, Zvy; Falini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Scleractinian coral skeletons are made mainly of calcium carbonate in the form of aragonite. The mineral deposition occurs in a biological confined environment, but it is still a theme of discussion to what extent the calcification occurs under biological or environmental control. Hence, the shape, size and organization of skeletal crystals from the cellular level through the colony architecture, were attributed to factors as diverse as mineral supersaturation levels and organic mediation of crystal growth. The skeleton contains an intra-skeletal organic matrix (OM) of which only the water soluble component was chemically and physically characterized. In this work that OM from the skeleton of the Balanophyllia europaea, a solitary scleractinian coral endemic to the Mediterranean Sea, is studied in vitro with the aim of understanding its role in the mineralization of calcium carbonate. Mineralization of calcium carbonate was conducted by overgrowth experiments on coral skeleton and in calcium chloride solutions containing different ratios of water soluble and/or insoluble OM and of magnesium ions. The precipitates were characterized by diffractometric, spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The results showed that both soluble and insoluble OM components influence calcium carbonate precipitation and that the effect is enhanced by their co-presence. The role of magnesium ions is also affected by the presence of the OM components. Thus, in vitro, OM influences calcium carbonate crystal morphology, aggregation and polymorphism as a function of its composition and of the content of magnesium ions in the precipitation media. This research, although does not resolve the controversy between environmental or biological control on the deposition of calcium carbonate in corals, sheds a light on the role of OM, which appears mediated by the presence of magnesium ions.

  8. The Skeletal Organic Matrix from Mediterranean Coral Balanophyllia europaea Influences Calcium Carbonate Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredo, Stefano; Vergni, Patrizia; Reggi, Michela; Caroselli, Erik; Sparla, Francesca; Levy, Oren; Dubinsky, Zvy; Falini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Scleractinian coral skeletons are made mainly of calcium carbonate in the form of aragonite. The mineral deposition occurs in a biological confined environment, but it is still a theme of discussion to what extent the calcification occurs under biological or environmental control. Hence, the shape, size and organization of skeletal crystals from the cellular level through the colony architecture, were attributed to factors as diverse as mineral supersaturation levels and organic mediation of crystal growth. The skeleton contains an intra-skeletal organic matrix (OM) of which only the water soluble component was chemically and physically characterized. In this work that OM from the skeleton of the Balanophyllia europaea, a solitary scleractinian coral endemic to the Mediterranean Sea, is studied in vitro with the aim of understanding its role in the mineralization of calcium carbonate. Mineralization of calcium carbonate was conducted by overgrowth experiments on coral skeleton and in calcium chloride solutions containing different ratios of water soluble and/or insoluble OM and of magnesium ions. The precipitates were characterized by diffractometric, spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The results showed that both soluble and insoluble OM components influence calcium carbonate precipitation and that the effect is enhanced by their co-presence. The role of magnesium ions is also affected by the presence of the OM components. Thus, in vitro, OM influences calcium carbonate crystal morphology, aggregation and polymorphism as a function of its composition and of the content of magnesium ions in the precipitation media. This research, although does not resolve the controversy between environmental or biological control on the deposition of calcium carbonate in corals, sheds a light on the role of OM, which appears mediated by the presence of magnesium ions. PMID:21799830

  9. Wireless Power Transmission to Organic Light Emitting Diode Lighting Panel with Magnetically Coupled Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Hae; Han, Jun-Han; Kang, Seung-Youl; Cheon, Sanghoon; Lee, Myung-Lae; Ahn, Seong-Deok; Zyung, Taehyoung; Lee, Jeong-Ik; Moon, Jaehyun; Chu, Hye Yong

    2012-09-01

    We are successful to lit the organic light emitting diode (OLED) lighting panel through the magnetically coupled wireless power transmission technology. For the wireless power transmission, we used the operation frequency 932 kHz, specially designed double spiral type transmitter, small and thin receiver on the four layered printed circuit board, and schottky diodes for the full bridge rectifier. Our white OLED is a hybrid type, in which phosphorescent and fluorescent organics are used together to generate stable white color. The total efficiency of power transmission is around 72%.

  10. Deliberative Self-Organizing Traffic Lights with Elementary Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. Zapotecatl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-organizing traffic lights have shown considerable improvements compared to traditional methods in computer simulations. Self-organizing methods, however, use sophisticated sensors, increasing their cost and limiting their deployment. We propose a novel approach using simple sensors to achieve self-organizing traffic light coordination. The proposed approach involves placing a computer and a presence sensor at the beginning of each block; each such sensor detects a single vehicle. Each computer builds a virtual environment simulating vehicle movement to predict arrivals and departures at the downstream intersection. At each intersection, a computer receives information across a data network from the computers of the neighboring blocks and runs a self-organizing method to control traffic lights. Our simulations showed a superior performance for our approach compared with a traditional method (a green wave and a similar performance (close to optimal compared with a self-organizing method using sophisticated sensors but at a lower cost. Moreover, the developed sensing approach exhibited greater robustness against sensor failures.

  11. Light sensing in a photoresponsive, organic-based complementary inverter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungyoung; Lim, Taehoon; Sim, Kyoseung; Kim, Hyojoong; Choi, Youngill; Park, Keechan; Pyo, Seungmoon

    2011-05-01

    A photoresponsive organic complementary inverter was fabricated and its light sensing characteristics was studied. An organic circuit was fabricated by integrating p-channel pentacene and n-channel copper hexadecafluorophthalocyanine (F16CuPc) organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) with a polymeric gate dielectric. The F16CuPc OTFT showed typical n-type characteristics and a strong photoresponse under illumination. Whereas under illumination, the pentacene OTFT showed a relatively weak photoresponse with typical p-type characteristics. The characteristics of the organic electro-optical circuit could be controlled by the incident light intensity, a gate bias, or both. The logic threshold (V(M), when V(IN) = V(OUT)) was reduced from 28.6 V without illumination to 19.9 V at 6.94 mW/cm². By using solely optical or a combination of optical and electrical pulse signals, light sensing was demonstrated in this type of organic circuit, suggesting that the circuit can be potentially used in various optoelectronic applications, including optical sensors, photodetectors and electro-optical transceivers.

  12. Multicolored Nanofiber Based Organic Light-Emitting Transistor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    With Jensen, Per Baunegaard; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Tavares, Luciana

    For optoelectronic applications, organic semiconductors have several advantages over their inorganic counterparts such as facile synthesis, tunability via synthetic chemistry, and low temperature processing. Self-assembled, molecular crystalline nanofibers are of particular interest as they could...... form ultra-small light-emitters in future nanophotonic applications. Such organic nanofibers exhibit many interesting optical properties including polarized photo- and electroluminescence, waveguiding, and emission color tunability. We here present a first step towards a multicolored, electrically...... driven device by combining nanofibers made from two different molecules, parahexaphenylene (p6P) and 5,5´-Di-4-biphenyl-2,2´-bithiophene (PPTTPP), which emits blue and green light, respectively. The organic nanofibers are implemented on a bottom gate/bottom contact field-effect transistor platform using...

  13. Inkjet printing the three organic functional layers of two-colored organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, Michiel J.J.; Slaats, Thijs M.W.L.; Eggenhuisen, Tamara M.; Groen, Pim

    2015-01-01

    Inkjet printing allows for the roll-2-roll fabrication of organic electronic devices at an industrial scale. In this paper we demonstrate the fabrication of two-colored organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) in which three adjacent organic device layers were inkjet printed from halogen free inks. The resulting devices demonstrate the possibilities offered by this technique for the fabrication of OLEDs for signage and personalized electronics. - Highlights: • Two-colored organic light emitting diodes with 3 inkjet printed device layers were fabricated. • All materials were printed from halogen free inks. • Inkjet printing of emissive materials is suitable for signage applications

  14. The determination of light elements in heavy matrix using proton induced X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levenets, V.V.; Omel'nik, A.P.; Shchur, A.A.; Chernov, A.E.; Usikov, N.P.; Zats, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    In this report the possibility of determination of light impurities in heavy matrixes is studied using proton induced X-Ray emission. The wide-band X-ray emission filter made from pyrolytic graphite was used in spectrometric scheme of experiment. The results of studying of filter features in energy range of X-ray emission from 4 to 12 keV were presented. The possibilities were examined of application of pyrolytic graphite filter to modify the X-rays spectrum for determination of iron, using characteristic emission of K-series, and hafnium, using L-series, in substances on base of zirconium (glasses, alloys etc.). It was shown, that the using of similar filter allows to reach the significant improving of metrological characteristics of analysis of mentioned impurities: the limits of detection of iron and hafnium were lowered single-order of magnitude. (authors)

  15. [Levels of bone mineral matrix organization and the mechanisms determining parameters of its formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrunin, A S; Tikhilov, R M; Abolin, A B; Shcherbak, I G

    2005-01-01

    Authors suggest to regard bone mineral matrix as the four-level structure. The first level is represented by an internal structure of a mineral, the second--by mineral morphological structure, the third--by coplanar association of minerals, and the fourth--by macroassociation of minerals in a single complex inside each bone. The most probable mechanisms determining stability of reproduction of mineral matrix parameters on each of these levels are shown. As a result of their functioning, the variants of bone mineral matrix structures are formed that are the programmed reflection of specificity of the given site of organic structures.

  16. Standard Master Matrix for Light-Water Reactor Pressure Vessel Surveillance Standards, E706(0)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This master matrix standard describes a series of standard practices, guides, and methods for the prediction of neutron-induced changes in light-water reactor (LWR) pressure vessel (PV) and support structure steels throughout a pressure vessel's service life (Fig. 1). Some of these are existing ASTM standards, some are ASTM standards that have been modified, and some are proposed ASTM standards. General requirements of content and consistency are discussed in Section 6 . More detailed writers' and users' information, justification, and specific requirements for the nine practices, ten guides, and three methods are provided in Sections 3-5. Referenced documents are discussed in Section 2. The summary-type information that is provided in Sections 3 and 4 is essential for establishing proper understanding and communications between the writers and users of this set of matrix standards. It was extracted from the referenced documents, Section 2 and references (1-106) for use by individual writers and users. 1...

  17. Uranium determination by UV-Vis spectrophotometry in organic matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaki, Leonardo E.O.; Silva, Ieda S.; Oliveira, Luis C.

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of uranium in the process samples provide essential information required for nuclear process monitoring. A large number of techniques have been developed to allow uranium determination, but each technique possesses some advantages and disadvantages and cannot be applied without difficulty to all samples. The ultraviolet visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis) is widely method used in analytical industrial processes due to its simplicity, rapidity, low costs, low generation of analytical waste, easy calibration and operation. In this study, we describe a simple and fast quantification method to determination of a high amount of uranium in organic phase (TBP/kerosene) using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The process sample was analyzed in UV-Vis and compared with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) showing similar results in both methods. The statistical tests (Student-t and Fischer) showed that the both techniques they are equivalent. (author)

  18. Nano-photonic light trapping near the Lambertian limit in organic solar cell architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rana; Timmons, Erik

    2013-09-09

    A critical step to achieving higher efficiency solar cells is the broad band harvesting of solar photons. Although considerable progress has recently been achieved in improving the power conversion efficiency of organic solar cells, these cells still do not absorb upto ~50% of the solar spectrum. We have designed and developed an organic solar cell architecture that can boost the absorption of photons by 40% and the photo-current by 50% for organic P3HT-PCBM absorber layers of typical device thicknesses. Our solar cell architecture is based on all layers of the solar cell being patterned in a conformal two-dimensionally periodic photonic crystal architecture. This results in very strong diffraction of photons- that increases the photon path length in the absorber layer, and plasmonic light concentration near the patterned organic-metal cathode interface. The absorption approaches the Lambertian limit. The simulations utilize a rigorous scattering matrix approach and provide bounds of the fundamental limits of nano-photonic light absorption in periodically textured organic solar cells. This solar cell architecture has the potential to increase the power conversion efficiency to 10% for single band gap organic solar cells utilizing long-wavelength absorbers.

  19. Link predication based on matrix factorization by fusion of multi class organizations of the network

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Pengfei; Cai, Fei; Feng, Yiding; Wang, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Link predication aims at forecasting the latent or unobserved edges in the complex networks and has a wide range of applications in reality. Almost existing methods and models only take advantage of one class organization of the networks, which always lose important information hidden in other organizations of the network. In this paper, we propose a link predication framework which makes the best of the structure of networks in different level of organizations based on nonnegative matrix fac...

  20. Organic light emission structures — XXI century technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokin V. M.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The given review allows to believe, that the decision of a complex technological, materialstechnological, technical problems at creation modern OLED- and PLED-devices in nearest 5—10 years will result in creation of devices with power efficiency more than 100 lm/W and service life till 100 000 hours. The realization of such parameters will allow to expand area of application of the considered systems and to create in the future unique flat powereffective organic lighting systems of new generation — light sources XXI of century.

  1. Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Simone; Thomschke, Michael; Lüssem, Björn; Leo, Karl

    2011-11-07

    We review top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), which are beneficial for lighting and display applications, where non-transparent substrates are used. The optical effects of the microcavity structure as well as the loss mechanisms are discussed. Outcoupling techniques and the work on white top-emitting OLEDs are summarized. We discuss the power dissipation spectra for a monochrome and a white top-emitting OLED and give quantitative reports on the loss channels. Furthermore, the development of inverted top-emitting OLEDs is described.

  2. Printable candlelight-style organic light-emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, J. H.; Singh, M.; Song, W. C.; Liu, S. H.

    2017-06-01

    Candles or oil lamps are currently the most friendly lighting source to human eyes, physiology, ecosystems, artifacts, environment, and night skies due to their blue light-less emission. Candle light also exhibits high light-quality that provides visual comfort. However, they are relatively low in power efficacy (0.3 lm/W), making them energy-wasting, besides having problems like scorching hot, burning, catching fire, flickering, carbon blacking, oxygen consuming, and release of green house gas etc. In contrast, candlelight organic light-emitting diode (OLED) can be made blue-hazard free and energy-efficient. The remaining challenges are to maximize its light-quality and enable printing feasibility, the latter of which would pave a way to cost-effective manufacturing. We hence demonstrate herein the design and fabrication of a candlelight OLED via wet-process. From retina protection perspective, its emission is 13, 12 and 8 times better than those of the blue-enriched white CFL, LED and OLED. If used at night, it is 9, 6 and 4 times better from melatonin generation perspective.

  3. Light absorption of organic aerosol from pyrolysis of corn stalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinghua; Chen, Yanju; Bond, Tami C.

    2016-11-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) can absorb solar radiation in the low-visible and ultra-violet wavelengths thereby modifying radiative forcing. Agricultural waste burning emits a large quantity of organic carbon in many developing countries. In this work, we improved the extraction and analysis method developed by Chen and Bond, and extended the spectral range of OC absorption. We examined light absorbing properties of primary OA from pyrolysis of corn stalk, which is a major type of agricultural wastes. Light absorption of bulk liquid extracts of OA was measured using a UV-vis recording spectrophotometer. OA can be extracted by methanol at 95%, close to full extent, and shows polar character. Light absorption of organic aerosol has strong spectral dependence (Absorption Ångström exponent = 7.7) and is not negligible at ultra-violet and low-visible regions. Higher pyrolysis temperature produced OA with higher absorption. Imaginary refractive index of organic aerosol (kOA) is 0.041 at 400 nm wavelength and 0.005 at 550 nm wavelength, respectively.

  4. Evaluation of inorganic and organic light-emitting diode displays for signage application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pratibha; Kwok, Harry

    2006-08-01

    High-brightness, inorganic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been successfully utilized for edge-lighting of large displays for signage. Further interest in solid-state lighting technology has been fueled with the emergence of small molecule and polymer-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this paper, edgelit inorganic LED-based displays and state-of-the-art OLED-based displays are evaluated on the basis of electrical and photometric measurements. The reference size for a signage system is assumed to be 600 mm x 600mm based on the industrial usage. With the availability of high power light-emitting diodes, it is possible to develop edgelit signage systems of the standard size. These displays possess an efficacy of 18 lm/W. Although, these displays are environmentally friendly and efficient, they suffer from some inherent limitations. Homogeneity of displays, which is a prime requirement for illuminated signs, is not accomplished. A standard deviation of 3.12 lux is observed between the illuminance values on the surface of the display. In order to distribute light effectively, reflective gratings are employed. Reflective gratings aid in reducing the problem but fail to eliminate it. In addition, the overall cost of signage is increased by 50% with the use of these additional components. This problem can be overcome by the use of a distributed source of light. Hence, the organic-LEDs are considered as a possible contender. In this paper, we experimentally determine the feasibility of using OLEDs for signage applications and compare their performance with inorganic LEDs. Passive matrix, small-molecule based, commercially available OLEDs is used. Design techniques for implementation of displays using organic LEDs are also discussed. It is determined that tiled displays based on organic LEDs possess better uniformity than the inorganic LED-based displays. However, the currently available OLEDs have lower light-conversion efficiency and higher costs than the

  5. In vitro growth of flat aragonite crystals between the layers of the insoluble organic matrix of the abalone Haliotis laevigata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Katharina I.; Heinemann, Fabian; Rosenauer, Andreas; Fritz, Monika

    2012-11-01

    Nacre of abalone shells consists of aragonite platelets and organic material, the so-called organic matrix. During the growth process of the shell the aragonite platelets grow into a scaffold formed by the organic matrix. In this work we tried to mimic this growth process by placing a piece of the insoluble organic matrix (which is a part of the organic matrix) of the abalone Haliotis laevigata in a crystallization device which was flowed through by CaCl2 and NaHCO3 solutions. Using this setup amongst others flat aragonite crystals grow on the insoluble organic matrix. When investigating these crystals in a transmission electron microscope it is possible to recognize similarities to the structure of nacre, like the formation of mineral bridges and growth between layers of the insoluble organic matrix. These similarities are presented in this paper.

  6. The Density Matrix for Single-mode Light after k-Photon Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, H.; Bandilla, A.

    In order to continue and generalize the studies of the density matrix of a light field undergoing k-photon absorption, in this paper we put the emphasis on the off-diagonal elements. The solution obtained earlier for the diagonal elements describing the photon statistics can be found as a special case but will not be discussed again. The general solution calculated by recursion shows an asymptotic behaviour if the initial photon number is sufficiently high. Only the initial phase information survives. Illustrating the solution we start with coherent light and a generalized coherent state.Translated AbstractDie Dichtematrix eines Lichtstrahls nach k-Photonen-Absorption aus einer ModeWir führen die Betrachtungen über das Verhalten der Dichtematrix eines Lichtfeldes nach k-Photonen-Absorption aus einer Mode verallgemeinernd weiter und konzentrieren uns auf die Nichtdiagonalelemente. Die im folgenden angegebene allgemeine Lösung, die durch Rekursion gefunden wurde, enthält die schon früher erhaltene, jedoch hier nicht weiter diskutierte Lösung für die Diagonalelemente als Spezialfall. Sie zeigt ferner, daß es einen asymptotischen Zustand gibt, der eine von der Ausgangsintensität unabhängige Information über die Ausgangsphase enthält. Zur Diskussion der Lösung werden verschiedene Anfangsbedingungen betrachtet, so z. B. kohärentes Licht und kohärentes Licht, das ein Medium mit nichtlinearem Brechungsindex durchlaufen hat (Kerr-Effekt).

  7. Evidence of low molecular weight components in the organic matrix of the reef building coral, Stylophora pistillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puverel, S; Houlbrèque, F; Tambutté, E; Zoccola, D; Payan, P; Caminiti, N; Tambutté, S; Allemand, D

    2007-08-01

    Biominerals contain both inorganic and organic components. Organic components are collectively termed the organic matrix, and this matrix has been reported to play a crucial role in mineralization. Several matrix proteins have been characterized in vertebrates, but only a few in invertebrates, primarily in Molluscs and Echinoderms. Methods classically used to extract organic matrix proteins eliminate potential low molecular weight matrix components, since cut-offs ranging from 3.5 to 10 kDa are used to desalt matrix extracts. Consequently, the presence of such components remains unknown and these are never subjected to further analyses. In the present study, we have used microcolonies from the Scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata to study newly synthesized matrix components by labelling them with 14C-labelled amino acids. Radioactive matrix components were investigated by a method in which both total organic matrix and fractions of matrix below and above 5 kDa were analyzed. Using this method and SDS-PAGE analyses, we were able to detect the presence of low molecular mass matrix components (weight molecules, these probably form the bulk of newly synthesized organic matrix components. Our results suggest that these low molecular weight components may be peptides, which can be involved in the regulation of coral skeleton mineralization.

  8. Optical Properties and Aging of Light Absorbing Secondary Organic Aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiumeng; Lin, Peng; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Wise, Matthew E.; Caylor, Ryan; Imholt, Felisha; Selimovic, Vanessa; Shilling, John E.

    2016-10-14

    The light-absorbing organic aerosol (OA), commonly referred to as “brown carbon (BrC)”, has attracted considerable attention in recent years because of its potential to affect atmospheric radiation balance, especially in the ultraviolet region and thus impact photochemical processes. A growing amount of data has indicated that BrC is prevalent in the atmosphere, which has motivated numerous laboratory and field studies; however, our understanding of the relationship between the chemical composition and optical properties of BrC remains limited. We conducted chamber experiments to investigate the effect of various VOC precursors, NOx concentrations, photolysis time and relative humidity (RH) on the light absorption of selected secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Light absorption of chamber generated SOA samples, especially aromatic SOA, was found to increase with NOx concentration, at moderate RH, and for the shortest photolysis aging times. The highest mass absorption coefficients (MAC) value is observed from toluene SOA products formed under high NOx conditions at moderate RH, in which nitro-aromatics were previously identified as the major light absorbing compounds. BrC light absorption is observed to decrease with photolysis time, correlated with a decline of the organonitrate fraction of SOA. SOA formed from mixtures of aromatics and isoprene absorb less visible and UV light than SOA formed from aromatic precursors alone on a mass basis. However, the mixed-SOA absorption was underestimated when optical properties were predicted using a two-product SOA formation model, as done in many current climate models. Further investigation, including analysis on detailed mechanisms, are required to explain the discrepancy.

  9. Structurally Integrated Photoluminescence-Based Lactate Sensor Using Organic Light Emitting Devices (OLEDs) as the Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chengliang Qian

    2006-01-01

    Multianalyte bio(chemical) sensors are extensively researched for monitoring analytes in complex systems, such as blood serum. As a step towards developing such multianalyte sensors, we studied a novel, structurally integrated, organic light emitting device (OLED)-based sensing platform for detection of lactate. Lactate biosensors have attracted numerous research efforts, due to their wide applications in clinical diagnosis, athletic training and food industry. The OLED-based sensor is based on monitoring the oxidation reaction of lactate, which is catalyzed by the lactate oxidase (LOX) enzyme. The sensing component is based on an oxygen-sensitive dye, Platinum octaethyl porphyrin (PtOEP), whose photoluminescence (PL) lifetime τ decreases as the oxygen level increases. The PtOEP dye was embedded in a thin film polystyrene (PS) matrix; the LOX was dissolved in solution or immobilized in a sol-gel matrix. τ was measured as a function of the lactate concentration; as the lactate concentration increases, τ increases due to increased oxygen consumption. The sensors performance is discussed in terms of the detection sensitivity, dynamic range, and response time. A response time of ∼32 sec was achieved when the LOX was dissolved in solution and kept in a closed cell. Steps towards development of a multianalyte sensor array using an array of individually addressable OLED pixels were also presented

  10. Structurally Integrated Photoluminescence-Based Lactate Sensor Using Organic Light Emitting Devices (OLEDs) as the Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Chengliang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Multianalyte bio(chemical) sensors are extensively researched for monitoring analytes in complex systems, such as blood serum. As a step towards developing such multianalyte sensors, we studied a novel, structurally integrated, organic light emitting device (OLED)-based sensing platform for detection of lactate. Lactate biosensors have attracted numerous research efforts, due to their wide applications in clinical diagnosis, athletic training and food industry. The OLED-based sensor is based on monitoring the oxidation reaction of lactate, which is catalyzed by the lactate oxidase (LOX) enzyme. The sensing component is based on an oxygen-sensitive dye, Platinum octaethyl porphyrin (PtOEP), whose photoluminescence (PL) lifetime τ decreases as the oxygen level increases. The PtOEP dye was embedded in a thin film polystyrene (PS) matrix; the LOX was dissolved in solution or immobilized in a sol-gel matrix. τ was measured as a function of the lactate concentration; as the lactate concentration increases, τ increases due to increased oxygen consumption. The sensors performance is discussed in terms of the detection sensitivity, dynamic range, and response time. A response time of ~32 sec was achieved when the LOX was dissolved in solution and kept in a closed cell. Steps towards development of a multianalyte sensor array using an array of individually addressable OLED pixels were also presented.

  11. SPARC regulates extracellular matrix organization through its modulation of integrin-linked kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Thomas H; Baneyx, Gretchen; Cardó-Vila, Marina; Workman, Gail A; Weaver, Matt; Menon, Priya M; Dedhar, Shoukat; Rempel, Sandra A; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata; Vogel, Viola; Sage, E Helene

    2005-10-28

    SPARC, a 32-kDa matricellular glycoprotein, mediates interactions between cells and their extracellular matrix, and targeted deletion of Sparc results in compromised extracellular matrix in mice. Fibronectin matrix provides provisional tissue scaffolding during development and wound healing and is essential for the stabilization of mature extracellular matrix. Herein, we report that SPARC expression does not significantly affect fibronectin-induced cell spreading but enhances fibronectin-induced stress fiber formation and cell-mediated partial unfolding of fibronectin molecules, an essential process in fibronectin matrix assembly. By phage display, we identify integrin-linked kinase as a potential binding partner of SPARC and verify the interaction by co-immunoprecipitation and colocalization in vitro. Cells lacking SPARC exhibit diminished fibronectin-induced integrin-linked kinase activation and integrin-linked kinase-dependent cell-contractile signaling. Furthermore, induced expression of SPARC in SPARC-null fibroblasts restores fibronectin-induced integrin-linked kinase activation, downstream signaling, and fibronectin unfolding. These data further confirm the function of SPARC in extracellular matrix organization and identify a novel mechanism by which SPARC regulates extracellular matrix assembly.

  12. MATRIX-VBS Condensing Organic Aerosols in an Aerosol Microphysics Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chloe Y.; Tsigaridis, Konstas; Bauer, Susanne E.

    2015-01-01

    The condensation of organic aerosols is represented in a newly developed box-model scheme, where its effect on the growth and composition of particles are examined. We implemented the volatility-basis set (VBS) framework into the aerosol mixing state resolving microphysical scheme Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state (MATRIX). This new scheme is unique and advances the representation of organic aerosols in models in that, contrary to the traditional treatment of organic aerosols as non-volatile in most climate models and in the original version of MATRIX, this new scheme treats them as semi-volatile. Such treatment is important because low-volatility organics contribute significantly to the growth of particles. The new scheme includes several classes of semi-volatile organic compounds from the VBS framework that can partition among aerosol populations in MATRIX, thus representing the growth of particles via condensation of low volatility organic vapors. Results from test cases representing Mexico City and a Finish forrest condistions show good representation of the time evolutions of concentration for VBS species in the gas phase and in the condensed particulate phase. Emitted semi-volatile primary organic aerosols evaporate almost completely in the high volatile range, and they condense more efficiently in the low volatility range.

  13. Photolithography-free fabrication of organic light-emitting diodes for lighting applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, I H; Shin, D C; Park, J W

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the photolithography-free fabrication of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) for lighting applications with an attempt to embed the deposition and patterning process of an indium–tin–oxide (ITO) anode and insulating layer into an in-line-type organic evaporation system. This scheme inevitably brings in leakage current induced by the spike-like surface of ITO. To suppress it, we cover the ITO edges with three different insulation materials (i.e. sputter-deposited inorganic Al 2 O 3 thin film, monomer (polymer) thin film deposited by organic acrylate evaporation or thermally evaporated organic insulation layer (tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq 3 ))). Although small-molecule organic insulation materials that can be thermally evaporated are the most suitable for such a cost-effective fabrication process, yet their insulation capability is low due to the carrier transporting property. In this paper, we demonstrate that it can be boosted to a great extent with an increase of their thickness. It is likely that pinholes existing on the Al 2 O 3 thin film act as leak channels, degrading the device performance. We also verify that the insulation capability of polymer fabricated by organic acrylate evaporation is just comparable with that of polyimide (PI) insulator patterned using a standard photolithography process. (paper)

  14. Device model investigation of bilayer organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crone, B. K.; Davids, P. S.; Campbell, I. H.; Smith, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    Organic materials that have desirable luminescence properties, such as a favorable emission spectrum and high luminescence efficiency, are not necessarily suitable for single layer organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) because the material may have unequal carrier mobilities or contact limited injection properties. As a result, single layer LEDs made from such organic materials are inefficient. In this article, we present device model calculations of single layer and bilayer organic LED characteristics that demonstrate the improvements in device performance that can occur in bilayer devices. We first consider an organic material where the mobilities of the electrons and holes are significantly different. The role of the bilayer structure in this case is to move the recombination away from the electrode that injects the low mobility carrier. We then consider an organic material with equal electron and hole mobilities but where it is not possible to make a good contact for one carrier type, say electrons. The role of a bilayer structure in this case is to prevent the holes from traversing the device without recombining. In both cases, single layer device limitations can be overcome by employing a two organic layer structure. The results are discussed using the calculated spatial variation of the carrier densities, electric field, and recombination rate density in the structures. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  15. Dynamic culture substrate that captures a specific extracellular matrix protein in response to light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Jun; Nakayama, Hidekazu; Horiike, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Garcia, Andres J

    2011-01-01

    The development of methods for the off-on switching of immobilization or presentation of cell-adhesive peptides and proteins during cell culture is important because such surfaces are useful for the analysis of the dynamic processes of cell adhesion and migration. This paper describes a chemically functionalized gold substrate that captures a genetically tagged extracellular matrix protein in response to light. The substrate was composed of mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of three disulfide compounds containing (i) a photocleavable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), (ii) nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and (iii) hepta(ethylene glycol) (EG 7 ). Although the NTA group has an intrinsic high affinity for oligohistidine tag (His-tag) sequences in its Ni 2+ -ion complex, the interaction was suppressed by the steric hindrance of coexisting PEG on the substrate surface. Upon photoirradiation of the substrate to release the PEG chain from the surface, this interaction became possible and hence the protein was captured at the irradiated regions, while keeping the non-specific adsorption of non-His-tagged proteins blocked by the EG 7 underbrush. In this way, we selectively immobilized a His-tagged fibronectin fragment (FNIII 7-10 ) to the irradiated regions. In contrast, when bovine serum albumin-a major serum protein-was added as a non-His-tagged protein, the surface did not permit its capture, with or without irradiation. In agreement with these results, cells were selectively attached to the irradiated patterns only when a His-tagged FNIII 7-10 was added to the medium. These results indicate that the present method is useful for studying the cellular behavior on the specific extracellular matrix protein in cell-culturing environments.

  16. Dynamic culture substrate that captures a specific extracellular matrix protein in response to light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Jun; Nakayama, Hidekazu; Horiike, Yasuhiro [World Premier International (WPI) Research Center Initiative, International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science - NIMS (Japan); Yamaguchi, Kazuo [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Research Institute for Photofunctionalized Materials, Kanagawa University (Japan); Garcia, Andres J, E-mail: NAKANISHI.Jun@nims.go.jp [Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The development of methods for the off-on switching of immobilization or presentation of cell-adhesive peptides and proteins during cell culture is important because such surfaces are useful for the analysis of the dynamic processes of cell adhesion and migration. This paper describes a chemically functionalized gold substrate that captures a genetically tagged extracellular matrix protein in response to light. The substrate was composed of mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of three disulfide compounds containing (i) a photocleavable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), (ii) nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and (iii) hepta(ethylene glycol) (EG{sub 7}). Although the NTA group has an intrinsic high affinity for oligohistidine tag (His-tag) sequences in its Ni{sup 2+}-ion complex, the interaction was suppressed by the steric hindrance of coexisting PEG on the substrate surface. Upon photoirradiation of the substrate to release the PEG chain from the surface, this interaction became possible and hence the protein was captured at the irradiated regions, while keeping the non-specific adsorption of non-His-tagged proteins blocked by the EG{sub 7} underbrush. In this way, we selectively immobilized a His-tagged fibronectin fragment (FNIII{sub 7-10}) to the irradiated regions. In contrast, when bovine serum albumin-a major serum protein-was added as a non-His-tagged protein, the surface did not permit its capture, with or without irradiation. In agreement with these results, cells were selectively attached to the irradiated patterns only when a His-tagged FNIII{sub 7-10} was added to the medium. These results indicate that the present method is useful for studying the cellular behavior on the specific extracellular matrix protein in cell-culturing environments.

  17. Dynamic culture substrate that captures a specific extracellular matrix protein in response to light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Nakanishi, Hidekazu Nakayama, Kazuo Yamaguchi, Andres J Garcia and Yasuhiro Horiike

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of methods for the off–on switching of immobilization or presentation of cell-adhesive peptides and proteins during cell culture is important because such surfaces are useful for the analysis of the dynamic processes of cell adhesion and migration. This paper describes a chemically functionalized gold substrate that captures a genetically tagged extracellular matrix protein in response to light. The substrate was composed of mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs of three disulfide compounds containing (i a photocleavable poly(ethylene glycol (PEG, (ii nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA and (iii hepta(ethylene glycol (EG7. Although the NTA group has an intrinsic high affinity for oligohistidine tag (His-tag sequences in its Ni2+-ion complex, the interaction was suppressed by the steric hindrance of coexisting PEG on the substrate surface. Upon photoirradiation of the substrate to release the PEG chain from the surface, this interaction became possible and hence the protein was captured at the irradiated regions, while keeping the non-specific adsorption of non-His-tagged proteins blocked by the EG7 underbrush. In this way, we selectively immobilized a His-tagged fibronectin fragment (FNIII7–10 to the irradiated regions. In contrast, when bovine serum albumin—a major serum protein—was added as a non-His-tagged protein, the surface did not permit its capture, with or without irradiation. In agreement with these results, cells were selectively attached to the irradiated patterns only when a His-tagged FNIII7-10 was added to the medium. These results indicate that the present method is useful for studying the cellular behavior on the specific extracellular matrix protein in cell-culturing environments.

  18. ECOS E-MATRIX Methane and Volatile Organic Carbon (VOC) Emissions Best Practices Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parisien, Lia [The Environmental Council Of The States, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-01-31

    This final scientific/technical report on the ECOS e-MATRIX Methane and Volatile Organic Carbon (VOC) Emissions Best Practices Database provides a disclaimer and acknowledgement, table of contents, executive summary, description of project activities, and briefing/technical presentation link.

  19. Measuring the Complexity of Self-Organizing Traffic Lights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Zubillaga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We apply measures of complexity, emergence, and self-organization to an urban traffic model for comparing a traditional traffic-light coordination method with a self-organizing method in two scenarios: cyclic boundaries and non-orientable boundaries. We show that the measures are useful to identify and characterize different dynamical phases. It becomes clear that different operation regimes are required for different traffic demands. Thus, not only is traffic a non-stationary problem, requiring controllers to adapt constantly; controllers must also change drastically the complexity of their behavior depending on the demand. Based on our measures and extending Ashby’s law of requisite variety, we can say that the self-organizing method achieves an adaptability level comparable to that of a living system.

  20. Ultrastrong light-matter coupling in electrically doped microcavity organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzeo, M., E-mail: marco.mazzeo@unisalento.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); NNL, Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Genco, A. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Gambino, S. [NNL, Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); CBN, Istituto Italiano Tecnologia, Via Barsanti 1, 73010 Lecce (Italy); Ballarini, D.; Mangione, F.; Sanvitto, D. [NNL, Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Di Stefano, O.; Patanè, S.; Savasta, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Messina, Viale F. Stagno d' Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Gigli, G. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); NNL, Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); CBN, Istituto Italiano Tecnologia, Via Barsanti 1, 73010 Lecce (Italy)

    2014-06-09

    The coupling of the electromagnetic field with an electronic transition gives rise, for strong enough light-matter interactions, to hybrid states called exciton-polaritons. When the energy exchanged between light and matter becomes a significant fraction of the material transition energy an extreme optical regime called ultrastrong coupling (USC) is achieved. We report a microcavity embedded p-i-n monolithic organic light emitting diode working in USC, employing a thin film of squaraine dye as active layer. A normalized coupling ratio of 30% has been achieved at room temperature. These USC devices exhibit a dispersion-less angle-resolved electroluminescence that can be exploited for the realization of innovative optoelectronic devices. Our results may open the way towards electrically pumped polariton lasers.

  1. Efficient Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Plasmonic Scattering Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothberg, Lewis

    2012-11-30

    Our project addressed the DOE MYPP 2020 goal to improve light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) to 75% (Core task 6.3). As noted in the 2010 MYPP, “the greatest opportunity for improvement is in the extraction of light from [OLED] panels”. There are many approaches to avoiding waveguiding limitations intrinsic to the planar OLED structure including use of textured substrates, microcavity designs and incorporating scattering layers into the device structure. We have chosen to pursue scattering layers since it addresses the largest source of loss which is waveguiding in the OLED itself. Scattering layers also have the potential to be relatively robust to color, polarization and angular distributions. We note that this can be combined with textured or microlens decorated substrates to achieve additional enhancement.

  2. Improved outcoupling of light in organic light emitting devices, utilizing a holographic DFB-structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinke, Nils [Organische Funktionsmaterialien, University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany)]. E-mail: nils.reinke@physik.uni-augsburg.de; Fuhrmann, Thomas [Macromolecular Chemistry and Molecular Materials, University of Kassel (Germany); Perschke, Alexandra [Organische Funktionsmaterialien, University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany); Franke, Hilmar [Organische Funktionsmaterialien, University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany)

    2004-12-10

    In this work organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) were fabricated implementing gratings, in order to extract waveguided electroluminescence (EL). The gratings were recorded by exposing thin films of the molecular azo glass N, N'-bis (4-phenyl)-N, N'-bis [(4-phenylazo)-phenyl] benzidine (AZOPD) to holographic light patterns. The photopatterned AZOPD serves as hole transport material for devices with aluminum-tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) doped with 1% of 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (Alq{sub 3}:DCM) as emissive/electron transport layer. The corrugated devices showed enhanced emission in the forward direction. The emitted light is polarized preferably parallel to the grating lines. In addition, we have found a doubling in the total luminance with respect to the unstructured device.

  3. Optimization of emission color and efficiency of organic light emitting diodes for lighting applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Stefan; Krause, Ralf [Department of Materials Science VI, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Kozlowski, Fryderyk; Schmid, Guenter; Hunze, Arvid [Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Winnacker, Albrecht [Department of Materials Science VI, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In recent years the performance of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) has reached a level where OLED lighting presents an interesting application target. Research activities therefore focus amongst other things on the development of high efficient and stable white light emitting devices. We demonstrate how the color coordinates can be adjusted to achieve a warm white emission spectrum, whereas the OLED stack contains phosphorescent red and green dyes combined with a fluorescent blue one. Detailed results are presented with respect to a variation of layer thicknesses and dopant concentrations of the emission layers. Furthermore the influence of various dye molecules and hence different energy level alignments between host and dopants on color and efficiency will be discussed.

  4. Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Raman, Aaswath

    2011-09-15

    Organic bulk heterojunction solar cells are a promising candidate for low-cost next-generation photovoltaic systems. However, carrier extraction limitations necessitate thin active layers that sacrifice absorption for internal quantum efficiency or vice versa. Motivated by recent theoretical developments, we show that dielectric wavelength-scale grating structures can produce significant absorption resonances in a realistic organic cell architecture. We numerically demonstrate that 1D, 2D and multi-level ITO-air gratings lying on top of the organic solar cell stack produce a 8-15% increase in photocurrent for a model organic solar cell where PCDTBT:PC71BM is the organic semiconductor. Specific to this approach, the active layer itself remains untouched yet receives the benefit of light trapping by nanostructuring the top surface below which it lies. The techniques developed here are broadly applicable to organic semiconductors in general, and enable partial decoupling between active layer thickness and photocurrent generation. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

  5. Numerical study of the light output intensity of the bilayer organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Feiping

    2017-02-01

    The structure of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is one of most important issues that influence the light output intensity (LOI) of OLEDs. In this paper, based on a simple but accurate optical model, the influences of hole and electron transport layer thickness on the LOI of bilayer OLEDs, which with N,N0- bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N0- bis(phenyl)- benzidine (NPB) or N,N'- diphenyl-N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4-diamine (TPD) as hole transport layer, with tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) as electron transport and light emitting layers, were investigated. The laws of LOI for OLEDs under different organic layer thickness values were obtained. The results show that the LOI of devices varies in accordance with damped cosine or sine function as the increasing of organic layer thickness, and the results show that the bilayer OLEDs with the structure of Glass/ITO/NPB (55 nm)/Alq3 (75 nm)/Al and Glass/ITO/TPB (60 nm)/Alq3 (75 nm)/Al have most largest LOI. When the thickness of Alq3 is less than 105 nm, the OLEDs with TPD as hole transport layer have larger LOI than that with NPB as hole transport layer. The results obtained in this paper can present an in-depth understanding of the working mechanism of OLEDs and help ones fabricate high efficiency OLEDs.

  6. The influence of fibrous elastomer structure and porosity on matrix organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifkovits, Jamie L; Wu, Katherine; Mauck, Robert L; Burdick, Jason A

    2010-12-22

    Fibrous scaffolds are finding wide use in the field of tissue engineering, as they can be designed to mimic many native tissue properties and structures (e.g., cardiac tissue, meniscus). The influence of fiber alignment and scaffold architecture on cellular interactions and matrix organization was the focus of this study. Three scaffolds were fabricated from the photocrosslinkable elastomer poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS), with changes in fiber alignment (non-aligned (NA) versus aligned (AL)) and the introduction of a PEO sacrificial polymer population to the AL scaffold (composite (CO)). PEO removal led to an increase in scaffold porosity and maintenance of scaffold anisotropy, as evident through visualization, mechanical testing, and mass loss studies. Hydrated scaffolds possessed moduli that ranged between ∼3-240 kPa, failing within the range of properties (<300 kPa) appropriate for soft tissue engineering. CO scaffolds were completely degraded as early as 16 days, whereas NA and AL scaffolds had ∼90% mass loss after 21 days when monitored in vitro. Neonatal cardiomyocytes, used as a representative cell type, that were seeded onto the scaffolds maintained their viability and aligned along the surface of the AL and CO fibers. When implanted subcutaneously in rats, a model that is commonly used to investigate in vivo tissue responses to biomaterials, CO scaffolds were completely integrated at 2 weeks, whereas ∼13% and ∼16% of the NA and AL scaffolds, respectively remained acellular. However, all scaffolds were completely populated with cells at 4 weeks post-implantation. Polarized light microscopy was used to evaluate the collagen elaboration and orientation within the scaffold. An increase in the amount of collagen was observed for CO scaffolds and enhanced alignment of the nascent collagen was observed for AL and CO scaffolds compared to NA scaffolds. Thus, these results indicate that the scaffold architecture and porosity are important considerations in

  7. The influence of fibrous elastomer structure and porosity on matrix organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie L Ifkovits

    Full Text Available Fibrous scaffolds are finding wide use in the field of tissue engineering, as they can be designed to mimic many native tissue properties and structures (e.g., cardiac tissue, meniscus. The influence of fiber alignment and scaffold architecture on cellular interactions and matrix organization was the focus of this study. Three scaffolds were fabricated from the photocrosslinkable elastomer poly(glycerol sebacate (PGS, with changes in fiber alignment (non-aligned (NA versus aligned (AL and the introduction of a PEO sacrificial polymer population to the AL scaffold (composite (CO. PEO removal led to an increase in scaffold porosity and maintenance of scaffold anisotropy, as evident through visualization, mechanical testing, and mass loss studies. Hydrated scaffolds possessed moduli that ranged between ∼3-240 kPa, failing within the range of properties (<300 kPa appropriate for soft tissue engineering. CO scaffolds were completely degraded as early as 16 days, whereas NA and AL scaffolds had ∼90% mass loss after 21 days when monitored in vitro. Neonatal cardiomyocytes, used as a representative cell type, that were seeded onto the scaffolds maintained their viability and aligned along the surface of the AL and CO fibers. When implanted subcutaneously in rats, a model that is commonly used to investigate in vivo tissue responses to biomaterials, CO scaffolds were completely integrated at 2 weeks, whereas ∼13% and ∼16% of the NA and AL scaffolds, respectively remained acellular. However, all scaffolds were completely populated with cells at 4 weeks post-implantation. Polarized light microscopy was used to evaluate the collagen elaboration and orientation within the scaffold. An increase in the amount of collagen was observed for CO scaffolds and enhanced alignment of the nascent collagen was observed for AL and CO scaffolds compared to NA scaffolds. Thus, these results indicate that the scaffold architecture and porosity are important

  8. Tooth Matrix Analysis for Biomonitoring of Organic Chemical Exposure: Current Status, Challenges, and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andra, Syam S.; Austin, Christine; Arora, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence supports associations between prenatal exposure to environmental organic chemicals and childhood health impairments. Unlike the common choice of biological matrices such as urine and blood that can be limited by short half-lives for some chemicals, teeth provide a stable repository for chemicals with half-life in the order of decades. Given the potential of the tooth bio-matrix to study long-term exposures to environmental organic chemicals in human biomonitoring programs, it is important to be aware of possible pitfalls and potential opportunities to improve on the current analytical method for tooth organics analysis. We critically review previous results of studies of this topic. The major drawbacks and challenges in currently practiced concepts and analytical methods in utilizing tooth bio-matrix are (i) no consideration of external (from outer surface) or internal contamination (from micro odontoblast processes), (ii) the misleading assumption that whole ground teeth represent prenatal exposures (latest formed dentine is lipid rich and therefore would absorb and accumulate more organic chemicals), (iii) reverse causality in exposure assessment due to whole ground teeth, and (iv) teeth are a precious bio-matrix and grinding them raises ethical concerns about appropriate use of a very limited resource in exposure biology and epidemiology studies. These can be overcome by addressing the important limitations and possible improvements with the analytical approach associated at each of the following steps (i) tooth sample preparation to retain exposure timing, (ii) organics extraction and pre-concentration to detect ultra-trace levels of analytes, (iii) chromatography separation, (iv) mass spectrometric detection to detect multi-class organics simultaneously, and (v) method validation, especially to exclude chance findings. To highlight the proposed improvements we present findings from a pilot study that utilizes tooth matrix biomarkers to

  9. Three-peak standard white organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kunping; Wei, Bin

    2014-12-01

    Standard white organic light-emitting device (OLED) lighting provides a warm and comfortable atmosphere and shows mild effect on melatonin suppression. A high-efficiency red OLED employing phosphorescent dopant has been investigated. The device generates saturated red emission with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.66, 0.34), characterized by a low driving voltage of 3.5 V and high external quantum efficiency of 20.1% at 130 cd m-2. In addition, we have demonstrated a two-peak cold white OLED by combining with a pure blue emitter with the electroluminescent emission of 464 nm, 6, 12-bis{[N-(3,4-dimethylpheyl)-N-(2,4,5-trimethylphenyl)]} chrysene (BmPAC). It was found that the man-made lighting device capable of yielding a relatively stable color emission within the luminance range of 1000-5000 cd m-2. And the chromaticity coordinates, varying from (0.25, 0.21) to (0.23, 0.21). Furthermore, an ultrathin layer of green-light-emitting tris (2-phenylpyridinato)iridium(Ⅲ) Ir(ppy)3 in the host material was introduced to the emissive region for compensating light. By appropriately controlling the layer thickness, the white light OLED achieved good performance of 1280 cd m-2 at 5.0 V and 5150 cd m-2 at 7.0 V, respectively. The CIE coordinates of the emitted light are quite stable at current densities from 759 cd m-2 to 5150 cd m-2, ranging from (0.34, 0.37) to (0.33, 0.33).

  10. Degradation of phosphorescent blue organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Chien-Shu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Technical University of Braunschweig (Germany); Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Steinbacher, Frank [Department of Materials Science VI, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Krause, Ralf; Hunze, Arvid [Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Kowalsky, Wolfgang [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Technical University of Braunschweig (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Development of phosphorescent materials has significantly improved the efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). By using efficient red, green and blue phosphorescent emitter materials high efficient white OLEDs can be achieved. However, due to low stability of blue phosphorescent materials the lifetime of phosphorescent white OLEDs remains an issue. As a result, degradation of blue phosphorescent materials needs to be further investigated and improved. In this work, blue OLED devices based on the phosphorescent emitter FIrpic were investigated. Single-carrier hole-only as well as electron-only devices were fabricated. For investigation of degradation process the devices were stressed with electrical current and UV-light to study the impact of charge carriers as well as excitons and exciton-polaron quenching on the stability of the blue dye.

  11. New Optoelectronic Technology Simplified for Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre F. S. Guedes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED, using an optically transparent substrate material and organic semiconductor materials, has been widely utilized by the electronic industry when producing new technological products. The OLED are the base Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene, PEDOT, and Polyaniline, PANI, were deposited in Indium Tin Oxide, ITO, and characterized by UV-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-Vis, Optical Parameters (OP and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. In addition, the thin film obtained by the deposition of PANI, prepared in perchloric acid solution, was identified through PANI-X1. The result obtained by UV-Vis has demonstrated that the Quartz/ITO/PEDOT/PANI-X1 layer does not have displacement of absorption for wavelengths greaters after spin-coating and electrodeposition. Thus, the spectral irradiance of the OLED informed the irradiance of 100 W/m2, and this result, compared with the standard Light Emitting Diode (LED, has indicated that the OLED has higher irradiance. After 1000 hours of electrical OLED tests, the appearance of nanoparticles visible for images by SEM, to the migration process of organic semiconductor materials, was present, then. Still, similar to the phenomenon of electromigration observed in connections and interconnections of microelectronic devices, the results have revealed a new mechanism of migration, which raises the passage of electric current in OLED.

