WorldWideScience

Sample records for matrix envelopes believed

  1. Assessing Believability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togelius, Julian; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Karakovskiy, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    (or at least complementary) assessment might be made by an external observer that does not participate in the game, through comparing and ranking the performance of human and non-human agents playing a game. This assessment philosophy was embodied in the Turing Test Track of the recent Mario AI......We discuss what it means for a non-player character (NPC) to be believable or human-like, and how we can accurately assess believability. We argue that participatory observation, where the human assessing believability takes part in the game, is prone to distortion effects. For many games, a fairer...... Championship, where non-expert bystanders evaluated the human-likeness of several agents and humans playing a version of Super Mario Bros. We analyze the results of this competition. Finally, we discuss the possibilities for forming models of believability and of maximizing believability through adjusting game...

  2. Direct closed-form covariance matrix and finite alphabet constant-envelope waveforms for planar array beampatterns

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid

    2016-11-24

    Various examples of methods and systems are provided for direct closed-form finite alphabet constant-envelope waveforms for planar array beampatterns. In one example, a method includes defining a waveform covariance matrix based at least in part upon a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D-FFT) analysis of a frequency domain matrix Hf associated with a planar array of antennas. Symbols can be encoded based upon the waveform covariance matrix and the encoded symbols can be transmitted via the planar array of antennas. In another embodiment, a system comprises an N x M planar array of antennas and transmission circuitry configured to transmit symbols via a two-dimensional waveform beampattern defined based at least in part upon a 2D-FFT analysis of a frequency domain matrix Hf associated with the planar array of antennas.

  3. Canine distemper virus matrix protein influences particle infectivity, particle composition, and envelope distribution in polarized epithelial cells and modulates virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzel, Erik; Anderson, Danielle E; Castan, Alexandre; von Messling, Veronika; Maisner, Andrea

    2011-07-01

    In paramyxoviruses, the matrix (M) protein mediates the interaction between the envelope and internal proteins during particle assembly and egress. In measles virus (MeV), M mutations, such as those found in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) strains, and differences in vaccine and wild-type M proteins can affect the strength of interaction with the envelope glycoproteins, assembly efficiency, and spread. However, the contribution of the M protein to the replication and pathogenesis of the closely related canine distemper virus (CDV) has not been characterized. To this end this, we generated a recombinant wild-type CDV carrying a vaccine strain M protein. The recombinant virus retained the parental growth phenotype in VerodogSLAMtag cells, but displayed an increased particle-to-infectivity ratio very similar to that of the vaccine strain, likely due to inefficient H protein incorporation. Even though infectious virus was released only from the apical surface, consistent with the release polarity of the wild-type CDV strain, envelope protein distribution in polarized epithelial cells reproduced the bipolar pattern seen in vaccine strain-infected cells. Most notably, the chimeric virus was completely attenuated in ferrets and caused only a mild and transient leukopenia, indicating that the differences in particle infectivity and envelope protein sorting mediated by the vaccine M protein contribute importantly to vaccine strain attenuation.

  4. Canine Distemper Virus Matrix Protein Influences Particle Infectivity, Particle Composition, and Envelope Distribution in Polarized Epithelial Cells and Modulates Virulence ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dietzel, Erik; Anderson, Danielle E.; Castan, Alexandre; von Messling, Veronika; Maisner, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    In paramyxoviruses, the matrix (M) protein mediates the interaction between the envelope and internal proteins during particle assembly and egress. In measles virus (MeV), M mutations, such as those found in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) strains, and differences in vaccine and wild-type M proteins can affect the strength of interaction with the envelope glycoproteins, assembly efficiency, and spread. However, the contribution of the M protein to the replication and pathogenesis o...

  5. Believable Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nasr, Magy Seif; Bishko, Leslie; Zammitto, Veronica; Nixon, Michael; Vasiliakos, Athanasios V.; Wei, Huaxin

    The interactive entertainment industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. In 1996, the U.S. entertainment software industry reported 2.6 billion in sales revenue, this figure has more than tripled in 2007 yielding 9.5 billion in revenues [1]. In addition, gamers, the target market for interactive entertainment products, are now reaching beyond the traditional 8-34 year old male to include women, Hispanics, and African Americans [2]. This trend has been observed in several markets, including Japan, China, Korea, and India, who has just published their first international AAA title (defined as high quality games with high budget), a 3D third person action game: Ghajini - The Game [3]. The topic of believable characters is becoming a central issue when designing and developing games for today's game industry. While narrative and character were considered secondary to game mechanics, games are currently evolving to integrate characters, narrative, and drama as part of their design. One can see this pattern through the emergence of games like Assassin's Creed (published by Ubisoft 2008), Hotel Dusk (published by Nintendo 2007), and Prince of Persia series (published by Ubisoft), which emphasized character and narrative as part of their design.

  6. Thinking is believing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasturirangan, Rajesh

    2008-01-01

    Philosophers as well lay people often think of beliefs as psychological states with dubious epistemic properties. Beliefs are conceptualized as unregulated conceptual structures, for the most part hypothetical and often fanciful or deluded. Thinking and reasoning on the other hand are seen as rational activities regulated by rules and governed by norms. Computational modeling of the mind has focused on rule-governed behavior, ultimately trying to reduce them to rules of logic. What if thinking is less like reasoning and more like believing? I argue that the classical model of thought as rational is mistaken and that thinking is fundamentally constituted by believing. This new approach forces us to re-evaluate classical epistemic concepts like "truth", "justification" etc. Furthermore, if thinking is believing, then it is not clear how thoughts can be modeled computationally. We need new mathematical ideas to model thought, ideas that are quite different from traditional logic-based mathematical structures.

  7. Electrophoretic characterization of the Mammalian nuclear matrix proteome, nuclear envelope, nucleoli and covalently bound ADP-ribose polymers: potential applications to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Xavier G; Racho, Ronald G; Pacheco-Rodríguez, Gustavo; Alvarez-González, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acid metabolism is biochemically compartmentalized to the nucleus. Thus, it is necessary to define the proteome of the various macromolecular structures within this organelle. We isolated the nuclear matrix (NM) fraction from rat liver by sequential centrifugation steps at 13,000 rpm, staggered between endogenous nuclease treatment for 2 h at 37°C, followed by high-salt (H.S.; 2.0 M NaCl) and non-ionic detergent extractions (0.1%- or 1.0% Triton X-100) to eliminate the bulk of chromosomal DNA/RNA, histone proteins and the nuclear envelope (NE). Integrity of the NM and NE structures was confirmed by electron microscopy. Next, we analyzed the NM proteome on a 20% polyacrylamide gel using the PhastSystem. We observed the absence of histone proteins and the characteristic presence of the lamins by Coomassie blue staining. By contrast, upon silver staining, following electrophoretic separation with a Tris-Borate-EDTA buffer, we observed the NM-associated nucleic RNA and protein-free ADP-ribose polymers. While polymers are found in much lower concentration than RNA in NM, they were purified by affinity chromatography on boronate resin prior to electrophoresis. We observed the electrophoretic resolution of free ADP-ribose chains (5-25 units) by silver staining. The significance of our observations to cancer studies and carcinogenesis is discussed. Copyright© 2014, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. Building envelope

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available for use in the building. This is done through photovoltaic and solar water heating panels and wind turbines. Ideally these are integrated in the design of the building envelope to improve the aesthetic quality of the building and minimise material... are naturally ventilated. Renewable energy The building envelope includes renewable energy generation such as photovoltaics, wind turbines and solar water heaters and 10% of the building’s energy requirements are generated from these sources. Views All...

  9. Biomimetic Envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    Ilaria Mazzoleni

    2010-01-01

    How to translate the lessons learned from the analysis and observation of the animal world is the design learning experience presented in this article. Skin is a complex and incredibly sophisticated organ that performs various functions, including protection, sensation and heat and water regulation. In a similar way building envelopes serve multiple roles, as they are the interface between the building inhabitants and environmental elements. The resulting architectural building envelopes prot...

  10. Believable Social and Emotional Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    While building tools to support the creation of believable emotional agents, I had to make a number of important design decisions . Before describing...processing systems, it is difficult to give an artist direct control over the emotion - al aspects of the character. By making these decisions explicit, I hope...Woody on “Cheers”). Believable Agents BELIEVABLE SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL AGENTS 11 Lesson: We don’t want agent architectures that enforce rationality and

  11. What makes virtual agents believable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovych, Anton; Trescak, Tomas; Simoff, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the concept of believability and make an attempt to isolate individual characteristics (features) that contribute to making virtual characters believable. As the result of this investigation we have produced a formalisation of believability and based on this formalisation built a computational framework focused on simulation of believable virtual agents that possess the identified features. In order to test whether the identified features are, in fact, responsible for agents being perceived as more believable, we have conducted a user study. In this study we tested user reactions towards the virtual characters that were created for a simulation of aboriginal inhabitants of a particular area of Sydney, Australia in 1770 A.D. The participants of our user study were exposed to short simulated scenes, in which virtual agents performed some behaviour in two different ways (while possessing a certain aspect of believability vs. not possessing it). The results of the study indicate that virtual agents that appear resource bounded, are aware of their environment, own interaction capabilities and their state in the world, agents that can adapt to changes in the environment and exist in correct social context are those that are being perceived as more believable. Further in the paper we discuss these and other believability features and provide a quantitative analysis of the level of contribution for each such feature to the overall perceived believability of a virtual agent.

  12. Believing Badly | Cox | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the grounds upon which moral judgment of a person's beliefs is properly made. The beliefs in question are non-moral beliefs and the objects of moral judgment are individual instances of believing. We argue that instances of believing may be morally wrong on any of three distinct grounds: (i) by ...

  13. Citizens Integrity Pledge ######################### I believe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    I believe that all stakeholders such as governrnent , citizens and the private sector need to work together to eradicate corruption. I realise that ... maintaining highest standards of integrity, transparency and good governance in all aspects of our.

  14. Enveloping Aerodynamic Decelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, Kerry T. (Inventor); Aaron, Kim M. (Inventor); McRonald, Angus D. (Inventor); Gates, Kristin L. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    An inflatable aerodynamic deceleration method and system is provided for use with an atmospheric entry payload. The inflatable aerodynamic decelerator includes an inflatable envelope and an inflatant, wherein the inflatant is configured to fill the inflatable envelope to an inflated state such that the inflatable envelope surrounds the atmospheric entry payload, causing aerodynamic forces to decelerate the atmospheric entry payload.

  15. A Spectral Algorithm for Envelope Reduction of Sparse Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Stephen T.; Pothen, Alex; Simon, Horst D.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of reordering a sparse symmetric matrix to reduce its envelope size is considered. A new spectral algorithm for computing an envelope-reducing reordering is obtained by associating a Laplacian matrix with the given matrix and then sorting the components of a specified eigenvector of the Laplacian. This Laplacian eigenvector solves a continuous relaxation of a discrete problem related to envelope minimization called the minimum 2-sum problem. The permutation vector computed by the spectral algorithm is a closest permutation vector to the specified Laplacian eigenvector. Numerical results show that the new reordering algorithm usually computes smaller envelope sizes than those obtained from the current standard algorithms such as Gibbs-Poole-Stockmeyer (GPS) or SPARSPAK reverse Cuthill-McKee (RCM), in some cases reducing the envelope by more than a factor of two.

  16. Storage envelopes or sleeves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freshwater, J.R.; Wagman, P.I.

    1980-01-01

    A storage envelope or sleeve particularly for processed X-ray films is described. It consists of front and back panels joined together at a hinge line and connected along the intermediate sides by connecting flaps. An inner pocket is formed from a third flap which is folded to lie against the inner face of the back panel. The panels may have additional score lines parallel to the closed sides of the envelope and the inner pocket so that the envelope and the inner pocket can accommodate bulky contents. The free edge of the pocket is inset from the open side of the envelope, and finger cut-outs may be provided to facilitate access to the contents of the envelope and the pocket. (author)

  17. Believing responsibly : intellectual obligations and doxastic excuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peels, H.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31393374X

    2012-01-01

    What we believe and what we do not believe has a great impact on what we do and fail to do. Hence, if we want to act responsibly, we should believe responsibly. However, do we have the kind of control over our beliefs that such responsibility for our beliefs seems to require? If not, can we maybe

  18. Protective plasma envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocharov, V.N.; Konstantinov, S.G.; Kudryavtsev, A.M.; Myskin, O.K.; Panasyuk, V.M.; Tsel'nik, F.A.

    1984-06-01

    A method of creating an annular plasma envelope used to protect the hot plasma from flows of impurities and gases from the walls of the vacuum chamber is described. The diameter of the envelope is 30 cm, the thickness of the wall is 1.5 cm, the length is 2.5 m, and its density is from 10 13 to 10 14 cm -3 . The envelope attenuates the incident (from outside) flow of helium 10-fold and the low of hydrogen 20-fold

  19. Safe operating envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, N [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    Safe Operating Envelope is described representing: The outer bound of plant conditions within which day-to-day plant operation must be maintained in order to comply with regulatory requirements, associated safety design criteria and corporate nuclear safety goals. Figs.

  20. Safe operating envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, N.

    1997-01-01

    Safe Operating Envelope is described representing: The outer bound of plant conditions within which day-to-day plant operation must be maintained in order to comply with regulatory requirements, associated safety design criteria and corporate nuclear safety goals. Figs

  1. Characterization of membrane association of Rinderpest virus matrix protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhashri, R.; Shaila, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Paramyxovirus matrix protein is believed to play a crucial role in the assembly and maturation of the virus particle by bringing the major viral components together at the budding site in the host cell. The membrane association capability of many enveloped virus matrix proteins has been characterized to be their intrinsic property. In this work, we have characterized the membrane association of Rinderpest virus matrix (M) protein. The M protein of Rinderpest virus when expressed in the absence of other viral proteins is present both in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane. When expressed as GFP fusion protein, the M protein gets localized into plasma membrane protrusions. High salt and alkaline conditions resulted in partial dissociation of M protein from cell membrane. Thus, M protein behaves like an integral membrane protein although its primary structure suggests it to be a peripheral membrane protein

  2. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Michael; Cupo, Albert; Dean, Hansi; Hoffenberg, Simon; King, C. Richter; Klasse, P. J.; Marozsan, Andre; Moore, John P.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Ward, Andrew; Wilson, Ian; Julien, Jean-Philippe

    2017-08-22

    The present application relates to novel HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, which may be utilized as HIV-1 vaccine immunogens, and antigens for crystallization, electron microscopy and other biophysical, biochemical and immunological studies for the identification of broad neutralizing antibodies. The present invention encompasses the preparation and purification of immunogenic compositions, which are formulated into the vaccines of the present invention.

  3. Common envelope evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taam, Ronald E.; Ricker, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    The common envelope phase of binary star evolution plays a central role in many evolutionary pathways leading to the formation of compact objects in short period systems. Using three dimensional hydrodynamical computations, we review the major features of this evolutionary phase, focusing on the

  4. (Quasi-)Poisson enveloping algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yan-Hong; Yao, Yuan; Ye, Yu

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the quasi-Poisson enveloping algebra and Poisson enveloping algebra for a non-commutative Poisson algebra. We prove that for a non-commutative Poisson algebra, the category of quasi-Poisson modules is equivalent to the category of left modules over its quasi-Poisson enveloping algebra, and the category of Poisson modules is equivalent to the category of left modules over its Poisson enveloping algebra.

  5. Thermal Activated Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Pasold, Anke

    2015-01-01

    The research studies the making of a responsive architectural envelope based on bi-materials. The bi-materials are organized according to a method that combines different isotropic metals and plastic into an active composite structure that reacts to temperature variations. Through an evolutionary......, environmental dynamics and occupancy dynamics. Lastly, a physical prototype is created, which illustrates the physical expression of the bi-materials and the problems related to manufacturing of these composite structures.......The research studies the making of a responsive architectural envelope based on bi-materials. The bi-materials are organized according to a method that combines different isotropic metals and plastic into an active composite structure that reacts to temperature variations. Through an evolutionary...

  6. On Believing in Witches | Saari | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper I discuss Polycarp Ikuenobe's view that it is rational to believe, in an African context, in the existence of witches and witchcraft. First, I attempt to show that it is not possible to prove empirically that witches and witchcraft are real, as Ikuenobe assumes. I argue that even though witches and witchcraft are part of the ...

  7. The Human Element: Believing in People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Peter S.

    1996-01-01

    Suggestions for developing a creative and synergistic organization include the following: believe that people want to do their effective best in their work; communicate with people face-to-face; share virtually all information regularly and freely; use humor to create an upbeat work atmosphere; and always establish a timeline when asking someone…

  8. Believability of signals from cosmic ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.

    1990-11-01

    This paper discusses some of the criteria by which an observer judges whether to believe a signal or limit that has been reported for a cosmic ray source. The importance of specifying the test before looking at the data is emphasized. 5 refs

  9. Uncertain data envelopment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Meilin

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended to present the milestones in the progression of uncertain Data envelopment analysis (DEA). Chapter 1 gives some basic introduction to uncertain theories, including probability theory, credibility theory, uncertainty theory and chance theory. Chapter 2 presents a comprehensive review and discussion of basic DEA models. The stochastic DEA is introduced in Chapter 3, in which the inputs and outputs are assumed to be random variables. To obtain the probability distribution of a random variable, a lot of samples are needed to apply the statistics inference approach. Chapter 4

  10. Reasoning in believers in the paranormal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Emma; Peters, Emmanuelle

    2004-11-01

    Reasoning biases have been identified in deluded patients, delusion-prone individuals, and believers in the paranormal. This study examined content-specific reasoning and delusional ideation in believers in the paranormal. A total of 174 members of the Society for Psychical Research completed a delusional ideation questionnaire and a deductive reasoning task. The reasoning statements were manipulated for congruency with paranormal beliefs. As predicted, individuals who reported a strong belief in the paranormal made more errors and displayed more delusional ideation than skeptical individuals. However, no differences were found with statements that were congruent with their belief system, confirming the domain-specificity of reasoning. This reasoning bias was limited to people who reported a belief in, rather than experience of, paranormal phenomena. These results suggest that reasoning abnormalities may have a causal role in the formation of unusual beliefs. The dissociation between experiences and beliefs implies that such abnormalities operate at the evaluative, rather than the perceptual, stage of processing.

  11. Toward robotic socially believable behaving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi

    2016-01-01

    This volume is a collection of research studies on the modeling of emotions in complex autonomous systems. Several experts in the field are reporting their efforts and reviewing the literature in order to shed lights on how the processes of coding and decoding emotional states took place in humans, which are the physiological, physical, and psychological variables involved, invent new mathematical models and algorithms to describe them, and motivate these investigations in the light of observable societal changes and needs, such as the aging population and the cost of health care services. The consequences are the implementation of emotionally and socially believable machines, acting as helpers into domestic spheres, where emotions drive behaviors and actions. The contents of the book are highly multidisciplinary since the modeling of emotions in robotic socially believable systems requires a holistic perspective on topics coming from different research domains such as computer science, engineering, sociology...

  12. Someone Has Led This Child To Believe

    OpenAIRE

    Louise, Regina

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTSOMEONE HAS LED THIS CHILD TO BELIEVE is a true story and continuation of the best-selling memoir Somebody’s Someone. After 12 year-old Regina Louise, tired of being beaten, battles and escapes an illegal guardian; she jumps from a two-story window and runs to a local police station where she is taken into custody, locked in a holding cell, and delivered to the Edgar Children’s Shelter, in Martinez California. Regina is closed off about her parents, her past…until she meets Jeanne Ke...

  13. Enhanced greenhouse warming: Regional response and believability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, D.

    1991-01-01

    Climate models predict significant changes in the world's climate over the next 50-100 y due to increasing atmospheric greenhouse gases. To what extent these predictions can be believed has been the subject of considerable scientific debate. The ability of climate models to reproduce the current climate depends on how well the available data sets specify the earth's climate and how well the models reproduce that specification. A study of historical and paleo climates provides information on how the climate system operates and on past fluctuations in climate, and may also provide useful analogues of future climates. The best tools for understanding and predicting future climate changes are likely numerical models. Sophisticated climate models suffer from uncertainties about the feedback loops present in the real climate system. The ability of global circulation models to replicate current climate globally is fairly good, but significant disagreements have been found among different models at regional scales. For a region such as the Mackenzie Valley, understanding of historical and current climate is essential in terms of developing reasonable scenarios of future climate change. Uncertainty will probably remain an issue with respect to greenhouse warming for the foreseeable future, and as a result the detailed climate prediction on a regional scale needed for some kinds of impact studies may not be attainable. 73 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  14. The LHC on an envelope

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The series of envelopes featuring CERN issued this summer was a huge success. The French postal services of the Pays de Gex will shortly be launching the second set of pre-paid envelopes issued in collaboration with the Laboratory this year, this time highlighting the LHC. Five thousand envelopes describing the accelerator’s capabilities will go on sale on 12 November, and some of the packs will even contain a small sample of the cables from the heart of the LHC magnets. The sets of ten pre-paid envelopes will tell you everything about CERN’s flagship accelerator, from its astounding technical capabilities to its spin-offs in the fields of technology and human resources. Each envelope will feature a different attribute or spin-off of the LHC. People will be invited to consult CERN’s public website for more detailed explanations if they want to know more. The new envelopes will be available from five post offices in the Pays ...

  15. The LHC in an envelope

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The series of envelopes featuring CERN issued this summer was a huge success. The French postal services of the Pays de Gex will shortly be launching the second set of pre-paid envelopes issued in collaboration with the Laboratory this year, this time highlighting the LHC. Five thousand envelopes describing the accelerator’s capabilities will go on sale on 12 November, and some of the packs will even contain a small sample of the cables from the heart of the LHC magnets. The sets of ten pre-paid envelopes will tell you everything about CERN’s flagship accelerator, from its astounding technical capabilities to its spin-offs in the fields of technology and human resources. Each envelope will feature a different attribute or spin-off of the LHC. People will be invited to consult CERN’s public website for more detailed explanations if they want to know more. The new envelopes will be available from five post offices in the Pays de Gex (Ferney-Voltaire, Prévessin...

  16. Positive Effects of Believing, Prayer and Spending in Charity on the Inner Peace of Believers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayati Aydin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the majesty of faith and rituals in the spiritual happiness of man. Believing, worshipping and giving charity are the core of Islam as well as the basis of spiritual presence. In the Holy Qur’an, it is explained that the man who realises those three elements is one who believe and behave conscientiously. For this reason, the Qur’an espouses that when Islamic virtues and rituals are carried out, the spiritual context of the soul calms down and gets peace. Faith gives internal presence to man, worshipping gets man closer to the divine existence, giving charity leads to harmony between man and his environment, and makes him follow the co-operative law of the cosmos.

  17. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY08

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, Robert; Metcalf, Richard; Bevill, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    The Safeguards Envelope Project met its milestones by creating a rudimentary safeguards envelope, proving the value of the approach on a small scale, and determining the most appropriate path forward. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant's large cache of reprocessing process monitoring data, dubbed UBER Data, was recovered and used in the analysis. A probabilistic Z test was used on a Markov Monte Carlo simulation of expected diversion data when compared with normal operating data. The data regarding a fully transient event in a tank was used to create a simple requirement, representative of a safeguards envelope, whose impact was a decrease in operating efficiency by 1.3% but an increase in material balance period of 26%. This approach is operator, state, and international safeguards friendly and should be applied to future reprocessing plants. Future requirements include tank-to-tank correlations in reprocessing facilities, detailed operations impact studies, simulation inclusion, automated optimization, advanced statistics analysis, and multi-attribute utility analysis

  18. Moisture dynamics in building envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peuhkuri, R.

    2003-07-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis 'Moisture dynamics in building envelopes' has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygro thermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature and moisture conditions in the exterior weather and indoor climate the materials dynamically absorb and release moisture. The complexity of the impact of these conditions on the resulting moisture transport and content of the materials has been studied in this Thesis with controlled laboratory tests. (au)

  19. Moisture Dynamics in Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2003-01-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis "Moisture dynamics in building envelopes" has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygrothermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature...... part of the Thesis consists of a theory and literature review on the moisture storage and transport processes (Chapter 2), on the non-Fickian moisture transport (Chapter 3)and on the methods for determining the moisture properties (Chapter 4). In the second part, the conducted experimental work...

  20. Nature of 'unseen' galactic envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrea, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, it is suggested that unseen matter in a galactic envelope or in a group of galaxies may consist of substellar bodies originating as the first permanent 'stars' in the formation of a very massive galaxy according to a model for galaxy-formation on the basis of simple big-bang cosmology. (Auth.)

  1. Handbook on data envelopment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, William W; Zhu, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on extensively used Data Envelopment Analysis topics, this volume aims to both describe the state of the field and extend the frontier of DEA research. New chapters include DEA models for DMUs, network DEA, models for supply chain operations and applications, and new developments.

  2. A model for the sustainable selection of building envelope assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huedo, Patricia, E-mail: huedo@uji.es [Universitat Jaume I (Spain); Mulet, Elena, E-mail: emulet@uji.es [Universitat Jaume I (Spain); López-Mesa, Belinda, E-mail: belinda@unizar.es [Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this article is to define an evaluation model for the environmental impacts of building envelopes to support planners in the early phases of materials selection. The model is intended to estimate environmental impacts for different combinations of building envelope assemblies based on scientifically recognised sustainability indicators. These indicators will increase the amount of information that existing catalogues show to support planners in the selection of building assemblies. To define the model, first the environmental indicators were selected based on the specific aims of the intended sustainability assessment. Then, a simplified LCA methodology was developed to estimate the impacts applicable to three types of dwellings considering different envelope assemblies, building orientations and climate zones. This methodology takes into account the manufacturing, installation, maintenance and use phases of the building. Finally, the model was validated and a matrix in Excel was created as implementation of the model. - Highlights: • Method to assess the envelope impacts based on a simplified LCA • To be used at an earlier phase than the existing methods in a simple way. • It assigns a score by means of known sustainability indicators. • It estimates data about the embodied and operating environmental impacts. • It compares the investment costs with the costs of the consumed energy.

  3. A model for the sustainable selection of building envelope assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huedo, Patricia; Mulet, Elena; López-Mesa, Belinda

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to define an evaluation model for the environmental impacts of building envelopes to support planners in the early phases of materials selection. The model is intended to estimate environmental impacts for different combinations of building envelope assemblies based on scientifically recognised sustainability indicators. These indicators will increase the amount of information that existing catalogues show to support planners in the selection of building assemblies. To define the model, first the environmental indicators were selected based on the specific aims of the intended sustainability assessment. Then, a simplified LCA methodology was developed to estimate the impacts applicable to three types of dwellings considering different envelope assemblies, building orientations and climate zones. This methodology takes into account the manufacturing, installation, maintenance and use phases of the building. Finally, the model was validated and a matrix in Excel was created as implementation of the model. - Highlights: • Method to assess the envelope impacts based on a simplified LCA • To be used at an earlier phase than the existing methods in a simple way. • It assigns a score by means of known sustainability indicators. • It estimates data about the embodied and operating environmental impacts. • It compares the investment costs with the costs of the consumed energy.

  4. Removal of envelope protein-free retroviral vectors by anion-exchange chromatography to improve product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Teresa; Alves, Ana; Lopes, António; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M; Cruz, Pedro E

    2008-10-01

    We have investigated the role of the retroviral lipid bilayer and envelope proteins in the adsorption of retroviral vectors (RVs) to a Fractogel DEAE matrix. Intact RVs and their degradation components (envelope protein-free vectors and solubilized vector components) were adsorbed to this matrix and eluted using a linear gradient. Envelope protein-free RVs (Env(-)) and soluble envelope proteins (gp70) eluted in a significantly lower range of conductivities than intact RVs (Env(+)) (13.7-30 mS/cm for Env(-) and gp70 proteins vs. 47-80 mS/cm for Env(+)). The zeta (zeta)-potential of Env(+) and Env(-) vectors was evaluated showing that envelope proteins define the pI of the viral particles (pI (Env(+)) improvement to the quality of retroviral preparations for gene therapy applications.

  5. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Bean; Richard Metcalf; Aaron Bevill

    2008-09-01

    The Safeguards Envelope Project met its milestones by creating a rudimentary safeguards envelope, proving the value of the approach on a small scale, and determining the most appropriate path forward. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant’s large cache of reprocessing process monitoring data, dubbed UBER Data, was recovered and used in the analysis. A probabilistic Z test was used on a Markov Monte Carlo simulation of expected diversion data when compared with normal operating data. The data regarding a fully transient event in a tank was used to create a simple requirement, representative of a safeguards envelope, whose impact was a decrease in operating efficiency by 1.3% but an increase in material balance period of 26%. This approach is operator, state, and international safeguards friendly and should be applied to future reprocessing plants. Future requirements include tank-to-tank correlations in reprocessing facilities, detailed operations impact studies, simulation inclusion, automated optimization, advanced statistics analysis, and multi-attribute utility analysis.

  6. Transparent ceramic lamp envelope materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, G C [OSRAM SYLVANIA, 71 Cherry Hill Drive, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States)

    2005-09-07

    Transparent ceramic materials with optical qualities comparable to single crystals of similar compositions have been developed in recent years, as a result of the improved understanding of powder-processing-fabrication- sintering-property inter-relationships. These high-temperature materials with a range of thermal and mechanical properties are candidate envelopes for focused-beam, short-arc lamps containing various fills operating at temperatures higher than quartz. This paper reviews the composition, structure and properties of transparent ceramic lamp envelope materials including sapphire, small-grained polycrystalline alumina, aluminium oxynitride, yttrium aluminate garnet, magnesium aluminate spinel and yttria-lanthana. A satisfactory thermal shock resistance is required for the ceramic tube to withstand the rapid heating and cooling cycles encountered in lamps. Thermophysical properties, along with the geometry, size and thickness of a transparent ceramic tube, are important parameters in the assessment of its resistance to fracture arising from thermal stresses in lamps during service. The corrosive nature of lamp-fill liquid and vapour at high temperatures requires that all lamp components be carefully chosen to meet the target life. The wide range of new transparent ceramics represents flexibility in pushing the limit of envelope materials for improved beamer lamps.

  7. Maximum Torque and Momentum Envelopes for Reaction Wheel Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, F. Landis; Reynolds, Reid G.; Liu, Frank X.; Lebsock, Kenneth L.

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft reaction wheel maneuvers are limited by the maximum torque and/or angular momentum that the wheels can provide. For an n-wheel configuration, the torque or momentum envelope can be obtained by projecting the n-dimensional hypercube, representing the domain boundary of individual wheel torques or momenta, into three dimensional space via the 3xn matrix of wheel axes. In this paper, the properties of the projected hypercube are discussed, and algorithms are proposed for determining this maximal torque or momentum envelope for general wheel configurations. Practical strategies for distributing a prescribed torque or momentum among the n wheels are presented, with special emphasis on configurations of four, five, and six wheels.

  8. Teaching Improvement Model Designed with DEA Method and Management Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoneri, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    This study uses student evaluation of teachers to design a teaching improvement matrix based on teaching efficiency and performance by combining management matrix and data envelopment analysis. This matrix is designed to formulate suggestions to improve teaching. The research sample consists of 42 classes of freshmen following a course of English…

  9. Biomimetic Architecture in Building Envelope Maintenance (A Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Salim N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of biomimetic architecture on building envelope is the main structure of this research. The concept is believed more sustainable and efficient for energy saving, operating cost consumption, waste recycle and design renewal in the future. The inspiration from the nature developed the intention on this study to explore on what and how this concept to overcome the problems through design. Biomimicry does catch the attention of human to study more on the system and function of its nature course. The designers are not exception influenced by this concept when the form, shape, texture and colour inspired them in their design. The domination of building form will affect the building envelope as the skin of the structure. A clear impact on building failure is begun with building envelope appearance without a proper maintenance. The faults in building design place a heavy burden on the building for the rest of its operational life and there is no compensation for it. In such situations, the responsibility falls on the shoulders of the designer.

  10. Cortical processing of dynamic sound envelope transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2010-12-08

    Slow envelope fluctuations in the range of 2-20 Hz provide important segmental cues for processing communication sounds. For a successful segmentation, a neural processor must capture envelope features associated with the rise and fall of signal energy, a process that is often challenged by the interference of background noise. This study investigated the neural representations of slowly varying envelopes in quiet and in background noise in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of awake marmoset monkeys. We characterized envelope features based on the local average and rate of change of sound level in envelope waveforms and identified envelope features to which neurons were selective by reverse correlation. Our results showed that envelope feature selectivity of A1 neurons was correlated with the degree of nonmonotonicity in their static rate-level functions. Nonmonotonic neurons exhibited greater feature selectivity than monotonic neurons in quiet and in background noise. The diverse envelope feature selectivity decreased spike-timing correlation among A1 neurons in response to the same envelope waveforms. As a result, the variability, but not the average, of the ensemble responses of A1 neurons represented more faithfully the dynamic transitions in low-frequency sound envelopes both in quiet and in background noise.

  11. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters within which nuclear facilities may operate to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details the additions to the advanced operating techniques that will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Research this year focused on combining disparate pieces of data together to maximize operating time with minimal downtime due to safeguards. A Chi-Square and Croiser's cumulative sum were both included as part of the new analysis. Because of a major issue with the original data, the implementation of the two new tests did not add to the existing set of tests, though limited one-variable optimization made a small increase in detection probability. Additional analysis was performed to determine if prior analysis would have caused a major security or safety operating envelope issue. It was determined that a safety issue would have resulted from the prior research, but that the security may have been increased under certain conditions.

  12. Evolution of envelope solitons of ionization waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, K.; Hashimoto, M.

    1985-01-01

    The time evolution of a particle-like envelope soliton of ionization waves in plasma was investigated theoretically. The hydrodynamic equations of one spatial dimension were solved and the nonlinear dispersion relation was derived. For the amplitude of the wave the nonlinear Schroedinger equation was derived. Its soliton solution was interpreted as the envelope soliton which was experimentally found. The damping rate of the envelope soliton was estimated. (D.Gy.)

  13. A novel optical transmission link with DHT-based constant envelope optical OFDM signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianxin; Liang, Hao

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a novel optical OFDM transmission link that takes advantages of discrete Hartley Transform (DHT) and constant envelope (CE) modulation, obtaining DHT-based constant envelope optical OFDM. The numerical results show that this design achieves better performance when compared with conventional O-OFDM in terms of bit error rate (BER) and peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). The impact of phase modulation index (PMI) on both PAPR and noise tolerance is investigated. Since the scheme has simplified design, it is believed to be a cost-effective in the practical implement.

  14. Anaphoric Reference in Justin Bieber's Album “Believe Acoustic”

    OpenAIRE

    Situmorang, Hisarmauli Desi Natalina; Natsir, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    This research focused on anaphoric reference used in Justin Bieber's Album “Believe Acoustic”. The research conducted by using descriptive qualitative method. The data was collected from the Justin Bieber's album “Believe Acoustic”. The finding of the thesis show that there are 64 lines (sentence, phrase) that consist of 3 anaphoric reference which are anaphora (10), cataphora (6), and zero anaphora (48). The most dominant types is zero anaphora, which means the writer want to create an impli...

  15. Mosaic HIV envelope immunogenic polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korber, Bette T. M.; Gnanakaran, S.; Perkins, Simon; Sodroski, Joseph; Haynes, Barton

    2018-01-02

    Disclosed herein are mosaic HIV envelope (Env) polypeptides that can elicit an immune response to HIV (such as cytotoxic T cell (CTL), helper T cell, and/or humoral responses). Also disclosed are sets of the disclosed mosaic Env polypeptides, which include two or more (for example, three) of the polypeptides. Also disclosed herein are methods for treating or inhibiting HIV in a subject including administering one or more of the disclosed immunogenic polypeptides or compositions to a subject infected with HIV or at risk of HIV infection. In some embodiments, the methods include inducing an immune response to HIV in a subject comprising administering to the subject at least one (such as two, three, or more) of the immunogenic polypeptides or at least one (such as two, three, or more) nucleic acids encoding at least one of the immunogenic polypeptides disclosed herein.

  16. Implementation of an Improved Safe Operating Envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prime, Robyn; McIntyre, Mark; Reeves, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of the paper presented at IYNC 2004 on 'The Definition of a Safe Operating Envelope'. The current paper concentrates on the implementation process of the Safe Operating Envelope employed at the Point Lepreau Generating Station. (authors)

  17. Physical properties of the red giant envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciel, W J [Instituto de Astronomia e Geofisico da Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1978-12-01

    In this work, several model envelopes are calculated for cool giant stars with mass loss due to the action of stellar radiation pressure on molecules and grains. Molecular profiles as well as average values of some physical parameters of the envelopes are obtained.

  18. Physical properties of the red giant envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    In this work, several model envelopes are calculated for cool giant stars with mass loss due to the action of stellar radiation pressure on molecules and grains. Molecular profiles as well as average values of some physical parameters of the envelopes are obtained [pt

  19. Implementation of an Improved Safe Operating Envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prime, Robyn; McIntyre, Mark [NB Power Nuclear, P.O. Box 600, Lepreau, NB (Canada); Reeves, David [Atlantic Nuclear Services Ltd., PO Box 1268 Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper is a continuation of the paper presented at IYNC 2004 on 'The Definition of a Safe Operating Envelope'. The current paper concentrates on the implementation process of the Safe Operating Envelope employed at the Point Lepreau Generating Station. (authors)

  20. Does Doxastic Responsibility Entail the Ability to Believe Otherwise?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peels, H.D.

    2013-01-01

    Whether responsibility for actions and omissions requires the ability to do otherwise is an important issue in contemporary philosophy. However, a closely related but distinct issue, namely whether doxastic responsibility requires the ability to believe otherwise, has been largely neglected. This

  1. Is seeing believing? Perceptions of wildfire risk over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia A. Champ; Hannah Brenkert-Smith

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing challenges to understanding how hazard exposure and disaster experiences influence perceived risk lead us to ask: Is seeing believing? We approach risk perception by attending to two components of overall risk perception: perceived probability of an event occurring and perceived consequences if an event occurs. Using a two-period longitudinal data set...

  2. School Reform We Can't Believe In

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Stan

    2010-01-01

    While running for president, Barack Obama called No Child Left Behind (NCLB) "one of the emptiest slogans in the history of American politics." By the time he gets a new version of the law through Congress, his own campaign theme--"change you can believe in"--may be a contender for the same title. In fact, if the healthcare…

  3. What Greek Secondary School Students Believe about Climate Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liarakou, Georgia; Athanasiadis, Ilias; Gavrilakis, Costas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what Greek secondary school students (grades 8 and 11) believe about the greenhouse effect and climate change. A total of 626 students completed a closed-form questionnaire consisting of statements regarding the causes, impacts and solutions for this global environmental issue. The possible influence of…

  4. Towards creating believable decoy project folders for detecting data theft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thaler, S.; den Hartog, J.; Petkovic, M.

    2016-01-01

    Digital data theft is difficult to detect and typically it also takes a long time to discover that data has been stolen. This paper introduces a data-driven approach based on Markov chains to create believable decoy project folders which can assist in detecting potentially ongoing attacks. This can

  5. Do just world believers process unfair authoritative decisions differently?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagedoorn, M.; Buunk, B.P.; van de Vliert, E.