  12. Link predication based on matrix factorization by fusion of multi class organizations of the network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Pengfei; Cai, Fei; Feng, Yiding; Wang, Wenjun

    2017-08-21

    Link predication aims at forecasting the latent or unobserved edges in the complex networks and has a wide range of applications in reality. Almost existing methods and models only take advantage of one class organization of the networks, which always lose important information hidden in other organizations of the network. In this paper, we propose a link predication framework which makes the best of the structure of networks in different level of organizations based on nonnegative matrix factorization, which is called NMF 3 here. We first map the observed network into another space by kernel functions, which could get the different order organizations. Then we combine the adjacency matrix of the network with one of other organizations, which makes us obtain the objective function of our framework for link predication based on the nonnegative matrix factorization. Third, we derive an iterative algorithm to optimize the objective function, which converges to a local optimum, and we propose a fast optimization strategy for large networks. Lastly, we test the proposed framework based on two kernel functions on a series of real world networks under different sizes of training set, and the experimental results show the feasibility, effectiveness, and competitiveness of the proposed framework.

  13. Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Diodes Implementing Platinum Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecton, Jeremy Exton

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are a promising approach for display and solid state lighting applications. However, further work is needed in establishing the availability of efficient and stable materials for OLEDs with high external quantum efficiency's (EQE) and high operational lifetimes. Recently, significant improvements in the internal quantum efficiency or ratio of generated photons to injected electrons have been achieved with the advent of phosphorescent complexes with the ability to harvest both singlet and triplet excitons. Since then, a variety of phosphorescent complexes containing heavy metal centers including Os, Ni, Ir, Pd, and Pt have been developed. Thus far, the majority of the work in the field has focused on iridium based complexes. Platinum based complexes, however, have received considerably less attention despite demonstrating efficiency's equal to or better than their iridium analogs. In this study, a series of OLEDs implementing newly developed platinum based complexes were demonstrated with efficiency's or operational lifetimes equal to or better than their iridium analogs for select cases. In addition to demonstrating excellent device performance in OLEDs, platinum based complexes exhibit unique photophysical properties including the ability to form excimer emission capable of generating broad white light emission from a single emitter and the ability to form narrow band emission from a rigid, tetradentate molecular structure for select cases. These unique photophysical properties were exploited and their optical and electrical properties in a device setting were elucidated. Utilizing the unique properties of a tridentate Pt complex, Pt-16, a highly efficient white device employing a single emissive layer exhibited a peak EQE of over 20% and high color quality with a CRI of 80 and color coordinates CIE(x=0.33, y=0.33). Furthermore, by employing a rigid, tetradentate platinum complex, PtN1N, with a narrow band emission into a

  14. A review on organic spintronic materials and devices: II. Magnetoresistance in organic spin valves and spin organic light emitting diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rugang Geng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the preceding review paper, Paper I [Journal of Science: Advanced Materials and Devices 1 (2016 128–140], we showed the major experimental and theoretical studies on the first organic spintronic subject, namely organic magnetoresistance (OMAR in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs. The topic has recently been of renewed interest as a result of a demonstration of the magneto-conductance (MC that exceeds 1000% at room temperature using a certain type of organic compounds and device operating condition. In this report, we will review two additional organic spintronic devices, namely organic spin valves (OSVs where only spin polarized holes exist to cause magnetoresistance (MR, and spin organic light emitting diodes (spin-OLEDs where both spin polarized holes and electrons are injected into the organic emissive layer to form a magneto-electroluminescence (MEL hysteretic loop. First, we outline the major advances in OSV studies for understanding the underlying physics of the spin transport mechanism in organic semiconductors (OSCs and the spin injection/detection at the organic/ferromagnet interface (spinterface. We also highlight some of outstanding challenges in this promising research field. Second, the first successful demonstration of spin-OLEDs is reviewed. We also discuss challenges to achieve the high performance devices. Finally, we suggest an outlook on the future of organic spintronics by using organic single crystals and aligned polymers for the spin transport layer, and a self-assembled monolayer to achieve more controllability for the spinterface.

  15. Modeling nanostructure-enhanced light trapping in organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Jost

    A promising approach for improving the power conversion efficiencies of organic solar cells (OSCs) is by incorporating nanostructures in their thin film architecture to improve the light absorption in the device’s active polymer layers. Here, we present a modelling framework for the prediction...... of optical and plasmonic field enhancement by nanostructures in (or close to) the active layers and electrodes in OSCs. We incorporate finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations alongside semi- analytical approaches, as the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) and mode-coupling theory. Our simulation...

  16. Capturing triplet emission in white organic light emitting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jai [Faculty of EHSE, School of Engineering and IT, B-purple-12, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2011-08-15

    The state-of-the art in the white organic light emitting devices (WOLEDs) is reviewed for further developments with a view to enhance the capture of triplet emission. In particular, applying the new exciton-spin-orbit-photon interaction operator as a perturbation, rates of spontaneous emission are calculated in a few phosphorescent materials and compared with experimental results. For iridium based phosphorescent materials the rates agree quite well with the experimental results. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Investigation of phosphorescent blue organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Chien-Shu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Technical University of Braunschweig (Germany); Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Krause, Ralf [Department of Materials Science VI, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Kozlowski, Fryderyk; Hunze, Arvid [Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Kowalsky, Wolfgang [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Technical University of Braunschweig (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Recently, rapid development of phosphorescent materials has significantly improved the efficiency of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). By using efficient phosphorescent emitter materials white OLEDs with high power efficiency values could be demonstrated. But especially blue phosphorescent devices, due to stability issues, need to be further investigated und optimized. In this work, blue OLED devices based on the phosphorescent emitter FIrpic were investigated. Single-carrier hole-only as well as electron-only devices were fabricated and characterized to study the impact of charge carriers on device performance.

  18. Matrix effect on hydrogen-atom tunneling of organic molecules in cryogenic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Tsuneki

    2000-01-01

    Although the tunneling of atoms through potential energy barriers separating the reactant and reaction systems is not paid much attention in organic reactions, this plays an important role in reactions including the transfer of light atoms. Atomic tunneling is especially important for chemical reactions at low temperatures, since the thermal activation of reactant systems is very slow process in comparison with the tunneling. One of the typical reactions of atomic tunneling is hydrogen-atom abstraction from alkanes in cryogenic solids exposed to high-energy radiation. Irradiation of alkane molecules causes the homolytic cleavage of C-H bonds, which results in the pairwise formation of free hydrogen atoms and organic free radicals. Since the activation energies for the abstraction of hydrogen atoms from alkane molecules by free hydrogen atoms are higher than 5 kcal/mol, the lifetime of free hydrogen atoms at 77 K is estimated from the Arrhenius equation of k=vexp(-E a /RT) to be longer than 10 hrs. However, except for solid methane, free hydrogen atoms immediately convert to alkyl radicals even at 4.2 K by hydrogen-atom tunneling from alkane molecules to the free hydrogen atoms. The rate of hydrogen atom tunneling does not necessary increase with decreasing activation energy or the peak height of the potential energy barrier preventing the tunneling. Although the activation energy is the lowest at the tertiary carbon of alkanes, hydrogen atom tunneling from branched alkanes with tertiary carbon at the antepenultimate position of the carbon skeleton is the fastest at the secondary penultimate carbon. Based on our experimental results, we have proposed that the peculiarity of the hydrogen-atom abstraction in cryogenic solids comes from the steric hindrance by matrix molecules to the deformation of alkane molecules from the initial sp 3 to the final sp 2 configurations. The steric hindrance causes the increase of the height of the potential energy barrier for the

  19. Emerging Transparent Conducting Electrodes for Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tze-Bin Song

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs have attracted much attention in recent years as next generation lighting and displays, due to their many advantages, including superb performance, mechanical flexibility, ease of fabrication, chemical versatility, etc. In order to fully realize the highly flexible features, reduce the cost and further improve the performance of OLED devices, replacing the conventional indium tin oxide with better alternative transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs is a crucial step. In this review, we focus on the emerging alternative TCE materials for OLED applications, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs, metallic nanowires, conductive polymers and graphene. These materials are selected, because they have been applied as transparent electrodes for OLED devices and achieved reasonably good performance or even higher device performance than that of indium tin oxide (ITO glass. Various electrode modification techniques and their effects on the device performance are presented. The effects of new TCEs on light extraction, device performance and reliability are discussed. Highly flexible, stretchable and efficient OLED devices are achieved based on these alternative TCEs. These results are summarized for each material. The advantages and current challenges of these TCE materials are also identified.

  20. Carrier Modulation Layer-Enhanced Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jwo-Huei Jou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic light-emitting diode (OLED-based display products have already emerged in the market and their efficiencies and lifetimes are sound at the comparatively low required luminance. To realize OLED for lighting application sooner, higher light quality and better power efficiency at elevated luminance are still demanded. This review reveals the advantages of incorporating a nano-scale carrier modulation layer (CML, also known as a spacer, carrier-regulating layer, or interlayer, among other terms, to tune the chromaticity and color temperature as well as to markedly improve the device efficiency and color rendering index (CRI for numerous OLED devices. The functions of the CML can be enhanced as multiple layers and blend structures are employed. At proper thickness, the employment of CML enables the device to balance the distribution of carriers in the two emissive zones and achieve high device efficiencies and long operational lifetime while maintaining very high CRI. Moreover, we have also reviewed the effect of using CML on the most significant characteristics of OLEDs, namely: efficiency, luminance, life-time, CRI, SRI, chromaticity, and the color temperature, and see how the thickness tuning and selection of proper CML are crucial to effectively control the OLED device performance.

  1. Recent advances in light outcoupling from white organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gather, Malte C.; Reineke, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been successfully introduced to the smartphone display market and have geared up to become contenders for applications in general illumination where they promise to combine efficient generation of white light with excellent color quality, glare-free illumination, and highly attractive designs. Device efficiency is the key requirement for such white OLEDs, not only from a sustainability perspective, but also because at the high brightness required for general illumination, losses lead to heating and may, thus, cause rapid device degradation. The efficiency of white OLEDs increased tremendously over the past two decades, and internal charge-to-photon conversion can now be achieved at ˜100% yield. However, the extraction of photons remains rather inefficient (typically physics of outcoupling in white OLEDs and review recent progress toward making light extraction more efficient. We describe how structures that scatter, refract, or diffract light can be attached to the outside of white OLEDs (external outcoupling) or can be integrated close to the active layers of the device (internal outcoupling). Moreover, the prospects of using top-emitting metal-metal microcavity designs for white OLEDs and of tuning the average orientation of the emissive molecules within the OLED are discussed.

  2. Electroluminescence dependence of the simplified green light organic light emitting diodes on in situ thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Haichuan, E-mail: hcmu@ecust.edu.cn [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Rao, Lu [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Li, Weiling; Wei, Bin [Key Laboratory of Advanced Display and System Applications, Ministry of Education, School of Mechanics Engineering and Automation, Shanghai University, 149 Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072 (China); Wang, Keke; Xie, Haifen [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • In-situ thermal treating the organic tri-layer (CBP/CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3}/TPBi) of the green light PHOLED under various temperatures during the organic materials evaporation. • Investigating the effect of in situ thermal treatment on the electroluminescence (EL) performance of the green light PHOLED with tri-layer structures. • Provide an easy and practical way to improve the EL performance of the OLEDs without major modification of the organic materials and OLEDs structures required. - Abstract: Simplified multilayer green light phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (PHOLED) with the structure of ITO/MoO{sub 3}(1 nm)/CBP(20 nm)/CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3} (1 wt%) (15 nm)/TPBi(60 nm)/LiF(0.5 nm)/Al were fabricated via thermal evaporation and in situ thermal treatment (heating the OLED substrates to certain temperatures during the thermal evaporation of the organic materials) was performed. The effect of the in situ thermal treatment on the electroluminescence (EL) performance of the PHOLED was investigated. It was found that the OLED exhibited strong EL dependence on the thermal treatment temperatures, and their current efficiency was improved with the increasing temperature from room temperature (RT) to 69 °C and deteriorated with the further increasing temperature to 105 °C. At the brightness of 1000 cd/m{sup 2}, over 80% improvement of the current efficiency at the optimal thermal treatment temperature of 69 °C (64 cd/A) was demonstrated compared to that at RT (35 cd/A). Meanwhile, the tremendous influences of the in situ thermal treatment on the morphology of the multilayer CBP/CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3}/TPBi were also observed. At the optimal thermal treatment temperature of 69 °C, the improvement of the EL performance could be ascribed to the enhancement of the electron and hole transporting in the CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3} emitting layer, which suppressed the triplets self-quenching interactions and promoted the charge balance and excitons formation. The

  3. Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Young Wook; Chung, Choong-Heui; Lee, Jin Ho; Kim, Yong-Hae; Sohn, Choong-Yong; Kim, Bong-Chul; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Song, Yoon-Ho; Lim, Jongtae; Ahn, Young-Joo; Kang, Gi-Wook; Lee, Namheon; Lee, Changhee

    2003-02-24

    Stable organic white light-emitting diodes are successfully fabricated by a single organic white emitting layer, which is Bis (2-methyl-8-quinolinato) (triphenylsiloxy) aluminum (III) (SAlq) doped red fluorescent dye of 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-tert-butyl-6(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)- 4H-pyran (DCJTB). The incomplete energy transfer from blue-emitting SAlq to red-emitting DCJTB enables to obtain a stable white balanced light-emission by the DCJTB doping concentration of 0.5%. A device with the structure of ITO/TPD (50 nm)/SAlq:DCJTB (30 nm, 0.5%)/Alq{sub 3} (20 nm)/LiF (0.5 nm)/Al (110 nm) shows maximum luminance of 20 400 cd/m{sup 2} at 810 mA/cm{sup 2}, external quantum efficiency of 2% at 200 cd/m{sup 2} ({approx}3 mA/cm{sup 2}), power efficiency of 2.3 lm/W at 67 cd/m{sup 2} ({approx}1 mA/cm{sup 2}), and a Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates of (0.34, 0.39) at 1.8 mA/cm{sup 2} to (0.31, 0.38) at 36 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  4. The neostriatal mosaic: striatal patch-matrix organization is related to cortical lamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerfen, C R

    1989-10-20

    The basal ganglia, of which the striatum is the major component, process inputs from virtually all cerebral cortical areas to affect motor, emotional, and cognitive behaviors. Insights into how these seemingly disparate functions may be integrated have emerged from studies that have demonstrated that the mammalian striatum is composed of two compartments arranged as a mosaic, the patches and the matrix, which differ in their neurochemical and neuroanatomical properties. In this study, projections from prefrontal, cingulate, and motor cortical areas to the striatal compartments were examined with the Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) anterograde axonal tracer in rats. Each cortical area projects to both the patches and the matrix of the striatum; however, deep layer V and layer VI corticostriatal neurons project principally to the patches, whereas superficial layer V and layer III and II corticostriatal neurons project principally to the matrix. The relative contribution of patch and matrix corticostriatal projections varies among the cortical areas examined such that allocortical areas provide a greater number of inputs to the patches than to the matrix, whereas the reverse obtains for neocortical areas. These results demonstrate that the compartmental organization of corticostriatal inputs is related to their laminar origin and secondarily to the cytoarchitectonic area of origin.

  5. Residual Stress Induced Mechanical Property Enhancement in Steel Encapsulated Light Metal Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudger, Sean James

    Macro hybridized systems consisting of steel encapsulated light metal matrix composites (MMCs) were produced with the goal of creating a low cost/light weight composite system with enhanced mechanical properties. MMCs are frequently incorporated into advanced material systems due to their tailorable material properties. However, they often have insufficient ductility for many structural applications. The macro hybridized systems take advantage of the high strength, modulus, and damage tolerance of steels and high specific stiffness and low density of MMCs while mitigating the high density of steels and the poor ductility of MMCs. Furthermore, a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch induced residual compressive stress method is utilized as a means of improving the ductility of the MMCs and overall efficiency of the macro hybridized systems. Systems consisting of an A36, 304 stainless steel, or NitronicRTM 50 stainless steel shell filled with an Al-SiC, Al-Al2O3, or Mg-B4C MMC are evaluated in this work. Upon cooling from processing temperatures, residual strains are generated due to a CTE mismatch between each of the phases. The resulting systems offer higher specific properties and a more structurally efficient system can be attained. Mechanical testing was performed and improvements in yield stress, ultimate tensile stress, and ductility were observed. However, the combination of these dissimilar materials often results in the formation of intermetallic compounds. In certain loading situations, these typically brittle intermetallic layers can result in degraded performance. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) are utilized to characterize the intermetallic layer formation at the interface between the steel and MMC. As the residual stress condition in each phase has a large impact on the mechanical property improvement, accurate quantification of these strains/stresses is

  6. Nano-honeycomb structured transparent electrode for enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xiao-Bo; Qian, Min; Wang, Zhao-Kui, E-mail: zkwang@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn; Liao, Liang-Sheng, E-mail: zkwang@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2015-06-01

    A universal nano-sphere lithography method has been developed to fabricate nano-structured transparent electrode, such as indium tin oxide (ITO), for light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Perforated SiO{sub 2} film made from a monolayer colloidal crystal of polystyrene spheres and tetraethyl orthosilicate sol-gel is used as a template. Ordered nano-honeycomb pits on the ITO electrode surface are obtained by chemical etching. The proposed method can be utilized to form large-area nano-structured ITO electrode. More than two folds' enhancement in both current efficiency and power efficiency has been achieved in a red phosphorescent OLED which was fabricated on the nano-structured ITO substrate.

  7. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Development of a Stabilized Light Water Reactor Fuel Matrix for Extended Burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BD Hanson; J Abrefah; SC Marschman; SG Prussin

    2000-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to develop an advanced fuel matrix capable of achieving extended burnup while improving safety margins and reliability for present operations. In the course of this project, the authors improve understanding of the mechanism for high burnup structure (HBS) formation and attempt to design a fuel to minimize its formation. The use of soluble dopants in the UO 2 matrix to stabilize the matrix and minimize fuel-side corrosion of the cladding is the main focus

  8. New Materials and Device Designs for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Barry Patrick

    Research and development of organic materials and devices for electronic applications has become an increasingly active area. Display and solid-state lighting are the most mature applications and, and products have been commercially available for several years as of this writing. Significant efforts also focus on materials for organic photovoltaic applications. Some of the newest work is in devices for medical, sensor and prosthetic applications. Worldwide energy demand is increasing as the population grows and the standard of living in developing countries improves. Some studies estimate as much as 20% of annual energy usage is consumed by lighting. Improvements are being made in lightweight, flexible, rugged panels that use organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), which are particularly useful in developing regions with limited energy availability and harsh environments. Displays also benefit from more efficient materials as well as the lighter weight and ruggedness enabled by flexible substrates. Displays may require different emission characteristics compared with solid-state lighting. Some display technologies use a white OLED (WOLED) backlight with a color filter, but these are more complex and less efficient than displays that use separate emissive materials that produce the saturated colors needed to reproduce the entire color gamut. Saturated colors require narrow-band emitters. Full-color OLED displays up to and including television size are now commercially available from several suppliers, but research continues to develop more efficient and more stable materials. This research program investigates several topics relevant to solid-state lighting and display applications. One project is development of a device structure to optimize performance of a new stable Pt-based red emitter developed in Prof Jian Li's group. Another project investigates new Pt-based red, green and blue emitters for lighting applications and compares a red/blue structure with a red

  9. Matrimid-JUC-62 and Matrimid-PCN-250 mixed matrix membranes displaying light-responsive gas separation and beneficial ageing characteristics for CO2/N2 separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, Nicholaus; Teck, Anastasia A; Ladewig, Bradley P

    2018-02-13

    The performance of two generation-3 light-responsive metal-organic framework (MOF), namely JUC-62 and PCN-250, was investigated in a mixed matrix membrane (MMM) form. Both of them were incorporated inside the matrimid as the polymer matrix. Using our custom-designed membrane testing cell, it was observed that the MMMs showed up to 9% difference in CO 2 permeability between its pristine and UV-irradiated condition. This shows that the light-responsive ability of the light-responsive MOFs could still be maintained. Thus, this finding is applicable in designing a smart material. Apart from that, the MMMs also has the potential to be applied for post-combustion carbon capture. At loadings up to 15 wt%, both CO 2 permeability and CO 2 /N 2 ideal selectivity could be significantly improved and surpassed the value exhibited by most of the MOF-matrimid MMM. Lastly the long term performance of the MMM was also evaluated and it was observed that both MMM could maintain their performance up to 1 month with only a slight decrease in CO 2 permeability observed for 10 wt% PCN-250-matrimid. This study then opens up the possibility to fabricate a novel anti-aging multifunctional membrane material that is applicable as a smart material and also in post combustion carbon capture applications.

  10. Organic semiconductor heterojunctions and its application in organic light-emitting diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Dongge

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the most important aspects of organic semiconductor heterojunctions, including the basic concepts and electrical properties. It comprehensively discusses the application of organic semiconductor heterojunctions as charge injectors and charge generation layers in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Semiconductor heterojunctions are the basis for constructing high-performance optoelectronic devices. In recent decades, organic semiconductors have been increasingly used to fabricate heterojunction devices, especially in OLEDs, and the subject has attracted a great deal of attention and evoked many new phenomena and interpretations in the field. This important application is based on the low dielectric constant of organic semiconductors and the weak non-covalent electronic interactions between them, which means that they easily form accumulation heterojunctions. As we know, the accumulation-type space charge region is highly conductive, which is an important property for high...

  11. Thin film Encapsulations of Flexible Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Fa-Ta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various encapsulated films for flexible organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs were studied in this work, where gas barrier layers including inorganic Al2O3 thin films prepared by atomic layer deposition, organic Parylene C thin films prepared by chemical vapor deposition, and their combination were considered. The transmittance and water vapor transmission rate of the various organic and inorgabic encapsulated films were tested. The effects of the encapsulated films on the luminance and current density of the OLEDs were discussed, and the life time experiments of the OLEDs with these encapsulated films were also conducted. The results showed that the transmittance are acceptable even the PET substrate were coated two Al2O3 and Parylene C layers. The results also indicated the WVTR of the PET substrate improved by coating the barrier layers. In the encapsulation performance, it indicates the OLED with Al2O3 /PET, 1 pair/PET, and 2 pairs/PET presents similarly higher luminance than the other two cases. Although the 1 pair/PET encapsulation behaves a litter better luminance than the 2 pairs/PET encapsulation, the 2 pairs/PET encapsulation has much better life time. The OLED with 2 pairs/PET encapsulation behaves near double life time to the 1 pair encapsulation, and four times to none encapsulation.

  12. Time-dependent simulation of organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifi, M J

    2009-01-01

    Several methods to simulate the behavior of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been proposed in the past. In this paper, we develop a previous method, based on the master equation, in order to allow the simulation of time-dependent behavior and transient states. The calculation algorithm of the program that we have written is described. The time-dependent behaviors of two simple monolayer devices and of a more complicated three-layer device were simulated by means of this program, and the results are discussed. The results show that the turn-off speed of an OLED might be very slow, especially in the case of a multilayer device. This behavior is related to the low mobility of the organic material in weak electric fields. An interesting feature of the time behavior is pointed out, whereby the recombination rate may become considerably larger after the falling edge of an applied voltage pulse. Moreover, the validity of the transient electro-luminescent method for measuring carrier mobility in organic material has been examined by means of simulation. The results show that there is some inconsistency especially in high electric fields

  13. Magnetic field effect in organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedermeier, Ulrich

    2009-12-14

    The discovery of a magnetic field dependent resistance change of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) in the year 2003 has attracted considerable scientific and industrial research interest. However, despite previous progress in the field of organic spin-electronics, the phenomenon of the ''organic magnetoresistance (OMR) effect'' is not yet completely understood. In order to improve the understanding of the microscopic mechanisms which ultimately cause the OMR effect, experimental investigations as well as theoretical considerations concerning the OMR are addressed in this thesis. In polymer-based OLED devices the functional dependencies of the OMR effect on relevant parameters like magnetic field, operating voltage, operating current and temperature are investigated. Based on these results, previously published models for potential OMR mechanisms are critically analyzed and evaluated. Finally, a concept for the OMR effect is favored which suggests magnetic field dependent changes of the spin state of electron-hole pairs as being responsible for changes in current flow and light emission in OLEDs. In the framework of this concept it is possible to explain all results from own measurements as well as results from literature. Another important finding made in this thesis is the fact that the value of the OMR signal in the investigated OLED devices can be enhanced by appropriate electrical and optical conditioning processes. In particular, electrical conditioning causes a significant enhancement of the OMR values, while at the same time it has a negative effect on charge carrier transport and optical device characteristics. These results can be explained by additional results from charge carrier extraction measurements which suggest that electrical conditioning leads to an increase in the number of electronic trap states inside the emission layer of the investigated OLED devices. The positive influence of trap states on the OMR effect is

  14. Carbon Nanotube Driver Circuit for 6 × 6 Organic Light Emitting Diode Display

    KAUST Repository

    Zou, Jianping

    2015-06-29

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) is expected to be a very promising material for flexible and transparent driver circuits for active matrix organic light emitting diode (AM OLED) displays due to its high field-effect mobility, excellent current carrying capacity, optical transparency and mechanical flexibility. Although there have been several publications about SWNT driver circuits, none of them have shown static and dynamic images with the AM OLED displays. Here we report on the first successful chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown SWNT network thin film transistor (TFT) driver circuits for static and dynamic AM OLED displays with 6 × 6 pixels. The high device mobility of ~45 cm2V−1s−1 and the high channel current on/off ratio of ~105 of the SWNT-TFTs fully guarantee the control capability to the OLED pixels. Our results suggest that SWNT-TFTs are promising backplane building blocks for future OLED displays.

  15. Flexible organic light-emitting diodes consisting of a platinum doped indium tin oxide anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C-M; Huang, C-Y; Cheng, H-E; Wu, W-T

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that a flexible organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with a platinum (Pt)-doped indium tin oxide (ITO) anode could show superior electro-optical characteristics to those of a conventional device. The threshold voltage and turn-on voltage of an OLED device consisting of an aluminium/lithium fluoride/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium/N,N'-bis-(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-4, 4'-diamine/Pt-doped ITO/ITO structure were reduced by 1.2 V and 0.8 V, respectively. Current efficiency was found improved for a driving voltage of less than 6.5 V as a result of the enhanced hole-injection rate, attributed mainly to the elevated surface work function and partly reduced surface roughness of ITO by the incorporated Pt atoms in the ITO matrix.

  16. Carbon Nanotube Driver Circuit for 6 × 6 Organic Light Emitting Diode Display

    KAUST Repository

    Zou, Jianping; Zhang, Kang; Li, Jingqi; Zhao, Yongbiao; Wang, Yilei; Pillai, Suresh Kumar Raman; Volkan Demir, Hilmi; Sun, Xiaowei; Chan-Park, Mary B.; Zhang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) is expected to be a very promising material for flexible and transparent driver circuits for active matrix organic light emitting diode (AM OLED) displays due to its high field-effect mobility, excellent current carrying capacity, optical transparency and mechanical flexibility. Although there have been several publications about SWNT driver circuits, none of them have shown static and dynamic images with the AM OLED displays. Here we report on the first successful chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown SWNT network thin film transistor (TFT) driver circuits for static and dynamic AM OLED displays with 6 × 6 pixels. The high device mobility of ~45 cm2V−1s−1 and the high channel current on/off ratio of ~105 of the SWNT-TFTs fully guarantee the control capability to the OLED pixels. Our results suggest that SWNT-TFTs are promising backplane building blocks for future OLED displays.

  17. A role for topographic cues in the organization of collagenous matrix by corneal fibroblasts and stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Karamichos

    Full Text Available Human corneal fibroblasts (HCF and corneal stromal stem cells (CSSC each secrete and organize a thick stroma-like extracellular matrix in response to different substrata, but neither cell type organizes matrix on tissue-culture polystyrene. This study compared cell differentiation and extracellular matrix secreted by these two cell types when they were cultured on identical substrata, polycarbonate Transwell filters. After 4 weeks in culture, both cell types upregulated expression of genes marking differentiated keratocytes (KERA, CHST6, AQP1, B3GNT7. Absolute expression levels of these genes and secretion of keratan sulfate proteoglycans were significantly greater in CSSC than HCF. Both cultures produced extensive extracellular matrix of aligned collagen fibrils types I and V, exhibiting cornea-like lamellar structure. Unlike HCF, CSSC produced little matrix in the presence of serum. Construct thickness and collagen organization was enhanced by TGF-ß3. Scanning electron microscopic examination of the polycarbonate membrane revealed shallow parallel grooves with spacing of 200-300 nm, similar to the topography of aligned nanofiber substratum which we previously showed to induce matrix organization by CSSC. These results demonstrate that both corneal fibroblasts and stromal stem cells respond to a specific pattern of topographical cues by secreting highly organized extracellular matrix typical of corneal stroma. The data also suggest that the potential for matrix secretion and organization may not be directly related to the expression of molecular markers used to identify differentiated keratocytes.

  18. Highly efficient white top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with forward directed light emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, Patricia; Reineke, Sebastian; Furno, Mauro; Luessem, Bjoern; Leo, Karl [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, TU Dresden (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The demand for highly efficient and energy saving illumination has increased considerably during the last decades. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are promising candidates for future lighting technologies. They offer high efficiency along with excellent color quality, allowing substantially lower power consumption than traditional illuminants. Recently, especially top-emitting devices have attracted high interest due to their compatibility with opaque substrates like metal sheets. In this contribution, we demonstrate top-emitting OLEDs with white emission spectra employing a multilayer hybrid cavity structure with two highly efficient phosphorescent emitter materials for orange-red (Ir(MDQ)2(acac)) and green (Ir(ppy)3) emission as well as the stable fluorescent blue emitter TBPe. To improve the OLED performance and modify the color quality, two different electron blocking layers and anode material combinations are tested. Compared to Lambertian emission, our devices show considerably enhanced forward emission, which is preferred for most lighting applications. Besides broadband emission and angle independent emission maxima, power efficiencies of 13.3 lm/W at 3 V and external quantum efficiencies of 5.3% are achieved. The emission shows excellent CIE coordinates of (0.420,0.407) at approx. 1000 cd/m{sup 2} and color rendering indices up to 77.

  19. A Solution Processed Flexible Nanocomposite Electrode with Efficient Light Extraction for Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Liang, Jiajie; Chou, Shu-Yu; Zhu, Xiaodan; Niu, Xiaofan; Zhibinyu; Pei, Qibing

    2014-03-01

    Highly efficient organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on multiple layers of vapor evaporated small molecules, indium tin oxide transparent electrode, and glass substrate have been extensively investigated and are being commercialized. The light extraction from the exciton radiative decay is limited to less than 30% due to plasmonic quenching on the metallic cathode and the waveguide in the multi-layer sandwich structure. Here we report a flexible nanocomposite electrode comprising single-walled carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires stacked and embedded in the surface of a polymer substrate. Nanoparticles of barium strontium titanate are dispersed within the substrate to enhance light extraction efficiency. Green polymer OLED (PLEDs) fabricated on the nanocomposite electrode exhibit a maximum current efficiency of 118 cd/A at 10,000 cd/m2 with the calculated external quantum efficiency being 38.9%. The efficiencies of white PLEDs are 46.7 cd/A and 30.5%, respectively. The devices can be bent to 3 mm radius repeatedly without significant loss of electroluminescent performance. The nanocomposite electrode could pave the way to high-efficiency flexible OLEDs with simplified device structure and low fabrication cost.

  20. X-RAY ACTIVE MATRIX PIXEL SENSORS BASEDON J-FET TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPED FOR THE LINAC COHERENT LIGHT SOURCE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARINI,G.A.; CHEN, W.; LI, Z.; REHAK, P.; SIDDONS, D.P.

    2007-10-29

    An X-ray Active Matrix Pixel Sensor (XAMPS) is being developed for recording data for the X-ray Pump Probe experiment at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Special attention has to be paid to some technological challenges that this design presents. New processes were developed and refined to address problems encountered during previous productions of XAMPS. The development of these critical steps and corresponding tests results are reported here.

  1. Light programmable organic transistor memory device based on hybrid dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaochen; Chan, Paddy K. L.

    2013-09-01

    We have fabricated the transistor memory devices based on SiO2 and polystyrene (PS) hybrid dielectric. The trap states densities with different semiconductors have been investigated and a maximum 160V memory window between programming and erasing is realized. For DNTT based transistor, the trapped electron density is limited by the number of mobile electrons in semiconductor. The charge transport mechanism is verified by light induced Vth shift effect. Furthermore, in order to meet the low operating power requirement of portable electronic devices, we fabricated the organic memory transistor based on AlOx/self-assembly monolayer (SAM)/PS hybrid dielectric, the effective capacitance of hybrid dielectric is 210 nF cm-2 and the transistor can reach saturation state at -3V gate bias. The memory window in transfer I-V curve is around 1V under +/-5V programming and erasing bias.

  2. Kinetics of transient electroluminescence in organic light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Manju; Kumar, Pankaj; Chand, Suresh; Brahme, Nameeta; Kher, R. S.; Khokhar, M. S. K.

    2008-08-01

    Mathematical simulation on the rise and decay kinetics of transient electroluminescence (EL) in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is presented. The transient EL is studied with respect to a step voltage pulse. While rising, for lower values of time, the EL intensity shows a quadratic dependence on (t - tdel), where tdel is the time delay observed in the onset of EL, and finally attains saturation at a sufficiently large time. When the applied voltage is switched off, the initial EL decay shows an exponential dependence on (t - tdec), where tdec is the time when the voltage is switched off. The simulated results are compared with the transient EL performance of a bilayer OLED based on small molecular bis(2-methyl 8-hydroxyquinoline)(triphenyl siloxy) aluminium (SAlq). Transient EL studies have been carried out at different voltage pulse amplitudes. The simulated results show good agreement with experimental data. Using these simulated results the lifetime of the excitons in SAlq has also been calculated.

  3. Blue fluorescent organic light emitting diodes with multilayered graphene anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Joohyun; Choi, Hong Kyw; Moon, Jaehyun; Shin, Jin-Wook; Joo, Chul Woong; Han, Jun-Han; Cho, Doo-Hee; Huh, Jin Woo; Choi, Sung-Yool; Lee, Jeong-Ik; Chu, Hye Yong

    2012-01-01

    As an innovative anode for organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), we have investigated graphene films. Graphene has importance due to its huge potential in flexible OLED applications. In this work, graphene films have been catalytically grown and transferred to the glass substrate for OLED fabrications. We have successfully fabricated 2 mm × 2 mm device area blue fluorescent OLEDs with graphene anodes which showed 2.1% of external quantum efficiency at 1000 cd/m 2 . This is the highest value reported among fluorescent OLEDs using graphene anodes. Oxygen plasma treatment on graphene has been found to improve hole injections in low voltage regime, which has been interpreted as oxygen plasma induced work function modification. However, plasma treatment also increases the sheet resistance of graphene, limiting the maximum luminance. In summary, our works demonstrate the practical possibility of graphene as an anode material for OLEDs and suggest a processing route which can be applied to various graphene related devices.

  4. White organic light-emitting diodes from three emitter layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M.S. [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, SungKyunKwan University, Suwon, Gyonggi-Do, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, J.T. [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, SungKyunKwan University, Suwon, Gyonggi-Do, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, C.H. [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, SungKyunKwan University, Suwon, Gyonggi-Do, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J.H. [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, SungKyunKwan University, Suwon, Gyonggi-Do, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, G.Y. [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, SungKyunKwan University, Suwon, Gyonggi-Do, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: gyyeom@skku.edu

    2006-11-23

    Three-wavelength white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) were fabricated using two doped layers, which were obtained by separating the recombination zones into three emitter layers. A sky blue emission originated from the 4,4'-bis(2,2'-diphenylethen-1-yl)biphenyl (DPVBi) layer. A green emission originated from a tris(8-quinolinolato)aluminum (III) (Alq{sub 3}) host doped with a green fluorescent 10-(2-benzothiazolyl)-1,1,7,7-tetramethyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H,5H,11H-[1] benz opyrano [6,7,8-ij]-quinolizin-11-one (C545T) dye. An orange emission was obtained from the N,N'-bis(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPB) host doped with a red fluorescent dye, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-tert-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4 H-pyran (DCJTB). A white light resulted from the partial excitations of these three emitter layers by controlling the layer thickness and concentration of the fluorescent dyes in each emissive layer simultaneously. The electroluminescent spectrum of the device was not sensitive to the driving voltage of the device. The white light device showed a maximum luminance of approximately 53,000 cd/m{sup 2}. The external quantum and power efficiency at a luminance of approximately 100 cd/m{sup 2} were 2.62% and 3.04 lm/W, respectively.

  5. Light-Harvesting Organic Nanocrystals Capable of Photon Upconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Zeng, Yi; Yu, Tianjun; Chen, Jinping; Yang, Guoqiang; Li, Yi

    2017-11-23

    Harvesting and converting low energy photons into higher ones through upconversion have great potential in solar energy conversion. A light-harvesting nanocrystal assembled from 9,10-distyrylanthracene and palladium(II) meso-tetraphenyltetrabenzoporphyrin as the acceptor and the sensitizer, respectively effects red-to-green upconversion under incoherent excitation of low power density. An upconversion quantum yield of 0.29±0.02 % is obtained upon excitation with 640 nm laser of 120 mW cm -2 . The well-organized packing of acceptor molecules with aggregation-induced emission in the nanocrystals dramatically reduces the nonradiative decay of the excited acceptor, benefits the triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) upconversion and guides the consequent upconverted emission. This work provides a straightforward strategy to develop light-harvesting nanocrystals based on TTA upconversion, which is attractive for energy conversion and photonic applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Green Fluorescent Organic Light Emitting Device with High Luminance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning YANG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we fabricated the small molecule green fluorescent bottom-emission organic light emitting device (OLED with the configuration of glass substrate/indium tin oxide (ITO/Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc 25 nm/ N,N’-di(naphthalen-1-yl-N,N’-diphenyl-benzidine (NPB 45 nm/ tris(8-hydroxyquinoline aluminium (Alq3 60 nm/ Lithium fluoride (LiF 1 nm/Aluminum (Al 100 nm where CuPc and NPB are the hole injection layer and the hole transport layer, respectively. CuPc is introduced in this device to improve carrier injection and efficiency. The experimental results indicated that the turn-on voltage is 2.8 V with a maximum luminance of 23510 cd/m2 at 12 V. The maximum current efficiency and power efficiency are 4.8 cd/A at 100 cd/m2 and 4.2 lm/W at 3 V, respectively. The peak of electroluminance (EL spectrum locates at 530 nm which is typical emission peak of green light. In contrast, the maximum current efficiency and power efficiency of the device without CuPc are only 4.0 cd/A at 100 mA/cm2 and 4.2 lm/W at 3.6 V, respectively.

  7. Efficiency optimization of green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung Soo; Jeon, Woo Sik; Yu, Jae Hyung [Department of Information Display, Kyung Hee University, Dongdaemoon-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Pode, Ramchandra, E-mail: rbpode@khu.ac.k [Department of Physics, Kyung Hee University, Dongdaemoon-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jang Hyuk, E-mail: jhkwon@khu.ac.k [Department of Information Display, Kyung Hee University, Dongdaemoon-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-01

    Using a narrow band gap host of bis[2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-pyridine]beryllium (Bepp{sub 2}) and green phosphorescent Ir(ppy){sub 3} [fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium III] guest concentration as low as 2%, high efficiency phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (PHOLED) is realized. Current and power efficiencies of 62.5 cd/A (max.), 51.0 lm/W (max.), and external quantum efficiency (max.) of 19.8% are reported in this green PHOLED. A low current efficiency roll-off value of 10% over the brightness of 10,000 cd/m{sup 2} is noticed in this Bepp{sub 2} single host device. Such a high efficiency is obtained by the optimization of the doping concentration with the knowledge of the hole trapping and the emission zone situations in this host-guest system. It is suggested that the reported device performance is suitable for applications in high brightness displays and lighting.

  8. High efficiency electrophosphorescence from bilayer organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Minghang; Lin, Ming-Te; Shepherd, Nigel D [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Chen, Wei-Hsuan; Oswald, Iain; Omary, Mohammad [Department of Chemeistry, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States)

    2011-09-14

    An electron mobility of 2.7 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} was measured for the phosphorescent emitter bis[3,5-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazolato]platinum(II)(Pt(ptp)2), which prompted its evaluation as both the emissive layer and electron transport layer in organic light emitting diodes with a simple bilayer structure. Power and external quantum efficiencies of 54.0 {+-} 0.2 lm W{sup -1} and 15.9% were obtained, which as far as we could ascertain are amongst the highest reported values for bilayer devices. We ascribe the high device efficiency to the combination of the high electron mobility, short excited-state lifetime (117 ns) and high luminescence quantum yield (60%) of the bis[3,5-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazolato]platinum(II). The colour temperature of the devices was 2855 K at 5 V, which places the emission in the 'warm' light spectral region.

  9. Matrix production and organization by endothelial colony forming cells in mechanically strained engineered tissue constructs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicky de Jonge

    Full Text Available AIMS: Tissue engineering is an innovative method to restore cardiovascular tissue function by implanting either an in vitro cultured tissue or a degradable, mechanically functional scaffold that gradually transforms into a living neo-tissue by recruiting tissue forming cells at the site of implantation. Circulating endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs are capable of differentiating into endothelial cells as well as a mesenchymal ECM-producing phenotype, undergoing Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal-transition (EndoMT. We investigated the potential of ECFCs to produce and organize ECM under the influence of static and cyclic mechanical strain, as well as stimulation with transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1. METHODS AND RESULTS: A fibrin-based 3D tissue model was used to simulate neo-tissue formation. Extracellular matrix organization was monitored using confocal laser-scanning microscopy. ECFCs produced collagen and also elastin, but did not form an organized matrix, except when cultured with TGFβ1 under static strain. Here, collagen was aligned more parallel to the strain direction, similar to Human Vena Saphena Cell-seeded controls. Priming ECFC with TGFβ1 before exposing them to strain led to more homogenous matrix production. CONCLUSIONS: Biochemical and mechanical cues can induce extracellular matrix formation by ECFCs in tissue models that mimic early tissue formation. Our findings suggest that priming with bioactives may be required to optimize neo-tissue development with ECFCs and has important consequences for the timing of stimuli applied to scaffold designs for both in vitro and in situ cardiovascular tissue engineering. The results obtained with ECFCs differ from those obtained with other cell sources, such as vena saphena-derived myofibroblasts, underlining the need for experimental models like ours to test novel cell sources for cardiovascular tissue engineering.

  10. Manipulating Light with Transition Metal Clusters, Organic Dyes, and Metal Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogut, Serdar [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-09-11

    The primary goals of our research program is to develop and apply state-of-the-art first-principles methods to predict electronic and optical properties of three systems of significant scientific and technological interest: transition metal clusters, organic dyes, and metal-organic frameworks. These systems offer great opportunities to manipulate light for a wide ranging list of energy-related scientific problems and applications. During this grant period, we focused our investigations on the development, implementation, and benchmarking of many-body Green’s function methods (GW approximation and the Bethe-Salpeter equation) to examine excited-state properties of transition metal/transition-metal-oxide clusters and organic molecules that comprise the building blocks of dyes and metal-organic frameworks.

  11. Lamination of organic solar cells and organic light emitting devices: Models and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyewole, O. K.; Yu, D.; Du, J.; Asare, J.; Fashina, A.; Anye, V. C.; Zebaze Kana, M. G.; Soboyejo, W. O.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a combined experimental, computational, and analytical approach is used to provide new insights into the lamination of organic solar cells and light emitting devices at macro- and micro-scales. First, the effects of applied lamination force (on contact between the laminated layers) are studied. The crack driving forces associated with the interfacial cracks (at the bi-material interfaces) are estimated along with the critical interfacial crack driving forces associated with the separation of thin films, after layer transfer. The conditions for successful lamination are predicted using a combination of experiments and computational models. Guidelines are developed for the lamination of low-cost organic electronic structures

  12. Infrared Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Carbon Nanotube Emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Arko; Murawski, Caroline; Zakharko, Yuriy; Zaumseil, Jana; Gather, Malte C

    2018-03-01

    While organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) covering all colors of the visible spectrum are widespread, suitable organic emitter materials in the near-infrared (nIR) beyond 800 nm are still lacking. Here, the first OLED based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as the emitter is demonstrated. By using a multilayer stacked architecture with matching charge blocking and charge-transport layers, narrow-band electroluminescence at wavelengths between 1000 and 1200 nm is achieved, with spectral features characteristic of excitonic and trionic emission of the employed (6,5) SWCNTs. Here, the OLED performance is investigated in detail and it is found that local conduction hot-spots lead to pronounced trion emission. Analysis of the emissive dipole orientation shows a strong horizontal alignment of the SWCNTs with an average inclination angle of 12.9° with respect to the plane, leading to an exceptionally high outcoupling efficiency of 49%. The SWCNT-based OLEDs represent a highly attractive platform for emission across the entire nIR. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Carbon-electroluminescence: An organic approach to lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sonali; Chaudhary, Tarun; Chandran, Vivek; Lokeshwari, M.; Shastry, K.

    2018-05-01

    Over the recent years, quantum dots have garnered massive following and peaked in interest among the scientific community due to their versatility, exotic properties, ease of preparation and low cost. As the demand for faster, reliable and energy efficient electronic devices intensifies, extra emphasis is laid on the development of smart materials capable of satiating this need. Electroluminescent organic quantum dots have emerged as one of the prime contenders in addressing the ecological, economic and technological constraints. Application of such luminescent nanoparticles as fluorescent light converters in LEDs is touted as one of the reliable and easiest avenues in realizing and developing newer energy efficient technologies for the next millennia. One promising candidate is zig-zag graphene quantum dots, which exhibits high electro-luminescence due to a phenomenon known as quantum confinement (where size of the nano-particle is of the same order or less than that of Bohr exciton radius). In this paper, we aim to provide a review of past and present research in the synthesis and development of luminescence using organic quantum dots.

  14. Understanding effects of matrix protease and matrix organization on directional persistence and translational speed in three-dimensional cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Muhammad H; Matsudaira, Paul; Lauffenburger, Douglas A

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have shown significant differences in migration mechanisms between two- and three-dimensional environments. While experiments have suggested a strong dependence of in vivo migration on both structure and proteolytic activity, the underlying biophysics of such dependence has not been studied adequately. In addition, the existing models of persistent random walk migration are primarily based on two-dimensional movement and do not account for the effect of proteolysis or matrix inhomogeneity. Using lattice Monte Carlo methods, we present a model to study the role of matrix metallo-proteases (MMPs) on directional persistence and speed. The simulations account for a given cell's ability to deform as well as to digest the matrix as the cell moves in three dimensions. Our results show a bimodal dependence of speed and persistence on matrix pore size and suggest high sensitivity on MMP activity, which is in very good agreement with experimental studies carried out in 3D matrices.

  15. Green light emitting curcumin dye in organic solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubeen, Mohammad; Deshmukh, Abhay D.; Dhoble, S. J.

    2018-05-01

    In this modern world, the demand for the white light emission has increased because of its wide applications in various display and lighting devices, sensors etc. This white light can be produced by mixing red, green and blue lights. Thus this green light can be produced from the plant extract i.e., Turmeric. Curcumin is the essential element present in turmeric to generate the green light. The Photoluminescence (PL) emission is observed at 540 nm at 380nm excitation. This method of generating green light is very simple, cost effective and efficient when compared to other methods.

  16. The effects of gamma irradiation on leaching of 137Cs from organic matrix wasteforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnay, S.G.; Johnson, D.I.; Phillips, D.C.; Brownsword, M.

    1987-09-01

    The effects of γ-irradiation on the leaching behaviour of 137 Cs in organic matrix wasteforms has been studied. The matrix materials used include epoxide, polyester and vinyl ester thermosetting resins and bitumen. Leaching of 137 Cs in such matrices can be described by models, based on diffusion, which take into consideration such factors as non-representative surface layers, finite sample size, and sorption effects. In many cases, the changes observed on irradiation arise from modification of the sorptive capacity of the wasteform for 137 Cs, producing changes in the experimentally observed diffusion coefficients. In samples containing wet wastes, enhanced leaching in the first few days is observed after irradiation. This arises from loss of water from the sample surfaces during irradiation producing an enhanced concentration of the radionuclide in the surface. (author)

  17. Macromolecular crowding directs extracellular matrix organization and mesenchymal stem cell behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam S Zeiger

    Full Text Available Microenvironments of biological cells are dominated in vivo by macromolecular crowding and resultant excluded volume effects. This feature is absent in dilute in vitro cell culture. Here, we induced macromolecular crowding in vitro by using synthetic macromolecular globules of nm-scale radius at physiological levels of fractional volume occupancy. We quantified the impact of induced crowding on the extracellular and intracellular protein organization of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs via immunocytochemistry, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and AFM-enabled nanoindentation. Macromolecular crowding in extracellular culture media directly induced supramolecular assembly and alignment of extracellular matrix proteins deposited by cells, which in turn increased alignment of the intracellular actin cytoskeleton. The resulting cell-matrix reciprocity further affected adhesion, proliferation, and migration behavior of MSCs. Macromolecular crowding can thus aid the design of more physiologically relevant in vitro studies and devices for MSCs and other cells, by increasing the fidelity between materials synthesized by cells in vivo and in vitro.

  18. Macromolecular crowding directs extracellular matrix organization and mesenchymal stem cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, Adam S; Loe, Felicia C; Li, Ran; Raghunath, Michael; Van Vliet, Krystyn J

    2012-01-01

    Microenvironments of biological cells are dominated in vivo by macromolecular crowding and resultant excluded volume effects. This feature is absent in dilute in vitro cell culture. Here, we induced macromolecular crowding in vitro by using synthetic macromolecular globules of nm-scale radius at physiological levels of fractional volume occupancy. We quantified the impact of induced crowding on the extracellular and intracellular protein organization of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) via immunocytochemistry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and AFM-enabled nanoindentation. Macromolecular crowding in extracellular culture media directly induced supramolecular assembly and alignment of extracellular matrix proteins deposited by cells, which in turn increased alignment of the intracellular actin cytoskeleton. The resulting cell-matrix reciprocity further affected adhesion, proliferation, and migration behavior of MSCs. Macromolecular crowding can thus aid the design of more physiologically relevant in vitro studies and devices for MSCs and other cells, by increasing the fidelity between materials synthesized by cells in vivo and in vitro.