    This experiment examined whether the frequently observed interactive effect of outcome favorability or fairness and procedural desirability or fairness on perceptions of and reactions to decisions of authorities might be the consequence of people's need to believe in a just world. One hundred and

  6. Gaze Behavior, Believability, Likability and the iCat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, Mannes; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Meulemans, M.; Nijholt, Antinus; Stock, O.; Nishida, T.

    2007-01-01

    The iCat is a user-interface robot with the ability to express a range of emotions through its facial features. This paper summarizes our research whether we can increase the believability and likability of the iCat for its human partners through the application of gaze behaviour. Gaze behaviour

  7. Gaze Behavior, Believability, Likability and the iCat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Poel, Mannes; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Stock, O.; Nishida, T.; Meulemans, M.; van Bremen, A.

    2009-01-01

    The iCat is a user-interface robot with the ability to express a range of emotions through its facial features. This paper summarizes our research whether we can increase the believability and likability of the iCat for its human partners through the application of gaze behaviour. Gaze behaviour

  8. Why It Is Hard to Believe in Desegregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D.

    1988-01-01

    There is much resistance to desegregation. People do not believe it is beneficial for the following reasons: (1) it is not clear how the movement of students will improve schools; (2) effective, well-defined desegregation plans are lacking; (3) the research evidence of benefits is thin; and (4) critical problems such as instructional management…

  9. Injection envelope matching in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minty, M.G.; Spence, W.L.

    1995-05-01

    The shape and size of the transverse phase space injected into a storage ring can be deduced from turn-by-turn measurements of the transient behavior of the beam envelope in the ring. Envelope oscillations at 2 x the β-tron frequency indicate the presence of a β-mismatch, while envelope oscillations at the β-tron frequency are the signature of a dispersion function mismatch. Experiments in injection optimization using synchrotron radiation imaging of the beam and a fast-gated camera at the SLC damping rings are reported

  10. MHTGR thermal performance envelopes: Reliability by design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etzel, K.T.; Howard, W.W.; Zgliczynski, J.B.

    1992-05-01

    This document discusses thermal performance envelopes which are used to specify steady-state design requirements for the systems of the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor to maximize plant performance reliability with optimized design. The thermal performance envelopes are constructed around the expected operating point accounting for uncertainties in actual plant as-built parameters and plant operation. The components are then designed to perform successfully at all points within the envelope. As a result, plant reliability is maximized by accounting for component thermal performance variation in the design. The design is optimized by providing a means to determine required margins in a disciplined and visible fashion

  11. Glycosylation in HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein and its biological implications

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, Yung Shwen

    2013-08-01

    Glycosylation of HIV-1 envelope proteins (Env gp120/gp41) plays a vital role in viral evasion from the host immune response, which occurs through the masking of key neutralization epitopes and the presentation of the Env glycosylation as \\'self\\' to the host immune system. Env glycosylation is generally conserved, yet its continual evolution plays an important role in modulating viral infectivity and Env immunogenicity. Thus, it is believed that Env glycosylation, which is a vital part of the HIV-1 architecture, also controls intra- and inter-clade genetic variations. Discerning intra- and inter-clade glycosylation variations could therefore yield important information for understanding the molecular and biological differences between HIV clades and may assist in effectively designing Env-based immunogens and in clearly understanding HIV vaccines. This review provides an in-depth perspective of various aspects of Env glycosylation in the context of HIV-1 pathogenesis. © 2013 Future Medicine Ltd.

  12. Matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Joel N

    2003-01-01

    Mathematically rigorous introduction covers vector and matrix norms, the condition-number of a matrix, positive and irreducible matrices, much more. Only elementary algebra and calculus required. Includes problem-solving exercises. 1968 edition.

  13. Constructing canonical bases of quantized enveloping algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Graaf, W.A. de

    2001-01-01

    An algorithm for computing the elements of a given weight of the canonical basis of a quantized enveloping algebra is described. Subsequently, a similar algorithm is presented for computing the canonical basis of a finite-dimensional module.

  14. Creating non-believed memories for recent autobiographical events

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, A; Nash, RA; Fincham, G; Mazzoni, G

    2012-01-01

    A recent study showed that many people spontaneously report vivid memories of events that they do not believe to have occurred [1]. In the present experiment we tested for the first time whether, after powerful false memories have been created, debriefing might leave behind nonbelieved memories for the fake events. In Session 1 participants imitated simple actions, and in Session 2 they saw doctored video-recordings containing clips that falsely suggested they had performed additional (fake) ...

  15. Designing a Creature Believability Scale for Videogames

    OpenAIRE

    Barreto , Nuno; Craveirinha , Rui; Roque , Licinio

    2017-01-01

    Part 6: Game Understanding; International audience; This paper describes the design, and early evaluation of a scale aimed at assessing the believability of creatures in videogames. These creatures include all zoomorphic entities that do not qualify as fundamentally human-like, whether or not they have characteristics identifiable as anthropomorphic. The work is based on principles drawn from biology, animation, illustration and artificial intelligence. After developing the scale’s 46 origina...

  16. Believing and perceiving: authorship belief modulates sensory attenuation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Desantis

    Full Text Available Sensory attenuation refers to the observation that self-generated stimuli are attenuated, both in terms of their phenomenology and their cortical response compared to the same stimuli when generated externally. Accordingly, it has been assumed that sensory attenuation might help individuals to determine whether a sensory event was caused by themselves or not. In the present study, we investigated whether this dependency is reciprocal, namely whether sensory attenuation is modulated by prior beliefs of authorship. Participants had to judge the loudness of auditory effects that they believed were either self-generated or triggered by another person. However, in reality, the sounds were always triggered by the participants' actions. Participants perceived the tones' loudness attenuated when they believed that the sounds were self-generated compared to when they believed that they were generated by another person. Sensory attenuation is considered to contribute to the emergence of people's belief of authorship. Our results suggest that sensory attenuation is also a consequence of prior belief about the causal link between an action and a sensory change in the environment.

  17. Creating a Lunar EVA Work Envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brand N.; Howard, Robert; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Smitherman, David

    2009-01-01

    A work envelope has been defined for weightless Extravehicular Activity (EVA) based on the Space Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), but there is no equivalent for planetary operations. The weightless work envelope is essential for planning all EVA tasks because it determines the location of removable parts, making sure they are within reach and visibility of the suited crew member. In addition, using the envelope positions the structural hard points for foot restraints that allow placing both hands on the job and provides a load path for reacting forces. EVA operations are always constrained by time. Tasks are carefully planned to ensure the crew has enough breathing oxygen, cooling water, and battery power. Planning first involves computers using a virtual work envelope to model tasks, next suited crew members in a simulated environment refine the tasks. For weightless operations, this process is well developed, but planetary EVA is different and no work envelope has been defined. The primary difference between weightless and planetary work envelopes is gravity. It influences anthropometry, horizontal and vertical mobility, and reaction load paths and introduces effort into doing "overhead" work. Additionally, the use of spacesuits other than the EMU, and their impacts on range of motion, must be taken into account. This paper presents the analysis leading to a concept for a planetary EVA work envelope with emphasis on lunar operations. There is some urgency in creating this concept because NASA has begun building and testing development hardware for the lunar surface, including rovers, habitats and cargo off-loading equipment. Just as with microgravity operations, a lunar EVA work envelope is needed to guide designers in the formative stages of the program with the objective of avoiding difficult and costly rework.

  18. The Arabidopsis Nuclear Pore and Nuclear Envelope

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Iris; Brkljacic, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear envelope is a double membrane structure that separates the eukaryotic cytoplasm from the nucleoplasm. The nuclear pores embedded in the nuclear envelope are the sole gateways for macromolecular trafficking in and out of the nucleus. The nuclear pore complexes assembled at the nuclear pores are large protein conglomerates composed of multiple units of about 30 different nucleoporins. Proteins and RNAs traffic through the nuclear pore complexes, enabled by the interacting activities...

  19. All the Universe in an envelope

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Do you know which force is hidden in an envelope or how many billions of years old are the atoms it contains? You will find the answers to these (curious) questions in a post office in the Pays de Gex. The French postal services of the Pays de Gex are again issuing pre-paid envelopes in collaboration with CERN (see Bulletin No. 24/2006). The new series presents some of the concepts of modern physics in an amazing way by showing what you can learn about the Universe with a single envelope. Packets of ten pre-stamped envelopes, each carrying a statement on fundamental physics, will be on sale from 7 July onwards. To learn more about the physics issues presented on the envelopes, people are invited to go to the CERN Web site where they will find the explanations. Five thousand envelopes will be put on sale in July and five thousand more during the French "Fête de la science" in October. They will be available from five post offices in the Pays de Gex (F...

  20. Genetic Diversity of Koala Retroviral Envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqin Xu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity, attributable to the low fidelity of reverse transcription, recombination and mutation, is an important feature of infectious retroviruses. Under selective pressure, such as that imposed by superinfection interference, gammaretroviruses commonly adapt their envelope proteins to use alternative receptors to overcome this entry block. The first characterized koala retroviruses KoRV subgroup A (KoRV-A were remarkable in their absence of envelope genetic variability. Once it was determined that KoRV-A was present in all koalas in US zoos, regardless of their disease status, we sought to isolate a KoRV variant whose presence correlated with neoplastic malignancies. More than a decade after the identification of KoRV-A, we isolated a second subgroup of KoRV, KoRV-B from koalas with lymphomas. The envelope proteins of KoRV-A and KoRV-B are sufficiently divergent to confer the ability to bind and employ distinct receptors for infection. We have now obtained a number of additional KoRV envelope variants. In the present studies we report these variants, and show that they differ from KoRV-A and KoRV-B envelopes in their host range and superinfection interference properties. Thus, there appears to be considerable variation among KoRVs envelope genes suggesting genetic diversity is a factor following the KoRV-A infection process.

  1. Solitary Alfven wave envelopes and the modulational instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, C.F.

    1987-06-01

    The derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation describes the modulational instability of circularly polarized dispersive Alfven wave envelopes. It also may be used to determine the properties of finite amplitude localized stationary wave envelopes. Such envelope solitons exist only in conditions of modulational stability. This leaves open the question of whether, and if so, how, the modulational instability produces envelope solitons. 12 refs

  2. BETWEEN KNOWING AND BELIEVING: SALVAGING ILLUSION'S RIGHTFUL PLACE IN PSYCHOANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuch, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Illusion has historically received insufficient psychoanalytic attention, even though it plays an indispensable and adaptive role that helps protect individuals from becoming traumatized by the most psychically noxious aspects of reality. Trauma is mitigated by an individual's knowing about the existence of such realities yet simultaneously believing them non-existent, with neither position granted exclusivity. Psychoanalytic theory is surprisingly predicated on the employment of illusions that picture an individual capable of controlling the potentially traumatic actions of others, just so long as the individual effectively manages his own intrapsychic processes (wishes, fantasies, impulses, etc.). The role of illusion in everyday life is highlighted. © 2016 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  3. Cessna Citation X Business Aircraft Eigenvalue Stability – Part2: Flight Envelope Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamina BOUGHARI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Civil aircraft flight control clearance is a time consuming, thus an expensive process in the aerospace industry. This process has to be investigated and proved to be safe for thousands of combinations in terms of speeds, altitudes, gross weights, Xcg / weight configurations and angles of attack. Even in this case, a worst-case condition that could lead to a critical situation might be missed. To address this problem, models that are able to describe an aircraft’s dynamics by taking into account all uncertainties over a region within a flight envelope have been developed using Linear Fractional Representation. In order to investigate the Cessna Citation X aircraft Eigenvalue Stability envelope, the Linear Fractional Representation models are implemented using the speeds and the altitudes as varying parameters. In this paper Part 2, the aircraft longitudinal eigenvalue stability is analyzed in a continuous range of flight envelope with varying parameter of True airspeed and altitude, instead of a single point, like classical methods. This is known as the aeroelastic stability envelope, required for civil aircraft certification as given by the Circular Advisory “Aeroelastic Stability Substantiation of Transport Category Airplanes AC No: 25.629-18”. In this new methodology the analysis is performed in time domain based on Lyapunov stability and solved by convex optimization algorithms by using the linear matrix inequalities to evaluate the eigenvalue stability, which is reduced to search for the negative eigenvalues in a region of flight envelope. It can also be used to study the stability of a system during an arbitrary motion from one point to another in the flight envelope. A whole aircraft analysis results’ for its entire envelope are presented in the form of graphs, thus offering good readability, and making them easily exploitable.

  4. Symmetries and invariants of the oscillator and envelope equations with time-dependent frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Qin

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The single-particle dynamics in a time-dependent focusing field is examined. The existence of the Courant-Snyder invariant, a fundamental concept in accelerator physics, is fundamentally a result of the corresponding symmetry admitted by the harmonic oscillator equation with linear time-dependent frequency. It is demonstrated that the Lie algebra of the symmetry group for the oscillator equation with time-dependent frequency is eight dimensional, and is composed of four independent subalgebras. A detailed analysis of the admitted symmetries reveals a deeper connection between the nonlinear envelope equation and the oscillator equation. A general theorem regarding the symmetries and invariants of the envelope equation, which includes the existence of the Courant-Snyder invariant as a special case, is demonstrated. As an application to accelerator physics, the symmetries of the envelope equation enable a fast numerical algorithm for finding matched solutions without using the conventional iterative Newton’s method, where the envelope equation needs to be numerically integrated once for every iteration, and the Jacobi matrix needs to be calculated for the envelope perturbation.

  5. Stress envelope of silicon carbide composites at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozawa, Takashi; Kim, Sunghun; Ozawa, Kazumi; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2014-01-01

    To identify a comprehensive stress envelope, i.e., strength anisotropy map, of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix composite (SiC/SiC composite) for practical component design, tensile and compressive tests were conducted using the small specimen test technique specifically tailored for high-temperature use. In-plane shear properties were, however, estimated using the off-axial tensile method and assuming that the mixed mode failure criterion, i.e., Tsai–Wu criterion, is valid for the composites. The preliminary test results indicate no significant degradation to either proportional limit stress (PLS) or fracture strength by tensile loading at temperatures below 1000 °C. A similarly good tolerance of compressive properties was identified at elevated temperatures, except for a slight degradation in PLS. With the high-temperature test data of tensile, compressive and in-plane shear properties, the stress envelopes at elevated temperatures were finally obtained. A slight reduction in the design limit was obvious at elevated temperatures when the compressive mode is dominant, whereas a negligibly small impact on the design is expected by considering the tensile loading case

  6. Stress envelope of silicon carbide composites at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozawa, Takashi, E-mail: nozawa.takashi67@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Omotedate, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Kim, Sunghun [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Ozawa, Kazumi; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Omotedate, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    To identify a comprehensive stress envelope, i.e., strength anisotropy map, of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix composite (SiC/SiC composite) for practical component design, tensile and compressive tests were conducted using the small specimen test technique specifically tailored for high-temperature use. In-plane shear properties were, however, estimated using the off-axial tensile method and assuming that the mixed mode failure criterion, i.e., Tsai–Wu criterion, is valid for the composites. The preliminary test results indicate no significant degradation to either proportional limit stress (PLS) or fracture strength by tensile loading at temperatures below 1000 °C. A similarly good tolerance of compressive properties was identified at elevated temperatures, except for a slight degradation in PLS. With the high-temperature test data of tensile, compressive and in-plane shear properties, the stress envelopes at elevated temperatures were finally obtained. A slight reduction in the design limit was obvious at elevated temperatures when the compressive mode is dominant, whereas a negligibly small impact on the design is expected by considering the tensile loading case.

  7. Envelope method for determination of the ion linear accelerator acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharshanov, A.A.; Goncharenko, I.I.; Revutskij, E.I.

    1974-01-01

    The acceptance defined by the slit u 2 2 in space u, ν, z (u=coordinate of the accelerated particle in the direction perpendicular to the accelerator axis, ν=ratio of the transverse particle velocity component to the longitudinal component, z=accelerator axis, a=dimensions of slit) represents a convex curvilinear polygon with centre of symmetry at the origin of the co-ordinates. The sides of the polygon are sections of ellipses and straight lines, the ellipses being part of an envelope to the set of proto-types of all cross-sections of the slit in planes z=3, where 0<=xi<=z and z is the length of the accelerator, and the straight lines are tangents to the ends of the envelope. In the paper the equations of the ellipses forming the sides of the polygon are written using an elementary variable matrix of the accelerator structure, and the co-ordinates of the polygon apexes are found. A numerical value is derived for the area of the polygon for one transverse co-ordinate of the particular accelerator, the pre-stripping section of the LUMZI-10. (author)

  8. Inhibition of enveloped viruses infectivity by curcumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Yen Chen

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm. These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses.

  9. Featured Image: Orbiting Stars Share an Envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    This beautiful series of snapshots from a simulation (click for a better look!) shows what happens when two stars in a binary system become enclosed in the same stellar envelope. In this binary system, one of the stars has exhausted its hydrogen fuel and become a red giant, complete with an expanding stellar envelope composed of hydrogen and helium. Eventually, the envelope expands so much that the companion star falls into it, where it releases gravitational potential energy into the common envelope. A team led by Sebastian Ohlmann (Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies and University of Wrzburg) recently performed hydrodynamic simulations of this process. Ohlmann and collaborators discovered that the energy release eventually triggers large-scale flow instabilities, which leads to turbulence within the envelope. This process has important consequences for how these systems next evolve (for instance, determining whether or not a supernova occurs!). You can check out the authors video of their simulated stellar inspiral below, or see their paper for more images and results from their study.CitationSebastian T. Ohlmann et al 2016 ApJ 816 L9. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/816/1/L9

  10. Inhibition of Enveloped Viruses Infectivity by Curcumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Ou, Jun-Lin; Chiou, Shyan-Song; Chen, Jo-Mei; Wong, Min-Liang; Hsu, Wei-Li

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA) activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB)-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter) than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm) and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm). These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses. PMID:23658730

  11. Computation of Phase Equilibrium and Phase Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritschel, Tobias Kasper Skovborg; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    formulate the involved equations in terms of the fugacity coefficients. We present expressions for the first-order derivatives. Such derivatives are necessary in computationally efficient gradient-based methods for solving the vapor-liquid equilibrium equations and for computing phase envelopes. Finally, we......In this technical report, we describe the computation of phase equilibrium and phase envelopes based on expressions for the fugacity coefficients. We derive those expressions from the residual Gibbs energy. We consider 1) ideal gases and liquids modeled with correlations from the DIPPR database...... and 2) nonideal gases and liquids modeled with cubic equations of state. Next, we derive the equilibrium conditions for an isothermal-isobaric (constant temperature, constant pressure) vapor-liquid equilibrium process (PT flash), and we present a method for the computation of phase envelopes. We...

  12. Boundaries, injective envelopes, and reduced crossed products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryder, Rasmus Sylvester

    In this dissertation, we study boundary actions, equivariant injective envelopes, as well as theideal structure of reduced crossed products. These topics have recently been linked to thestudy of C-simple groups, that is, groups with simple reduced group C-algebras.In joint work with Matthew Kennedy......, we consider reduced twisted crossed products overC-simple groups. For any twisted C-dynamical system over a C-simple group, we provethat there is a one-to-one correspondence between maximal invariant ideals in the underlyingC-algebra and maximal ideals in the reduced crossed product. When......*-algebras, and relate the intersection property for group actions on unital C*-algebras to the intersection property for theequivariant injective envelope. Moreover, we also prove that the equivariant injective envelopeof the centre of the injective envelope of a unital C*-algebra can be regarded as a C...

  13. New link polynomial obtained from octet representation of quantum sl(3) enveloping algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhongqi.

    1989-08-01

    The quantum Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for the coproduct 8x8 of the quantum sl(3) enveloping algebra are computed. In the decomposition of the coproduct 8x8, there are two octet representations which are identified by the symmetry in changing the order of the factor octet representations. The corresponding R q matrix, and a new link polynomial are obtained. (author). 14 refs, 3 tabs

  14. Belief versus acceptance: why do people not believe in evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James D

    2009-11-01

    Despite being an established and accepted scientific theory for 150 years, repeated public polls show that evolution is not believed by large numbers of people. This essay examines why people do not accept evolution and argues that its poor representation in some science textbooks allows misconceptions, established and reinforced in early childhood, to take hold. There is also a lack of up-to-date examples of evidence for evolution in school textbooks. Poor understanding by science graduates and teachers of the nature of science and incorrect definitions by them of key terminology, serve only to undermine efforts to improve public understanding of evolution. This paper has several recommendations, including the introduction of evolution to primary age children and a call to bring evolution back as the central tenet of biology.

  15. Feeling Is Believing: Inspiration Encourages Belief in God.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critcher, Clayton R; Lee, Chan Jean

    2018-05-01

    Even without direct evidence of God's existence, about half of the world's population believes in God. Although previous research has found that people arrive at such beliefs intuitively instead of analytically, relatively little research has aimed to understand what experiences encourage or legitimate theistic belief systems. Using cross-cultural correlational and experimental methods, we investigated whether the experience of inspiration encourages a belief in God. Participants who dispositionally experience more inspiration, were randomly assigned to relive or have an inspirational experience, or reported such experiences to be more inspirational all showed stronger belief in God. These effects were specific to inspiration (instead of adjacent affective experiences) and a belief in God (instead of other empirically unverifiable claims). Being inspired by someone or something (but not inspired to do something) offers a spiritually transcendent experience that elevates belief in God, in part because it makes people feel connected to something beyond themselves.

  16. When dreaming is believing: the (motivated) interpretation of dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morewedge, Carey K; Norton, Michael I

    2009-02-01

    This research investigated laypeople's interpretation of their dreams. Participants from both Eastern and Western cultures believed that dreams contain hidden truths (Study 1) and considered dreams to provide more meaningful information about the world than similar waking thoughts (Studies 2 and 3). The meaningfulness attributed to specific dreams, however, was moderated by the extent to which the content of those dreams accorded with participants' preexisting beliefs--from the theories they endorsed to attitudes toward acquaintances, relationships with friends, and faith in God (Studies 3-6). Finally, dream content influenced judgment: Participants reported greater affection for a friend after considering a dream in which a friend protected rather than betrayed them (Study 5) and were equally reluctant to fly after dreaming or learning of a plane crash (Studies 2 and 3). Together, these results suggest that people engage in motivated interpretation of their dreams and that these interpretations impact their everyday lives.

  17. Can you believe what you read in the papers?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The number of reports of clinical trials grows by hundreds every week. However, this does not mean that people making decisions about healthcare are finding it easier to obtain reliable knowledge for these decisions. Some of the information is unreliable. Systematic reviews are helping to resolve this by bringing together the research on a topic, appraising and summarising it. But the quality of these reviews depends greatly on the quality of the studies, and this usually means the quality of their reports. If there are fundamental flaws within a study, such as the use of inappropriate \\'randomisation\\' techniques in the context of reviews of the effects of interventions, the reviewers will not be able to fix these. Worse still, if they are not aware of underlying flaws, they might make incorrect judgements about the quality of the research in their review. A study by Wu and colleagues of \\'randomised trials\\' from China provides a reminder of the cautious approach needed by users of scientific articles. They contacted the authors of more than 2000 research articles, which purported to be reports of randomised trials; and concluded that ten of every 11 studies claiming to be a randomised trial probably did not use random allocation. Better education of researchers, peer reviewers and editors about what is, and is not, a properly randomised trial is needed; along with better reporting of the details for how participants were allocated to the different interventions. Systematic reviewers must be cautious in making assumptions about the conduct of trials based on simple phrases about the trial methodology, rather than a full description of the methods actually used. It\\'s not that you can\\'t believe anything that you read in the papers, just that you cannot believe everything.

  18. A study of some Be star envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    The envelope model and emission region radius of six Be stars have been determined from 36 lines on 15 spectra taken with the Isaac Newton telescope. The results have been compared with earlier determinations to search for changes with the time. No definite evidence for such changes has been found, although there may be an indication of a change in phi Per. A re-determination of the errors involved in the method of analysis shows that these are smaller than previously estimated and range from about 9% to 35% for both envelope model and emission region radius. (Auth.)

  19. Asymmetry of the SN 1987A envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chugaj, N.N.

    1991-01-01

    The origin of the peculiar structure in the profiles of the emission lines observed in the spectrum of SN 1987A, namely, (1) redshift of maxima, and (2) fine structure of hydrogen lines, is considered. Among the three proposed hypothesis for the redshift, at least two (electron scattering in the spherically-symmetric envelope, and geometrical effects in the fragmented envelope) have serious drawbacks. More favorable is the third hypothesis which invokes asymmetric distribution of 56 Ni and of the iron-peak elements

  20. Radio Imaging of Envelopes of Evolved Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Bill

    2018-04-01

    This talk will cover imaging of stellar envelopes using radio VLBI techniques; special attention will be paid to the technical differences between radio and optical/IR interferomery. Radio heterodyne receivers allow a straightforward way to derive spectral cubes and full polarization observations. Milliarcsecond resolution of very bright, i.e. non thermal, emission of molecular masers in the envelopes of evolved stars can be achieved using VLBI techniques with baselines of thousands of km. Emission from SiO, H2O and OH masers are commonly seen at increasing distance from the photosphere. The very narrow maser lines allow accurate measurements of the velocity field within the emitting region.

  1. Global Envelope Tests for Spatial Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myllymäki, Mari; Mrkvička, Tomáš; Grabarnik, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Envelope tests are a popular tool in spatial statistics, where they are used in goodness-of-fit testing. These tests graphically compare an empirical function T(r) with its simulated counterparts from the null model. However, the type I error probability α is conventionally controlled for a fixed d......) the construction of envelopes for a deviation test. These new tests allow the a priori selection of the global α and they yield p-values. We illustrate these tests using simulated and real point pattern data....

  2. Global envelope tests for spatial processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myllymäki, Mari; Mrkvička, Tomáš; Grabarnik, Pavel

    Envelope tests are a popular tool in spatial statistics, where they are used in goodness-of-fit testing. These tests graphically compare an empirical function T(r) with its simulated counterparts from the null model. However, the type I error probability α is conventionally controlled for a fixed......) the construction of envelopes for a deviation test. These new tests allow the a priori selection of the global α and they yield p-values. We illustrate these tests using simulated and real point pattern data....

  3. Arterial pressure measurement: Is the envelope curve of the oscillometric method influenced by arterial stiffness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelido, G; Angiletta, S; Pujalte, A; Quiroga, P; Cornes, P; Craiem, D

    2007-01-01

    Measurement of peripheral arterial pressure using the oscillometric method is commonly used by professionals as well as by patients in their homes. This non invasive automatic method is fast, efficient and the required equipment is affordable with a low cost. The measurement method consists of obtaining parameters from a calibrated decreasing curve that is modulated by heart beats witch appear when arterial pressure reaches the cuff pressure. Diastolic, mean and systolic pressures are obtained calculating particular instants from the heart beats envelope curve. In this article we analyze the envelope of this amplified curve to find out if its morphology is related to arterial stiffness in patients. We found, in 33 volunteers, that the envelope waveform width correlates to systolic pressure (r=0.4, p<0.05), to pulse pressure (r=0.6, p<0.05) and to pulse pressure normalized to systolic pressure (r=0.6, p<0.05). We believe that the morphology of the heart beats envelope curve obtained with the oscillometric method for peripheral pressure measurement depends on arterial stiffness and can be used to enhance pressure measurements

  4. Matrix calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Bodewig, E

    1959-01-01

    Matrix Calculus, Second Revised and Enlarged Edition focuses on systematic calculation with the building blocks of a matrix and rows and columns, shunning the use of individual elements. The publication first offers information on vectors, matrices, further applications, measures of the magnitude of a matrix, and forms. The text then examines eigenvalues and exact solutions, including the characteristic equation, eigenrows, extremum properties of the eigenvalues, bounds for the eigenvalues, elementary divisors, and bounds for the determinant. The text ponders on approximate solutions, as well

  5. Integrated Energy Design of the Building Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Vraa

    This thesis describes the outcome of the PhD project Integrated energy design of the building envelope carried out through a combination of scientific dissemination reported through peer-reviewed journals and a wide range of affiliated projects involved in at an architectural firm. The research...

  6. SAFEGUARDS ENVELOPE: PREVIOUS WORK AND EXAMPLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, Richard; Bevill, Aaron; Charlton, William; Bean, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The future expansion of nuclear power will require not just electricity production but fuel cycle facilities such as fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants. As large reprocessing facilities are built in various states, they must be built and operated in a manner to minimize the risk of nuclear proliferation. Process monitoring has returned to the spotlight as an added measure that can increase confidence in the safeguards of special nuclear material (SNM). Process monitoring can be demonstrated to lengthen the allowable inventory period by reducing accountancy requirements, and to reduce the false positive indications. The next logical step is the creation of a Safeguards Envelope, a set of operational parameters and models to maximize anomaly detection and inventory period by process monitoring while minimizing operator impact and false positive rates. A brief example of a rudimentary Safeguards Envelope is presented, and shown to detect synthetic diversions overlaying a measured processing plant data set. This demonstration Safeguards Envelope is shown to increase the confidence that no SNM has been diverted with minimal operator impact, even though it is based on an information sparse environment. While the foundation on which a full Safeguards Envelope can be built has been presented in historical demonstrations of process monitoring, several requirements remain yet unfulfilled. Future work will require reprocessing plant transient models, inclusion of 'non-traditional' operating data, and exploration of new methods of identifying subtle events in transient processes

  7. Multi-layered breathing architectural envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Andreas; Foged, Isak Worre; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    A multi layered breathing envelope is developed as a method of natural ventilation. The two main layers consist of mineral wool and air permeable concrete. The mineral wool works as a dynamic insulation and the permeable concrete as a heat recovery system with a high thermal mass for heat storage...

  8. Cost Allocation and Convex Data Envelopment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen

    such as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The convexity constraint of the BCC model introduces a non-zero slack in the objective function of the multiplier problem and we show that the cost allocation rules discussed in this paper can be used as candidates to allocate this slack value on to the input (or output...

  9. What does a "superstitious" person believe? Impressions of participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudski, Jeffrey

    2003-10-01

    The questions in surveys in which superstitious belief is examined are based on the researcher or researchers' definitions of superstition and not on participants' definitions. In the present study, 170 undergraduates filled out 2 surveys. In the 1st survey, they were asked to rate 28 possible beliefs of a fictitious person described as "superstitious." In the 2nd survey, they were asked to rate their own level of belief for the same items. An analysis revealed several different factors describing different types of beliefs held by the fictitious person. Ratings for the fictitious person were greatest for socially transmitted beliefs (e.g., black cats, rabbits' feet) or idiosyncratic rituals related to luck and chance, followed by belief in the paranormal (e.g., ghosts), spiritualism (e.g., reincarnation), or psi (e.g., telepathy). Religious beliefs were rated as not being descriptive of the fictitious superstitious person. However, an analysis of the participants' own beliefs revealed that those with higher levels of religious belief also tended to be superstitious and believed in the paranormal.

  10. Moisture accumulation in a building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, T.W.; Checkwitch, K.

    1988-09-01

    In a large number of cases, the failure of a building envelope can be traced to the accumulation of moisture. In a cold winter climate, characteristic of the Canadian prairies, moisture is deposited in the structure by the movement of warm, moist air through the envelope. Tests on the moisture accumulation in a building envelope were initiated in a test house at an Alberta research facility during the 1987/88 heating season. The indoor moisture generation rate was measured and compared with the value inferred from the measured air infiltration rate. With the flue open, the moisture generation rate was approximately 5.5 kg/d of which 0.7 kg/d entered the building envelope; the remainder was exhausted through the flue. With the flue blocked, the moisture generation rate decreased to 3.4 kg/d, while the amount of moisture migrating through the envelope increased to 4.0 kg/d. The moisture accumulation in wall panels located on the north and south face of the test house was also monitored. Moisture was allowed to enter the wall cavity via a hole in the drywall. The fiberglass insulation remained dry throughout the test period. The moisture content of the exterior sheathing of the north panel increased to a maximum of 18% wt in the vicinity of the hole, but quickly dried when the ambient temperatures increased towards the end of the season. The south panel showed very little moisture accumlation due to the effects of solar radiation. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Validating predictions from climate envelope models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James I Watling

    Full Text Available Climate envelope models are a potentially important conservation tool, but their ability to accurately forecast species' distributional shifts using independent survey data has not been fully evaluated. We created climate envelope models for 12 species of North American breeding birds previously shown to have experienced poleward range shifts. For each species, we evaluated three different approaches to climate envelope modeling that differed in the way they treated climate-induced range expansion and contraction, using random forests and maximum entropy modeling algorithms. All models were calibrated using occurrence data from 1967-1971 (t1 and evaluated using occurrence data from 1998-2002 (t2. Model sensitivity (the ability to correctly classify species presences was greater using the maximum entropy algorithm than the random forest algorithm. Although sensitivity did not differ significantly among approaches, for many species, sensitivity was maximized using a hybrid approach that assumed range expansion, but not contraction, in t2. Species for which the hybrid approach resulted in the greatest improvement in sensitivity have been reported from more land cover types than species for which there was little difference in sensitivity between hybrid and dynamic approaches, suggesting that habitat generalists may be buffered somewhat against climate-induced range contractions. Specificity (the ability to correctly classify species absences was maximized using the random forest algorithm and was lowest using the hybrid approach. Overall, our results suggest cautious optimism for the use of climate envelope models to forecast range shifts, but also underscore the importance of considering non-climate drivers of species range limits. The use of alternative climate envelope models that make different assumptions about range expansion and contraction is a new and potentially useful way to help inform our understanding of climate change effects on

  12. Validating predictions from climate envelope models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, J.; Bucklin, D.; Speroterra, C.; Brandt, L.; Cabal, C.; Romañach, Stephanie S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Climate envelope models are a potentially important conservation tool, but their ability to accurately forecast species’ distributional shifts using independent survey data has not been fully evaluated. We created climate envelope models for 12 species of North American breeding birds previously shown to have experienced poleward range shifts. For each species, we evaluated three different approaches to climate envelope modeling that differed in the way they treated climate-induced range expansion and contraction, using random forests and maximum entropy modeling algorithms. All models were calibrated using occurrence data from 1967–1971 (t1) and evaluated using occurrence data from 1998–2002 (t2). Model sensitivity (the ability to correctly classify species presences) was greater using the maximum entropy algorithm than the random forest algorithm. Although sensitivity did not differ significantly among approaches, for many species, sensitivity was maximized using a hybrid approach that assumed range expansion, but not contraction, in t2. Species for which the hybrid approach resulted in the greatest improvement in sensitivity have been reported from more land cover types than species for which there was little difference in sensitivity between hybrid and dynamic approaches, suggesting that habitat generalists may be buffered somewhat against climate-induced range contractions. Specificity (the ability to correctly classify species absences) was maximized using the random forest algorithm and was lowest using the hybrid approach. Overall, our results suggest cautious optimism for the use of climate envelope models to forecast range shifts, but also underscore the importance of considering non-climate drivers of species range limits. The use of alternative climate envelope models that make different assumptions about range expansion and contraction is a new and potentially useful way to help inform our understanding of climate change effects on species.

  13. Novel Real-Time Flight Envelope Monitoring System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an aircraft flight envelope monitoring system that will provide real-time in-cockpit estimations of aircraft flight envelope boundaries....

  14. Inversion of Auditory Spectrograms, Traditional Spectrograms, and Other Envelope Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decorsière, Remi Julien Blaise; Søndergaard, Peter Lempel; MacDonald, Ewen

    2015-01-01

    Envelope representations such as the auditory or traditional spectrogram can be defined by the set of envelopes from the outputs of a filterbank. Common envelope extraction methods discard information regarding the fast fluctuations, or phase, of the signal. Thus, it is difficult to invert, or re...... to the framework is proposed, which leads to a more accurate inversion of traditional spectrograms...

  15. 200 Area Deactivation Project Facilities Authorization Envelope Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DODD, E.N.

    2000-01-01

    Project facilities as required by HNF-PRO-2701, Authorization Envelope and Authorization Agreement. The Authorization Agreements (AA's) do not identify the specific set of environmental safety and health requirements that are applicable to the facility. Therefore, the facility Authorization Envelopes are defined here to identify the applicable requirements. This document identifies the authorization envelopes for the 200 Area Deactivation

  16. 14 CFR 27.87 - Height-speed envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable power failure condition in paragraph (b) of this section, a limiting height-speed envelope must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Height-speed envelope. 27.87 Section 27.87... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 27.87 Height-speed envelope. (a) If there is any...

  17. 14 CFR 29.87 - Height-velocity envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Category A engine isolation requirements, the height-velocity envelope for complete power failure must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Height-velocity envelope. 29.87 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.87 Height-velocity envelope. (a...

  18. Analysis of Building Envelope Construction in 2003 CBECS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiarski, David W.; Halverson, Mark A.; Jiang, Wei

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine "typical" building envelope characteristics for buildings built after 1980. We address three envelope components in this paper - roofs, walls, and window area. These typical building envelope characteristics were used in the development of DOE’s Reference Buildings .

  19. Matrix thermalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Nguyen, Kévin

    2017-01-01

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  20. Matrix thermalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Nguyen, Kévin

    2017-02-01

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  1. Matrix thermalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craps, Ben [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Evnin, Oleg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Thanon Phayathai, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Nguyen, Kévin [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-02-08

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  2. Equivariant calculus in the differential envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastler, D.

    1991-01-01

    The author shows how Z/2-graded cyclic cohomology is related to the equivariant calculus of S. Klimek, W. Kondracki, and A. Lesniewski (HUTMP 90/B247 (1990)). He uses the differential envelope of a complex unital differential algebra. After a presentation of fiber-preserved operators on equivariant functions valued in this algebra on a group he considers certain operators on this algebra. Finally he discusses explicitly the case G=Z/2. (HSI)

  3. Equivariant calculus in the differential envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastler, D. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille (France). Centre de Physique Theorique)

    1991-01-01

    The author shows how Z/2-graded cyclic cohomology is related to the equivariant calculus of S. Klimek, W. Kondracki, and A. Lesniewski (HUTMP 90/B247 (1990)). He uses the differential envelope of a complex unital differential algebra. After a presentation of fiber-preserved operators on equivariant functions valued in this algebra on a group he considers certain operators on this algebra. Finally he discusses explicitly the case G=Z/2. (HSI).

  4. Digital image envelope: method and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. K.; Cao, Fei; Zhou, Michael Z.; Mogel, Greg T.; Liu, Brent J.; Zhou, Xiaoqiang

    2003-05-01

    Health data security, characterized in terms of data privacy, authenticity, and integrity, is a vital issue when digital images and other patient information are transmitted through public networks in telehealth applications such as teleradiology. Mandates for ensuring health data security have been extensively discussed (for example The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, HIPAA) and health informatics guidelines (such as the DICOM standard) are beginning to focus on issues of data continue to be published by organizing bodies in healthcare; however, there has not been a systematic method developed to ensure data security in medical imaging Because data privacy and authenticity are often managed primarily with firewall and password protection, we have focused our research and development on data integrity. We have developed a systematic method of ensuring medical image data integrity across public networks using the concept of the digital envelope. When a medical image is generated regardless of the modality, three processes are performed: the image signature is obtained, the DICOM image header is encrypted, and a digital envelope is formed by combining the signature and the encrypted header. The envelope is encrypted and embedded in the original image. This assures the security of both the image and the patient ID. The embedded image is encrypted again and transmitted across the network. The reverse process is performed at the receiving site. The result is two digital signatures, one from the original image before transmission, and second from the image after transmission. If the signatures are identical, there has been no alteration of the image. This paper concentrates in the method and evaluation of the digital image envelope.