  19. Simulations of charge transport in organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Simon James

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis, two approaches to the modelling of charge transport in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are presented. The first is a drift-diffusion model, normally used when considering conventional crystalline inorganic semiconductors (e.g. Si or lll-V's) which have well defined energy bands. In this model, electron and hole transport is described using the current continuity equations and the drift-diffusion current equations, and coupled to Poisson's equation. These equations are solved with the appropriate boundary conditions, which for OLEDs are Schottky contacts; carriers are injected by thermionic emission and tunnelling. The disordered nature of the organic semiconductors is accounted for by the inclusion of field-dependent carrier mobilities and Langevin optical recombination. The second approach treats the transport of carriers in disordered organic semi-conductors as a hopping process between spatially and energetically disordered sites. This method has been used previously to account for the observed temperature and electric field dependence of carrier mobilities in disordered organic semiconductors. A hopping transport model has been developed which accounts explicitly for the structure in highly ordered films of rigid rod liquid-crystalline conjugated polymers. Chapter 2 discusses the formation of metal-semiconductor contacts, and current injection processes in OLEDs. If the barrier to carrier injection at a metal-semiconductor contact is small, or the contact is Ohmic, then the current may be space charge limited; this second limiting regime of current flow for OLEDs is also described. The remainder of Chapter 2 describes the drift-diffusion model used in this work in some detail. Chapter 3 contains results obtained from modelling the J-V characteristics of single-layer OLEDs, which are compared to experimental data in order to validate the drift-diffusion model. Chapter 4 contains results of simulating bi-layer OLEDs; rather than examining J

  20. Three-dimensional modeling of charge transport, injection and recombination in organic light-emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holst, van der J.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are ideally suited for lighting and display applications. Commercial OLED displays as well as OLED white-light sources are presently being introduced to the market. Essential electronic processes in OLEDs are the injection of electrons and holes into an organic

  1. Escherichia coli biofilms have an organized and complex extracellular matrix structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chia; Zhou, Yizhou; Pinkner, Jerome S; Dodson, Karen W; Crowley, Jan R; Heuser, John; Chapman, Matthew R; Hadjifrangiskou, Maria; Henderson, Jeffrey P; Hultgren, Scott J

    2013-09-10

    Bacterial biofilms are ubiquitous in nature, and their resilience is derived in part from a complex extracellular matrix that can be tailored to meet environmental demands. Although common developmental stages leading to biofilm formation have been described, how the extracellular components are organized to allow three-dimensional biofilm development is not well understood. Here we show that uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains produce a biofilm with a highly ordered and complex extracellular matrix (ECM). We used electron microscopy (EM) techniques to image floating biofilms (pellicles) formed by UPEC. EM revealed intricately constructed substructures within the ECM that encase individual, spatially segregated bacteria with a distinctive morphology. Mutational and biochemical analyses of these biofilms confirmed curli as a major matrix component and revealed important roles for cellulose, flagella, and type 1 pili in pellicle integrity and ECM infrastructure. Collectively, the findings of this study elucidated that UPEC pellicles have a highly organized ultrastructure that varies spatially across the multicellular community. Bacteria can form biofilms in diverse niches, including abiotic surfaces, living cells, and at the air-liquid interface of liquid media. Encasing these cellular communities is a self-produced extracellular matrix (ECM) that can be composed of proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids. The ECM protects biofilm bacteria from environmental insults and also makes the dissolution of biofilms very challenging. As a result, formation of biofilms within humans (during infection) or on industrial material (such as water pipes) has detrimental and costly effects. In order to combat bacterial biofilms, a better understanding of components required for biofilm formation and the ECM is required. This study defined the ECM composition and architecture of floating pellicle biofilms formed by Escherichia coli.

  2. Structural characterization of PTX3 disulfide bond network and its multimeric status in cumulus matrix organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inforzato, Antonio; Rivieccio, Vincenzo; Morreale, Antonio P; Bastone, Antonio; Salustri, Antonietta; Scarchilli, Laura; Verdoliva, Antonio; Vincenti, Silvia; Gallo, Grazia; Chiapparino, Caterina; Pacello, Lucrezia; Nucera, Eleonora; Serlupi-Crescenzi, Ottaviano; Day, Anthony J; Bottazzi, Barbara; Mantovani, Alberto; De Santis, Rita; Salvatori, Giovanni

    2008-04-11

    PTX3 is an acute phase glycoprotein that plays key roles in resistance to certain pathogens and in female fertility. PTX3 exerts its functions by interacting with a number of structurally unrelated molecules, a capacity that is likely to rely on its complex multimeric structure stabilized by interchain disulfide bonds. In this study, PAGE analyses performed under both native and denaturing conditions indicated that human recombinant PTX3 is mainly composed of covalently linked octamers. The network of disulfide bonds supporting this octameric assembly was resolved by mass spectrometry and Cys to Ser site-directed mutagenesis. Here we report that cysteine residues at positions 47, 49, and 103 in the N-terminal domain form three symmetric interchain disulfide bonds stabilizing four protein subunits in a tetrameric arrangement. Additional interchain disulfide bonds formed by the C-terminal domain cysteines Cys(317) and Cys(318) are responsible for linking the PTX3 tetramers into octamers. We also identified three intrachain disulfide bonds within the C-terminal domain that we used as structural constraints to build a new three-dimensional model for this domain. Previously it has been shown that PTX3 is a key component of the cumulus oophorus extracellular matrix, which forms around the oocyte prior to ovulation, because cumuli from PTX3(-/-) mice show defective matrix organization. Recombinant PTX3 is able to restore the normal phenotype ex vivo in cumuli from PTX3(-/-) mice. Here we demonstrate that PTX3 Cys to Ser mutants, mainly assembled into tetramers, exhibited wild type rescue activity, whereas a mutant, predominantly composed of dimers, had impaired functionality. These findings indicate that protein oligomerization is essential for PTX3 activity within the cumulus matrix and implicate PTX3 tetramers as the functional molecular units required for cumulus matrix organization and stabilization.

  3. Extracellular matrix organization in various regions of rat brain grey matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, G; Härtig, W; Kacza, J; Seeger, J; Welt, K; Brauer, K

    1996-05-01

    Previous studies revealed the concentration of extracellular matrix proteoglycans in the so-called perineuronal nets on the one hand and in certain zones of the neuropil on the other. This nonhomogeneous distribution suggested a non-random chemical and spatial heterogeneity of the extracellular space. In the present investigation, regions dominated by one of both distribution patterns, i.e. piriform and parietal cortex, reticular thalamic nucleus, medial septum/diagonal band complex and cerebellar nuclei, were selected for correlative light and electron microscopic analysis. The labelling was performed by the use of the N-acetylgalactosamine-binding plant lectin Wisteria floribunda agglutinin visualized by peroxidase staining and additionally by photoconversion of red carbocyanine fluorescence labelling for electron microscopy. The intense labelling of the neuropil of a superficial piriform region, presumably identical with sublayer Ia, was confined to a fine meshwork spreading over the extracellular space between non-myelinated axons, dendrites and glial profiles. In the reticular thalamic nucleus the neuronal cell bodies were embedded in zones of labelled neuropil. In contrast to these patterns, the labelled extracellular matrix in different cortical layers and in the other subcortical regions was concentrated in perineuronal nets as large accumulations at surface areas of the neuronal perikarya and dendrites and the attached presynaptic boutons. Astrocytic processes usually were separated from the neuronal surface by the interposed extracellular material. Despite a great variability, the width of the extracellular space containing the labelled matrix components in all perineuronal nets appeared to be considerably larger than that in the labelled zones of neuropil and the non-labelled microenvironment of other neurons. Our results support the view that differences expressed in topographical and spatial peculiarities of the extracellular matrix constituents are

  4. Tuning Light Emission of a Pressure-Sensitive Silicon/ZnO Nanowires Heterostructure Matrix through Piezo-phototronic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengxiao; Pan, Caofeng; Zhang, Taiping; Li, Xiaoyi; Liang, Renrong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-06-28

    Based on white light emission at silicon (Si)/ZnO hetrerojunction, a pressure-sensitive Si/ZnO nanowires heterostructure matrix light emitting diode (LED) array is developed. The light emission intensity of a single heterostructure LED is tuned by external strain: when the applied stress keeps increasing, the emission intensity first increases and then decreases with a maximum value at a compressive strain of 0.15-0.2%. This result is attributed to the piezo-phototronic effect, which can efficiently modulate the LED emission intensity by utilizing the strain-induced piezo-polarization charges. It could tune the energy band diagrams at the junction area and regulate the optoelectronic processes such as charge carriers generation, separation, recombination, and transport. This study achieves tuning silicon based devices through piezo-phototronic effect.

  5. Gas transport in metal organic framework–polyetherimide mixed matrix membranes: The role of the polyetherimide backbone structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegde, Maruti; Shahid, S.; Norder, Ben; Dingemans, Theo J.; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    2015-01-01

    We report on how the morphology of the polymer matrix, i.e. amorphous vs. semi-crystalline, affects the gas transport properties in a series of mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) using Cu3(BTC)2 as the metal organic framework (MOF) filler. The aim of our work is to demonstrate how incorporation of

  6. Gas transport in metal organic framework-polyetherimide mixed matrix membranes: The role of the polyetherimide backbone structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegde, Maruti; Shahid, Salman; Norder, Ben; Dingemans, T.J.; Nijmeijer, Kitty

    2015-01-01

    We report on how the morphology of the polymer matrix, i.e. amorphous vs. semi-crystalline, affects the gas transport properties in a series of mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) using Cu3(BTC)2 as the metal organic framework (MOF) filler. The aim of our work is to demonstrate how incorporation of

  7. Mixed-matrix membranes containing an azine-linked covalent organic framework: Influence of the polymeric matrix on post-combustion CO 2 -capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shan, Meixia; Seoane de la Cuesta, Beatriz; Andres-Garcia, Eduardo; Kapteijn, Freek; Gascon, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    The use of an azine-linked covalent organic framework (ACOF-1) as filler in mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) has been studied for the separation of CO2 from N2. To better understand the mechanisms that govern separation in complex composites, MMMs were prepared with different loadings of ACOF-1 and

  8. Reflection Matrix Method for Controlling Light After Reflection From a Diffuse Scattering Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-22

    of Philosophy Kenneth W. Burgi, BS, MS Major, USAF 22 December 2016 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT...refocusing light through thin films of a turbid medium. When coherent light is trans- mitted through a stationary diffuser (i.e. a turbid medium), a fine...resultant light scatter [14, 15, 21, 23]. Transmission matrices were measured with microscopic objectives and thin films of turbid media, resulting in

  9. Alterations in the extracellular matrix organization associated with the reexpression of tumorigenicity in human cell hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der, C J; Stanbridge, E J

    1980-10-15

    The expression of fibronectin on the cell surface was evaluated on a series of intraspecific human cell hybrids formed between HeLa and normal fibroblast strains. Although these hybrids continued to express many of the in vitro transformation properties of their corresponding tumorigenic HeLa parent, they were now unable to form tumors when inoculated into athymic nude mice. From these suppressed hybrid populations, rare tumorigenic segregant subpopulations arose which had regained their tumorigenic capacity. A comparison of the expression of fibronectin on the cell surface was made between these tumorigenic segregant cell lines and their corresponding non-tumorigenic HeLa/fibroblast hybrid. Following specific immunofluorescent staining for fibronectin, a striking alteration in the cell surface organization was observed to correspond with the reexpression of tumorigenicity in these hybrids. Tumorigenic HeLa/fibroblast hybrids were also significantly altered in both their cellular and colonial morphology. Double immunofluorescent staining to simultaneously visualize both surface fibronectin and collagen revealed that these two extracellular matrix proteins displayed an extensive degree of codistribution and expressed a coordinate shift in organization which correlated with the appearance of tumorigenic segregant hybrid populations. These observations are in agreement with the apparently close structural association between fibronectin and collagen and suggest that the organization of these two components in the extracellular matrix may be an important determinant for in vivo growth potential.

  10. Study of photophysical processes in organic light-emitting diodes based on light-emission profile reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvelli, M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are emerging as a promising option for energy-efficient, flexible light sources. A key factor that needs to be measured and controlled is the shape of the emission profile, i.e. the spatial distribution of the emitting excitons across the active layer thickness.

  11. Organic light emitting device architecture for reducing the number of organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrade, Brian [Westampton, NJ; Esler, James [Levittown, PA

    2011-10-18

    An organic light emitting device is provided. The device includes an anode and a cathode. A first emissive layer is disposed between the anode and the cathode. The first emissive layer includes a first non-emitting organic material, which is an organometallic material present in the first emissive layer in a concentration of at least 50 wt %. The first emissive layer also includes a first emitting organic material. A second emissive layer is disposed between the first emissive layer and the cathode, preferably, in direct contact with the first emissive layer. The second emissive material includes a second non-emitting organic material and a second emitting organic material. The first and second non-emitting materials, and the first and second emitting materials, are all different materials. A first non-emissive layer is disposed between the first emissive layer and the anode, and in direct contact with the first emissive layer. The first non- emissive layer comprises the first non-emissive organic material.

  12. Improvement of white organic light emitting diode performances by an annealing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepeai, Suhaila; Salleh, Muhamad Mat; Yahaya, Muhammad; Umar, Akrajas Ali

    2009-01-01

    White organic light emitting diode (OLED) devices with the structure ITO/PHF:rubrene/Al, in which PHF (poly(9,9-di-n-hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)) is used as blue light emitting host and rubrene (5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnapthacene) as an orange dye dopant, have been fabricated. Indium tin oxide (ITO) coated-glass and aluminium were used as anode and cathode, respectively. The devices were fabricated with various rubrene-dopant to obtain a white light emission. The OLED device that composed of several concentrations of rubrene-doped PHF film was prepared in this study. It was found that the concentration of rubrene in the PHF-rubrene thin film matrix plays a key role in producing the white color emission. In a typical result, the device composed of 0.06 wt.% rubrene-dopant produced the white light emission with the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinate of (0.30,0.33). The turn-on voltage and the brightness were found to be as low as 14.0 V and as high as 6540 cd/m 2 , respectively. The annealing technique at relatively low temperature (50 o C, 100 o C, and 150 o C) was then used to optimize the performance of the device. In a typical result, the turn-on voltage of the device could be successfully reduced and the brightness could be increased using the annealing technique. At an optimum condition, for example, annealed at 150 o C, the turn-on voltage as low as 8.0 V and the brightness as high as 9040 cd/m 2 were obtained. The mechanism for the improvement of the device performance upon annealing will be discussed.

  13. Improvement of white organic light emitting diode performances by an annealing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepeai, Suhaila, E-mail: suhaila_sepeai@yahoo.co [Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi Selangor (Malaysia); Salleh, Muhamad Mat, E-mail: mms@pkrisc.cc.ukm.m [Institute Of Microengineering And Nanoelectronic, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi Selangor (Malaysia); Yahaya, Muhammad; Umar, Akrajas Ali [Institute Of Microengineering And Nanoelectronic, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi Selangor (Malaysia)

    2009-06-30

    White organic light emitting diode (OLED) devices with the structure ITO/PHF:rubrene/Al, in which PHF (poly(9,9-di-n-hexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)) is used as blue light emitting host and rubrene (5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnapthacene) as an orange dye dopant, have been fabricated. Indium tin oxide (ITO) coated-glass and aluminium were used as anode and cathode, respectively. The devices were fabricated with various rubrene-dopant to obtain a white light emission. The OLED device that composed of several concentrations of rubrene-doped PHF film was prepared in this study. It was found that the concentration of rubrene in the PHF-rubrene thin film matrix plays a key role in producing the white color emission. In a typical result, the device composed of 0.06 wt.% rubrene-dopant produced the white light emission with the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinate of (0.30,0.33). The turn-on voltage and the brightness were found to be as low as 14.0 V and as high as 6540 cd/m{sup 2}, respectively. The annealing technique at relatively low temperature (50 {sup o}C, 100 {sup o}C, and 150 {sup o}C) was then used to optimize the performance of the device. In a typical result, the turn-on voltage of the device could be successfully reduced and the brightness could be increased using the annealing technique. At an optimum condition, for example, annealed at 150 {sup o}C, the turn-on voltage as low as 8.0 V and the brightness as high as 9040 cd/m{sup 2} were obtained. The mechanism for the improvement of the device performance upon annealing will be discussed.

  14. The dentin organic matrix - limitations of restorative dentistry hidden on the nanometer scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertassoni, Luiz E; Orgel, Joseph P.R.; Antipova, Olga; Swain, Michael V [IIT; (Sydney)

    2012-07-25

    The prevention and treatment of dental caries are major challenges occurring in dentistry. The foundations for modern management of this dental disease, estimated to affect 90% of adults in Western countries, rest upon the dependence of ultrafine interactions between synthetic polymeric biomaterials and nanostructured supramolecular assemblies that compose the tooth organic substrate. Research has shown, however, that this interaction imposes less than desirable long-term prospects for current resin-based dental restorations. Here we review progress in the identification of the nanostructural organization of the organic matrix of dentin, the largest component of the tooth structure, and highlight aspects relevant to understating the interaction of restorative biomaterials with the dentin substrate. We offer novel insights into the influence of the hierarchically assembled supramolecular structure of dentin collagen fibrils and their structural dependence on water molecules. Secondly, we review recent evidence for the participation of proteoglycans in composing the dentin organic network. Finally, we discuss the relation of these complexly assembled nanostructures with the protease degradative processes driving the low durability of current resin-based dental restorations. We argue in favour of the structural limitations that these complexly organized and inherently hydrated organic structures may impose on the clinical prospects of current hydrophobic and hydrolyzable dental polymers that establish ultrafine contact with the tooth substrate.

  15. A chitinase with two catalytic domains is required for organization of the cuticular extracellular matrix of a beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Young Noh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Insect cuticle or exoskeleton is an extracellular matrix formed primarily from two different structural biopolymers, chitin and protein. During each molt cycle, a new cuticle is deposited simultaneously with degradation of the inner part of the chitinous procuticle of the overlying old exoskeleton by molting fluid enzymes including epidermal chitinases. In this study we report a novel role for an epidermal endochitinase containing two catalytic domains, TcCHT7, from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, in organizing chitin in the newly forming cuticle rather than in degrading chitin present in the prior one. Recombinant TcCHT7 expressed in insect cells is membrane-bound and capable of hydrolyzing an extracellular chitin substrate, whereas in vivo, this enzyme is also released from the plasma membrane and co-localizes with chitin in the entire procuticle. RNAi of TcCHT7 reveals that this enzyme is nonessential for any type of molt or degradation of the chitinous matrix in the old cuticle. In contrast, TcCHT7 is required for maintaining the integrity of the cuticle as a compact structure of alternating electron-dense and electron-lucent laminae. There is a reduction in thickness of elytral and leg cuticles after RNAi for TcCHT7. TcCHT7 is also required for formation of properly oriented long chitin fibers inside pore canals that are vertically oriented columnar structures, which contribute to the mechanical strength of a light-weight, yet rigid, adult cuticle. The conservation of CHT7-like proteins harboring such a unique domain configuration among many insect and other arthropod species indicates a critical role for the group III class of chitinases in the higher ordered organization of chitin fibers for development of the structural integrity of many invertebrate exoskeletons.

  16. Matrix elements of Yale potential and level properties of light nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N; Prakash, O [Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics and Astrophysics

    1976-07-01

    Shell model calculations using bare and renormalized matrix elements of the Yale potential are reported for the normal-parity states of A = 6-9 nuclei. Renormalization of the two-body matrix elements using second-order perturbation theory is not found to improve the agreements with the experimental data. Inclusion of the energy shifts of ground state rotational bands in /sup 8/Be and /sup 9/Be are, however, found to improve the agreements with the excitation energies of nuclear levels. The need for carrying out more calculations of these nuclei with realistic forces is pointed out.

  17. Organization of the lamin scaffold in the internal nuclear matrix of normal and transformed hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboro, Paola; D'Arrigo, Cristina; Repaci, Erica; Patrone, Eligio; Balbi, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear lamins are among the more abundant proteins making up the internal nuclear matrix, but very little is known about their structure in the nucleoplasm. Using immunoelectron microscopy, we demonstrate the organization of lamins in the nuclear matrix isolated from rat hepatocytes for the first time. Lamin epitopes are arrayed both in locally ordered clusters and in quasi-regular rows. Fourier filtering of the images demonstrates that the epitopes are placed at the nodes and halfway between the nodes of square or rhombic lattices that are about 50 nm on each side, as well as along rows at regular ∼25-nm intervals. In addition, we have compared this structure with that of the internal nuclear matrix isolated from persistent hepatocyte nodules. In transformed hepatocytes, the islands of lamin lattice are lost, and only a partial regularity in the rows of gold particles remains. We suggest that orthogonal lattice assembly might be an intrinsic property of lamin molecules, and that the disassembly may be triggered by simple molecular events such as phosphorylation.

  18. Effects of fatigue on microstructure and mechanical properties of bone organic matrix under compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trębacz, Hanna; Zdunek, Artur; Cybulska, Justyna; Pieczywek, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether a fatigue induced weakening of cortical bone was revealed in microstructure and mechanical competence of demineralized bone matrix. Two types of cortical bone samples (plexiform and Haversian) were use. Bone slabs from the midshaft of bovine femora were subjected to cyclical bending. Fatigued and adjacent control samples were cut into cubes and demineralized in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Demineralized samples were either subjected to microscopic quantitative image analysis, or compressed to failure (in longitudinal or transverse direction) with a simultaneous analysis of acoustic emission (AE). In fatigued samples porosity of organic matrix and average area of pores have risen, along with a change in the pores shape. The effect of fatigue depended on the type of the bone, being more pronounced in the plexiform than in Haversian tissue. Demineralized bone matrix was anisotropic under compressive loads in both types of cortical structure. The main result of fatigue pretreatment on mechanical parameters was a significant decrease of ultimate strain in the transverse direction in plexiform samples. The decrease of strain in this group was accompanied by a considerable increase of the fraction of large pores and a significant change in AE energy.

  19. Communication between integrin receptors facilitates epicardial cell adhesion and matrix organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pae, So Hyun; Dokic, Danijela; Dettman, Robert W

    2008-04-01

    Formation of the epicardium requires interactions between alpha(4)beta(1) integrin, and the extracellular matrix. We investigated the role of other integrins expressed by epicardial cells. We detected transcripts for alpha(5), alpha(8), alpha(v), beta(1), beta(3), and beta(5) integrins in the chick proepicardial organ (PE). We demonstrate that alpha(5)beta(1), alpha(8)beta(1), and alpha(v)beta(3) integrins are expressed by chick epicardial mesothelial cells (EMCs). Migration of EMCs in vitro was reduced by RGD-containing peptides. Using adenoviruses expressing an antisense to chick alpha(4) (AdGFPalpha4AS), full-length (Adhalpha4V5), and C-terminal deleted alpha(4) (Adhalpha4DeltaCV5), we found that EMCs were less able to adhere to vitronectin and fibronectin(120) indicating that alpha(4)beta(1) plays a role in regulating EMC adhesion to ligands of alpha(5)beta(1), alpha(8)beta(1), and alpha(v)beta(3). In Adhalpha4DeltaCV5-infected EMCs, alpha(5)beta(1) was diminished in fibrillar adhesions and new FN matrix assembly was abnormal. We propose that cooperation between alpha(4)beta(1) and RGD integrins is important for EMC adhesion and subepicardial matrix formation. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Rigid immobilization alters matrix organization in the injured rat medial collateral ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, L R; Dahners, L E

    1992-11-01

    The effects of mobilization on matrix reorganization and density after ligament injury were studied in rat medial collateral ligaments using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both medial collateral ligaments of 14 Sprague-Dawley rats were sharply incised transversely at their midpoint. A 1.14-mm threaded Kirschner wire was driven through the tibia and into the femur of the right leg (through the knee) to immobilize that knee at 90 degrees of flexion. Four additional rats were used as controls. The right medial collateral ligament of the control rats was exposed in the same manner as the experimental rats and the wound closed without damaging the ligament. Rats were sacrificed on the 7th and 14th days postinjury and the ligaments evaluated by SEM. The electron micrographs from this study demonstrated that early on, the tissue at the injury site is disorganized on a gross scale with large bundles of poorly organized matrix. Large "defects" were present between bundles in the substance of the ligament and appeared as holes in the ligament around the injury site. As healing progressed, the matrix in the mobilized specimens appeared to bridge the injury site more rapidly and completely with fewer "defects" and thus higher density than the immobilized specimens.

  1. Evaluation of light extraction efficiency for the light-emitting diodes based on the transfer matrix formalism and ray-tracing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingbo, An; Li, Wang; Hongxi, Lu; Zhiguo, Yu; Lei, Liu; Xin, Xi; Lixia, Zhao; Junxi, Wang; Jinmin, Li

    2016-06-01

    The internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of the light-emitting diodes can be calculated by the ratio of the external quantum efficiency (EQE) and the light extraction efficiency (LEE). The EQE can be measured experimentally, but the LEE is difficult to calculate due to the complicated LED structures. In this work, a model was established to calculate the LEE by combining the transfer matrix formalism and an in-plane ray tracing method. With the calculated LEE, the IQE was determined and made a good agreement with that obtained by the ABC model and temperature-dependent photoluminescence method. The proposed method makes the determination of the IQE more practical and conventional. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos.11574306, 61334009), the China International Science and Technology Cooperation Program (No. 2014DFG62280), and the National High Technology Program of China (No. 2015AA03A101).

  2. AC-driven organic light emission devices with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, So-Yeon; Yu, SeGi

    2017-02-01

    We have investigated alternating current (AC)-driven organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs), with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) incorporated within the emission layer. With CNT incorporation, the brightness of the OLEDs was substantially improved, and the turn-on voltage was reduced by at least a factor of five. Furthermore, the current levels of the CNT-incorporated OLEDs were lower than that of the reference device. A roughly 70% decrease in the current level was obtained for a CNT concentration of 0.03 wt%. This was accomplished by keeping the concentration of CNTs low and the length of CNTs short, which helped to suppress the percolation networking of CNTs within the emitting layer. Strong local electric fields near the end-tips of CNTs and micro-capacitors formed by dispersed CNTs might have caused this high brightness and these low currents. CNT incorporation in the emitting layer can improve the characteristics of AC-driven OLEDs, which are considered to be one of the candidates for flat panel displays and lightning devices.

  3. Kinetics of transient electroluminescence in organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Manju; Brahme, Nameeta; Kumar, Pankaj; Chand, Suresh; Kher, R S; Khokhar, M S K

    2008-01-01

    Mathematical simulation on the rise and decay kinetics of transient electroluminescence (EL) in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is presented. The transient EL is studied with respect to a step voltage pulse. While rising, for lower values of time, the EL intensity shows a quadratic dependence on (t - t del ), where t del is the time delay observed in the onset of EL, and finally attains saturation at a sufficiently large time. When the applied voltage is switched off, the initial EL decay shows an exponential dependence on (t - t dec ), where t dec is the time when the voltage is switched off. The simulated results are compared with the transient EL performance of a bilayer OLED based on small molecular bis(2-methyl 8-hydroxyquinoline)(triphenyl siloxy) aluminium (SAlq). Transient EL studies have been carried out at different voltage pulse amplitudes. The simulated results show good agreement with experimental data. Using these simulated results the lifetime of the excitons in SAlq has also been calculated

  4. AC-driven Organic Light Emission Devices with Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, So-Yeon [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yu, SeGi [Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    We have investigated alternating current (AC)-driven organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs), with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) incorporated within the emission layer. With CNT incorporation, the brightness of the OLEDs was substantially improved, and the turn-on voltage was reduced by at least a factor of five. Furthermore, the current levels of the CNT-incorporated OLEDs were lower than that of the reference device. A roughly 70% decrease in the current level was obtained for a CNT concentration of 0.03 wt%. This was accomplished by keeping the concentration of CNTs low and the length of CNTs short, which helped to suppress the percolation networking of CNTs within the emitting layer. Strong local electric fields near the end-tips of CNTs and micro-capacitors formed by dispersed CNTs might have caused this high brightness and these low currents. CNT incorporation in the emitting layer can improve the characteristics of AC-driven OLEDs, which are considered to be one of the candidates for flat panel displays and lightning devices.

  5. Efficient white organic light emitting devices with dual emitting layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yaoshan; Hwang Shiaowen; Chen Hsianhung; Lee Mengting; Shen Wenjian; Chen, C.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new white organic light-emitting device (OLED) with the structure of indium tin oxide / CF x / 1,4-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N'-phenylamino]-biphenyl (NPB) (30 nm)/NPB: 2,8-di(t-butyl)-5,11-di[4-(t-butyl)phenyl]-6,12-diphenylnaphthacene (20 nm; 1.6 %) / 2-methyl-9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene: p-bis(p-N,N-di-phenyl-aminostyryl)benzene (40 nm, 3%) / aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (20 nm) / LiF (1 nm) / Al (200 nm) has been investigated. The device showed white emission with a high-luminous yield of 9.75 cd/A at 20 mA/cm 2 , but its Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates appeared to change from (0.34, 0.42) at 6 mA/cm2 to (0.27, 0.37) at 200 mA/cm 2 due to the shift of recombination zone. The change of color with drive current was suppressed by introduction of an electron-blocking layer of NPB along with a hole-blocking layer of aluminum (III) bis(2-methyl-8-quinolinato)4-phenylphenolato to the white OLED which successfully confined the recombination site and achieved a luminous yield of 9.9 cd/A at 20 mA/cm 2

  6. Efficient white organic light emitting devices with dual emitting layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yaoshan [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 30050 (China); Hwang Shiaowen [Display Institute, Microelectronics and Information Systems Research Center, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 30050 (China)]. E-mail: jesse@faculty.nctu.edu.tw; Chen Hsianhung [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 30050 (China); Lee Mengting [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 30050 (China); Shen Wenjian [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 30050 (China); Chen, C.H. [Display Institute, Microelectronics and Information Systems Research Center, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 30050 (China)

    2005-09-22

    In this paper, a new white organic light-emitting device (OLED) with the structure of indium tin oxide / CF {sub x} / 1,4-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N'-phenylamino]-biphenyl (NPB) (30 nm)/NPB: 2,8-di(t-butyl)-5,11-di[4-(t-butyl)phenyl]-6,12-diphenylnaphthacene (20 nm; 1.6 %) / 2-methyl-9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene: p-bis(p-N,N-di-phenyl-aminostyryl)benzene (40 nm, 3%) / aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (20 nm) / LiF (1 nm) / Al (200 nm) has been investigated. The device showed white emission with a high-luminous yield of 9.75 cd/A at 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, but its Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates appeared to change from (0.34, 0.42) at 6 mA/cm2 to (0.27, 0.37) at 200 mA/cm{sup 2} due to the shift of recombination zone. The change of color with drive current was suppressed by introduction of an electron-blocking layer of NPB along with a hole-blocking layer of aluminum (III) bis(2-methyl-8-quinolinato)4-phenylphenolato to the white OLED which successfully confined the recombination site and achieved a luminous yield of 9.9 cd/A at 20 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  7. A white organic light emitting diode with improved stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhilin; Jiang Xueyin; Zhu Wenqing; Zhang Buxin; Xu Shaohong

    2001-01-01

    A white organic light emitting diode (OLED) has been constructed by employing a new blue material and a red dye directly doped in the blue emitting layer. For comparison, another white cell with a blocking layer has also been made. The configurations of the devices are ITO/CuPc/NPB/JBEM(P):DCJT/Alq/MgAg (device 1) and ITO/CuPc/NPB/TPBi:DCJT/Alq/MgAg (device 2) where copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) is the buffer layer, N,N'-bis-(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-1.1'bipheny1-4-4'-diamine (NPB) is the hole transporting layer, 9,10-bis(3'5'-diaryl)phenyl anthracene doped with perylene (JBEM(P)) is the new blue emitting material, N,arylbenzimidazoles (TPBi) is the hole blocking layer, tris(8-quinolinolato)aluminium complex (Alq) is the electron transporting layer, and DCJT is a red dye. A stable and current independent white OLED has been obtained in device 1, which has a maximum luminance of 14 850 cd m -2 , an efficiency of 2.88 Lm W -1 , Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates of x=0.32, y=0.38 between 4-200 mA cm -2 , and a half lifetime of 2860 h at the starting luminance of 100 cd m -2 . Device 1 has a stability more than 50 times better than that of device 2. (author)

  8. Organic light emitting diodes on ITO-free polymer anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehse, Karsten; Schwartz, Gregor; Walzer, Karsten; Leo, Karl [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, TU Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The high material cost of indium, being the main component of the commonly used indium-tin-oxide anodes (ITO) in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), is an obstacle for the production of efficient low-cost OLEDs. Therefore, new anode materials are needed for large scale OLED production. Recently, we demonstrated that the polymer PEDOT:PSS can substitute ITO as anode. Another highly conductive polymer is polyaniline (PANI) that provides 200 S/cm with a work function of 4.8 eV. In this study, we use PANI as anode for OLEDs (without ITO layer underneath the polymer) with electrically doped hole- and electron transport layers and intrinsic materials in between. Fluorescent blue (Spiro-DPVBi) as well as phosphorescent green (Ir(ppy){sub 3}) and red emitters (Ir(MDQ){sub 2}(acac)) were used for single colour and white OLEDs. Green single and double emission OLEDs achieve device efficiencies of 34 lm/W and 40.7 lm/W, respectively. The white OLED shows a power efficiency of 8.9 lm/W at 1000 cd/m{sup 2} with CIE coordinates of (0.42/0.39).

  9. The effect of Diel temperature and light cycles on the growth of nannochloropsis oculata in a photobioreactor matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Tamburic

    Full Text Available A matrix of photobioreactors integrated with metabolic sensors was used to examine the combined impact of light and temperature variations on the growth and physiology of the biofuel candidate microalgal species Nannochloropsis oculata. The experiments were performed with algal cultures maintained at a constant 20 °C versus a 15 °C to 25 °C diel temperature cycle, where light intensity also followed a diel cycle with a maximum irradiance of 1920 µmol photons m(-2 s(-1. No differences in algal growth (Chlorophyll a were found between the two environmental regimes; however, the metabolic processes responded differently throughout the day to the change in environmental conditions. The variable temperature treatment resulted in greater damage to photosystem II due to the combined effect of strong light and high temperature. Cellular functions responded differently to conditions before midday as opposed to the afternoon, leading to strong hysteresis in dissolved oxygen concentration, quantum yield of photosystem II and net photosynthesis. Overnight metabolism performed differently, probably as a result of the temperature impact on respiration. Our photobioreactor matrix has produced novel insights into the physiological response of Nannochloropsis oculata to simulated environmental conditions. This information can be used to predict the effectiveness of deploying Nannochloropsis oculata in similar field conditions for commercial biofuel production.

  10. Purely Organic Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Materials for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michael Y; Zysman-Colman, Eli

    2017-06-01

    The design of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials both as emitters and as hosts is an exploding area of research. The replacement of phosphorescent metal complexes with inexpensive organic compounds in electroluminescent (EL) devices that demonstrate comparable performance metrics is paradigm shifting, as these new materials offer the possibility of developing low-cost lighting and displays. Here, a comprehensive review of TADF materials is presented, with a focus on linking their optoelectronic behavior with the performance of the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) and related EL devices. TADF emitters are cross-compared within specific color ranges, with a focus on blue, green-yellow, orange-red, and white OLEDs. Organic small-molecule, dendrimer, polymer, and exciplex emitters are all discussed within this review, as is their use as host materials. Correlations are provided between the structure of the TADF materials and their optoelectronic properties. The success of TADF materials has ushered in the next generation of OLEDs. © 2017 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. [Vermicomposting of different organic materials and three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of their dissolved organic matter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Wang, Dong-sheng; Liu, Man-qiang; Hu, Feng; Li, Hui-xin; Huang, Zhong-yang; Chang, Yi-jun; Jiao, Jia-guo

    2015-10-01

    In this experiment, different proportions of the cattle manure, tea-leaf, herb and mushroom residues, were used as food for earthworm (Eisenia fetida) to study the growth of the earth-worm. Then the characteristics and transformation of nutrient content and three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence (3DEEM) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) during vermistabilization were investigated by means of chemical and spectroscopic methods. The result showed that the mixture of different ratios of cattle manure with herb residue, and cattle manure with tea-leaf were conducive to the growth of earthworm, while the materials compounded with mushroom residue inhibited the growth of earthworm. With the increasing time of verimcomposting, the pH in vermicompost tended to be circumneutral and weakly acidic, and there were increases in electrical conductivity, and the contents of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, available nitrogen, and available phosphorus, while the total potassium and available potassium increased first and then decreased, and the organic matter content decreased. 3DEEM and fluorescence regional integration results indicated that, the fluorescence of protein-like fluorescence peaks declined significantly, while the intensity of humic-like fluorescence peak increased significantly in DOM. Vermicomposting process might change the compositions of DOM with elevated concentrations of humic acid and fulvic acid in the organics. In all, this study suggested the suitability of 3DEEM for monitoring the organics transformation and assessing the maturity in the vermicomposting.

  12. Simulations of emission from microcavity tandem organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Rana; Xu, Chun; Zhao, Weijun; Liu, Rui; Shinar, Ruth; Shinar, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Microcavity tandem organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are simulated and compared to experimental results. The simulations are based on two complementary techniques: rigorous finite element solutions of Maxwell's equations and Fourier space scattering matrix solutions. A narrowing and blue shift of the emission spectrum relative to the noncavity single unit OLED is obtained both theoretically and experimentally. In the simulations, a distribution of emitting sources is placed near the interface of the electron transport layer tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Al (Alq 3 ) and the hole transport layer (N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)benzidine) (α-NPB). Far-field electric field intensities are simulated. The simulated widths of the emission peaks also agree with the experimental results. The simulations of the 2-unit tandem OLEDs shifted the emission to shorter wavelength, in agreement with experimental measurements. The emission spectra's dependence on individual layer thicknesses also agreed well with measurements. Approaches to simulate and improve the light emission intensity from these OLEDs, in particular for white OLEDs, are discussed.

  13. MOLED: Simulation of multilayer organic light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houili, H.; Tutiš, E.; Lütjens, H.; Bussac, M. N.; Zuppiroli, L.

    2003-12-01

    MOLED solves the dynamics of electrons and holes in multilayer Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED). The carriers are injected on the positive and negative electrodes of the device by tunneling through a potential barrier. Thermal excitation processes across the barrier are also included. In the interior of the device the electron-hole recombination occurs when the two carriers are close enough, according to a model inspired from the one of Langevin. A fraction of these recombined pairs gives photons. The charge transport inside the organic material occurs through hopping. Several choices of mobility formulae are available in the code. MOLED can be used for OLEDs with an arbitrary number of layers. The output consists of numerous fields that describe the device performance. For example, there are the current, the recombination and the charge density distributions, the electric field distribution, the current-voltage characteristics and the device internal quantum efficiency. Program summaryTitle of program: MOLED Catalogue identifier: ADSG Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADSG Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Operating systems under which the program has been tested: Unix, Linux Programming language used: FORTRAN 90 Memory required to execute with typical data: 2 MB No. of bytes in distributed program: 26 942 No. of bits in a word: 64 Peripherals used: permanent disk storage No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3695 Distribution format: tar gzip file Nature of the physical problem: Injection of electrons and holes into an organic electroluminescent material occurs through tunneling from metal electrodes. The transport of carriers inside the molecular medium proceeds by hopping from one molecule to another. The emission of light is a result of their radiative Langevin recombination (for a review see [Scott et al., Synthetic Metals 111-112 (2000) 289; Friend et al

  14. A rapid excitation-emission matrix fluorometer utilizing supercontinuum white light and acousto-optic tunable filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenbo [Imaging Unit, Integrative Oncology Department, BC Cancer Agency Research Center, 675 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3 (Canada); Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia, 835 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E8 (Canada); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of British Columbia, KAIS 5500, 2332 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Wu, Zhenguo; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; Zeng, Haishan, E-mail: hzeng@bccrc.ca [Imaging Unit, Integrative Oncology Department, BC Cancer Agency Research Center, 675 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3 (Canada); Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia, 835 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E8 (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Scanning speed and coupling efficiency of excitation light to optic fibres are two major technical challenges that limit the potential of fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectrometer for on-line applications and in vivo studies. In this paper, a novel EEM system, utilizing a supercontinuum white light source and acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs), was introduced and evaluated. The supercontinuum white light, generated by pumping a nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with an 800 nm femtosecond laser, was efficiently coupled into a bifurcated optic fiber bundle. High speed EEM spectral scanning was achieved using AOTFs both for selecting excitation wavelength and scanning emission spectra. Using calibration lamps (neon and mercury argon), wavelength deviations were determined to vary from 0.18 nm to −0.70 nm within the spectral range of 500–850 nm. Spectral bandwidth for filtered excitation light broadened by twofold compared to that measured with monochromatic light between 650 nm and 750 nm. The EEM spectra for methanol solutions of laser dyes were successfully acquired with this rapid fluorometer using an integration time of 5 s.

  15. A rapid excitation-emission matrix fluorometer utilizing supercontinuum white light and acousto-optic tunable filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenbo; Wu, Zhenguo; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; Zeng, Haishan

    2016-01-01

    Scanning speed and coupling efficiency of excitation light to optic fibres are two major technical challenges that limit the potential of fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectrometer for on-line applications and in vivo studies. In this paper, a novel EEM system, utilizing a supercontinuum white light source and acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs), was introduced and evaluated. The supercontinuum white light, generated by pumping a nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with an 800 nm femtosecond laser, was efficiently coupled into a bifurcated optic fiber bundle. High speed EEM spectral scanning was achieved using AOTFs both for selecting excitation wavelength and scanning emission spectra. Using calibration lamps (neon and mercury argon), wavelength deviations were determined to vary from 0.18 nm to −0.70 nm within the spectral range of 500–850 nm. Spectral bandwidth for filtered excitation light broadened by twofold compared to that measured with monochromatic light between 650 nm and 750 nm. The EEM spectra for methanol solutions of laser dyes were successfully acquired with this rapid fluorometer using an integration time of 5 s.

  16. Characterization of dissolved organic matter in fogwater by excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, J.E.; Valsaraj, K.T.

    2010-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) present in fogwater samples collected in southeastern Louisiana and central-eastern China has been characterized using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy. The goal of the study was to illustrate the utility of fluorescence for obtaining information on the large fraction of organic carbon in fogwaters (typically >40% by weight) that defies characterization in terms of specific chemical compounds without the difficulty inherent in obtaining sufficient fogwater volume to isolate DOM for assessment using other spectroscopic and chemical analyses. Based on the findings of previous studies using other characterization methods, it was anticipated that the unidentified organic carbon fraction would have characteristic peaks associated with humic substances and fluorescent amino acids. Both humic- and protein-like fluorophores were observed in the fogwater spectra and fluorescence-derived indices for the fogwater had similar values to those of soil and sediment porewater. Greater biological character was observed in samples with higher organic carbon concentrations. Fogwaters are shown to contain a mixture of terrestrially- and microbially-derived fluorescent organic material, which is expected to be derived from an array of different sources, such as suspended soil and dust particles, biogenic emissions and organic substances generated by atmospheric processes. The fluorescence results indicate that much of the unidentified organic carbon present in fogwater can be represented by humic-like and biologically-derived substances similar to those present in other aquatic systems, though it should be noted that fluorescent signatures representative of DOM produced by atmospheric processing of organic aerosols may be contributing to or masked by humic-like fluorophores. ?? 2010.

  17. Heterogeneous and self-organizing mineralization of bone matrix promoted by hydroxyapatite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campi, G; Cristofaro, F; Pani, G; Fratini, M; Pascucci, B; Corsetto, P A; Weinhausen, B; Cedola, A; Rizzo, A M; Visai, L; Rea, G

    2017-11-16

    The mineralization process is crucial to the load-bearing characteristics of the bone extracellular matrix. In this work, we have studied the spatiotemporal dynamics of mineral deposition by human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells differentiating toward osteoblasts promoted by the presence of exogenous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. At the molecular level, the added nanoparticles positively modulated the expression of bone-specific markers and enhanced calcified matrix deposition during osteogenic differentiation. The nucleation, growth and spatial arrangement of newly deposited hydroxyapatite nanocrystals have been evaluated using scanning micro X-ray diffraction and scanning micro X-ray fluorescence. As leading results, we have found the emergence of a complex scenario where the spatial organization and temporal evolution of the process exhibit heterogeneous and self-organizing dynamics. At the same time the possibility of controlling the differentiation kinetics, through the addition of synthetic nanoparticles, paves the way to empower the generation of more structured bone scaffolds in tissue engineering and to design new drugs in regenerative medicine.

  18. Determination of lithium in organic matrix by potentiometric titration using fluoride ion selective electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govindan, R.; Alamelu, D.; Shah, Raju; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of lithium (Li) present in organic matrix containing hexa methylene tetramine (HMTA) and urea used in the sol-gel process for preparing lithium titanate microspheres, using fluoride ion selective electrode and potentiometric end point. Lithium is present in the wash solutions of the Sol-Gel process employed for the preparation of lithium titanate microspheres, proposed to be used in TBM (Test Blanket Module) of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project. Methods such as ICP-AES, AAS etc. used in aqueous solutions cannot be employed directly for lithium determination in organic matrix containing hexa methylene tetramine (HMTA), urea, NH 4 NO 3 , NH 4 Cl etc. A potentiometric method using a combination fluoride ion selective electrode for end point detection was developed and has been employed for lithium determination in the process streams from sol-gel process. The method is simple and rapid and an accuracy of about 0.5 % was achieved for the determination of Li in the range of 1 to 20 mg. The method is based on the complexation of Li by adding a known excess of NH 4 F solution, followed by potentiometric end point detection using fluoride ISE

  19. Manipulating the Local Light Emission in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes by using Patterned Self-Assembled Monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathijssen, S.G.J.; Hal, P.A. van; Biggelaar, T.J.M. van den; Smits, E.C.P.; Boer, B. de; Kemerink, M.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2008-01-01

    In organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), interface dipoles play an important role in the process of charge injection from the metallic electrode into the active organic layer.[1,2] An oriented dipole layer changes the effective work function of the electrode because of its internal electric field.

  20. Surface Plasmon Enhanced Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazan, Guillermo; Mikhailovsky, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the proposed work was to develop the fundamental understanding and practical techniques for enhancement of Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Diodes (PhOLEDs) performance by utilizing radiative decay control technology. Briefly, the main technical goal is the acceleration of radiative recombination rate in organometallic triplet emitters by using the interaction with surface plasmon resonances in noble metal nanostructures. Increased photonic output will enable one to eliminate constraints imposed on PhOLED efficiency by triplet-triplet annihilation, triplet-polaron annihilation, and saturation of chromophores with long radiative decay times. Surface plasmon enhanced (SPE) PhOLEDs will operate more efficiently at high injection current densities and will be less prone to degradation mechanisms. Additionally, introduction of metal nanostructures into PhOLEDs may improve their performance due to the improvement of the charge transport through organic layers via multiple possible mechanisms ('electrical bridging' effects, doping-like phenomena, etc.). SPE PhOLED technology is particularly beneficial for solution-fabricated electrophosphorescent devices. Small transition moment of triplet emitters allows achieving a significant enhancement of the emission rate while keeping undesirable quenching processes introduced by the metal nanostructures at a reasonably low level. Plasmonic structures can be introduced easily into solution-fabricated PhOLEDs by blending and spin coating techniques and can be used for enhancement of performance in existing device architectures. This constitutes a significant benefit for a large scale fabrication of PhOLEDs, e.g. by roll-to-roll fabrication techniques. Besides multieexciton annihilation, the power efficacy of PhOLEDs is often limited by high operational bias voltages required for overcoming built-in potential barriers to injection and transport of electrical charges through a device. This problem is especially

  1. Efficient and bright organic light-emitting diodes on single-layer graphene electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Oida, Satoshi; Tulevski, George S.; Han, Shu-Jen; Hannon, James B.; Sadana, Devendra K.; Chen, Tze-Chiang

    2013-08-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes are emerging as leading technologies for both high quality display and lighting. However, the transparent conductive electrode used in the current organic light-emitting diode technologies increases the overall cost and has limited bendability for future flexible applications. Here we use single-layer graphene as an alternative flexible transparent conductor, yielding white organic light-emitting diodes with brightness and efficiency sufficient for general lighting. The performance improvement is attributed to the device structure, which allows direct hole injection from the single-layer graphene anode into the light-emitting layers, reducing carrier trapping induced efficiency roll-off. By employing a light out-coupling structure, phosphorescent green organic light-emitting diodes exhibit external quantum efficiency >60%, while phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes exhibit external quantum efficiency >45% at 10,000 cd m-2 with colour rendering index of 85. The power efficiency of white organic light-emitting diodes reaches 80 lm W-1 at 3,000 cd m-2, comparable to the most efficient lighting technologies.

  2. Application of advanced light microscopic techniques to gain deeper insights into cheese matrix physico-chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burdikova, Z.; Svindrych, Z.; Hickey, C.; Wilkinson, M. G.; Auty, M. A. E.; Samek, Ota; Bernatová, Silvie; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Periasamy, A.; Sheehan, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 5 (2015), s. 687-700 ISSN 1958-5586 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : confocal microscopy * cheese matrix * fluorescence lifetime * second harmonic generation * two-photon excitation * confocal Raman microscopy Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.435, year: 2015

  3. The Effect of Anisotropy on Light Extraction of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Photonic Crystal Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The light extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLED is greatly limited due to the difference in refractive indexes between materials of OLED. We fabricated OLED with photonic crystal microstructures in the interface between the glass substrate and the ITO anode. The light extraction efficiency can be improved by utilizing photonic crystals; however, the anisotropy effect of light extraction was clearly observed in experiment. To optimize the device performance, the effect of photonic crystal on both light extraction and angular distribution was investigated using finite-difference time domain (FDTD method. We simulated the photonic crystals with the structure of square lattice and triangle lattice. We analyzed the improvement of these structures in the light extraction efficiency of the OLED and the influence of arrangement, depth, period, and diameter on anisotropy. The optimized geometric parameters were provided, which will provide the theoretical support for designing the high performance OLED.

  4. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with a Perylene Interlayer Between the Electrode-Organic Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Dhrubajyoti; Sarma, Ranjit

    2018-01-01

    The performance of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with a vacuum-deposited perylene layer over a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) surface is reported. To investigate the effect of the perylene layer on OLED performance, different thicknesses of perylene are deposited on the FTO surface and their current density-voltages (J-V), luminance-voltages (L-V) and device efficiency characteristics at their respective thickness are studied. Further analysis is carried out with an UV-visible light double-beam spectrophotometer unit, a four-probe resistivity unit and a field emission scanning electron microscope set up to study the optical transmittance, sheet resistance and surface morphology of the bilayer anode film. We used N,N'-bis(3-methyl phenyl)- N,N'(phenyl)-benzidine (TPD) as the hole transport layer, Tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum (Alq3) as a light-emitting layer and lithium fluoride as an electron injection layer. The luminance efficiency of an OLED structure with a 9-nm-thick perylene interlayer is increased by 2.08 times that of the single-layer FTO anode OLED. The maximum value of current efficiency is found to be 5.25 cd/A.

  5. SOIL NITROGEN TRANSFORMATIONS AND ROLE OF LIGHT FRACTION ORGANIC MATTER IN FOREST SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depletion of soil organic matter through cultivation may alter substrate availability for microbes, altering the dynamic balance between nitrogen (N) immobilization and mineralization. Soil light fraction (LF) organic matter is an active pool that decreases upon cultivation, and...

  6. Fish otolith biomineralization process: first investigations about organic matrix and growth of Triglidae (Scorpaeniformes otoliths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Montanini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Otolith formation involves rhythmic variations in the deposition and size of organic matrix framework and carbonate crystals, resulting in the formation of macroscopic translucent and opaque rings and microscopic zonations (growth increments (Morales Nin, 2000. As in most biominerals, the otolith matrix forms only 2-3 % of its weight, but it is admitted that it has a considerable importance in the otolith crystallization processes of nucleation, growth, orientation and growth control. The goal of this study is to characterize the matrix protein composition in the otoliths of Triglidae (Scorpaeniformes as a first step to understand molecular mechanisms of otolith formation according to biology and ecology of the species. In particular 500 sagittal otoliths from six gurnard species were analysed: Chelidonichthys cuculus, C. lucerna, Eutrigla gurnardus, Lepidotrigla cavillone, L. dieuzeidei and Trigloporus lastoviza. Protein contents were estimated by Bradford method and the urea 8 M extracts were loaded into a polyacrylamide gel, separated by SDS page and detected by Silver staining (Sigma followed the protocol of Borelli et al. (2001 with some modifications regarding protein precipitation that was enhanced by using TCA, trichloroacetic acid, 100% w/v. The urea soluble fractions revealed a unique large band around 50-55 kDa. Another common clear band was visible at the top of the separating gel (proteins >300/350 kDa unable to enter into the pores of polyacrylamide gels (12%. The complexity of the protein mixtures was investigated by 2-D electrophoresis (Gel TGX 4-20%; proteins were separated on the basis of both isoelectric point (pI and molecular size. A common protein pattern of 50-75 kDa were found in all gurnards showing a similar composition of organic matter even if the 2-D maps of otolith samples showed specie-specific variation in acid protein fractions in all the pairwise comparison. This result confirmed that the amino acid composition

  7. Non-doped-type white organic light-emitting diodes for lighting purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Jianzhuo [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li Wenlian, E-mail: wllioel@yahoo.com.c [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Chu Bei, E-mail: beichu@163.co [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Yan Fei; Yang Dongfang; Liu Huihui; Wang Junbo [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China)

    2010-05-15

    We demonstrate a non-doped white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) in which the blue-, green- and red-emissions are generated from 4,4'-bis(2,2'-diphenylvinyl)-1,1'-biphenyl, tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq) and 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyl-julolidyl 9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB), which is used as an ultrathin layer. The DCJTB ultrathin layer plays the chromaticity tuning role in optimizing the white spectral band by modulating the location of the DCJTB ultrathin layer in the green emissive Alq layer. The optimized WOLED gives the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage-1931 xy coordinates of (0.319, 0.335), a color rendering index of 91.2 at 10 V, a maximum brightness of 21010 cd/m{sup 2} at 12 V and a maximum current efficiency of 5.17 cd/A at 6.6 V. The electroluminescence mechanism of the white device is also discussed.

  8. Architecture of the organic matrix in the sternal CaCO3 deposits of Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabritius, Helge; Walther, Paul; Ziegler, Andreas

    2005-05-01

    Before the molt terrestrial isopods resorb calcium from the posterior cuticle and store it in large deposits within the first four anterior sternites. In Porcellio scaber the deposits consist of three structurally distinct layers consisting of amorphous CaCO3 (ACC) and an organic matrix that consists of concentric and radial elements. It is thought that the organic matrix plays a role in the structural organization of deposits and in the stabilization of ACC, which is unstable in vitro. In this paper, we present a thorough analysis of the ultrastructure of the organic matrix in the CaCO3 deposits using high-resolution field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The spherules and the homogeneous layer contain an elaborate organic matrix with similar structural organization consisting of concentric reticules and radial strands. The decalcification experiments reveal an inhomogeneous solubility of ACC within the spherules probably caused by variations in the stabilizing properties of matrix components. The transition between the three layers can be explained by changes in the number of spherule nucleation sites.

  9. Degradation of phosphorescent blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLED); Degradation der phosphoreszenten blauen organischen Leuchtdioden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Chien-Shu

    2011-07-01

    Phosphorescent organic materials harvest singlet and triplet excitons through inter-system crossing and improve the efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This improvement increases the potential of OLEDs, particularly white phosphorescent OLEDs (PHOLEDs), for lighting application. Although much progress has been made in the development of white PHOLEDs, the lifetime of phosphorescent emitters, especially the blue emitter, still needs to be improved. This thesis discusses the developments of blue PHOLEDs and investigations of degradation mechanisms. For development of blue PHOLEDs, two phosphorescent blue emitters were investigated: commercially available FIrpic and B1 provided by BASF. By varying the matrix and blocker materials, diode efficiency and lifetime have been investigated and improved. Blue PHOLEDs with emitter B1 show better efficiency and lifetime than devices with FIrpic. From lifetime measurement with constant DC current density, intrinsic degradation including luminance loss and voltage increase on both FIrpic and B1 PHOLEDs was observed. Photoluminescence measurement shows degradation in the emitting layers. To investigate the degradation of emitter layers, single-carrier devices with emitter systems or pure matrix materials were fabricated. Degradation on these devices was investigated by applying constant DC current, UV-irradiation and combination of both. We found that due to excited states (excitons), FIrpic molecules become unstable and polarons would enhance the degradation of FIrpic during DC operation and UV-excitation. To investigate the impact the exciton formation and exciton decay have on the degradation of FIrpic molecules, red phosphorescent emitter Ir(MDQ){sub 2}(acac) was doped in blue emitter layer TCTA:20% FIrpic. The doping concentration of Ir(MDQ){sub 2}(acac) was much lower than FIrpic to ensure that most of the exciton formation occurred on FIrpic molecules. Lower triplet energy of Ir(MDQ){sub 2}(acac) molecules

  10. Cellular morphology of organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on alkali alumino-silicate matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdolotti, Letizia; Liguori, Barbara; Capasso, Ilaria; Caputo, Domenico; Lavorgna, Marino; Iannace, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on an alkali alumino-silicate matrix were prepared by using different foaming methods. Initially, the synthesis of an inorganic matrix by using aluminosilicate particles, activated through a sodium silicate solution, was performed at room temperature. Subsequently the viscous paste was foamed by using three different methods. In the first method, gaseous hydrogen produced by the oxidization of Si powder in an alkaline media, was used as blowing agent to generate gas bubbles in the paste. In the second method, the porous structure was generated by mixing the paste with a "meringue" type of foam previously prepared by whipping, under vigorous stirring, a water solution containing vegetal proteins as surfactants. In the third method, a combination of these two methods was employed. The foamed systems were consolidated for 24 hours at 40°C and then characterized by FTIR, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compression tests. Low density foams (˜500 Kg/m3) with good cellular structure and mechanical properties were obtained by combining the "meringue" approach with the use of the chemical blowing agent based on Si.

  11. Hypoxic stellate cells of pancreatic cancer stroma regulate extracellular matrix fiber organization and cancer cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Masafumi; Ohuchida, Kenoki; Horioka, Kohei; Okumura, Takashi; Moriyama, Taiki; Miyasaka, Yoshihiro; Ohtsuka, Takao; Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Oda, Yoshinao; Nakamura, Masafumi

    2016-03-28

    Desmoplasia and hypoxia in pancreatic cancer mutually affect each other and create a tumor-supportive microenvironment. Here, we show that microenvironment remodeling by hypoxic pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promotes cancer cell motility through alteration of extracellular matrix (ECM) fiber architecture. Three-dimensional (3-D) matrices derived from PSCs under hypoxia exhibited highly organized parallel-patterned matrix fibers compared with 3-D matrices derived from PSCs under normoxia, and promoted cancer cell motility by inducing directional migration of cancer cells due to the parallel fiber architecture. Microarray analysis revealed that procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 (PLOD2) in PSCs was the gene that potentially regulates ECM fiber architecture under hypoxia. Stromal PLOD2 expression in surgical specimens of pancreatic cancer was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of PLOD2 in PSCs blocked parallel fiber architecture of 3-D matrices, leading to decreased directional migration of cancer cells within the matrices. In conclusion, these findings indicate that hypoxia-induced PLOD2 expression in PSCs creates a permissive microenvironment for migration of cancer cells through architectural regulation of stromal ECM in pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spin-polarized light-emitting diodes based on organic bipolar spin valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardeny, Zeev Valentine; Nguyen, Tho Duc; Ehrenfreund, Eitan Avraham

    2017-10-25

    Spin-polarized organic light-emitting diodes are provided. Such spin-polarized organic light-emitting diodes incorporate ferromagnetic electrodes and show considerable spin-valve magneto-electroluminescence and magneto-conductivity responses, with voltage and temperature dependencies that originate from the bipolar spin-polarized space charge limited current.

  13. Monitoring organic loading to swimming pools by fluorescence excitation–emission matrix with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seredynska-Sobecka, Bozena; Stedmon, Colin; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescence Excitation–Emission Matrix spectroscopy combined with parallel factor analysis was employed to monitor water quality and organic contamination in swimming pools. The fluorescence signal of the swimming pool organic matter was low but increased slightly through the day. The analysis...... revealed that the organic matter fluorescence was characterised by five different components, one of which was unique to swimming pool organic matter and one which was specific to organic contamination. The latter component had emission peaks at 420nm and was found to be a sensitive indicator of organic...... loading in swimming pool water. The fluorescence at 420nm gradually increased during opening hours and represented material accumulating through the day....

  14. MOFwich: Sandwiched Metal-Organic Framework-Containing Mixed Matrix Composites for Chemical Warfare Agent Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gregory W; Lu, Annie X; Hall, Morgan G; Browe, Matthew A; Tovar, Trenton; Epps, Thomas H

    2018-02-28

    This work describes a new strategy for fabricating mixed matrix composites containing layered metal-organic framework (MOF)/polymer films as functional barriers for chemical warfare agent protection. Through the use of mechanically robust polymers as the top and bottom encasing layers, a high-MOF-loading, high-performance-core layer can be sandwiched within. We term this multifunctional composite "MOFwich". We found that the use of elastomeric encasing layers enabled core layer reformation after breakage, an important feature for composites and membranes alike. The incorporation of MOFs into the core layer led to enhanced removal of chemical warfare agents while simultaneously promoting moisture vapor transport through the composite, showcasing the promise of these composites for protection applications.

  15. Light, stress and herbivory : from photoprotection to trophic interactions using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model organism

    OpenAIRE

    Frenkel, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Photosynthesis is the most important process for nearly all life on earth. Photosynthetic organisms capture and transfer light energy from the sun into chemical energy which in turn provides a resource base for heterotrophic organisms. Natural light regimes are irregular and vary over magnitudes. At a certain light intensity, metabolic processes cannot keep up with the electron flow produced by the primary photoreactions, and thus reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced. ROS are highly rea...

  16. FEATURES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION MATRIX ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE IN PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Phd Student Laurentiu BARCAN

    2009-01-01

    The organization involves the regulated structure of roles that employees have to carry out. The structure is regulated in the sense that all the tasks necessary to achieve the goals are shared, and it is hoped that the award was made to people who can carry out the best. Structure is a management tool and not an end in itself. Its purpose is to help create a framework for human performance. Although the structure should be defined to cover the duties, roles should be designed in light of est...

  17. Regulation of extracellular matrix organization by BMP signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Robbie D; Bennett, Emily E; Ellis, E Ann; Gumienny, Tina L

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) pathway signaling is important for the growth and homeostasis of extracellular matrix, including basement membrane remodeling, scarring, and bone growth. A conserved BMP member in Caenorhabditis elegans, DBL-1, regulates body length in a dose-sensitive manner. Loss of DBL-1 pathway signaling also results in increased anesthetic sensitivity. However, the physiological basis of these pleiotropic phenotypes is largely unknown. We created a DBL-1 over-expressing strain and show that sensitivity to anesthetics is inversely related to the dose of DBL-1. Using pharmacological, genetic analyses, and a novel dye permeability assay for live, microwave-treated animals, we confirm that DBL-1 is required for the barrier function of the cuticle, a specialized extracellular matrix. We show that DBL-1 signaling is required to prevent animals from forming tail-entangled aggregates in liquid. Stripping lipids off the surface of wild-type animals recapitulates this phenotype. Finally, we find that DBL-1 signaling affects ultrastructure of the nematode cuticle in a dose-dependent manner, as surface lipid content and cuticular organization are disrupted in animals with genetically altered DBL-1 levels. We propose that the lipid layer coating the nematode cuticle normally prevents tail entanglement, and that reduction of this layer by loss of DBL-1 signaling promotes aggregation. This work provides a physiological mechanism that unites the DBL-1 signaling pathway roles of not only body size regulation and drug responsiveness, but also the novel Hoechst 33342 staining and aggregation phenotypes, through barrier function, content, and organization of the cuticle.

  18. Regulation of extracellular matrix organization by BMP signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbie D Schultz

    Full Text Available In mammals, Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP pathway signaling is important for the growth and homeostasis of extracellular matrix, including basement membrane remodeling, scarring, and bone growth. A conserved BMP member in Caenorhabditis elegans, DBL-1, regulates body length in a dose-sensitive manner. Loss of DBL-1 pathway signaling also results in increased anesthetic sensitivity. However, the physiological basis of these pleiotropic phenotypes is largely unknown. We created a DBL-1 over-expressing strain and show that sensitivity to anesthetics is inversely related to the dose of DBL-1. Using pharmacological, genetic analyses, and a novel dye permeability assay for live, microwave-treated animals, we confirm that DBL-1 is required for the barrier function of the cuticle, a specialized extracellular matrix. We show that DBL-1 signaling is required to prevent animals from forming tail-entangled aggregates in liquid. Stripping lipids off the surface of wild-type animals recapitulates this phenotype. Finally, we find that DBL-1 signaling affects ultrastructure of the nematode cuticle in a dose-dependent manner, as surface lipid content and cuticular organization are disrupted in animals with genetically altered DBL-1 levels. We propose that the lipid layer coating the nematode cuticle normally prevents tail entanglement, and that reduction of this layer by loss of DBL-1 signaling promotes aggregation. This work provides a physiological mechanism that unites the DBL-1 signaling pathway roles of not only body size regulation and drug responsiveness, but also the novel Hoechst 33342 staining and aggregation phenotypes, through barrier function, content, and organization of the cuticle.

  19. Lipocalins Are Required for Apical Extracellular Matrix Organization and Remodeling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman-Rubinsky, Rachel; Cohen, Jennifer D; Sundaram, Meera V

    2017-10-01

    A lipid and glycoprotein-rich apical extracellular matrix (aECM) or glycocalyx lines exposed membranes in the body, and is particularly important to protect narrow tube integrity. Lipocalins ("fat cups") are small, secreted, cup-shaped proteins that bind and transport lipophilic cargo and are often found in luminal or aECM compartments such as mammalian plasma, urine, or tear film. Although some lipocalins can bind known aECM lipids and/or matrix metalloproteinases, it is not known if and how lipocalins affect aECM structure due to challenges in visualizing the aECM in most systems. Here we show that two Caenorhabditis elegans lipocalins, LPR-1 and LPR-3, have distinct functions in the precuticular glycocalyx of developing external epithelia. LPR-1 moves freely through luminal compartments, while LPR-3 stably localizes to a central layer of the membrane-anchored glycocalyx, adjacent to the transient zona pellucida domain protein LET-653 Like LET-653 and other C. elegans glycocalyx components, these lipocalins are required to maintain the patency of the narrow excretory duct tube, and also affect multiple aspects of later cuticle organization. lpr-1 mutants cannot maintain a continuous excretory duct apical domain and have misshapen cuticle ridges (alae) and abnormal patterns of cuticular surface lipid staining. lpr-3 mutants cannot maintain a passable excretory duct lumen, properly degrade the eggshell, or shed old cuticle during molting, and they lack cuticle barrier function. Based on these phenotypes, we infer that both LPR-1 and LPR-3 are required to build a properly organized aECM, while LPR-3 additionally is needed for aECM clearance and remodeling. The C. elegans glycocalyx provides a powerful system, amenable to both genetic analysis and live imaging, for investigating how lipocalins and lipids affect aECM structure. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  20. Organization of the channel-switching process in parallel computer systems based on a matrix optical switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomidov, Y. V.; Li, S. K.; Popov, S. A.; Smolov, V. B.

    1986-01-01

    After a classification and analysis of electronic and optoelectronic switching devices, the design principles and structure of a matrix optical switch is described. The switching and pair-exclusion operations in this type of switch are examined, and a method for the optical switching of communication channels is elaborated. Finally, attention is given to the structural organization of a parallel computer system with a matrix optical switch.

  1. Liquid crystal-based Mueller matrix spectral imaging polarimetry for parameterizing mineral structural organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladish, James C; Duncan, Donald D

    2017-01-20

    Herein, we discuss the remote assessment of the subwavelength organizational structure of a medium. Specifically, we use spectral imaging polarimetry, as the vector nature of polarized light enables it to interact with optical anisotropies within a medium, while the spectral aspect of polarization is sensitive to small-scale structure. The ability to image these effects allows for inference of spatial structural organization parameters. This work describes a methodology for revealing structural organization by exploiting the Stokes/Mueller formalism and by utilizing measurements from a spectral imaging polarimeter constructed from liquid crystal variable retarders and a liquid crystal tunable filter. We provide results to validate the system and then show results from measurements on a mineral sample.

  2. Changes in subchondral bone mineral density and collagen matrix organization in growing horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Jaakko T; Brama, Pieter A J; Halmesmäki, Esa; Harjula, Terhi; Tuukkanen, Juha; van Weeren, P René; Helminen, Heikki J; Hyttinen, Mika M

    2008-12-01

    The effects of growth and maturation on the mineral deposition and the collagen framework of equine subchondral bone (SCB) were studied. Osteochondral specimens (diameter 6 mm) from the left metacarpophalangeal joint of 5-(n=8), 11-(n=8) and 18-month-old (n=6) horses were investigated at two differently loaded sites (Site 1 (S1): intermittent peak loading; Site 2 (S2): habitual loading). The SCB mineral density (BMD) was measured with peripheral quantitative computer tomography (pQCT), and the data were adjusted against the volume fraction (Vv) of the bone extracellular matrix (ECM). Polarised light microscopy (PLM) was used to analyze the Vv, the collagen fibril parallelism index and the orientation angle distribution in two fractions (1 mm/fraction) beneath the osteochondral junction of the SCB. PLM analysis was made along two randomly selected perpendicularly oriented vertical sections to measure the tissue anisotropy in the x-, y-, and z-directions. The BMD of SCB at S1 and S2 increased significantly during maturation. At the same time, the Vv of the ECM increased even more. This meant that the Vv-adjusted BMD decreased. There were no significant differences between sites. The basic collagen fibril framework of SCB seems to be established already at the age of 5 months. During maturation, the extracellular matrix underwent a decrease in collagen fibril parallelism but no changes in collagen orientation. The variation was negligible in the collagen network estimates in the two section planes. Growth and maturation induce significant changes in the equine SCB. The BMD increase in SCB is primarily due to the growth of bone volume and not to any increase in mineral deposition. An increase in weight-bearing appears to greatly affect the BMD and the volume of the extracellular matrix. Growth and maturation induce a striking change in collagen fibril parallelism but not in fibril orientation. The structural anisotropy of the subchondral bone is significant along the

  3. Planar cell polarity proteins differentially regulate extracellular matrix organization and assembly during zebrafish gastrulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohn, Michael R; Mundell, Nathan A; Sawyer, Leah M; Dunlap, Julie A; Jessen, Jason R

    2013-11-01

    Zebrafish gastrulation cell movements occur in the context of dynamic changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) organization and require the concerted action of planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins that regulate cell elongation and mediolateral alignment. Data obtained using Xenopus laevis gastrulae have shown that integrin-fibronectin interactions underlie the formation of polarized cell protrusions necessary for PCP and have implicated PCP proteins themselves as regulators of ECM. By contrast, the relationship between establishment of PCP and ECM assembly/remodeling during zebrafish gastrulation is unclear. We previously showed that zebrafish embryos carrying a null mutation in the four-pass transmembrane PCP protein vang-like 2 (vangl2) exhibit increased matrix metalloproteinase activity and decreased immunolabeling of fibronectin. These data implicated for the first time a core PCP protein in the regulation of pericellular proteolysis of ECM substrates and raised the question of whether other zebrafish PCP proteins also impact ECM organization. In Drosophila melanogaster, the cytoplasmic PCP protein Prickle binds Van Gogh and regulates its function. Here we report that similar to vangl2, loss of zebrafish prickle1a decreases fibronectin protein levels in gastrula embryos. We further show that Prickle1a physically binds Vangl2 and regulates both the subcellular distribution and total protein level of Vangl2. These data suggest that the ability of Prickle1a to impact fibronectin organization is at least partly due to effects on Vangl2. In contrast to loss of either Vangl2 or Prickle1a function, we find that glypican4 (a Wnt co-receptor) and frizzled7 mutant gastrula embryos with disrupted non-canonical Wnt signaling exhibit the opposite phenotype, namely increased fibronectin assembly. Our data show that glypican4 mutants do not have decreased proteolysis of ECM substrates, but instead have increased cell surface cadherin protein expression and increased intercellular

  4. Fast imaging of live organisms with sculpted light sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Aleksander K.; Kyrsting, Anders; Mahou, Pierre; Wayland, Matthew T.; Muresan, Leila; Evers, Jan Felix; Kaminski, Clemens F.

    2015-04-01

    Light-sheet microscopy is an increasingly popular technique in the life sciences due to its fast 3D imaging capability of fluorescent samples with low photo toxicity compared to confocal methods. In this work we present a new, fast, flexible and simple to implement method to optimize the illumination light-sheet to the requirement at hand. A telescope composed of two electrically tuneable lenses enables us to define thickness and position of the light-sheet independently but accurately within milliseconds, and therefore optimize image quality of the features of interest interactively. We demonstrated the practical benefit of this technique by 1) assembling large field of views from tiled single exposure each with individually optimized illumination settings; 2) sculpting the light-sheet to trace complex sample shapes within single exposures. This technique proved compatible with confocal line scanning detection, further improving image contrast and resolution. Finally, we determined the effect of light-sheet optimization in the context of scattering tissue, devising procedures for balancing image quality, field of view and acquisition speed.

  5. Embryonic Development of the Light Organ of the Sepiolid Squid Euprymna scolopes Berry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, M K; McFall-Ngai, M

    1993-06-01

    The sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes maintains luminous bacterial symbionts of the species Vibrio fischeri in a bilobed light organ partially embedded in the ventral surface of the ink sac. Anatomical and ultrastructural observations of the light organ during embryogenesis indicate that the organ begins development as a paired proliferation of the mesoderm of the hindgut-ink sac complex. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the incipient light organ of a newly hatched juvenile revealed the presence of three pairs of sacculate crypts, each crypt joined to a pore on the surface of the light organ by a ciliated duct. The crypts, which become populated with bacterial symbionts within hours after the juvenile hatches, appear to result from sequential paired invaginations of the surface epithelium of the hindgut-ink sac complex during embryogenesis. A pair of anterior and a pair of posterior ciliated epithelial appendages, which may facilitate infection of the incipient light organ with symbiotic bacteria, develop by extension and growth of the surface epithelium. The ink sac and reflector develop dorsal to the crypts and together function to direct luminescence ventrally. These two accessory tissues are present at the time of hatching, although changes in their overall structure accompany growth and maturation of the light organ. A third accessory tissue, the muscle-derived lens, appears during post-hatch maturation of the light organ.

  6. Competition between Vibrio fischeri strains during initiation and maintenance of a light organ symbiosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, K H; Ruby, E G

    1994-01-01

    Colonization of the light-emitting organ of the Hawaiian squid Euprymna scolopes is initiated when the nascent organ of a newly hatched squid becomes inoculated with Vibrio fischeri cells present in the ambient seawater. Although they are induced for luminescence in the light organ, these symbiotic strains are characteristically non-visibly luminous (NVL) when grown in laboratory culture. The more typical visibly luminous (VL) type of V. fischeri co-occurs in Hawaiian seawater with these NVL ...

  7. Light ions and ozone - generation and interactions with living organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriha, V.; Aubrecht, L.

    2005-01-01

    With directly in the living organism born ions exception, LNI coming through three phases: ionisation, attachment by the electronegative molecules and the clusters formation due to local electrostatic interactions. The quantitative analysis of physical parameters leads to conclusion that we cannot find any physical property (till known) explaining the positive affect of LNI on living organisms. Analysis of possible mechanism produces several hypotheses of LNI-organism interaction. A simplified semi-quantitative model of respiratory tract was developed for estimation of ions and ozone interaction with living organisms. A formation of oxygen radicals and products of their chain-reactions in intrinsic conditions is discussed

  8. Matrix Design: An Alternative Model for Organizing the School or Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Philip J.; Gratz, Robert D.

    1984-01-01

    Explains the matrix organizational structure and describes conditions or pressures that lead an administrator to consider the matrix approach. Provides examples of how it operates in a department or school. (PD)

  9. Effects of exogenous hyaluronic acid and serum on matrix organization and stability in the mouse cumulus cell-oocyte complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camaioni, A; Hascall, V C; Yanagishita, M; Salustri, A

    1993-09-25

    Compact cumulus cell-oocyte complexes (COCs) isolated from preovulatory mouse follicles undergo expansion in vitro when high levels of hyaluronic acid (HA) are synthesized and organized into an extracellular matrix. We studied the effects of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and of exogenous HA and HA-oligomers on the expansion process. Maximum retention of HA in the COC matrix, and hence complete COC expansion, occurs when 1% FBS is continuously present during the first 18 h of culture. Irrespective of the culture time, HA synthesized when serum is absent is primarily in the medium, whereas HA synthesized when serum is present is primarily in the cell matrix. These findings support the hypothesis that the serum factor, identified as an inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor by Chen et al. (Chen, L., Mao, S. J., and Larsen, W. J. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 12380-12386), is a structural component of the matrix. Addition of exogenous HA or of HA oligomers of decasaccharide size (GlcUA-GlcNAc)5 or larger effectively displaces endogenously synthesized HA from the matrix into the medium, thereby preventing COC expansion. Addition of exogenous chondroitin sulfate affects neither matrix organization nor COC expansion, thus indicating specificity of the binding of some structural component(s) to HA. Fully expanded COCs disassemble when cultured longer than 18 h, a process which occurs also in vivo and which correlates with loss of oocyte fertilizability both in vivo and in vitro. This process involves release of macromolecular HA from the matrix into the medium, with loss of 50% of the HA in the first 8 h of incubation after full expansion. The release is not facilitated when HA oligomers, long enough to prevent matrix formation, are added to the culture medium after the COCs are fully expanded. This suggests that cooperative binding to HA of either the serum factor, an endogenously synthesized factor(s), or both is required to stabilize the fully expanded COC matrix.

  10. New cyclometalated iridium(III) complex as a phosphorescent dopant in organic light emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, P.; Tomova, R.; Petrova, P.; Stanimirov, S.; Petkov, I.

    2014-05-01

    A new cyclometalated iridium (III) bis[2-(4-chlorophenyl)benzothiazolato-N,C2]-acetylacetonate, (Cl-bt)2Ir(acac), was synthesized and identified by 1H NMR and elemental analysis. The application was studied of the new compound as a dopant in the hole transporting layer (HTL) of the following organic light emitting diode (OLED) structure: HTL/EL/ETL, where HTL was 4,4'-bis(9H-carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) or N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N'-diphenylbenzidine (TPD), incorporated in a poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) matrix; EL was an electroluminescent layer of bis(8-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline)-(4-phenylpheno-xy) aluminum (BAlq); and ETL was an electron-transporting layer of bis[2-(2-benzothiazoly) phenolato]zinc(II) (Zn(btz)2). We established that the electroluminescence spectra of the OLEDs at different dopant concentrations were basically the sum of the greenish-blue emission of BAlq and the yellowish-green emission of the Ir complex. It was also found that increasing the dopant concentration resulted in an increase in the relative electroluminescent intensity of the Ir complex emission, while that of BAlq decreased, thus a fine tuning of the OLED color was observed.

  11. The Impact of Goal Setting and Empowerment on Governmental Matrix Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    shared. In a study of matrix management, Eduardo Vasconcellos further describes various matrix structures in the Galbraith model. In a functional...Technology/LAR, Wright-Patterson AFB OH, 1992. Vasconcellos , Eduardo . "A Model For a Better Understanding of the Matrix Structure," IEEE Transactions on...project matrix, the project manager maintains more influence and the structure lies to the right-of center ( Vasconcellos , 1979:58). Different Types of

  12. Multiscale grooved titanium processed with femtosecond laser influences mesenchymal stem cell morphology, adhesion, and matrix organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Virginie; Rattner, Aline; Vico, Laurence; Audouard, Eric; Dumas, Jean Claude; Naisson, Pierre; Bertrand, Philippe

    2012-11-01

    The femtosecond laser processing enabled the structuring of six types of surfaces on titanium-6aluminium-4vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) plates. The obtained hierarchical features consisted of a combination of microgrooves and oriented nanostructures. By adjusting beam properties such as laser polarization, the width of the microgrooves (20 or 60 μm) and the orientation of the nanostructures (parallel or perpendicular to the microgrooves) can be precisely controlled. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) grown on these structured surfaces produced cytoplasmic extensions with focal contacts, while on the smooth titanium, the cells were found to be well spread and without any focal contact 12 h postseeding. The 600-nm wide nanostructures on their own were sufficient to orient the MSCs. For the multiscale structured areas, when the orientation of the nanostructures was orthogonal in relation to the microgrooves, there was an important decrease in or even a loss of cell alignment signifying that cells were sensitive to the directional nanostructures in the microgrooves. At 7 days, cell proliferation was not affected but the direction of nanostructures controlled the matrix organization. The ultrafast laser, as a new method for producing micro-nanohybrid surfaces, is a promising approach to promote desired tissue organization for tissue engineering. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The Metadistrict as the Territorial Strategy: From Set Theory and a Matrix Organization Model Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Contò

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this proposal is to explore a new concept of 'Metadistrict' to be applied in a region of Southern Italy – Apulia ‐ in order to analyze the impact that the activation of a special network between different sector chains and several integrated projects may have for revitalizing the local economy; an important role is assigned to the network of relationships and so to the social capital. The Metadistrict model stems from the Local Action Groups and the Integrated Projects of Food Chain frameworks. It may represent a crucial driver of the rural economy through the realization of sector circuits connected to the concept of multi‐functionality in agriculture, that is Network of the Territorial Multi‐functionality. It was formalized by making use of a set of theories and of a Matrix Organization Model. The adoption of the Metadistrict perspective as the territorial strategy may play a key role to revitalize the primary sector, through the increase of economic and productive opportunities due to the implementation of a common and shared strategy and organization.

  14. Undersulfation of proteoglycans and proteins alter C6 glioma cells proliferation, adhesion and extracellular matrix organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes de Aguiar, Claudia B N; Garcez, Ricardo Castilho; Alvarez-Silva, Marcio; Trentin, Andréa Gonçalves

    2002-11-01

    Proteoglycans are considered to be important molecule in cell-microenvironment interactions. They are overexpressed in neoplastic cells modifying their growth and migration in hosts. In this work we verified that undersulfation of proteoglycans and other sulfated molecules, induced by sodium chlorate treatment, inhibited C6 glioma cells proliferation in a dose-dependent way. This effect was restored by the addition of exogenous heparin. We could not detect significant cell mortality in our culture condition. The treatment also impaired in a dose-dependent manner, C6 cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (collagen IV, laminin and fibronectin). In addition, sodium chlorate treatment altered C6 glioma cell morphology, from the fibroblast-like to a more rounded one. This effect was accompanied by increased synthesis of fibronectin and alterations in its extracellular network organization. However, we could not observe modifications on laminin organization and synthesis. The results suggest an important connection between sulfation degree with important tumor functions, such as proliferation and adhesion. We suggest that proteoglycans may modulate the glioma microenvironment network during tumor cell progression and invasion.

  15. Organic composite-mediated surface coating of human acellular bone matrix with strontium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Zhou; Wang, Jing-Jing; Huang, Yong-Can; Wu, Cheng-Guang; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Chao-Liang; Bai, Lin; Xie, Hui-Qi; Li, Zhao-Yang; Deng, Li

    2018-03-01

    Acellular bone matrix (ACBM) provides an osteoconductive scaffold for bone repair, but its osteoinductivity is poor. Strontium (Sr) improves the osteoinductivity of bone implants. In this study, we developed an organic composite-mediated strontium coating strategy for ACBM scaffolds by using the ion chelating ability of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and the surface adhesion ability of dopamine (DOPA). The organic coating composite, termed the CMC-DOPA-Sr composite, was synthesized under a mild condition, and its chemical structure and strontium ion chelating ability were then determined. After surface decoration, the physicochemical properties of the strontium-coated ACBM (ACBM-Sr) scaffolds were characterized, and their biocompatibility and osteoinductivity were determined in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that the CMC-DOPA-Sr composite facilitated strontium coating on the surface of ACBM scaffolds. The ACBM-Sr scaffolds possessed a sustained strontium ion release profile, exhibited good cytocompatibility, and enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Furthermore, the ACBM-Sr scaffolds showed good histocompatibility after subcutaneous implantation in nude mice. Taken together, this study provided a simple and mild strategy to realize strontium coating for ACBM scaffolds, which resulted in good biocompatibility and improved osteoinductivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Nuclear protein matrix from giant nuclei of Chironomus plumosus determinates polythene chromosome organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, M S; Chentsov, Iu S

    2010-01-01

    Giant nuclei from salivary glands of Chironomus plumosus were treated in situ with detergent, 2 M NaCl and nucleases in order to reveal residual nuclear matrix proteins (NMP). It was shown, that preceding stabilization of non-histone proteins with 2 mM CuCl2 allowed to visualize the structure of polythene chromosomes at every stage of the extraction of histones and DNA. Stabilized NPM of polythene chromosomes maintains their morphology and banding patterns, which is observed by light and electron microscopy, whereas internal fibril net or residual nucleoli are not found. In stabilized NPM of polythene chromosomes, topoisomerase IIalpha and SMC1 retain their localization that is typical of untreated chromosomes. NPM of polythene chromosomes also includes sites of DNA replication, visualized with BrDU incubation, and some RNA-components. So, we can conclude that structure of NPM from giant nuclei is equal to NPM from normal interphase nuclei, and that morphological features of polythene chromosomes depend on the presence of NMP.

  17. Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Wei; Lee, Jonghee; Hofmann, Simone; Hyun Kim, Yong; Müller-Meskamp, Lars; Lüssem, Björn; Wu, Chung-Chih; Leo, Karl; Gather, Malte C.

    2013-05-01

    The performance of both organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic solar cells (OSC) depends on efficient coupling between optical far field modes and the emitting/absorbing region of the device. Current approaches towards OLEDs with efficient light-extraction often are limited to single-color emission or require expensive, non-standard substrates or top-down structuring, which reduces compatibility with large-area light sources. Here, we report on integrating solution-processed nano-particle based light-scattering films close to the active region of organic semiconductor devices. In OLEDs, these films efficiently extract light that would otherwise remain trapped in the device. Without additional external outcoupling structures, translucent white OLEDs containing these scattering films achieve luminous efficacies of 46 lm W-1 and external quantum efficiencies of 33% (both at 1000 cd m-2). These are by far the highest numbers ever reported for translucent white OLEDs and the best values in the open literature for any white device on a conventional substrate. By applying additional light-extraction structures, 62 lm W-1 and 46% EQE are reached. Besides universally enhancing light-extraction in various OLED configurations, including flexible, translucent, single-color, and white OLEDs, the nano-particle scattering film boosts the short-circuit current density in translucent organic solar cells by up to 70%.

  18. Synaptogenic proteins and synaptic organizers: "many hands make light work".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Nils

    2009-03-12

    Synaptogenesis is thought to be mediated by cell adhesion proteins, which induce the initial contact between an axon and its target cell and subsequently recruit and organize the presynaptic and postsynaptic protein machinery required for synaptic transmission. A new study by Linhoff and colleagues in this issue of Neuron identifies adhesion proteins of the LRRTM family as novel synaptic organizers.

  19. Light harvesting tetrafullerene nanoarray for organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atienza, C.M.; Fernández, G.; Sánchez, L.; Martin, N.; Sá Dantas, I.; Wienk, M.M.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Rahman, A.G.M.; Guldi, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    A light absorbing -conjugated oligomer–tetrafullerene nanoarray has been synthesized and its photophysical study reveals the presence of an intramolecular energy transfer. A phototovoltaic device fabricated from this nanoarray and poly(3-hexylthiophene) shows an external quantum efficiency of 15% at

  20. Non-matrix corrected organic sulfur determination by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy for western Kentucky coals and residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, C.P.; Freeman, G.B.; Hower, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    A method for non-matrix corrected organic sulfur analysis by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy has been developed using petroleum coke standards. Typically, electron beam microanalysis is a rapid, nondestructive analytical technique to quantitatively measure organic sulfur in coal. The results show good correlation to ASTM values for numerous well characterized coals with a wide range in total and pyritic sulfur content. This direct analysis is capable of reducing error commonly associated with the present ASTM method which relies on an indirect measure of organic sulfur by difference. The precision of the organic sulfur values determined in the present study is comparable to that obtained by ZAF matrix corrected microanalysis. The energy dispersive microanalysis is capable of measuring micro as well as bulk organic sulfur levels

  1. The emergence of extracellular matrix mechanics and cell traction forces as important regulators of cellular self-organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Sara; Rausch, Manuel K; Petersen, Ansgar; Kuhl, Ellen; Duda, Georg N

    2015-01-01

    Physical cues play a fundamental role in a wide range of biological processes, such as embryogenesis, wound healing, tumour invasion and connective tissue morphogenesis. Although it is well known that during these processes, cells continuously interact with the local extracellular matrix (ECM) through cell traction forces, the role of these mechanical interactions on large scale cellular and matrix organization remains largely unknown. In this study, we use a simple theoretical model to investigate cellular and matrix organization as a result of mechanical feedback signals between cells and the surrounding ECM. The model includes bi-directional coupling through cellular traction forces to deform the ECM and through matrix deformation to trigger cellular migration. In addition, we incorporate the mechanical contribution of matrix fibres and their reorganization by the cells. We show that a group of contractile cells will self-polarize at a large scale, even in homogeneous environments. In addition, our simulations mimic the experimentally observed alignment of cells in the direction of maximum stiffness and the building up of tension as a consequence of cell and fibre reorganization. Moreover, we demonstrate that cellular organization is tightly linked to the mechanical feedback loop between cells and matrix. Cells with a preference for stiff environments have a tendency to form chains, while cells with a tendency for soft environments tend to form clusters. The model presented here illustrates the potential of simple physical cues and their impact on cellular self-organization. It can be used in applications where cell-matrix interactions play a key role, such as in the design of tissue engineering scaffolds and to gain a basic understanding of pattern formation in organogenesis or tissue regeneration.

  2. Phosphatidylserine Lateral Organization Influences the Interaction of Influenza Virus Matrix Protein 1 with Lipid Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobone, Sara; Hilsch, Malte; Storm, Julian; Dunsing, Valentin; Herrmann, Andreas; Chiantia, Salvatore

    2017-06-15

    Influenza A virus matrix protein 1 (M1) is an essential component involved in the structural stability of the virus and in the budding of new virions from infected cells. A deeper understanding of the molecular basis of virion formation and the budding process is required in order to devise new therapeutic approaches. We performed a detailed investigation of the interaction between M1 and phosphatidylserine (PS) (i.e., its main binding target at the plasma membrane [PM]), as well as the distribution of PS itself, both in model membranes and in living cells. To this end, we used a combination of techniques, including Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), confocal microscopy imaging, raster image correlation spectroscopy, and number and brightness (N&B) analysis. Our results show that PS can cluster in segregated regions in the plane of the lipid bilayer, both in model bilayers constituted of PS and phosphatidylcholine and in living cells. The viral protein M1 interacts specifically with PS-enriched domains, and such interaction in turn affects its oligomerization process. Furthermore, M1 can stabilize PS domains, as observed in model membranes. For living cells, the presence of PS clusters is suggested by N&B experiments monitoring the clustering of the PS sensor lactadherin. Also, colocalization between M1 and a fluorescent PS probe suggest that, in infected cells, the matrix protein can specifically bind to the regions of PM in which PS is clustered. Taken together, our observations provide novel evidence regarding the role of PS-rich domains in tuning M1-lipid and M1-M1 interactions at the PM of infected cells. IMPORTANCE Influenza virus particles assemble at the plasma membranes (PM) of infected cells. This process is orchestrated by the matrix protein M1, which interacts with membrane lipids while binding to the other proteins and genetic material of the virus. Despite its importance, the initial step in virus assembly (i.e., M1-lipid interaction) is still

  3. A Planar, Chip-Based, Dual-Beam Refractometer Using an Integrated Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) Light Source and Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Erin L.; Veneman, P. Alex; Simmonds, Adam; Zacher, Brian; Huebner, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We present a simple chip-based refractometer with a central organic light emitting diode (OLED) light source and two opposed organic photovoltaic (OPV) detectors on an internal reflection element (IRE) substrate, creating a true dual-beam sensor platform. For first-generation platforms, we demonstrate the use of a single heterojunction OLED based on electroluminescence emission from an Alq3/TPD heterojunction (tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum/N,N′-Bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-diphenylbenzidine) and light detection with planar heterojunction pentacene/C60 OPVs. The sensor utilizes the considerable fraction of emitted light from conventional thin film OLEDs that is coupled into guided modes in the IRE instead of into the forward (display) direction. A ray-optics description is used to describe light throughput and efficiency-limiting factors for light coupling from the OLED into the substrate modes, light traversing through the IRE substrate, and light coupling into the OPV detectors. The arrangement of the OLED at the center of the chip provides for two sensing regions, a “sample” and “reference” channel, with detection of light by independent OPV detectors. This configuration allows for normalization of the sensor response against fluctuations in OLED light output, stability, and local fluctuations (temperature) which might influence sensor response. The dual beam configuration permits significantly enhanced sensitivity to refractive index changes relative to single-beam protocols, and is easily integrated into a field-portable instrumentation package. Changes in refractive index (ΔR.I.) between 10−2 and 10−3 R.I. units could be detected for single channel operation, with sensitivity increased to ΔR.I. ≈ 10−4 units when the dual beam configuration is employed. PMID:20218580

  4. Light-assisted recharging of graphene quantum dots in fluorographene matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonova, I. V. [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Acad. Lavrentiev Avenue 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogov Street 2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Nebogatikova, N. A.; Prinz, V. Ya. [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Acad. Lavrentiev Avenue 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Popov, V. I.; Smagulova, S. A. [North - East Federal University, Yakutsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-07

    In the present study, the charge transient spectroscopy was used to analyze the transient relaxation of charges in graphene and bilayer-graphene quantum dot (QD) systems formed by chemical functionalization of graphene and few-layer graphene layers. A set of activation energies (one to three different values) for the emission of charges from QDs sized 50 to 70 nm, most likely proceeding via the thermal activation of charge carriers from QD quantum confinement levels, were deduced from measurements performed in the dark. Daylight illumination of samples during measurements was found to result in a strong decrease of the activation energies and in an involvement of an athermal process in the charge relaxation phenomenon. The time of the light-assisted emission of charge carriers from QDs proved to be two to four orders of magnitude shorter than the time of their emission from QDs under no-illumination conditions.

  5. Integrable light-cone lattice discretizations from the universal R-matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneghelli, C.

    2015-04-01

    Our goal is to develop a more general scheme for constructing integrable lattice regularisations of integrable quantum field theories. Considering the affine Toda theories as examples, we show how to construct such lattice regularisations using the representation theory of quantum affine algebras. This requires us to clarify in particular the relations between the light-cone approach to integrable lattice models and the representation theory of quantum affine algebras. Both are found to be related in a very natural way, suggesting a general scheme for the construction of generalised Baxter Q-operators. One of the main difficulties we need to deal with is coming from the infinite-dimensionality of the relevant families of representations. It is handled by means of suitable renormalisation prescriptions defining what may be called the modular double of quantum affine algebras. This framework allows us to give a representation-theoretic proof of finite-difference equations generalising the Baxter equation.

  6. Modifying the organic/electrode interface in Organic Solar Cells (OSCs) and improving the efficiency of solution-processed phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Teng [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Organic semiconductors devices, such as, organic solar cells (OSCs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have drawn increasing interest in recent decades. As organic materials are flexible, light weight, and potentially low-cost, organic semiconductor devices are considered to be an alternative to their inorganic counterparts. This dissertation will focus mainly on OSCs and OLEDs. As a clean and renewable energy source, the development of OSCs is very promising. Cells with 9.2% power conversion efficiency (PCE) were reported this year, compared to < 8% two years ago. OSCs belong to the so-called third generation solar cells and are still under development. While OLEDs are a more mature and better studied field, with commercial products already launched in the market, there are still several key issues: (1) the cost of OSCs/OLEDs is still high, largely due to the costly manufacturing processes; (2) the efficiency of OSCs/OLEDs needs to be improved; (3) the lifetime of OSCs/OLEDs is not sufficient compared to their inorganic counterparts; (4) the physics models of the behavior of the devices are not satisfactory. All these limitations invoke the demand for new organic materials, improved device architectures, low-cost fabrication methods, and better understanding of device physics. For OSCs, we attempted to improve the PCE by modifying the interlayer between active layer/metal. We found that ethylene glycol (EG) treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS) improves hole collection at the metal/polymer interface, furthermore it also affects the growth of the poly(3- hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends, making the phase segregation more favorable for charge collection. We then studied organic/inorganic tandem cells. We also investigated the effect of a thin LiF layer on the hole-collection of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/C70-based small molecular OSCs. A

  7. Thyroid hormone modulates the extracellular matrix organization and expression in cerebellar astrocyte: effects on astrocyte adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentin, Andréa Gonçalves; De Aguiar, Cláudia Beatriz Nedel Mendes; Garcez, Ricardo Castilho; Alvarez-Silva, Marcio

    2003-06-01

    The effects of thyroid hormone (T(3)) on extracellular matrix (ECM) expression and organization in cerebellar astrocytes were studied. Control astrocytes exhibit laminin immunostaining distributed in a punctate configuration and fibronectin concentrated in focal points at the cell surface. These cells attach to the substratum by membrane points, as shown by scanning microscopy, possibly by focal points stained to fibronectin. In contrast, after T(3) treatment, laminin assumes a fibrillary pattern and fibronectin becomes organized in filaments homogeneously distributed on the cell surface; the cells acquire a very flat and spread morphology. T(3) treatment also modulates astrocyte adhesion. In addition, increased expression of both laminin and fibronectin was detected by Western blot. These alterations in fibronectin and/or laminin production and organization may be involved in the flat and spread morphology and in altered adhesion. We observed that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF(2)) added to cultures had similar effects to those described to T(3). Neutralizing antibodies against FGF(2) reversed T(3) effects on fibronectin and laminin distribution. We also observed that cerebellar neurons co-cultured on T(3)-treated astrocytes had an increase in the number of cells and presented longer neurites. Thus, we propose a novel mechanism of the effect of thyroid hormone on cerebellar development mediated by astrocytes: T(3) may induce astrocyte secretion of growth factors, mainly FGF(2), that autocrinally stimulate astrocyte proliferation, reorganization in ECM proteins, and alterations in cell spreading and adhesion. These effects may indirectly influence neuronal development. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Emission Characteristics of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes and Organic Thin-Films with Planar and Corrugated Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Kuo Wei

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review the emission characteristics from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs and organic molecular thin films with planar and corrugated structures. In a planar thin film structure, light emission from OLEDs was strongly influenced by the interference effect. With suitable design of microcavity structure and layer thicknesses adjustment, optical characteristics can be engineered to achieve high optical intensity, suitable emission wavelength, and broad viewing angles. To increase the extraction efficiency from OLEDs and organic thin-films, corrugated structure with micro- and nano-scale were applied. Microstructures can effectively redirects the waveguiding light in the substrate outside the device. For nanostructures, it is also possible to couple out the organic and plasmonic modes, not only the substrate mode.