  5. Corruption or professional dignity: An ethical examination of the phenomenon of "red envelopes" (monetary gifts) in medical practice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Wang, Lijie; Yang, Chengshang

    2018-03-01

    In the medical practice in China, giving and taking "red envelopes" (monetary gifts) is a common phenomenon although few openly admit it. This paper, based on our empirical study including data collected from interviews and questionnaires with medical professionals and patients, attempts to explore why "red envelopes" have become a serious problem in the physician-patient relationship and how the situation can be improved. Previous studies show that scholars tend to correlate the spread of "red envelopes" in health care sector to the commercialization trend, the general erosion of traditional values, and the lowering of the moral level in the medical field. However, in this paper, the authors argue that medical professionals' choice of taking "red envelopes" is actually more a way to compensate for their problematic self-image and marred dignity in real practice. Medical professionals in China as a whole are in an embarrassing situation where the work pressure and income, and the sense of pride that used to be part of their profession are not comparable to each other. Under this circumstance, we believe that the effective way to deal with the "red envelopes" issue does not lie solely in introducing more stringent regulations or granting medical professionals higher payments, but rather in protecting and enhancing the professional dignity of all those working in healthcare. And on top of that, there must also be effort to cultivate a more favorable moral environment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The cell envelope glycoconjugates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angala, Shiva Kumar; Belardinelli, Juan Manuel; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Wheat, William H.; Jackson, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains the second most common cause of death due to a single infectious agent. The cell envelope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of the disease in humans, is a source of unique glycoconjugates and the most distinctive feature of the biology of this organism. It is the basis of much of Mtb pathogenesis and one of the major causes of its intrinsic resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. At the same time, the unique structures of Mtb cell envelope glycoconjugates, their antigenicity and essentiality for mycobacterial growth provide opportunities for drug, vaccine, diagnostic and biomarker development, as clearly illustrated by recent advances in all of these translational aspects. This review focuses on our current understanding of the structure and biogenesis of Mtb glycoconjugates with particular emphasis on one of most intriguing and least understood aspect of the physiology of mycobacteria: the translocation of these complex macromolecules across the different layers of the cell envelope. It further reviews the rather impressive progress made in the last ten years in the discovery and development of novel inhibitors targeting their biogenesis. PMID:24915502

  7. Spectral envelope sensitivity of musical instrument sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, David; Sen, D

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that the spectral envelope is a perceptually salient attribute in musical instrument timbre perception. While a number of studies have explored discrimination thresholds for changes to the spectral envelope, the question of how sensitivity varies as a function of center frequency and bandwidth for musical instruments has yet to be addressed. In this paper a two-alternative forced-choice experiment was conducted to observe perceptual sensitivity to modifications made on trumpet, clarinet and viola sounds. The experiment involved attenuating 14 frequency bands for each instrument in order to determine discrimination thresholds as a function of center frequency and bandwidth. The results indicate that perceptual sensitivity is governed by the first few harmonics and sensitivity does not improve when extending the bandwidth any higher. However, sensitivity was found to decrease if changes were made only to the higher frequencies and continued to decrease as the distorted bandwidth was widened. The results are analyzed and discussed with respect to two other spectral envelope discrimination studies in the literature as well as what is predicted from a psychoacoustic model.

  8. The universal R-matrix and its associated quantum algebra as functionals of the classical r-matrix: the sl2 case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freidel, L.; Maillet, J.M.

    1992-09-01

    Using a geometrical approach to the quantum Yang-Baxter equation, the quantum algebra U h (sl 2 ) and its universal quantum R-matrix are explicitly constructed as functionals of the associated classical r-matrix. In this framework, the quantum algebra U h (sl 2 ) is naturally imbedded in the universal enveloping algebra of the sl 2 current algebra. (author) 13 refs

  9. Relationship between chromatin complexity and nuclear envelope circularity in hippocampal pyramidal neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantic, Igor; Basailovic, Milos; Paunovic, Jovana; Pantic, Senka

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •We analyzed chromatin structure and nuclear envelope of 200 hippocampal pyramidal neurons. •Fractal and GLCM mathematical parameters were calculated each chromatin structure. •Nuclear shape was quantified by calculating circularity of the nuclear envelope. •Circularity was in significant relationship with chromatin fractal dimension. •Strong correlation was detected between circularity and some GLCM parameters. -- Abstract: In this study we tested the existence and strength of the relationship between circularity of nuclear envelope and mathematical parameters of chromatin structure. Coronal sections of the brain were made in 10 male albino mice. The brain tissue was stained using a modification of Feulgen method for DNA visualization. A total of 200 hippocampal pyramidal neurons (20 per animal) were visualized using DEM 200 High-Speed Color CMOS Chip and Olympus CX21FS1 microscope. Circularity of the nuclear membrane was calculated in ImageJ (NIH, USA) after the nuclear segmentation, based on the freehand selection of the nuclear regions of interest. Circularity was determined from the values of area and perimeter. For each chromatin structure, using fractal and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) algorithms, we determined the values of fractal dimension, lacunarity, angular second moment, GLCM entropy, inverse difference moment, GLCM correlation, and GLCM contrast. It was found that circularity is in a significant correlation (p < 0.05) with fractal dimension as the main parameter of fractal complexity analysis. Also, circularity was in a very strong relationship (p < 0.001) with certain parameters of grey level co-occurrence matrix such as the angular second moment and GLCM correlation. This is the first study to indicate that nuclear shape is significantly related to mathematical parameters of higher chromatin organization. Also, it seems that circularity of the nuclear envelope is a good predictor of certain features of chromatin

  10. Matrix inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Xingzhi

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this monograph is to report on recent developments in the field of matrix inequalities, with emphasis on useful techniques and ingenious ideas. Among other results this book contains the affirmative solutions of eight conjectures. Many theorems unify or sharpen previous inequalities. The author's aim is to streamline the ideas in the literature. The book can be read by research workers, graduate students and advanced undergraduates.

  11. Structure and assembly of a paramyxovirus matrix protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Anthony J; Meng, Geng; Winkler, Dennis C; McGinnes, Lori W; Plevka, Pavel; Steven, Alasdair C; Morrison, Trudy G; Rossmann, Michael G

    2012-08-28

    Many pleomorphic, lipid-enveloped viruses encode matrix proteins that direct their assembly and budding, but the mechanism of this process is unclear. We have combined X-ray crystallography and cryoelectron tomography to show that the matrix protein of Newcastle disease virus, a paramyxovirus and relative of measles virus, forms dimers that assemble into pseudotetrameric arrays that generate the membrane curvature necessary for virus budding. We show that the glycoproteins are anchored in the gaps between the matrix proteins and that the helical nucleocapsids are associated in register with the matrix arrays. About 90% of virions lack matrix arrays, suggesting that, in agreement with previous biological observations, the matrix protein needs to dissociate from the viral membrane during maturation, as is required for fusion and release of the nucleocapsid into the host's cytoplasm. Structure and sequence conservation imply that other paramyxovirus matrix proteins function similarly.

  12. Dispersion - does it degrade a pulse envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deighton, M.O.

    1985-01-01

    In hostile environments, transmitting information as ultrasonic Lamb wave pulses has advantages, since the stainless steel strip serving as a waveguide is very durable. Besides attenuation, velocity dispersion (inherent in Lamb waves) can be important even in fairly short guides. Theory shows that unlimited propagation of a pulsed r.f. envelope is possible, even with dispersion present. The constant group velocity needed would favour asub(o)-mode pulses over other modes, provided ordinary attenuation is small. An approximate formula indicates the useful range of a pulse, when group velocity does vary. (author)

  13. Shape Control of Responsive Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Christensen, Jesper Thøger

    2010-01-01

    The present paper considers shape control of adaptive architectural structures for improvement of structural performance by recognizing changes in their environments and loads, adapting to meet goals, and using past events to improve future performance or maintain serviceability. The general scop...... environmental system to a primary structural system joint into a collective behavioral system equipment with an actuator system is presented....... alternatives. The adaptive structure is a proposal for a responsive building envelope which is an idea of a first level operational framework for present and future investigations towards performance based responsive architectures through a set of responsive typologies. A mock-up concept of a secondary...

  14. Snell Envelope with Small Probability Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Moral, Pierre, E-mail: Pierre.Del-Moral@inria.fr; Hu, Peng, E-mail: Peng.Hu@inria.fr [Universite de Bordeaux I, Centre INRIA Bordeaux et Sud-Ouest and Institut de Mathematiques de Bordeaux (France); Oudjane, Nadia, E-mail: Nadia.Oudjane@edf.fr [EDF R and D Clamart (France)

    2012-12-15

    We present a new algorithm to compute the Snell envelope in the specific case where the criteria to optimize is associated with a small probability or a rare event. This new approach combines the Stochastic Mesh approach of Broadie and Glasserman with a particle approximation scheme based on a specific change of measure designed to concentrate the computational effort in regions pointed out by the criteria. The theoretical analysis of this new algorithm provides non asymptotic convergence estimates. Finally, the numerical tests confirm the practical interest of this approach.

  15. Envelope as Climate Negotiator: Evaluating adaptive building envelope's capacity to moderate indoor climate and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, James

    Through manipulation of adaptable opportunities available within a given environment, individuals become active participants in managing personal comfort requirements, by exercising control over their comfort without the assistance of mechanical heating and cooling systems. Similarly, continuous manipulation of a building skin's form, insulation, porosity, and transmissivity qualities exerts control over the energy exchanged between indoor and outdoor environments. This research uses four adaptive response variables in a modified software algorithm to explore an adaptive building skin's potential in reacting to environmental stimuli with the purpose of minimizing energy use without sacrificing occupant comfort. Results illustrate that significant energy savings can be realized with adaptive envelopes over static building envelopes even under extreme summer and winter climate conditions; that the magnitude of these savings are dependent on climate and orientation; and that occupant thermal comfort can be improved consistently over comfort levels achieved by optimized static building envelopes. The resulting adaptive envelope's unique climate-specific behavior could inform designers in creating an intelligent kinetic aesthetic that helps facilitate adaptability and resiliency in architecture.

  16. The performance of energy efficient residential building envelope systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskiw, G.

    1996-08-01

    The adequacy and durability of residential building envelope systems under actual field conditions were evaluated. A building envelope offers protection from cold, heat, moisture, wind and noise. However, they are exposed to thermal, structural, and moisture stresses and their performance can degrade over time. Envelope performance was evaluated at 20 energy efficient and four conventional, detached modern homes in Winnipeg, Canada. The three complementary measurement tools were wood moisture content (WMC) of framing members, thermographic examinations, and airtightness tests. As expected, energy efficient building envelope systems performed better than the conventional systems. No evidence of envelope degradation was found in any of the energy efficient houses. The building envelopes using polyethylene air barriers performed slightly better than those which used the airtight drywall approach, although both were considered satisfactory. WMC levels were a bit lower in the polyethylene-clad house. 1 ref., 1 tab.

  17. Grain formation in cool stellar envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, S.

    1980-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of dust grains in the stellar envelope are investigated for the case of oxygen-rich stars, where the mass loss occurs as a result of the radiation pressure on the dust grains. The number density of grains, the final grain sizes, and the final amount of metals remaining in gaseous states are calculated based on the grain-nucleation theory proposed by Yamamoto and Hasegawa and Draine and Salpeter. It is shown that, even if we base our calculations on the Lothe-Pound nucleation rate equation instead of the classical, homogeneous nucleation rate equation, the proposed theory gives a number density of grains quite similar to that based on the classical rate equation. The approximate solution of the flow, in this paper, brings physical insight to the problem of how the formation of grains couples the flow passing the sonic point. The metals in the outer envelope remain in gaseous state by the amount of 1--10% of the initial content for the mass-loss rate of 10 -5 M/sub sun/ yr -1 and by less than 1% for the massloss are less than 3 x 10 -6 M/sub sun/ yr -1 . Species of metals condensed onto the grains are also discussed

  18. Bellanca building, Yellowknife : building envelope retrofit project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajewski, G. [A.D. Williams Engineering Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The Bellanca building is a ten-story, commercial office building, located in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. The owner was concerned about annual fuel consumption, relative to other buildings of similar size. Tenants reported cold drafts and some ice build-up had been reported in the past, on the exterior of the cladding. In addition, some water penetration had occurred during rainfall. This presentation provided background information on the Bellanca building and discussed a building envelope retrofit project. A.D. Williams was hired in late 2006 in order to provide an opinion on the present condition of the building envelope. This presentation described the site investigation and presented an interior and exterior review of the building. It also presented a thermographic survey in order to map thermal anomalies and establish trends. Following acceptance of the report on findings, one of five options was selected for further development. This included removal of existing cladding, exterior gypsum wallboard, fiberglass insulation and application of BASF Walltite CT foam, sheathing, rigid insulation, drainage plane and new cladding. The preliminary design was then presented. This paper also described the tender and award of the contract; construction phase; and substantial completion of the project. tabs, figs.

  19. Chemistry of Protostellar Envelopes and Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Rivera, Lizxandra; Terebey, Susan; Willacy, Karen

    2018-06-01

    Molecule formation is dynamic during the protostar collapse phase, driven by changes in temperature, density, and UV radiation as gas and dust flows from the envelope onto the forming protoplanetary disk. In this work, we compare physical models based on two different collapse solutions. We modeled the chemistry (created by Karen Willacy) for C18O to see how its abundance changes over time using as primary input parameters the temperature and density profile that were produced by the dust Radiative Transfer (MCRT) model called HOCHUNK3D from Whitney (2003). Given this model, we produce synthetic line emission maps from L1527 IRS to simulate the Class 0/I protostar L1527 IRS using RADMC3D code and compare them with previous observations from ALMA. High concentrations of gas phase molecules of C18O are found within the 20 AU in areas in the envelope that are close to the surface of the disk. In the outermost part of the disk surface, the C18O freezes out beyond 400 AU, showing a much reduced abundance where the temperature profile drops down below 25 K. In cold regions, the radiation field plays an important role in the chemistry.

  20. [An improved algorithm for electrohysterogram envelope extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yaosheng; Pan, Jie; Chen, Zhaoxia; Chen, Zhaoxia

    2017-02-01

    Extraction uterine contraction signal from abdominal uterine electromyogram(EMG) signal is considered as the most promising method to replace the traditional tocodynamometer(TOCO) for detecting uterine contractions activity. The traditional root mean square(RMS) algorithm has only some limited values in canceling the impulsive noise. In our study, an improved algorithm for uterine EMG envelope extraction was proposed to overcome the problem. Firstly, in our experiment, zero-crossing detection method was used to separate the burst of uterine electrical activity from the raw uterine EMG signal. After processing the separated signals by employing two filtering windows which have different width, we used the traditional RMS algorithm to extract uterus EMG envelope. To assess the performance of the algorithm, the improved algorithm was compared with two existing intensity of uterine electromyogram(IEMG) extraction algorithms. The results showed that the improved algorithm was better than the traditional ones in eliminating impulsive noise present in the uterine EMG signal. The measurement sensitivity and positive predictive value(PPV) of the improved algorithm were 0.952 and 0.922, respectively, which were not only significantly higher than the corresponding values(0.859 and 0.847) of the first comparison algorithm, but also higher than the values(0.928 and 0.877) of the second comparison algorithm. Thus the new method is reliable and effective.

  1. Solution of K-V envelope equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.A.

    1995-04-01

    The envelope equations for a KV beam with space charge have been analyzed systematically by an e expansion followed by integrations. The focusing profile as a function of axial length is assumed to be symmetric but otherwise arbitrary. Given the bean current, emittance, and peak focusing field, we find the envelopes a(s) and b(s) and obtain , a max , σ, and σ 0 . Explicit results are presented for various truncations of the expansion. The zeroth order results correspond to those from the well-known smooth approximation; the same convenient format is retained for the higher order cases. The first order results, involving single correction terms, give 3--10 times better accuracy and are good to ∼1% at σ 0 = 70 degree. Third order gives a factor of 10--30 improvement over the smooth approximation and derived quantities accurate to ∼1% at σ 0 = 112 degree. The first order expressions are convenient design tools. They lend themselves to variable energy problems and have been applied to the design, construction, and testing of ESQ accelerators at LBL

  2. Solitons, envelope solitons in collisonless plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Y.H.; Watanabe, S.

    1977-08-01

    A review is given to extensive development of theoretical, computational and experimental studies of nonlinear wave propagation in collisionless plasmas. Firstly, the historical experiment of Ikezi et al. is discussed in comparison with theoretical analysis based on the Korteweg-de Vries equation. Systematic discrepancy between the observation and the theoretical prediction suggests that it is necessary to examine such as higher order mode coupling effect and contribution of trapped particles. Secondly, effects of the nonlinear Landau damping on the envelope solution of ion plasma wave is discussed on the basis of theoretical study of Ichikawa-Taniuti, experimental observation of Watanabe and numerical analysis of Yajima et al. Finally, a new type of evolution equation derived for the Alfven wave is examined in some detail. The rigorous solution obtained for this mode represents a new kind of envelope solution, in which both of its phase and amplitude are subject to modulation of comparable spatial extension. In conclusion, the emphasis will be placed on the fact that much more intensive experimental researches are expected to be done, since the powerful methods to disentangle various nonlinear evolution equations are now available for theoretical approach. (auth.)

  3. Non-stationary pre-envelope covariances of non-classically damped systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscolino, G.

    1991-08-01

    A new formulation is given to evaluate the stationary and non-stationary response of linear non-classically damped systems subjected to multi-correlated non-separable Gaussian input processes. This formulation is based on a new and more suitable definition of the impulse response function matrix for such systems. It is shown that, when using this definition, the stochastic response of non-classically damped systems involves the evaluation of quantities similar to those of classically damped ones. Furthermore, considerations about non-stationary cross-covariances, spectral moments and pre-envelope cross-covariances are presented for a monocorrelated input process.

  4. Matrix analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    1997-01-01

    A good part of matrix theory is functional analytic in spirit. This statement can be turned around. There are many problems in operator theory, where most of the complexities and subtleties are present in the finite-dimensional case. My purpose in writing this book is to present a systematic treatment of methods that are useful in the study of such problems. This book is intended for use as a text for upper division and gradu­ ate courses. Courses based on parts of the material have been given by me at the Indian Statistical Institute and at the University of Toronto (in collaboration with Chandler Davis). The book should also be useful as a reference for research workers in linear algebra, operator theory, mathe­ matical physics and numerical analysis. A possible subtitle of this book could be Matrix Inequalities. A reader who works through the book should expect to become proficient in the art of deriving such inequalities. Other authors have compared this art to that of cutting diamonds. One first has to...

  5. Mechanism of protein import across the chloroplast envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K; Chen, X; Schnell, D J

    2000-01-01

    The development and maintenance of chloroplasts relies on the contribution of protein subunits from both plastid and nuclear genomes. Most chloroplast proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and are post-translationally imported into the organelle across the double membrane of the chloroplast envelope. Protein import into the chloroplast consists of two essential elements: the specific recognition of the targeting signals (transit sequences) of cytoplasmic preproteins by receptors at the outer envelope membrane and the subsequent translocation of preproteins simultaneously across the double membrane of the envelope. These processes are mediated via the co-ordinate action of protein translocon complexes in the outer (Toc apparatus) and inner (Tic apparatus) envelope membranes.

  6. Adaptive Flight Envelope Estimation and Protection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Impact Technologies, in collaboration with the Georgia Institute of Technology, proposes to develop and demonstrate an innovative flight envelope estimation and...

  7. Herpes simplex virus glycoproteins gB and gH function in fusion between the virion envelope and the outer nuclear membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Aaron; Wisner, Todd W; Webb, Michael; Roller, Richard; Cohen, Gary; Eisenberg, Roselyn; Johnson, David C

    2007-06-12

    Herpesviruses must traverse the nuclear envelope to gain access to the cytoplasm and, ultimately, to exit cells. It is believed that herpesvirus nucleocapsids enter the perinuclear space by budding through the inner nuclear membrane (NM). To reach the cytoplasm these enveloped particles must fuse with the outer NM and the unenveloped capsids then acquire a second envelope in the trans-Golgi network. Little is known about the process by which herpesviruses virions fuse with the outer NM. Here we show that a herpes simplex virus (HSV) mutant lacking both the two putative fusion glycoproteins gB and gH failed to cross the nuclear envelope. Enveloped virions accumulated in the perinuclear space or in membrane vesicles that bulged into the nucleoplasm (herniations). By contrast, mutants lacking just gB or gH showed only minor or no defects in nuclear egress. We concluded that either HSV gB or gH can promote fusion between the virion envelope and the outer NM. It is noteworthy that fusion associated with HSV entry requires the cooperative action of both gB and gH, suggesting that the two types of fusion (egress versus entry) are dissimilar processes.

  8. Polymers in cell encapsulation from an enveloped cell perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Paul; Lazarjani, Hamideh Aghajani; Poncelet, Denis; Faas, Marijke M

    2014-04-01

    In the past two decades, many polymers have been proposed for producing immunoprotective capsules. Examples include the natural polymers alginate, agarose, chitosan, cellulose, collagen, and xanthan and synthetic polymers poly(ethylene glycol), polyvinyl alcohol, polyurethane, poly(ether-sulfone), polypropylene, sodium polystyrene sulfate, and polyacrylate poly(acrylonitrile-sodium methallylsulfonate). The biocompatibility of these polymers is discussed in terms of tissue responses in both the host and matrix to accommodate the functional survival of the cells. Cells should grow and function in the polymer network as adequately as in their natural environment. This is critical when therapeutic cells from scarce cadaveric donors are considered, such as pancreatic islets. Additionally, the cell mass in capsules is discussed from the perspective of emerging new insights into the release of so-called danger-associated molecular pattern molecules by clumps of necrotic therapeutic cells. We conclude that despite two decades of intensive research, drawing conclusions about which polymer is most adequate for clinical application is still difficult. This is because of the lack of documentation on critical information, such as the composition of the polymer, the presence or absence of confounding factors that induce immune responses, toxicity to enveloped cells, and the permeability of the polymer network. Only alginate has been studied extensively and currently qualifies for application. This review also discusses critical issues that are not directly related to polymers and are not discussed in the other reviews in this issue, such as the functional performance of encapsulated cells in vivo. Physiological endocrine responses may indeed not be expected because of the many barriers that the metabolites encounter when traveling from the blood stream to the enveloped cells and back to circulation. However, despite these diffusion barriers, many studies have shown optimal

  9. Matrix pentagons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitsky, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    The Operator Product Expansion for null polygonal Wilson loop in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory runs systematically in terms of multi-particle pentagon transitions which encode the physics of excitations propagating on the color flux tube ending on the sides of the four-dimensional contour. Their dynamics was unraveled in the past several years and culminated in a complete description of pentagons as an exact function of the 't Hooft coupling. In this paper we provide a solution for the last building block in this program, the SU(4) matrix structure arising from internal symmetry indices of scalars and fermions. This is achieved by a recursive solution of the Mirror and Watson equations obeyed by the so-called singlet pentagons and fixing the form of the twisted component in their tensor decomposition. The non-singlet, or charged, pentagons are deduced from these by a limiting procedure.

  10. Matrix pentagons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Belitsky

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Operator Product Expansion for null polygonal Wilson loop in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory runs systematically in terms of multi-particle pentagon transitions which encode the physics of excitations propagating on the color flux tube ending on the sides of the four-dimensional contour. Their dynamics was unraveled in the past several years and culminated in a complete description of pentagons as an exact function of the 't Hooft coupling. In this paper we provide a solution for the last building block in this program, the SU(4 matrix structure arising from internal symmetry indices of scalars and fermions. This is achieved by a recursive solution of the Mirror and Watson equations obeyed by the so-called singlet pentagons and fixing the form of the twisted component in their tensor decomposition. The non-singlet, or charged, pentagons are deduced from these by a limiting procedure.

  11. Radiative transfer in spherical circumstellar dust envelopes. III. Dust envelope models of some well known infrared stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apruzese, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    The radiative transfer techniques described elsewhere by the author have been employed to construct dust envelope models of several well known infrared stars. The resulting calculations indicate that the infrared emissivity of circumstellar grains generally must be higher than that which many calculations of small nonsilicate grains yield. This conclusion is dependent to some degree on the (unknown) size of the stellar envelopes considered, but is quite firm in the case of the spatially resolved envelope of IRC+10216. Further observations of the spatial distribution of the infrared radiation from stellar envelopes will be invaluable in deciphering the properties of the circumstellar grains

  12. Polarimetry and physics of Be star envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyne, G.V.; McLean, I.S.

    1982-01-01

    A review of the most recent developments in polarization studies of Be stars is presented. New polarization techniques for high-resolution spectropolarimetry and for near infrared polarimetry are described and a wide range of new observations are discussed. These include broad-band, intermediate-band and multichannel observations of the continuum polarization of Be stars in the wavelength interval 0.3-2.2 microns, high resolution (0.5 A) line profile polarimetry of a few stars and surveys of many stars for the purposes of statistical analyses. The physical significance of the observational material is discussed in the light of recent theoretical models. Emphasis is placed on the physical and geometrical parameters of Be star envelopes which polarimetry helps to determine. (Auth.)

  13. Enveloping branes and brane-world singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Cotsakis, Spiros [CERN-Theory Division, Department of Physics, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Klaoudatou, Ifigeneia [University of the Aegean, Research Group of Geometry, Dynamical Systems and Cosmology, Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering, Samos (Greece)

    2014-12-01

    The existence of envelopes is studied for systems of differential equations in connection with the method of asymptotic splittings which allows one to determine the singularity structure of the solutions. The result is applied to brane-worlds consisting of a 3-brane in a five-dimensional bulk, in the presence of an analog of a bulk perfect fluid parameterizing a generic class of bulk matter. We find that all flat brane solutions suffer from a finite-distance singularity contrary to previous claims. We then study the possibility of avoiding finite-distance singularities by cutting the bulk and gluing regular solutions at the position of the brane. Further imposing physical conditions such as finite Planck mass on the brane and positive energy conditions on the bulk fluid, excludes, however, this possibility as well. (orig.)

  14. Performance measurement with fuzzy data envelopment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Tavana, Madjid

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of global competition and ever-increasing economic uncertainties has led organizations to search for more efficient and effective ways to manage their business operations.  Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has been widely used as a conceptually simple yet powerful tool for evaluating organizational productivity and performance. Fuzzy DEA (FDEA) is a promising extension of the conventional DEA proposed for dealing with imprecise and ambiguous data in performance measurement problems. This book is the first volume in the literature to present the state-of-the-art developments and applications of FDEA. It is designed for students, educators, researchers, consultants and practicing managers in business, industry, and government with a basic understanding of the DEA and fuzzy logic concepts.

  15. Pushing the Envelope of Extreme Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesnell, W. D.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme Space Weather events are large solar flares or geomagnetic storms, which can cost billions of dollars to recover from. We have few examples of such events; the Carrington Event (the solar superstorm) is one of the few that had superlatives in three categories: size of solar flare, drop in Dst, and amplitude of aa. Kepler observations show that stars similar to the Sun can have flares releasing millions of times more energy than an X-class flare. These flares and the accompanying coronal mass ejections could strongly affect the atmosphere surrounding a planet. What level of solar activity would be necessary to strongly affect the atmosphere of the Earth? Can we map out the envelope of space weather along the evolution of the Sun? What would space weather look like if the Sun stopped producing a magnetic field? To what extreme should Space Weather go? These are the extremes of Space Weather explored in this talk.

  16. Data envelopment analysis of randomized ranks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sant'Anna Annibal P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Probabilities and odds, derived from vectors of ranks, are here compared as measures of efficiency of decision-making units (DMUs. These measures are computed with the goal of providing preliminary information before starting a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA or the application of any other evaluation or composition of preferences methodology. Preferences, quality and productivity evaluations are usually measured with errors or subject to influence of other random disturbances. Reducing evaluations to ranks and treating the ranks as estimates of location parameters of random variables, we are able to compute the probability of each DMU being classified as the best according to the consumption of each input and the production of each output. Employing the probabilities of being the best as efficiency measures, we stretch distances between the most efficient units. We combine these partial probabilities in a global efficiency score determined in terms of proximity to the efficiency frontier.

  17. Enhanced conformational sampling using enveloping distribution sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhixiong; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2013-10-14

    To lessen the problem of insufficient conformational sampling in biomolecular simulations is still a major challenge in computational biochemistry. In this article, an application of the method of enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) is proposed that addresses this challenge and its sampling efficiency is demonstrated in simulations of a hexa-β-peptide whose conformational equilibrium encompasses two different helical folds, i.e., a right-handed 2.7(10∕12)-helix and a left-handed 3(14)-helix, separated by a high energy barrier. Standard MD simulations of this peptide using the GROMOS 53A6 force field did not reach convergence of the free enthalpy difference between the two helices even after 500 ns of simulation time. The use of soft-core non-bonded interactions in the centre of the peptide did enhance the number of transitions between the helices, but at the same time led to neglect of relevant helical configurations. In the simulations of a two-state EDS reference Hamiltonian that envelops both the physical peptide and the soft-core peptide, sampling of the conformational space of the physical peptide ensures that physically relevant conformations can be visited, and sampling of the conformational space of the soft-core peptide helps to enhance the transitions between the two helices. The EDS simulations sampled many more transitions between the two helices and showed much faster convergence of the relative free enthalpy of the two helices compared with the standard MD simulations with only a slightly larger computational effort to determine optimized EDS parameters. Combined with various methods to smoothen the potential energy surface, the proposed EDS application will be a powerful technique to enhance the sampling efficiency in biomolecular simulations.

  18. Semiparametric Power Envelopes for Tests of the Unit Root Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Michael

    This paper derives asymptotic power envelopes for tests of the unit root hypothesis in a zero-mean AR(1) model. The power envelopes are derived using the limits of experiments approach and are semiparametric in the sense that the underlying error distribution is treated as an unknown...

  19. Full waveform inversion using envelope-based global correlation norm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ju-Won; Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2018-05-01

    To increase the feasibility of full waveform inversion on real data, we suggest a new objective function, which is defined as the global correlation of the envelopes of modelled and observed data. The envelope-based global correlation norm has the advantage of the envelope inversion that generates artificial low-frequency information, which provides the possibility to recover long-wavelength structure in an early stage. In addition, the envelope-based global correlation norm maintains the advantage of the global correlation norm, which reduces the sensitivity of the misfit to amplitude errors so that the performance of inversion on real data can be enhanced when the exact source wavelet is not available and more complex physics are ignored. Through the synthetic example for 2-D SEG/EAGE overthrust model with inaccurate source wavelet, we compare the performance of four different approaches, which are the least-squares waveform inversion, least-squares envelope inversion, global correlation norm and envelope-based global correlation norm. Finally, we apply the envelope-based global correlation norm on the 3-D Ocean Bottom Cable (OBC) data from the North Sea. The envelope-based global correlation norm captures the strong reflections from the high-velocity caprock and generates artificial low-frequency reflection energy that helps us recover long-wavelength structure of the model domain in the early stages. From this long-wavelength model, the conventional global correlation norm is sequentially applied to invert for higher-resolution features of the model.

  20. Calculation of CWKB envelope in boson and fermion productions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We present the calculation of envelope of boson and of both low- and high- mass fermion production at the end of inflation when the coherently oscillating inflatons decay into bosons and fermions. We consider three different models of inflation and use. CWKB technique to calculate the envelope to understand the ...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1517 - Limiting height-speed envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limiting height-speed envelope. 29.1517... Operating Limitations § 29.1517 Limiting height-speed envelope. For Category A rotorcraft, if a range of... following power failure, the range of heights and its variation with forward speed must be established...

  2. Beam envelope profile of non-centrosymmetric polygonal phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yinbao; Xie Xi

    1984-01-01

    The general theory of beam envelope profile of non-centrosymmetric polygonal phase space is developed. By means of this theory the beam envelope profile of non-centrosymmetric polygonal phase space can be calculated directly. An example is carried out in detail to show the practical application of the theory

  3. EFISIENSI PERSAINGAN BANK UMUM SYARIAH: PENDEKATAN DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS (DEA DAN BOSTON CONSULTING GROUP (BCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizqon Halal Syah Aji

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Islamic Banking industry in Indonesia has begun dynamic. Product availability and standardization of Islamic banking products, the level of understanding by the public of products of Islamic banks and human resources. Market share of Islamic Banking in Indonesia to lock everything. Recent data Directorate of Islamic Banking in 2011 reached Rp 127,19 T, assets of BPRS amounting to Rp 3.35 T, can be calculated total Islamic banking assets as of October 2011 reached Rp 130,5 T. Financing very important factor, Data Envelopment Analisys (DEA is a measuring instrument of financing. Map of the Bank's performance in the competition between banks can be analyzed by matrix BCG (Boston Consulting Group. This matrix is used to describe the difference between the position of the relative market share of the Bank.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v3i1.2059

  4. Gutting’s critical View to the Truth-Independent Justification Models on Believe in God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Akbari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Justification of believe in God had been one of the most challenging problem throughout history of philosophy. The problem is "is believe in god epistemically justified?" Gutting's theory in justification of theism is combined of two parts. He critiques Witgenstainian's view firstly, and then considers Aquinas’, Plantinga's, and some other views as incorrect views on theism. Gutting says that Witgenstainians and Tomistic approaches cannot draw a religious language exactly. He also considers Plantinga's view as an incorrect view, because it is completely possible that the viewpoint of believers in believing to the existence of God to be evaluate epistemological as true as the non-believers’ view to the nonexistence of God. Discussing his own view, Gutting justifies believing in God regarding the religious experience. This article explains Gutting's critique of Witgenstainian's, Thomistic and Planting's approach on justification of believe in God.

  5. Envelope enhancement increases cortical sensitivity to interaural envelope delays with acoustic and electric hearing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas E H Hartley

    Full Text Available Evidence from human psychophysical and animal electrophysiological studies suggests that sensitivity to interaural time delay (ITD in the modulating envelope of a high-frequency carrier can be enhanced using half-wave rectified stimuli. Recent evidence has shown potential benefits of equivalent electrical stimuli to deaf individuals with bilateral cochlear implants (CIs. In the current study we assessed the effects of envelope shape on ITD sensitivity in the primary auditory cortex of normal-hearing ferrets, and profoundly-deaf animals with bilateral CIs. In normal-hearing animals, cortical sensitivity to ITDs (±1 ms in 0.1-ms steps was assessed in response to dichotically-presented i sinusoidal amplitude-modulated (SAM and ii half-wave rectified (HWR tones (100-ms duration; 70 dB SPL presented at the best-frequency of the unit over a range of modulation frequencies. In separate experiments, adult ferrets were deafened with neomycin administration and bilaterally-implanted with intra-cochlear electrode arrays. Electrically-evoked auditory brainstem responses (EABRs were recorded in response to bipolar electrical stimulation of the apical pair of electrodes with singe biphasic current pulses (40 µs per phase over a range of current levels to measure hearing thresholds. Subsequently, we recorded cortical sensitivity to ITDs (±800 µs in 80-µs steps within the envelope of SAM and HWR biphasic-pulse trains (40 µs per phase; 6000 pulses per second, 100-ms duration over a range of modulation frequencies. In normal-hearing animals, nearly a third of cortical neurons were sensitive to envelope-ITDs in response to SAM tones. In deaf animals with bilateral CI, the proportion of ITD-sensitive cortical neurons was approximately a fifth in response to SAM pulse trains. In normal-hearing and deaf animals with bilateral CI the proportion of ITD sensitive units and neural sensitivity to ITDs increased in response to HWR, compared with SAM stimuli

  6. Selecting Energy Efficient Building Envelope Retrofits to Existing Department of Defense Building Using Value Focused Thinking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pratt, David M

    2006-01-01

    ... these facilities that have the greatest potential for energy efficient building envelope retrofits. There are hundreds of various new building envelope technologies available to retrofit an existing building envelope, including window, roof, and wall technologies...

  7. The limited role of recombination energy in common envelope removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grichener, Aldana; Sabach, Efrat; Soker, Noam

    2018-05-01

    We calculate the outward energy transport time by convection and photon diffusion in an inflated common envelope and find this time to be shorter than the envelope expansion time. We conclude therefore that most of the hydrogen recombination energy ends in radiation rather than in kinetic energy of the outflowing envelope. We use the stellar evolution code MESA and inject energy inside the envelope of an asymptotic giant branch star to mimic energy deposition by a spiraling-in stellar companion. During 1.7 years the envelope expands by a factor of more than 2. Along the entire evolution the convection can carry the energy very efficiently outwards, to the radius where radiative transfer becomes more efficient. The total energy transport time stays within several months, shorter than the dynamical time of the envelope. Had we included rapid mass loss, as is expected in the common envelope evolution, the energy transport time would have been even shorter. It seems that calculations that assume that most of the recombination energy ends in the outflowing gas might be inaccurate.

  8. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R. [Department of Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Kusdiantara, Rudy, E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Puspita, Dila, E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A., E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y. [Department of Mathematics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.

  9. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R.; Kusdiantara, Rudy; Puspita, Dila; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A.; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y.

    2014-01-01

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab

  10. The eikonal equation, envelopes and contact transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frittelli, Simonetta; Kamran, Niky; Newman, Ezra T

    2003-01-01

    We begin with an arbitrary but given conformal Lorentzian metric on an open neighbourhood, U, of a four-dimensional manifold (spacetime) and study families of solutions of the eikonal equation. In particular, the families that are of interest to us are the complete solutions. Their level surfaces form a two-parameter (points of S 2 ) family of foliations of U. We show that, from such a complete solution, it is possible to derive a pair of second-order PDEs defined solely on the parameter space S 2 , i.e., they have no reference to the spacetime points. We then show that if one uses the classical envelope method for the construction of new complete solutions from any given complete solution, then the new pair of PDEs (found from the new complete solution) is related to the old pair by contact transformations in the second jet bundle over S 2 . Further, we demonstrate that the pair of second-order PDEs obtained in this manner from any complete solution lies in a subclass of all pairs of second-order PDEs defined by the vanishing of a certain function obtained from the pair and is referred to as the generalized-Wuenschmann invariant. For completeness we briefly discuss the analogous issues associated with the eikonal equation in three dimensions. Finally we point out that conformally invariant geometric structures from the Lorentzian manifold have natural counterparts in the second jet bundle over S 2 on which the pair of PDEs lives

  11. Ecosystem functioning is enveloped by hydrometeorological variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Christoforos; Mahecha, Miguel D; Frank, David C; Babst, Flurin; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2017-09-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem processes, and the associated vegetation carbon dynamics, respond differently to hydrometeorological variability across timescales, and so does our scientific understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Long-term variability of the terrestrial carbon cycle is not yet well constrained and the resulting climate-biosphere feedbacks are highly uncertain. Here we present a comprehensive overview of hydrometeorological and ecosystem variability from hourly to decadal timescales integrating multiple in situ and remote-sensing datasets characterizing extra-tropical forest sites. We find that ecosystem variability at all sites is confined within a hydrometeorological envelope across sites and timescales. Furthermore, ecosystem variability demonstrates long-term persistence, highlighting ecological memory and slow ecosystem recovery rates after disturbances. However, simulation results with state-of-the-art process-based models do not reflect this long-term persistent behaviour in ecosystem functioning. Accordingly, we develop a cross-time-scale stochastic framework that captures hydrometeorological and ecosystem variability. Our analysis offers a perspective for terrestrial ecosystem modelling and paves the way for new model-data integration opportunities in Earth system sciences.