  9. Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Raman, Aaswath; Yu, Zongfu; Fan, Shanhui

    2011-01-01

    or vice versa. Motivated by recent theoretical developments, we show that dielectric wavelength-scale grating structures can produce significant absorption resonances in a realistic organic cell architecture. We numerically demonstrate that 1D, 2D

  10. Cherenkov and scintillation light separation in organic liquid scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravaca, J.; Descamps, F.B.; Land, B.J.; Orebi Gann, G.D. [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Yeh, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-12-15

    The CHErenkov/Scintillation Separation experiment (CHESS) has been used to demonstrate the separation of Cherenkov and scintillation light in both linear alkylbenzene (LAB) and LAB with 2 g/L of PPO as a fluor (LAB/PPO). This is the first successful demonstration of Cherenkov light detection from the more challenging LAB/PPO cocktail and improves on previous results for LAB. A time resolution of 338 ± 12 ps FWHM results in an efficiency for identifying Cherenkov photons in LAB/PPO of 70 ± 3% and 63 ± 8% for time- and charge-based separation, respectively, with scintillation contamination of 36 ± 5% and 38 ± 4. LAB/PPO data is consistent with a rise time of τ{sub r} = 0.72 ± 0.33 ns. (orig.)

  11. Cherenkov and scintillation light separation in organic liquid scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caravaca, J.; Descamps, F.B.; Land, B.J.; Orebi Gann, G.D.; Yeh, M.

    2017-01-01

    The CHErenkov/Scintillation Separation experiment (CHESS) has been used to demonstrate the separation of Cherenkov and scintillation light in both linear alkylbenzene (LAB) and LAB with 2 g/L of PPO as a fluor (LAB/PPO). This is the first successful demonstration of Cherenkov light detection from the more challenging LAB/PPO cocktail and improves on previous results for LAB. A time resolution of 338 ± 12 ps FWHM results in an efficiency for identifying Cherenkov photons in LAB/PPO of 70 ± 3% and 63 ± 8% for time- and charge-based separation, respectively, with scintillation contamination of 36 ± 5% and 38 ± 4. LAB/PPO data is consistent with a rise time of τ r = 0.72 ± 0.33 ns. (orig.)

  12. Charge Injection and Current Flow in Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. L.; Davids, P. S.; Heller, C. M.; Crone, B. K.; Campbell, I. H.; Barashkov, N. N.; Ferraris, J. P.

    1997-03-01

    We present a comparison between device model calculations and current-voltage measurements for a series of organic LED structures. The Schottky energy barrier of an injecting contact is systematically varied by changing the metal used to form that contact. The current-voltage characteristics of the structures are described using a device model that considers charge injection, transport and space charge effects in the low mobility organic material. Charge injection into the organic material is controlled by the Schottky energy barrier of the metal/organic contact. For Schottky energy barriers greater than about 0.4 eV injection into the organic material is the principal limitation to current flow. In this regime the net injected charge density is relatively small, the electric field in the structure is nearly uniform, and space charge effects are not important. For smaller energy barriers relatively large charge densities are injected into the organic material and space charge effects become the dominant limit to current flow. The measured current-voltage characteristics are quantitatively described by the device model using Schottky barrier values independently determined by internal photoemission and electroabsorption measurements.

  13. Metal-organic frameworks in mixed-matrix membranes for gas separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanh Jeazet, Harold B; Staudt, Claudia; Janiak, Christoph

    2012-12-14

    Mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) with metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as additives (fillers) exhibit enhanced gas permeabilities and possibly also selectivities when compared to the pure polymer. Polyimides (Matrimid®) and polysulfones are popular polymer matrices for MOF fillers. Presently investigated MOFs for MMMs include [Cu(SiF(6))(4,4'-BIPY)(2)], [Cu(3)(BTC)(2)(H(2)O)(3)] (HKUST-1, Cu-BTC), [Cu(BDC)(DMF)], [Zn(4)O(BDC)(3)] (MOF-5), [Zn(2-methylimidazolate)(2)] (ZIF-8), [Zn(purinate)(2)] (ZIF-20), [Zn(2-carboxyaldehyde imidazolate)(2)] (ZIF-90), Mn(HCOO)(2), [Al(BDC)(μ-OH)] (MIL-53(Al)), [Al(NH(2)-BDC)(μ-OH)] (NH(2)-MIL-53(Al)) and [Cr(3)O(BDC)(3)(F,OH)(H(2)O)(2)] (MIL-101) (4,4'-BIPY = 4,4'-bipyridine, BTC = benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate, BDC = benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate, terephthalate). MOF particle adhesion to polyimide and polysulfone organic polymers does not represent a problem. MOF-polymer MMMs are investigated for the permeability of the single gases H(2), N(2), O(2), CH(4), CO(2) and of the gas mixtures O(2)/N(2), H(2)/CH(4), CO(2)/CH(4), H(2)/CO(2), CH(4)/N(2) and CO(2)/N(2) (preferentially permeating gas named first). Permeability increases can be traced to the MOF porosity. Since the porosity of MOFs can be tuned very precisely, which is not possible with polymeric material, MMMs offer the opportunity of significantly increasing the selectivity compared to the pure polymeric matrix. Additionally in most of the cases the permeability is increased for MMM membranes compared to the pure polymer. Addition of MOFs to polymers in MMMs easily yields performances similar to the best polymer membranes and gives higher selectivities than those reported to date for any pure MOF membrane for the same gas separation. MOF-polymer MMMs allow for easier synthesis and handability compared to pure MOF membranes.

  14. Field-controllable Spin-Hall Effect of Light in Optical Crystals: A Conoscopic Mueller Matrix Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samlan, C T; Viswanathan, Nirmal K

    2018-01-31

    Electric-field applied perpendicular to the direction of propagation of paraxial beam through an optical crystal dynamically modifies the spin-orbit interaction (SOI), leading to the demonstration of controllable spin-Hall effect of light (SHEL). The electro- and piezo-optic effects of the crystal modifies the radially symmetric spatial variation in the fast-axis orientation of the crystal, resulting in a complex pattern with different topologies due to the symmetry-breaking effect of the applied field. This introduces spatially-varying Pancharatnam-Berry type geometric phase on to the paraxial beam of light, leading to the observation of SHEL in addition to the spin-to-vortex conversion. A wave-vector resolved conoscopic Mueller matrix measurement and analysis provides a first glimpse of the SHEL in the biaxial crystal, identified via the appearance of weak circular birefringence. The emergence of field-controllable fast-axis orientation of the crystal and the resulting SHEL provides a new degree of freedom for affecting and controlling the spin and orbital angular momentum of photons to unravel the rich underlying physics of optical crystals and aid in the development of active photonic spin-Hall devices.

  15. Efficient Color-Stable Inverted White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Outcoupling-Enhanced ZnO Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Dong; Li, Yan-Qing; Xiang, Heng-Yang; Zhang, Yi-Bo; Chen, Jing-De; Xu, Lu-Hai; Tang, Jian-Xin

    2017-01-25

    Inverted organic light-emitting diode (OLED) has attracted extensive attention due to the demand in active-matrix OLED display panels as its geometry enables the direct connection with n-channel transistor backplane on the substrate. One key challenge of high-performance inverted OLED is an efficient electron-injection layer with superior electrical and optical properties to match the indium tin oxide cathode on substrate. We here propose a synergistic electron-injection architecture using surface modification of ZnO layer to simultaneously promote electron injection into organic emitter and enhance out-coupling of waveguided light. An efficient inverted white OLED is realized by introducing the nanoimprinted aperiodic nanostructure of ZnO for broadband and angle-independent light out-coupling and inserting an n-type doped interlayer for energy level tuning and injection barrier lowering. As a result, the optimized inverted white OLEDs have an external quantum efficiency of 42.4% and a power efficiency of 85.4 lm W 1- , which are accompanied by the superiority of angular color stability over the visible wavelength range. Our results may inspire a promising approach to fabricate high-efficiency inverted OLEDs for large-scale display panels.

  16. In vitro action of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on matrix organization and mineral distribution in rabbit growth plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachot, J J; Du Bois, M B; Halpern, S; Cournot-Witmer, G; Garabedian, M; Balsan, S

    1982-01-01

    Growth plates of 18-day-old rabbits were incubated in a protein-free synthetic medium, either without any additive, with 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25-(OH)2D3] (10(-10) M), with 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [24,25-(OH)2D3] (10(-10) M and 10(-9) M), with both metabolites, or with the ethanol solvent alone. Cartilages, before and after 5 days of incubation, were studied by light and electron microscopy. The intracellular calcium distribution was analyzed by the potassium pyroantimonate method, and the calcium content was verified by x-ray microprobe analysis. When compared to nonincubated samples the cartilages incubated for 5 days without any additive as well as the cartilages incubated with the solvent alone showed excessive hydratation and hypertrophy of the chondrocytes, which had lost their columnar arrangement. The matrix and the cells were devoid of mineral. The ultrastructure of the cells was well preserved. These changes were largely prevented by the presence of both vitamin D3 metabolites. With regard to calcium distribution, 1,25-(OH)2D3 maintained calcium in mitochondria and crystals in matrix vesicles, whereas 24,25-(OH)2D3 only partly maintained mitochondrial mineral. In the chondrocytes incubated with this latter metabolite, small calcium granules were seen in the cytoplasm; most vesicles were devoid of crystals, and amorphous precipitates were seen in the matrix. These data demonstrate the in vitro influence of vitamin D3 metabolites on the organization and mineralization of the cartilage matrix and on the distribution of intracellular calcium in chondrocytes. Furthermore, they support the hypothesis that the in vitro action of 1,25-(OH)2D3 is different from that of 24,25-(OH)2D3 in that 1,25-(OH)2D3 may influence calcium storage in mitochondria and matrix vesicles, whereas 24,25-(OH)2D3 is likely to be involved in calcium transport and release.

  17. Investigation of organic light-emitting diodes with novel organic electron injection layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sunae; Sethuraman, Kunjithapatham; An, Jongdeok; Im, Chan [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Boseon [Jinwoong Industrial Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    1-(diphenyl-phosphinoyl)-4-(2,2-diphenyl-vinyl)-benzene (DpDvB) and 4-(diphenyl-phosphinoyl)-4'-(2,2-diphenyl-vinyl)-biphenyl (DpDvBp) have been prepared and used as efficient electron injection layers (EILs) between aluminum cathode and tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum organic light emitting diodes (OLED). The performances of devices with different thicknesses of DpDvB and DpDvBp were investigated. Experimental results show that the turn-on voltage of the devices was decreased and the luminance of the devices was enhanced with increasing thickness of the EILs. Power efficiencies of 1.07 lm/W and 0.97 lm/W were obtained by inserting a 3-nm-thick EIL of DpDvB and a 5 nm thick EIL of DpDvBp, respectively. These efficiencies are comparable to that of the device using LiF as an EIL. The results prove that DpDvB and DpDvBp layers are also suitable for efficient EILs in OLEDs.

  18. Whole-organ tissue engineering: decellularization and recellularization of three-dimensional matrix liver scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabetkish, Shabnam; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Sabetkish, Nastaran; Khorramirouz, Reza; Akbarzadeh, Aram; Seyedian, Sanam Ladi; Pasalar, Parvin; Orangian, Saghar; Beigi, Reza Seyyed Hossein; Aryan, Zahra; Akbari, Hesam; Tavangar, Seyyed Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    To report the results of whole liver decellularization by two different methods. To present the results of grafting rat and sheep decellularized liver matrix (DLM) into the normal rat liver and compare natural cell seeding process in homo/xenograft of DLM. To compare the results of in vitro whole liver recellularization with rats' neonatal green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive hepatic cells with outcomes of in vivo recellularization process. Whole liver of 8 rats and 4 sheep were resected and cannulated via the hepatic vein and perfused with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or Triton + SDS. Several examinations were performed to compare the efficacy of these two decellularization procedures. In vivo recellularization of sheep and rat DLMs was performed following transplantation of multiple pieces of both scaffolds in the subhepatic area of four rats. To compare the efficacy of different scaffolds in autologous cell seeding, biopsies of homograft and xenograft were assessed 8 weeks postoperatively. Whole DLMs of 4 rats were also recellularized in vitro by perfusion of rat's fetal GFP-positive hepatic cells with pulsatile bioreactor. Histological evaluation and enzymatic assay were performed for both in vivo and in vitro recellularized samples. The results of this study demonstrated that the triton method was a promising decellularization approach for preserving the three-dimensional structure of liver. In vitro recellularized DLMs were more similar to natural ones compared with in vivo recellularized livers. However, homografts showed better characteristics with more organized structure compared with xenografts. In vitro recellularization of liver scaffolds with autologous cells represents an attractive prospective for regeneration of liver as one of the most compound organs. In vivo cell seeding on the scaffold of the same species may have more satisfactory outcomes when compared with the results of xenotransplantation. This study theoretically may pave the road for

  19. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes on Solution-Processed Graphene Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Junbo; Agrawal, Mukul; Becerril, Héctor A.; Bao, Zhenan; Liu, Zunfeng; Chen, Yongsheng; Peumans, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical estimates indicate that graphene thin films can be used as transparent electrodes for thin-film devices such as solar cells and organic light-emitting diodes, with an unmatched combination of sheet resistance and transparency. We

  20. Structure and philosophy of pharmacy management using a matrix organization, Part I: a conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, D J

    1985-02-01

    The resource, systems, information, and therapy management responsibilities of a director of pharmacy services are used to illustrate the horizontal decision making opportunities made available through matrix management. When compared with traditionally vertical decision models, the matrix offers the probability of broad consensus and support, but can have a risk of lowest-common-denominator determinations. The role and function of a management matrix in the hospital context are introduced and contrasted to power-oriented decision making.

  1. Stress Testing of Organic Light- Emitting Diode Panels and Luminaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn Davis, Kelley Rountree, Karmann Mills

    2018-01-31

    This report builds on previous DOE efforts with OLED technology by updating information on a previously benchmarked OLED product (the Chalina luminaire from Acuity Brands) and provides new benchmarks on the performance of Brite 2 and Brite Amber OLED panels from OLEDWorks. During the tests described here, samples of these devices were subjected to continuous operation in stress tests at elevated ambient temperature environments of 35°C or 45°C. In addition, samples were also operated continuously at room temperature in a room temperature operational life test (RTOL). One goal of this study was to investigate whether these test conditions can accelerate failure of OLED panels, either through panel shorting or an open circuit in the panel. These stress tests are shown to provide meaningful acceleration of OLED failure modes, and an acceleration factor of 2.6 was calculated at 45°C for some test conditions. In addition, changes in the photometric properties of the emitted light (e.g., luminous flux and chromaticity maintenance) was also evaluated for insights into the long-term stability of these products compared to earlier generations. Because OLEDs are a lighting system, electrical testing was also performed on the panel-driver pairs to provide insights into the impact of the driver on long-term panel performance.

  2. Neutron detector based on Particles of {sup 6}Li glass scintillator dispersed in organic lightguide matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianakiev, K.D., E-mail: ianakiev@lanl.gov; Hehlen, M.P.; Swinhoe, M.T.; Favalli, A.; Iliev, M.L.; Lin, T.C.; Bennett, B.L.; Barker, M.T.

    2015-06-01

    Most {sup 3}He replacement neutron detector technologies today have overlapping neutron–gamma pulse-height distributions, which limits their usefulness and performance. Different techniques are used to mitigate this shortcoming, including Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) or threshold settings that suppress all gammas as well as much of the neutrons. As a result, count rates are limited and dead times are high when PSD is used, and the detection efficiency for neutron events is reduced due to the high threshold. This is a problem in most applications where the neutron–gamma separation of {sup 3}He detectors had been essential. This challenge is especially severe for neutron coincidence and multiplicity measurements that have numerous conflicting requirements such as high detection efficiency, short die-away time, short dead time, and high stability. {sup 6}Li-glass scintillators have excellent light output and a single peak distribution, but they are difficult to implement because of their gamma sensitivity. The idea of reducing the gamma sensitivity of {sup 6}Li-glass scintillators by embedding small glass particles in an organic light-guide medium was first presented by L.M. Bollinger in the early 60s but, to the best of our knowledge, has never been reduced to practice. We present a proof of principle detector design and experimental data that develop this concept to a large-area neutron detector. This is achieved by using a multi-component optical medium ({sup 6}Li glass particles attached to a glass supporting structure and a mineral oil light guide) which matches the indices of refraction and minimizes the absorption of the 395 nm scintillator light. The detector design comprises a 10 in. long tube with dual end readout with about 3% volume density of {sup 6}Li glass particles installed. The presented experimental data with various neutron and gamma sources show the desired wide gap between the neutron and gamma pulse height distributions, resulting in a

  3. Light sensors based on organic phototransistors with absorption-enhancing nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runge Walther, Anders; Linnet, Jes; Albrektsen, Ole

    Organic semiconductors (OSCs) exhibit promising electronic and optical properties applicable in photo-sensing devices. Previous studies have found that thiophene-based semiconductors are suitable as the active layer in organic optoelectronic devices such as light-sensing transistors [1]. The abil......Organic semiconductors (OSCs) exhibit promising electronic and optical properties applicable in photo-sensing devices. Previous studies have found that thiophene-based semiconductors are suitable as the active layer in organic optoelectronic devices such as light-sensing transistors [1...

  4. p-i-n Homojunction in Organic Light-Emitting Transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisri, Satria Zulkarnaen; Takenobu, Taishi; Sawabe, Kosuke; Tsuda, Satoshi; Yomogidao, Yohei; Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu; Adachi, Chihaya; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    A new method for investigating light-emitting property in organic devices is demonstrated. We apply the ambipolar light-emitting transistors (LETS) to directly observe the recombination zone, and find a strong link between the transistor performance and the zone size. This finding unambiguously

  5. Light absorption of secondary organic aerosol: Composition and contribution of nitro-aromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) might affect the atmospheric radiation balance through absorbing light at shorter visible and UV wavelengths. However, the composition and optical properties of light-absorbing SOA is poorly understood. In this work, SOA filter samples were collect...

  6. Light absorbing organic carbon from prescribed and laboratory biomass burning and gasoline vehicle emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The light absorption of carbonaceous aerosols plays an important role in the atmospheric radiation balance. Light-absorbing organic carbon (OC), also called brown carbon (BrC), from laboratory-based biomass burning (BB) has been studied intensively to understand the contribution ...

  7. Effect of light availability on dissolved organic carbon release by Caribbean reef algae and corals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, B.; van der Zande, R.M.; van Leent, P.J.M.; Meesters, E.H.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; van Duyl, F.C.

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release of three algal and two coral species was determined at three light intensities (0, 30–80, and 200–400 µmol photons m–2 s–1) in ex situ incubations to quantify the effect of light availability on DOC release by reef primary producers. DOC release of three

  8. Light-enhanced acid catalysis over a metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Caiyun; Sun, Keju; Zhou, Yu-Xiao; Ma, Xiao; Jiang, Hai-Long

    2018-03-06

    A Brønsted acid-functionalized metal-organic framework (MOF), MIL-101-SO 3 H, was prepared for acid-engaged esterification reactions. Strikingly, for the first time, the MOF exhibits significantly light-enhanced activity and possesses excellent activity and recyclability, with even higher activity than H 2 SO 4 under light irradiation.

  9. The strength of a calcified tissue depends in part on the molecular structure and organization of its constituent mineral crystals in their organic matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, W. J.

    1995-01-01

    High-voltage electron-microscopic tomographic (3D) studies of the ultrastructural interaction between mineral and organic matrix in a variety of calcified tissues reveal different crystal structural and organizational features in association with their respective organic matrices. In brittle or weak pathologic or ectopic calcifications, including examples of osteogenesis imperfecta, calciphylaxis, calcergy, and dermatomyositis, hydroxyapatite crystals occur in various sizes and shapes and are oriented and aligned with respect to collagen in a manner which is distinct from that found in normal calcified tissues. A model of collagen-mineral interaction is proposed which may account for the observed crystal structures and organization. The results indicate that the ultimate strength, support, and other mechanical properties provided by a calcified tissue are dependent in part upon the molecular structure and arrangement of its constituent mineral crystals within their organic matrix.

  10. A Transient Exposure to Symbiosis-Competent Bacteria Induces Light Organ Morphogenesis in the Host Squid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doino, J A; McFall-Ngai, M J

    1995-12-01

    Recent studies of the symbiotic association between the Hawaiian sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes and the luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri have shown that colonization of juvenile squid with symbiosis-competent bacteria induces morphogenetic changes of the light organ. These changes occur over a 4-day period and include cell death and tissue regression of the external ciliated epithelium. In the absence of bacterial colonization, morphogenesis does not occur. To determine whether the bacteria must be present throughout the morphogenetic process, we used the antibiotic chloramphenicol to clear the light organ of bacteria at various times during the initial colonization. We provide evidence in this study that a transient, 12-hour exposure to symbiosis-competent bacteria is necessary and sufficient to induce tissue regression in the light organ over the next several days. Further, we show that successful entrance into the light organ is necessary to induce morphogenesis, suggesting that induction results from bacterial interaction with internal crypt cells and not with the external ciliated epithelium. Finally, no difference in development was observed when the light organ was colonized by a mutant strain of V. fischeri that did not produce autoinducer, a potential light organ morphogen.

  11. Nanoscale Light Manipulation for Improved Organic Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Brett

    Organic Solar Cells can be made to be flexible, semi-transparent, and low-cost making them ideal for novel energy harvesting applications such as in greenhouses. However, the main disadvantage of this technology is its low energy conversion efficiency (technologies, such as thinfilm GaAs (>30% Efficiency), and Si-based (>20% Efficiency), solar cells, where recombination within these technologies is much less than Organic Solar Cells. There are still many challenges to overcome to improve the efficiency of Organic Solar Cells. Some of these challenges include: Maximising the absorption of the solar spectrum; improving the charge dynamics; and increasing the lifetime of the devices. One method to address some of these challenges is to include plasmonic nanoparticles into the devices, which has been shown to increase the absorption through scattering, and improve the charge dynamic through localised surface plasmon resonance effects. However, including nanoparticles into Organic Solar Cells has shown to adversely affect the performance of the devices in other ways, such as increasing the recombination of excitons. To address this, an additional (insulating) coating around the nanoparticles supresses this increase, and has shown to be able to increase the performance of the solar cells. In this work, we demonstrate the use of our all-inclusive optical model in the design and optimisation of bespoke colour-specific windows (i.e. Red, Green, and Blue), where the solar cells can be made to have a specific transparency and colour, whilst maximizing their efficiency. For example, we could specify that we wish the colour to be red, with 50% transmissivity; the model will then maximise the Power Conversion Efficiency. We also demonstrate how our extension to Mie theory can simulate nanoparticle systems and can be used to tune the plasmon resonance utilising different coatings, and configurations thereof.

  12. In-vitro study on calcium carbonate crystal growth mediated by organic matrix extracted from fresh water pearls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yufei; Qiao Li; Feng Qingling

    2012-01-01

    For the purpose of studying the mediation of organic matrix on the crystallization of calcium carbonate, water soluble matrix (WSM), acid soluble matrix (ASM) and acid insoluble matrix (AIM) were extracted from aragonite pearls and vaterite pearls respectively. Then, in-vitro calcium carbonate crystallization experiments under the control of these six organic matrices were carried out in the present study. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to observe the morphology of CaCO 3 and Raman spectroscopy as a powerful technique was used to distinguish the crystal polymorph. Influences of the six kinds of organic matrices on the calcium carbonate crystal growth are proposed. ASM of vaterite pearls can induce vaterite to crystallize and WSM of aragonite pearls mediates to produce aragonite crystals. The single AIM membranes of the two pearls have no pronounced effect on the CaCO 3 crystallization. Additionally, the crystal size obtained with the additive of WSM of the two kinds of pearls is smaller than that with the additive of ASM. Moreover, self-assembly phenomenon in the biomineralization process and the distorted morphology calcite are observed. Current results demonstrate important aspects of matrix protein-controlled crystallization, which is beneficial to the understanding of nacre biomineralization mechanism. Further study of the precise control of these matrix proteins on CaCO 3 crystal growth is being processed. - Highlights: ► WSM, ASM and AIM are extracted from aragonite pearls and vaterite pearls. ► ASM of vaterite pearl induces vaterite. ► WSM of aragonite pearl mediates to produce aragonite. ► WSM can fine control crystal size smaller than that with the additive of ASM. ► Self-assembly and the distorted calcite existed in the mineralization process.

  13. Towards developing a tandem of organic solar cell and light emitting diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jai [School of Engineering and IT, B-purple-12, Faculty of EHS, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2011-01-15

    It is proposed here to design a tandem of organic solar cell (OSC) and white organic light emitting diode (WOLED) which can generate power in the day time from the sun and provide lighting at night. With the advancement of chemical technology, such device is expected to be very-cost effective and reasonably efficient. A device thus fabricated has the potential of meeting the world's sustainable domestic and commercial power and lighting needs (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Extraction of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes via high-index coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Bert J; Frischeisen, Jörg; Jaeger, Arndt; Setz, Daniel S; Reusch, Thilo C G; Brütting, Wolfgang

    2012-03-12

    The efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is still limited by poor light outcoupling. In particular, the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at metal-organic interfaces represents a major loss channel. By combining optical simulations and experiments on simplified luminescent thin-film structures we elaborate the conditions for the extraction of SPPs via coupling to high-index media. As a proof-of-concept, we demonstrate the possibility to extract light from wave-guided modes and surface plasmons in a top-emitting white OLED by a high-index prism.

  15. Competition between Vibrio fischeri strains during initiation and maintenance of a light organ symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K H; Ruby, E G

    1994-04-01

    Colonization of the light-emitting organ of the Hawaiian squid Euprymna scolopes is initiated when the nascent organ of a newly hatched squid becomes inoculated with Vibrio fischeri cells present in the ambient seawater. Although they are induced for luminescence in the light organ, these symbiotic strains are characteristically non-visibly luminous (NVL) when grown in laboratory culture. The more typical visibly luminous (VL) type of V. fischeri co-occurs in Hawaiian seawater with these NVL strains; thus, two phenotypically distinct groups of this species potentially have access to the symbiotic niche, yet only the NVL ones are found there. In laboratory inoculation experiments, VL strains, when presented in pure culture, showed the same capability for colonizing the light organ as NVL strains. However, in experiments with mixed cultures composed of both VL and NVL strains, the VL ones were unable to compete with the NVL ones and did not persist within the light organ as the symbiosis became established. In addition, NVL strains entered light organs that had already been colonized by VL strains and displaced them. The mechanism underlying the symbiotic competitiveness exhibited by NVL strains remains unknown; however, it does not appear to be due to a higher potential for siderophore activity. While a difference in luminescence phenotype between VL and NVL strains in culture is not likely to be significant in the symbiosis, it has helped identify two distinct groups of V. fischeri that express different colonization capabilities in the squid light organ. This competitive difference provides a useful indication of important traits in light organ colonization.

  16. Efficient white organic light-emitting devices using a thin 4,4'-bis(2,2'-diphenylvinyl)-1,1'-diphenyl layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Yu Junsheng; Li Lu; Tang Xiaoqing; Jiang Yadong

    2008-01-01

    White organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) were fabricated using phosphorescent material bis[2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)benzothiazolato-N,C 2' ]iridium (acetylacetonate) [(t-bt) 2 Ir(acac)] doped in 4,4'-bis(carbazol-9-yl) biphenyl (CBP) matrix as a yellow light-emitting layer and a thin layer 4,4'-bis(2,2'-diphenylvinyl)-1,1'-diphenyl (DPVBi) as the blue light-emitting layer. The light colour of the OLEDs can be adjusted by changing doped concentration and the thickness of the DPVBi thin layer. The maximum luminance and power efficiency of 5% doped device reached 15 460 cd m -2 and 8.1 lm W -1 , respectively. The 3% doped device showed the CIE coordinates of (0.344, 0.322) at 8 V and a maximum power efficiency of 5.7 lm W -1 at 4.5 V

  17. Interpretation of organic components from Positive Matrix Factorization of aerosol mass spectrometric data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Ulbrich

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The organic aerosol (OA dataset from an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Q-AMS collected at the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS in September 2002 was analyzed with Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF. Three components – hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol OA (HOA, a highly-oxygenated OA (OOA-1 that correlates well with sulfate, and a less-oxygenated, semi-volatile OA (OOA-2 that correlates well with nitrate and chloride – are identified and interpreted as primary combustion emissions, aged SOA, and semivolatile, less aged SOA, respectively. The complexity of interpreting the PMF solutions of unit mass resolution (UMR AMS data is illustrated by a detailed analysis of the solutions as a function of number of components and rotational forcing. A public web-based database of AMS spectra has been created to aid this type of analysis. Realistic synthetic data is also used to characterize the behavior of PMF for choosing the best number of factors, and evaluating the rotations of non-unique solutions. The ambient and synthetic data indicate that the variation of the PMF quality of fit parameter (Q, a normalized chi-squared metric vs. number of factors in the solution is useful to identify the minimum number of factors, but more detailed analysis and interpretation are needed to choose the best number of factors. The maximum value of the rotational matrix is not useful for determining the best number of factors. In synthetic datasets, factors are "split" into two or more components when solving for more factors than were used in the input. Elements of the "splitting" behavior are observed in solutions of real datasets with several factors. Significant structure remains in the residual of the real dataset after physically-meaningful factors have been assigned and an unrealistic number of factors would be required to explain the remaining variance. This residual structure appears to be due to variability in the spectra of the components

  18. Controlling human corneal stromal stem cell contraction to mediate rapid cell and matrix organization of real architecture for 3-dimensional tissue equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhey, Dev; Phillips, James B; Daniels, Julie T; Kureshi, Alvena K

    2018-02-01

    The architecture of the human corneal stroma consists of a highly organized extracellular matrix (ECM) interspersed with keratocytes. Their progenitor cells; corneal stromal stem cells (CSSC) are located at the periphery, in the limbal stroma. A highly organized corneal ECM is critical for effective transmission of light but this structure may be compromised during injury or disease, resulting in loss of vision. Re-creating normal organization in engineered tissue equivalents for transplantation often involves lengthy culture times that are inappropriate for clinical use or utilisation of synthetic substrates that bring complications such as corneal melting. CSSC have great therapeutic potential owing to their ability to reorganize a disorganized matrix, restoring transparency in scarred corneas. We examined CSSC contractile behavior to assess whether this property could be exploited to rapidly generate cell and ECM organization in Real Architecture For 3D Tissues (RAFT) tissue equivalents (TE) for transplantation. Free-floating collagen gels were characterized to assess contractile behavior of CSSC and establish optimum cell density and culture times. To mediate cell and collagen organization, tethered collagen gels seeded with CSSC were cultured and subsequently stabilized with the RAFT process. We demonstrated rapid creation of biomimetic RAFT TE with tunable structural properties. These displayed three distinct regions of varying degrees of cellular and collagen organization. Interestingly, increased organization coincided with a dramatic loss of PAX6 expression in CSSC, indicating rapid differentiation into keratocytes. The organized RAFT TE system could be a useful bioengineering tool to rapidly create an organized ECM while simultaneously controlling cell phenotype. For the first time, we have demonstrated that human CSSC exhibit the phenomenon of cellular self-alignment in tethered collagen gels. We found this mediated rapid co-alignment of collagen fibrils

  19. JRC GMO-Matrix: a web application to support Genetically Modified Organisms detection strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Petrillo, Mauro; Bonfini, Laura; Gatto, Francesco; Rosa, Sabrina; Patak, Alexandre; Kreysa, Joachim

    2014-12-30

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the current state of the art technique for DNA-based detection of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). A typical control strategy starts by analyzing a sample for the presence of target sequences (GM-elements) known to be present in many GMOs. Positive findings from this "screening" are then confirmed with GM (event) specific test methods. A reliable knowledge of which GMOs are detected by combinations of GM-detection methods is thus crucial to minimize the verification efforts. In this article, we describe a novel platform that links the information of two unique databases built and maintained by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Genetically Modified Food and Feed (EU-RL GMFF) at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission, one containing the sequence information of known GM-events and the other validated PCR-based detection and identification methods. The new platform compiles in silico determinations of the detection of a wide range of GMOs by the available detection methods using existing scripts that simulate PCR amplification and, when present, probe binding. The correctness of the information has been verified by comparing the in silico conclusions to experimental results for a subset of forty-nine GM events and six methods. The JRC GMO-Matrix is unique for its reliance on DNA sequence data and its flexibility in integrating novel GMOs and new detection methods. Users can mine the database using a set of web interfaces that thus provide a valuable support to GMO control laboratories in planning and evaluating their GMO screening strategies. The platform is accessible at http://gmo-crl.jrc.ec.europa.eu/jrcgmomatrix/ .

  20. Altered corneal stromal matrix organization is associated with mucopolysaccharidosis I, III and VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alroy, J; Haskins, M; Birk, D E

    1999-05-01

    The presence of cloudy corneas is a prominent feature of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) types I and VI, but not MPS IIIA or IIIB. The cause of corneal cloudiness in MPS I and VI is speculative. Transparency of the cornea is dependent on the uniform diameter and the regular spacing and arrangement of the collagen fibrils within the stroma. Alterations in the spacing of collagen fibrils in a variety of conditions including corneal edema, scars, and macular corneal dystrophy is clinically manifested as corneal opacity. The purpose of this study was to compare the structural organization of the stromal extracellular matrix of normal corneas with that of MPS corneas. The size and arrangement of collagen fibrils in cloudy corneas from patients with MPS I were examined. The alterations observed were an increased mean fibril diameter with a broader distribution in the MPS corneas. The MPS I corneas also had altered fibril spacing and more irregular packing compared with normal control corneas. The clear corneas of patients with MPS IIIA and IIIB also showed increases in mean fibril diameter and fibril spacing. However, there was less variation indicating more regularity than seen in MPS I. In addition, corneas from cat models of certain MPS were compared to the human corneas. Cats with MPS I and VI, as well as normal control cats, were examined. Structural alterations comparable to those seen in human MPS corneas were seen in MPS I and VI cats relative to normal clear corneas. The findings suggest that cloudy corneas in MPS I and VI are in part a consequence of structural alterations in the corneal stroma, including abnormal spacing, size, and arrangement of collagen fibrils. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  1. Organic light-emitting devices with fullerene/aluminum composite anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Q.L.; Li, C.M.; Wang, M.L.; Sun, X.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Our previous work demonstrates that fullerene/Aluminum (C 60 /Al) can be used as a composite anode in organic solar cells. In this work, we report that an organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) can be made with the C 60 /Al composite anode as well. The OLEDs show comparable current density and brightness to the traditional devices with the indium tin oxide anode

  2. Trap-assisted and Langevin-type recombination in organic light-emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzelaer, G. A. H.; Kuik, M.; Nicolai, H. T.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2011-01-01

    Trapping of charges is known to play an important role in the charge transport of organic semiconductors, but the role of traps in the recombination process has not been addressed. Here we show that the ideality factor of the current of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in the

  3. Visible-light-induced hydrogen production over Pt-Eosin Y catalysts with high surface area silica gel as matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaojie [State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis and Selective Oxidation, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Jin, Zhiliang; Li, Shuben; Lu, Gongxuan [State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis and Selective Oxidation, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Yuexiang [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Nanjing Road 245, Nanchang, 330047 (China)

    2007-03-30

    A new system for the production of hydrogen, constructed using silica gel as a matrix, Eosin Y as a photosensitizer, and Pt as a cocatalyst, has been reported. It was found that the rate of photosensitized hydrogen evolution in the presence of silica gel is enhanced about 10-fold relative to the homogeneous phase, i.e. in the absence of silica gel. The pH value of the solution and the concentration of Eosin Y have remarkable effects on the rate of hydrogen evolution. The optimal pH and concentration of Eosin Y are 7 and 3.60 x 10{sup -4} mol dm{sup -3} (E/S = 1/3) to 7.24 x 10{sup -4} mol dm{sup -3} (E/S = 1/1), respectively. Triethanolamine (TEOA) as an electron donor, the rate of hydrogen evolution and the apparent quantum efficiency in the silica gel system under visible-light irradiation ({lambda} {>=} 420 nm) can reach about 43 {mu}mol h{sup -1} and 10.4%, respectively. In addition, the roles of silica gel, Pt and TEOA, respectively; and the probable mechanism of photosensitized hydrogen evolution have been discussed. (author)

  4. Visible-light-induced hydrogen production over Pt-Eosin Y catalysts with high surface area silica gel as matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojie; Jin, Zhiliang; Li, Yuexiang; Li, Shuben; Lu, Gongxuan

    A new system for the production of hydrogen, constructed using silica gel as a matrix, Eosin Y as a photosensitizer, and Pt as a cocatalyst, has been reported. It was found that the rate of photosensitized hydrogen evolution in the presence of silica gel is enhanced about 10-fold relative to the homogeneous phase, i.e. in the absence of silica gel. The pH value of the solution and the concentration of Eosin Y have remarkable effects on the rate of hydrogen evolution. The optimal pH and concentration of Eosin Y are 7 and 3.60 × 10 -4 mol dm -3 (E/S = 1/3) to 7.24 × 10 -4 mol dm -3 (E/S = 1/1), respectively. Triethanolamine (TEOA) as an electron donor, the rate of hydrogen evolution and the apparent quantum efficiency in the silica gel system under visible-light irradiation (λ ≥ 420 nm) can reach about 43 μmol h -1 and 10.4%, respectively. In addition, the roles of silica gel, Pt and TEOA, respectively; and the probable mechanism of photosensitized hydrogen evolution have been discussed.

  5. Lighting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-09-01

    Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.

  6. Mixed-Matrix Membranes containing an Azine-Linked Covalent Organic Framework: Influence of the polymeric matrix on Post-Combustion CO 2 -capture

    KAUST Repository

    Shan, Meixia

    2017-12-07

    The use of an azine-linked covalent organic framework (ACOF-1) as filler in mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) has been studied for the separation of CO2 from N2. To better understand the mechanisms that govern separation in complex composites, MMMs were prepared with different loadings of ACOF-1 and three different polymers as continuous phase: low flux-mid selectivity Matrimid®, mid flux-high selectivity Polyactive™ and high flux-low selectivity 6FDA:DAM. The homogeneous distribution of ACOF-1 together with the good adhesion between the ACOF-1 particles and the polymer matrices were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. In mixed-gas CO2/N2 separation a clear influence of the polymer used was observed on the performance of the composite membranes. While for Matrimid® and 6FDA:DAM an overall enhancement of the polymer\\'s separation properties could be achieved, in case of Polyactive™ penetration of the more flexible polymer into the COF porosity resulted in a decreased membrane permeability. The best improvement was obtained for Matrimid®-based MMMs, for which a selectivity increase from 29 to 35, together with an enhancement in permeability from 9.5 to 17.7 Barrer for 16wt% COF loading, was observed. Our results demonstrate that the combination of the filler-polymeric matrix pair chosen is crucial. For a given filler the polymer performance improvement strongly depends on the polymeric matrix selected, where a good match between the discontinuous and continuous phase, both in the terms of compatibility and gas separation properties, is necessary to optimize membrane performance.

  7. Control of a White Organic Light Emitting Diode emission parameters using a single doped RGB active layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, D. [Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais e i3N – Instituto de Nanoestruturas, Nanomodelação e Nanofabricação, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Pinto, A.; Califórnia, A.; Gomes, J. [CeNTI – Centro de Nanotecnologia, Materiais Técnicos, Funcionais e Inteligentes, Rua Fernando Mesquita 2785, 4760-034 Vila Nova de Famalicão (Portugal); Pereira, L., E-mail: luiz@ua.pt [Departmento de Física e i3N – Instituto de Nanoestruturas, Nanomodelação e Nanofabricação, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • A simple WOLED for Solid State Lighting is proposed with high color stability. • Energy transfer and electroluminescence dynamics of a single RGB layer for WOLEDs. • White shade modulation and stability over large emitting areas and applied voltages. - Abstract: Solid State Lighting technologies based on Organic Light Emitting Diodes, became an interesting focus due to their unique properties. The use of a unique RGB active layer for white emission, although simple in theory, shows difficulty to stabilize both CIE coordinates and color modulation. In this work, a WOLED using a simple RGB layer, was developed achieving a high color stability and shade modulation. The RGB matrix comprises a blue host material NPB, doped with two guests, a green (Coumarin 153) and a red (DCM1) in low concentrations. The RGB layer carrier dynamics allows for the white emission in low device complexity and high stability. This was also shown independent of the white shade, obtained through small changes in the red dopant resulting in devices ranging from warm to cool white i.e. an easy color tuning. A detailed analysis of the opto-electrical behavior is made.

  8. Control of a White Organic Light Emitting Diode emission parameters using a single doped RGB active layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, D.; Pinto, A.; Califórnia, A.; Gomes, J.; Pereira, L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple WOLED for Solid State Lighting is proposed with high color stability. • Energy transfer and electroluminescence dynamics of a single RGB layer for WOLEDs. • White shade modulation and stability over large emitting areas and applied voltages. - Abstract: Solid State Lighting technologies based on Organic Light Emitting Diodes, became an interesting focus due to their unique properties. The use of a unique RGB active layer for white emission, although simple in theory, shows difficulty to stabilize both CIE coordinates and color modulation. In this work, a WOLED using a simple RGB layer, was developed achieving a high color stability and shade modulation. The RGB matrix comprises a blue host material NPB, doped with two guests, a green (Coumarin 153) and a red (DCM1) in low concentrations. The RGB layer carrier dynamics allows for the white emission in low device complexity and high stability. This was also shown independent of the white shade, obtained through small changes in the red dopant resulting in devices ranging from warm to cool white i.e. an easy color tuning. A detailed analysis of the opto-electrical behavior is made.

  9. Cadherin adhesion, tissue tension, and noncanonical Wnt signaling regulate fibronectin matrix organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzamba, Bette J; Jakab, Karoly R; Marsden, Mungo; Schwartz, Martin A; DeSimone, Douglas W

    2009-03-01

    In this study we demonstrate that planar cell polarity signaling regulates morphogenesis in Xenopus embryos in part through the assembly of the fibronectin (FN) matrix. We outline a regulatory pathway that includes cadherin adhesion and signaling through Rac and Pak, culminating in actin reorganization, myosin contractility, and tissue tension, which, in turn, directs the correct spatiotemporal localization of FN into a fibrillar matrix. Increased mechanical tension promotes FN fibril assembly in the blastocoel roof (BCR), while reduced BCR tension inhibits matrix assembly. These data support a model for matrix assembly in tissues where cell-cell adhesions play an analogous role to the focal adhesions of cultured cells by transferring to integrins the tension required to direct FN fibril formation at cell surfaces.

  10. Unusual patch-matrix organization in the retrosplenial cortex of the reeler mouse and Shaking rat Kawasaki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinohe, Noritaka; Knight, Adrian; Ogawa, Masaharu; Ohshima, Toshio; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Terashima, Toshio; Rockland, Kathleen S

    2008-05-01

    The rat granular retrosplenial cortex (GRS) is a simplified cortex, with distinct stratification and, in the uppermost layers, distinct modularity. Thalamic and cortical inputs are segregated by layers and in layer 1 colocalize, respectively, with apical dendritic bundles originating from neurons in layers 2 or 5. To further investigate this organization, we turned to reelin-deficient reeler mouse and Shaking rat Kawasaki. We found that the disrupted lamination, evident in Nissl stains in these rodents, is in fact a patch-matrix mosaic of segregated afferents and dendrites. Patches consist of thalamocortical connections, visualized by vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2) or AChE. The surrounding matrix consists of corticocortical terminations, visualized by VGluT1 or zinc. Dendrites concentrate in the matrix or patches, depending on whether they are OCAM positive (matrix) or negative (patches). In wild-type rodents and, presumably, mutants, OCAM(+) structures originate from layer 5 neurons. By double labeling for dendrites (filled by Lucifer yellow in fixed slice) and OCAM immunofluorescence, we ascertained 2 populations in reeler: dendritic branches either preferred (putative layer 5 neurons) or avoided (putative supragranular neurons) the OCAM(+) matrix. We conclude that input-target relationships are largely preserved in the mutant GRS and that dendrite-dendrite interactions involving OCAM influence the formation of the mosaic configuration.

  11. Project Effectiveness and the Balance of Power in Matrix Organizations: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    Vasconcellos , Eduardo . "A Model for a Better Understanding of the Matrix Structure." IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, EM-26: 56-65 (August...coercive power correlated negatively with degree of support (39:219-220). Vasconcellos recognized the five common power sources referenced above and...effect. The second variable identified by Vasconcellos was used to differentiate matrix structures. He felt that it was necessary to differentiate

  12. Drosophila convoluted/dALS is an essential gene required for tracheal tube morphogenesis and apical matrix organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Lianna E; Yu, Marcus; Nelson, Kevin S; Laprise, Patrick; Tepass, Ulrich; Beitel, Greg J

    2009-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) control cell and organism growth through evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways. The mammalian acid-labile subunit (ALS) is a secreted protein that complexes with IGFs to modulate their activity. Recent work has shown that a Drosophila homolog of ALS, dALS, can also complex with and modulate the activity of a Drosophila IGF. Here we report the first mutations in the gene encoding dALS. Unexpectedly, we find that these mutations are allelic to a previously described mutation in convoluted (conv), a gene required for epithelial morphogenesis. In conv mutants, the tubes of the Drosophila tracheal system become abnormally elongated without altering tracheal cell number. conv null mutations cause larval lethality, but do not disrupt several processes required for tracheal tube size control, including septate junction formation, deposition of a lumenal/apical extracellular matrix, and lumenal secretion of Vermiform and Serpentine, two putative matrix-modifying proteins. Clearance of lumenal matrix and subcellular localization of clathrin also appear normal in conv mutants. However, we show that Conv/dALS is required for the dynamic organization of the transient lumenal matrix and normal structure of the cuticle that lines the tracheal lumen. These and other data suggest that the Conv/dALS-dependent tube size control mechanism is distinct from other known processes involved in tracheal tube size regulation. Moreover, we present evidence indicating that Conv/dALS has a novel, IGF-signaling independent function in tracheal morphogenesis.

  13. Blue Light Enhances Bacterial Clearance and Reduces Organ Injury During Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Anthony J; Zhang, Xianghong; Griepentrog, John E; Yuan, Du; Collage, Richard D; Waltz, Paul K; Angus, Derek C; Zuckerbraun, Brian S; Rosengart, Matthew R

    2018-05-04

    The physiology of nearly all mammalian organisms are entrained by light and exhibit circadian rhythm. The data derived from animal studies show that light influences immunity, and these neurophysiologic pathways are maximally entrained by the blue spectrum. Here, we hypothesize that bright blue light reduces acute kidney injury by comparison with either bright red or standard, white fluorescent light in mice subjected to sepsis. To further translational relevance, we performed a pilot clinical trial of blue light therapy in human subjects with appendicitis. Laboratory animal research, pilot human feasibility trial. University basic science laboratory and tertiary care hospital. Male C57BL/6J mice, adult (> 17 yr) patients with acute appendicitis. Mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture and were randomly assigned to a 24-hour photoperiod of bright blue, bright red, or ambient white fluorescent light. Subjects with appendicitis were randomized to receive postoperatively standard care or standard care plus high-illuminance blue light. Exposure to bright blue light enhanced bacterial clearance from the peritoneum, reduced bacteremia and systemic inflammation, and attenuated the degree of acute kidney injury. The mechanism involved an elevation in cholinergic tone that augmented tissue expression of the nuclear orphan receptor REV-ERBα and occurred independent of alterations in melatonin or corticosterone concentrations. Clinically, exposure to blue light after appendectomy was feasible and reduced serum interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 concentrations. Modifying the spectrum of light may offer therapeutic utility in sepsis.

  14. Integration of Organic Light Emitting Diodes and Organic Photodetectors for Lab-on-a-Chip Bio-Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Williams

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip (LoC technologies have allowed for the efficient separation and manipulation of various biomaterials, including many diagnostically relevant species. Organic electronics have similarly enjoyed a great deal of research, resulting in tiny, highly efficient, wavelength-selective organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs and organic photodetectors (OPDs. We consider the blend of these technologies for rapid detection and diagnosis of biological species. In the ideal system, optically active or fluorescently labelled biological species can be probed via light emission from OLEDs, and their subsequent light emission can be detected with OPDs. The relatively low cost and simple fabrication of the organic electronic devices suggests the possibility of disposable test arrays. Further, with full integration, the finalized system can be miniaturized and made simple to use. In this review, we consider the design constraints of OLEDs and OPDs required to achieve fully organic electronic optical bio-detection systems. Current approaches to integrated LoC optical sensing are first discussed. Fully realized OLED- and OPD-specific photoluminescence detection systems from literature are then examined, with a specific focus on their ultimate limits of detection. The review highlights the enormous potential in OLEDs and OPDs for integrated optical sensing, and notes the key avenues of research for cheap and powerful LoC bio-detection systems.

  15. Oxidizing gel formulation for nuclear decontamination: rheological and acidic properties of the organic matrix and its ozonolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouy, E.

    2003-10-01

    An acidic and oxidizing gel was formulated with a purely organic matrix, xanthan gum, at low concentrations (1 to 2 wt %). This polymer gel was investigated in various media (aqueous, acidic and ceric) by means of rheology: shear thinning behaviour, thixotropy, yield stress... Evidences of unexpected rheological properties in highly concentrated media show that xanthan is quite convenient for industrial projection of this type of gel on metallic walls in nuclear plants, notwithstanding its time-limited resistance to oxidation (about a few hours). Complexation mechanisms between ceric species and polar sites of the polymer led us to characterise acidic properties of our xanthan sample by potentiometric titration and 1 H NMR techniques. The matrix was finally treated by ozonolysis to suppress organic residues, as required to handle nuclear wastes. In acidic medium, ozonolysis of the gel was achieved successfully while in acidic and ceric medium this process showed limited efficiency, needing further investigation to be clarified. (author)

  16. Lighting

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Lighting Systems Test Facilities aid research that improves the energy efficiency of lighting systems. • Gonio-Photometer: Measures illuminance from each portion of...

  17. Very high efficiency phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices by using rough indium tin oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Aziz, Hany

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) is shown to significantly depend on the roughness of the indium tin oxide (ITO) anode. By using rougher ITO, light trapped in the ITO/organic wave-guided mode can be efficiently extracted, and a light outcoupling enhancement as high as 40% is achieved. Moreover, contrary to expectations, the lifetime of OLEDs is not affected by ITO roughness. Finally, an OLED employing rough ITO anode that exhibits a current efficiency of 56 cd/A at the remarkably high brightness of 10 5  cd/m 2 is obtained. This represents the highest current efficiency at such high brightness to date for an OLED utilizing an ITO anode, without any external light outcoupling techniques. The results demonstrate the significant efficiency benefits of using ITO with higher roughness in OLEDs.