  12. Fullerenes and fulleranes in circumstellar envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yong; Kwok, Sun; Sadjadi, SeyedAbdolreza

    2016-01-01

    Three decades of search have recently led to convincing discoveries of cosmic fullerenes. The presence of C_6_0 and C"+ _6_0 in both circumstellar and interstellar environments suggests that these molecules and their derivatives can be efficiently formed in circumstellar envelopes and survive in harsh conditions. Detailed analysis of the infrared bands from fullerenes and their connections with the local properties can provide valuable information on the physical conditions and chemical processes that occurred in the late stages of stellar evolution. The identification of C"+ _6_0 as the carrier of four diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) suggests that fullerene- related compounds are abundant in interstellar space and are essential for resolving the DIB mystery. Experiments have revealed a high hydrogenation rate when C_6_0 is exposed to atomic hydrogen, motivating the attempt to search for cosmic fulleranes. In this paper, we present a short review of current knowledge of cosmic fullerenes and fulleranes and briefly discuss the implications on circumstellar chemistry. (paper)

  13. The controversial nuclear matrix: a balanced point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, A M; Falcieri, E; Zweyer, M; Bortul, R; Tabellini, G; Cappellini, A; Cocco, L; Manzoli, L

    2002-10-01

    The nuclear matrix is defined as the residual framework after the removal of the nuclear envelope, chromatin, and soluble components by sequential extractions. According to several investigators the nuclear matrix provides the structural basis for intranuclear order. However, the existence itself and the nature of this structure is still uncertain. Although the techniques used for the visualization of the nuclear matrix have improved over the years, it is still unclear to what extent the isolated nuclear matrix corresponds to an in vivo existing structure. Therefore, considerable skepticism continues to surround the nuclear matrix fraction as an accurate representation of the situation in living cells. Here, we summarize the experimental evidence in favor of, or against, the presence of a diffuse nucleoskeleton as a facilitating organizational nonchromatin structure of the nucleus.

  14. DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS OF BANKING SECTOR IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rashedul Hoque

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Banking sector of Bangladesh is flourishing and contributing to its economy. In this aspect measuring efficiency is important. Data Envelopment Analysis technique is used for this purpose. The data are collected from the annual reports of twenty four different banks in Bangladesh. Data Envelopment Analysis is mainly of two types - constant returns to scale and variable returns to scale. Since this study attempts to maximize output, so the output oriented Data Envelopment Analysis is used. The most efficient bank is one that obtains the highest efficiency score.

  15. Pre-paid envelopes commemorating the 2013 Open Days

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The post office on CERN's Prévessin site is still selling pre-paid envelopes commemorating the 2013 Open Days. Hurry while stocks last!   The special envelopes, which are valid in France for non-priority letters weighing up to 20 grams, are ideal for your Christmas and New Year correspondence. A set of ten envelopes, each featuring a different image, costs € 8.70 or 10 CHF. The post office is located in Building 866 on the Prévessin site and is open Mondays to Thursdays from 9.30 a.m. to 12.30 p.m.

  16. Sparse Nonnegative Matrix Factorization Strategy for Cochlear Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Hu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Current cochlear implant (CI strategies carry speech information via the waveform envelope in frequency subbands. CIs require efficient speech processing to maximize information transfer to the brain, especially in background noise, where the speech envelope is not robust to noise interference. In such conditions, the envelope, after decomposition into frequency bands, may be enhanced by sparse transformations, such as nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF. Here, a novel CI processing algorithm is described, which works by applying NMF to the envelope matrix (envelopogram of 22 frequency channels in order to improve performance in noisy environments. It is evaluated for speech in eight-talker babble noise. The critical sparsity constraint parameter was first tuned using objective measures and then evaluated with subjective speech perception experiments for both normal hearing and CI subjects. Results from vocoder simulations with 10 normal hearing subjects showed that the algorithm significantly enhances speech intelligibility with the selected sparsity constraints. Results from eight CI subjects showed no significant overall improvement compared with the standard advanced combination encoder algorithm, but a trend toward improvement of word identification of about 10 percentage points at +15 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR was observed in the eight CI subjects. Additionally, a considerable reduction of the spread of speech perception performance from 40% to 93% for advanced combination encoder to 80% to 100% for the suggested NMF coding strategy was observed.

  17. Improving nuclear envelope dynamics by EBV BFRF1 facilitates intranuclear component clearance through autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guan-Ting; Kung, Hsiu-Ni; Chen, Chung-Kuan; Huang, Cheng; Wang, Yung-Li; Yu, Cheng-Pu; Lee, Chung-Pei

    2018-02-26

    Although a vesicular nucleocytoplasmic transport system is believed to exist in eukaryotic cells, the features of this pathway are mostly unknown. Here, we report that the BFRF1 protein of the Epstein-Barr virus improves vesicular transport of nuclear envelope (NE) to facilitate the translocation and clearance of nuclear components. BFRF1 expression induces vesicles that selectively transport nuclear components to the cytoplasm. With the use of aggregation-prone proteins as tools, we found that aggregated nuclear proteins are dispersed when these BFRF1-induced vesicles are formed. BFRF1-containing vesicles engulf the NE-associated aggregates, exit through from the NE, and putatively fuse with autophagic vacuoles. Chemical treatment and genetic ablation of autophagy-related factors indicate that autophagosome formation and autophagy-linked FYVE protein-mediated autophagic proteolysis are involved in this selective clearance of nuclear proteins. Remarkably, vesicular transport, elicited by BFRF1, also attenuated nuclear aggregates accumulated in neuroblastoma cells. Accordingly, induction of NE-derived vesicles by BFRF1 facilitates nuclear protein translocation and clearance, suggesting that autophagy-coupled transport of nucleus-derived vesicles can be elicited for nuclear component catabolism in mammalian cells.-Liu, G.-T., Kung, H.-N., Chen, C.-K., Huang, C., Wang, Y.-L., Yu, C.-P., Lee, C.-P. Improving nuclear envelope dynamics by EBV BFRF1 facilitates intranuclear component clearance through autophagy.

  18. Assessing the Believability of Standardized Patients Trained to Portray Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Michael I.; Struijk, Jennie; Herron, Lindsay; Mach, Helen; Yorkston, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the believability of standardized patients portraying individuals with communication disorders as part of a larger study in which standardized patients help train medical and allied health students about communication disorders. Method Two women portrayed persons with aphasia, and 2 men depicted persons with dysarthria associated with Parkinson's disease. Two stakeholder groups rated believability. Speech-language pathologists rated believability of videos online. Persons with aphasia rated aphasia videos during in-person sessions with the researchers. Results Targeted believability was 80 or higher (0–100 scale; 0 = not at all believable, 100 = very believable). For speech-language pathologist raters, average ratings met the target for the portrayals of the aphasia characteristics of word-finding problems, agrammaticism, nonverbal communication, and overall portrayal but not for auditory comprehension problems. Targets for the portrayals were met for the dysarthria characteristics of reduced speech movements, reduced loudness, reduced intonation, flat affect, and overall portrayal but not for speech rate. Ratings for different standardized patients portraying the same case were not significantly different from each other on most characteristics. Ratings from persons with aphasia were highly variable. Conclusion Standardized patients who do not have communication disorders can portray disorder characteristics in a believable manner. PMID:28595263

  19. Genetic algorithm for building envelope calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Ruiz, Germán; Fernández Bandera, Carlos; Gómez-Acebo Temes, Tomás; Sánchez-Ostiz Gutierrez, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Calibration methodology using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II). • Uncertainty analysis formulas implemented directly in EnergyPlus. • The methodology captures the heat dynamic of the building with a high level of accuracy. • Reduction in the number of parameters involved due to sensitivity analysis. • Cost-effective methodology using temperature sensors only. - Abstract: Buildings today represent 40% of world primary energy consumption and 24% of greenhouse gas emissions. In our society there is growing interest in knowing precisely when and how energy consumption occurs. This means that consumption measurement and verification plans are well-advanced. International agencies such as Efficiency Valuation Organization (EVO) and International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) have developed methodologies to quantify savings. This paper presents a methodology to accurately perform automated envelope calibration under option D (calibrated simulation) of IPMVP – vol. 1. This is frequently ignored because of its complexity, despite being more flexible and accurate in assessing the energy performance of a building. A detailed baseline energy model is used, and by means of a metaheuristic technique achieves a highly reliable and accurate Building Energy Simulation (BES) model suitable for detailed analysis of saving strategies. In order to find this BES model a Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) is used, together with a highly efficient engine to stimulate the objective, thus permitting rapid achievement of the goal. The result is a BES model that broadly captures the heat dynamic behaviour of the building. The model amply fulfils the parameters demanded by ASHRAE and EVO under option D.

  20. Flight envelope protection system for unmanned aerial vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.; Shaqura, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods to protect the flight envelope in both manual flight and flight by a commercial autopilot are provided. A system can comprise: an inertial measurement unit (IMU); a computing device in data communication with the IMU

  1. Envelope Protection for In-Flight Ice Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, David R.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Ranaudo, Richard J.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2010-01-01

    Fatal loss-of-control (LOC) accidents have been directly related to in-flight airframe icing. The prototype system presented in this paper directly addresses the need for real-time onboard envelope protection in icing conditions. The combinations of a-priori information and realtime aerodynamic estimations are shown to provide sufficient input for determining safe limits of the flight envelope during in-flight icing encounters. The Icing Contamination Envelope Protection (ICEPro) system has been designed and implemented to identify degradations in airplane performance and flying qualities resulting from ice contamination and provide safe flight-envelope cues to the pilot. Components of ICEPro are described and results from preliminary tests are presented.

  2. that Bind Specifically to Recombinant Envelope Protein of Dengue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research June 2015; 14 (6): 997-1003 ... Revised accepted: 30 April 2015. Abstract ... Results: The 45 KDa, 43 KDa and 30 KDa plasma membrane proteins were identified as viral envelope targets.

  3. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Plant parameters envelope report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The Early Site Permit (ESP) Demonstration Program is the nuclear industry's initiative for piloting the early resolution of siting-related issues before the detailed design proceedings of the combined operating license review. The ESP Demonstration Program consists of three phases. The plant parameters envelopes task is part of Phase 1, which addresses the generic review of applicable federal regulations and develops criteria for safety and environmental assessment of potential sites. The plant parameters envelopes identify parameters that characterize the interface between an ALWR design and a potential site, and quantify the interface through values selected from the Utility Requirements Documents, vendor design information, or engineering assessments. When augmented with site-specific information, the plant parameters envelopes provide sufficient information to allow ESPs to be granted based on individual ALWR design information or enveloping design information for the evolutionary, passive, or generic ALWR plants. This document is expected to become a living document when used by future applicants

  4. Transport of Ions Across the Inner Envelope Membrane of Chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarty, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    The technical report outlines the results of nine years of research on how ions cross the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts. The ions include protons, nitrite, calcium and ferrous iron. Bicarbonate transport was also studied

  5. Intelligent building envelopes. Architectural concept and applications for daylighting quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyckmans, Annemie

    2005-11-15

    How does an intelligent building envelope manage the variable and sometimes conflictive occupant requirements that arise in a day lit indoor environment. This is the research question that provides the basis for this Ph.D. work. As it touches upon several fields of application, the research question is untangled into four steps, each of which corresponds to a chapter of the thesis. 1) What characterises intelligent behaviour for a building envelope. 2) What characterises indoor day lighting quality. 3) Which functions can an intelligent building envelope be expected to perform in the context of day lighting quality. 4) How are the materials, components and composition of an intelligent building envelope designed to influence this performance. The emphasis is on design, environmental aspects, energy conservation, functional analysis and physical applications.

  6. Torsin Mediates Primary Envelopment of Large Ribonucleoprotein Granules at the Nuclear Envelope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahbiz Jokhi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A previously unrecognized mechanism through which large ribonucleoprotein (megaRNP granules exit the nucleus is by budding through the nuclear envelope (NE. This mechanism is akin to the nuclear egress of herpes-type viruses and is essential for proper synapse development. However, the molecular machinery required to remodel the NE during this process is unknown. Here, we identify Torsin, an AAA-ATPase that in humans is linked to dystonia, as a major mediator of primary megaRNP envelopment during NE budding. In torsin mutants, megaRNPs accumulate within the perinuclear space, and the messenger RNAs contained within fail to reach synaptic sites, preventing normal synaptic protein synthesis and thus proper synaptic bouton development. These studies begin to establish the cellular machinery underlying the exit of megaRNPs via budding, offer an explanation for the “nuclear blebbing” phenotype found in dystonia models, and provide an important link between Torsin and the synaptic phenotypes observed in dystonia.

  7. Polish Revolt of 1863 in Destinies of Old Believers of the Northwest Territory of Russian Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Юрьевич Бендин

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of a legal status of Old Believers of Russian empire in the middle of 19th century. The comparative analysis of the Russian legislation allows the author to draw a conclusion on religious intolerance of the state and «prevailing» Orthodox Church to the old belief population of empire. The special attention is paid to the position of Old Believers of Northwest Territory who during the Polish revolt in 1863 acted on the side of Russia. The reaction of the territory administration to attempts of Old Believers to expand border of religious freedom is considered in the article.

  8. Aspherical Dust Envelopes Around Oxygen-Rich AGB Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Suh

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We model the aspherical dust envelopes around O-rich AGB stars. We perform the radiative transfer model calculations for axisymmetric dust distributions. We simulate what could be observed from the aspherical dust envelopes around O-rich AGB stars by presenting the model spectral energy distributions and images at various wavelengths for different optical depths and viewing angles. The model results are very different from the ones with spherically symmetric geometry.

  9. Failure envelope approach for consolidated undrained capacity of shallow foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Vulpe, Cristina; Gourvenec, Susan; Leman, Billy; Fung, Kah Ngii

    2016-01-01

    A generalized framework is applied to predict consolidated undrained VHM failure envelopes for surface circular and strip foundations. The failure envelopes for consolidated undrained conditions are shown to be scaled from those for unconsolidated undrained conditions by the uniaxial consolidated undrained capacities, which are predicted through a theoretical framework based on fundamental critical state soil mechanics. The framework is applied to results from small-strain finite-element anal...

  10. Preserving Envelope Efficiency in Performance Based Code Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Brian A. [Thornton Energy Consulting (United States); Sullivan, Greg P. [Efficiency Solutions (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baechler, Michael C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-20

    The City of Seattle 2012 Energy Code (Seattle 2014), one of the most progressive in the country, is under revision for its 2015 edition. Additionally, city personnel participate in the development of the next generation of the Washington State Energy Code and the International Energy Code. Seattle has pledged carbon neutrality by 2050 including buildings, transportation and other sectors. The United States Department of Energy (DOE), through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) provided technical assistance to Seattle in order to understand the implications of one potential direction for its code development, limiting trade-offs of long-lived building envelope components less stringent than the prescriptive code envelope requirements by using better-than-code but shorter-lived lighting and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) components through the total building performance modeled energy compliance path. Weaker building envelopes can permanently limit building energy performance even as lighting and HVAC components are upgraded over time, because retrofitting the envelope is less likely and more expensive. Weaker building envelopes may also increase the required size, cost and complexity of HVAC systems and may adversely affect occupant comfort. This report presents the results of this technical assistance. The use of modeled energy code compliance to trade-off envelope components with shorter-lived building components is not unique to Seattle and the lessons and possible solutions described in this report have implications for other jurisdictions and energy codes.

  11. Exploring the perceptual biases associated with believing and disbelieving in paranormal phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds-Moore, Christine

    2014-08-01

    Ninety-five participants (32 believers, 30 disbelievers and 33 neutral believers in the paranormal) participated in an experiment comprising one visual and one auditory block of trials. Each block included one ESP, two degraded stimuli and one random trial. Each trial included 8 screens or epochs of "random" noise. Participants entered a guess if they perceived a stimulus or changed their mind about stimulus identity, rated guesses for confidence and made notes during each trial. Believers and disbelievers did not differ in the number of guesses made, or in their ability to detect degraded stimuli. Believers displayed a trend toward making faster guesses for some conditions and significantly higher confidence and more misidentifications concerning guesses than disbelievers. Guesses, misidentifications and faster response latencies were generally more likely in the visual than auditory conditions. ESP performance was no different from chance. ESP performance did not differ between belief groups or sensory modalities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. It's Time to Stop Believing Scientists about Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James

    2016-01-01

    Evolution is not, contrary to what many creationists will tell you, a belief system. Neither is it a matter of faith. We should stop asking if people "believe" in evolution and talk about acceptance instead.

  13. The climate controversy demands substantive discussion. 'Climatic change sceptics' opposite 'greenhouse effect believers'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoenes, D.; Labohm, H.

    2006-01-01

    With the aim to inform policymakers an overview is given of the arguments that are used by climatic change sceptics and greenhouse effect believers, and on which arguments do they agree or disagree [nl

  14. Persecution of believers as a systemic feature of the Soviet regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soskovets Lyubov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the anti-religious policy of the Soviet Union adopted in relation to believers and religious organizations. The reasons for the persecution of religion, churches and believers, such as the conceptual framework of Marxist ideology, desire for total power, and creation of an ideocratic state are analyzed. The main stages of the anti-religious campaign led by the Bolshevik government are determined. Major anti-religious practices, such as legal restriction of all forms of religious life, discrimination against the clergy and believers, atheist education and anti-religious propaganda work are studied. It may be concluded that persecution of believers is a systemic feature of a totalitarian regime.

  15. The milk mucus belief: sensations associated with the belief and characteristics of believers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, W K; Pinnock, C B

    1993-02-01

    The belief that milk produces mucus is widespread in the community and is associated with a significant reduction in milk consumption. Sensations associated with milk drinking were reported by otherwise healthy believers and non-believers in the milk-mucus effect (N = 169) in an unstructured interview, with further responses prompted about the duration, type and amount of milk causing the effect. The site predominantly affected was the throat, with sensations related to difficulty in swallowing and perceived thickness of mucus and salivary secretions, rather than excessive mucus production. The effect required only a small amount of milk and was reported to be of short duration. The chronic respiratory symptom history and dairy product intake of 130 of these subjects were also assessed. Milk-mucus believers were different from non-believers, reporting more respiratory symptoms and consuming less milk and dairy products. Symptoms consistent with the known effects of food allergy or intolerance were not reported.

  16. Believability of Cigarette Warnings About Addiction: National Experiments of Adolescents and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazard, Allison J; Kowitt, Sarah D; Huang, Li-Ling; Noar, Seth M; Jarman, Kristen L; Goldstein, Adam O

    2018-06-07

    We conducted two experiments to examine the believability of three addiction-focused cigarette warnings and the influence of message source on believability among adolescents and adults in the United States. Experimental data were collected using national phone surveys of adolescents (age 13-17; n = 1125; response rate, 66%) and adults (age 18+; n = 5014; response rate, 42%). We assessed the believability of three cigarette warnings about addiction attributed to four message sources (Food and Drug Administration [FDA], Surgeon General, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], no source). The majority of adolescents and adults reported the three cigarette warnings were very believable (49%-81% for adolescents; 47%-76% for adults). We found four to five times higher odds of adolescents believing a warning that cigarettes are addictive (warning 1) or that nicotine was an addictive chemical (warning 2) compared to a warning that differentiated the addictive risks of menthol versus traditional cigarettes (warning 3), warning 1 adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 4.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.10, 6.63; warning 2 aOR: 3.87, 95% CI: 2.70, 5.50. Similarly, we found three to five times higher odds of adults (including current smokers) believing the same warnings, warning 1 aOR: 3.74, 95% CI: 2.82, 4.95; warning 2 aOR: 3.24, 95% CI: 2.45, 4.28. Message source had no overall impact on the believability of warnings for either population. Our findings support the implementation of FDA's required warnings that cigarettes are addictive and that nicotine is an addictive chemical. These believable warnings may deter adolescents from initiating smoking and encourage adults to quit smoking. This article describes, for the first time, the believability of different cigarette warnings about addiction. We now know that the majority of adolescents and adults believe cigarette warnings that highlight cigarettes as addictive and that nicotine is an addictive chemical in tobacco

  17. Supernatural believers attribute more intentions to random movement than skeptics: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riekki, Tapani; Lindeman, Marjaana; Raij, Tuukka T

    2014-01-01

    A host of research has attempted to explain why some believe in the supernatural and some do not. One suggested explanation for commonly held supernatural beliefs is that they are a by-product of theory of mind (ToM) processing. However, this does not explain why skeptics with intact ToM processes do not believe. We employed fMRI to investigate activation differences in ToM-related brain circuitries between supernatural believers (N = 12) and skeptics (N = 11) while they watched 2D animations of geometric objects moving intentionally or randomly and rated the intentionality of the animations. The ToM-related circuitries in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) were localized by contrasting intention-rating-related and control-rating-related brain activation. Compared with the skeptics, the supernatural believers rated the random movements as more intentional and had stronger activation of the ToM-related circuitries during the animation with random movement. The strength of the ToM-related activation covaried with the intentionality ratings. These findings provide evidence that differences in ToM-related activations are associated with supernatural believers' tendency to interpret random phenomena in mental terms. Thus, differences in ToM processing may contribute to differences between believing and unbelieving.

  18. Memory judgements: the contribution of detail and emotion to assessments of believability and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Lucy V; Smith, Harriet M J

    2018-06-06

    In legal settings, jury members, police, and legal professionals often have to make judgements about witnesses' or victims' memories of events. Without a scientific understanding of memory, (often erroneous) beliefs are used to make decisions. Evaluation of the literature identified two prevalent beliefs that could influence judgements: (1) memory operates like a video recorder therefore, accounts that are detailed are more believable than those containing vague descriptions, and (2) memories recalled with congruent emotion are more believable than those recalled with incongruent emotion. A 2 (emotionality: emotional, non-emotional) × 2 (detail: high, low) factorial design was generated. In line with previous research, participants made believability judgements (Experiment 1) but uniquely, participants were also asked to judge the reliability of the rememberer's recall (Experiment 2). Self-reported confidence, personality measures, and political orientation were also recorded. Believability judgements did not vary as a function of detail or emotion but detailed accounts were judged as more reliable than vague accounts. Confidence and believability were positively correlated, whereas the confidence-reliability relationship was more complex. Personality and political measures were independent of judgements of both constructs. Our results suggest that believability and reliability are distinct constructs and should be examined as such in future research.

  19. Integrated energy design of the building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vraa Nielsen, M.

    2012-07-01

    This thesis describes the outcome of the PhD project Integrated energy design of the building envelope carried out through a combination of scientific dissemination reported through peer-reviewed journals and a wide range of affiliated projects involved in at an architectural firm. The research project analysed how the implementation of technical knowledge early in the building design process can quantify the effect of a building's facades on its energy efficiency and indoor climate and thereby facilitate a more qualified design development. The project was structured in the following way: 1) the importance of integrating knowledge in the early stages of design, and how it can be done; 2) understanding the facade's typology; and 3) the complex notion of comfort. The project touched not only on the technical capabilities and requirements governing facade design, but also the process by which it takes place. This was done by applying the methodology of Integrated Energy Design (IED) and analysing its applicability in the design of facades. A major part of the project was an actual engagement in the architectural process to test out incorporating a consciousness about energy and comfort as part of a more holistic performance evaluation. The research project illustrates the great potential in taking passive properties into account through a geometrical optimisation inherent in the development of the architectural concept. It demonstrates that integration of technical knowledge at the early stages of design not only can qualify the geometrical processing, but also facilitate the design development of the facade. Thereby a more holistic performance optimisation can be obtained through parameters such as overall facade geometry and orientation, functional organisation, room height and depth, facade layout, window geometry and transparency, design of the window aperture, etc. Through the wide range of affiliated project involved in at the architectural firm over

  20. Efficiency criterion for teleportation via channel matrix, measurement matrix and collapsed matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Wei Zha

    Full Text Available In this paper, three kinds of coefficient matrixes (channel matrix, measurement matrix, collapsed matrix associated with the pure state for teleportation are presented, the general relation among channel matrix, measurement matrix and collapsed matrix is obtained. In addition, a criterion for judging whether a state can be teleported successfully is given, depending on the relation between the number of parameter of an unknown state and the rank of the collapsed matrix. Keywords: Channel matrix, Measurement matrix, Collapsed matrix, Teleportation

  1. Notes on uranium geochemistry applied to the study of intergranitic deposits and their envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrat, H.G.

    1975-01-01

    Research on the natural state of uranium, either in the form of traces in the crystal structure or in intergranitic pitchblende deposits is presented. In the former case the methods considered are those relative to post-magma development, a phenomenon having well established connections with the crystallization of uranite type ores. This can be interpreted as a preconcentration if certain genetics concepts are adopted. New aspects of these relationships will then be reported. In the latter case two kinds of research will be presented, corresponding to two types of hypotheses. First, the laying down of pitchblendes by supergenesis is based on the easy degradation of uraninite under meteoric conditions, which will be considered in the geochemical and paleogeographical contexts. Second, the hydrothermal nature of pitchblendes will find strong support in experimental studies on the fluid inclusions of the ore, its matrix and its immediate envelope and from considerations on depth tectonics [fr

  2. “Old Believers in Tuva: a retrospect and contemporary situation”: a new collection of articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita P. Tatarinseva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In late 2015 Lambert Academic published a book co-authored by two scholars from Tuva – M.P. Tatarintseva (TIGPI and A.A. Storozhenko (TGU and titled “Old Believers in Tuva: a retrospect and contemporary situation”. This collection of articles examines the history of Old Believers’ resettlement from various regions of Russia to Tuva, their accommodation, everyday life and interaction with local clerical and secular authorities, and the specific details of this ethnoconfessional subculture within the Russian population of Siberia. Arranged in a logical order, the articles unfurl the history of Old Believers in Tuva and shed light on their current situation and transformations they have undergone throughout the century and a half of their life in Tuva. Scholars consider Old Believers one of the most conservative ethnoconfessional groups. As permanent residents of Tuva, the authors have first-hand knowledge of the everyday life of contemporary Old Believer community. Nevertheless, in their research they try to devote their attention to both the rich history of Old Believers in Tuva and to the current state of this ethnoconfessional group. The preface to the book explains the motives for writing it and the authors’ attitude to their subject.

  3. The South Carolina bridge-scour envelope curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Feaster, Toby D.; Caldwell, Andral W.

    2016-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation, conducted a series of three field investigations to evaluate historical, riverine bridge scour in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain regions of South Carolina. These investigations included data collected at 231 riverine bridges, which lead to the development of bridge-scour envelope curves for clear-water and live-bed components of scour. The application and limitations of the South Carolina bridge-scour envelope curves were documented in four reports, each report addressing selected components of bridge scour. The current investigation (2016) synthesizes the findings of these previous reports into a guidance manual providing an integrated procedure for applying the envelope curves. Additionally, the investigation provides limited verification for selected bridge-scour envelope curves by comparing them to field data collected outside of South Carolina from previously published sources. Although the bridge-scour envelope curves have limitations, they are useful supplementary tools for assessing the potential for scour at riverine bridges in South Carolina.

  4. Solar envelope concepts: moderate density building applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowles, R.L.; Berry, R.D.

    1980-04-01

    Solar energy utilization in urban areas requires public guarantees that all property owners have direct access to the sun. The study examines the implications of this premise in relation to the need for cities to also encourage or accommodate rebuilding and future development. The public policy mechanism for guaranteeing solar access is conceptualized as a solar zoning envelope that allows the largest possible building bulk on a land parcel without shadowing neighboring properties during specified times. Step-by-step methods for generating solar envelopes are described with extensive drawings, showing a variety of urban platting and lot configurations. Development and design possibilities are examined on a selected set of Los Angeles sites with typically diverse urban characteristics. Envelope attributes suitable for encouraging moderate-density commercial and residential building are examined in the context of two hypothetical but realistic development programs: one for speculative office buildings and one for condominium housing. Numerous illustrations of envelope forms and prototypical building designs are provided. The results of development simulation studies on all test sites are tabulated to show building bulk, density, land-coverage and open space characteristics obtainable under the hypothesized envelopes.

  5. Extended biorthogonal matrix polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Shehata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials for commutative matrices were first introduced by Varma and Tasdelen in [22]. The main aim of this paper is to extend the properties of the pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials of Varma and Tasdelen and certain generating matrix functions, finite series, some matrix recurrence relations, several important properties of matrix differential recurrence relations, biorthogonality relations and matrix differential equation for the pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials J(A,B n (x, k and K(A,B n (x, k are discussed. For the matrix polynomials J(A,B n (x, k, various families of bilinear and bilateral generating matrix functions are constructed in the sequel.

  6. Matrix completion by deep matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jicong; Cheng, Jieyu

    2018-02-01

    Conventional methods of matrix completion are linear methods that are not effective in handling data of nonlinear structures. Recently a few researchers attempted to incorporate nonlinear techniques into matrix completion but there still exists considerable limitations. In this paper, a novel method called deep matrix factorization (DMF) is proposed for nonlinear matrix completion. Different from conventional matrix completion methods that are based on linear latent variable models, DMF is on the basis of a nonlinear latent variable model. DMF is formulated as a deep-structure neural network, in which the inputs are the low-dimensional unknown latent variables and the outputs are the partially observed variables. In DMF, the inputs and the parameters of the multilayer neural network are simultaneously optimized to minimize the reconstruction errors for the observed entries. Then the missing entries can be readily recovered by propagating the latent variables to the output layer. DMF is compared with state-of-the-art methods of linear and nonlinear matrix completion in the tasks of toy matrix completion, image inpainting and collaborative filtering. The experimental results verify that DMF is able to provide higher matrix completion accuracy than existing methods do and DMF is applicable to large matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Generalized Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij Distribution and Envelope Equation for High-intensity Beams in a Coupled Transverse Focusing Lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Hong; Chung, Moses; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    In an uncoupled lattice, the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (KV) distribution function first analyzed in 1959 is the only known exact solution of the nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations for high- intensity beams including self-fields in a self-consistent manner. The KV solution is generalized here to high-intensity beams in a coupled transverse lattice using the recently developed generalized Courant-Snyder invariant for coupled transverse dynamics. This solution projects to a rotating, pulsating elliptical beam in transverse configuration space, determined by the generalized matrix envelope equation.

  8. High frequency vibration analysis by the complex envelope vectorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, O; Carcaterra, A; Sestieri, A

    2007-06-01

    The complex envelope displacement analysis (CEDA) is a procedure to solve high frequency vibration and vibro-acoustic problems, providing the envelope of the physical solution. CEDA is based on a variable transformation mapping the high frequency oscillations into signals of low frequency content and has been successfully applied to one-dimensional systems. However, the extension to plates and vibro-acoustic fields met serious difficulties so that a general revision of the theory was carried out, leading finally to a new method, the complex envelope vectorization (CEV). In this paper the CEV method is described, underlying merits and limits of the procedure, and a set of applications to vibration and vibro-acoustic problems of increasing complexity are presented.

  9. Safety analysis to support a safe operating envelope for fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibb, R.A.; Reid, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for defining a safe operating envelope for fuel. 'Safe operating envelope' is defined as an envelope of fuel parameters defined for application in safety analysis that can be related to, or used to define, the acceptable range of fuel conditions due to operational transients or deviations in fuel manufacturing processes. The paper describes the motivation for developing such a methodology. The methodology involved four steps: the update of fission product inventories, the review of sheath failure criteria, a review of input parameters to be used in fuel modelling codes, and the development of an improved fission product release code. This paper discusses the aspects of fuel sheath failure criteria that pertain to operating or manufacturing conditions and to the evaluation and selection of modelling input data. The other steps are not addressed in this paper since they have been presented elsewhere. (author)

  10. Prevalence of Gulf war veterans who believe they have Gulf war syndrome: questionnaire study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalder, T; Hotopf, M; Unwin, C; Hull, L; Ismail, K; David, A; Wessely, S

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To determine how many veterans in a random sample of British veterans who served in the Gulf war believe they have “Gulf war syndrome,” to examine factors associated with the presence of this belief, and to compare the health status of those who believe they have Gulf war syndrome with those who do not. Design Questionnaire study asking British Gulf war veterans whether they believe they have Gulf war syndrome and about symptoms, fatigue, psychological distress, post-traumatic stress, physical functioning, and their perception of health. Participants 2961 respondents to questionnaires sent out to a random sample of 4250 Gulf war veterans (69.7%). Main outcome measure The proportion of veterans who believe they have Gulf war syndrome. Results Overall, 17.3% (95% confidence interval 15.9 to 18.7) of the respondents believed they had Gulf war syndrome. The belief was associated with the veteran having poor health, not serving in the army when responding to the questionnaire, and having received a high number of vaccinations before deployment to the Gulf. The strongest association was knowing another person who also thought they had Gulf war syndrome. Conclusions Substantial numbers of British Gulf war veterans believe they have Gulf war syndrome, which is associated with psychological distress, a high number of symptoms, and some reduction in activity levels. A combination of biological, psychological, and sociological factors are associated with the belief, and these factors should be addressed in clinical practice. What is already known on this topicThe term Gulf war syndrome has been used to describe illnesses and symptoms experienced by veterans of the 1991 Gulf warConcerns exist over the validity of Gulf war syndrome as a unique entityWhat this study adds17% of Gulf war veterans believe they have Gulf war syndromeHolding the belief is associated with worse health outcomesKnowing someone else who believes they have Gulf war syndrome and receiving

  11. The nuclear envelope from basic biology to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worman, Howard J; Foisner, Roland

    2010-02-01

    The nuclear envelope has long been a focus of basic research for a highly specialized group of cell biologists. More recently, an expanding group of scientists and physicians have developed a keen interest in the nuclear envelope since mutations in the genes encoding lamins and associated proteins have been shown to cause a diverse range of human diseases often called laminopathies or nuclear envelopathies. Most of these diseases have tissue-selective phenotypes, suggesting that the nuclear envelope must function in cell-type- and developmental-stage-specific processes such as chromatin organization, regulation of gene expression, controlled nucleocytoplasmic transport and response to stress in metazoans. On 22-23 April 2009, Professor Christopher Hutchison organized the 4th British Nuclear Envelope Disease and Chromatin Organization meeting at the College of St Hild and St Bede at Durham University, sponsored by the Biochemical Society. In attendance were investigators with one common interest, the nuclear envelope, but with diverse expertise and training in animal and plant cell biology, genetics, developmental biology and medicine. We were each honoured to be keynote speakers. This issue of Biochemical Society Transactions contains papers written by some of the presenters at this scientifically exciting meeting, held in a bucolic setting where the food was tasty and the wine flowed freely. Perhaps at the end of this excellent meeting more questions were raised than answered, which will stimulate future research. However, what became clear is that the nuclear envelope is a cellular structure with critical functions in addition to its traditional role as a barrier separating the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments in interphase eukaryotic cells.

  12. Envelope proteins of bovine herpesvirus 1: immunological and biochemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Roque, L.L.

    1986-01-01

    The authors studied immunological and biochemical properties of the bovid herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) envelope proteins in order to understand the pathogenesis of BHV-1 infection and to provide basic information for the production of effective subunit vaccines against BHV-1. Ten glycoproteins MW 180, 150, 130, 115, 97, 77, 74, 64, 55, and 45 kilodaltons (K), and a single non-glycosylated 108 K protein were quantitatively removed from purified BHV-1 virions by detergent treatment. These glycoproteins were present on the virion envelope and on the surface of BHV-1 infected cells. The quantitative removal from virions by treatment with nonionic detergents and their presence on the surface of infected cells indicate that 180/97, 150/77, and 130/74/55 K are major components of the BHV-1 envelope and are also the targets of virus neutralizing humoral immune response. Envelope glycoproteins of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) bind immunoglobulin by the Fc end and it is suggested this may increase pathogenicity of this virus. They searched for a similar function in BVH-1 by measuring the ability of BHV-1 infected cells and viral envelope proteins to bind radiolabelled rabbit and bovine IgG. Binding activity for rabbit IgG or bovine IgG-Fc could not be demonstrated by BHV-1 infected MDBK cells, whereas, MDBK cells infected with HSV-1 bound rabbit IgG and bovine IgG-Fc. None of the three major envelope proteins of BHV-1 bound to rabbit or bovine IgG. The results of this study indicate that BHV-1, unlike some other herpesviruses, lack Fc binding activity

  13. Fast matrix multiplication and its algebraic neighbourhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, V. Ya.

    2017-11-01

    Matrix multiplication is among the most fundamental operations of modern computations. By 1969 it was still commonly believed that the classical algorithm was optimal, although the experts already knew that this was not so. Worldwide interest in matrix multiplication instantly exploded in 1969, when Strassen decreased the exponent 3 of cubic time to 2.807. Then everyone expected to see matrix multiplication performed in quadratic or nearly quadratic time very soon. Further progress, however, turned out to be capricious. It was at stalemate for almost a decade, then a combination of surprising techniques (completely independent of Strassen's original ones and much more advanced) enabled a new decrease of the exponent in 1978-1981 and then again in 1986, to 2.376. By 2017 the exponent has still not passed through the barrier of 2.373, but most disturbing was the curse of recursion — even the decrease of exponents below 2.7733 required numerous recursive steps, and each of them squared the problem size. As a result, all algorithms supporting such exponents supersede the classical algorithm only for inputs of immense sizes, far beyond any potential interest for the user. We survey the long study of fast matrix multiplication, focusing on neglected algorithms for feasible matrix multiplication. We comment on their design, the techniques involved, implementation issues, the impact of their study on the modern theory and practice of Algebraic Computations, and perspectives for fast matrix multiplication. Bibliography: 163 titles.

  14. Enveloping algebras of Lie groups with descrete series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen huu Anh; Vuong manh Son

    1990-09-01

    In this article we shall prove that the enveloping algebra of the Lie algebra of some unimodular Lie group having discrete series, when localized at some element of the center, is isomorphic to the tensor product of a Weyl algebra over the ring of Laurent polynomials of one variable and the enveloping algebra of some reductive Lie algebra. In particular, it will be proved that the Lie algebra of a unimodular solvable Lie group having discrete series satisfies the Gelfand-Kirillov conjecture. (author). 6 refs

  15. Constant envelope OFDM scheme for 6PolSK-QPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yupeng; Ding, Ding

    2018-03-01

    A constant envelope OFDM scheme with phase modulator (PM-CE-OFDM) for 6PolSK-QPSK modulation was demonstrated. Performance under large fiber launch power is measured to check its advantages in counteracting fiber nonlinear impairments. In our simulation, PM-CE-OFDM, RF-assisted constant envelope OFDM (RF-CE-OFDM) and conventional OFDM (Con-OFDM) are transmitted through 80 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) single channel and WDM system. Simulation results confirm that PM-CE-OFDM has best performance in resisting fiber nonlinearity. In addition, benefiting from the simple system structure, the complexity and cost of PM-CE-OFDM system could be reduced effectively.