  18. Geometric light trapping with a V-trap for efficient organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Soo Jin

    2013-03-14

    The efficiency of today’s most efficient organic solar cells is primarily limited by the ability of the active layer to absorb all the sunlight. While internal quantum efficiencies exceeding 90% are common, the external quantum efficiency rarely exceeds 70%. Light trapping techniques that increase the ability of a given active layer to absorb light are common in inorganic solar cells but have only been applied to organic solar cells with limited success. Here, we analyze the light trapping mechanism for a cell with a V-shape substrate configuration and demonstrate significantly improved photon absorption in an 5.3%-efficient PCDTBT:PC70BM bulk heterojunction polymer solar cell. The measured short circuit current density improves by 29%, in agreement with model predictions, and the power conversion efficiency increases to 7.2%, a 35% improvement over the performance in the absence of a light trap.

  19. Very high efficiency phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices by using rough indium tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Aziz, Hany, E-mail: h2aziz@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-07-07

    The efficiency of organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) is shown to significantly depend on the roughness of the indium tin oxide (ITO) anode. By using rougher ITO, light trapped in the ITO/organic wave-guided mode can be efficiently extracted, and a light outcoupling enhancement as high as 40% is achieved. Moreover, contrary to expectations, the lifetime of OLEDs is not affected by ITO roughness. Finally, an OLED employing rough ITO anode that exhibits a current efficiency of 56 cd/A at the remarkably high brightness of 10{sup 5} cd/m{sup 2} is obtained. This represents the highest current efficiency at such high brightness to date for an OLED utilizing an ITO anode, without any external light outcoupling techniques. The results demonstrate the significant efficiency benefits of using ITO with higher roughness in OLEDs.

  20. Pure white-light emitting ultrasmall organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunis, Meghan B; Lawrence, Katie N; Dutta, Poulami; Siegel, Amanda P; Sardar, Rajesh

    2016-10-14

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, direct band-gap semiconductors, have shown tremendous promise for optoelectronic device fabrication. We report the first colloidal synthetic approach to prepare ultrasmall (∼1.5 nm diameter), white-light emitting, organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite nanoclusters. The nearly pure white-light emitting ultrasmall nanoclusters were obtained by selectively manipulating the surface chemistry (passivating ligands and surface trap-states) and controlled substitution of halide ions. The nanoclusters displayed a combination of band-edge and broadband photoluminescence properties, covering a major part of the visible region of the solar spectrum with unprecedentedly large quantum yields of ∼12% and photoluminescence lifetime of ∼20 ns. The intrinsic white-light emission of perovskite nanoclusters makes them ideal and low cost hybrid nanomaterials for solid-state lighting applications.

  1. Organic light-emitting diodes with direct contact-printed red, green, blue, and white light-emitting layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sun-Zen; Peng, Shiang-Hau; Ting, Tzu-Yu; Wu, Po-Shien; Lin, Chun-Hao; Chang, Chin-Yeh; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Jou, Jwo-Huei

    2012-10-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using direct contact-printing in the fabrication of monochromatic and polychromatic organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Bright devices with red, green, blue, and white contact-printed light-emitting layers with a respective maximum luminance of 29 000, 29 000, 4000, and 18 000 cd/m2 were obtained with sound film integrity by blending a polymeric host into a molecular host. For the red OLED as example, the maximum luminance was decreased from 29 000 to 5000 cd/m2 as only the polymeric host was used, or decreased to 7000 cd/m2 as only the molecular host was used. The markedly improved device performance achieved in the devices with blended hosts may be attributed to the employed polymeric host that contributed a good film-forming character, and the molecular host that contributed a good electroluminescence character.

  2. Highly efficient phosphor-converted white organic light-emitting diodes with moderate microcavity and light-recycling filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sang-Hwan; Oh, Jeong Rok; Park, Hoo Keun; Kim, Hyoung Kun; Lee, Yong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Gab; Do, Young Rag

    2010-01-18

    We demonstrate the combined effects of a microcavity structure and light-recycling filters (LRFs) on the forward electrical efficiency of phosphor-converted white organic light-emitting diodes (pc-WOLEDs). The introduction of a single pair of low- and high-index layers (SiO(2)/TiO(2)) improves the blue emission from blue OLED and the insertion of blue-passing and yellow-reflecting LRFs enhances the forward yellow emission from the YAG:Ce(3+) phosphors layers. The enhancement of the luminous efficacy of the forward white emission is 1.92 times that of a conventional pc-WOLED with color coordinates of (0.34, 0.34) and a correlated color temperature of about 4800 K.

  3. Enhanced light emission efficiency and current stability by morphology control and thermal annealing of organic light emitting diode devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caria, S [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN), Via P Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Como, E Da [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN), Via P Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Murgia, M [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN), Via P Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Zamboni, R [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN), Via P Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Melpignano, P [Centro Ricerche Plast-Optica (CRP), via Jacopo Linussio 1, 33020 Amaro (UD) (Italy); Biondo, V [Centro Ricerche Plast-Optica (CRP), via Jacopo Linussio 1, 33020 Amaro (UD) (Italy)

    2006-08-23

    The electro-optical behaviour of organic light emitting diode devices (OLEDs) is greatly influenced by the morphology of the films. A major parameter is due to the important role that the morphology of the active organic thin films plays in the phenomena that lead to light emission. For vacuum-grown OLEDs, the morphology of the specific thin films can be varied by modification of the deposition conditions. We have assessed the method (ultrahigh-vacuum organic molecular beam deposition) and conditions (variation of the deposition rate) for electro-emission (EL) optimization in a standard {alpha}-NPB (N,N'-bis-(1-naphthyl)-N,N' diphenyl-1,1' biphenyl-4-4' diamine)/Alq3 (tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium) vacuum-grown OLED device. The best EL performances have been obtained for OLEDs made in ultrahigh vacuum with the Alq3 layer deposited with a differential deposition rate ranging from 1.0 to 0.3Angsts{sup -1}. The results are consistent with a model of different Alq3 morphologies, allowing efficient charge injection at the metal/organic interface, and of the minimization of grain boundaries at the electron-hole recombination interface, allowing efficient radiative excitonic decay. At the same time, with the objective of controlling and stabilizing the morphology changes and stabilizing the charge transport over a long OLED operating time, we have studied the effect of thermal annealing processing in the standard current behaviour of OLEDs. The large current fluctuations typically observed for standard vacuum-grown OLEDs have been smeared out and kept constant over a long operating time by the given thermal annealing conditions. The results are interpreted in terms of the stabilization of intrinsic polymorphism of the organic film's structure induced by thermal energy and leading the morphology to a lowest-energetic configuration.

  4. Extracting the emitter orientation in organic light-emitting diodes from external quantum efficiency measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Tobias D., E-mail: Tobias.Schmidt@physik.uni-augsburg.de; Reichardt, Lukas J.; Wehrmeister, Sebastian; Scholz, Bert J.; Mayr, Christian; Brütting, Wolfgang, E-mail: Wolfgang.Bruetting@physik.uni-augsburg.de [Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Rausch, Andreas F.; Wehlus, Thomas; Reusch, Thilo C. G. [OSRAM OLED GmbH, Wernerwerkstrasse 2, 93049 Regensburg (Germany); Ciarnáin, Rossá Mac; Danz, Norbert [Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering, 07745 Jena (Germany)

    2014-07-28

    Emitter orientation will play a major role in future applications of organic light-emitting diodes due to its strong impact on the efficiency of the devices. Up to now, determining the orientation of transition dipole moments required elaborate angular-dependent measurements of the light emission pattern. In this paper, we present a simplified and straightforward method to extract the emitter orientation from external quantum efficiency measurements. We demonstrate the validity of the method on three different dye-doped emitting systems.

  5. MATRIX-VBS (v1.0): Implementing an Evolving Organic Aerosol Volatility in an Aerosol Microphysics Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chloe Y.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Bauer, Susanne E.

    2017-01-01

    The gas-particle partitioning and chemical aging of semi-volatile organic aerosol are presented in a newly developed box model scheme, where its effect on the growth, composition, and mixing state of particles is examined. The volatility-basis set (VBS) framework is implemented into the aerosol microphysical scheme MATRIX (Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state), which resolves mass and number aerosol concentrations and in multiple mixing-state classes. The new scheme, MATRIX-VBS, has the potential to significantly advance the representation of organic aerosols in Earth system models by improving upon the conventional representation as non-volatile particulate organic matter, often also with an assumed fixed size distribution. We present results from idealized cases representing Beijing, Mexico City, a Finnish forest, and a southeastern US forest, and investigate the evolution of mass concentrations and volatility distributions for organic species across the gas and particle phases, as well as assessing their mixing state among aerosol populations. Emitted semi-volatile primary organic aerosols evaporate almost completely in the intermediate-volatility range, while they remain in the particle phase in the low-volatility range. Their volatility distribution at any point in time depends on the applied emission factors, oxidation by OH radicals, and temperature. We also compare against parallel simulations with the original scheme, which represented only the particulate and non-volatile component of the organic aerosol, examining how differently the condensed-phase organic matter is distributed across the mixing states in the model. The results demonstrate the importance of representing organic aerosol as a semi-volatile aerosol, and explicitly calculating the partitioning of organic species between the gas and particulate phases.

  6. Light represses transcription of asparagine synthetase genes in photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic organs of plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Fongying; Coruzzi, G. (Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States))

    1991-10-01

    Asparagine synthetase (AS) mRNA in Pisum sativum accumulates preferentially in plants grown in the dark. Nuclear run-on experiments demonstrate that expression of both the AS1 and AS2 genes is negatively regulated by light at the level of transcription. A decrease in the transcriptional rate of the AS1 gene can be detected as early as 20 min after exposure to light. Time course experiments reveal that the levels of AS mRNA fluctuate dramatically during a normal light/dark cycle. This is due to a direct effect of light and not to changes associated with circadian rhythm. A novel finding is that the light-repressed expression of the AS1 gene is as dramatic nonphotosynthetic organs such as roots as it is in leaves. Experiments demonstrate that the small amount of light which passes through the soil is sufficient to repress AS1 expression in roots, indicating that light has a direct effect on AS1 gene expression in roots. The negative regulation of AS gene expression by light was shown to be a general phenomenon in plants which also occurs in nonlegumes such as Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and Nicotiana tabacum. Thus, the AS genes can serve as a model with which to dissect the molecular basis for light-regulated transcriptional repression in plants.

  7. Influence of evaporation conditions of Alq3 on the performance of organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fujun; Xu Zheng; Zhao Dewei; Zhao Suling; Jiang Weiwei; Yuan Guangcai; Song Dandan; Wang Yongsheng; Xu Xurong

    2007-01-01

    The influence of evaporation conditions of organic semiconductor material tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium (Alq 3 ) on the performance of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is reported. In the process of organic material thermal evaporation, the chamber was dark or had white light from a 100 W filament lamp. The devices prepared in the dark show higher emission intensity and efficiency compared with the ones prepared in white light under the same driving voltage. Atomic force microscopy measurements show that surface morphology and phase of Alq 3 thin films are quite different for the previous cases. The different evaporation conditions are found to have direct effects on the electrical and luminance performance. The Alq 3 thin films prepared in the dark as active emission layers of OLEDs show higher intensity and efficiency

  8. Matrix proteins as centralized organizers of negative-sense RNA virions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeroos, Lassi; Butcher, Sarah J

    2013-01-01

    Matrix proteins are essential components of most negative-sense RNA, enveloped viruses. They serve a wide range of duties ranging from self-driven membrane budding and coordination of other viral components to modulation of viral transcription. The functional similarity between these proteins is striking, despite major differences in their structures. Whereas biochemical and structural studies have partly been hindered by the inherent aggregation properties of these proteins, their cellular functions are beginning to be understood. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on negative-sense RNA virus matrix proteins and their interactions with other viral and cellular proteins. We also discuss the similarities and differences in matrix protein functions between the different families within the negative-sense RNA viruses.

  9. Uric Acid Spherulites in the Reflector Layer of Firefly Light Organ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, King-Siang; Sheu, Hwo-Shuenn; Hua, Tzu-En; Kang, Mei-Hua; Li, Chia-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background In firefly light organs, reflector layer is a specialized tissue which is believed to play a key role for increasing the bioluminescence intensity through reflection. However, the nature of this unique tissue remains elusive. In this report, we investigated the role, fine structure and nature of the reflector layer in the light organ of adult Luciola cerata. Principal Findings Our results indicated that the reflector layer is capable of reflecting bioluminescence, and contains abundant uric acid. Electron microscopy (EM) demonstrated that the cytosol of the reflector layer's cells is filled with densely packed spherical granules, which should be the uric acid granules. These granules are highly regular in size (∼700 nm in diameter), and exhibit a radial internal structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses revealed that an intense single peak pattern with a d-spacing value of 0.320 nm is specifically detected in the light organ, and is highly similar to the diffraction peak pattern and d-spacing value of needle-formed crystals of monosodium urate monohydrate. However, the molar ratio evaluation of uric acid to various cations (K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) in the light organ deduced that only a few uric acid molecules were in the form of urate salts. Thus, non-salt uric acid should be the source of the diffraction signal detected in the light organ. Conclusions In the light organ, the intense single peak diffraction signal might come from a unique needle-like uric acid form, which is different from other known structures of non-salt uric acid form. The finding of a radial structure in the granules of reflector layer implies that the spherical uric acid granules might be formed by the radial arrangement of needle-formed packing matter. PMID:23441187

  10. Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, N.B.; Kristensen, Helle Halkjær; Wathes, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality......This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality...

  11. Molecular-scale simulation of electroluminescence in a multilayer white organic light-emitting diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mesta, Murat; Carvelli, Marco; de Vries, Rein J

    2013-01-01

    we show that it is feasible to carry out Monte Carlo simulations including all of these molecular-scale processes for a hybrid multilayer organic light-emitting diode combining red and green phosphorescent layers with a blue fluorescent layer. The simulated current density and emission profile......In multilayer white organic light-emitting diodes the electronic processes in the various layers--injection and motion of charges as well as generation, diffusion and radiative decay of excitons--should be concerted such that efficient, stable and colour-balanced electroluminescence can occur. Here...

  12. Photophysical processes and light extraction in organic light emitting devices; Photophysikalische Prozesse und Lichtextraktion in organischen Leuchtdioden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinke, Nils Andre

    2008-11-10

    Alq{sub 3} is the most commonly used material for electron transport and as an emission layer in organic LEDs. However many of its photophysical properties are still unknown. The phosphorescence - known as a low temperature effect - was measured at room temperature for the first time. A new experimental method is presented to identify and characterize a new molecular conversion process into an unknown dark state. This conversion process represents an additional fundamental energy loss channel which is especially important for the development of organic lasers. A physically intuitive model was developed, which allows the calculation of light emission from OLEDs. In addition, a new method for the quantification of optical losses in OLEDs based on an dipole approach has been implemented and verified experimentally. The use of OLEDs was demonstrated for the first time in a chemical sensor, which is based on the detection of the surface plasmon resonance. (orig.)

  13. Supercritical fluid extraction of uranium from tissue paper matrix using organic extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanekar, A.S.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Pathak, P.N.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2009-01-01

    Direct extraction of dried uranyl nitrate from tissue paper matrix was carried out using supercritical carbon dioxide modified with methanol solutions of extractants such as tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and di-n-hexyl octanamide (DHOA)). The effects of temperature, pressure, extractant and nitric acid concentration on the extraction of uranyl ion were investigated. (author)

  14. Proteomic analysis of the organic matrix of the abalone Haliotis asinina calcified shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degnan Bernard M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The formation of the molluscan shell is regulated to a large extent by a matrix of extracellular macromolecules that are secreted by the shell forming tissue, the mantle. This so called "calcifying matrix" is a complex mixture of proteins and glycoproteins that is assembled and occluded within the mineral phase during the calcification process. While the importance of the calcifying matrix to shell formation has long been appreciated, most of its protein components remain uncharacterised. Results Recent expressed sequence tag (EST investigations of the mantle tissue from the tropical abalone (Haliotis asinina provide an opportunity to further characterise the proteins in the shell by a proteomic approach. In this study, we have identified a total of 14 proteins from distinct calcified layers of the shell. Only two of these proteins have been previously characterised from abalone shells. Among the novel proteins are several glutamine- and methionine-rich motifs and hydrophobic glycine-, alanine- and acidic aspartate-rich domains. In addition, two of the new proteins contained Kunitz-like and WAP (whey acidic protein protease inhibitor domains. Conclusion This is one of the first comprehensive proteomic study of a molluscan shell, and should provide a platform for further characterization of matrix protein functions and interactions.

  15. Influence of light-weight organic matters on strontium sorption to bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tsing-Hai; Wu, Ding-Chiang; Teng, Shi-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Light-weight organic matters were frequently observed in groundwater. Their existence had significant influence on the transport of radionuclides. In this study, light-weight organic acid species including oxalic (MW 90), succinic (MW 118), adipic (MW 146), azelaic (MW 188), eicosanedioic (MW 306), benzoic (MW 122), salicylic (MW 138), and gallic (MW 170) were selected as the surrogate of natural organic matters. Their effects on strontium sorption to bentonite were evaluated by using a surface complexation model MINEQL+. Under this framework, three sorption mechanisms were considered: 1. structure sorption sites, 2. edge sorption sites, 3. further hydration of adsorbed Sr 2+ . The presence of organic species had no influence on Sr cation sorption to structure sorption sites. However, Sr cation sorption to edge sorption was affected by the organics to certain extent. For example, sorption capability of edge sites toward Sr was increased by the gallic species. Furthermore, hydration of adsorbed Sr was significantly affected by the presence of organic species. This might relate to that adsorbed Sr would become the bridge associating organic species on bentonite surfaces, but this argument required more solid spectral evidences to support. Some preliminary observations on Sr sorption to bentonite were obtained in this work; however, further experiments are still required by conducting experiments with more variety of organic species. By doing a comprehensive study, it would be much beneficial to make a more accurate evaluation of the influence of organic matters on Sr sorption

  16. Creating identity with nature inspired lighting design – The Sensitive Organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiort-Lorenzen Anna-Rosa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available People, as living organisms, exist in symbiosis with nature; therefore, contact with nature is a basic human need. City nature is an important aspect of the urban living environment because people need an escapist experience from the everyday city life that they should find within their close environment. The outdoor lighting of urban nightscapes has a major influence on people's perception of space. Cities with an increasing number of inhabitants and late-night economic activity transform into 24-hour operating cities. This means that more attention should be given to investigating the social needs of public spaces in terms of night-time urban lighting, creating experiences and identities with nature. This paper aims to emphasize the potential hidden in nature-inspired lighting as a topic for further development in the field of lighting design. Nature inspired lighting is based on a transdisciplinary approach, where terms like biomimicry, biophilia, and urban green space adopted from other subject fields than lighting influence the lighting design process in order to create a product addressing human inner connectedness to nature. The example used in this paper presents the concept of a lighting master plan called “The Sensitive Organism”.

  17. A review on organic spintronic materials and devices: I. Magnetic field effect on organic light emitting diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rugang Geng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic spintronics is an emerging and potential platform for future electronics and display due to the intriguing properties of organic semiconductors (OSCs. For the past decade, studies have focused on three types of organic spintronic phenomena: (i magnetic field effect (MFE in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs, where spin mixing between singlet and triplet polaron pairs (PP can be influenced by an external magnetic field leading to organic magnetoresistive effect (OMAR; (ii magnetoresistance (MR in organic spin valves (OSVs, where spin injection, transport, manipulation, and detection have been demonstrated; and (iii magnetoelectroluminescence (MEL bipolar OSVs or spin-OLEDs, where spin polarized electrons and holes are simultaneously injected into the OSC layer, leading to the dependence of electroluminescence intensity on relative magnetization of the electrodes. In this first of two review papers, we present major experimental results on OMAR studies and current understanding of OMAR using several spin dependent processes in organic semiconductors. During the discussion, we highlight some of the outstanding challenges in this promising research field. Finally, we provide an outlook on the future of organic spintronics.

  18. The Absorption of Light in Lakes: Negative Impact of Dissolved Organic Carbon on Primary Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Thrane, Jan-Erik; Hessen, Dag O.; Andersen, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorbs a substantial fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in boreal lakes. However, few studies have systematically estimated how this light absorption influences pelagic primary productivity. In this study, 75 boreal lakes spanning wide and orthogonal gradients in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total phosphorus (TP) were sampled during a synoptic survey. We measured absorption spectra of phytoplankton pigments, CDOM, and non-algal...

  19. Near-Infrared to Visible Organic Upconversion Devices Based on Organic Light-Emitting Field Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongwei; Hu, Yongsheng; Zhang, Nan; Lv, Ying; Lin, Jie; Guo, Xiaoyang; Fan, Yi; Luo, Jinsong; Liu, Xingyuan

    2017-10-18

    The near-infrared (NIR) to visible upconversion devices have attracted great attention because of their potential applications in the fields of night vision, medical imaging, and military security. Herein, a novel all-organic upconversion device architecture has been first proposed and developed by incorporating a NIR absorption layer between the carrier transport layer and the emission layer in heterostructured organic light-emitting field effect transistors (OLEFETs). The as-prepared devices show a typical photon-to-photon upconversion efficiency as high as 7% (maximum of 28.7% under low incident NIR power intensity) and millisecond-scale response time, which are the highest upconversion efficiency and one of the fastest response time among organic upconversion devices as referred to the previous reports up to now. The high upconversion performance mainly originates from the gain mechanism of field-effect transistor structures and the unique advantage of OLEFETs to balance between the photodetection and light emission. Meanwhile, the strategy of OLEFETs also offers the advantage of high integration so that no extra OLED is needed in the organic upconversion devices. The results would pave way for low-cost, flexible and portable organic upconversion devices with high efficiency and simplified processing.

  20. High-performance flexible inverted organic light-emitting diodes by exploiting MoS2 nanopillar arrays as electron-injecting and light-coupling layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kunping; Si, Changfeng; Han, Ceng; Pan, Saihu; Chen, Guo; Zheng, Yanqiong; Zhu, Wenqing; Zhang, Jianhua; Sun, Chang; Wei, Bin

    2017-10-05

    Inverted organic light-emitting diodes (IOLEDs) on plastic substrates have great potential application in flexible active-matrix displays. High energy consumption, instability and poor electron injection are key issues limiting the commercialization of flexible IOLEDs. Here, we have systematically investigated the electrooptical properties of molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) and applied it in developing highly efficient and stable blue fluorescent IOLEDs. We have demonstrated that MoS 2 -based IOLEDs can significantly improve electron-injecting capacity. For the MoS 2 -based device on plastic substrates, we have achieved a very high external quantum efficiency of 7.3% at the luminance of 9141 cd m -2 , which is the highest among the flexible blue fluorescent IOLEDs reported. Also, an approximately 1.8-fold improvement in power efficiency was obtained compared to glass-based IOLEDs. We attributed the enhanced performance of flexible IOLEDs to MoS 2 nanopillar arrays due to their light extraction effect. The van der Waals force played an important role in the formation of MoS 2 nanopillar arrays by thermal evaporation. Notably, MoS 2 -based flexible IOLEDs exhibit an intriguing efficiency roll-up, that is, the current efficiency increases slightly from 14.0 to 14.6 cd A -1 with the luminance increasing from 100 to 5000 cd m -2 . In addition, we observed that the initial brightness of 500 cd m -2 can be maintained at 97% after bending for 500 cycles, demonstrating the excellent mechanical stability of flexible IOLEDs. Furthermore, we have successfully fabricated a transparent, flexible IOLED with low efficiency roll-off at high current density.

  1. On the Properties and Design of Organic Light-Emitting Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Nicholas C.

    Organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) are attractive for use in next-generation display and lighting technologies. In display applications, OLEDs offer a wide emission color gamut, compatibility with flexible substrates, and high power efficiencies. In lighting applications, OLEDs offer attractive features such as broadband emission, high-performance, and potential compatibility with low-cost manufacturing methods. Despite recent demonstrations of near unity internal quantum efficiencies (photons out per electron in), OLED adoption lags conventional technologies, particularly in large-area displays and general lighting applications. This thesis seeks to understand the optical and electronic properties of OLED materials and device architectures which lead to not only high peak efficiency, but also reduced device complexity, high efficiency under high excitation, and optimal white-light emission. This is accomplished through the careful manipulation of organic thin film compositions fabricated via vacuum thermal evaporation, and the introduction of a novel device architecture, the graded-emissive layer (G-EML). This device architecture offers a unique platform to study the electronic properties of varying compositions of organic semiconductors and the resulting device performance. This thesis also introduces an experimental technique to measure the spatial overlap of electrons and holes within an OLED's emissive layer. This overlap is an important parameter which is affected by the choice of materials and device design, and greatly impacts the operation of the OLED at high excitation densities. Using the G-EML device architecture, OLEDs with improved efficiency characteristics are demonstrated, achieving simultaneously high brightness and high efficiency.

  2. The effect of polarized light on the organization of collagen secreted by fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akilbekova, Dana; Boddupalli, Anuraag; Bratlie, Kaitlin M

    2018-04-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of low-power lasers and polarized light on wound healing, inflammation, and the treatment of rheumatologic and neurologic disorders. The overall effect of laser irradiation treatment is still controversial due to the lack of studies on the biochemical mechanisms and the optimal parameters for the incident light that should be chosen for particular applications. Here, we study how NIH/3T3 fibroblasts respond to irradiation with linearly polarized light at different polarization angles. In particular, we examined vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion, differentiation to myofibroblasts, and collagen organization in response to 800 nm polarized light at 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135° with a power density of 40 mW/cm 2 for 6 min every day for 6 days. Additional experiments were conducted in which the polarization angle of the incident was changed every day to induce an isotropic distribution of collagen. The data presented here shows that polarized light can upregulate VEGF production, myofibroblast differentiation, and induce different collagen organization in response to different polarization angles of the incident beam. These results are encouraging and demonstrate possible methods for controlling cell response through the polarization angle of the laser light, which has potential for the treatment of wounds.

  3. Hole injection enhancement in organic light emitting devices using plasma treated graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesuraj, P. Justin; Parameshwari, R. [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India); Kanthasamy, K.; Koch, J. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, ATMOS, Appelstr. 2, D-30167, Hannover (Germany); Pfnür, H. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, ATMOS, Appelstr. 2, D-30167, Hannover (Germany); Laboratorium für Nano- und Quantene$ngineering, Schneiderberg 30, D-30167, Hannover (Germany); Jeganathan, K., E-mail: kjeganathan@yahoo.com [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, 620 024, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2017-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Plasma treated Graphene oxide for hole injection enhancement in OLEDs. - Highlights: • Oxygen (O{sub 2}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) plasma exposed graphene oxide (GO) sheets have been demonstrated as hole buffer layers in OLEDs. • O{sub 2} plasma exposure induces assimilation of oxygen contents in GO lattice resulting in improved work function that reduced the hole injection barrier further. Whereas, H{sub 2} plasma contrastingly reduced the GO by excluding oxygen which ensuing lower work function. • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy investigations reveal the capricious amount of oxygen in GO lattice and its corresponding work function variations. • GO and O{sub 2} plasma treated GO significantly improves the current efficiency of OLEDs more than one order with notable reduction in turn on voltage. - Abstract: The hole injection layer (HIL) with high work function (WF) is desirable to reduce the injection barrier between anode and hole transport layer in organic light emitting devices (OLED). Here, we report a novel approach to tune the WF of graphene oxide (GO) using oxygen and hydrogen plasma treatment and its hole injection properties in OLEDs. The mild exposure of oxygen plasma on GO (O{sub 2}-GO) significantly reduces the injection barrier by increasing the WF of anode (4.98 eV) through expansion of C−O bonds. In contrast, the hole injection barrier was drastically increased for hydrogen plasma treated GO (H{sub 2}-GO) layers as the WF is lowered by the contraction of C−O bond. By employing active O{sub 2}-GO as HIL in OLEDs found to exhibit superior current efficiency of 4.2 cd/A as compared to 3.3 cd/A for pristine GO. Further, the high injection efficiency of O{sub 2}-GO infused hole only device can be attributed to the improved energy level matching. Ultraviolet and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to correlate the WF of HIL infused anode towards the enhanced performance of

  4. The ultra-structural organization of the elastic network in the intra- and inter-lamellar matrix of the intervertebral disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, J; Elliott, D M; Costi, J J

    2017-08-01

    The inter-lamellar matrix (ILM)-located between adjacent lamellae of the annulus fibrosus-consists of a complex structure of elastic fibers, while elastic fibers of the intra-lamellar region are aligned predominantly parallel to the collagen fibers. The organization of elastic fibers under low magnification, in both inter- and intra-lamellar regions, was studied by light microscopic analysis of histologically prepared samples; however, little is known about their ultrastructure. An ultrastructural visualization of elastic fibers in the inter-lamellar matrix is crucial for describing their contribution to structural integrity, as well as mechanical properties of the annulus fibrosus. The aims of this study were twofold: first, to present an ultrastructural analysis of the elastic fiber network in the ILM and intra-lamellar region, including cross section (CS) and in-plane (IP) lamellae, of the AF using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and second, to -compare the elastic fiber orientation between the ILM and intra-lamellar region. Four samples (lumbar sheep discs) from adjacent sections (30μm thickness) of anterior annulus were partially digested by a developed NaOH-sonication method for visualization of elastic fibers by SEM. Elastic fiber orientation and distribution were quantified relative to the tangential to circumferential reference axis. Visualization of the ILM under high magnification revealed a dense network of elastic fibers that has not been previously described. Within the ILM, elastic fibers form a complex network, consisting of different size and shape fibers, which differed to those located in the intra-lamellar region. For both regions, the majority of fibers were oriented near 0° with respect to tangential to circumferential (TCD) direction and two minor symmetrical orientations of approximately±45°. Statistically, the orientation of elastic fibers between the ILM and intra-lamellar region was not different (p=0.171). The present study used

  5. Organic Thin Films Deposited by Emulsion-Based, Resonant Infrared, Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation: Fundamentals and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Wangyao

    Thin film deposition techniques are indispensable to the development of modern technologies as thin film based optical coatings, optoelectronic devices, sensors, and biological implants are the building blocks of many complicated technologies, and their performance heavily depends on the applied deposition technique. Particularly, the emergence of novel solution-processed materials, such as soft organic molecules, inorganic compounds and colloidal nanoparticles, facilitates the development of flexible and printed electronics that are inexpensive, light weight, green and smart, and these thin film devices represent future trends for new technologies. One appealing feature of solution-processed materials is that they can be deposited into thin films using solution-processed deposition techniques that are straightforward, inexpensive, high throughput and advantageous to industrialize thin film based devices. However, solution-processed techniques rely on wet deposition, which has limitations in certain applications, such as multi-layered film deposition of similar materials and blended film deposition of dissimilar materials. These limitations cannot be addressed by traditional, vacuum-based deposition techniques because these dry approaches are often too energetic and can degrade soft materials, such as polymers, such that the performance of resulting thin film based devices is compromised. The work presented in this dissertation explores a novel thin film deposition technique, namely emulsion-based, resonant infrared, matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE), which combines characteristics of wet and dry deposition techniques for solution-processed materials. Previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE to deposit uniform and continuous organic, nanoparticle and blended films, as well as hetero-structures that otherwise are difficult to achieve. However, fundamental understanding of the growth mechanisms that govern

  6. Advances in phosphors based on organic materials for light emitting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Kashma; Kumar, Vijay; Kumar, Vinod; Swart, Hendrik C.

    2016-01-01

    A brief overview is presented in the light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on purely organic materials. Organic LEDs are of great interest to the research community because of their outstanding properties and flexibility. Comparison between devices made using different organic materials and their derivatives with respect to synthetic protocols, characterizations, quantum efficiencies, sensitivity, specificity and their applications in various fields have been discussed. This review also discusses the essential requirement and scientific issues that arise in synthesizing cost-effective and environmental friendly organic LEDs diodes based on purely organic materials. This mini review aims to capture and convey some of the key current developments in phosphors formed by purely organic materials and highlights some possible future applications. Hence, this study comes up with a widespread discussion on the various contents in a single platform. Also, it offers avenues for new researchers for futuristic development in the area.

  7. Passivation of organic light emitting diode anode grid lines by pulsed Joule heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janka, M.; Gierth, R.; Rubingh, J.E.; Abendroth, M.; Eggert, M.; Moet, D.J.D.; Lupo, D.

    2015-01-01

    We report the self-aligned passivation of a current distribution grid for an organic light emitting diode (OLED) anode using a pulsed Joule heating method to align the passivation layer accurately on the metal grid. This method involves passing an electric current through the grid to cure a polymer

  8. Surface plasmon polariton generation by light scattering off aligned organic nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsen, Esben; Søndergaard, Thomas; Fiutowski, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Leakage radiation spectroscopy has been applied to study surface plasmon polariton (SPP) generation by light scattered off aligned organic nanofibers deposited on a thin silver film. The efficiency of SPP generation was studied by angularly resolved leakage radiation spectroscopy as a function of...

  9. Plants lacking the main light-harvesting complex retain photosystem II macro-organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruban, A.V.; Wentworth, M.; Yakushevska, A.E.; Andersson, J.; Lee, P.J.; Keegstra, W.; Dekker, J.P.; Boekema, E.J.; Jansson, S.; Horton, P.

    2003-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a key component of photosynthesis, the process of converting sunlight into the chemical energy of life. In plant cells, it forms a unique oligomeric macrostructure in membranes of the chloroplasts. Several light-harvesting antenna complexes are organized precisely in the

  10. Plants lacking the main light-harvesting complex retain photosystem II macro-organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruban, AV; Wentworth, M; Yakushevska, AE; Andersson, J; Lee, PJ; Keegstra, W; Dekker, JP; Boekema, EJ; Jansson, S; Horton, P

    2003-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a key component of photosynthesis, the process of converting sunlight into the chemical energy of life. In plant cells, it forms a unique oligomeric macrostructure in membranes of the chloroplasts(1). Several light-harvesting antenna complexes are organized precisely in the

  11. A triphenylamine substituted quinacridone derivative for solution processed organic light emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilz da Cunha, M.; Do, T.T.; Yambem, S.D.; Pham, H.D.; Chang, S.; Manzhos, S.; Katoh, R.; Sonar, P.

    2018-01-01

    We report on a novel quinacridone derivative design, namely, 2,9-bis(4-(bis(4-methoxyphenyl)amino)phenyl)-5,12-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-5,12-dihydroquinolino[2,3-b]acridine-7,14-dione (TPA-QA-TPA) for possible use as a solution processable emissive layer in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). TPA-QA-TPA

  12. Device Optimization and Transient Electroluminescence Studies of Organic light Emitting Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijuan Zou

    2003-01-01

    Organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) are among the most promising for flat panel display technologies. They are light, bright, flexible, and cost effective. And while they are emerging in commercial product, their low power efficiency and long-term degradation are still challenging. The aim of this work was to investigate their device physics and improve their performance. Violet and blue OLEDs were studied. The devices were prepared by thermal vapor deposition in high vacuum. The combinatorial method was employed in device preparation. Both continuous wave and transient electroluminescence (EL) were studied. A new efficient and intense UV-violet light emitting device was developed. At a current density of 10 mA/cm 2 , the optimal radiance R could reach 0.38 mW/cm 2 , and the quantum efficiency was 1.25%. using the delayed EL technique, electron mobilities in DPVBi and CBP were determined to be ∼ 10 -5 cm 2 /Vs and ∼ 10 -4 cm 2 /Vs, respectively. Overshoot effects in the transient El of blue light emitting devices were also observed and studied. This effect was attributed to the charge accumulation at the organic/organic and organic/cathode interfaces

  13. Efficient electron injection from solution-processed cesium stearate interlayers in organic light-emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzelaer, G. A. H.; Najafi, A.; Kist, R. J. P.; Kuik, M.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2013-01-01

    The electron-injection capability of solution-processed cesium stearate films in organic light-emitting diodes is investigated. Cesium stearate, which is expected to exhibit good solubility and film formation due to its long hydrocarbon chain, is synthesized using a straightforward procedure.

  14. Tuning Optoelectronic Properties of Ambipolar Organic Light-Emitting Transistors Using a Bulk-Heterojunction Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loi, Maria Antonietta; Rost-Bietsch, Constance; Murgia, Mauro; Karg, Siegfried; Riess, Walter; Muccini, Michele

    2006-01-01

    Bulk-heterojunction engineering is demonstrated as an approach to producing ambipolar organic light-emitting field-effect transistors with tunable electrical and optoelectronic characteristics. The electron and hole mobilities, as well as the electroluminescence intensity, can be tuned over a large

  15. Device Optimization and Transient Electroluminescence Studies of Organic light Emitting Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lijuan Zou

    2003-08-05

    Organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) are among the most promising for flat panel display technologies. They are light, bright, flexible, and cost effective. And while they are emerging in commercial product, their low power efficiency and long-term degradation are still challenging. The aim of this work was to investigate their device physics and improve their performance. Violet and blue OLEDs were studied. The devices were prepared by thermal vapor deposition in high vacuum. The combinatorial method was employed in device preparation. Both continuous wave and transient electroluminescence (EL) were studied. A new efficient and intense UV-violet light emitting device was developed. At a current density of 10 mA/cm{sup 2}, the optimal radiance R could reach 0.38 mW/cm{sup 2}, and the quantum efficiency was 1.25%. using the delayed EL technique, electron mobilities in DPVBi and CBP were determined to be {approx} 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/Vs and {approx} 10{sup -4} cm{sup 2}/Vs, respectively. Overshoot effects in the transient El of blue light emitting devices were also observed and studied. This effect was attributed to the charge accumulation at the organic/organic and organic/cathode interfaces.

  16. Highly efficient exciplex organic light-emitting diodes incorporating a heptazine derivative as an electron acceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Nomura, Hiroko; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Adachi, Chihaya

    2014-06-11

    Highly efficient exciplex systems incorporating a heptazine derivative () as an electron acceptor and 1,3-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)benzene () as an electron donor are developed. An organic light-emitting diode containing 8 wt% : as an emitting layer exhibits a maximum external quantum efficiency of 11.3%.

  17. Photoswitchable metal organic frameworks: turn on the lights and close the windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Ortega, S.; Kapteijn, F.; Gascon Sabate, J.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of modulating the properties of metal–organic frameworks (MOF) on demand by external light-stimuli is a most appealing pathway to enhance their performance in storage and separation and to render novel advanced applications. Photoswitchable linkers of different nature have been inserted

  18. Numerical study on electronic and optical properties of organic light emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwangsik; Hwang, Youngwook; Won, Taeyoung

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we present a finite element method (FEM) study of space charge effects in organic light emitting diodes. Our model includes a Gaussian density of states to account for the energetic disorder in organic semiconductors and the Fermi-Dirac statistics to account for the charge hopping process between uncorrelated sites. The physical model cover all the key physical processes in OLEDs, namely charge injection, transport and recombination, exciton diffusion, transfer and decay as well as light coupling, and thin-film-optics. The exciton model includes generation, diffusion, and energy transfer as well as annihilation. We assumed that the light emission originates from oscillating and thus embodied as excitons and embedded in a stack of multilayer. The out-coupled emission spectrum has been numerically calculated as a function of viewing angle, polarization, and dipole orientation. We discuss the accumulation of charges at internal interfaces and their signature in the transient response as well as the electric field distribution.

  19. Photochemical and radiation-chemical aspects of matrix acidity effects on some organic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroz, H. B.; Przybytniak, G. K.; Wronska, T.; Kemp, T. J.

    The role of matrix effects in radiolysis and photolysis is illustrated using two systems: organosulphur compounds and benzenediazonium salts. Their intermediates as detected by low temperature ESR and optical spectroscopy or FAB-MS give evidence that the main reaction pathways depend strongly on these effects. Changes in matrix acidity can control the formation of neutral radical, ion-radical or ionic species which are crucial to the character of the final products of irradiation of organosulphur compounds, which are of great importance in medicine, biology, ecology and industry. Microenvironmental influences determine whether the triplet aryl cation or radical species are detected as the principal or sole intermediates in the decomposition of diazonium salts, a process leading to different stable products with industrial application.

  20. A New Niche for Vibrio logei, the Predominant Light Organ Symbiont of Squids in the Genus Sepiola

    OpenAIRE

    Fidopiastis, Pat M.; von Boletzky, Sigurd; Ruby, Edward G.

    1998-01-01

    Two genera of sepiolid squids—Euprymna, found primarily in shallow, coastal waters of Hawaii and the Western Pacific, and Sepiola, the deeper-, colder-water-dwelling Mediterranean and Atlantic squids—are known to recruit luminous bacteria into light organ symbioses. The light organ symbiont of Euprymna spp. is Vibrio fischeri, but until now, the light organ symbionts of Sepiola spp. have remained inadequately identified. We used a combination of molecular and physiological characteristics to ...

  1. Evaluation of supercritical fluid extraction/gas chromatography/matrix isolation-infrared spectrometry for analysis of organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bopari, A.S.; Bierma, D.R.; Applegate, D.V.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of soil samples for organic compounds typically first requires Soxhlet extraction or sonication. These processes are time consuming and generate large amounts of waste solvent. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), which uses a supercritical fluid such as carbon dioxide, has recently been shown to extract organic compounds from soil samples in good yields. Moreover, SFE does not generate waste solvent and can be performed rapidly. Gas Chromatography/Matrix Isolation-Infrared Spectrometry (GC/MI-IR) has been used in our laboratories for determining organic compounds present in extracts from various matrices. The authors have interfaced an SFE extraction apparatus to GC/MI-IR instruments. In this paper the utility of SPE/GC/MI-IR instrumentation is discussed

  2. Thickness-dependent photocatalytic performance of graphite oxide for degrading organic pollutants under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Junghoon; Chang, Yun Hee; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Park, Sungjin

    2016-04-28

    Photocatalysts use sustainable solar light energy to trigger various catalytic reactions. Metal-free nanomaterials have been suggested as cost-effective and environmentally friendly photocatalysts. In this work, we propose thickness-controlled graphite oxide (GO) as a metal-free photocatalyst, which is produced by exfoliating thick GO particles via stirring and sonication. All GO samples exhibit photocatalytic activity for degrading an organic pollutant, rhodamine B under visible light, and the thickest sample shows the best catalytic performance. UV-vis-NIR diffuse reflectance absorption spectra indicate that thicker GO samples absorb more vis-NIR light than thinner ones. Density-functional theory calculations show that GO has a much smaller band gap than that of single-layer graphene oxide, and thus suggest that the largely-reduced band gap is responsible for this trend of light absorption.

  3. Novel Strategy for Photopatterning Emissive Polymer Brushes for Organic Light Emitting Diode Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Zachariah A; Narupai, Benjaporn; Pester, Christian W; Bou Zerdan, Raghida; Sokolov, Anatoliy; Laitar, David S; Mukhopadhyay, Sukrit; Sprague, Scott; McGrath, Alaina J; Kramer, John W; Trefonas, Peter; Hawker, Craig J

    2017-06-28

    A light-mediated methodology to grow patterned, emissive polymer brushes with micron feature resolution is reported and applied to organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays. Light is used for both initiator functionalization of indium tin oxide and subsequent atom transfer radical polymerization of methacrylate-based fluorescent and phosphorescent iridium monomers. The iridium centers play key roles in photocatalyzing and mediating polymer growth while also emitting light in the final OLED structure. The scope of the presented procedure enables the synthesis of a library of polymers with emissive colors spanning the visible spectrum where the dopant incorporation, position of brush growth, and brush thickness are readily controlled. The chain-ends of the polymer brushes remain intact, affording subsequent chain extension and formation of well-defined diblock architectures. This high level of structure and function control allows for the facile preparation of random ternary copolymers and red-green-blue arrays to yield white emission.

  4. Optical properties and aging of light-absorbing secondary organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The light-absorbing organic aerosol (OA commonly referred to as “brown carbon” (BrC has attracted considerable attention in recent years because of its potential to affect atmospheric radiation balance, especially in the ultraviolet region and thus impact photochemical processes. A growing amount of data has indicated that BrC is prevalent in the atmosphere, which has motivated numerous laboratory and field studies; however, our understanding of the relationship between the chemical composition and optical properties of BrC remains limited. We conducted chamber experiments to investigate the effect of various volatile organic carbon (VOC precursors, NOx concentrations, photolysis time, and relative humidity (RH on the light absorption of selected secondary organic aerosols (SOA. Light absorption of chamber-generated SOA samples, especially aromatic SOA, was found to increase with NOx concentration, at moderate RH, and for the shortest photolysis aging times. The highest mass absorption coefficient (MAC value is observed from toluene SOA products formed under high-NOx conditions at moderate RH, in which nitro-aromatics were previously identified as the major light-absorbing compounds. BrC light absorption is observed to decrease with photolysis time, correlated with a decline of the organic nitrate fraction of SOA. SOA formed from mixtures of aromatics and isoprene absorb less visible (Vis and ultraviolet (UV light than SOA formed from aromatic precursors alone on a mass basis. However, the mixed SOA absorption was underestimated when optical properties were predicted using a two-product SOA formation model, as done in many current climate models. Further investigation, including analysis on detailed mechanisms, are required to explain the discrepancy.

  5. Enhanced Emission by Accumulated Charges at Organic/Metal Interfaces Generated during the Reverse Bias of Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichiro Nozoe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A high frequency rectangular alternating voltage was applied to organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs with the structure ITO/TPD/Alq3/Al and ITO/CoPc/Alq3/Al, where ITO is indium-tin-oxide, TPD is 4,4′-bis[N-phenyl-N-(m-tolylamino]biphenyl, CoPc is cobalt phthalocyanine, and Alq3 is Tris(8-quinolinolatoaluminum, and the effect on emission of the reverse bias was examined. The results reveal that the emission intensity under an alternating reverse-forward bias is greater than that under an alternating zero-forward bias. The difference in the emission intensity (∆I increased both for decreasing frequency and increasing voltage level of the reverse bias. In particular, the change in emission intensity was proportional to the voltage level of the reverse bias given the same frequency. To understand ΔI, this paper proposes a model in which an OLED works as a capacitor under reverse bias, where positive and negative charges accumulate on the metal/organic interfaces. In this model, the emission enhancement that occurs during the alternating reverse-forward bias is rationalized as a result of the charge accumulation at the organic/metal interfaces during the reverse bias, which possibly modulates the vacuum level shifts at the organic/metal interfaces to reduce both the hole injection barrier at the organic/ITO interface and the electron injection barrier at the organic/Al interface under forward bias.

  6. Frustrated total internal reflection in organic light-emitting diodes employing sphere cavity embedded in polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Peifen

    2016-01-01

    The light extraction efficiency of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is numerically investigated employing the finite-difference time-domain method. The periodic nanostructures formed by embedding the sphere arrays in polystyrene (PS) are placed on top of OLED to frustrate the total internal reflection at the interface between OLED and free space. These nanostructures serve as an intermediate medium to extract the light out of OLED devices. Efficiently coupling both evanescent waves and propagation waves into spheres and subsequently extracting these light waves out of the sphere is key to achieving high extraction efficiency. By tuning the thickness of PS layer, both of the in-coupling efficiency and out-coupling efficiency are optimized for achieving high light extraction efficiency. Thicker PS layer results in higher in-coupling efficiency in sphere while the thinner PS layer leads to higher out-coupling efficiency. Thus the maximum light extraction is a trade-off between the in-coupling efficiency and out-coupling efficiency. The study shows that light extraction efficiency of 89% can be achieved by embedding 0.90 μm TiO 2 sphere in 0.30 μm PS layer with optimized in-coupling efficiency, out-coupling efficiency and cavity effect. (paper)

  7. Prenatal cocaine increases striatal serotonin innervation without altering the patch/matrix organization of intrinsic cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder-Keller, A M; Keller, R W

    1993-08-20

    The effect of prenatal cocaine on the anatomical development of the striatum was examined. The distribution and density of dopaminergic innervation of the striatum of animals exposed to cocaine during the second and third week of gestation was not noticeably different from prenatally saline-injected or untreated controls at any age. The patch/matrix organization of the striatum also appeared unaltered: neurons exhibiting dense substance P staining were localized to patches that overlapped dopamine terminal patches early in development, and enkephalin- and calbindin-immunoreactive neurons were found segregated to the matrix. Histochemical staining for acetylcholinesterase and NADPH diaphorase also revealed no differences between prenatally cocaine-treated and control brains. Whereas prenatal cocaine treatment failed to modify the basic compartmental organization of the striatum, it did lead to a hyperinnervation of serotonin-immunoreactive fibers which developed slowly after birth. Thus prenatal exposure to cocaine is capable of altering the ingrowth of serotonergic projections to the striatum while producing no change in the organization of neurons intrinsic to the striatum.

  8. Growth and morphogenesis of embryonic mouse organs on non-coated and extracellular matrix-coated Biopore membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, P.; Klement, B. J.; Spooner, B. S.

    1993-01-01

    Embryonic mouse salivary glands, pancreata, and kidneys were isolated from embryos of appropriate gestational age by microdissection, and were cultured on Biopore membrane either non-coated or coated with type I collagen or Matrigel. As expected, use of Biopore membrane allowed high quality photomicroscopy of the living organs. In all organs extensive mesenchymal spreading was observed in the presence of type I collagen or Matrigel. However, differences were noted in the effects of extracellular matrix (ECM) coatings on epithelial growth and morphogenesis: salivary glands were minimally affected, pancreas morphogenesis was adversely affected, and kidney growth and branching apparently was enhanced. It is suggested that these differences in behaviour reflect differences in the strength of interactions between the mesenchymal cells and their surrounding endogenous matrix, compared to the exogenous ECM macromolecules. This method will be useful for culture of these and other embryonic organs. In particular, culture of kidney rudiments on ECM-coated Biopore offers a great improvement over previously used methods which do not allow morphogenesis to be followed in vitro.

  9. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes on Solution-Processed Graphene Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Junbo

    2010-01-26

    Theoretical estimates indicate that graphene thin films can be used as transparent electrodes for thin-film devices such as solar cells and organic light-emitting diodes, with an unmatched combination of sheet resistance and transparency. We demonstrate organic light-emitting diodes with solution-processed graphene thin film transparent conductive anodes. The graphene electrodes were deposited on quartz substrates by spincoating of an aqueous dispersion of functionalized graphene, followed by a vacuum anneal step to reduce the sheet resistance. Small molecular weight organic materials and a metal cathode were directly deposited on the graphene anodes, resulting in devices with a performance comparable to control devices on indium-tin-oxide transparent anodes. The outcoupling efficiency of devices on graphene and indium-tin-oxide is nearly identical, in agreement with model predictions. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  10. Exact matrix treatment of statistical mechanical lattice model of adsorption induced gate opening in metal-organic frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, Lawrence J; Manos, George

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a statistical mechanical lattice model which is exactly solvable using a matrix method and allows treatment of adsorption induced gate opening structural transformations of metal-organic frameworks which are nanoporous materials with exceptional adsorption properties. Modelling of these structural changes presents a serious theoretical challenge when the solid and gas species are treated in an even handed way. This exactly solvable model complements other simulation based approaches. The methodology presented here highlights the competition between the potential for adsorption and the energy required for structural transition as a driving force for the features in the adsorption isotherms. (paper)

  11. Oxygen vacancy rich Cu2O based composite material with nitrogen doped carbon as matrix for photocatalytic H2 production and organic pollutant removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lele; Xu, Xinxin; Yan, Jiaming; Shi, Fa-Nian; Huo, Yuqiu

    2018-02-06

    A nitrogen doped carbon matrix supported Cu 2 O composite material (Cu/Cu2O@NC) was fabricated successfully with a coordination polymer as precursor through calcination. In this composite material, Cu 2 O particles with a size of about 6-10 nm were dispersed evenly in the nitrogen doped carbon matrix. After calcination, some coordinated nitrogen atoms were doped in the lattice of Cu 2 O and replace oxygen atoms, thus generating a large number of oxygen vacancies. In Cu/Cu2O@NC, the existence of oxygen vacancies has been confirmed by electron spin resonance (ESR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Under visible light irradiation, Cu/Cu2O@NC exhibits excellent H 2 production with the rate of 379.6 μmol h -1 g -1 . Its photocatalytic activity affects organic dyes, such as Rhodamine B (RhB) and methyl orange (MO). In addition to photocatalysis, Cu/Cu2O@NC also exhibits striking catalytic activity in reductive conversion of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol with in presence of sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ). The conversion efficiency reaches almost 100% in 250 s with the quantity of Cu/Cu2O@NC as low as 5 mg. The outstanding H 2 production and organic pollutants removal are attributed to the oxygen vacancy. We expect that Cu/Cu2O@NC will find its way as a new resource for hydrogen energy as well as a promising material in water purification.

  12. Integration of organic LEDs with inorganic LEDs for a hybrid lighting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, H. J.; Park, J. W.; Kim, Y. M.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that a surface-emitting hybrid light source can be realized by a combination of organic and inorganic light-emitting devices (LEDs). To this end, a blue inorganic LED bar is deployed at one side of a transparent light guide plate (LGP), and a yellow organic LED (OLED) is in contact with the rear surface of the LGP. In such a configuration, it is found that the overall luminance is almost equivalent to the sum of the luminances measured from each light source, and the overall luminance uniformity is determined mainly by the luminance uniformity of the OLED panel at high luminances. We have achieved a white color showing the Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates of (x = 0.34, y = 0.33), the power efficiency of 9.3 lm/W, the luminance uniformity of 63% at the luminance of 3100 cd m-2, the color rendering index as high as 89.3, and the correlated color temperature finely tunable within the range between 3000 and 8000 K. Such a system facilitates color tuning by adjusting their luminous intensities and hence the implementation of the emotional lighting system.

  13. Integration of organic LEDs with inorganic LEDs for a hybrid lighting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, H J; Kim, Y M; Park, J W

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that a surface-emitting hybrid light source can be realized by a combination of organic and inorganic light-emitting devices (LEDs). To this end, a blue inorganic LED bar is deployed at one side of a transparent light guide plate (LGP), and a yellow organic LED (OLED) is in contact with the rear surface of the LGP. In such a configuration, it is found that the overall luminance is almost equivalent to the sum of the luminances measured from each light source, and the overall luminance uniformity is determined mainly by the luminance uniformity of the OLED panel at high luminances. We have achieved a white color showing the Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates of (x = 0.34, y = 0.33), the power efficiency of 9.3 lm/W, the luminance uniformity of 63% at the luminance of 3100 cd m –2 , the color rendering index as high as 89.3, and the correlated color temperature finely tunable within the range between 3000 and 8000 K. Such a system facilitates color tuning by adjusting their luminous intensities and hence the implementation of the emotional lighting system. (paper)

  14. Hybrid resonant organic-inorganic nanostructures for novel light emitting devices and solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agranovich, Vladimir M. [Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Science, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chemistry Department, University of Texas at Dallas, Texas (United States); Rupasov, Valery I. [ANTEOS, Inc., Shrewsbury, Massachusetts 01545 (United States); Silvestri, Leonardo [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    The energy transfer from an inorganic layer to an organic component of resonant hybrid organic/inorganic nanos-tructures can be used for creation of new type of LED. We mentioned the problem of electrical pumping which has to be solved. As was first suggested in 1979 by Dexter the transfer energy in opposite direction from organic part of nanostructure to semiconductor layer can be used for the creation of new type of solar cells. In this note we stress the importance of the idea by Dexter for photovoltaics and solar cells. We argue that the organic part in such hybrid structures can play a role of an effective organic collector of the light energy (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Stacking multiple connecting functional materials in tandem organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Deng-Ke; Jiang, Nan; Lu, Zheng-Hong

    2017-02-01

    Tandem device is an important architecture in fabricating high performance organic light-emitting diodes and organic photovoltaic cells. The key element in making a high performance tandem device is the connecting materials stack, which plays an important role in electric field distribution, charge generation and charge injection. For a tandem organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with a simple Liq/Al/MoO3 stack, we discovered that there is a significant current lateral spreading causing light emission over an extremely large area outside the OLED pixel when the Al thickness exceeds 2 nm. This spread light emission, caused by an inductive electric field over one of the device unit, limits one’s ability to fabricate high performance tandem devices. To resolve this issue, a new connecting materials stack with a C60 fullerene buffer layer is reported. This new structure permits optimization of the Al metal layer in the connecting stack and thus enables us to fabricate an efficient tandem OLED having a high 155.6 cd/A current efficiency and a low roll-off (or droop) in current efficiency.

  16. Purely organic thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Michael Y.; Zysman-Colman, Eli

    2017-01-01

    We thank the University of St Andrews for support. EZ-C thanks the Leverhulme Trust for financial support (RPG-2016-047). and the EPSRC (EP/P010482/1) for financial support. The design of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials both as emitters and as hosts is an exploding area of research. The replacement of phosphorescent metal complexes with inexpensive organic compounds in electroluminescent (EL) devices that demonstrate comparable performance metrics is paradigm shif...

  17. Diffusion Control in the in Situ Synthesis of Iconic Metal-Organic Frameworks within an Ionic Polymer Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jungho; Lee, Eun Ji; Choi, Jae Sun; Jeong, Nak Cheon

    2018-01-31

    Ionic polymers that possess ion-exchangeable sites have been shown to be a greatly useful platform to fabricate mixed matrices (MMs) where metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can be in situ synthesized, although the in situ synthesis of MOF has been rarely studied. In this study, alginate (ALG), an anionic green polymer that possesses metal-ion-exchangeable sites, is employed as a platform of MMs for the in situ synthesis of iconic MOFs, HKUST-1, and MOF-74(Zn). We demonstrate for the first time that the sequential order of supplying MOF ingredients (metal ion and deprotonated ligand) into the alginate matrix leads to substantially different results because of a difference in the diffusion of the MOF components. For the examples examined, whereas the infusion of BTC 3- ligand into Cu 2+ -exchanged ALG engendered the eggshell-shaped HKUST-1 layers on the surface of MM spheres, the infusion of Cu 2+ ions into BTC 3- -included alginate engendered the high dispersivity and junction contact of HKUST-1 crystals in the alginate matrix. This fundamental property has been exploited to fabricate a flexible MOF-containing mixed matrix membrane by coincorporating poly(vinyl alcohol). Using two molecular dyes, namely, methylene blue and rhodamine 6G, further, we show that this in situ strategy is suitable for fabricating an MOF-MM that exhibits size-selective molecular uptake.

  18. Electrical and Optical Enhancement in Internally Nanopatterned Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Michael Dane

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have made tremendous technological progress in the past two decades and have emerged as a top competitor for next generation light-emitting displays and lighting. State-of-the-art OLEDs have been reported in literature to approach, and even surpass, white fluorescent tube efficiency. However, despite rapid technological progress, efficiency metrics must be improved to compete with traditional inorganic light-emitting diode (LED) technology. Organic materials possess specialized traits that permit manipulations to the light-emitting cavity. Overall, as demonstrated within, these modifications can be used to improve electrical and optical device efficiencies. This work is focused at analyzing the effects that nanopatterned geometric modifications to the organic active layers play on device efficiency. In general, OLED efficiency is complicated by the complex, coupled processes which contribute to spontaneous dipole emission. A composite of three sub-systems (electrical, exciton and optical) ultimately dictate the OLED device efficiency. OLED electrical operation is believed to take place via a low-mobility-modified Schottky injection process. In the injection-limited regime, geometric effects are expected to modify the local electric field leading to device current enhancement. It is shown that the patterning effect can be used to enhance charge carrier parity, thereby enhancing overall recombination. Current density and luminance characteristics are shown to be improved by OLED nanopatterning from both the model developed within and experimental techniques. Next, the optical enhancement effects produced by the nanopatterned array are considered. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations are used to determine positional, spectral optical enhancement for the nanopatterned device. The results show beneficial effects to the device performance. The optical enhancements are related to the reduction in internal radiative

  19. Decomposition of pyrite and the interaction of pyrite with coal organic matrix in pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Li, B.; Zhang, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Conversion, Inst. of Coal Chemistry

    2000-10-01

    The thermal behaviour of pure pyrite was studied under nitrogen and hydrogen atmospheres in a pressurized thermal balance. The transfer of pyrite in coal during pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis was investigated in a fixed-bed reactor. The results suggest that the indigenous hydro-carbon with hydrogen donor ability in coal can promote the reduction of pyrite in pyrolysis. At low temperatures, organic sulfur removal is almost the same in pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of two coals. It is likely that indigenous hydrogen in coal is the dominant factor in organic sulfur elimination in the low-temperature stage. An increase of organic sulfur in pyrolysis of Hongmiao coal indicates that the lack of the indigenous hydrogen may be the key factor determining the transformation of pyritic sulfur into organic sulfur. Oxygen affects the conversion of pyrite into organic sulfur through the competitive consumption of hydrogen. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Red light sensitive heterojunction organic field-effect transistors based on neodymium phthalocyanine as photosensitive layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Wenli; Tang, Yu [Institute of Microelectronics, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, South Tianshui Road 222#, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yao, Bo [Institute of Microelectronics, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, South Tianshui Road 222#, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Physics, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing 312000 (China); Zhou, Maoqing; Luo, Xiao; Li, Yao; Zhong, Junkang; Sun, Lei [Institute of Microelectronics, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, South Tianshui Road 222#, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Peng, Yingquan, E-mail: yqpeng@lzu.edu.cn [Institute of Microelectronics, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, South Tianshui Road 222#, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, South Tianshui Road 222#, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2015-08-31

    Compared with organic photodiodes, photoresponsive organic field-effect transistors (photOFETs) exhibit higher sensitivity and lower noise. The performance of photOFETs based on conventional single layer structure is generally poor due to the low carrier mobility of the active channel materials. We demonstrate a high performance photOFET operating in red light with a structure of C60/neodymium phthalocyanine (NdPc{sub 2}) planar heterojunction. PhotOFETs based on single-layer NdPc{sub 2} and C60/NdPc{sub 2} heterojunction (denoted as NdPc{sub 2}-photOFETs and C60/NdPc{sub 2}-photOFETs, respectively) were fabricated and characterized. It is concluded that the photOFETs with heterojunction structure showed superior performance compared to that of single layer photOFETs. And for red light with a wavelength of 655 nm, C60/NdPc{sub 2}-photOFETs exhibited a large photoresponsivity of ~ 0.8 A/W, which is approximately 62 times larger than that of NdPc{sub 2}-photOFETs under the same conditions. The high performance of C60/NdPc{sub 2}-photOFETs is attributed to its high light absorption coefficient, high exciton dissociation efficiency and high carrier mobility. - Highlights: • The mobility of light-sensitive organic materials is generally low. • We fabricated C60/NdPc{sub 2} photoresponsive organic field-effect transistors (photOFETs). • The performance of C60/NdPc{sub 2} photOFETs is superior than single-layer NdPc{sub 2} photOFETs. • C60/NdPc{sub 2} photOFETs exhibited a large photoresponsivity of ~ 0.8 A/W for red light.

  1. STUDY OF DEGRADATION MECHANISM AND PACKAGING OF ORGANIC LIGHT EMITTING DEVICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Xu

    2003-01-01

    Organic Light Emitting Devices (OLED) have attracted much attention recently, for their applications in future Flat Panel Displays and lighting products. However, their fast degradation remained a major obstacle to their commercialization. Here we present a brief summary of our studies on both extrinsic and intrinsic causes for the fast degradation of OLEDs. In particular, we focus on the origin of the dark spots by "rebuilding" cathodes, which confirms that the growth of dark spots occurs primarily due to cathode delamination. In the meantime, we recapture the findings from the search for suitable OLED packaging materials, in particular polymer composites, which provide both heat dissipation and moisture resistance, in addition to electrical insulation.

  2. High-efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes using thermally activated delayed fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishide, Jun-ichi; Hiraga, Yasuhide; Nakanotani, Hajime; Adachi, Chihaya

    2014-01-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) have attracted much attention recently, aimed for next-generation lighting sources because of their high potential to realize high electroluminescence efficiency, flexibility, and low-cost manufacture. Here, we demonstrate high-efficiency WOLED using red, green, and blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials as emissive dopants to generate white electroluminescence. The WOLED has a maximum external quantum efficiency of over 17% with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates of (0.30, 0.38).

  3. Enlightenment of old ideas from new investigations: more questions regarding the evolution of bacteriogenic light organs in squids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, M K; Lopez, J E; Boletzky, S v

    2004-01-01

    Bioluminescence is widespread among many different types of marine organisms. Metazoans contain two types of luminescence production, bacteriogenic (symbiotic with bacteria) or autogenic, via the production of a luminous secretion or the intrinsic properties of luminous cells. Several species in two families of squids, the Loliginidae and the Sepiolidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) harbor bacteriogenic light organs that are found central in the mantle cavity. These light organs are exceptional in function, that is, the morphology and the complexity suggests that the organ has evolved to enhance and direct light emission from bacteria that are harbored inside. Although light organs are widespread among taxa within the Sepiolidae, the origin and development of this important feature is not well studied. We compared light organ morphology from several closely related taxa within the Sepiolidae and combined molecular phylogenetic data using four loci (nuclear ribosomal 28S rRNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 12S and 16S rRNA) to determine whether this character was an ancestral trait repeatedly lost among both families or whether it evolved independently as an adaptation to the pelagic and benthic lifestyles. By comparing other closely related extant taxa that do not contain symbiotic light organs, we hypothesized that the ancestral state of sepiolid light organs most likely evolved from part of a separate accessory gland open to the environment that allowed colonization of bacteria to occur and further specialize in the eventual development of the modern light organ.

  4. High performance organic distributed Bragg reflector lasers fabricated by dot matrix holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Wenqiang; Huang, Wenbin; Pu, Donglin; Qiao, Wen; Ye, Yan; Wei, Guojun; Fang, Zongbao; Zhou, Xiaohong; Chen, Linsen

    2015-12-14

    We report distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) polymer lasers fabricated using dot matrix holography. Pairs of distributed Bragg reflector mirrors with variable mirror separations are fabricated and a novel energy transfer blend consisting of a blue-emitting conjugated polymer and a red-emitting one is spin-coated onto the patterned substrate to complete the device. Under optical pumping, the device emits sing-mode lasing around 622 nm with a bandwidth of 0.41 nm. The working threshold is as low as 13.5 μJ/cm² (~1.68 kW/cm²) and the measured slope efficiency reaches 5.2%. The distributed feedback (DFB) cavity and the DBR cavity resonate at the same lasing wavelength while the DFB laser shows a much higher threshold. We further show that flexible DBR lasers can be conveniently fabricated through the UV-imprinting technique by using the patterned silica substrate as the mold. Dot matrix holography represents a versatile approach to control the number, the size, the location and the orientation of DBR mirrors, thus providing great flexibility in designing DBR lasers.

  5. Process for the manufacture of seamless metal-clad fiber-reinforced organic matrix composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluck, Raymond M. (Inventor); Bush, Harold G. (Inventor); Johnson, Robert R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing seamless metal-clad composite structures includes providing a hollow, metallic inner member and an outer sleeve to surround the inner member and define an inner space therebetween. A plurality of continuous reinforcing fibers is attached to the distal end of the outside diameter of the inner member, and the inner member is then introduced, distal end first, into one end of the outer sleeve. The inner member is then moved, distal end first, into the outer sleeve until the inner member is completely enveloped by the outer sleeve. A liquid matrix material is then injected into the space containing the reinforcing fibers between the inner member and the outer sleeve. Next a pressurized heat transfer medium is passed through the inner member to cure the liquid matrix material. Finally, the wall thickness of both the inner member and the outer sleeve are reduced to desired dimensions by chemical etching, which adjusts the thermal expansion coefficient of the metal-clad composite structure to a desired value.

  6. Genetic Background is a Key Determinant of Glomerular Extracellular Matrix Composition and Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randles, Michael J; Woolf, Adrian S; Huang, Jennifer L; Byron, Adam; Humphries, Jonathan D; Price, Karen L; Kolatsi-Joannou, Maria; Collinson, Sophie; Denny, Thomas; Knight, David; Mironov, Aleksandr; Starborg, Toby; Korstanje, Ron; Humphries, Martin J; Long, David A; Lennon, Rachel

    2015-12-01

    Glomerular disease often features altered histologic patterns of extracellular matrix (ECM). Despite this, the potential complexities of the glomerular ECM in both health and disease are poorly understood. To explore whether genetic background and sex determine glomerular ECM composition, we investigated two mouse strains, FVB and B6, using RNA microarrays of isolated glomeruli combined with proteomic glomerular ECM analyses. These studies, undertaken in healthy young adult animals, revealed unique strain- and sex-dependent glomerular ECM signatures, which correlated with variations in levels of albuminuria and known predisposition to progressive nephropathy. Among the variation, we observed changes in netrin 4, fibroblast growth factor 2, tenascin C, collagen 1, meprin 1-α, and meprin 1-β. Differences in protein abundance were validated by quantitative immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, and the collective differences were not explained by mutations in known ECM or glomerular disease genes. Within the distinct signatures, we discovered a core set of structural ECM proteins that form multiple protein-protein interactions and are conserved from mouse to man. Furthermore, we found striking ultrastructural changes in glomerular basement membranes in FVB mice. Pathway analysis of merged transcriptomic and proteomic datasets identified potential ECM regulatory pathways involving inhibition of matrix metalloproteases, liver X receptor/retinoid X receptor, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, notch, and cyclin-dependent kinase 5. These pathways may therefore alter ECM and confer susceptibility to disease. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  7. Changes in p53 expression in mouse fibroblasts can modify motility and extracellular matrix organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova, A; Ivanov, A; Chumakov, P; Kopnin, B; Vasiliev, J

    2000-11-23

    Effects of p53 expression on cell morphology and motility were studied using the derivatives of p53-null 10(1) mouse fibroblasts with tetracycline-regulated expression of exogenous human p53. Induction of p53 expression was accompanied by significant decrease in extracellular matrix (fibronectin) and reduction of matrix fibrils, diminution of the number and size of focal contacts, decrease of cell areas, establishment of more elongated cell shape and alterations of actin cytoskeleton (actin bundles became thinner, their number and size decreased). Expression of His175 and Gln22/ Ser23 p53 mutants caused no such effects. To study the influence of p53 expression on cell motility we used wound technique and videomicroscopy observation of single living cells. It was found that induction of p53 expression led to increase of lamellar activity of cell edge. However, in spite of enhanced lamellar activity p53-expressing cells migrated to shorter distance and filled the narrow wound in longer time as compared with their p53-null counterparts. Possible mechanisms of the influence of p53 expression on cell morphology and motility are discussed.

  8. Laboratory Experiments to Evaluate Matrix Diffusion of Dissolved Organic Carbon Carbon-14 in Southern Nevada Fractured-rock Aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershey, Ronald L. [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Institute; Fereday, Wyatt [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Institute

    2016-05-01

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) carbon-14 (14C) is used to estimate groundwater ages by comparing the DIC 14C content in groundwater in the recharge area to the DIC 14C content in the downgradient sampling point. However, because of chemical reactions and physical processes between groundwater and aquifer rocks, the amount of DIC 14C in groundwater can change and result in 14C loss that is not because of radioactive decay. This loss of DIC 14C results in groundwater ages that are older than the actual groundwater ages. Alternatively, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) 14C in groundwater does not react chemically with aquifer rocks, so DOC 14C ages are generally younger than DIC 14C ages. In addition to chemical reactions, 14C ages may also be altered by the physical process of matrix diffusion. The net effect of a continuous loss of 14C to the aquifer matrix by matrix diffusion and then radioactive decay is that groundwater appears to be older than it actually is. Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure matrix diffusion coefficients for DOC 14C in volcanic and carbonate aquifer rocks from southern Nevada. Experiments were conducted using bromide (Br-) as a conservative tracer and 14C-labeled trimesic acid (TMA) as a surrogate for groundwater DOC. Outcrop samples from six volcanic aquifers and five carbonate aquifers in southern Nevada were used. The average DOC 14C matrix diffusion coefficient for volcanic rocks was 2.9 x 10-7 cm2/s, whereas the average for carbonate rocks was approximately the same at 1.7 x 10-7 cm2/s. The average Br- matrix diffusion coefficient for volcanic rocks was 10.4 x 10-7 cm2/s, whereas the average for carbonate rocks was less at 6.5 x 10-7 cm2/s. Carbonate rocks exhibited greater variability in

  9. The Microbial Efficiency-Matrix Stabilization (MEMS) framework integrates plant litter decomposition with soil organic matter stabilization: do labile plant inputs form stable soil organic matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrufo, M Francesca; Wallenstein, Matthew D; Boot, Claudia M; Denef, Karolien; Paul, Eldor

    2013-04-01

    The decomposition and transformation of above- and below-ground plant detritus (litter) is the main process by which soil organic matter (SOM) is formed. Yet, research on litter decay and SOM formation has been largely uncoupled, failing to provide an effective nexus between these two fundamental processes for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling and storage. We present the current understanding of the importance of microbial substrate use efficiency and C and N allocation in controlling the proportion of plant-derived C and N that is incorporated into SOM, and of soil matrix interactions in controlling SOM stabilization. We synthesize this understanding into the Microbial Efficiency-Matrix Stabilization (MEMS) framework. This framework leads to the hypothesis that labile plant constituents are the dominant source of microbial products, relative to input rates, because they are utilized more efficiently by microbes. These microbial products of decomposition would thus become the main precursors of stable SOM by promoting aggregation and through strong chemical bonding to the mineral soil matrix. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Model of lifetime prediction - Study of the behaviour of polymers and organic matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, X.

    2009-01-01

    The team 'Aging of Organic Materials' of the Process and Engineering Laboratory in Mechanics and Materials (Arts et Metiers, ParisTech) has developed the model of lifetime prediction for the prediction of the behaviour of polymers and organic composites. This model has already given evidence of a real predictive mean for various industrial applications, as for instance the prediction of a rupture under the coupled effect of a mechanical load and a chemical degradation. (O.M.)

  11. Phase difference between calcification and organic matrix formation in the diurnal growth of otoliths in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugiya, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The relative role of calcium and organic matrix deposition in the formation of daily increments in otoliths was studied in in vitro preparations of otolith-containing sacculi of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. Sacculi were incubated in a Ringer solution containing both 45 Ca and 3 H-glutamic acid for 2 hours at 6-h intervals throughout a 24-h period and then the uptake of these isotopes was determined for both otolith and saccular tissue fractions. Serum calcium and sodium concentrations were also analyzed for diurnal variations. Serum calcium concentrations varied diurnally by 8% in a single phasic pattern, reaching a peak at dusk (1600 h) and a nadir at night (2200 h), while sodium concentrations remained almost constant throughout a 24-h period. Diurnal variation in the otolith's uptake of calcium and glutamic acid showed discrete, antiphasic cycles. The rate of calcium uptake varied in a pattern closely resembling that of serum calcium (the peak at 1600 h and the nadir at 2200 h); glutamic acid uptake remained almost constant during the daytime and peaked at night (2200 h). The results indicate that in rainbow trout daily increments of otoliths are formed by the antiphasic deposition of calcium and organic matrix

  12. The hyaluronan and proteoglycan link proteins: Organizers of the brain extracellular matrix and key molecules for neuronal function and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oohashi, Toshitaka; Edamatsu, Midori; Bekku, Yoko; Carulli, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    The hyaluronan and proteoglycanbinding link protein (Hapln) is a key molecule in the formation and control of hyaluronan-based condensed perineuronal matrix in the adult brain. This review summarizes the recent advances in understanding the role of Haplns in the formation and control of two distinct types of perineuronal matrices, one for "classical" PNN and the other for the specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) at the node of Ranvier in the central nervous system (CNS). We introduce the structural components of each ECM organization including the basic concept of supramolecular structure named "HLT model". We furthermore summarize the developmental and physiological role of perineuronal ECMs from the studies of Haplns and related molecules. Finally, we also discuss the potential mechanism modulating PNNs in the adult CNS. This layer of organized matrices may exert a direct effect via core protein or sugar moiety from the structure or by acting as a binding site for biologically active molecules, which are important for neuronal plasticity and saltatory conduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. UV and RIR matrix assisted pulsed laser deposition of organic MEH-PPV films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toftmann, B.; Papantonakis, M.R.; Auyeung, R.C.Y.; Kim, W.; O'Malley, S.M.; Bubb, D.M.; Horwitz, J.S.; Schou, J.; Johansen, P.M.; Haglund, R.F.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative study of thin film production based on gentle laser-ablation techniques has been carried out with the luminescent polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene]. Using a free-electron laser films were made by resonant infrared pulsed laser deposition (RIR-PLD). For the first time resonant infrared matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) was successfully demonstrated on a luminescent polymer system. In addition to this, an excimer laser has been used for UV-MAPLE depositions at 193 and 248-nm irradiation. Films deposited onto NaCl and quartz substrates were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-visible absorbance and photoluminescence. Photoluminescent material was deposited by RIR-MAPLE and 248-nm MAPLE, while the RIR-PLD and 193-nm-MAPLE depositions displayed the smoothest surfaces but did not show photoluminescence

  14. UV and RIR matrix assisted pulsed laser deposition of organic MEH-PPV films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo Toftmann; Papantonalis, M.R.; Auyeung, R.C.Y.

    2004-01-01

    -PLD). For the first time resonant infrared matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) was successfully demonstrated on a luminescent polymer system. In addition to this, an excimer laser has been used for UV-MAPLE depositions at 193 and 248-nm irradiation. Films deposited onto NaCl and quartz substrates......A comparative study of thin film production based on gentle laser-ablation techniques has been carried out with the luminescent polymer poly [2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene]. Using a free-electron laser films were made by resonant infrared pulsed laser deposition (RIR...... were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-visible absorbance and photoluminescence. Photoluminescent material was deposited by RIR-MAPLE and 248-nm MAPLE, while the RIR-PLD and 193-nm-MAPLE depositions displayed the smoothest surfaces but did not show photoluminescence. (C) 2003...

  15. Electron microscopic studies of the matrix formation of hard tissue organized cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Ching-Eng

    1982-01-01

    In order to study the functions of odontoblast, especially on the matrix formation, odontoblasts of rats' incisor and molar teeth were used. The animals were sacrificed 5 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours and 24 hours after 3 H-proline administration to obtain the specimen. The specimens were processed for electron microscopic autoradiography. The following results were obtained. 1. 5 minutes after 3 H-proline administration: Silver grains indicated 3 H-proline uptake were already noted within the cells and localized in the rough surfaced endoplasmic reticulum and surrounding ribosomes, partially within the karyoplasm. 2. 15 minutes after 3 H-proline administration: The number of silver grains were generally increased as compared with the findings obtained in 5 minutes. The localization moved to the Golgi apparatus and their surroundings. 3. 30 minutes after 3 H-proline administration: Silver grains obtained in Tome's fibers area and some in predentin. In this area granules derived from Golgi body were found. 4. 1 hour after 3 H-proline administration: The number of silver grains were generally decreased and more pronounced movement toward predentin, the marked movement of silver grains were obtained onto the collagen fibers and surroundings. 5. 2 hours after 3 H-proline administration: Silver grains moved to the calcified area and there collagen fibers became more remarkable. 6. 24 hours after 3 H-proline administration: No silver grains were founded in the odontoblast side but deposited in the predentin calcified area with stable condition. Based on the results of these observations, odontoblasts were shown to perform the function of synthesis, storage, transportation and control of collagen formation in addition to the role of matrix formation. (author)

  16. Nuclear lamina and nuclear matrix organization in sperm pronuclei assembled in Xenopus egg extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Jenkins, H; Goldberg, M W; Allen, T D; Hutchison, C J

    1996-09-01

    Nuclear lamina and matrices were prepared from sperm pronuclei assembled in Xenopus egg extracts using a fractionation and extraction procedure. Indirect immunofluorescence revealed that while chromatin was efficiently removed from nuclei during the extraction procedure, the distribution of lamins was unaffected. Consistent with this data, the amount of lamin B3, determined by immunoblotting, was not affected through the extraction procedure. Nuclear matrices were visualised in DGD sections by TEM. Within these sections filaments were observed both at the boundary of the nucleus (the lamina) and within the body of the nucleus (internal nuclear matrix filaments). To improve resolution, nuclear matrices were also prepared as whole mounts and viewed using field emission in lens scanning electron microscopy (FEISEM). This technique revealed two distinct networks of filaments. Filaments lying at the surface of nuclear matrices interconnected nuclear pores. These filaments were readily labelled with monoclonal anti-lamin B3 antibodies. Filaments lying within the body of the nuclear matrix were highly branched but were not readily labelled with antilamin B3 antibodies. Nuclear matrices were also prepared from sperm pronuclei assembled in lamin B3 depleted extracts. Using FEISEM, filaments were also detected in these preparations. However, these filaments were poorly organised and often appeared to aggregate. To confirm these results nuclear matrices were also observed as whole mounts using TEM. Nuclear matrices prepared from control nuclei contained a dense array of interconnected filaments. Many (but not all) of these filaments were labelled with anti-lamin B3 antibodies. In contrast, nuclear matrices prepared from "lamin depleted nuclei' contained poorly organised or aggregated filaments which were not specifically labelled with anti-lamin B3 antibodies.

  17. Characteristics of organic light emitting diodes with copper iodide as injection layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stakhira, P., E-mail: stakhira@polynet.lviv.u [Lviv Polytechnic National University, S. Bandera, 12, Lviv, 79013 (Ukraine); Cherpak, V.; Volynyuk, D.; Ivastchyshyn, F. [Lviv Polytechnic National University, S. Bandera, 12, Lviv, 79013 (Ukraine); Hotra, Z. [Lviv Polytechnic National University, S. Bandera, 12, Lviv, 79013 (Ukraine); Rzeszow University of Technology, W. Pola 2, Rzeszow, 35-959 (Poland); Tataryn, V. [Lviv Polytechnic National University, S. Bandera, 12, Lviv, 79013 (Ukraine); Luka, G. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-09-30

    We have studied the use of a thin copper iodide (CuI) film as an efficient injection layer of holes from indium tin oxide (ITO) anode in a light-emitting diode structure based on tris-8-hydroxyquinoline aluminium (Alq3). The results of impedance analysis of two types of diode structures, ITO/CuI/Alq3/poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether/Al and ITO/Alq3/poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether/Al, are presented. Comparative analysis of their current density-voltage, luminance-voltage and impedance characteristics shows that presence of CuI layer facilitates injection of holes from ITO anode into the light-emitting layer Alq3 and increases electroluminescence efficiency of the organic light emitting diodes.

  18. Construction of porous covalent organic polymer as photocatalysts for RhB degradation under visible light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pingxiao Liu; Lingbao Xing; Hongtao Lin; Haining Wang; Ziyan Zhou; Zhongmin Su

    2017-01-01

    In the present work,a novel porous,and chemically stable amine-based covalent organic polymer (POP-1) was designed and synthesized under solvothermal conditions.The porosity,crystallinity,chemical stability,electrochemical properties,and diffuse reflectance of POP-1 were investigated via N2 sorption experiment,power X-ray diffraction,thermogravimetric analysis,cyclic voltammetry,and ultraviolet visible near infrared spectrometry,respectively.POP-1 exhibits good chemical stability in both acidic and alkaline aqueous solutions,as well as in organic solvents.Undoped POP-1 can be directly used as a photocatalyst for rhodamine B irradiation degradation under light-emitting diode and natural light.The Ea of POP-1 for RhB degradation is 82.37 kJ/mol.Furthermore,POP-1 can be reused as a catalyst in RhB degradation without degraded catalytic activity.

  19. A customized light sheet microscope to measure spatio-temporal protein dynamics in small model organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Rieckher

    Full Text Available We describe a customizable and cost-effective light sheet microscopy (LSM platform for rapid three-dimensional imaging of protein dynamics in small model organisms. The system is designed for high acquisition speeds and enables extended time-lapse in vivo experiments when using fluorescently labeled specimens. We demonstrate the capability of the setup to monitor gene expression and protein localization during ageing and upon starvation stress in longitudinal studies in individual or small groups of adult Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes. The system is equipped to readily perform fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP, which allows monitoring protein recovery and distribution under low photobleaching conditions. Our imaging platform is designed to easily switch between light sheet microscopy and optical projection tomography (OPT modalities. The setup permits monitoring of spatio-temporal expression and localization of ageing biomarkers of subcellular size and can be conveniently adapted to image a wide range of small model organisms and tissue samples.

  20. Photothermal Activation of Metal-Organic Frameworks Using a UV-Vis Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espín, Jordi; Garzón-Tovar, Luis; Carné-Sánchez, Arnau; Imaz, Inhar; Maspoch, Daniel

    2018-03-21

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) usually require meticulous removal of the solvent molecules to unlock their potential porosity. Herein, we report a novel one-step method for activating MOFs based on the photothermal effect induced by directly irradiating them with a UV-vis lamp. The localized light-to-heat conversion produced in the MOF crystals upon irradiation enables a very fast solvent removal, thereby significantly reducing the activation time to as low as 30 min and suppressing the need for time-consuming solvent-exchange procedures and vacuum conditions. This approach is successful for a broad range of MOFs, including HKUST-1, UiO-66-NH 2 , ZIF-67, CPO-27-M (M = Zn, Ni, and Mg), Fe-MIL-101-NH 2 , and IRMOF-3, all of which exhibit absorption bands in the light emission range. In addition, we anticipate that this photothermal activation can also be used to activate covalent organic frameworks (COFs).

  1. Exciplex formation and electroluminescent absorption in ultraviolet organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qi; Zhang Hao; Xu Tao; Wei Bin; Zhang Xiao-Wen

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the formation of exciplex and electroluminescent absorption in ultraviolet organic light-emitting diodes (UV OLEDs) using different heterojunction structures. It is found that an energy barrier of over 0.3 eV between the emissive layer (EML) and adjacent transport layer facilitates exciplex formation. The electron blocking layer effectively confines electrons in the EML, which contributes to pure UV emission and enhances efficiency. The change in EML thickness generates tunable UV emission from 376 nm to 406 nm. In addition, the UV emission excites low-energy organic function layers and produces photoluminescent emission. In UV OLED, avoiding the exciplex formation and averting light absorption can effectively improve the purity and efficiency. A maximum external quantum efficiency of 1.2% with a UV emission peak of 376 nm is realized. (paper)

  2. Trap-assisted and Langevin-type recombination in organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzelaer, G. A. H.; Kuik, M.; Nicolai, H. T.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2011-04-01

    Trapping of charges is known to play an important role in the charge transport of organic semiconductors, but the role of traps in the recombination process has not been addressed. Here we show that the ideality factor of the current of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in the diffusion-dominated regime has a temperature-independent value of 2, which reveals that nonradiative trap-assisted recombination dominates the current. In contrast, the ideality factor of the light output approaches unity, demonstrating that luminance is governed by recombination of the bimolecular Langevin type. This apparent contradiction can be resolved by measuring the current and luminance ideality factor for a white-emitting polymer, where both free and trapped charge carriers recombine radiatively. With increasing bias voltage, Langevin recombination becomes dominant over trap-assisted recombination due to its stronger dependence on carrier density, leading to an enhancement in OLED efficiency.

  3. Tandem white organic light-emitting diodes adopting a C60:rubrene charge generation layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Wen-Tao; Wu Xiao-Ming; Hua Yu-Lin; Sun Jin-E; Xiao Zhi-Hui; Wang Li; Yin Shou-Gen

    2014-01-01

    Organic bulk heterojunction fullerence (C 60 ) doped 5, 6, 11, 12-tetraphenylnaphthacene (rubrene) as the high quality charge generation layer (CGL) with high transparency and superior charge generating capability for tandem organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is developed. This CGL shows excellent optical transparency about 90%, which can reduce the optical interference effect formed in tandem OLEDs. There is a stable white light emission including 468 nm and 500 nm peaks from the blue emitting layer and 620 nm peak from the red emitting layer in tandem white OLEDs. A high efficiency of about 17.4 cd/A and CIE coordinates of (0.40, 0.35) at 100 cd/m 2 and (0.36, 0.34) at 1000 cd/m 2 have been demonstrated by employing the developed CGL, respectively. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  4. Unique double concentric ring organization of light harvesting complexes in Gemmatimonas phototrophica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Dachev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of life on Earth depends directly or indirectly on the sun as a source of energy. The initial step of photosynthesis is facilitated by light-harvesting complexes, which capture and transfer light energy into the reaction centers (RCs. Here, we analyzed the organization of photosynthetic (PS complexes in the bacterium G. phototrophica, which so far is the only phototrophic representative of the bacterial phylum Gemmatimonadetes. The isolated complex has a molecular weight of about 800 ± 100 kDa, which is approximately 2 times larger than the core complex of Rhodospirillum rubrum. The complex contains 62.4 ± 4.7 bacteriochlorophyll (BChl a molecules absorbing in 2 distinct infrared absorption bands with maxima at 816 and 868 nm. Using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, we determined the energy transfer time between these spectral bands as 2 ps. Single particle analyses of the purified complexes showed that they were circular structures with an outer diameter of approximately 18 nm and a thickness of 7 nm. Based on the obtained, we propose that the light-harvesting complexes in G. phototrophica form 2 concentric rings surrounding the type 2 RC. The inner ring (corresponding to the B868 absorption band is composed of 15 subunits and is analogous to the inner light-harvesting complex 1 (LH1 in purple bacteria. The outer ring is composed of 15 more distant BChl dimers with no or slow energy transfer between them, resulting in the B816 absorption band. This completely unique and elegant organization offers good structural stability, as well as high efficiency of light harvesting. Our results reveal that while the PS apparatus of Gemmatimonadetes was acquired via horizontal gene transfer from purple bacteria, it later evolved along its own pathway, devising a new arrangement of its light harvesting complexes.

  5. Optical properties of organic-silicon photonic crystal nanoslot cavity light source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jay Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We theoretically study a dielectric photonic crystal nanoslot cavity immersed in an organic fluid containing near-infrared dyes by means of a full rate equation model including the complete cavity QED effects. Based on the modeling results, we numerically design an organic-silicon cavity light source in which its mode volume, quality factor, and far-field emission pattern are optimized for energy-efficient, high-speed applications. Dye quantum efficiency improved by two orders of magnitude and 3dB modulation bandwidth of a few hundred GHz can be obtained.

  6. Study on scalable Coulombic degradation for estimating the lifetime of organic light-emitting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wenwen; Hou Xun; Wu Zhaoxin; Liang Shixiong; Jiao Bo; Zhang Xinwen; Wang Dawei; Chen Zhijian; Gong Qihuang

    2011-01-01

    The luminance decays of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are investigated with initial luminance of 1000 to 20 000 cd m -2 through a scalable Coulombic degradation and a stretched exponential decay. We found that the estimated lifetime by scalable Coulombic degradation deviates from the experimental results when the OLEDs work with high initial luminance. By measuring the temperature of the device during degradation, we found that the higher device temperatures will lead to instabilities of organic materials in devices, which is expected to result in the difference between the experimental results and estimation using the scalable Coulombic degradation.

  7. White organic light-emitting diodes with 9, 10-bis (2-naphthyl) anthracene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan Yunxia; Niu Lianbin [Key Laboratory of Optical Engineering, College of Physics and Information Technology, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 400047 (China)], E-mail: gyxybsy@126.com, E-mail: niulb03@126.com

    2009-03-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes were fabricated by 9, 10-bis (2-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN) doped with Rubrene with a structure of ITO/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) / NPB /ADN: Rubrene /Alq{sub 3} /CsF/Mg:Ag/Ag. Multilayer organic devices using AND and Rubrene as an emitting layer produced white emissions with good chromaticity and luminous efficiency as high as 5.93 cd/A. This performance can be explained by Foerster energy transfer from the blue-emitting host to the orange-emitting dopant.

  8. White organic light-emitting diodes with 9, 10-bis (2-naphthyl) anthracene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Yunxia; Niu Lianbin

    2009-01-01

    White organic light-emitting diodes were fabricated by 9, 10-bis (2-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN) doped with Rubrene with a structure of ITO/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) / NPB /ADN: Rubrene /Alq 3 /CsF/Mg:Ag/Ag. Multilayer organic devices using AND and Rubrene as an emitting layer produced white emissions with good chromaticity and luminous efficiency as high as 5.93 cd/A. This performance can be explained by Foerster energy transfer from the blue-emitting host to the orange-emitting dopant.

  9. Phosphorescence as a probe of exciton formation and energy transfer in organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Segal, M.

    2004-01-01

    The development of highly efficient phosphorescent molecules has approximately quadrupled the quantum efficiency of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). By harnessing triplet as well as singlet excitons, efficient molecular phosphorescence has also enabled novel studies of exciton physics in organic semiconductors. In this review, we will summarize recent progress in understanding exciton formation and energy transfer using phosphorescent molecular probes. Particular emphasis is given to two topics of current interest: energy transfer in blue phosphorescent OLEDs, and quantifying the formation ratio of singlet to triplet excitons in small-molecular weight materials and polymers. (orig.)

  10. Ultrafast Dephasing and Incoherent Light Photon Echoes in Organic Amorphous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Ryuzi; Matsumoto, Yoshinori; Tani, Toshiro; Nakatsuka, Hiroki

    1989-10-01

    Incoherent light photon echoes were observed in organic amorphous systems (cresyl violet in polyvinyl alcohol and 1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone in polymethacrylic acid) by using temporally-incoherent nanosecond laser pulses. It was found that an echo decay curve of an organic amorphous system is composed of a sharp peak which decays very rapidly and a slowly decaying wing at the tail. We show that the persistent hole burning (PHB) spectra were reproduced by the Fourier-cosine transforms of the echo decay curves. We claim that in general, we must take into account the multi-level feature of the system in order to explain ultrafast dephasing at very low temperatures.

  11. White organic light-emitting devices incorporating nanoparticles of II-VI semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Jin H; Bertoni, Cristina; Dunn, Steve; Wang, Changsheng; Talapin, Dmitri V; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmueller, Alexander; Hua Yulin; Bryce, Martin R; Petty, Michael C

    2007-01-01

    A blue-green fluorescent organic dye and red-emitting nanoparticles, based on II-VI semiconductors, have been used together in the fabrication of white organic light-emitting devices. In this work, the materials were combined in two different ways: in the form of a blend, and as separate layers deposited on the opposite sides of the substrate. The blended-layer structure provided purer white emission. However, this device also exhibited a number of disadvantages, namely a high drive voltage, a low efficiency and some colour instability. These problems could be avoided by using a device structure that was fabricated using separate dye and nanoparticle layers

  12. Quantitative description of charge-carrier transport in a white organic light-emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, M.; Anderson, M.; Thomschke, M.; Widmer, J.; Furno, M.; Scholz, R.; Lüssem, B.; Leo, K.

    2011-10-01

    We present a simulation model for the analysis of charge-carrier transport in organic thin-film devices, and apply it to a three-color white hybrid organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with fluorescent blue and phosphorescent red and green emission. We simulate a series of single-carrier devices, which reconstruct the OLED layer sequence step by step. Thereby, we determine the energy profiles for hole and electron transport, show how to discern bulk from interface limitation, and identify trap states.

  13. Efficient light emission from inorganic and organic semiconductor hybrid structures by energy-level tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, R.; Bianchi, F.; Blumstengel, S.; Christodoulou, C.; Ovsyannikov, R.; Kobin, B.; Moudgil, K.; Barlow, S.; Hecht, S.; Marder, S.R.; Henneberger, F.; Koch, N.

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental limits of inorganic semiconductors for light emitting applications, such as holographic displays, biomedical imaging and ultrafast data processing and communication, might be overcome by hybridization with their organic counterparts, which feature enhanced frequency response and colour range. Innovative hybrid inorganic/organic structures exploit efficient electrical injection and high excitation density of inorganic semiconductors and subsequent energy transfer to the organic semiconductor, provided that the radiative emission yield is high. An inherent obstacle to that end is the unfavourable energy level offset at hybrid inorganic/organic structures, which rather facilitates charge transfer that quenches light emission. Here, we introduce a technologically relevant method to optimize the hybrid structure's energy levels, here comprising ZnO and a tailored ladder-type oligophenylene. The ZnO work function is substantially lowered with an organometallic donor monolayer, aligning the frontier levels of the inorganic and organic semiconductors. This increases the hybrid structure's radiative emission yield sevenfold, validating the relevance of our approach. PMID:25872919

  14. Efficient light emission from inorganic and organic semiconductor hybrid structures by energy-level tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, R; Bianchi, F; Blumstengel, S; Christodoulou, C; Ovsyannikov, R; Kobin, B; Moudgil, K; Barlow, S; Hecht, S; Marder, S R; Henneberger, F; Koch, N

    2015-04-15

    The fundamental limits of inorganic semiconductors for light emitting applications, such as holographic displays, biomedical imaging and ultrafast data processing and communication, might be overcome by hybridization with their organic counterparts, which feature enhanced frequency response and colour range. Innovative hybrid inorganic/organic structures exploit efficient electrical injection and high excitation density of inorganic semiconductors and subsequent energy transfer to the organic semiconductor, provided that the radiative emission yield is high. An inherent obstacle to that end is the unfavourable energy level offset at hybrid inorganic/organic structures, which rather facilitates charge transfer that quenches light emission. Here, we introduce a technologically relevant method to optimize the hybrid structure's energy levels, here comprising ZnO and a tailored ladder-type oligophenylene. The ZnO work function is substantially lowered with an organometallic donor monolayer, aligning the frontier levels of the inorganic and organic semiconductors. This increases the hybrid structure's radiative emission yield sevenfold, validating the relevance of our approach.

  15. A Comparison Between Magnetic Field Effects in Excitonic and Exciplex Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin Tiras, Kevser; Wang, Yifei; Harmon, Nicholas J.; Wohlgenannt, Markus; Flatte, Michael E.

    In flat-panel displays and lighting applications, organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been widely used because of their efficient light emission, low-cost manufacturing and flexibility. The electrons and holes injected from the anode and cathode, respectively, form a tightly bound exciton as they meet at a molecule in organic layer. Excitons occur as spin singlets or triplets and the ratio between singlet and triplet excitons formed is 1:3 based on spin degeneracy. The internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of fluorescent-based OLEDs is limited 25% because only singlet excitons contribute the light emission. To overcome this limitation, thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) materials have been introduced in the field of OLEDs. The exchange splitting between the singlet and triplet states of two-component exciplex systems is comparable to the thermal energy in TADF materials, whereas it is usually much larger in excitons. Reverse intersystem crossing occurs from triplet to singlet exciplex state, and this improves the IQE. An applied small magnetic field can change the spin dynamics of recombination in TADF blends. In this study, magnetic field effects on both excitonic and exciplex OLEDs will be presented and comparison similarities and differences will be made.

  16. Inkjet Printing of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Alcohol-Soluble Polyfluorenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odod, A. V.; Gadirov, R. M.; Solodova, T. A.; Kurtsevich, A. E.; Il'gach, D. M.; Yakimanskii, A. V.; Burtman, V.; Kopylova, T. N.

    2018-04-01

    Ink compositions for inkjet printing based on poly(9.9-dioctylfluorene) and its alcohol-soluble analog are created. Current-voltage, brightness-voltage, and spectral characteristics are compared for one- and twolayer polymer structures of organic light-emitting diodes. It is shown that the efficiency of the alcohol-soluble polyfluorene analog is higher compared to poly(9.9-dioctylfluorene), and the possibility of viscosity optimization is higher compared to aromatic chlorinated solvents.

  17. Plants lacking the main light-harvesting complex retain photosystem II macro-organization

    OpenAIRE

    Ruban, AV; Wentworth, M; Yakushevska, AE; Andersson, J; Lee, PJ; Keegstra, W; Dekker, JP; Boekema, EJ; Jansson, S; Horton, P

    2003-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a key component of photosynthesis, the process of converting sunlight into the chemical energy of life. In plant cells, it forms a unique oligomeric macrostructure in membranes of the chloroplasts(1). Several light-harvesting antenna complexes are organized precisely in the PSII macrostructure-the major trimeric complexes (LHCII)(2) that bind 70% of PSII chlorophyll and three minor monomeric complexes(3)-which together form PSII supercomplexes(4-6). The antenna comple...