  16. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Model in Operation Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Meilisa; Efendi, Syahril; Zarlis, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Quality management is an effective system in operation management to develops, maintains, and improves quality from groups of companies that allow marketing, production, and service at the most economycal level as well as ensuring customer satisfication. Many companies are practicing quality management to improve their bussiness performance. One of performance measurement is through measurement of efficiency. One of the tools can be used to assess efficiency of companies performance is Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The aim of this paper is using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model to assess efficiency of quality management. In this paper will be explained CCR, BCC, and SBM models to assess efficiency of quality management.

  17. Asymmetry of the envelope of supernova 1987A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaliolios, C.; Karovska, M.; Koechlin, L.; Nisenson, P.; Standley, C.; Heathcote, S.

    1989-04-13

    The supernova SN1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud has been observed by high-angular-resolution speckle interferometry since 25 March (30 days after the explosion) with the 4-m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory. Data obtained on 25 March and 2 April 1987 revealed a second bright 'companion' source separated from the supernova by 60 milliarcseconds and less than three magnitudes fainter than the supernova. Measurements of the average diameter of the supernova envelope have been made from data recorded from March 1987 to April 1988. Here we present a more detailed analysis of these data, which shows that the expanding envelope is asymmetric. (author).

  18. Asymmetry of the envelope of supernova 1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaliolios, C.; Karovska, M.; Koechlin, L.; Nisenson, P.; Standley, C.; Heathcote, S.

    1989-01-01

    The supernova SN1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud has been observed by high-angular-resolution speckle interferometry since 25 March (30 days after the explosion) with the 4-m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory. Data obtained on 25 March and 2 April 1987 revealed a second bright 'companion' source separated from the supernova by 60 milliarcseconds and less than three magnitudes fainter than the supernova. Measurements of the average diameter of the supernova envelope have been made from data recorded from March 1987 to April 1988. Here we present a more detailed analysis of these data, which shows that the expanding envelope is asymmetric. (author)

  19. Calculation of CWKB envelope in boson and fermion productions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, S.; Chowdhury, I.

    2007-01-01

    We present the calculation of envelope of boson and of both low-and high-mass fermion production at the end of inflation when the coherently oscillating inflations decay into bosons and fermions. We consider three different models of inflation and use CWKB technique to calculate the envelope to understand the structure of resonance band formation. We observe that though low-mass fermion production is not effective in preheating because of Pauli blocking, it is quite probable for high-mass fermion to take part in pre heating. (author)

  20. Refractive index dispersion measurement using carrier-envelope phasemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansinger, Peter; Töpfer, Philipp; Adolph, Daniel; Hoff, Dominik; Rathje, Tim; Sayler, A Max; Paulus, Gerhard G; Dimitrov, Nikolay; Dreischuh, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a novel method for direct and accurate measurement of refractive index dispersion based on carrier-envelope phase detection of few-cycle laser pulses, exploiting the difference between phase and group velocity in a dispersive medium. In a layout similar to an interferometer, two carrier-envelope phasemeters are capable of measuring the dispersion of a transparent or reflective sample, where one phasemeter serves as the reference and the other records the influence of the sample. Here we report on proof-of-principle measurements that already reach relative uncertainties of a few 10 −4 . Further development is expected to allow for unprecedented precision. (paper)

  1. The Matrix Cookbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kaare Brandt; Pedersen, Michael Syskind

    Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices.......Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices....

  2. Carbonate fuel cell matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooque, Mohammad; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    1996-01-01

    A carbonate fuel cell matrix comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles.

  3. Why are Protestants more prosocial than Catholics? : A comparative study among orthodox Dutch believers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elk, M.; Rutjens, B.T.; van Harreveld, F.

    2017-01-01

    The present study sheds light on the contentious relation between religions and prosociality by comparing self-reported altruistic and prosocial behavior among a group of Catholic and Protestant believers. We found that denomination was strongly related to strength of religious beliefs, afterlife

  4. Paranormal believers are more prone to illusory agency detection than skeptics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elk, M.

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that illusory agency detection is at the basis of belief in supernatural agents and paranormal beliefs. In the present study a biological motion perception task was used to study illusory agency detection in a group of skeptics and a group of paranormal believers.

  5. Examining Freshmen Believe Concerning ICT Usage in K-12 and University Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyici, Mubin; Balkan Kiyici, Fatime; Franklin, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Information and communication technology usage in school settings has increased significantly. Most of the teacher education colleges realized this situation and change their education programs and give technology and educational technology classes to their students. In this research it is aimed to reveal pre-service teacher believe concerning ICT…

  6. Matrix with Prescribed Eigenvectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faiz

    2011-01-01

    It is a routine matter for undergraduates to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a given matrix. But the converse problem of finding a matrix with prescribed eigenvalues and eigenvectors is rarely discussed in elementary texts on linear algebra. This problem is related to the "spectral" decomposition of a matrix and has important technical…

  7. Triangularization of a Matrix

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Much of linear algebra is devoted to reducing a matrix (via similarity or unitary similarity) to another that has lots of zeros. The simplest such theorem is the Schur triangularization theorem. This says that every matrix is unitarily similar to an upper triangular matrix. Our aim here is to show that though it is very easy to prove it ...

  8. Sentences with core knowledge violations increase the size of N400 among paranormal believers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Cederström, Sebastian; Simola, Petteri; Simula, Anni; Ollikainen, Sara; Riekki, Tapani

    2008-01-01

    A major problem in research on paranormal beliefs is that the concept of "paranormality" remains to be adequately defined. The aim of this study was to empirically justify the following definition: paranormal beliefs are beliefs in physical, biological, or psychological phenomena that contain core ontological attributes of one of the other two categories [e.g., a stone (physical) having thoughts (psychological)]. We hypothesized that individuals who believe in paranormal phenomena are slower in understanding whether sentences with core knowledge violations are literally true than skeptics, and that this difference would be reflected by a more negative N400. Ten believers and 10 skeptics (six men, age range 23-49) participated in the study. Event-related potentials (N400) were recorded as the participants read 210 three-word Finnish sentences, of which 70 were normal ("The house has a history"), 70 were anomalies ("The house writes its history") and 70 included violations of core knowledge ("The house knows its history"). The participants were presented with a question that contextualized the sentences: "Is this sentence literally true?" While the N400 effects were similar for normal and anomalous sentences among the believers and the skeptics, a more negative N400 effect was found among the believers than among the skeptics for sentences with core knowledge violations. The results support the new definition of "paranormality", because participants who believed in paranormal phenomena appeared to find it more difficult to construct a reasonable interpretation of the sentences with core knowledge violations than the skeptics did as indicated by the N400.

  9. Re-defining failure envelopes for silicon carbide composites based on damage process analysis by acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozawa, Takashi; Ozawa, Kazumi; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2013-01-01

    A silicon carbide fiber reinforced silicon carbide matrix (SiC/SiC) composite is a promising candidate for a fusion DEMO blanket. To develop design codes in practical use of them, strength anisotropy is an important issue to be clarified and therefore this study aimed to evaluate the failure behavior of the SiC/SiC composites to provide a strength map. For this purpose, detailed tensile, compressive and in-plane shear failure behaviors were evaluated by the acoustic emission (AE) technique for a plain–weave (P/W) chemically vapor-infiltration (CVI) SiC/SiC composite. The AE results distinguished damage accumulation processes by separately discussing localized variations of power within a time series by wavelet analysis. Of particular emphasis is that matrix cracking occurred prior to the proportional limit stress (PLS) by both tensile and compressive tests. This is because the rough-surface of SiC fibers resulted in the strong frictional stress at the fiber/matrix (F/M) interface, showing linearity in the stress–strain curve beyond the actual matrix cracking stress (i.e., possibly no sliding of the fibers at the F/M interface). In this paper, an updated failure envelope was provided by referring the true matrix cracking stresses as more realistic and reasonable failure criteria

  10. Re-defining failure envelopes for silicon carbide composites based on damage process analysis by acoustic emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozawa, Takashi, E-mail: nozawa.takashi67@jaea.go.jp; Ozawa, Kazumi; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2013-10-15

    A silicon carbide fiber reinforced silicon carbide matrix (SiC/SiC) composite is a promising candidate for a fusion DEMO blanket. To develop design codes in practical use of them, strength anisotropy is an important issue to be clarified and therefore this study aimed to evaluate the failure behavior of the SiC/SiC composites to provide a strength map. For this purpose, detailed tensile, compressive and in-plane shear failure behaviors were evaluated by the acoustic emission (AE) technique for a plain–weave (P/W) chemically vapor-infiltration (CVI) SiC/SiC composite. The AE results distinguished damage accumulation processes by separately discussing localized variations of power within a time series by wavelet analysis. Of particular emphasis is that matrix cracking occurred prior to the proportional limit stress (PLS) by both tensile and compressive tests. This is because the rough-surface of SiC fibers resulted in the strong frictional stress at the fiber/matrix (F/M) interface, showing linearity in the stress–strain curve beyond the actual matrix cracking stress (i.e., possibly no sliding of the fibers at the F/M interface). In this paper, an updated failure envelope was provided by referring the true matrix cracking stresses as more realistic and reasonable failure criteria.

  11. M(atrix) theory: matrix quantum mechanics as a fundamental theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Washington

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the matrix model of M theory. M theory is an 11-dimensional quantum theory of gravity that is believed to underlie all superstring theories. M theory is currently the most plausible candidate for a theory of fundamental physics which reconciles gravity and quantum field theory in a realistic fashion. Evidence for M theory is still only circumstantial -- no complete background-independent formulation of the theory exists as yet. Matrix theory was first developed as a regularized theory of a supersymmetric quantum membrane. More recently, it has appeared in a different guise as the discrete light-cone quantization of M theory in flat space. These two approaches to matrix theory are described in detail and compared. It is shown that matrix theory is a well-defined quantum theory that reduces to a supersymmetric theory of gravity at low energies. Although its fundamental degrees of freedom are essentially pointlike, higher-dimensional fluctuating objects (branes) arise through the non-Abelian structure of the matrix degrees of freedom. The problem of formulating matrix theory in a general space-time background is discussed, and the connections between matrix theory and other related models are reviewed

  12. Enveloped virus-like particles as vaccines against pathogenic arboviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijlman, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod-borne arboviruses form a continuous threat to human and animal health, but few arboviral vaccines are currently available. Advances in expression technology for complex, enveloped virus-like particles (eVLPs) create new opportunities to develop potent vaccines against pathogenic

  13. Measuring Eco-efficiency of Production with Data Envelopment Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuosmanen, T.K.; Kortelainen, M.

    2005-01-01

    Aggregation of environmental pressures into a single environmental damage index is a major challenge of eco-efficiency measurement. This article examines how the data envelopment analysis (DEA) method can be adapted for this purpose. DEA accounts for substitution possibilities between different

  14. Modeling of heat and mass transfer in lateritic building envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meukam, Pierre

    2004-10-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the behavior of building envelopes made of local lateritic soil bricks subjected to different climatic conditions. The analysis is developed for the prediction of the temperature, relative humidity and water content behavior within the walls. The building envelopes studied in this work consist of lateritic soil bricks with incorporation of natural pozzolan or sawdust in order to obtain small thermal conductivity and low-density materials, and limit the heat transfer between the atmospheric climate and the inside environment. In order to describe coupled heat and moisture transfer in wet porous materials, the coupled equations were solved by the introduction of diffusion coefficients. A numerical model HMtrans, developed for prediction of beat and moisture transfer in multi-layered building components, was used to simulate the temperature, water content and relative humidity profiles within the building envelopes. The results allow the prediction of the duration of the exposed building walls to the local weather conditions. They show that for any of three climatic conditions considered, relative humidity and water content do not exceed 87% and 5% respectively. There is therefore minimum possibility of water condensation in the materials studied. The durability of building envelopes made of lateritic soil bricks with incorporation of natural pozzolan or sawdust is not strongly affected by the climatic conditions in tropical and equatorial regions. (author)

  15. Design of a Haptic Feedback System for Flight Envelope Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Baelen, D.; Ellerbroek, J.; van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.

    2018-01-01

    Current Airbus aircraft use a fly-by-wire control device: a passive spring-damper system which generates, without any force feedback, an electrical signal to the flight control computer. Additionally, a hard flight envelope protection system is used which can limit the inputs of the pilot when

  16. Hygrothermal Simulation: A Tool for Building Envelope Design Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Anton TenWolde; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2013-01-01

    Is it possible to gauge the risk of moisture problems while designing the building envelope? This article provides a brief introduction to computer-based hygrothermal (heat and moisture) simulation, shows how simulation can be useful as a design tool, and points out a number of im-portant considerations regarding model inputs and limita-tions. Hygrothermal simulation...

  17. Spectral Envelopes and Additive + Residual Analysis/Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodet, Xavier; Schwarz, Diemo

    The subject of this chapter is the estimation, representation, modification, and use of spectral envelopes in the context of sinusoidal-additive-plus-residual analysis/synthesis. A spectral envelope is an amplitude-vs-frequency function, which may be obtained from the envelope of a short-time spectrum (Rodet et al., 1987; Schwarz, 1998). [Precise definitions of such an envelope and short-time spectrum (STS) are given in Section 2.] The additive-plus-residual analysis/synthesis method is based on a representation of signals in terms of a sum of time-varying sinusoids and of a non-sinusoidal residual signal [e.g., see Serra (1989), Laroche et al. (1993), McAulay and Quatieri (1995), and Ding and Qian (1997)]. Many musical sound signals may be described as a combination of a nearly periodic waveform and colored noise. The nearly periodic part of the signal can be viewed as a sum of sinusoidal components, called partials, with time-varying frequency and amplitude. Such sinusoidal components are easily observed on a spectral analysis display (Fig. 5.1) as obtained, for instance, from a discrete Fourier transform.

  18. CONTROL OF INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS VIA THE REGULATION OF BUILDING ENVELOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Košir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of comfortable, healthy and stimulating indoor environments in buildings has a direct impact on the users and on energy consumption, as well as on the wider soci-economic environment of society.The indoor environment of buildings is defined with the formulation of the building envelope, which functions as an interface between the internal and external environments and its users. A properly designed, flexible and adequately controlled building envelope is a starting point in the formulation of a high-quality indoor environment. The systematic treatment of the indoor environment and building envelope from a user’s point of view represents an engineering approach that enables the holistic treatment of buildings, as well as integrated components and systems. The presented division of indoor environment in terms of visual, thermal, olfactory, acoustic and ergonomic sub-environments enables the classification and selection of crucial factors influencing design. This selection and classification can be implemented in the design, as well as in control applications of the building envelope. The implementation of the approach described is demonstrated with an example of an automated control system for the internal environment of an office in the building of the Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering.

  19. Print and supply of envelopes and file covers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    “Tender for Supply of Printed Envelopes and File Covers". Tender ... Twenty Five Thousand Only) in the form of Demand Draft drawn on any Nationalized. Bank and .... m) The finalized contract shall be interpreted under Indian Laws. In case of ...

  20. Envelopes of Sets of Measures, Tightness, and Markov Control Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, J.; Hernandez-Lerma, O.

    1999-01-01

    We introduce upper and lower envelopes for sets of measures on an arbitrary topological space, which are then used to give a tightness criterion. These concepts are applied to show the existence of optimal policies for a class of Markov control processes

  1. Development of a pneumatic roof envelope for industrial greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindner, G.; Vos, de G.J.

    2008-01-01

    The Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) was approached by Van Diemen BV, a turn-key greenhouse builder looking for a new and higher insulated design for their green house envelope. They had developed a new system of climate control which rendered windows for ventilation purposes unnecessary

  2. The potential of building envelope greening to achieve quietness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Renterghem, T.; Hornikx, M.C.J.; Forssén, J.; Botteldooren, D.

    2013-01-01

    Reduction of noise is one of the multiple benefits of building envelope greening measures. The potential of wall vegetation systems, green roofs, vegetated low screens at roof edges, and also combinations of such treatments, have been studied by means of combining 2D and 3D full-wave numerical

  3. Bioinformatics Analysis of Envelope Glycoprotein E epitopes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The E glycoprotein of dengue virus is responsible for the viral binding to the receptor. The crystal structure of envelope glycoprotein has already been determined. However, where the well-defined Bcell and T-cell epitopes are located is still a question. Because of the large variations among the four dengue genotypes, it is ...

  4. Origin of envelope proteins of a leukemia virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.P.

    1975-01-01

    The roles of avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) and host myeloblast cells in controlling the protein composition of virus envelope and host cell membrane are being studied by examining an ATPase enzyme in the virus and cells. New culture techniques for virus producing myeloblasts have been developed. (U.S.)

  5. Enveloped virus flocculation and removal in osmolyte solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencoglu, Maria F; Heldt, Caryn L

    2015-07-20

    Our ability to reduce infectious disease burden throughout the world has been greatly improved by the creation of vaccines. However, worldwide immunization rates are low. The two most likely reasons are the lack of sufficient distribution in underdeveloped countries and the high cost of vaccine products. The high costs are due to the difficulties of manufacturing individual vaccine products with specialized purification trains. In this study, we propose to use virus flocculation in osmolytes, followed by microfiltration, as an alternative vaccine purification operation. In our previous work, we demonstrated that osmolytes preferentially flocculate a non-enveloped virus, porcine parvovirus (PPV). In this work we show that osmolytes flocculate the enveloped virus, Sindbis virus heat resistant strain (SVHR), and demonstrate a >80% removal with a 0.2 μm microfilter membrane while leaving proteins in solution. The best osmolytes were tested for their ability to flocculate SVHR at different concentrations, pH and ionic strengths. Our best removal was 98% of SVHR in 0.3M mannitol at a pH of 5. We propose that osmolytes are able to flocculate hydrophobic non-enveloped and enveloped virus particles by the reduction of the hydration layer around the particles, which stimulates virus aggregation. Now that we have demonstrated that protecting osmolytes flocculate viruses, this method has the potential to be a future platform purification process for vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Spectral Envelope Transformation in Singing Voice for Advanced Pitch Shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Santacruz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to perform a step towards more natural pitch shifting techniques in singing voice for its application in music production and entertainment systems. In this paper, we present an advanced method to achieve natural modifications when applying a pitch shifting process to singing voice by modifying the spectral envelope of the audio excerpt. To this end, an all-pole model has been selected to model the spectral envelope, which is estimated using a constrained non-linear optimization. The analysis of the global variations of the spectral envelope was carried out by identifying changes of the parameters of the model along with the changes of the pitch. With the obtained spectral envelope transformation functions, we applied our pitch shifting scheme to some sustained vowels in order to compare results with the same transformation made by using the Flex Pitch plugin of Logic Pro X and pitch synchronous overlap and add technique (PSOLA. This comparison has been carried out by means of both an objective and a subjective evaluation. The latter was done with a survey open to volunteers on our website.

  7. Masking Release for Sweeping Masker Components with Correlated Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhey, Jesko l.; Klein-Hennig, Hendrike; Epp, Bastian

    2013-01-01

    To separate sounds from different sound sources, common properties of natural sounds are used by the auditory system, such as coherent temporal envelope fluctuations and correlated changes of frequency in different frequency regions. The present study investigates how the auditory systemprocesses...

  8. Innovative Danish Building Envelope Components for Passive Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    and in some cases very innovative envelope constructions. In this paper, two of the most interesting components are described; a prefabricated light-weight exterior wall element with a load-bearing plywood and steel frame and a foundation / slab on ground solution based on concrete and EPS insulation...

  9. Purification and characterization of cell-envelope proteinase from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-10-18

    Oct 18, 2012 ... phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride;. ACE, angiotensin-I-converting enzyme. Poolman, 1998). Cell-envelope proteinase (CEP) play an important role in the lactobacillus proteolytic system. CEPs are the critical enzyme in the system (Kunji et al., 1996), since it is the only enzyme that can initiate the breakdown of.

  10. 31 CFR 501.806 - Procedures for unblocking funds believed to have been blocked due to mistaken identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... believed to have been blocked due to mistaken identity. 501.806 Section 501.806 Money and Finance: Treasury... funds believed to have been blocked due to mistaken identity. When a transaction results in the blocking... party to the transaction believes the funds have been blocked due to mistaken identity, that party may...

  11. The psychic envelopes in psychoanalytic theories of infancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis eMellier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the topic of psychic envelopes and to sketch the main outlines of this concept in infancy. We first explore the origins of the concept in Freud's 'protective shield' and then its development in adult psychoanalysis before going on to see how this fits in infancy with post-Bionian psychoanalysis and development. Four central notions guide this review:1 Freud's protective shield describes a barrier to protect the psychic apparatus against potentially overflowing trauma. It is a core notion which highlights a serious clinical challenge for patients for whom the shield is damaged or faulty: the risk of confusion of borders between the internal/external world, conscious/unconscious, mind/body, or self-conservation/sexuality.2 Anzieu's Skin-Ego is defined by the different senses of the body. The different layers of experienced sensation, of this body-ego, go on to form the psychic envelope. This theory contributes to our understanding of how early trauma, due to the failures of maternal care, can continue to have an impact in adult life. 3 Bick's psychic skin establishes the concept in relation to infancy. The mother’s containing functions allow a first psychic skin to develop, which then defines an infant’s psychic space and affords the infant a degree of self-containment. Houzel then conceptualized this process as a stabilization of drive forces.4 Stern's narrative envelope derives from the intersection between psychoanalysis and neuroscience. It gives us another way to conceptualise the development of pre-verbal communication. It may also pave the way for a finer distinction of different types of envelopes.Ultimately, in this review we find that psychic envelopes in infancy can be viewed from four different perspectives (economic, topographical, dynamic and genetic and recommend further investigation.

  12. Affective Decision Making in Artificial Intelligence : Making Virtual Characters With High Believability

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is often used when creating believable virtual characters in games or in other types of virtual environments. The intelligent behavior these characters show to the player is often flawed, leading to a worse gameplay experience. In particular, there is often little or no emotional impact on the decision making of the characters. This thesis focuses on extending decision-making and pathfinding mechanisms for virtual characters, with a particular focus on the use of emoti...

  13. Paranormal psychic believers and skeptics: a large-scale test of the cognitive differences hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Stephen J; Gallo, David A

    2016-02-01

    Belief in paranormal psychic phenomena is widespread in the United States, with over a third of the population believing in extrasensory perception (ESP). Why do some people believe, while others are skeptical? According to the cognitive differences hypothesis, individual differences in the way people process information about the world can contribute to the creation of psychic beliefs, such as differences in memory accuracy (e.g., selectively remembering a fortune teller's correct predictions) or analytical thinking (e.g., relying on intuition rather than scrutinizing evidence). While this hypothesis is prevalent in the literature, few have attempted to empirically test it. Here, we provided the most comprehensive test of the cognitive differences hypothesis to date. In 3 studies, we used online screening to recruit groups of strong believers and strong skeptics, matched on key demographics (age, sex, and years of education). These groups were then tested in laboratory and online settings using multiple cognitive tasks and other measures. Our cognitive testing showed that there were no consistent group differences on tasks of episodic memory distortion, autobiographical memory distortion, or working memory capacity, but skeptics consistently outperformed believers on several tasks tapping analytical or logical thinking as well as vocabulary. These findings demonstrate cognitive similarities and differences between these groups and suggest that differences in analytical thinking and conceptual knowledge might contribute to the development of psychic beliefs. We also found that psychic belief was associated with greater life satisfaction, demonstrating benefits associated with psychic beliefs and highlighting the role of both cognitive and noncognitive factors in understanding these individual differences.

  14. Neuroimaging of the joint Simon effect with believed biological and non-biological co-actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya eWen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Performing a task alone or together with another agent can produce different outcomes. The current study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate the neural underpinnings when participants performed a Go/Nogo task alone or complementarily with another co-actor (unseen, whom was believed to be another human or a computer. During both complementary tasks, reaction time data suggested that participants integrated the potential action of their co-actor in their own action planning. Compared to the single-actor task, increased parietal and precentral activity during complementary tasks as shown in the fMRI data further suggested representation of the co-actor’s response. The superior frontal gyrus of the medial prefrontal cortex was differentially activated in the human co-actor condition compared to the computer co-actor condition. The medial prefrontal cortex, involved thinking about the beliefs and intentions of other people, possibly reflects a social-cognitive aspect or self-other discrimination during the joint task when believing a biological co-actor is present. Our results suggest that action co-representation can occur even offline with any agent type given a priori information that they are co-acting; however additional regions are recruited when participants believe they are task-sharing with another human.

  15. Neuroimaging of the joint Simon effect with believed biological and non-biological co-actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Tanya; Hsieh, Shulan

    2015-01-01

    Performing a task alone or together with another agent can produce different outcomes. The current study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural underpinnings when participants performed a Go/Nogo task alone or complementarily with another co-actor (unseen), whom was believed to be another human or a computer. During both complementary tasks, reaction time data suggested that participants integrated the potential action of their co-actor in their own action planning. Compared to the single-actor task, increased parietal and precentral activity during complementary tasks as shown in the fMRI data further suggested representation of the co-actor's response. The superior frontal gyrus of the medial prefrontal cortex was differentially activated in the human co-actor condition compared to the computer co-actor condition. The medial prefrontal cortex, involved thinking about the beliefs and intentions of other people, possibly reflects a social-cognitive aspect or self-other discrimination during the joint task when believing a biological co-actor is present. Our results suggest that action co-representation can occur even offline with any agent type given a priori information that they are co-acting; however, additional regions are recruited when participants believe they are task-sharing with another human.

  16. Paranormal believers are more prone to illusory agency detection than skeptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Elk, Michiel

    2013-09-01

    It has been hypothesized that illusory agency detection is at the basis of belief in supernatural agents and paranormal beliefs. In the present study a biological motion perception task was used to study illusory agency detection in a group of skeptics and a group of paranormal believers. Participants were required to detect the presence or absence of a human agent in a point-light display. It was found that paranormal believers had a lower perceptual sensitivity than skeptics, which was due to a response bias to 'yes' for stimuli in which no agent was present. The relation between paranormal beliefs and illusory agency detection held only for stimuli with low to intermediate ambiguity, but for stimuli with a high number of visual distractors responses of believers and skeptics were at the same level. Furthermore, it was found that illusory agency detection was unrelated to traditional religious belief and belief in witchcraft, whereas paranormal beliefs (i.e. Psi, spiritualism, precognition, superstition) were strongly related to illusory agency detection. These findings qualify the relation between illusory pattern perception and supernatural and paranormal beliefs and suggest that paranormal beliefs are strongly related to agency detection biases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuroimaging of the joint Simon effect with believed biological and non-biological co-actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Tanya; Hsieh, Shulan

    2015-01-01

    Performing a task alone or together with another agent can produce different outcomes. The current study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural underpinnings when participants performed a Go/Nogo task alone or complementarily with another co-actor (unseen), whom was believed to be another human or a computer. During both complementary tasks, reaction time data suggested that participants integrated the potential action of their co-actor in their own action planning. Compared to the single-actor task, increased parietal and precentral activity during complementary tasks as shown in the fMRI data further suggested representation of the co-actor’s response. The superior frontal gyrus of the medial prefrontal cortex was differentially activated in the human co-actor condition compared to the computer co-actor condition. The medial prefrontal cortex, involved thinking about the beliefs and intentions of other people, possibly reflects a social-cognitive aspect or self-other discrimination during the joint task when believing a biological co-actor is present. Our results suggest that action co-representation can occur even offline with any agent type given a priori information that they are co-acting; however, additional regions are recruited when participants believe they are task-sharing with another human. PMID:26388760

  18. Expansion of the HMX-1 Flight Envelope With the EDU-5/P Laser Eye Protection Spectacles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Penhallegon, William

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this testing was to determine if the day operations envelope should be expanded to include takeoffs and landings, whether the night operations envelope should he expanded in the VH-6ON...

  19. AM Envelope. The potential of Additive Manufacturing for facade constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Strauss

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation shows the potential of Additive Manufacturing (AM for the development of building envelopes: AM will change the way of designing facades, how we engineer and produce them. To achieve today’s demands from those future envelopes, we have to find new solutions. New technologies offer one possible way to do so. They open new approaches in designing, producing and processing building construction and facades. Finding the one capable of having big impact is difficult – Additive Manufacturing is one possible answer. The term ‘AM Envelope’ (Additive Manufacturing Envelope describes the transfer of this technology to the building envelope. Additive Fabrication is a building block that aids in developing the building envelope from a mere space enclosure to a dynamic building envelope. First beginnings of AM facade construction show up when dealing with relevant aspects like material consumption, mounting or part’s performance. From those starting points several parts of an existing post-and-beam façade system were optimized, aiming toward the implementation of AM into the production chain. Enhancements on all different levels of production were achieved: storing, producing, mounting and performance. AM offers the opportunity to manufacture facades ‘just in time’. It is no longer necessary to store or produce large numbers of parts in advance. Initial investment for tooling can be avoided, as design improvements can be realized within the dataset of the AM part. AM is based on ‘tool-less’ production, all parts can be further developed with every new generation. Producing tool-less also allows for new shapes and functional parts in small batch sizes – down to batch size one. The parts performance can be re-interpreted based on the demands within the system, not based on the limitations of conventional manufacturing. AM offers new ways of materializing the physical part around its function. It leads toward customized

  20. Evidence that Vpu modulates HIV-1 Gag-envelope interaction towards envelope incorporation and infectivity in a cell type dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Gautam

    Full Text Available The HIV-1 Vpu is required for efficient virus particle release from the plasma membrane and intracellular CD4 degradation in infected cells. In the present study, we found that the loss of virus infectivity as a result of envelope (Env incorporation defect caused by a Gag matrix (MA mutation (L30E was significantly alleviated by introducing a start codon mutation in vpu. Inactivation of Vpu partially restored the Env incorporation defect imposed by L30E substitution in MA. This effect was found to be comparable in cell types such as 293T, HeLa, NP2 and GHOST as well as in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM. However, in HeLa cells BST-2 knockdown was found to further alleviate the effect of Vpu inactivation on infectivity of L30E mutant. Our data demonstrated that the impaired infectivity of virus particles due to Env incorporation defect caused by MA mutation was modulated by start codon mutation in Vpu.

  1. 78 FR 5148 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... failure states occur in the electronic flight control system, flight envelope protection features can... Envelope Protection: General Limiting Requirements AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT...), specifically new control architecture and a full digital flight control system which provides flight envelope...

  2. Stability charts for uniform slopes in soils with nonlinear failure envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    Eid, Hisham T.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the results of an extensive parametric study, charts were developed for assessment of the stability of uniform slopes in soils with nonlinear shear strength failure envelopes. The study was conducted using envelopes formed to represent the realistic shapes of soil nonlinear drained strength envelopes and the associated different degrees of nonlinearity. The introduction of a simple methodology to describe the nonlinear envelopes and a stability parameter, the value of which depends o...

  3. Parallelism in matrix computations

    CERN Document Server

    Gallopoulos, Efstratios; Sameh, Ahmed H

    2016-01-01

    This book is primarily intended as a research monograph that could also be used in graduate courses for the design of parallel algorithms in matrix computations. It assumes general but not extensive knowledge of numerical linear algebra, parallel architectures, and parallel programming paradigms. The book consists of four parts: (I) Basics; (II) Dense and Special Matrix Computations; (III) Sparse Matrix Computations; and (IV) Matrix functions and characteristics. Part I deals with parallel programming paradigms and fundamental kernels, including reordering schemes for sparse matrices. Part II is devoted to dense matrix computations such as parallel algorithms for solving linear systems, linear least squares, the symmetric algebraic eigenvalue problem, and the singular-value decomposition. It also deals with the development of parallel algorithms for special linear systems such as banded ,Vandermonde ,Toeplitz ,and block Toeplitz systems. Part III addresses sparse matrix computations: (a) the development of pa...

  4. Neutrino mass matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    Given the many conflicting experimental results, examination is made of the neutrino mass matrix in order to determine possible masses and mixings. It is assumed that the Dirac mass matrix for the electron, muon, and tau neutrinos is similar in form to those of the quarks and charged leptons, and that the smallness of the observed neutrino masses results from the Gell-Mann-Ramond-Slansky mechanism. Analysis of masses and mixings for the neutrinos is performed using general structures for the Majorana mass matrix. It is shown that if certain tentative experimental results concerning the neutrino masses and mixing angles are confirmed, significant limitations may be placed on the Majorana mass matrix. The most satisfactory simple assumption concerning the Majorana mass matrix is that it is approximately proportional to the Dirac mass matrix. A very recent experimental neutrino mass result and its implications are discussed. Some general properties of matrices with structure similar to the Dirac mass matrices are discussed

  5. Dynamical model for the dusty envelope around the symbiotic nova PU Vulpeculae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Men'shchikov, A.B.; Tutukov, A.V.; Shustov, B.M.; Ergma, E.V.

    1985-01-01

    An evolutionary model for PU Vul, Object Kuwano--Honda, indicates that the deep 1980--1981 minimum may have resulted from detachment of a dust envelope. The envelope ejection process and the changes in the infrared spectrum are studied numerically; evidently the envelope departs strongly from spherical symmetry. The bluing observed at minimum light might have been due to dissipation of shock energy

  6. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of enveloped virus microcrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Lawrence

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX using X-ray free-electron lasers has produced high-resolution, room temperature, time-resolved protein structures. We report preliminary SFX of Sindbis virus, an enveloped icosahedral RNA virus with ∼700 Å diameter. Microcrystals delivered in viscous agarose medium diffracted to ∼40 Å resolution. Small-angle diffuse X-ray scattering overlaid Bragg peaks and analysis suggests this results from molecular transforms of individual particles. Viral proteins undergo structural changes during entry and infection, which could, in principle, be studied with SFX. This is an important step toward determining room temperature structures from virus microcrystals that may enable time-resolved studies of enveloped viruses.

  7. Virulence properties of the Legionella pneumophila cell envelope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga eShevchuk

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial envelope plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the structure and molecular composition of the Legionella pneumophila cell envelope. We describe LPS biosynthesis and the biological activities of membrane and periplasmic proteins and discuss their decisive functions during the pathogen-host interaction. In addition to adherence, invasion and intracellular survival of L. pneumophila, special emphasis is laid on iron acquisition, detoxification, key elicitors of the immune response and the diverse functions of outer membrane vesicles. The critical analysis of the literature reveals that the dynamics and phenotypic plasticity of the Legionella cell surface during the different metabolic stages requires more attention in the future.

  8. Functional envelope of a non-autonomous discrete system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barzanouni Ali

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Let (X, F = {fn}n =0∞ be a non-autonomous discrete system by a compact metric space X and continuous maps fn : X → X, n = 0, 1, ....We introduce functional envelope (S(X, G = {Gn}n =0∞, of (X, F = {fn}n =0∞, where S(X is the space of all continuous self maps of X and the map Gn : S(X → S(X is defined by Gn(ϕ = Fn ∘ ϕ, Fn = fn ∘ fn-1 ∘ . . . ∘ f1 ∘ f0. The paper mainly deals with the connection between the properties of a system and the properties of its functional envelope.

  9. Efficiency in the Worst Production Situation Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamrul Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data envelopment analysis (DEA measures relative efficiency among the decision making units (DMU without considering noise in data. The least efficient DMU indicates that it is in the worst situation. In this paper, we measure efficiency of individual DMU whenever it losses the maximum output, and the efficiency of other DMUs is measured in the observed situation. This efficiency is the minimum efficiency of a DMU. The concept of stochastic data envelopment analysis (SDEA is a DEA method which considers the noise in data which is proposed in this study. Using bounded Pareto distribution, we estimate the DEA efficiency from efficiency interval. Small value of shape parameter can estimate the efficiency more accurately using the Pareto distribution. Rank correlations were estimated between observed efficiencies and minimum efficiency as well as between observed and estimated efficiency. The correlations are indicating the effectiveness of this SDEA model.

  10. A deformation (strain) envelope for cyclic disturbed sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in triaxial testing procedures revealed new properties governing disturbed sand stiffness. This paper summarizes the new observations into an original, proof of concept. The novel concept interpolates effective stress within a strain (deformation) envelope. Coulomb stress limits...... are still satisfied, but the stresses are interpolated using a deformation (strain) envelope. The method is not part of a constitutive formulation, but is remarkably functional in triaxial testing practice. The practicality is proven by plotting simulations on top of empirically measured stiffness history...... - the fitting is remarkably good even during tests of extreme complexity. The novelty has substantial interdisciplinary potential: offshore anchors and foundations, earthquakes and industrial processes - wherever dynamic loads and disturbed sand are encountered. It opens the door to a new branch of numerical...

  11. Enveloped Lives: Practicing Health and Care in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praspaliauskiene, Rima

    2016-12-01

    This article analyzes informal medical payments that the majority of Lithuanians give or feel compelled to give to doctors before or after treatment. It focuses on how patients and their caretakers encounter, practice, and enact informal payments in health care and how these payments create a reality of health care that is not limited to an economic rationality. Within such a frame, rather than being considered a gift or bribe, it conceptualizes these little white envelopes as a practice of health and care. The article shows how an envelope of money given to a doctor transcends the material patient-doctor transaction and emerges as a productive force for coping with illness, medical encounters, and misfortunes. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  12. Interior thermal insulation systems for historical building envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman, Miloš; Solař, Miloš; Černý, Robert

    2017-11-01

    The design specifics of interior thermal insulation systems applied for historical building envelopes are described. The vapor-tight systems and systems based on capillary thermal insulation materials are taken into account as two basic options differing in building-physical considerations. The possibilities of hygrothermal analysis of renovated historical envelopes including laboratory methods, computer simulation techniques, and in-situ tests are discussed. It is concluded that the application of computational models for hygrothermal assessment of interior thermal insulation systems should always be performed with a particular care. On one hand, they present a very effective tool for both service life assessment and possible planning of subsequent reconstructions. On the other, the hygrothermal analysis of any historical building can involve quite a few potential uncertainties which may affect negatively the accuracy of obtained results.

  13. The psychic envelopes in psychoanalytic theories of infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellier, Denis

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to review the topic of psychic envelopes and to sketch the main outlines of this concept in infancy. We first explore the origins of the concept in Freud's “protective shield” and then its development in adult psychoanalysis before going on to see how this fits in infancy with post-Bionian psychoanalysis and development. Four central notions guide this review: (1) Freud's “protective shield” describes a barrier to protect the psychic apparatus against potentially overflowing trauma. It is a core notion which highlights a serious clinical challenge for patients for whom the shield is damaged or faulty: the risk of confusion of borders between the internal/external world, conscious/unconscious, mind/body, or self-conservation/sexuality. (2) Anzieu's “Skin-Ego” is defined by the different senses of the body. The different layers of experienced sensation, of this body-ego, go on to form the psychic envelope. This theory contributes to our understanding of how early trauma, due to the failures of maternal care, can continue to have an impact in adult life. (3) Bick's “psychic skin” establishes the concept in relation to infancy. The mother's containing functions allow a first psychic skin to develop, which then defines an infant's psychic space and affords the infant a degree of self-containment. Houzel then conceptualized this process as a stabilization of drive forces. (4) Stern's “narrative envelope” derives from the intersection between psychoanalysis and neuroscience. It gives us another way to conceptualize the development of pre-verbal communication. It may also pave the way for a finer distinction of different types of envelopes. Ultimately, in this review we find that psychic envelopes in infancy can be viewed from four different perspectives (economic, topographical, dynamic, and genetic) and recommend further investigation. PMID:25076924

  14. Maximum Likelihood, Consistency and Data Envelopment Analysis: A Statistical Foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv D. Banker

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides a formal statistical basis for the efficiency evaluation techniques of data envelopment analysis (DEA). DEA estimators of the best practice monotone increasing and concave production function are shown to be also maximum likelihood estimators if the deviation of actual output from the efficient output is regarded as a stochastic variable with a monotone decreasing probability density function. While the best practice frontier estimator is biased below the theoretical front...

  15. The Use of Categorical Variables in Data Envelopment Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv D. Banker; Richard C. Morey

    1986-01-01

    Data Envelopment Analysis has now been extensively applied in a range of empirical settings to identify relative inefficiencies, and provide targets for improvements. It accomplishes this by developing peer groups for each unit being operated. The use of categorical variables is an important extension which can improve the peer group construction process and incorporate "on-off" characteristics, e.g., presence of drive-in window or not in a banking network. It relaxes the stringent need for f...

  16. Windows and Envelope R&D Opportunities Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Technologies Office

    2018-02-01

    BTO's Emerging Technologies program held a two-day workshop on “Windows and Envelope R&D Opportunities” on May 31 and June 1, 2017 at the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago, Illinois. A broad range of about 100 experts from industry, academia, national laboratories, and government participated, contributing their ideas, insights, and perspectives. Their feedback is intended to help inform and augment BTO’s research and development activities.

  17. Solitons of an envelope in an inhomogeneous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churilov, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    Solutions of the Schroedinger nonlinear equation (SNE) used for the description of evolution of a wave packet envelope has been investigated in inhomogeneous and nonstationary media. It is shown that the SNE solution possessing two important properties exists. Firstly, the wave packet remains localized when propagating in an inhomogeneous medium. Secondly, the soliton width and amplitude are determined only with local characteristics of medium and don't depend on the prehistory. Problem of limits of obtained result applicability has been considered

  18. Thou shalt not take sides: Cognition, Logic and the need for changing how we believe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Andre

    2016-03-01

    We believe in many different ways. One very common one is by supporting ideas we like. We label them correct and we act to dismiss doubts about them. We take sides about ideas and theories as if that was the right thing to do. And yet, from a rational point of view, this type of support and belief is not justifiable. The best we can hope when describing the real world, as far as we know today, is to have probabilistic knowledge. In practice, estimating a real probability can be too hard to achieve but that just means we have more uncertainty, not less. There are ideas we defend that define, in our minds, our own identity. And recent experiments have been showing that we stop being able to analyze competently those propositions we hold so dearly. In this paper, I gather the evidence we have about taking sides and present the obvious but unseen conclusion that these facts combined mean that we should actually never believe in anything about the real world, except in a probabilistic way. We must actually never take sides since taking sides compromise our abilities to seek for the most correct description of the world. That means we need to start reformulating the way we debate ideas, from our teaching to our political debates. Here, I will show the logical and experimental basis of this conclusion. I will also show, by presenting new models for the evolution of opinions, that our desire to have something to believe is probably behind the emergence of extremism in debates. And we will see how this problem can even have an impact in the reliability of whole scientific fields. The crisis around p-values is discussed and much better understood under the light of this paper results. Finally, I will debate possible consequences and ideas on how to deal with this problem.

  19. When the Patient Believes That the Organs Are Destroyed: Manifestation of Cotard's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Leonardo; Filho, Luiz Evandro de Lima; Machado, Liliane

    2016-01-01

    Cotard's Syndrome (CS) is a rare clinical event described for the first time in 1880 by the neurologist and psychiatrist Jules Cotard and characterized by negation delusions (or nihilists). Immortality and hypochondriac delusions are also typical. Nowadays, it is known that CS can be associated with many neuropsychiatric conditions. In this article, we describe the case of a patient that believed not having more organs and having the body deformed and whose CS was associated with a bigger depressive disorder. Although the electroconvulsive therapy is the most described treatment modality in the literature, the reported case had therapeutic success with association of imipramine and risperidone.

  20. Debate: Subgroup analyses in clinical trials: fun to look at - but don't believe them!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sleight Peter

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Analysis of subgroup results in a clinical trial is surprisingly unreliable, even in a large trial. This is the result of a combination of reduced statistical power, increased variance and the play of chance. Reliance on such analyses is likely to be more erroneous, and hence harmful, than application of the overall proportional (or relative result in the whole trial to the estimate of absolute risk in that subgroup. Plausible explanations can usually be found for effects that are, in reality, simply due to the play of chance. When clinicians believe such subgroup analyses, there is a real danger of harm to the individual patient.

  1. What Do People Believe About Memory? Implications for the Science and Pseudoscience of Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Evans, James; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2015-12-01

    We examine the evidence concerning what people believe about memory. We focus on beliefs regarding the permanence of memory and whether memory can be repressed and accurately recovered. We consider beliefs about memory among the undergraduate and general population, mental health professionals, judges, jurors, and law enforcement officers to provide a broad canvass that extends to the forensic arena, as well as to psychiatry, psychology, and allied disciplines. We discuss the implications of these beliefs for the education of the general public and mental health professionals regarding the science and pseudoscience of memory and the use of suggestive procedures in psychotherapy.

  2. When the Patient Believes That the Organs Are Destroyed: Manifestation of Cotard’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotard’s Syndrome (CS is a rare clinical event described for the first time in 1880 by the neurologist and psychiatrist Jules Cotard and characterized by negation delusions (or nihilists. Immortality and hypochondriac delusions are also typical. Nowadays, it is known that CS can be associated with many neuropsychiatric conditions. In this article, we describe the case of a patient that believed not having more organs and having the body deformed and whose CS was associated with a bigger depressive disorder. Although the electroconvulsive therapy is the most described treatment modality in the literature, the reported case had therapeutic success with association of imipramine and risperidone.

  3. Dare to believe, dare to create: Christianity and contemporary Brazilian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Santos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses primarily discuss the relationship of the Christian camp with the so called modern culture in Brazil over the past century, describing the process that goes here called Christianity “reaction” to a Christianity “transformation “ since some of the most significant writers of contemporary Brazilian Catholic Christian inspiration in their respective historical contexts. Among other aspects involved in the relationship between Christianity and modernity, especially discusses the possibility and legitimacy of articulating the perennial newness of Christian revelation with a libertarian aesthetic design, combining boldness and daring to believe created.

  4. Specifics of Building Envelope Air Leakage Problems and Airtightness Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borodinecs Anatolijs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to transmission heat loses the infiltration of outdoor air can cause significant heat losses. The external building envelope should be airtight in order to prevent uncontrolled cold air infiltration. The article analysis modern building materials and structures influence on airtightness. The practical measurements of renovated buildings’ airtightness are presented and compared to non-renovated buildings. In addition paper presents data on airtightness measurements of whole multi apartment building and single apartment in analyzed building taking inco accout properties of building materials. The airtightness of single apartment was evaluated with support pressure in neighbor apartments. The results show that the airtightness measurements of multi apartment building can be evaluated by measuring single apartment on last floor with support pressure in neighbor apartments. The practical measurement of renovated buildings had shown the air leakage rate q50 of typical Latvian construction after renovation is between 2.5 and 2.9 m3/(m2·h. Since the building envelope has to minimize the heat loses (transmission and infiltration and ventilation system either mechanical or natural has to provide necessary air exchange, the building envelope airtightness shouldn’t be dependent on type of ventilation systems.

  5. Experiences when employing different alternatives for envelope upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peru Elguezabal Esnarrizaga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of achieving the 2020 goals in terms of energy savings and improving efficiency are guiding numerous research initiatives looking for more insulated envelopes, dealing with thermal performance of insulation materials and envelope systems. Nevertheless, the envelope integrates within the building and this improvement on the insulation performance has to be properly adopted, taking into account the interrelation of main elements composing the overall system (facade, frame, slabs, openings, partitions etc., as well as side effects originated not only for new erected buildings, but specifically in renovation and retrofitting works. This paper describes real experiences when considering various options for upgrading the facade through the increase of the insulation capacity, starting from external overcladding prefabricated panels and ventilated facades, advancing to more sustainable low carbon systems and ending with even more highly insulated solutions employing aerogels. Lessons from these cases, where energy and hygrothermal assessments have being carried out, demonstrate the influence of the design and construction phases and the relevance of disregarded effects such as minor thermal bridges, uncontrolled craftsmanship on site, and moisture transfer for the different technologies considered. Finally, possible alternatives are provided to overcome some of the detected difficulties, such as combination with non-metallic structural components and building membranes, and being prepared for future challenges and new developments when these isolative elements are combined with other technologies, as for example, renewable energy harvesting devices.  

  6. Thermal performance envelopes for MHTGRs - Reliability by design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etzel, K.T.; Howard, W.W.; Zgliczynski, J.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal performance envelopes are used to specify steady-state design requirements for the systems of the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) to maximize plant performance reliability with optimized design. The thermal performance envelopes are constructed around the expected operating point to account for uncertainties in actual plant as-built parameters and plant operation. The components are then designed to perform successfully at all points within the envelope. As a result, plant reliability is maximized by accounting for component thermal performance variation in the design. The design is optimized by providing a means to determine required margins in a disciplined and visible fashion. This is accomplished by coordinating these requirements with the various system and component designers in the early stages of the design, applying the principles of total quality management. The design is challenged by the more complex requirements associated with a range of operating conditions, but in return, high probability of delivering reliable performance throughout the plant life is ensured

  7. The epigenetics of nuclear envelope organization and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, Eric C.

    2008-01-01

    Mammalian chromosomes and some specific genes have non-random positions within the nucleus that are tissue-specific and heritable. Work in many organisms has shown that genes at the nuclear periphery tend to be inactive and altering their partitioning to the interior results in their activation. Proteins of the nuclear envelope can recruit chromatin with specific epigenetic marks and can also recruit silencing factors that add new epigenetic modifications to chromatin sequestered at the periphery. Together these findings indicate that the nuclear envelope is a significant epigenetic regulator. The importance of this function is emphasized by observations of aberrant distribution of peripheral heterochromatin in several human diseases linked to mutations in NE proteins. These debilitating inherited diseases range from muscular dystrophies to the premature aging progeroid syndromes and the heterochromatin changes are just one early clue for understanding the molecular details of how they work. The architecture of the nuclear envelope provides a unique environment for epigenetic regulation and as such a great deal of research will be required before we can ascertain the full range of its contributions to epigenetics

  8. Low-activity waste envelope definitions for the TWRS Privatization Phase I Request For Proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patello, G.K.; Lauerhass, L.; Myers, R.L.; Wiemers, K.D.

    1996-11-01

    Radioactive waste has been stored in large underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site since 1944. Approximately 212 million liters of waste containing approximately 240,000 metric tons of processed chemicals and 177 mega-curies of radionuclides are now stored in 177 tanks. These caustic wastes are in the form of liquids, slurries, saltcakes, and sludge. In 1991, the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program was established to manage, retrieve, treat, immobilize, and dispose of these wastes in a safe, environmentally sound, and cost-effective manner. The Department of Energy (DOE) has believes that it is feasible to privatize portions of the TWRS Program. Under the privatization strategy embodied in the Request for Proposal (RFP), DOE will purchase services from a contractor-owned, contractor-operated facility under a fixed-price contract. Phase I of the TWRS privatization strategy is a proof-of-concept/commercial demonstration-scale effort. The objectives of Phase I are to demonstrate the technical and business viability of using privatized facilities to treat Hanford tank waste; define and maintain required levels of radiological, nuclear, process, and occupational safety; maintain environmental protection and compliance; and substantially reduce life-cycle costs and time required to treat Hanford tank waste. Three low-activity waste (LAW) envelopes are identified for Phase I of the privatization contract and are representative of the range of Hanford double-shelled tank (DST) waste

  9. Low-activity waste envelope definitions for the TWRS Privatization Phase I Request For Proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patello, G.K.; Lauerhass, L.; Myers, R.L.; Wiemers, K.D.

    1996-11-01

    Radioactive waste has been stored in large underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site since 1944. Approximately 212 million liters of waste containing approximately 240,000 metric tons of processed chemicals and 177 mega-curies of radionuclides are now stored in 177 tanks. These caustic wastes are in the form of liquids, slurries, saltcakes, and sludge. In 1991, the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program was established to manage, retrieve, treat, immobilize, and dispose of these wastes in a safe, environmentally sound, and cost-effective manner. The Department of Energy (DOE) has believes that it is feasible to privatize portions of the TWRS Program. Under the privatization strategy embodied in the Request for Proposal (RFP), DOE will purchase services from a contractor-owned, contractor-operated facility under a fixed-price contract. Phase I of the TWRS privatization strategy is a proof-of-concept/commercial demonstration-scale effort. The objectives of Phase I are to demonstrate the technical and business viability of using privatized facilities to treat Hanford tank waste; define and maintain required levels of radiological, nuclear, process, and occupational safety; maintain environmental protection and compliance; and substantially reduce life-cycle costs and time required to treat Hanford tank waste. Three low-activity waste (LAW) envelopes are identified for Phase I of the privatization contract and are representative of the range of Hanford double-shelled tank (DST) waste.

  10. Economic levels of thermal resistance for house envelopes: Considerations for a national energy code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinton, M.C.; Sander, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    A code for energy efficiency in new buildings is being developed by the Standing Committee on Energy Conservation in Buildings. The precursor to the new code used national average energy rates and construction costs to determine economic optimum levels of insulation, and it is believed that this resulted in prescription of sub-optimum insulation levels in any region of Canada where energy or construction costs differ significantly from the average. A new approach for determining optimum levels of thermal insulation is proposed. The analytic techniques use month-by-month energy balances of heat loss and gain; use gain load ratio correlation (GLR) for predicting the fraction of useable free heat; increase confidence in the savings predictions for above grade envelopes; can take into account solar effects on windows; and are compatible with below-grade heat loss analysis techniques in use. A sensitivity analysis was performed to determine whether reasonable variations in house characteristics would cause significant differences in savings predicted. The life cycle costing technique developed will allow the selection of thermal resistances that are commonly met by industry. Environmental energy cost multipliers can be used with the proposed methodology, which could have a minor role in encouraging the next higher level of energy efficiency. 11 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Patience of matrix games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Podolskii, Vladimir V.

    2013-01-01

    For matrix games we study how small nonzero probability must be used in optimal strategies. We show that for image win–lose–draw games (i.e. image matrix games) nonzero probabilities smaller than image are never needed. We also construct an explicit image win–lose game such that the unique optimal...

  12. Matrix comparison, Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Borlund, Pia

    2007-01-01

    The present two-part article introduces matrix comparison as a formal means for evaluation purposes in informetric studies such as cocitation analysis. In the first part, the motivation behind introducing matrix comparison to informetric studies, as well as two important issues influencing such c...

  13. Unitarity of CKM Matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Saleem, M

    2002-01-01

    The Unitarity of the CKM matrix is examined in the light of the latest available accurate data. The analysis shows that a conclusive result cannot be derived at present. Only more precise data can determine whether the CKM matrix opens new vistas beyond the standard model or not.

  14. Fuzzy risk matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowski, Adam S.; Mannan, M. Sam

    2008-01-01

    A risk matrix is a mechanism to characterize and rank process risks that are typically identified through one or more multifunctional reviews (e.g., process hazard analysis, audits, or incident investigation). This paper describes a procedure for developing a fuzzy risk matrix that may be used for emerging fuzzy logic applications in different safety analyses (e.g., LOPA). The fuzzification of frequency and severity of the consequences of the incident scenario are described which are basic inputs for fuzzy risk matrix. Subsequently using different design of risk matrix, fuzzy rules are established enabling the development of fuzzy risk matrices. Three types of fuzzy risk matrix have been developed (low-cost, standard, and high-cost), and using a distillation column case study, the effect of the design on final defuzzified risk index is demonstrated

  15. Fuzzy vulnerability matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, Jorge H.; Rivera, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    The so-called vulnerability matrix is used in the evaluation part of the probabilistic safety assessment for a nuclear power plant, during the containment event trees calculations. This matrix is established from what is knows as Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement. This matrix is usually established with numerical values obtained with traditional arithmetic using the set theory. The representation of this matrix with fuzzy numbers is much more adequate, due to the fact that the Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement are better represented with linguistic variables, such as 'highly probable', 'probable', 'impossible', etc. In the present paper a methodology to obtain a Fuzzy Vulnerability Matrix is presented, starting from the recommendations on the Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement. (author)

  16. High pressure treatment under subfreezing temperature results in drastic inactivation of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, T; Cui, F-D; Ohgitani, E; Gao, F; Hayakawa, K; Mazda, O

    2013-08-01

    Some viruses are sensitive to high pressure. The freeze-pressure generation method (FPGM) applies pressure as high as 250 MPa on a substance, simply by freezing a pressure-resistant reservoir in which the substance is immersed in water. Here we examined whether the FPGM successfully inactivates herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), an enveloped DNA virus belonging to the human Herpesviridae, and encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), an envelope-free RNA virus belonging to the Picornaviridae. After the treatment, HSV-1 drastically reduced the ability to form plaque in Vero cells in vitro as well as to kill mice in vivo. EMCV that had been pressurized failed to proliferate in HeLa cells and induce interferon response. The results suggest that the FPGM provides a feasible procedure to inactivate a broad spectrum of viruses.

  17. Beliefs about causation of schizophrenia: do Indian families believe in supernatural causes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, T N; Thara, R

    2001-03-01

    Beliefs about the causation of schizophrenia could influence the attitudes patients' families adopt towards the patient and may also influence their help-seeking behaviour. Indian families have been typically described as often believing in causes like supernatural forces and therefore seeking help from magico-religious healers. In the changing mental health scenario in India, this impression needs verification. Key relatives living with 254 chronic schizophrenia patients were interviewed and asked to name the causes they believed were behind the illness. A list of possible causes was provided for the families to select from, and relatives were also encouraged to mention other possible causes, not featured in the list. The possible causes identified and the factors related to attributions made were analysed. A supernatural cause was named by only 12% of the families and as the only cause by 5%. Psychosocial stress was most commonly cited cause, followed by personality defect and heredity. A small number of families (14%) could not name any cause and 39% named more than one cause. Patient gender and education, duration of illness and the key relative's education and the nature of relationship were related to the type of causal attributions made. Families living with patients suffering chronic schizophrenia receiving treatment in urban India rarely subscribe to the idea of supernatural causation of the illness. The causal attributions made by them are fairly rational and understandable, given the relative lack of exposure to proper information about the illness.

  18. Behavior believability in virtual worlds: agents acting when they need to.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avradinis, Nikos; Panayiotopoulos, Themis; Anastassakis, George

    2013-12-01

    Believability has been a perennial goal for the intelligent virtual agent community. One important aspect of believability largely consists in demonstrating autonomous behavior, consistent with the agent's personality and motivational state, as well as the world conditions. Autonomy, on behalf of the agent, implies the existence of an internal structure and mechanism that allows the agent to have its own needs and interests, based on which the agent will dynamically select and generate goals that will in turn lead to self-determined behavior. Intrinsic motivation allows the agent to function and demonstrate behavior, even when no external stimulus is present, due to the constant change of its internal emotional and physiological state. The concept of motivation has already been investigated by research works on intelligent agents, trying to achieve autonomy. The current work presents an architecture and model to represent and manage internal driving factors in intelligent virtual agents, using the concept of motivations. Based on Maslow and Alderfer's bio-psychological needs theories, we present a motivational approach to represent human needs and produce emergent behavior through motivation synthesis. Particular attention is given to basic, physiological level needs, which are the basis of behavior and can produce tendency to action even when there is no other interaction with the environment.

  19. Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward

    2012-01-01

    The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a

  20. Role of HIV-2 envelope in Lv2-mediated restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, Sandra; Kaumanns, Patrick; Buschhorn, Sabine B.; Dittmar, Matthias T.

    2005-01-01

    We have characterized envelope protein pseudotyped HIV-2 particles derived from two HIV-2 isolates termed prCBL23 and CBL23 in order to define the role of the envelope protein for the Lv2-mediated restriction to infection. Previously, it has been described that the primary isolate prCBL23 is restricted to infection of several human cell types, whereas the T cell line adapted isolate CBL23 is not restricted in these cell types. Molecular cloning of the two isolates revealed that the env and the gag gene are responsible for the observed phenotype and that this restriction is mediated by Lv2, which is distinct from Ref1/Lv1 (Schmitz, C., Marchant, D., Neil, S.J., Aubin, K., Reuter, S., Dittmar, M.T., McKnight, A., Kizhatil, K., Albritton, L.M., 2004. Lv2, a novel postentry restriction, is mediated by both capsid and envelope. J. Virol. 78 (4), 2006-2016). We generated pseudotyped viruses consisting of HIV-2 (ROD-AΔenv-GFP, ROD-AΔenv-RFP, or ROD-AΔenv-REN) and the prCBL23 or CBL23 envelope proteins as well as chimeric proteins between these envelopes. We demonstrate that a single amino acid exchange at position 74 in the surface unit of CBL23-Env confers restriction to infection. This single point mutation causes tighter CD4 binding, resulting in a less efficient fusion into the cytosol of the restricted cell line. Prevention of endosome formation and prevention of endosome acidification enhance infectivity of the restricted particles for GHOST/X4 cells indicating a degradative lysosomal pathway as a cause for the reduced cytosolic entry. The described restriction to infection of the primary isolate prCBL23 is therefore largely caused by an entry defect. A remaining restriction to infection (19-fold) is preserved when endosomal acidification is prevented. This restriction to infection is also dependent on the presence of the point mutation at position 74 (G74E)

  1. Matrix formulation of the particle motion in crystalline beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffmans, A.F.; Maletic, D.; Ruggiero, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the properties of Crystalline Beams in their ground state, the equations of motion of a single ion and the envelope equations are derived. It is possible to express the status of motion with a set of transfer matrices associated to each of the magnet elements of the storage ring. By inspection of the eigenvalues of the total transfer matrix one then determines the onset of crystalline structures and the stability limits. An analytical approach is also possible, based on the estimate of the shifting of the frequencies of oscillation, betatron and longitudinal, and on the approaching of a major half-integral stopband resonance driven by the space charge

  2. Metal Matrix Microencapsulated Fuel Technology for LWR Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrani, Kurt A.; Bell, Gary L.; Kiggans, Jim; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the metal matrix microencapsulated (M3) fuel concept for the specific LWR application has been provided. Basic fuel properties and characteristics that aim to improve operational reliability, enlarge performance envelope, and enhance safety margins under design-basis accident scenarios are summarized. Fabrication of M3 rodlets with various coated fuel particles over a temperature range of 800-1300 C is discussed. Results from preliminary irradiation testing of LWR M3 rodlets with surrogate coated fuel particles are also reported.

  3. The nuclear reaction matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenciglowa, E.M.; Kung, C.L.; Kuo, T.T.S.; Osnes, E.; and Department of Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794)

    1976-01-01

    Different definitions of the reaction matrix G appropriate to the calculation of nuclear structure are reviewed and discussed. Qualitative physical arguments are presented in support of a two-step calculation of the G-matrix for finite nuclei. In the first step the high-energy excitations are included using orthogonalized plane-wave intermediate states, and in the second step the low-energy excitations are added in, using harmonic oscillator intermediate states. Accurate calculations of G-matrix elements for nuclear structure calculations in the Aapprox. =18 region are performed following this procedure and treating the Pauli exclusion operator Q 2 /sub p/ by the method of Tsai and Kuo. The treatment of Q 2 /sub p/, the effect of the intermediate-state spectrum and the energy dependence of the reaction matrix are investigated in detail. The present matrix elements are compared with various matrix elements given in the literature. In particular, close agreement is obtained with the matrix elements calculated by Kuo and Brown using approximate methods

  4. Matrix Metalloproteinase Enzyme Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Goruroglu Ozturk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases play an important role in many biological processes such as embriogenesis, tissue remodeling, wound healing, and angiogenesis, and in some pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis, arthritis and cancer. Currently, 24 genes have been identified in humans that encode different groups of matrix metalloproteinase enzymes. This review discuss the members of the matrix metalloproteinase family and their substrate specificity, structure, function and the regulation of their enzyme activity by tissue inhibitors. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(2.000: 209-220

  5. Matrix groups for undergraduates

    CERN Document Server

    Tapp, Kristopher

    2005-01-01

    Matrix groups touch an enormous spectrum of the mathematical arena. This textbook brings them into the undergraduate curriculum. It makes an excellent one-semester course for students familiar with linear and abstract algebra and prepares them for a graduate course on Lie groups. Matrix Groups for Undergraduates is concrete and example-driven, with geometric motivation and rigorous proofs. The story begins and ends with the rotations of a globe. In between, the author combines rigor and intuition to describe basic objects of Lie theory: Lie algebras, matrix exponentiation, Lie brackets, and maximal tori.

  6. Elementary matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Eves, Howard

    1980-01-01

    The usefulness of matrix theory as a tool in disciplines ranging from quantum mechanics to psychometrics is widely recognized, and courses in matrix theory are increasingly a standard part of the undergraduate curriculum.This outstanding text offers an unusual introduction to matrix theory at the undergraduate level. Unlike most texts dealing with the topic, which tend to remain on an abstract level, Dr. Eves' book employs a concrete elementary approach, avoiding abstraction until the final chapter. This practical method renders the text especially accessible to students of physics, engineeri

  7. Flexible Believers in the Netherlands: A Paradigm Shift toward Transreligious Multiplicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalsky Manuela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Netherlands has undergone a radical religious transformation through secularization, individualization and migration. Expressions of Christian belief are no longer strictly defined by the Church and hybrid forms of religiosity incorporating other religions have emerged. After a brief sketch of Dutch religious plurality, the author focuses on interviews with ‘flexible believers’, people who combine elements from different religious traditions and worldviews. Through interviews, she discovers a number of characteristics of these multiple religious believers (MRB - interviewees - such as ritual praxis, identity-making processes and belonging - and reflects on their impact for the wider picture of religiosity in today‘s post-Christian Dutch network society. She concludes that hybrid forms of lived religion like mrb, present a challenge to traditional concepts of religious identity and belonging. They require a paradigm shift from an ‘either/or’ to a relational ‘as well as’ approach within a rhizomatic network of meaning.

  8. Believing Selves and Cognitive Dissonance: Connecting Individual and Society via “Belief”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosco B. Bae

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available “Belief” as an analytical tool and critical category of investigation for the study of religion has been a resurging topic of interest. This article discusses the problems of language and practice in the discussion of “belief” and proceeds to map a few of the emergent frameworks, proposed within the past decade, for investigating “belief”. The issue of inconsistency, however, continues to remain a perennial issue that has not been adequately explained. This article argues for the utility and value of the “believing selves” framework, in conjunction with revisionist theories of cognitive dissonance, to advance the claim that beliefs are representations, as well as functions, of cultural history which bind individual and society.

  9. Believing in God the Father: Interpreting a phrase from the Apostle’s Creed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Sarot

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In our days, the creedal phrase ‘I believe in God the Father almighty’ is interpreted primarilyalong Trinitarian lines: It is applied to God as the Father of Jesus Christ. Here I argue that ithas a dual background: in Jesus’ prayer practice, in which He consistently addressed God as‘Father’, and in the Hellenistic habit of referring to the Creator as ‘Father’. I discuss Jesus’ useof the term ‘Father’ against its Old Testament background, and argue that it primarily pointsto the intimacy of Jesus’ relationship with His father. Against the Hellenistic background,however, the metaphor ‘Father’ means ‘he who brings forth effortlessly’. Finally, I discusssome gender issues connected with the use of the term ‘Father’ for God.

  10. The Role of Make-Believe Play in the Development of Executive Function: Status of Research and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Laura E.; Meyers, Adena B.

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss the association between make-believe play and the development of executive-function (EF) skills in young children. Some forty years ago, Lev S. Vygotsky first proposed that make-believe fosters the development of symbolic thought and self-regulation. Since then, a small body of research has produced evidence of an association…

  11. Hacking the Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Michael; Spence, Jason R

    2017-01-05

    Recently in Nature, Gjorevski et al. (2016) describe a fully defined synthetic hydrogel that mimics the extracellular matrix to support in vitro growth of intestinal stem cells and organoids. The hydrogel allows exquisite control over the chemical and physical in vitro niche and enables identification of regulatory properties of the matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Matrix Organization Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gattiker, Urs E.; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively).......This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively)....

  13. Biliary Secretion of Quasi-Enveloped Human Hepatitis A Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuka Hirai-Yuki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis A virus (HAV is an unusual picornavirus that is released from cells cloaked in host-derived membranes. These quasi-enveloped virions (eHAV are the only particle type circulating in blood during infection, whereas only nonenveloped virions are shed in feces. The reason for this is uncertain. Hepatocytes, the only cell type known to support HAV replication in vivo, are highly polarized epithelial cells with basolateral membranes facing onto hepatic (blood sinusoids and apical membranes abutting biliary canaliculi from which bile is secreted to the gut. To assess whether eHAV and nonenveloped virus egress from cells via vectorially distinct pathways, we studied infected polarized cultures of Caco-2 and HepG2-N6 cells. Most (>99% progeny virions were released apically from Caco-2 cells, whereas basolateral (64% versus apical (36% release was more balanced with HepG2-N6 cells. Both apically and basolaterally released virions were predominantly enveloped, with no suggestion of differential vectorial release of eHAV versus naked virions. Basolateral to apical transcytosis of either particle type was minimal (<0.02%/h in HepG2-N6 cells, arguing against this as a mechanism for differences in membrane envelopment of serum versus fecal virus. High concentrations of human bile acids converted eHAV to nonenveloped virions, whereas virus present in bile from HAV-infected Ifnar1−/−Ifngr1−/− and Mavs−/− mice banded over a range of densities extending from that of eHAV to that of nonenveloped virions. We conclude that nonenveloped virions shed in feces are derived from eHAV released across the canalicular membrane and stripped of membranes by the detergent action of bile acids within the proximal biliary canaliculus.

  14. Induced wave propagation from a vibrating containment envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, R.B.; Thigpen, L.; Rambo, J.T.

    1985-09-01

    Low frequency wave forms are observed in the particle velocity measurements around the cavity and containment envelope formed by an underground nuclear test. The vibration solution for a spherical shell is used to formulate a model for the low frequency wave that propagates outward from this region. In this model the containment envelope is the zone of material that is crushed by the compressive shock wave of the nuclear explosion. The containment envelope is approximated by a spherical shell of material. The material in the spherical shell is densified and is given a relatively high kinetic energy density because of the high compressive stress and particle velocity of the shock wave. After the shock wave has propagated through the spherical shell, the spherical shell vibrates in order to dissipate the kinetic energy acquired from the shock wave. Based on the model, the frequency of vibration depends on the dimensions and material properties of the spherical shell. The model can also be applied in an inverse mode to obtain global estimates of averaged materials properties. This requires using experimental data and semi-empirical relationships involving the material properties. A particular case of estimating a value for shear strength is described. Finally, the oscillation time period of the lowest frequency from five nuclear tests is correlated with the energy of the explosion. The correlation provides another diagnostic to estimate the energy of a nuclear explosion. Also, the longest oscillation time period measurement provides additional experimental data that can be used to assess and validate various computer models. 11 refs., 2 figs

  15. Energy Optimized Envelope for Cold Climate Indoor Agricultural Growing Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Hachem-Vermette

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the development of building envelope design for improved energy performance of a controlled indoor agricultural growing center in a cold climate zone (Canada, 54° N. A parametric study is applied to analyze the effects of envelope parameters on the building energy loads for heating, cooling and lighting, required for maintaining growing requirement as obtained in the literature. A base case building of rectangular layout, incorporating conventionally applied insulation and glazing components, is initially analyzed, employing the EnergyPlus simulation program. Insulation and glazing parameters are then modified to minimize energy loads under assumed minimal lighting requirement. This enhanced design forms a base case for analyzing effects of additional design parameters—solar radiation control, air infiltration rate, sky-lighting and the addition of phase change materials—to obtain an enhanced design that minimizes energy loads. A second stage of the investigation applies a high lighting level to the enhanced design and modifies the design parameters to improve performance. A final part of the study is an investigation of the mechanical systems and renewable energy generation. Through the enhancement of building envelope components and day-lighting design, combined heating and cooling load of the low level lighting configuration is reduced by 65% and lighting load by 10%, relative to the base case design. Employing building integrated PV (BIPV system, this optimized model can achieve energy positive status. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC, are discussed, as potential means to offset increased energy consumption associated with the high-level lighting model.

  16. Nuclear envelopathies: a complex LINC between nuclear envelope and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janin, Alexandre; Bauer, Delphine; Ratti, Francesca; Millat, Gilles; Méjat, Alexandre

    2017-08-30

    Since the identification of the first disease causing mutation in the gene coding for emerin, a transmembrane protein of the inner nuclear membrane, hundreds of mutations and variants have been found in genes encoding for nuclear envelope components. These proteins can be part of the inner nuclear membrane (INM), such as emerin or SUN proteins, outer nuclear membrane (ONM), such as Nesprins, or the nuclear lamina, such as lamins A and C. However, they physically interact with each other to insure the nuclear envelope integrity and mediate the interactions of the nuclear envelope with both the genome, on the inner side, and the cytoskeleton, on the outer side. The core of this complex, called LINC (LInker of Nucleoskeleton to Cytoskeleton) is composed of KASH and SUN homology domain proteins. SUN proteins are INM proteins which interact with lamins by their N-terminal domain and with the KASH domain of nesprins located in the ONM by their C-terminal domain.Although most of these proteins are ubiquitously expressed, their mutations have been associated with a large number of clinically unrelated pathologies affecting specific tissues. Moreover, variants in SUN proteins have been found to modulate the severity of diseases induced by mutations in other LINC components or interactors. For these reasons, the diagnosis and the identification of the molecular explanation of "nuclear envelopathies" is currently challenging.The aim of this review is to summarize the human diseases caused by mutations in genes coding for INM proteins, nuclear lamina, and ONM proteins, and to discuss their potential physiopathological mechanisms that could explain the large spectrum of observed symptoms.

  17. Dynamic network data envelopment analysis for university hospitals evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stella de Castro Lobo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To develop an assessment tool to evaluate the efficiency of federal university general hospitals. METHODS Data envelopment analysis, a linear programming technique, creates a best practice frontier by comparing observed production given the amount of resources used. The model is output-oriented and considers variable returns to scale. Network data envelopment analysis considers link variables belonging to more than one dimension (in the model, medical residents, adjusted admissions, and research projects. Dynamic network data envelopment analysis uses carry-over variables (in the model, financing budget to analyze frontier shift in subsequent years. Data were gathered from the information system of the Brazilian Ministry of Education (MEC, 2010-2013. RESULTS The mean scores for health care, teaching and research over the period were 58.0%, 86.0%, and 61.0%, respectively. In 2012, the best performance year, for all units to reach the frontier it would be necessary to have a mean increase of 65.0% in outpatient visits; 34.0% in admissions; 12.0% in undergraduate students; 13.0% in multi-professional residents; 48.0% in graduate students; 7.0% in research projects; besides a decrease of 9.0% in medical residents. In the same year, an increase of 0.9% in financing budget would be necessary to improve the care output frontier. In the dynamic evaluation, there was progress in teaching efficiency, oscillation in medical care and no variation in research. CONCLUSIONS The proposed model generates public health planning and programming parameters by estimating efficiency scores and making projections to reach the best practice frontier.

  18. Characteristics between the meshing pairs with different envelope profile in single screw compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R.; Liu, F.; Li, T.; Feng, Q.

    2017-08-01

    Single screw compressors have been used in various industrial fields. However, because the star-wheel teeth are easy to wear, the market for the development of single screw compressors is limited. In order to extend the service life of the star-wheel, researchers have developed different kinds of star-wheel tooth profile, such as single line envelope profile, single column envelope profile, and multi-column envelope profile. These profiles greatly affect the lubrication characteristics between the star-wheel teeth and the screw grooves. In this article, the lubrication characteristics between the meshing pairs with different envelope profiles are analyzed. Results show that the pressure peak of the single line envelope profile, single column envelope profile, and multi-column envelope profile are 3.23×105Pa, 3.38×105Pa, and 4.31×105Pa, respectively. This means that the multi-column enveloped meshing pair can resist the biggest external impact load. The deviation angle (γ) of the single line envelope profile, single column envelope profile, and multi-column envelope profile are 0.0139°~0.0286°, 0.0225°~0.0306° and 0.0122°~0.0262°, respectively. Thus, the self-balancing ability of the multi-column enveloped meshing pair is the strongest, and the oil film thickness on both sides of the multi-column enveloped star-wheel tooth is the most reasonable, which indicates a good lubrication state during operation, that is, longer operation life of the star-wheel teeth.

  19. Comparison of climate envelope models developed using expert-selected variables versus statistical selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Laura A.; Benscoter, Allison; Harvey, Rebecca G.; Speroterra, Carolina; Bucklin, David N.; Romañach, Stephanie; Watling, James I.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2017-01-01

    Climate envelope models are widely used to describe potential future distribution of species under different climate change scenarios. It is broadly recognized that there are both strengths and limitations to using climate envelope models and that outcomes are sensitive to initial assumptions, inputs, and modeling methods Selection of predictor variables, a central step in modeling, is one of the areas where different techniques can yield varying results. Selection of climate variables to use as predictors is often done using statistical approaches that develop correlations between occurrences and climate data. These approaches have received criticism in that they rely on the statistical properties of the data rather than directly incorporating biological information about species responses to temperature and precipitation. We evaluated and compared models and prediction maps for 15 threatened or endangered species in Florida based on two variable selection techniques: expert opinion and a statistical method. We compared model performance between these two approaches for contemporary predictions, and the spatial correlation, spatial overlap and area predicted for contemporary and future climate predictions. In general, experts identified more variables as being important than the statistical method and there was low overlap in the variable sets (0.9 for area under the curve (AUC) and >0.7 for true skill statistic (TSS). Spatial overlap, which compares the spatial configuration between maps constructed using the different variable selection techniques, was only moderate overall (about 60%), with a great deal of variability across species. Difference in spatial overlap was even greater under future climate projections, indicating additional divergence of model outputs from different variable selection techniques. Our work is in agreement with other studies which have found that for broad-scale species distribution modeling, using statistical methods of variable

  20. The Exopolysaccharide Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, H.; Falsetta, M.L.; Klein, M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Many infectious diseases in humans are caused or exacerbated by biofilms. Dental caries is a prime example of a biofilm-dependent disease, resulting from interactions of microorganisms, host factors, and diet (sugars), which modulate the dynamic formation of biofilms on tooth surfaces. All biofilms have a microbial-derived extracellular matrix as an essential constituent. The exopolysaccharides formed through interactions between sucrose- (and starch-) and Streptococcus mutans-derived exoenzymes present in the pellicle and on microbial surfaces (including non-mutans) provide binding sites for cariogenic and other organisms. The polymers formed in situ enmesh the microorganisms while forming a matrix facilitating the assembly of three-dimensional (3D) multicellular structures that encompass a series of microenvironments and are firmly attached to teeth. The metabolic activity of microbes embedded in this exopolysaccharide-rich and diffusion-limiting matrix leads to acidification of the milieu and, eventually, acid-dissolution of enamel. Here, we discuss recent advances concerning spatio-temporal development of the exopolysaccharide matrix and its essential role in the pathogenesis of dental caries. We focus on how the matrix serves as a 3D scaffold for biofilm assembly while creating spatial heterogeneities and low-pH microenvironments/niches. Further understanding on how the matrix modulates microbial activity and virulence expression could lead to new approaches to control cariogenic biofilms. PMID:24045647

  1. A smart growth evaluation model based on data envelopment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaokun; Guan, Yongyi

    2018-04-01

    With the rapid spread of urbanization, smart growth (SG) has attracted plenty of attention from all over the world. In this paper, by the establishment of index system for smart growth, data envelopment analysis (DEA) model was suggested to evaluate the SG level of the current growth situation in cities. In order to further improve the information of both radial direction and non-radial detection, we introduced the non-Archimedean infinitesimal to form C2GS2 control model. Finally, we evaluated the SG level in Canberra and identified a series of problems, which can verify the applicability of the model and provide us more improvement information.