  18. Study of voltage decrease in organic light emitting diodes during the initial stage of lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusumano, P.

    2016-02-01

    We report the results of lifetime DC testing at constant current of not-encapsulated organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on Tris (8 idroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) as emitting material. In particular, a voltage decrease during the initial stage of the lifetime test is observed. The cause of this behavior is also discussed, mainly linked to initial Joule self-heating of the device, rising its temperature above room temperature until thermal equilibrium is reached at steady state.

  19. Visible Light Organic Photoredox-Catalyzed C-H Alkoxylation of Imidazopyridine with Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibriya, Golam; Samanta, Sadhanendu; Jana, Sourav; Mondal, Susmita; Hajra, Alakananda

    2017-12-15

    The visible light-mediated C-3 alkoxylation of imidazopyridines with alcohols has been achieved using rose bengal as an organic photoredox catalyst at room temperature. Widely abundant air acts as the terminal oxidant that avoids the use of a stoichiometric amount of peroxo compounds. A wide range of functional groups could be tolerated under the reaction conditions to produce C(sp 2 )-H alkoxylated products in high yields.

  20. Detection and quantification of Vibrio fischeri autoinducer from symbiotic squid light organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, K J; Ruby, E G

    1995-02-01

    Vibrio fischeri is the specific light organ symbiont of the sepiolid squid species Euprymna scolopes and Euprymna morsei. Both species of squid are luminescent by virtue of their bacterial symbionts, but the natural symbionts of E. scolopes do not produce visible luminescence in laboratory culture. The primary cause of this depressed luminescence by E. scolopes symbionts in culture was found to be the production of relatively low levels of V. fischeri autoinducer, a positive transcriptional coregulator of the lux regulon, identified as N-(3-oxohexanoyl) homoserine lactone. Concentrations of autoinducer activity produced by these symbionts in culture were quantified and found to be at least 10-fold lower than those produced by E. morsei isolates (which are visibly luminous outside the association) and perhaps 10,000-fold lower than those of the brightest V. fischeri strains. Despite the differences in their symbiont strains, the intact light organs of the two species of squid contained comparable amounts of extractable autoinducer activity (between 100 and 200 pg per adult animal). The chromatographic behavior of this autoinducer activity on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was consistent with its presumptive identification as V. fischeri autoinducer. Within the 5-microliter volume of the epithelial core of the light organ in which the symbiotic V. fischeri strains are housed, these amounts would result in an effective autoinducer concentration of at least 100 nM. Because these levels are over 40-fold higher than the concentration needed for the induction of luminescence of bacteria in culture, we conclude that the inherent degree of autoinducer production by strains of V. fischeri may not influence their effectiveness as light organ symbionts. Furthermore, this study provides the first direct evidence that the phenomenon of cell density-dependent autoinduction, discovered and described first for laboratory cultures of V. fischeri but believed to

  1. Bioactive glass-ceramic bone repair associated or not with autogenous bone: a study of organic bone matrix organization in a rabbit critical-sized calvarial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biguetti, Claudia Cristina; Cavalla, Franco; Tim, Carla Roberta; Saraiva, Patrícia Pinto; Orcini, Wilson; De Andrade Holgado, Leandro; Rennó, Ana Claudia Muniz; Matsumoto, Mariza Akemi

    2018-04-26

    The aim of the study was to analyze bone matrix (BMX) organization after bone grafting and repair using a new bioactive glass-ceramic (Biosilicate ® ) associated or not with particulate autogenous bone graft. Thirty rabbits underwent surgical bilateral parietal defects and divided into groups according to the materials used: (C) control-blood clot, (BG) particulate autogenous bone, (BS) bioactive glass-ceramic, and BG + BS. After 7, 14, and 30 days post-surgery, a fragment of each specimen was fixed in - 80 °C liquid nitrogen for zymographic evaluation, while the remaining was fixed in 10% formalin for histological birefringence analysis. The results of this study demonstrated that matrix organization in experimental groups was significantly improved compared to C considering collagenous organization. Zymographic analysis revealed pro-MMP-2, pro-MMP-9, and active (a)-MMP-2 in all groups, showing gradual decrease of total gelatinolytic activity during the periods. At day 7, BG presented more prominent gelatinolytic activity for pro-MMP-2 and 9 and a-MMP-2, when compared to the other groups. In addition, at day 7, a 53% activation ratio (active form/[active form + latent form]) was evident in C group, 33% in BS group, and 31% in BG group. In general, BS allowed the production of a BMX similar to BG, with organized collagen deposition and MMP-2 and MMP-9 disponibility, permitting satisfactory bone remodeling at the late period. The evaluation of new bone substitute, with favorable biological properties, opens the possibility for its use as a viable and efficient alternative to autologous bone graft.

  2. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Why is left right and right left in the mirror? Baffled by the basics of reflection and refraction? Wondering just how the eye works? If you have trouble teaching concepts about light that you don t fully grasp yourself, get help from a book that s both scientifically accurate and entertaining with Light. By combining clear explanations, clever drawings, and activities that use easy-to-find materials, this book covers what science teachers and parents need to know to teach about light with confidence. It uses ray, wave, and particle models of light to explain the basics of reflection and refraction, optical instruments, polarization of light, and interference and diffraction. There s also an entire chapter on how the eye works. Each chapter ends with a Summary and Applications section that reinforces concepts with everyday examples. Whether you need a deeper understanding of how light bends or a good explanation of why the sky is blue, you ll find Light more illuminating and accessible than a college textbook...

  3. Surface plasmon enhanced organic light emitting diodes by gold nanoparticles with different sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Chia-Yuan; Chen, Ying-Chung [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kan-Lin [Department of Electronic Engineering, Fortune Institute of Technology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chien-Jung, E-mail: chien@nuk.edu.tw [Department of Applied Physics, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • Different varieties, sizes, and shapes for nanoparticles will generate different surface plasmon resonance effects in the devices. • The red-shift phenomenon for absorption peaks is because of an increasing contribution of higher-order plasmon modes for the larger gold nanoparticles. • The mobility of electrons in the electron-transport layer of organic light-emitting diodes is a few orders of magnitude lower than that of holes in the hole-transport layer of organic light-emitting diodes. - Abstract: The influence of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with different sizes doped into (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate)) (PEDOT:PSS) on the performance of organic light-emitting diodes is investigated in this study. The current efficiency of the device, at a current density of 145 mA/cm, with PEDOT:PSS doped with GNPs of 8 nm is about 1.57 times higher than that of the device with prime PEDOT:PSS because the absorption peak of GNPs is closest to the photoluminescence peak of the emission layer, resulting in maximum surface plasmon resonance effect in the device. In addition, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy also reveals the maximum surface plasmon resonance effect in the device when the mean particle size of GNPs is 8 nm.

  4. Effect of fractal silver electrodes on charge collection and light distribution in semiconducting organic polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamousis, RL; Chang, LL; Watterson, WJ; Montgomery, RD; Taylor, RP; Moule, AJ; Shaheen, SE; Ilan, B; van de Lagemaat, J; Osterloh, FE

    2014-08-21

    Living organisms use fractal structures to optimize material and energy transport across regions of differing size scales. Here we test the effect of fractal silver electrodes on light distribution and charge collection in organic semiconducting polymer films made of P3HT and PCBM. The semiconducting polymers were deposited onto electrochemically grown fractal silver structures (5000 nm x 500 nm; fractal dimension of 1.71) with PEDOT:PSS as hole-selective interlayer. The fractal silver electrodes appear black due to increased horizontal light scattering, which is shown to improve light absorption in the polymer. According to surface photovoltage spectroscopy, fractal silver electrodes outperform the flat electrodes when the BHJ film thickness is large (>400 nm, 0.4 V photovoltage). Photocurrents of up to 200 microamperes cm(-2) are generated from the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photoelectrodes under 435 nm LED (10-20 mW cm(-2)) illumination in acetonitrile solution containing 0.005 M ferrocenium hexafluorophosphate as the electron acceptor. The low IPCE values (0.3-0.7%) are due to slow electron transfer to ferrocenium ion and due to shunting along the large metal-polymer interface. Overall, this work provides an initial assessment of the potential of fractal electrodes for organic photovoltaic cells.

  5. Growth and flagellation of Vibrio fischeri during initiation of the sepiolid squid light organ symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, E G; Asato, L M

    1993-01-01

    A pure culture of the luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri is maintained in the light-emitting organ of the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes. When the juvenile squid emerges from its egg it is symbiont-free and, because bioluminescence is part of an anti-predatory behavior, therefore must obtain a bacterial inoculum from the surrounding environment. We document here the kinetics of the process by which newly hatched juvenile squids become infected by symbiosis-competent V. fischeri. When placed in seawater containing as few as 240 colony-forming-units (CFU) per ml, the juvenile became detectably bioluminescent within a few hours. Colonization of the nascent light organ was initiated with as few as 1 to 10 bacteria, which rapidly began to grow at an exponential rate until they reached a population size of approximately 10(5) cells by 12 h after the initial infection. Subsequently, the number of bacteria in the established symbiosis was maintained essentially constant by a combination of both a > 20-fold reduction in bacterial growth rate, and an expulsion of excess bacteria into the surrounding seawater. While V. fischeri cells are normally flagellated and motile, these bacteria did not elaborate these appendages once the symbiosis was established; however, they quickly began to synthesize flagella when they were removed from the light organ environment. Thus, two important biological characteristics, growth rate and flagellation, were modulated during establishment of the association, perhaps as part of a coordinated series of symbiotic responses.

  6. Towards comprehensive cell lineage reconstructions in complex organisms using light-sheet microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, Fernando; Keller, Philipp J

    2013-05-01

    Understanding the development of complex multicellular organisms as a function of the underlying cell behavior is one of the most fundamental goals of developmental biology. The ability to quantitatively follow cell dynamics in entire developing embryos is an indispensable step towards such a system-level understanding. In recent years, light-sheet fluorescence microscopy has emerged as a particularly promising strategy for recording the in vivo data required to realize this goal. Using light-sheet fluorescence microscopy, entire complex organisms can be rapidly imaged in three dimensions at sub-cellular resolution, achieving high temporal sampling and excellent signal-to-noise ratio without damaging the living specimen or bleaching fluorescent markers. The resulting datasets allow following individual cells in vertebrate and higher invertebrate embryos over up to several days of development. However, the complexity and size of these multi-terabyte recordings typically preclude comprehensive manual analyses. Thus, new computational approaches are required to automatically segment cell morphologies, accurately track cell identities and systematically analyze cell behavior throughout embryonic development. We review current efforts in light-sheet microscopy and bioimage informatics towards this goal, and argue that comprehensive cell lineage reconstructions are finally within reach for many key model organisms, including fruit fly, zebrafish and mouse. © 2013 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  7. Next generation smart window display using transparent organic display and light blocking screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyeong Woo; Lampande, Raju; Choe, Dong Cheol; Ko, Ik Jang; Park, Jin Hwan; Pode, Ramchandra; Kwon, Jang Hyuk

    2018-04-02

    Transparent organic light emitting diodes (TOLED) have widespread applications in the next-generation display devices particularly in the large size transparent window and interactive displays. Herein, we report high performance and stable attractive smart window displays using facile process. Advanced smart window display is realized by integrating the high performance light blocking screen and highly transparent white OLED panel. The full smart window display reveals a maximum transmittance as high as 64.2% at the wavelength of 600 nm and extremely good along with tunable ambient contrast ratio (171.94:1) compared to that of normal TOLED (4.54:1). Furthermore, the performance decisive light blocking screen has demonstrated an excellent optical and electrical characteristics such as i) high transmittance (85.56% at 562nm) at light-penetrating state, ii) superior absorbance (2.30 at 562nm) in light interrupting mode, iii) high optical contrast (85.50 at 562 nm), iv) high optical stability for more than 25,000 cycle of driving, v) fast switching time of 1.9 sec, and vi) low driving voltage of 1.7 V. The experimental results of smart window display are also validated using optical simulation. The proposed smart window display technology allows us to adjust the intensity of daylight entering the system quickly and conveniently.

  8. Decomposition of pyrite and the interaction of pyrite with coal organic matrix in pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Li, B.; Zhang, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

    1999-07-01

    The thermal decomposition and reduction behaviour of pure pyrite crystals were studied under nitrogen and hydrogen atmospheres. Decomposition of pyrite in coal during pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis, and the behaviour of organic sulphur, are discussed. Temperature and pressure effects are considered. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Bi-hybrid coatings: polyaniline-montmorillonite filler in organic-inorganic polymer matrix

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špírková, Milena; Bober, Patrycja; Kotek, Jiří; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 8 (2013), s. 1020-1027 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX08240901 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * montmorillonite * organic-inorganic composite Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2013

  10. Assessing the effectiveness of low-pressure ultraviolet light for inactivating Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) micro-organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To assess low-pressure ultraviolet light (LP-UV) inactivation kinetics of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) strains in a water matrix using collimated beam apparatus. Methods and Results: Strains of M. avium (n = 3) and Mycobacterium intracellulare (n = 2) were exposed t...

  11. Resonant Infrared Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation Of Inorganic Nanoparticles And Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Ryan; Lantz, Kevin R.; Dhawan, Anuj; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.

    2010-10-01

    In this research, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been used to deposit different classes of inorganic nanoparticles, including bare, un-encapsulated ZnO and Au nanoparticles, as well as ligand-encapsulated CdSe colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). RIR-MAPLE has been used for thin-film deposition of different organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites using some of these inorganic nanoparticles, including CdSe CQD-poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene)phenylene] (MEH-CN-PPV) nanocomposites and Au nanoparticle-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposites. The unique contribution of this research is that a technique is demonstrated for the deposition of organic-based thin-films requiring solvents with bond energies that do not have to be resonant with the laser energy. By creating an emulsion of solvent and ice in the target, RIR-MAPLE using a 2.94 μm laser can deposit most material systems because the hydroxyl bonds in the ice component of the emulsion matrix are strongly resonant with the 2.94 μm laser. In this way, the types of materials that can be deposited using RIR-MAPLE has been significantly expanded. Furthermore, materials with different solvent bond energies can be co-deposited without concern for material degradation and without the need to specifically tune the laser energy to each material solvent bond energy, thereby facilitating the realization of organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite thin-films. In addition to the structural characterization of the inorganic nanoparticle and hybrid nanocomposite thin-films deposited using this RIR-MAPLE technique, optical characterization is presented to demonstrate the potential of such films for optoelectronic device applications.

  12. Resonant Infrared Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation Of Inorganic Nanoparticles And Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate, Ryan; Lantz, Kevin R.; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.; Dhawan, Anuj; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2010-01-01

    In this research, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been used to deposit different classes of inorganic nanoparticles, including bare, un-encapsulated ZnO and Au nanoparticles, as well as ligand-encapsulated CdSe colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). RIR-MAPLE has been used for thin-film deposition of different organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites using some of these inorganic nanoparticles, including CdSe CQD-poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy )-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene)phenylene](MEH-CN-PPV) nanocomposites and Au nanoparticle-poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) nanocomposites. The unique contribution of this research is that a technique is demonstrated for the deposition of organic-based thin-films requiring solvents with bond energies that do not have to be resonant with the laser energy. By creating an emulsion of solvent and ice in the target, RIR-MAPLE using a 2.94 μm laser can deposit most material systems because the hydroxyl bonds in the ice component of the emulsion matrix are strongly resonant with the 2.94 μm laser. In this way, the types of materials that can be deposited using RIR-MAPLE has been significantly expanded. Furthermore, materials with different solvent bond energies can be co-deposited without concern for material degradation and without the need to specifically tune the laser energy to each material solvent bond energy, thereby facilitating the realization of organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite thin-films. In addition to the structural characterization of the inorganic nanoparticle and hybrid nanocomposite thin-films deposited using this RIR-MAPLE technique, optical characterization is presented to demonstrate the potential of such films for optoelectronic device applications.

  13. Sampling the light-organ microenvironment of Euprymna scolopes: description of a population of host cells in association with the bacterial symbiont Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyholm, S V; McFall-Ngai, M J

    1998-10-01

    The symbiosis between the squid Euprymna scolopes and the luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri has a pronounced diel rhythm, one component of which is the venting of the contents of the light organ into the surrounding seawater each day at dawn. In this study, we explored the use of this behavior to sample the microenvironment of the light-organ crypts. Intact crypt contents, which emerge from the lateral pores of the organ as a thick paste-like exudate, were collected from anesthetized host animals that had been exposed to a light cue. Microscopy revealed that the expelled material is composed of a conspicuous population of host cells in association with the bacterial symbionts, all of which are embedded in a dense acellular matrix that strongly resembles the bacteria-based biofilms described in other systems. Assays of the viability of expelled crypt cells revealed no dead bacterial symbionts and a mixture of live and dead host cells. Analyses of the ultrastructure, biochemistry, and phagocytic activity of a subset of the host cell population suggested that some of these cells are macrophage-like molluscan hemocytes.

  14. Photovoltaic devices based on quantum dot functionalized nanowire arrays embedded in an organic matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Patrick; Harris, Nicholas; Shen, Gang; Wilbert, David S.; Baughman, William; Balci, Soner; Dawahre, Nabil; Butler, Lee; Rivera, Elmer; Nikles, David; Kim, Seongsin M.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum dot (QD) functionalized nanowire arrays are attractive structures for low cost high efficiency solar cells. QDs have the potential for higher quantum efficiency, increased stability and lifetime compared to traditional dyes, as well as the potential for multiple electron generation per photon. Nanowire array scaffolds constitute efficient, low resistance electron transport pathways which minimize the hopping mechanism in the charge transport process of quantum dot solar cells. However, the use of liquid electrolytes as a hole transport medium within such scaffold device structures have led to significant degradation of the QDs. In this work, we first present the synthesis uniform single crystalline ZnO nanowire arrays and their functionalization with InP/ZnS core-shell quantum dots. The structures are characterized using electron microscopy, optical absorption, photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy. Complementing photoluminescence, transmission electron microanalysis is used to reveal the successful QD attachment process and the atomistic interface between the ZnO and the QD. Energy dispersive spectroscopy reveals the co-localized presence of indium, phosphorus, and sulphur, suggestive of the core-shell nature of the QDs. The functionalized nanowire arrays are subsequently embedded in a poly-3(hexylthiophene) hole transport matrix with a high degree of polymer infiltration to complete the device structure prior to measurement.

  15. Smad3 binds Scleraxis and Mohawk and regulates tendon matrix organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthet, Ellora; Chen, Carol; Butcher, Kristin; Schneider, Richard A; Alliston, Tamara; Amirtharajah, Mohana

    2013-09-01

    TGFβ plays a critical role in tendon formation and healing. While its downstream effector Smad3 has been implicated in the healing process, little is known about the role of Smad3 in normal tendon development or tenocyte gene expression. Using mice deficient in Smad3 (Smad3(-/-) ), we show that Smad3 ablation disrupts tendon architecture and has a dramatic impact on normal gene and protein expression during development as well as in mature tendon. In developing and adult tendon, loss of Smad3 results in reduced protein expression of the matrix components Collagen 1 and Tenascin-C. Additionally, when compared to wild type, tendon from adult Smad3(-/-) mice shows a down regulation of key tendon marker genes. Finally, we have established that Smad3 has the ability to physically interact with the critical transcriptional regulators Scleraxis and Mohawk. Together these results indicate a central role for Smad3 in normal tendon formation and in the maintenance of mature tendon. Copyright © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  16. Keratinocytes express fibrillin and assemble microfibrils: implications for dermal matrix organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, S L; Shuttleworth, C A; Kielty, C M

    1997-07-01

    Fibrillin-containing microfibrils are key architectural structures of the upper dermis and integral components of the dermal elastic fibre network. Microfibril bundles intercalate into the dermal-epithelial junction and provide an elastic connection between the dermal elastic fibre network and the epidermis. Immunohistochemical studies have suggested that they are laid down both at the dermal-epithelial junction and in the deep dermis. While dermal fibroblasts are responsible for deposition of the elastin and microfibrillar components that comprise the elastic fibres of the deep dermis, the cellular origin of the microfibril bundles that extrude from the dermal-epithelial junction is not well defined. We have used fresh tissues, freshly isolated epidermis and primary human and porcine keratinocyte cultures to investigate the possibility that keratinocytes are responsible for deposition of these microfibrils. We have shown that keratinocytes in vivo and in vitro synthesize both fibrillin-1 and fibrillin-2, and assemble beaded microfibrils concurrently with expression of basement membrane collagen. These observations suggest that keratinocytes co-ordinate the secretion, deposition and assembly of these distinct structural elements of the dermal matrix, and have important implications for skin remodelling.

  17. Novel Low Cost Organic Vapor Jet Printing of Striped High Efficiency Phosphorescent OLEDs for White Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Hack

    2008-12-31

    In this program, Universal Display Corporation and University of Michigan proposed to integrate three innovative concepts to meet the DOE's Solid State Lighting (SSL) goals: (1) high-efficiency phosphorescent organic light emitting device (PHOLED{trademark}) technology, (2) a white lighting design that is based on a series of red, green and blue OLED stripes, and (3) the use of a novel cost-effective, high rate, mask-less deposition process called organic vapor jet printing (OVJP). Our PHOLED technology offers up to four-times higher power efficiency than other OLED approaches for general lighting. We believe that one of the most promising approaches to maximizing the efficiency of OLED lighting sources is to produce stripes of the three primary colors at such a pitch (200-500 {mu}m) that they appear as a uniform white light to an observer greater than 1 meter (m) away from the illumination source. Earlier work from a SBIR Phase 1 entitled 'White Illumination Sources Using Striped Phosphorescent OLEDs' suggests that stripe widths of less than 500 {mu}m appear uniform from a distance of 1m without the need for an external diffuser. In this program, we intend to combine continued advances in this PHOLED technology with the striped RGB lighting design to demonstrate a high-efficiency, white lighting source. Using this background technology, the team has focused on developing and demonstrating the novel cost-effective OVJP process to fabricate these high-efficiency white PHOLED light sources. Because this groundbreaking OVJP process is a direct printing approach that enables the OLED stripes to be printed without a shadow mask, OVJP offers very high material utilization and high throughput without the costs and wastage associated with a shadow mask (i.e. the waste of material that deposits on the shadow mask itself). As a direct printing technique, OVJP also has the potential to offer ultra-high deposition rates (> 1,000 Angstroms/second) for any size or

  18. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) and Optically-Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR) studies on organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Min [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Organic semiconductors have evolved rapidly over the last decades and currently are considered as the next-generation technology for many applications, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in flat-panel displays (FPDs) and solid state lighting (SSL), and organic solar cells (OSCs) in clean renewable energy. This dissertation focuses mainly on OLEDs. Although the commercialization of the OLED technology in FPDs is growing and appears to be just around the corner for SSL, there are still several key issues that need to be addressed: (1) the cost of OLEDs is very high, largely due to the costly current manufacturing process; (2) the efficiency of OLEDs needs to be improved. This is vital to the success of OLEDs in the FPD and SSL industries; (3) the lifetime of OLEDs, especially blue OLEDs, is the biggest technical challenge. All these issues raise the demand for new organic materials, new device structures, and continued lower-cost fabrication methods. In an attempt to address these issues, we used solution-processing methods to fabricate highly efficient small molecule OLEDs (SMOLEDs); this approach is costeffective in comparison to the more common thermal vacuum evaporation. We also successfully made efficient indium tin oxide (ITO)-free SMOLEDs to further improve the efficiency of the OLEDs. We employed the spin-dependent optically-detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) technique to study the luminescence quenching processes in OLEDs and organic materials in order to understand the intrinsic degradation mechanisms. We also fabricated polymer LEDs (PLEDs) based on a new electron-accepting blue-emitting polymer and studied the effect of molecular weight on the efficiency of PLEDs. All these studies helped us to better understand the underlying relationship between the organic semiconductor materials and the OLEDs’ performance, and will subsequently assist in further enhancing the efficiency of OLEDs. With strongly improved device performance (in addition to

  19. Enlightenment of old ideas from new investigations: more questions regarding the evolution of bacteriogenic light organs in squids

    OpenAIRE

    Nishiguchi, M. K.; Lopez, J. E.; Boletzky, S. v.

    2004-01-01

    Bioluminescence is widespread among many different types of marine organisms. Metazoans contain two types of luminescence production, bacteriogenic (symbiotic with bacteria) or autogenic, via the production of a luminous secretion or the intrinsic properties of luminous cells. Several species in two families of squids, the Loliginidae and the Sepiolidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) harbor bacteriogenic light organs that are found central in the mantle cavity. These light organs are exceptional in ...

  20. [Effects of white organic light-emitting devices using color conversion films on electroluminescence spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qing-Chuan; Wu, Xiao-Ming; Hua, Yu-Lin; Qi, Qing-Jin; Li, Lan; Yin, Shou-Gen

    2010-06-01

    The authors report a novel white organic light-emitting device (WOLED), which uses a strategy of exciting organic/ inorganic color conversion film with a blue organic light-emitting diode (OLED). The luminescent layer of the blue OLED was prepared by use of CBP host blended with a blue highly fluorescent dye N-BDAVBi. The organic/inorganic color conversion film was prepared by dispersing a mixture of red pigment VQ-D25 and YAG : Ce3+ phosphor in PMMA. The authors have achieved a novel WOLED with the high color stability by optimizing the thickness and fluorescent pigment concentration of the color conversion film. When the driving voltage varied between 6 and 14 V, the color coordinates (CIE) varied slightly from (0.354, 0.304) to (0.357, 0.312) and the maximum current efficiency is about 5.8 cd x A(-1) (4.35 mA x cm(-2)), the maximum brightness is 16 800 cd x m(-2) at the operating voltage of 14 V.

  1. Dynamic light absorption of biomass-burning organic carbon photochemically aged under natural sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, M.; Jang, M.

    2014-02-01

    Wood-burning aerosol produced under smoldering conditions was photochemically aged with different relative humidity (RH) and NOx conditions using a 104 m3 dual outdoor chamber under natural sunlight. Light absorption of organic carbon (OC) was measured over the course of photooxidation using a UV-visible spectrometer connected to an integrating sphere. At high RH, the color decayed rapidly. NOx slightly prolonged the color of wood smoke, suggesting that NOx promotes the formation of chromophores via secondary processes. Overall, the mass absorption cross section (integrated between 280 and 600 nm) of OC increased by 11-54% (except high RH) in the morning and then gradually decreased by 19-68% in the afternoon. This dynamic change in light absorption of wood-burning OC can be explained by two mechanisms: chromophore formation and sunlight bleaching. To investigate the effect of chemical transformation on light absorption, wood smoke particles were characterized using various spectrometers. The intensity of fluorescence, which is mainly related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), rapidly decreased with time, indicating the potential bleaching of PAHs. A decline of levoglucosan concentrations evinced the change of primary organic aerosol with time. The aerosol water content measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that wood-burning aerosol became less hygroscopic as photooxidation proceeded. A similar trend in light absorption changes has been observed in ambient smoke aerosol originating from the 2012 County Line wildfire in Florida. We conclude that the biomass-burning OC becomes less light absorbing after 8-9 h sunlight exposure compared to fresh wood-burning OC.

  2. Colored dissolved organic matter in shallow estuaries: relationships between carbon sources and light attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreich, W. K.; Ganju, N. K.; Pohlman, J. W.; Suttles, S. E.

    2016-02-01

    Light availability is of primary importance to the ecological function of shallow estuaries. For example, benthic primary production by submerged aquatic vegetation is contingent upon light penetration to the seabed. A major component that attenuates light in estuaries is colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). CDOM is often measured via a proxy, fluorescing dissolved organic matter (fDOM), due to the ease of in situ fDOM sensor measurements. Fluorescence must be converted to CDOM absorbance for use in light attenuation calculations. However, this CDOM-fDOM relationship varies among and within estuaries. We quantified the variability in this relationship within three estuaries along the mid-Atlantic margin of the eastern United States: West Falmouth Harbor (MA), Barnegat Bay (NJ), and Chincoteague Bay (MD/VA). Land use surrounding these estuaries ranges from urban to developed, with varying sources of nutrients and organic matter. Measurements of fDOM (excitation and emission wavelengths of 365 nm (±5 nm) and 460 nm (±40 nm), respectively) and CDOM absorbance were taken along a terrestrial-to-marine gradient in all three estuaries. The ratio of the absorption coefficient at 340 nm (m-1) to fDOM (QSU) was higher in West Falmouth Harbor (1.22) than in Barnegat Bay (0.22) and Chincoteague Bay (0.17). The CDOM : fDOM absorption ratio was variable between sites within West Falmouth Harbor and Barnegat Bay, but consistent between sites within Chincoteague Bay. Stable carbon isotope analysis for constraining the source of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in West Falmouth Harbor and Barnegat Bay yielded δ13C values ranging from -19.7 to -26.1 ‰ and -20.8 to -26.7 ‰, respectively. Concentration and stable carbon isotope mixing models of DOC (dissolved organic carbon) indicate a contribution of 13C-enriched DOC in the estuaries. The most likely source of 13C-enriched DOC for the systems we investigated is Spartina cordgrass. Comparison of DOC source to CDOM : f

  3. OLED Fundamentals: Materials, Devices, and Processing of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blochwitz-Nimoth, Jan; Bhandari, Abhinav; Boesch, Damien; Fincher, Curtis R.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Gotthold, David W.; Greiner, Mark T.; Kido, Junji; Kondakov, Denis; Korotkov, Roman; Krylova, Valentina A.; Loeser, Falk; Lu, Min-Hao; Lu, Zheng-Hong; Lussem, Bjorn; Moro, Lorenza; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Rostovtsev, Vsevolod V.; Sasabe, Hisahiro; Silverman, Gary; Thompson, Mark E.; Tietze, Max; Tyan, Yuan-Sheng; Weaver, Michael; Xin , Xu; Zeng, Xianghui

    2015-05-26

    What is an organic light emitting diode (OLED)? Why should we care? What are they made of? How are they made? What are the challenges in seeing these devices enter the marketplace in various applications? These are the questions we hope to answer in this book, at a level suitable for knowledgeable non-experts, graduate students and scientists and engineers working in the field who want to understand the broader context of their work. At the most basic level, an OLED is a promising new technology composed of some organic material sandwiched between two electrodes. When current is passed through the device, light is emitted. The stack of layers can be very thin and has many variations, including flexible and/or transparent. The organic material can be polymeric or composed small molecules, and may include inorganic components. The electrodes may consist of metals, metal oxides, carbon nanomaterials, or other species, though of course for light to be emitted, one electrode must be transparent. OLEDs may be fabricated on glass, metal foils, or polymer sheets (though polymeric substrates must be modified to protect the organic material from moisture or oxygen). In any event, the organic material must be protected from moisture during storage and operation. A control circuit, the exact nature of which depends on the application, drives the OLED. Nevertheless, the control circuit should have very stable current control to generate uniform light emission. OLEDs can be designed to emit a single color of light, white light, or even tunable colors. The devices can be switched on and off very rapidly, which makes them suitable for displays or for general lighting. Given the amazing complexity of the technical and design challenges for practical OLED applications, it is not surprising that applications are still somewhat limited. Although organic electroluminescence is more than 50 years old, the modern OLED field is really only about half that age – with the first high

  4. Colored dissolved organic matter in shallow estuaries: relationships between carbon sources and light attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreich, W.K.; Ganju, Neil K.; Pohlman, John; Suttles, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    Light availability is of primary importance to the ecological function of shallow estuaries. For example, benthic primary production by submerged aquatic vegetation is contingent upon light penetration to the seabed. A major component that attenuates light in estuaries is colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). CDOM is often measured via a proxy, fluorescing dissolved organic matter (fDOM), due to the ease of in situ fDOM sensor measurements. Fluorescence must be converted to CDOM absorbance for use in light attenuation calculations. However, this CDOM–fDOM relationship varies among and within estuaries. We quantified the variability in this relationship within three estuaries along the mid-Atlantic margin of the eastern United States: West Falmouth Harbor (MA), Barnegat Bay (NJ), and Chincoteague Bay (MD/VA). Land use surrounding these estuaries ranges from urban to developed, with varying sources of nutrients and organic matter. Measurements of fDOM (excitation and emission wavelengths of 365 nm (±5 nm) and 460 nm (±40 nm), respectively) and CDOM absorbance were taken along a terrestrial-to-marine gradient in all three estuaries. The ratio of the absorption coefficient at 340 nm (m−1) to fDOM (QSU) was higher in West Falmouth Harbor (1.22) than in Barnegat Bay (0.22) and Chincoteague Bay (0.17). The CDOM : fDOM absorption ratio was variable between sites within West Falmouth Harbor and Barnegat Bay, but consistent between sites within Chincoteague Bay. Stable carbon isotope analysis for constraining the source of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in West Falmouth Harbor and Barnegat Bay yielded δ13C values ranging from −19.7 to −26.1 ‰ and −20.8 to −26.7 ‰, respectively. Concentration and stable carbon isotope mixing models of DOC (dissolved organic carbon) indicate a contribution of 13C-enriched DOC in the estuaries. The most likely source of 13C-enriched DOC for the systems we investigated is Spartina cordgrass. Comparison of

  5. New cyclometalated Iridium(III) beta-dicetone complex as phosphorescent dopant in Organic light emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, P.; Petrova, P.; Stanimirov, S.; Tomova, R.

    2017-01-01

    A new Bis[4-(benzothiazolato-N,C2‧-2-yl)-N,N-dimethylaniline]Iridium(III) acetylacetonate (Me2N-bt) 2Ir(acac) was synthesized and identified by 1H NMR and elemental analysis. The application of the new compound as a dopant in the hole transporting layer (HTL) of Organic light emitting diode (OLED) structure: HTL/EL/ETL, where HTL was N,N’-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N’-diphenylbenzidine (TPD), incorporated in Poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) matrix, EL - electroluminescent layer of Bis(8-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline)-(4-phenylpheno-xy)aluminum (BAlq) and ETL - electron-transporting layer of Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) or Bis[2-(2-benzothiazoly) phenolato]zinc (Zn(btz)2). We established that the electroluminescent spectra of OLEDs at different concentrations of the dopant were basically the sum of the greenish-blue emission of BAlq and yellowish-green emission of Ir complex. It was found that with increasing of the dopant concentration the relative electroluminescent intensity of Iridium complex emission increased and this of BAlq decreased and as a result the fine tuning of OLED color was observed.

  6. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis Reveals High Levels of Genetic Divergence Among the Light Organ Symbionts of Flashlight Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, C J; Haygood, M G

    1991-08-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphisms within the lux and 16S ribosomal RNA gene regions were used to compare unculturable bacterial light organ symbionts of several anomalopid fish species. The method of Nei and Li (1979) was used to calculate phylogenetic distance from the patterns of restriction fragment lengths of the luxA and 16S rRNA regions. Phylogenetic trees constructed from each distance matrix (luxA and 16S rDNA data) have similar branching orders. The levels of divergence among the symbionts, relative to other culturable luminous bacteria, suggests that the symbionts differ at the level of species among host fish genera. Symbiont relatedness and host geographic location do not seem to be correlated, and the symbionts do not appear to be strains of common, free-living, luminous bacteria. In addition, the small number of hybridizing fragments within the 16S rRNA region of the symbionts, compared with that of the free-living species, suggests a decrease in copy number of rRNA operons relative to free-living species. At this level of investigation, the symbiont phylogeny is consistent with the proposed phylogeny of the host fish family and suggests that each symbiont strain coevolved with its host fish species.

  7. Load-dependent extracellular matrix organization in atrioventricular heart valves: differences and similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, S Hamed; Sinha, Aditi; Steward, Earl; Milliken, Jeffrey C; Kheradvar, Arash

    2015-07-15

    The extracellular matrix of the atrioventricular (AV) valves' leaflets has a key role in the ability of these valves to properly remodel in response to constantly varying physiological loads. While the loading on mitral and tricuspid valves is significantly different, no information is available on how collagen fibers change their orientation in response to these loads. This study delineates the effect of physiological loading on AV valves' leaflets microstructures using Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy. Fresh natural porcine tricuspid and mitral valves' leaflets (n = 12/valve type) were cut and prepared for the experiments. Histology and immunohistochemistry were performed to compare the microstructural differences between the valves. The specimens were imaged live during the relaxed, loading, and unloading phases using SHG microscopy. The images were analyzed with Fourier decomposition to mathematically seek changes in collagen fiber orientation. Despite the similarities in both AV valves as seen in the histology and immunohistochemistry data, the microstructural arrangement, especially the collagen fiber distribution and orientation in the stress-free condition, were found to be different. Uniaxial loading was dependent on the arrangement of the fibers in their relaxed mode, which led the fibers to reorient in-line with the load throughout the depth of the mitral leaflet but only to reorient in-line with the load in deeper layers of the tricuspid leaflet. Biaxial loading arranged the fibers in between the two principal axes of the stresses independently from their relaxed states. Unlike previous findings, this study concludes that the AV valves' three-dimensional extracellular fiber arrangement is significantly different in their stress-free and uniaxially loaded states; however, fiber rearrangement in response to the biaxial loading remains similar. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Improving Light Extraction of Organic Light-Emitting Devices by Attaching Nanostructures with Self-Assembled Photonic Crystal Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Yu Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A single-monolayered hexagonal self-assembled photonic crystal (PC pattern fabricated onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET films by using simple nanosphere lithography (NSL method has been demonstrated in this research work. The patterned nanostructures acted as a scattering medium to extract the trapped photons from substrate mode of optical-electronic device for improving the overall external quantum efficiency of the organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs. With an optimum latex concentration, the distribution of self-assembled polystyrene (PS nanosphere patterns on PET films can be easily controlled by adjusting the rotation speed of spin-coater. After attaching the PS nanosphere array brightness enhancement film (BEF sheet as a photonic crystal pattern onto the device, the luminous intensity of OLEDs in the normal viewing direction is 161% higher than the one without any BEF attachment. The electroluminescent (EL spectrum of OLEDs with PS patterned BEF attachment also showed minor color offset and superior color stabilization characteristics, and thus it possessed the potential applications in all kinds of display technology and solid-state optical-electronic devices.

  9. Implementation of supply chain management in supplier performance assessment using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP Objective Matrix (OMAX and Traffic Light System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukendar Irwan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on researching the implementation of supply chain management in supplier performance measurement using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP Objective Matrix (OMAX and Traffic Light System. The method used consisted of several stages: Identification stage of criteria variable and subcriteria variable, designing hierarchy AHP structure, calculating the weight of each criterion and subcriteria, supplier performance appraisal using OMAX method, calculating the total value of each supplier perfomance and identifying the performance of each supplier Using color indicator from Traffic Light System. Based on the results of the research, it can be seen that 9 out of 10 suppliers that are considered have a good performance while 1 supplier has a performance under the target.

  10. Sox9 is required for precursor cell expansion and extracellular matrix organization during mouse heart valve development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Joy; Kist, Ralf; Scherer, Gerd; Yutzey, Katherine E

    2007-05-01

    Heart valve structures derived from mesenchymal cells of the endocardial cushions (ECs) are composed of highly organized cell lineages and extracellular matrix. Sox9 is a transcription factor required for both early and late stages of cartilage formation that is also expressed in the developing valves of the heart. The requirements for Sox9 function during valvulogenesis and adult valve homeostasis in mice were examined by conditional inactivation of Sox9 using Tie2-cre and Col2a1-cre transgenes. Sox9(flox/flox);Tie2-cre mice die before E14.5 with hypoplastic ECs, reduced cell proliferation and altered extracellular matrix protein (ECM) deposition. Sox9(flox/flox);Col2a1-cre mice die at birth with thickened heart valve leaflets, reduced expression of cartilage-associated proteins and abnormal ECM patterning. Thickened valve leaflets and calcium deposits, characteristic of valve disease, are observed in heterozygous adult Sox9(flox/+);Col2a1-cre mice. Therefore, Sox9 is required early in valve development for expansion of the precursor cell population and later is required for normal expression and distribution of valvular ECM proteins. These data indicate that Sox9 is required for early and late stages of valvulogenesis and identify a potential role for Sox9 in valve disease mechanisms.

  11. In silico evaluation of highly efficient organic light-emitting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, H. Shaun; Giesen, David J.; Hughes, Thomas F.; Goldberg, Alexander; Cao, Yixiang; Gavartin, Jacob; Dixon, Steve; Halls, Mathew D.

    2016-09-01

    Design and development of highly efficient organic and organometallic dopants is one of the central challenges in the organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) technology. Recent advances in the computational materials science have made it possible to apply computer-aided evaluation and screening framework directly to the design space of organic lightemitting diodes (OLEDs). In this work, we will showcase two major components of the latest in silico framework for development of organometallic phosphorescent dopants - (1) rapid screening of dopants by machine-learned quantum mechanical models and (2) phosphorescence lifetime predictions with spin-orbit coupled calculations (SOC-TDDFT). The combined work of virtual screening and evaluation would significantly widen the design space for highly efficient phosphorescent dopants with unbiased measures to evaluate performance of the materials from first principles.

  12. Measuring the pollutant transport capacity of dissolved organic matter in complex matrixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, L.; Alsberg, T.; Odham, G.

    2003-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) facilitated transport in contaminated groundwater was investigated through the measurement of the binding capacity of landfill leachate DOM (Vejen, Denmark) towards two model pollutants (pyrene and phenanthrene). Three different methods for measuring binding capacity....... It was further concluded that DOM facilitated transport should be taken into account for non-ionic PAHs with lg K OW above 5, at DOM concentrations above 250 mg C/L. The total DOM concentration was found to be more important for the potential of facilitated transport than differences in the DOM binding capacity....

  13. Deposition of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cell by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Yen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The deposition of various distinct organic dyes, including ruthenium complex N3, melanin nanoparticle (MNP, and porphyrin-based donor-π-acceptor dye YD2-o-C8, by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE for application to dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC is investigated systematically. It is found that the two covalently-bonded organic molecules, i.e., MNP and YD2-o-C8, can be transferred from the frozen target to the substrate with maintained molecular integrity. In contrast, N3 disintegrates in the process, presumably due to the lower bonding strength of metal complex compared to covalent bond. With the method, DSSC using YD2-o-C8 is fabricated, and an energy conversion efficiency of 1.47% is attained. The issue of the low penetration depth of dyes deposited by MAPLE and the possible resolution to it are studied. This work demonstrates that MAPLE could be an alternative way for deposition of organic dyes for DSSC.

  14. [Application of excitation-emission matrix spectrum combined with parallel factor analysis in dissolved organic matter in East China Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Li-Sha; Zhao, Wei-Hong; Miao, Hui

    2013-03-01

    Using excitation-emission matrix spectrum(EEMs) combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) examine the fluorescent components feature of dissolved organic matter (DOM) sampled from East China Sea in the summer and autumn was examined. The type, distribution and origin of the fluorescence dissolved organic matter were also discussed. Three fluorescent components were identified by PARAFAC, including protein-like component C1 (235, 280/330), terrestrial or marine humic-like component C2 (255, 330/400) and terrestrial humic-like component C3 (275, 360/480). The good linearity of the two humic-like components showed the same source or some relationship between the chemical constitutions. As a whole, the level of the fluorescence intensity in coastal ocean was higher than that of the open ocean in different water layers in two seasons. The relationship of three components with chlorophyll-a and salinity showed the DOM in the study area is almost not influenced by the living algal matter, but the fresh water outflow of the Yangtze River might be the source of them in the Yangtze River estuary in Summer. From what has been discussed above, we can draw the conclusion that the application of EEM-PARAFAC modeling will exert a profound influence upon the research of the dissolved organic matter.

  15. Deposition of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cell by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Chih-Ping [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Yu, Pin-Feng [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jyhpyng [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Lin, Jiunn-Yuan [Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yen-Mu [SuperbIN Co., Ltd., Taipei 114, Taiwan (China); Chen, Szu-yuan, E-mail: sychen@ltl.iams.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-15

    The deposition of various distinct organic dyes, including ruthenium complex N3, melanin nanoparticle (MNP), and porphyrin-based donor-π-acceptor dye YD2-o-C8, by using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) for application to dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is investigated systematically. It is found that the two covalently-bonded organic molecules, i.e., MNP and YD2-o-C8, can be transferred from the frozen target to the substrate with maintained molecular integrity. In contrast, N3 disintegrates in the process, presumably due to the lower bonding strength of metal complex compared to covalent bond. With the method, DSSC using YD2-o-C8 is fabricated, and an energy conversion efficiency of 1.47% is attained. The issue of the low penetration depth of dyes deposited by MAPLE and the possible resolution to it are studied. This work demonstrates that MAPLE could be an alternative way for deposition of organic dyes for DSSC.

  16. [Resolving excitation emission matrix spectroscopy of estuarine CDOM with parallel factor analysis and its application in organic pollution monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei-Dong; Huang, Jian-Ping; Hong, Hua-Sheng; Xu, Jing; Deng, Xun

    2010-06-01

    The distribution and estuarine behavior of fluorescent components of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) from Jiulong Estuary were determined by fluorescence excitation emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMs) combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). The feasibility of these components as tracers for organic pollution in estuarine environments was also evaluated. Four separate fluorescent components were identified by PARAFAC, including three humic-like components (C1: 240, 310/382 nm; C2: 230, 250, 340/422 nm; C4: 260, 390/482 nm) and one protein-like components (C3: 225, 275/342 nm). These results indicated that UV humic-like peak A area designated by traditional "peak-picking method" was not a single peak but actually a combination of several fluorescent components, and it also had inherent links to so-called marine humic-like peak M or terrestrial humic-like peak C. Component C2 which include peak M decreased with increase of salinity in Jiulong Estuary, demonstrating that peak M can not be thought as the specific indicator of the "marine" humic-like component. Two humic-like components C1 and C2 showed additional behavior in the turbidity maximum region (salinity CDOM may provide a fast in-situ way to monitor the variation of the degree of organic pollution in estuarine environments.

  17. Тhe elite and the base for the „otherwise possible” matrix in the self - organization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman BOGACIOV

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available New basic social relations in the format of dialogue and cooperation are the basis of subject- to-subject relationship. Their polyphony in the field of „live communication” becomes the basis for developing new approaches and mechanisms for self-organizing social systems, the social development and the reproduction in general. The proposed methodological framework of the Matrix of „Otherwise Possible” is the basis for the social development and relevant social system management tools. The theoretical elaboration and practical implementation of the proposed approach to the development strategy of self-social system determines further directions of the scientific exploration – the mechanisms and practices towards self-harmonization of the nature and the form of the process of social development.

  18. Electroplex emission at PVK/Bphen interface for application in white organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Liang; Li Fushan; Xie Jiangxing; Wu Chaoxing; Zheng Yong; Chen Dongling; Xu Sheng; Guo Tailiang; Qu Bo; Chen Zhijian; Gong Qihuang

    2011-01-01

    White organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) with a structure of ITO/poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK)/4,7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline (Bphen)/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq 3 )/LiF/Al has been fabricated via the thermal evaporation technique. The electroluminescence (EL) spectrum of the as-fabricated WOLED covers from 380 to 700 nm of the visible light region with a wide blue emission from PVK and an interesting new red emission. The red emission at 613 nm in EL spectra of the WOLED was attributed to electroplex emission at PVK/Bphen interface since it was not observed in photoluminescence spectra. The WOLED showed a Commission International De l'Eclairage coordinate of (0.31, 0.32), which is very close to the standard white coordinate (0.33, 0.33). - Highlights: → A white organic light-emitting diode was fabricated by vacuum deposition. → A new red emission at 613 nm was observed in the electroluminescence spectra. → Red emission comes from electroplex instead of exciplex at PVK/Bphen interface. → The device has a CIE coordinate of (0.31, 0.32).

  19. Influence of Inorganic Ions and Organic Substances on the Degradation of Pharmaceutical Compound in Water Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kudlek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper determined the influence of inorganic substances and high-molecular organic compounds on the decomposition of diclofenac, ibuprofen, and carbamazepine in the process of photocatalysis conducted with the presence of Titanium dioxide (TiO2. It was determined that the presence of such ions as CO 3 2 − , HCO 3 − , HPO 4 2 − as well as SO 4 2 − inhibited the decomposition of carbamazepine, whereas the efficiency of diclofenac degradation was decreased only by the presence of CO 3 2 − and HCO 3 − anions. In case of ibuprofen sodium salt (IBU, all investigated anions influenced the increase in its decomposition rate. The process of pharmaceutical photooxidation conducted in suspensions with Al3+ and Fe3+ cations was characterized by a significantly decreased efficiency when compared to the solution deprived of inorganic compounds. The addition of Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+ affected the increase of reaction rate constant value of diclofenac and ibuprofen decomposition. On the other hand, high molecular organic compounds present in the model effluent additionally catalysed the degradation process of pharmaceutical compounds and constituted an additional sorbent that enabled to decrease their concentration. Toxicological analysis conducted in deionized water with pharmaceutical compounds’ patterns proved the production of by-products from oxidation and/or reduction of micropollutants, which was not observed for model effluent irradiation.

  20. INFLUENCE OF THE SKELETON HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION ON ELECTRONIC STATE OF IONS IN BONE MATRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Avrunin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors suggested the 3D-superlattice (3DSL model to describe the effect of coplanar assembly of the hydroxyapatite (HA nanocrystallites on local electronic state of ions in mineralized bone. This model is based on the main structural and functional relationships between adjacent levels of the hierarchical organization of bone tissue. In the framework of the 3DSL model the authors predicted the distinct assembly-to-crystal red shift of the unoccupied electronic states located near the bottom of the conduction band in HA and dependence of this shift on the ratio of the thickness of the hydrated layer to the crystallite size. To check these predictions the experimental X-ray absorption studies of native bone are performed near the Ca2р1/2,3/2-, P2р1/2,3/2- и O1s edges. Comparison of the measured spectra with the known spectra of the reference compounds has confirmed appearance of the distinct assembly-to-crystal red shift. The observed effect is the ground for development of new diagnostic methods for bone status and imaging changes in the local electronic structure of bone tissue by using ultrasoft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and measuring the assembly-tocrystal shifts. The experimental data analysis proved the applicability of the 3DSL model for better understanding of the hierarchical organization of bone at nanolevel.