  2. Thermonuclear runaways in thick hydrogen rich envelopes of neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrfield, S. G.; Kenyon, S.; Truran, J. W.; Sparks, W. M.

    1981-01-01

    A Lagrangian, fully implicit, one dimensional hydrodynamic computer code was used to evolve thermonuclear runaways in the accreted hydrogen rich envelopes of 1.0 Msub solar neutron stars with radii of 10 km and 20 km. Simulations produce outbursts which last from about 750 seconds to about one week. Peak effective temeratures and luninosities were 26 million K and 80 thousand Lsub solar for the 10 km study and 5.3 millison and 600 Lsub solar for the 20 km study. Hydrodynamic expansion on the 10 km neutron star produced a precursor lasting about one ten thousandth seconds.

  3. Multinodal control room envelope model used for habitability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumberg, W.M.; Gore, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    This work analyzes the habitability of the control room envelope (CRE) during an off-normal ventilation system condition. The most limiting design basis accident utilized for this analysis is the postulated loss-of-coolant accident. The off-normal condition assumes two rooms within the CRE are at pressures that are lower than adjoining rooms outside the CRE. This pressure differential allows unfiltered in-leakage to enter the CRE through the doors and penetrations in these rooms. This paper quantifies the maximum unfiltered in-leakage

  4. The Data Envelopment Analysis Method in Benchmarking of Technological Incubators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Kaczmarska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an original concept for the application of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA in benchmarking processes within innovation and entrepreneurship centers based on the example of technological incubators. Applying the DEA method, it is possible to order analyzed objects, on the basis of explicitly defined relative efficiency, by compiling a rating list and rating classes. Establishing standards and indicating “clearances” allows the studied objects - innovation and entrepreneurship centers - to select a way of developing effectively, as well as preserving their individuality and a unique way of acting with the account of local needs. (original abstract

  5. Biliary Secretion of Quasi-Enveloped Human Hepatitis A Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai-Yuki, Asuka; Hensley, Lucinda; Whitmire, Jason K; Lemon, Stanley M

    2016-12-06

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an unusual picornavirus that is released from cells cloaked in host-derived membranes. These quasi-enveloped virions (eHAV) are the only particle type circulating in blood during infection, whereas only nonenveloped virions are shed in feces. The reason for this is uncertain. Hepatocytes, the only cell type known to support HAV replication in vivo, are highly polarized epithelial cells with basolateral membranes facing onto hepatic (blood) sinusoids and apical membranes abutting biliary canaliculi from which bile is secreted to the gut. To assess whether eHAV and nonenveloped virus egress from cells via vectorially distinct pathways, we studied infected polarized cultures of Caco-2 and HepG2-N6 cells. Most (>99%) progeny virions were released apically from Caco-2 cells, whereas basolateral (64%) versus apical (36%) release was more balanced with HepG2-N6 cells. Both apically and basolaterally released virions were predominantly enveloped, with no suggestion of differential vectorial release of eHAV versus naked virions. Basolateral to apical transcytosis of either particle type was minimal (work reveals that it has an unusual life cycle. Virus is found in cell culture supernatant fluids in two mature, infectious forms: one wrapped in membranes (quasi-enveloped) and another that is nonenveloped. Membrane-wrapped virions circulate in blood during acute infection and are resistant to neutralizing antibodies, likely facilitating HAV dissemination within the liver. On the other hand, virus shed in feces is nonenveloped and highly stable, facilitating epidemic spread and transmission to naive hosts. Factors controlling the biogenesis of these two distinct forms of the virus in infected humans are not understood. Here we characterize vectorial release of quasi-enveloped virions from polarized epithelial cell cultures and provide evidence that bile acids strip membranes from eHAV following its secretion into the biliary tract. These results

  6. Towards a fourth skin? sustainability and double-envelope buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diprose, P.R.; Robertson, G. [Auckland Univ. (New Zealand)

    1996-05-01

    In several well publicised designs for `green` office buildings, the zone of meditation between inside and outside has been increased by the addition of a second building envelope. When interpreted as exemplars of sustainable architecture, the addition of a second wall in these buildings is questionable both biophysically and psycho-culturally. More constructive design strategies acknowledge the wider biophysical contexts of the human ecosystem, the prudent use of material and energy resources throughout a building`s life, make realistic use of climate, and promote psycho-cultural needs arising out of ecologism. (author)

  7. Assessing Canadian Bank Branch Operating Efficiency Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zijiang

    2009-10-01

    In today's economy and society, performance analyses in the services industries attract more and more attention. This paper presents an evaluation of 240 branches of one big Canadian bank in Greater Toronto Area using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Special emphasis was placed on how to present the DEA results to management so as to provide more guidance to them on what to manage and how to accomplish the changes. Finally the potential management uses of the DEA results were presented. All the findings are discussed in the context of the Canadian banking market.

  8. Radiation-induced invagination of the nuclear envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szekely, J.G.; Copps, T.P.; Morash, B.D.

    1980-01-01

    Using electron microscopy, we have measured radiation-induced invagination of the nuclear envelope of Chinese hamster V-79 and mouse L cells to produce a quantifiable radiation endpoint on a membrane system. In the dose ranges measured (800 to 3000 rad in L cells and 1270 to 5700 rad in V-79 cells), the amount of invagination increased with dose and continued to develop in intact cells for up to 72 hr after the original population was irradiated. Small vacuoles, which sometimes appeared in the nuclei of L cells, were also more numerous in irradiated cells and increased with dose and incubation time in a similar fashion to invagination development

  9. A competitive-inhibiton radioimmunoassay for influenza virus envelope antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russ, G.; Styk, B.; Vareckova, E.; Polakova, K.

    1976-01-01

    A double-antibody competitive-inhibition radioimmunoassay for influenza virus envelope antigens is described. A viral antigen preparation from influenza A virus recombinant MRC11 [antigenically identical to A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (H3N2)] consisting of haemagglutinin and neuraminidase was labelled with radioiodine. Rabbit antisera were allowed to react with the labelled antigen and the resultant antigen-antibody complexes were precipitated with the appropriate antiglobulin. The competitive-inhibition radioimmunoassay very sensitively elucidated differences even among closely related influenza virus strains. Attempts have been made to eliminate neuraminidase from radioimmunoprecipitation to obtain a competitive-inhibition radioimmunoassay system for haemagglutinin alone. (author)

  10. Matrix-based introduction to multivariate data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Adachi, Kohei

    2016-01-01

    This book enables readers who may not be familiar with matrices to understand a variety of multivariate analysis procedures in matrix forms. Another feature of the book is that it emphasizes what model underlies a procedure and what objective function is optimized for fitting the model to data. The author believes that the matrix-based learning of such models and objective functions is the fastest way to comprehend multivariate data analysis. The text is arranged so that readers can intuitively capture the purposes for which multivariate analysis procedures are utilized: plain explanations of the purposes with numerical examples precede mathematical descriptions in almost every chapter. This volume is appropriate for undergraduate students who already have studied introductory statistics. Graduate students and researchers who are not familiar with matrix-intensive formulations of multivariate data analysis will also find the book useful, as it is based on modern matrix formulations with a special emphasis on ...

  11. Direct Closed-Form Design of Finite Alphabet Constant Envelope Waveforms for Planar Array Beampatterns

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha

    2015-05-01

    Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) radar systems has attracted lately a lot of attention thanks to its advantage over the classical phased array radar systems. We site among these advantages the improvement of parametric identifiability, achievement of higher spatial resolution and design of complex beampatterns. In colocated multiple-input multiple-output radar systems, it is usually desirable to steer transmitted power in the region-of-interest in order to increase the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and reduce any undesired signal and thus improve the detection process. This problem is also known as transmit beampattern design. To achieve this goal, conventional methods optimize the waveform covariance matrix, R, for the desired beampattern, which is then used to generate the actual transmitted waveforms. Both steps require constrained optimization. Most of the existing methods use iterative algorithms to solve these problems, therefore their computational complexity is very high which makes them hard to use in practice especially for real time radar applications. In this paper, we provide a closed-form solution to design the covariance matrix for a given beampattern in the three dimensional space using planar arrays, which is then used to derive a novel closed-form algorithm to directly design the finite-alphabet constant-envelope waveforms. The proposed algorithm exploits the two-dimensional discrete Fourier transform which is implemented using fast Fourier transform algorithm. Consequently, the computational complexity of the proposed beampattern solution is very low allowing it to be used for large arrays to change the beampattern in real time. We also show that the number of required snapshots in each waveform depends on the beampattern and that it is less than the total number of transmit antennas. In addition, we show that the proposed waveform design method can be used with non symmetric beampatterns. The performance of our proposed algorithm compares

  12. Conformational plasticity of the Ebola virus matrix protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzimanowski, Jens; Effantin, Gregory; Weissenhorn, Winfried

    2014-11-01

    Filoviruses are the causative agents of a severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever with repeated outbreaks in Africa. They are negative sense single stranded enveloped viruses that can cross species barriers from its natural host bats to primates including humans. The small size of the genome poses limits to viral adaption, which may be partially overcome by conformational plasticity. Here we review the different conformational states of the Ebola virus (EBOV) matrix protein VP40 that range from monomers, to dimers, hexamers, and RNA-bound octamers. This conformational plasticity that is required for the viral life cycle poses a unique opportunity for development of VP40 specific drugs. Furthermore, we compare the structure to homologous matrix protein structures from Paramyxoviruses and Bornaviruses and we predict that they do not only share the fold but also the conformational flexibility of EBOV VP40. © 2014 The Protein Society.

  13. Improving energy productivity in paddy production through benchmarking-An application of data envelopment analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Narvendra Singh [Department of Agronomy, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, P.O. Pundibari, District Cooch Behar (West Bengal) 736 165 (India)]. E-mail: nsc_01@rediffmail.com; Mohapatra, Pratap K.J. [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (West Bengal) 721 302 (India); Pandey, Keshaw Prasad [Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (West Bengal) 721 302 (India)

    2006-06-15

    In this study, a data envelopment analysis approach has been used to determine the efficiencies of farmers with regard to energy use in rice production activities in the alluvial zone in the state of West Bengal in India. The study has helped to segregate efficient farmers from inefficient ones, identify wasteful uses of energy from different sources by inefficient farmers and to suggest reasonable savings in energy uses from different sources. The methods of cross efficiency matrix and distribution of virtual inputs are used to get insights into the performance of individual farmers, rank efficient farmers and identify the improved operating practices followed by a group of truly efficient farmers. The results reveal that, on an average, about 11.6% of the total input energy could be saved if the farmers follow the input package recommended by the study. The study also suggests that better use of power tillers and introduction of improved machinery would improve the efficiency of energy use and thereby improve the energy productivity of the rice production system in the zone.

  14. A Novel Nonviral Gene Delivery System: Multifunctional Envelope-Type Nano Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Hiroto; Akita, Hidetaka; Kogure, Kentaro; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    In this review we introduce a new concept for developing a nonviral gene delivery system which we call "Programmed Packaging." Based on this concept, we succeeded in developing a multifunctional envelope-type nano device (MEND), which exerts high transfection activities equivalent to those of an adenovirus in a dividing cell. The use of MEND has been extended to in vivo applications. PEG/peptide/DOPE ternary conjugate (PPD)-MEND, a new in vivo gene delivery system for the targeting of tumor cells that dissociates surface-modified PEG in tumor tissue by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and exerts significant transfection activities, was developed. In parallel with the development of MEND, a quantitative gene delivery system, Confocal Image-assisted 3-dimensionally integrated quantification (CIDIQ), also was developed. This method identified the rate-limiting step of the nonviral gene delivery system by comparing it with adenoviral-mediated gene delivery. The results of this analysis provide a new direction for the development of rational nonviral gene delivery systems.

  15. Closed-loop fault detection for full-envelope flight vehicle with measurement delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhaolei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A closed-loop fault detection problem is investigated for the full-envelope flight vehicle with measurement delays, where the flight dynamics are modeled as a switched system with delayed feedback signals. The mode-dependent observer-based fault detection filters and state estimation feedback controllers are derived by considering the delays’ impact on the control system and fault detection system simultaneously. Then, considering updating lags of the controllers/filters’ switching signals which are introduced by the delayed measurement of altitude and Mach number, an asynchronous H∞ analysis method is proposed and the system model is further augmented to be an asynchronously switched time-delay system. Also, the global stability and desired performance of the augmented system are guaranteed by combining the switched delay-dependent Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional method with the average dwell time method (ADT, and the delay-dependent existing conditions for the controllers and fault detection filters are obtained in the form of the linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. Finally, numerical example based on the hypersonic vehicles and highly maneuverable technology (HiMAT vehicle is given to demonstrate the merits of the proposed method.

  16. Improving energy productivity in paddy production through benchmarking-An application of data envelopment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Narvendra Singh; Mohapatra, Pratap K.J.; Pandey, Keshaw Prasad

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a data envelopment analysis approach has been used to determine the efficiencies of farmers with regard to energy use in rice production activities in the alluvial zone in the state of West Bengal in India. The study has helped to segregate efficient farmers from inefficient ones, identify wasteful uses of energy from different sources by inefficient farmers and to suggest reasonable savings in energy uses from different sources. The methods of cross efficiency matrix and distribution of virtual inputs are used to get insights into the performance of individual farmers, rank efficient farmers and identify the improved operating practices followed by a group of truly efficient farmers. The results reveal that, on an average, about 11.6% of the total input energy could be saved if the farmers follow the input package recommended by the study. The study also suggests that better use of power tillers and introduction of improved machinery would improve the efficiency of energy use and thereby improve the energy productivity of the rice production system in the zone

  17. A new insight into opaque envelopes in a passive solar house: Properties and roles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Linshuang; Ye, Hong; Liu, Minghou

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new insight into the opaque envelopes of a passive solar house was gained. • Five parts of envelopes, i.e., roof, south/east/west/north walls, were discussed. • Each part of envelopes were analyzed separately rather than treated as a whole. • Ideal properties of materials for each envelope are diverse from one another. • Differences are related to the envelopes’ leading roles as a heater or a cooler. - Abstract: Passive solar houses are effective solutions for minimizing the operating energy of buildings. The building envelopes of passive solar houses exert a significant influence on the degree of indoor thermal comfort. The focus of this study was the construction of high-performance opaque envelopes, i.e., the roof and walls, for a passive solar house, and a new conception of the envelopes from the perspective of the relation between the properties and roles was provided. The discussion was conducted based on a comprehensive range of envelope materials that were distinguished by the thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity. For the first time, each part of the envelopes was analyzed separately rather than considered as an entire envelope. By analyzing each envelope individually, the optimum properties of each envelope were found to be distinct from each other. The distinctions are determined by the dominant role of each envelope, which is associated with the location and absorbed solar irradiation. For summer or hot climate applications, when the dominant role is a cooler, the envelope, e.g., the south wall, should consist of materials with high thermal conductivity and large heat capacity; if a heater is the dominant role, the envelope, e.g., the roof, should consist of materials with low thermal conductivity. For winter or cold climate applications, the envelopes with a leading role of a heater or a cooler require materials with high or low thermal conductivity, respectively. Under the guidance of the results, a discussion

  18. Complex-envelope alternating-direction-implicit FDTD method for simulating active photonic devices with semiconductor/solid-state media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Ravi, Koustuban; Wang, Qian; Ho, Seng-Tiong

    2012-06-15

    A complex-envelope (CE) alternating-direction-implicit (ADI) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approach to treat light-matter interaction self-consistently with electromagnetic field evolution for efficient simulations of active photonic devices is presented for the first time (to our best knowledge). The active medium (AM) is modeled using an efficient multilevel system of carrier rate equations to yield the correct carrier distributions, suitable for modeling semiconductor/solid-state media accurately. To include the AM in the CE-ADI-FDTD method, a first-order differential system involving CE fields in the AM is first set up. The system matrix that includes AM parameters is then split into two time-dependent submatrices that are then used in an efficient ADI splitting formula. The proposed CE-ADI-FDTD approach with AM takes 22% of the time as the approach of the corresponding explicit FDTD, as validated by semiconductor microdisk laser simulations.

  19. Utilizing the building envelope for power generation and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.C.; Kuo, C.H.; Wang, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Heat loading of the building envelope is caused by strong solar radiation and incorrect material selection. As a result of the heat loading of the building envelope, the indoor air temperature is increased, resulting in high energy consumption by air conditioners to maintain a comfortable indoor thermal environment. This study explores the use of a hybrid wall integrated with heat collectors (water piping system) and solar thermal power generators, which absorbs solar radiation through water to reduce heat transmission thereby saving energy and generating power. Power generation is achieved by an OD (oscillator device) that installed between a water tank (hot side) and building interior (cold side). The device acts by temperature differences between hot air (expansion) and cold air (contraction). CFD (computational dynamic simulation) was used to assess the effects of the hybrid wall on the interior environment. The results show that exterior heat is absorbed by cool water thereby reducing the heat transmission into the building, resulting in less energy consumption by air conditioners and power generation by use of temperature differences. - Highlights: • This study explores a hybrid building wall to save energy and generate power. • Power generators operated by air pressure change via hot tank and cool interior. • Less energy consumption by air conditioners and heating water. • Performance of CFD simulated results and experiment results are similar. • The energy saving efficiency is around 15 kWh/day via hybrid wall in west façade.

  20. Residential building envelope heat gain and cooling energy requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Joseph C.; Tsang, C.L.; Li, Danny H.W.; Cheung, S.O.

    2005-01-01

    We present the energy use situation in Hong Kong from 1979 to 2001. The primary energy requirement (PER) nearly tripled during the 23-year period, rising from 195,405 TJ to 572,684 TJ. Most of the PER was used for electricity generation, and the electricity use in residential buildings rose from 7556 TJ (2099 GWh) to 32,799 TJ (9111 GWh), an increase of 334%. Air-conditioning accounted for about 40% of the total residential sector electricity consumption. A total of 144 buildings completed in the month of June during 1992-2001 were surveyed. Energy performance of the building envelopes was investigated in terms of the overall thermal transfer value (OTTV). To develop the appropriated parameters used in OTTV calculation, long-term measured weather data such as ambient temperature (1960-2001), horizontal global solar radiation (1992-2001) and global solar radiation on vertical surfaces (1996-2001) were examined. The OTTV found varied from 27 to 44 W/m 2 with a mean value of 37.7 W/m 2 . Building energy simulation technique using DOE-2.1E was employed to determine the cooling requirements and hence electricity use for building envelope designs with different OTTVs. It was found that cooling loads and electricity use could be expressed in terms of a simple two-parameter linear regression equation involving OTTV

  1. Do all Planetary Nebulae result from Common Envelopes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, O.; Moe, M.; Herwig, F.; Politano, M.

    2005-12-01

    The common envelope interaction is responsible for evolved close binaries. Some of these binaries reside in the middle of planetary nebulae (PN). Conventional wisdom has it that only about 10% of all PN contain close binary central stars. Recent observational results, however, strongly suggest that most or even all PN are in close binary systems. Interestingly, our population synthesis calculations predict that the number of post-common envelope PN is in agreement with the total number of PN in the Galaxy. On the other hand, if all stars (single and in binaries) with mass between ˜1-8 M⊙ eject a PN, there would be 10-20 times many more PN in the galaxy than observed. This theoretical result is in agreement with the observations in suggesting that binary interactions play a functional rather than marginal role in the creation of PN. FH acknowledges funds from the U.S. Dept. of Energy, under contract W-7405-ENG-36 to Los Alamos National Laboratory. MP gratefully acknowledges NSF grant AST-0328484 to Marquette University.

  2. THE PROPERTIES OF HEAVY ELEMENTS IN GIANT PLANET ENVELOPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soubiran, François; Militzer, Burkhard [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-09-20

    The core-accretion model for giant planet formation suggests a two-layer picture for the initial structure of Jovian planets, with heavy elements in a dense core and a thick H–He envelope. Late planetesimal accretion and core erosion could potentially enrich the H–He envelope in heavy elements, which is supported by the threefold solar metallicity that was measured in Jupiter’s atmosphere by the Galileo entry probe. In order to reproduce the observed gravitational moments of Jupiter and Saturn, models for their interiors include heavy elements, Z , in various proportions. However, their effect on the equation of state of the hydrogen–helium mixtures has not been investigated beyond the ideal mixing approximation. In this article, we report results from ab initio simulations of fully interacting H–He– Z mixtures in order to characterize their equation of state and to analyze possible consequences for the interior structure and evolution of giant planets. Considering C, N, O, Si, Fe, MgO, and SiO{sub 2}, we show that the behavior of heavy elements in H–He mixtures may still be represented by an ideal mixture if the effective volumes and internal energies are chosen appropriately. In the case of oxygen, we also compute the effect on the entropy. We find the resulting changes in the temperature–pressure profile to be small. A homogeneous distribution of 2% oxygen by mass changes the temperature in Jupiter’s interior by only 80 K.

  3. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in circumstellar envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenklach, M.; Feigelson, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    Production of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes was investigated using a kinetic approach. A detailed chemical reaction mechanism of gas-phase PAH formation and growth, containing approximately 100 reactions of 40 species, was numerically solved under the physical conditions expected in cool stellar winds. The chemistry is based on studies of soot production in hydrocarbon pyrolysis and combustion. Several first-ring and second-ring cyclization processes were considered. A linear lumping algorithm was used to describe PAH growth beyond the second aromatic ring. PAH production using this mechanism was examined with respect to a grid of idealized constant velocity stellar winds as well as several published astrophysical models. The basic result is that the onset of PAH production in the interstellar envelopes is predicted to occur within the temperature interval of 1100 to 900 K. The absolute amounts of the PAHs formed, however, are very sensitive to a number of parameters, both chemical and astrophysical, whose values are not accurately known. Astrophysically meaningful quantities of PAHs require particularly dense and slow stellar winds and high initial acetylene abundance. It is suggested that most of the PAHs may be produced in a relatively small fraction of carbon-rich red giants. 87 refs

  4. Crystal structure of the Japanese encephalitis virus envelope protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Vincent C; AbiMansour, Jad; Nelson, Christopher A; Fremont, Daved H

    2012-02-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading global cause of viral encephalitis. The JEV envelope protein (E) facilitates cellular attachment and membrane fusion and is the primary target of neutralizing antibodies. We have determined the 2.1-Å resolution crystal structure of the JEV E ectodomain refolded from bacterial inclusion bodies. The E protein possesses the three domains characteristic of flavivirus envelopes and epitope mapping of neutralizing antibodies onto the structure reveals determinants that correspond to the domain I lateral ridge, fusion loop, domain III lateral ridge, and domain I-II hinge. While monomeric in solution, JEV E assembles as an antiparallel dimer in the crystal lattice organized in a highly similar fashion as seen in cryo-electron microscopy models of mature flavivirus virions. The dimer interface, however, is remarkably small and lacks many of the domain II contacts observed in other flavivirus E homodimers. In addition, uniquely conserved histidines within the JEV serocomplex suggest that pH-mediated structural transitions may be aided by lateral interactions outside the dimer interface in the icosahedral virion. Our results suggest that variation in dimer structure and stability may significantly influence the assembly, receptor interaction, and uncoating of virions.

  5. Functional Analysis of Glycosylation of Zika Virus Envelope Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila R. Fontes-Garfias

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Zika virus (ZIKV infection causes devastating congenital abnormities and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The ZIKV envelope (E protein is responsible for viral entry and represents a major determinant for viral pathogenesis. Like other flaviviruses, the ZIKV E protein is glycosylated at amino acid N154. To study the function of E glycosylation, we generated a recombinant N154Q ZIKV that lacks the E glycosylation and analyzed the mutant virus in mammalian and mosquito hosts. In mouse models, the mutant was attenuated, as evidenced by lower viremia, decreased weight loss, and no mortality; however, knockout of E glycosylation did not significantly affect neurovirulence. Mice immunized with the mutant virus developed a robust neutralizing antibody response and were completely protected from wild-type ZIKV challenge. In mosquitoes, the mutant virus exhibited diminished oral infectivity for the Aedes aegypti vector. Collectively, the results demonstrate that E glycosylation is critical for ZIKV infection of mammalian and mosquito hosts. : Zika virus (ZIKV causes devastating congenital abnormities and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Fontes-Garfias et al. showed that the glycosylation of ZIKV envelope protein plays an important role in infecting mosquito vectors and pathogenesis in mouse. Keywords: Zika virus, glycosylation, flavivirus entry, mosquito transmission, vaccine

  6. Focal Targeting of the Bacterial Envelope by Antimicrobial Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafi eRashid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are utilized by both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. AMPs such as the human beta defensins, human neutrophil peptides, human cathelicidin, and many bacterial bacteriocins are cationic and capable of binding to anionic regions of the bacterial surface. Cationic AMPs (CAMPs target anionic lipids (e.g. phosphatidylglycerol (PG and cardiolipins (CL in the cell membrane and anionic components (e.g. lipopolysaccharide (LPS and lipoteichoic acid (LTA of the cell envelope. Bacteria have evolved mechanisms to modify these same targets in order to resist CAMP killing, e.g. lysinylation of PG to yield cationic lysyl-PG and alanylation of LTA. Since CAMPs offer a promising therapeutic alternative to conventional antibiotics, which are becoming less effective due to rapidly emerging antibiotic resistance, there is a strong need to improve our understanding about the AMP mechanism of action. Recent literature suggests that AMPs often interact with the bacterial cell envelope at discrete foci. Here we review recent AMP literature, with an emphasis on focal interactions with bacteria, including (1 CAMP disruption mechanisms, (2 delocalization of membrane proteins and lipids by CAMPs, and (3 CAMP sensing systems and resistance mechanisms. We conclude with new approaches for studying the bacterial membrane, e.g., lipidomics, high resolution imaging and non-detergent-based membrane domain extraction.

  7. Binaural hearing in children using Gaussian enveloped and transposed tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Erica; Kan, Alan; Winn, Matthew B; Stoelb, Corey; Litovsky, Ruth Y

    2016-04-01

    Children who use bilateral cochlear implants (BiCIs) show significantly poorer sound localization skills than their normal hearing (NH) peers. This difference has been attributed, in part, to the fact that cochlear implants (CIs) do not faithfully transmit interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs), which are known to be important cues for sound localization. Interestingly, little is known about binaural sensitivity in NH children, in particular, with stimuli that constrain acoustic cues in a manner representative of CI processing. In order to better understand and evaluate binaural hearing in children with BiCIs, the authors first undertook a study on binaural sensitivity in NH children ages 8-10, and in adults. Experiments evaluated sound discrimination and lateralization using ITD and ILD cues, for stimuli with robust envelope cues, but poor representation of temporal fine structure. Stimuli were spondaic words, Gaussian-enveloped tone pulse trains (100 pulse-per-second), and transposed tones. Results showed that discrimination thresholds in children were adult-like (15-389 μs for ITDs and 0.5-6.0 dB for ILDs). However, lateralization based on the same binaural cues showed higher variability than seen in adults. Results are discussed in the context of factors that may be responsible for poor representation of binaural cues in bilaterally implanted children.

  8. Hospitals Productivity Measurement Using Data Envelopment Analysis Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabipour, Amin; Najarzadeh, Maryam; Arab, Mohammad; Farzianpour, Freshteh; Ghasemzadeh, Roya

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to measure the hospital productivity using data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique and Malmquist indices. This is a cross sectional study in which the panel data were used in a 4 year period from 2007 to 2010. The research was implemented in 12 teaching and non-teaching hospitals of Ahvaz County. Data envelopment analysis technique and the Malmquist indices with an input-orientation approach, was used to analyze the data and estimation of productivity. Data were analyzed using the SPSS.18 and DEAP.2 software. Six hospitals (50%) had a value lower than 1, which represents an increase in total productivity and other hospitals were non-productive. the average of total productivity factor (TPF) was 1.024 for all hospitals, which represents a decrease in efficiency by 2.4% from 2007 to 2010. The average technical, technologic, scale and managerial efficiency change was 0.989, 1.008, 1.028, and 0.996 respectively. There was not a significant difference in mean productivity changes among teaching and non-teaching hospitals (P>0.05) (except in 2009 years). Productivity rate of hospitals had an increasing trend generally. However, the total average of productivity was decreased in hospitals. Besides, between the several components of total productivity, variation of technological efficiency had the highest impact on reduce of total average of productivity.

  9. A novel family of plant nuclear envelope-associated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Vidya; Poulet, Axel; Détourné, Gwénaëlle; Tatout, Christophe; Vanrobays, Emmanuel; Evans, David E; Graumann, Katja

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the characterisation of a new family of higher plant nuclear envelope-associated proteins (NEAPs) that interact with other proteins of the nuclear envelope. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the family consists of three genes expressed ubiquitously (AtNEAP1-3) and a pseudogene (AtNEAP4). NEAPs consist of extensive coiled-coil domains, followed by a nuclear localisation signal and a C-terminal predicted transmembrane domain. Domain deletion mutants confirm the presence of a functional nuclear localisation signal and transmembrane domain. AtNEAP proteins localise to the nuclear periphery as part of stable protein complexes, are able to form homo- and heteromers, and interact with the SUN domain proteins AtSUN1 and AtSUN2, involved in the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex. An A. thaliana cDNA library screen identified a putative transcription factor called AtbZIP18 as a novel interactor of AtNEAP1, which suggest a connection between NEAP and chromatin. An Atneap1 Atneap3 double-knockout mutant showed reduced root growth, and altered nuclear morphology and chromatin structure. Thus AtNEAPs are suggested as inner nuclear membrane-anchored coiled-coil proteins with roles in maintaining nuclear morphology and chromatin structure. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Optimum moisture levels for biodegradation of mortality composting envelope materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, H K; Richard, T L; Glanville, T D

    2008-01-01

    Moisture affects the physical and biological properties of compost and other solid-state fermentation matrices. Aerobic microbial systems experience different respiration rates (oxygen uptake and CO2 evolution) as a function of moisture content and material type. In this study the microbial respiration rates of 12 mortality composting envelope materials were measured by a pressure sensor method at six different moisture levels. A wide range of respiration (1.6-94.2mg O2/g VS-day) rates were observed for different materials, with alfalfa hay, silage, oat straw, and turkey litter having the highest values. These four envelope materials may be particularly suitable for improving internal temperature and pathogen destruction rates for disease-related mortality composting. Optimum moisture content was determined based on measurements across a range that spans the maximum respiration rate. The optimum moisture content of each material was observed near water holding capacity, which ranged from near 60% to over 80% on a wet basis for all materials except a highly stabilized soil compost blend (optimum around 25% w.b.). The implications of the results for moisture management and process control strategies during mortality composting are discussed.

  11. On sociological criteria of religiousness: How many (Orthodox believers are there today?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Mirko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this text the author first tries to provide an answer on the number of religious people today in two post-communist and Orthodox countries, and then on the number of Orthodox believers in them. Therefore he analyzes numerous data from empirical evidence using a large number of indicators discussed in the text. The author first analyzes them as indicators of representative dimension of religiousness, then as indicators of beliefs in dogmatic core of Christianity, indicators of current church ritual practice and finally, as indicators of a traditional attitude towards religion and church. With these analyses the author tries to find the criterion or criteria which best express the religiousness of people in a particular area. The analysis identifies three approaches in Russian sociological and religious literature. The first one is defined as a classic, positivistic approach, the second one as post-classic or phenomenological, and the third one as synthetic. Then the author discusses the term attachment to religion and church and its indicators, as well as the indices which are sociologically more suitable for the research of the religious and church complex. In the end the author gives a few methodological instructions for a sociological and empirical research of religiousness.

  12. How Can a Confessor Better Call Upon Believers to Achieve Perfection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Popescu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sacred Mystery of Confession plays a central role in the Orthodox life and spirituality. It reestablishes the connection between Christian and God interrupted through the sin committed after baptism. It is also called The Sacred Mystery of Penance, because it expresses recovery, personal transformation, repentance, confession and a new way of life through coming to terms with God. Although it is among the most used sacred mysteries and has the most beneficial effects, the interest in rebuilding of the spiritual communion through confessing the sins, and in confessor’s guidance has decreased, and in some places it is desultory. They confess sins, but only for an illusionary serenity of conscience, because they do not give up their sinful lives. Searching for a solution to this problem we have found in one of father Stăniloae’s articles (The Sacred Mystery of Penance as confession a sentence with important present-day theological connotations about the Sacred Mystery of Reconciliation and about a more efficient approach to this sacred mystery: „We would like – says the father – to focus our attention upon confession in a restricted sense, to see through which kind of the confessor’s behavior might ease this act for the believers who experience an inner difficulty in front of him or consider it useless”.

  13. Is painting by elephants in zoos as enriching as we are led to believe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan English

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the activity of painting and performance of stereotyped and other stress-related behaviour was investigated in four captive Asian elephants at Melbourne Zoo, Australia. The activity involved the elephant being instructed to paint on a canvas by its keeper in front of an audience. Painting by elephants in zoos is commonly believed to be a form of enrichment, but this assumption had not been based on any systematic research. If an activity is enriching we would expect stress-related behaviour to be reduced but we found no evidence of the elephants anticipating the painting activity and no effect on the performance of stereotyped or other stress-related behaviour either before or after the painting session. This indicates that the activity does not fulfil one of the main aims of enrichment. However, if an elephant was not selected to paint on a given day this was associated with higher levels of non-interactive behaviour, a possible indicator of stress. Behavioural observations associated with ear, eye and trunk positions during the painting session showed that the elephant’s attentiveness to the painting activity or to the keeper giving instruction varied between individuals. Apart from positive reinforcement from the keeper, the results indicated that elephants gain little enrichment from the activity of painting. Hence, the benefits of this activity appear to be limited to the aesthetic appeal of these paintings to the people viewing them.

  14. Radiocarbon evidence for a smaller oceanic carbon dioxide sink than previously believed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesshaimer, Vago; Heimann, Martin; Levin, Ingeborg

    1994-07-01

    RADIOCARBON produced naturally in the upper atmosphere or arti-ficially during nuclear weapons testing is the main tracer used to validate models of oceanic carbon cycling, in particular the exchange of carbon dioxide with the atmosphere1-3 and the mixing parameters within the ocean itself4-7. Here we test the overall consistency of exchange fluxes between all relevant compartments in a simple model of the global carbon cycle, using measurements of the long-term tropospheric CO2 concentration8 and radiocarbon composition9-12, the bomb 14C inventory in the stratosphere13,14 and a compilation of bomb detonation dates and strengths15. We find that to balance the budget, we must invoke an extra source to account for 25% of the generally accepted uptake of bomb 14C by the oceans3. The strength of this source decreases from 1970 onwards, with a characteristic timescale similar to that of the ocean uptake. Significant radiocarbon transport from the remote high stratosphere and significantly reduced uptake of bomb 14C by the biosphere can both be ruled out by observational constraints. We therefore conclude that the global oceanic bomb 14C inventory should be revised downwards. A smaller oceanic bomb 14C inventory also implies a smaller oceanic radiocarbon penetration depth16, which in turn implies that the oceans take up 25% less anthropogenic CO2 than had previously been believed.

  15. Worldview implications of believing in free will and/or determinism: politics, morality, and punitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Jasmine M; Paulhus, Delroy L

    2013-04-01

    We used the FAD-Plus to investigate the association of free will belief (FWB) with political orientation, moral attitudes, and punitiveness. Other goals included (a) confirming the independence of believing in free will and determinism and (b) contrasting scientific determinism with fatalistic determinism. Three studies were conducted via online questionnaires. Studies 1 and 3 recruited undergraduate students: Study 1, N = 220, M(age) = 20.96; Study 3, N = 161, M(age) = 20.2. Study 2 participants were recruited from a broader community sample: N = 253, M(age) = 34.29. Studies 1 and 2 found that FWB is associated with traditional conservative attitudes, including authoritarianism, religiosity, and belief in a just world. Study 2 replicated this pattern but narrowed the religiosity link to the intrinsic style. In Study 3, FWB was associated with binding moral foundations and retributive punishment of hypothetical criminals. Belief in free will is associated with a conservative worldview, including such facets as authoritarianism, religiosity, punitiveness, and moralistic standards for judging self and others. The common element appears to be a strong sense of personal responsibility. Evidence for distinct correlates of scientific and fatalistic determinism reinforces the need for treating them separately. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Confronting, Representing, and Believing Counterintuitive Concepts: Navigating the Natural and the Supernatural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jonathan D; Harris, Paul L

    2014-03-01

    Recent research shows that even preschoolers are skeptical; they frequently reject claims from other people when the claims conflict with their own perceptions and concepts. Yet, despite their skepticism, both children and adults come to believe in a variety of phenomena that defy their first-hand perceptions and intuitive conceptions of the world. In this review, we explore how children and adults acquire such concepts. We describe how a similar developmental process underlies mental representation of both the natural and the supernatural world, and we detail this process for two prominent supernatural counterintuitive ideas-God and the afterlife. In doing so, we highlight the fact that conceptual development does not always move in the direction of greater empirical truth, as described within naturalistic domains. We consider factors that likely help overcome skepticism and, in doing so, promote belief in counterintuitive phenomena. These factors include qualities of the learners, aspects of the context, qualities of the informants, and qualities of the information. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. An Study on the Relationship Between Gender Believes and Family Function of Kourd and Fars Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    صدیقه خانی مجد

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to study comparatively the relationship between gender beliefs and the family function of Kurdish and Fars students. Correlational research method was employed in order to examine the relationship between variables. 200 students from each ethnicity (100 male 100 female and in total 400 students were selected from university of Kermanshah and Shahid beheshti University based on convenience sampling. Respondents completed Bem Sex Roles Inventory (Bem, 1974 and Family Assessment Device (Epstein, Bishop, Baldwin, 1983. Mean of scores for family function subscales and gender roles were computed and compared for independent samples. Also Pearson Correlation Coefficient between family function components and gender beliefs were measured. Findings revealed that there was not any signifycant relationship between gender roles’ beliefs and family function in Fars students. In Kourd students, significant relationship between androgynous belief and problem solving factor was found. Also we obtained significant relationship between the absolutely feminine belief and problem solving, affective involvement, affective responsiveness, behavior control, and family general function. Comparison of the family function of Kurdish with Fars indicated significant differences between groups in affective involvement factor. Based on the obtained findings, it can be concluded that national and cultural elements are effective elements that can impact the relationship between gender believes and family function. It also can be imagined that Kourds and Fars families are different in affective involvement criterion between their members and showing their interests and sentiments to the other members of the family.

  18. Easy to retrieve but hard to believe: metacognitive discounting of the unpleasantly possible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ed

    2013-06-01

    People who recall or forecast many pleasant moments should perceive themselves as happier in the past or future than people who generate few such moments; the same principle should apply to generating unpleasant moments and perceiving unhappiness. Five studies suggest that this is not always true. Rather, people's metacognitive experience of ease of thought retrieval ("fluency") can affect perceived well-being over time beyond actual thought content. The easier it is to recall positive past experiences, the happier people think they were at the time; likewise, the easier it is to recall negative past experiences, the unhappier people think they were. But this is not the case for predicting the future. Although people who easily generate positive forecasts predict more future happiness, people who easily generate negative forecasts do not infer future unhappiness. Given pervasive tendencies to underestimate the likelihood of experiencing negative events, people apparently discount hard-to-believe metacognitive feelings (e.g., easily imagined unpleasant futures). Paradoxically, people's well-being may be maximized when they contemplate some bad moments or just a few good moments.

  19. Barriers to providing the sexuality education that teachers believe students need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Madsen, Nikki; Oliphant, Jennifer A; Sieving, Renee E

    2013-05-01

    Sexuality education teachers' perspectives are important to gain a full understanding of the issues surrounding teaching this subject. This study uses a statewide sample of public school teachers to examine what sexuality education content is taught, what barriers teachers face, and which barriers are associated with teaching specific topics. Participants included 368 middle and high school teachers with sexuality education assignments in Minnesota. Survey data included topics they teach, what they think they should teach, and barriers they face. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between barriers and teaching each of 9 sexual health topics, among those who believed the topic should be taught. Almost two thirds of participants faced structural barriers; 45% were concerned about parent, student, or administrator response; and one quarter reported restrictive policies. Structural barriers were inversely associated with teaching about communication (OR = 0.20), teen parenting (OR = 0.34), and abortion (OR = 0.32); concerns about responses were associated only with teaching about sexual violence (OR = 0.42); and restrictive policies were inversely associated with teaching about abortion (OR = 0.23) and sexual orientation (OR = 0.47). Addressing teachers' barriers requires a multipronged approach, including curriculum development and evaluation, training, and reframing the policy debate to support a wider range of sexuality education topics. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  20. Who Believes in the Giant Skeleton Myth? An Examination of Individual Difference Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Swami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined individual difference correlates of belief in a narrative about the discovery of giant skeletal remains that contravenes mainstream scientific explanations. A total of 364 participants from Central Europe completed a survey that asked them to rate their agreement with a short excerpt describing the giant skeleton myth. Participants also completed measures of the Big Five personality factors, New Age orientation, anti-scientific attitudes, superstitious beliefs, and religiosity. Results showed that women, as compared with men, and respondents with lower educational qualifications were significantly more likely to believe in the giant skeleton myth, although effect sizes were small. Correlational analysis showed that stronger belief in the giant skeleton myth was significantly associated with greater anti-scientific attitudes, stronger New Age orientation, greater religiosity, stronger superstitious beliefs, lower Openness to Experience scores, and higher Neuroticism scores. However, a multiple regression showed that the only significant predictors of belief in myth were Openness, New Age orientation, and anti-scientific attitudes. These results are discussed in relation to the potential negative consequences of belief in myths.

  1. How were lipofilling cannulae designed and are they as safe as we believe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memet Yazar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most practitioners in plastic surgery believe that blunt tipped cannulae are safer. Interestingly, there is no study about their safety, and the problem is exactly this. As the use of blunt tipped cannulae is somehow difficult, some surgeons try other extreme alternatives, such as sharp and cutting tipped injection needles. But, they can cause complications such as vessel damage. According to these hypotheses, we tried to design a cannula which would ease the application of lipofilling and which would minimise the trauma. Contrary to the injection needle, the tips of the cannula would be blunter, and trauma would be diminished. Objectives: After designing such a cannula, we compared it with the most frequently used Coleman type cannulae with regard to ease in utilisation, and safety. We also tried to evaluate the potential for trauma, of the regularly used cannulae. Materials and Methods : In the first part, the penetration capacity of all cannulae was measured and compared, and in the second part, the tissue damage was evaluated in an experimental model. Results: According to the statistical and histological findings, the pointed-tip cannulae, blunted to a certain degree, can be applied easily through the tissues. The surgeon works more comfortably and we have noted that these cannulae cause less tissue damage.

  2. Changing beliefs about past public events with believable and unbelievable doctored photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Robert A

    2018-04-01

    Doctored photographs can shape what people believe and remember about prominent public events, perhaps due to their apparent credibility. In three studies, subjects completed surveys about the 2012 London Olympic torch relay (Experiment 1) or the 2011 Royal Wedding of Prince William and Kate Middleton (Experiments 2-3). Some were shown a genuine photo of the event; others saw a doctored photo that depicted protesters and unrest. A third group of subjects saw a doctored photo whose inauthenticity had been made explicit, either by adding a written disclaimer (Experiment 1) or by making the digital manipulation deliberately poor (Experiments 2-3). In all three studies, doctored photos had small effects on a subset of subjects' beliefs about the events. Of central interest though, comparable effects also emerged when the photos were overtly inauthentic. These findings suggest that cognitive mechanisms other than credibility - such as familiarity misattribution and mental imagery - can rapidly influence beliefs about past events even when the low credibility of a source is overt.

  3. Comparison of Irrational Believes between Mothers of Severe or Profound Mentally Handicapped Children with Healthy Children Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Hivadi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of present research was the comparison of mothers irrational believes with severe or profound mentally handicapped child and mothers with normal child from 6 to14 years old in Tehran city. Materials & Methods: This study was an analytical, cross – sectional and comparative (case – control research. From mothers with severe or profound mentally handicapped child who had refered to Tehran welfare services centers, 80 mothers were selected by regular randomized sampling from two rehabilitation centers and 80 mothers with normal child were selected for peering with the group of testimonial from schools areas of east, west, south, north and center of Tehran, through multi - stage cluster sampling in for variables of: age of mothers, educational levels, the location of living and the number of children. They answered to questionnaire of irrational believes of jons (IBT. Analysis of data was done by descriptive and infringing statistics methods (Independent T test, U Mann Whitney, Chi-square and fisher. Results: The findings showed that: there are significantly differences in total irrational believes and irrational believes of blame proneness, frustration reactive, anxious over concern, problem avoiding and dependency, perfectionism between two groups of mothers (P<0/05. There was no significant difference in irrational believes between mothers who had mental handicap daughter and mothers who had mental handicap son (P=0/314. There was no significantly difference between two groups of mothers in four believes of demand for approval (P=0/737, high-self expectation (P=0/126, emotional irresponsibility (P=0/727, helplessness for change (p=0/283. Conclusion: Irrational believes and many its sub scales. In mothers of severe or profound mental handicap children were more than mothers with normal child. But believes of demand for approval, high self expectation, emotional irresponsibility, helplessness for change in mothers with

  4. The Experimental Research on Seismic Capacity of the Envelope Systems with Steel Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiuyang; Wang, Bingbing; Li, Hengxu

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, according to the present application situation of the external envelope systems steel frame in the severe cold region, the stuffed composite wall panels are improved, the flexible connection with the steel frame is designed, the reduced scale specimens are made, the seismic capacity test is made and some indexes of the envelope systems such as bearing capacity, energy consumption and ductility, etc. are compared, which provide reference for the development and application of the steel frame envelope systems.

  5. CCR5 Signal Transduction in Macrophages by Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    Arthos, James; Rubbert, Andrea; Rabin, Ronald L.; Cicala, Claudia; Machado, Elizabeth; Wildt, Kathryne; Hanbach, Meredith; Steenbeke, Tavis D.; Swofford, Ruth; Farber, Joshua M.; Fauci, Anthony S.

    2000-01-01

    The capacity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) envelopes to transduce signals through chemokine coreceptors on macrophages was examined by measuring the ability of recombinant envelope proteins to mobilize intracellular calcium stores. Both HIV and SIV envelopes mobilized calcium via interactions with CCR5. The kinetics of these responses were similar to those observed when macrophages were treated with MIP-1β. Distinct differences in the capacity o...

  6. Combined centroid-envelope dynamics of intense, magnetically focused charged beams surrounded by conducting walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiuza, K.; Rizzato, F.B.; Pakter, R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the combined envelope-centroid dynamics of magnetically focused high-intensity charged beams surrounded by conducting walls. Similar to the case where conducting walls are absent, it is shown that the envelope and centroid dynamics decouple from each other. Mismatched envelopes still decay into equilibrium with simultaneous emittance growth, but the centroid keeps oscillating with no appreciable energy loss. Some estimates are performed to analytically obtain characteristics of halo formation seen in the full simulations

  7. Matrix Information Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    This book is an outcome of the Indo-French Workshop on Matrix Information Geometries (MIG): Applications in Sensor and Cognitive Systems Engineering, which was held in Ecole Polytechnique and Thales Research and Technology Center, Palaiseau, France, in February 23-25, 2011. The workshop was generously funded by the Indo-French Centre for the Promotion of Advanced Research (IFCPAR).  During the event, 22 renowned invited french or indian speakers gave lectures on their areas of expertise within the field of matrix analysis or processing. From these talks, a total of 17 original contribution or state-of-the-art chapters have been assembled in this volume. All articles were thoroughly peer-reviewed and improved, according to the suggestions of the international referees. The 17 contributions presented  are organized in three parts: (1) State-of-the-art surveys & original matrix theory work, (2) Advanced matrix theory for radar processing, and (3) Matrix-based signal processing applications.  

  8. Evolution of a blue supergiant with a neutron star companion immersed in its envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    The evolution of a binary system consisting of 1 Msub(sun) neutron star and a 25 Msub(sun) blue supergiant through a phase of common envelope is investigated. We include the effects of an additional energy source on the supergiant's envelope, due to the presence of the neutron star, and variable mass loss from the system, taken as proportional to the total luminosity. The results indicate that, independently of the initial period, the system loses its whole envelope as a consequence of the common envelope phase, the final product of this being a detached system, consisting of a neutron star and a helium star. (orig.)

  9. 2016 MATRIX annals

    CERN Document Server

    Praeger, Cheryl; Tao, Terence

    2018-01-01

    MATRIX is Australia’s international, residential mathematical research institute. It facilitates new collaborations and mathematical advances through intensive residential research programs, each lasting 1-4 weeks. This book is a scientific record of the five programs held at MATRIX in its first year, 2016: Higher Structures in Geometry and Physics (Chapters 1-5 and 18-21); Winter of Disconnectedness (Chapter 6 and 22-26); Approximation and Optimisation (Chapters 7-8); Refining C*-Algebraic Invariants for Dynamics using KK-theory (Chapters 9-13); Interactions between Topological Recursion, Modularity, Quantum Invariants and Low-dimensional Topology (Chapters 14-17 and 27). The MATRIX Scientific Committee selected these programs based on their scientific excellence and the participation rate of high-profile international participants. Each program included ample unstructured time to encourage collaborative research; some of the longer programs also included an embedded conference or lecture series. The artic...

  10. Matrix interdiction problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    In the matrix interdiction problem, a real-valued matrix and an integer k is given. The objective is to remove k columns such that the sum over all rows of the maximum entry in each row is minimized. This combinatorial problem is closely related to bipartite network interdiction problem which can be applied to prioritize the border checkpoints in order to minimize the probability that an adversary can successfully cross the border. After introducing the matrix interdiction problem, we will prove the problem is NP-hard, and even NP-hard to approximate with an additive n{gamma} factor for a fixed constant {gamma}. We also present an algorithm for this problem that achieves a factor of (n-k) mUltiplicative approximation ratio.

  11. Dynamic Matrix Rank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Frandsen, Peter Frands

    2009-01-01

    We consider maintaining information about the rank of a matrix under changes of the entries. For n×n matrices, we show an upper bound of O(n1.575) arithmetic operations and a lower bound of Ω(n) arithmetic operations per element change. The upper bound is valid when changing up to O(n0.575) entries...... in a single column of the matrix. We also give an algorithm that maintains the rank using O(n2) arithmetic operations per rank one update. These bounds appear to be the first nontrivial bounds for the problem. The upper bounds are valid for arbitrary fields, whereas the lower bound is valid for algebraically...... closed fields. The upper bound for element updates uses fast rectangular matrix multiplication, and the lower bound involves further development of an earlier technique for proving lower bounds for dynamic computation of rational functions....

  12. MATLAB matrix algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez López, César

    2014-01-01

    MATLAB is a high-level language and environment for numerical computation, visualization, and programming. Using MATLAB, you can analyze data, develop algorithms, and create models and applications. The language, tools, and built-in math functions enable you to explore multiple approaches and reach a solution faster than with spreadsheets or traditional programming languages, such as C/C++ or Java. MATLAB Matrix Algebra introduces you to the MATLAB language with practical hands-on instructions and results, allowing you to quickly achieve your goals. Starting with a look at symbolic and numeric variables, with an emphasis on vector and matrix variables, you will go on to examine functions and operations that support vectors and matrices as arguments, including those based on analytic parent functions. Computational methods for finding eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices are detailed, leading to various matrix decompositions. Applications such as change of bases, the classification of quadratic forms and ...

  13. African Swine Fever Virus Undergoes Outer Envelope Disruption, Capsid Disassembly and Inner Envelope Fusion before Core Release from Multivesicular Endosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hernáez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever virus (ASFV is a nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV that causes a highly lethal disease in domestic pigs. As other NCLDVs, the extracellular form of ASFV possesses a multilayered structure consisting of a genome-containing nucleoid successively wrapped by a thick protein core shell, an inner lipid membrane, an icosahedral protein capsid and an outer lipid envelope. This structural complexity suggests an intricate mechanism of internalization in order to deliver the virus genome into the cytoplasm. By using flow cytometry in combination with pharmacological entry inhibitors, as well as fluorescence and electron microscopy approaches, we have dissected the entry and uncoating pathway used by ASFV to infect the macrophage, its natural host cell. We found that purified extracellular ASFV is internalized by both constitutive macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Once inside the cell, ASFV particles move from early endosomes or macropinosomes to late, multivesicular endosomes where they become uncoated. Virus uncoating requires acidic pH and involves the disruption of the outer membrane as well as of the protein capsid. As a consequence, the inner viral membrane becomes exposed and fuses with the limiting endosomal membrane to release the viral core into the cytosol. Interestingly, virus fusion is dependent on virus protein pE248R, a transmembrane polypeptide of the inner envelope that shares sequence similarity with some members of the poxviral entry/fusion complex. Collective evidence supports an entry model for ASFV that might also explain the uncoating of other multienveloped icosahedral NCLDVs.

  14. Matrix elements of intraband transitions in quantum dot intermediate band solar cells: the influence of quantum dot presence on the extended-state electron wave-functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozawa, Tomohiro; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    The intraband transitions which are essential for quantum dot intermediate band solar cells (QD IBSCs) are theoretically investigated by estimating the matrix elements from a ground bound state, which is often regarded as an intermediate band (IB), to conduction band (CB) states for a structure with a quantum dot (QD) embedded in a matrix (a QD/matrix structure). We have found that the QD pushes away the electron envelope functions (probability densities) from the QD region in almost all quantum states above the matrix CB minimum. As a result, the matrix elements of the intraband transitions in the QD/matrix structure are largely reduced, compared to those calculated assuming the envelope functions of free electrons (i.e., plane-wave envelope functions) in a matrix structure as the final states of the intraband transitions. The result indicates the strong influence of the QD itself on the intraband transitions from the IB to the CB states in QD IBSC devices. This work will help in better understanding the problem of the intraband transitions and give new insight, that is, engineering of quantum states is indispensable for the realization of QD IBSCs with high solar energy conversion efficiencies. (paper)

  15. Elementary matrix algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Hohn, Franz E

    2012-01-01

    This complete and coherent exposition, complemented by numerous illustrative examples, offers readers a text that can teach by itself. Fully rigorous in its treatment, it offers a mathematically sound sequencing of topics. The work starts with the most basic laws of matrix algebra and progresses to the sweep-out process for obtaining the complete solution of any given system of linear equations - homogeneous or nonhomogeneous - and the role of matrix algebra in the presentation of useful geometric ideas, techniques, and terminology.Other subjects include the complete treatment of the structur

  16. Complex matrix model duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.W.

    2010-11-01

    The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  17. Complex matrix model duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.W.

    2010-11-15

    The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  18. Believing is seeing: how people's beliefs influence goals, emotions and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Pim W; Bok, Harold G J

    2013-11-01

    Health care professionals work and learn in complex environments. Some are able to continue learning from their practice and the challenges it presents, whereas others refrain from investing more effort when faced with setbacks. This paper discusses a social cognitive model of motivation that helps to explain the different kinds of behaviour that emerge when individuals are confronted with challenges. Self-theories (people's theories on what competence is and means for the self) play a major role in establishing the goals people set for themselves, the emotions they experience and the meanings they attach to situations. These self-views are often not explicitly articulated and are therefore called 'implicit' ('self-') theories. Social cognitive research suggests there are two distinct ways of thinking about one's personal attributes: entity theorists view a trait as a fixed, concrete internal entity, whereas incremental theorists instead believe a trait to be something malleable that can be developed or cultivated through effort. Holding an entity theory leads one to set performance goals and to harbour concerns about performing well and making a good impression. Holding an incremental theory tends to lead one to set learning goals, and to focus less on performance and more on spending time and effort in determining which strategies work. The current literature on self-theories is used to explore the relevance of these theories in medical education in three contexts: (i) it is argued that, in order to support lifelong learning, both individual and organisational efforts fit best with an incremental outlook on professional development; (ii) if it is to move forward in the domain of feedback-seeking behaviour, medical education might benefit from a better understanding of the interactions among self-theories, feedback behaviour, and the pervading role of organisational culture, and (iii) the impact of self-theories on assessors' evaluations of performance. © 2013

  19. Women Are Underrepresented in Fields Where Success is Believed to Require Brilliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith eMeyer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Women’s underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM fields is a prominent concern in our society and many others. Closer inspection of this phenomenon reveals a more nuanced picture, however, with women achieving parity with men at the PhD level in certain STEM fields, while also being underrepresented in some non-STEM fields. It is important to consider and provide an account of this field-by-field variability. The Field-specific Ability Beliefs (FAB hypothesis aims to provide such an account, proposing that women are likely to be underrepresented in fields thought to require raw intellectual talent—a sort of talent that women are stereotyped to possess less of than men. In two studies, we provide evidence for the FAB hypothesis, demonstrating that the academic fields believed by laypeople to require brilliance are also the fields with lower female representation. We also found that the field-specific ability beliefs of participants with college-level exposure to a field were more predictive of its female representation than those of participants without college exposure, presumably because the former beliefs mirror more closely those of the field’s practitioners (the direct gatekeepers. Moreover, the field-specific ability beliefs of participants with college exposure to a field predicted the magnitude of the field’s gender gap above and beyond their beliefs about the level of mathematical and verbal skills required. Finally, we found that beliefs about the importance of brilliance to success in a field may predict its female representation in part by fostering the impression that the field demands solitary work and competition with others. These results suggest new solutions for enhancing diversity within STEM and across the academic spectrum.

  20. Women are underrepresented in fields where success is believed to require brilliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Meredith; Cimpian, Andrei; Leslie, Sarah-Jane

    2015-01-01

    Women's underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields is a prominent concern in our society and many others. Closer inspection of this phenomenon reveals a more nuanced picture, however, with women achieving parity with men at the Ph.D. level in certain STEM fields, while also being underrepresented in some non-STEM fields. It is important to consider and provide an account of this field-by-field variability. The field-specific ability beliefs (FAB) hypothesis aims to provide such an account, proposing that women are likely to be underrepresented in fields thought to require raw intellectual talent-a sort of talent that women are stereotyped to possess less of than men. In two studies, we provide evidence for the FAB hypothesis, demonstrating that the academic fields believed by laypeople to require brilliance are also the fields with lower female representation. We also found that the FABs of participants with college-level exposure to a field were more predictive of its female representation than those of participants without college exposure, presumably because the former beliefs mirror more closely those of the field's practitioners (the direct "gatekeepers"). Moreover, the FABs of participants with college exposure to a field predicted the magnitude of the field's gender gap above and beyond their beliefs about the level of mathematical and verbal skills required. Finally, we found that beliefs about the importance of brilliance to success in a field may predict its female representation in part by fostering the impression that the field demands solitary work and competition with others. These results suggest new solutions for enhancing diversity within STEM and across the academic spectrum.

  1. Believing that certain foods are addictive is associated with support for obesity-related public policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Alyssa; Musicus, Aviva; Soo, Jackie; Gearhardt, Ashley N; Gollust, Sarah E; Roberto, Christina A

    2016-09-01

    There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that certain foods may be addictive. Although evidence that nicotine is addictive generated support for anti-tobacco policies, little research has examined whether beliefs about the addictiveness of food are associated with support for policies to address overconsumption of nutritionally poor foods. U.S. adults (n=999) recruited from an online marketplace in February 2015 completed a survey. Using logistic regression, we examined the relationship between beliefs about the addictiveness of certain foods and support for twelve obesity-related policies while controlling for demographics, health status, political affiliation and ideology, beliefs about obesity, and attitudes towards food companies. We examined whether the association between beliefs about addictiveness and support for policies was consistent across other products and behaviors viewed as addictive (i.e., tobacco, alcohol, drugs, compulsive behaviors). In multivariable models, there was a significant association (OR; 95% CI) between beliefs about addictiveness and support for policies for compulsive behaviors (1.48; 1.26-1.74), certain foods (1.32; 1.14-1.53), drugs (1.23; 1.05-1.45), and alcohol (1.21; 1.08-1.36) but not for tobacco (1.11; 0.90-1.37). For foods, the association between beliefs about addictiveness and obesity-related policy support was the strongest between such beliefs and support for labels warning that certain foods may be addictive, industry reductions in salt and sugar, energy drink bans, and sugary drink portion size limits. Overall, believing that products/behaviors are addictive was associated with support for policies intended to curb their use. If certain foods are found to be addictive, framing them as such may increase obesity-related policy support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mutations That Alter the Bacterial Cell Envelope Increase Lipid Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmer, Kimberly C.; Zhang, Weiping; Langer, Samantha J.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Hu, Dehong; Lemke, Rachelle A.; Piotrowski, Jeff S.; Orr, Galya; Noguera, Daniel R.; Donohue, Timothy J.

    2017-05-23

    ABSTRACT

    Lipids from microbes offer a promising source of renewable alternatives to petroleum-derived compounds. In particular, oleaginous microbes are of interest because they accumulate a large fraction of their biomass as lipids. In this study, we analyzed genetic changes that alter lipid accumulation inRhodobacter sphaeroides. By screening anR. sphaeroidesTn5mutant library for insertions that increased fatty acid content, we identified 10 high-lipid (HL) mutants for further characterization. These HL mutants exhibited increased sensitivity to drugs that target the bacterial cell envelope and changes in shape, and some had the ability to secrete lipids, with two HL mutants accumulating ~60% of their total lipids extracellularly. When one of the highest-lipid-secreting strains was grown in a fed-batch bioreactor, its lipid content was comparable to that of oleaginous microbes, with the majority of the lipids secreted into the medium. Based on the properties of these HL mutants, we conclude that alterations of the cell envelope are a previously unreported approach to increase microbial lipid production. We also propose that this approach may be combined with knowledge about biosynthetic pathways, in this or other microbes, to increase production of lipids and other chemicals.

    IMPORTANCEThis paper reports on experiments to understand how to increase microbial lipid production. Microbial lipids are often cited as one renewable replacement for petroleum-based fuels and chemicals, but strategies to increase the yield of these compounds are needed to achieve this goal. While lipid biosynthesis is often well understood, increasing yields of these compounds to industrially relevant levels is a challenge, especially since genetic, synthetic biology, or engineering approaches are not feasible in many microbes. We show that altering the bacterial cell envelope can be used to increase

  3. CISBAT 2007 - Design and renovation of building envelopes (bioclimatic architecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This is the second part of the proceedings of the 2007 CISBAT conference on Renewables in a changing climate, held in Lausanne, Switzerland. On the subject of sustainable building envelopes the following oral contributions are summarised: 'Flexible photovoltaics integrated in transparent membrane and pneumatic foil constructions', 'Development of a numerical thermal model for double skin facades', 'Thermal performance analysis for an electrochromic vacuum glazing with low emittance coatings', 'Challenging the public building sector: optimization of energy performance by sustainable strategies', 'Simulation of the thermal performance of a climate adaptive skin', 'Possibilities for upgrading prefabricated concrete building envelopes', 'Experimental study of airflow and heat transfer in a double skin facade with blinds', 'Energy efficiency of a glazing system - Case study: a dynamic glazing and double skin facades - the use of venetian blinds and night ventilation for saving energy on mediterranean climate'. Poster-sessions on the subject include 'Adaptive building envelopes design ', 'GRC facade panels in Brazil', 'Solar absorptance of building opaque surfaces', 'Evaluating the thermal behavior of exterior walls (in residential buildings of hot-dry climate of Yazd)', 'Energy performance of buildings and local energy policy: the case of new residential buildings in Greve in Chianti (Firenze)', 'Space heating and domestic hot water energy demand in high-level-insulation multi-storey buildings in Tuscany (Italy)', 'Is 2000 W society possible, affordable, and socially acceptable for the Vaud existing school building?', 'Development of simplified method for measuring solar shading performance of windows', 'Studies of ecological architecture in China's Loess Plateau region', 'Contemporary mud

  4. Conservation of the egg envelope digestion mechanism of hatching enzyme in euteleostean fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Mari; Yasumasu, Shigeki; Shimizu, Akio; Sano, Kaori; Iuchi, Ichiro; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2010-12-01

    We purified two hatching enzymes, namely high choriolytic enzyme (HCE; EC 3.4.24.67) and low choriolytic enzyme (LCE; EC 3.4.24.66), from the hatching liquid of Fundulus heteroclitus, which were named Fundulus HCE (FHCE) and Fundulus LCE (FLCE). FHCE swelled the inner layer of egg envelope, and FLCE completely digested the FHCE-swollen envelope. In addition, we cloned three Fundulus cDNAs orthologous to cDNAs for the medaka precursors of egg envelope subunit proteins (i.e. choriogenins H, H minor and L) from the female liver. Cleavage sites of FHCE and FLCE on egg envelope subunit proteins were determined by comparing the N-terminal amino acid sequences of digests with the sequences deduced from the cDNAs for egg envelope subunit proteins. FHCE and FLCE cleaved different sites of the subunit proteins. FHCE efficiently cleaved the Pro-X-Y repeat regions into tripeptides to dodecapeptides to swell the envelope, whereas FLCE cleaved the inside of the zona pellucida domain, the core structure of egg envelope subunit protein, to completely digest the FHCE-swollen envelope. A comparison showed that the positions of hatching enzyme cleavage sites on egg envelope subunit proteins were strictly conserved between Fundulus and medaka. Finally, we extended such a comparison to three other euteleosts (i.e. three-spined stickleback, spotted halibut and rainbow trout) and found that the egg envelope digestion mechanism was well conserved among them. During evolution, the egg envelope digestion by HCE and LCE orthologs was established in the lineage of euteleosts, and the mechanism is suggested to be conserved. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 FEBS.

  5. Believable statements of uncertainty and believable science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Nearly 50 years ago, two landmark papers appeared that should have cured the problem of ambiguous uncertainty statements in published data. Eisenhart's paper in Science called for statistically meaningful numbers, and Currie's Analytical Chemistry paper revealed the wide range in common definitions of detection limit. Confusion and worse can result when uncertainties are misinterpreted or ignored. The recent stories of cold fusion, variable radioactive decay, and piezonuclear reactions provide cautionary examples in which prior probability has been neglected. We show examples from our laboratory and others to illustrate the fact that uncertainty depends on both statistical and scientific judgment. (author)

  6. SEEING IS BELIEVING, AND BELIEVING IS SEEING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrow, B. L.

    2009-12-01

    Geoscience disciplines are filled with visual displays of data. From the first cave drawings to remote imaging of our Planet, visual displays of information have been used to understand and interpret our discipline. As practitioners of the art, visuals comprise the core around which we write scholarly articles, teach our students and make every day decisions. The effectiveness of visual communication, however, varies greatly. For many visual displays, a significant amount of prior knowledge is needed to understand and interpret various representations. If this is missing, key components of communication fail. One common example is the use of animations to explain high density and typically complex data. Do animations effectively convey information, simply "wow an audience" or do they confuse the subject by using unfamiliar forms and representations? Prior knowledge impacts the information derived from visuals and when communicating with non-experts this factor is exacerbated. For example, in an advanced geology course fractures in a rock are viewed by petroleum engineers as conduits for fluid migration while geoscience students 'see' the minerals lining the fracture. In contrast, a lay audience might view these images as abstract art. Without specific and direct accompanying verbal or written communication such an image is viewed radically differently by disparate audiences. Experts and non-experts do not 'see' equivalent images. Each visual must be carefully constructed with it's communication task in mind. To enhance learning and communication at all levels by visual displays of data requires that we teach visual literacy as a portion of our curricula. As we move from one form of visual representation to another, our mental images are expanded as is our ability to see and interpret new visual forms thus promoting life-long learning. Visual literacy is key to communication in our visually rich discipline. What do you see?

  7. Ethical Matrix Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mepham, B.; Kaiser, M.; Thorstensen, E.; Tomkins, S.; Millar, K.

    2006-01-01

    The ethical matrix is a conceptual tool designed to help decision-makers (as individuals or working in groups) reach sound judgements or decisions about the ethical acceptability and/or optimal regulatory controls for existing or prospective technologies in the field of food and agriculture.

  8. Combinatorial matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mitjana, Margarida

    2018-01-01

    This book contains the notes of the lectures delivered at an Advanced Course on Combinatorial Matrix Theory held at Centre de Recerca Matemàtica (CRM) in Barcelona. These notes correspond to five series of lectures. The first series is dedicated to the study of several matrix classes defined combinatorially, and was delivered by Richard A. Brualdi. The second one, given by Pauline van den Driessche, is concerned with the study of spectral properties of matrices with a given sign pattern. Dragan Stevanović delivered the third one, devoted to describing the spectral radius of a graph as a tool to provide bounds of parameters related with properties of a graph. The fourth lecture was delivered by Stephen Kirkland and is dedicated to the applications of the Group Inverse of the Laplacian matrix. The last one, given by Ángeles Carmona, focuses on boundary value problems on finite networks with special in-depth on the M-matrix inverse problem.

  9. Visualizing Matrix Multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugulis, Peteris; Sondore, Anita

    2018-01-01

    Efficient visualizations of computational algorithms are important tools for students, educators, and researchers. In this article, we point out an innovative visualization technique for matrix multiplication. This method differs from the standard, formal approach by using block matrices to make computations more visual. We find this method a…

  10. Challenging the CSCW matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørnø, Rasmus Leth Vergmann; Gynther, Karsten; Christensen, Ove

    2014-01-01

    useful information, we question whether the axis of time and space comprising the matrix pertains to relevant defining properties of the tools, technology or learning environments to which they are applied. Subsequently we offer an example of an Adobe Connect e-learning session as an illustration...

  11. A two stage data envelopment analysis model with undesirable output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff Adli Aminuddin, Adam; Izzati Jaini, Nur; Mat Kasim, Maznah; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd

    2017-09-01

    The dependent relationship among the decision making units (DMU) is usually assumed to be non-existent in the development of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model. The dependency can be represented by the multi-stage DEA model, where the outputs from the precedent stage will be the inputs for the latter stage. The multi-stage DEA model evaluate both the efficiency score for each stages and the overall efficiency of the whole process. The existing multi stage DEA models do not focus on the integration with the undesirable output, in which the higher input will generate lower output unlike the normal desirable output. This research attempts to address the inclusion of such undesirable output and investigate the theoretical implication and potential application towards the development of multi-stage DEA model.

  12. Data Envelopment Analysis with Uncertain Inputs and Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilin Wen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data envelopment analysis (DEA, as a useful management and decision tool, has been widely used since it was first invented by Charnes et al. in 1978. On the one hand, the DEA models need accurate inputs and outputs data. On the other hand, in many situations, inputs and outputs are volatile and complex so that they are difficult to measure in an accurate way. The conflict leads to the researches of uncertain DEA models. This paper will consider DEA in uncertain environment, thus producing a new model based on uncertain measure. Due to the complexity of the new uncertain DEA model, an equivalent deterministic model is presented. Finally, a numerical example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the uncertain DEA model.

  13. Modeling technical efficiency of inshore fishery using data envelopment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Rahayu; Zahid, Zalina; Khairi, Siti Shaliza Mohd; Hussin, Siti Aida Sheikh

    2016-10-01

    Fishery industry contributes significantly to the economy of Malaysia. This study utilized Data Envelopment Analysis application in estimating the technical efficiency of fishery in Terengganu, a state on the eastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia, based on multiple output, i.e. total fish landing and income of fishermen with six inputs, i.e. engine power, vessel size, number of trips, number of workers, cost and operation distance. The data were collected by survey conducted between November and December 2014. The decision making units (DMUs) involved 100 fishermen from 10 fishery areas. The result showed that the technical efficiency in Season I (dry season) and Season II (rainy season) were 90.2% and 66.7% respectively. About 27% of the fishermen were rated to be efficient during Season I, meanwhile only 13% of the fishermen achieved full efficiency 100% during Season II. The results also found out that there was a significance difference in the efficiency performance between the fishery areas.

  14. Modeling data irregularities and structural complexities in data envelopment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Joe

    2007-01-01

    In a relatively short period of time, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) has grown into a powerful quantitative, analytical tool for measuring and evaluating performance. It has been successfully applied to a whole variety of problems in many different contexts worldwide. This book deals with the micro aspects of handling and modeling data issues in modeling DEA problems. DEA's use has grown with its capability of dealing with complex "service industry" and the "public service domain" types of problems that require modeling of both qualitative and quantitative data. This handbook treatment deals with specific data problems including: imprecise or inaccurate data; missing data; qualitative data; outliers; undesirable outputs; quality data; statistical analysis; software and other data aspects of modeling complex DEA problems. In addition, the book will demonstrate how to visualize DEA results when the data is more than 3-dimensional, and how to identify efficiency units quickly and accurately.

  15. Estimating returns to scale in imprecise data envelopment analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatami-Marbini, Adel; Beigi, Zahra Ghelej; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    The economic concept of Returns-to-Scale (RTS) has been intensively studied in the context of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The conventional DEA models that are used for RTS classification require well-defined and accurate data whereas in reality data are often imprecise, vague, uncertain......-decreasing and variable RTS. The situation for non-increasing (non-decreasing) RTS is then divided into two partitions; constant or decreasing (constant or increasing) RTS using sensitivity analysis. Additionally, the situation for variable RTS is split into three partitions consisting of constant, decreasing...... and increasing RTS using sensitivity analysis. Finally, we present the stability region of an observation while preserving its current RTS classification using the optimal values of a set of proposed DEA-based models....

  16. A statistical test for outlier identification in data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Khodabin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the use of peer group data to assess individual, typical or best practice performance, the effective detection of outliers is critical for achieving useful results. In these ‘‘deterministic’’ frontier models, statistical theory is now mostly available. This paper deals with the statistical pared sample method and its capability of detecting outliers in data envelopment analysis. In the presented method, each observation is deleted from the sample once and the resulting linear program is solved, leading to a distribution of efficiency estimates. Based on the achieved distribution, a pared test is designed to identify the potential outlier(s. We illustrate the method through a real data set. The method could be used in a first step, as an exploratory data analysis, before using any frontier estimation.

  17. Flight envelope protection system for unmanned aerial vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2016-04-28

    Systems and methods to protect the flight envelope in both manual flight and flight by a commercial autopilot are provided. A system can comprise: an inertial measurement unit (IMU); a computing device in data communication with the IMU; an application executable by the computing device comprising: logic that estimates an angle of attack; a slip angle; and a speed of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based at least in part on data received from the UAV. A method can comprise estimating, via a computing device, flight data of a UAV based at least in part on data received from an IMU; comparing the estimated flight data with measured flight data; and triggering an error indication in response to a determination that the measured flight data exceeds a predefined deviation of the estimated flight data. The estimated speed can comprise an estimated airspeed, vertical speed and/or ground velocity.

  18. Construction Project Success ranking through the Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazyar Zahedi-Seresht

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to rank construction projects' success in a post delivery phase. To attain this objective, a data envelopment analysis (DEA approach is used. The model's output is a project success index which is calculated based on five project success criteria. These criteria which are determined by a two-round Delphi questionnaire survey are time performance, cost performance, quality, HSE, and customer satisfaction. The input factors which have effects on the output measures are Organizational Sponsorship, Project Manager Competency, Customer Organization, Project Operational Environment and Organizational Experience. The tool adopted to determine these factors is questionnaire. This model is applied for 9 projects with different importance of output and input factors and the reasonable result is achieved for ranking these projects.

  19. Frontier Assignment for Sensitivity Analysis of Data Envelopment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Akio; Aoki, Shingo; Tsuji, Hiroshi

    To extend the sensitivity analysis capability for DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis), this paper proposes frontier assignment based DEA (FA-DEA). The basic idea of FA-DEA is to allow a decision maker to decide frontier intentionally while the traditional DEA and Super-DEA decide frontier computationally. The features of FA-DEA are as follows: (1) provides chances to exclude extra-influential DMU (Decision Making Unit) and finds extra-ordinal DMU, and (2) includes the function of the traditional DEA and Super-DEA so that it is able to deal with sensitivity analysis more flexibly. Simple numerical study has shown the effectiveness of the proposed FA-DEA and the difference from the traditional DEA.

  20. Development of building envelope structures; Udvikling af klimaskaermskonstruktioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monefeldt Tommerup, H. [Danmarks Tekniske Univ., Lyngby (Denmark); Munch-Andersen, J. [Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut, Hoersholm (Denmark); Kjaer Esbensen, P. [Danmarks Tekniske Univ., Lyngby (Denmark)

    2000-08-01

    The present report concludes the work concerning the development of building envelope constructions, which can form the basis of new buildings with considerably less heat demand than in the present building regulations. It has been made probable that it is technically possible to build exterior walls with less heat loss than those just complying with the requirements of the current building regulations with no considerable added use of material apart from insulation. In their structure many of the shown constructions resemble types that are used today, while others presuppose that one part of the wall is attached to the other part or possibly to the rafters. Calculations concerning the importance of heat capacity for a 100 m{sup 2} single-family house have been made which confirm that by using heavy rather than light envelope constructions the reduction of the heating requirements is relatively small. Therefore optimisation of the insulation level can be carried out separately on the building components. A method has been developed for the evaluation of the optimum insulation level for the individual building components of the building envelope based on life cycle cost analysis. The method is based on making up the changes in the operational energy costs/ heating-costs and the cost of construction due to a change in the insulation thickness over a 30-year period. The life span of the primary parts of the building envelope is estimated at 100 years. It is assumed that the gross energy consumption that covers the heating requirements and the heat loss (determined by a simple calculation of degree days) changes concurrently with the change in the insulation thickness, which has been proved to be a reasonable approximation. The life cycle cost analysis has been carried out for a test-house of about 100 m{sup 2} and with two different energy price scenarios: 0.60 dkk/kWh (including taxes and VAT) which roughly corresponds to the present energy price level, and 1.20 dkk

  1. Hepatitis C Virus E2 Envelope Glycoprotein Core Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Leopold; Giang, Erick; Nieusma, Travis; Kadam, Rameshwar U.; Cogburn, Kristin E.; Hua, Yuanzi; Dai, Xiaoping; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Burton, Dennis R.; Ward, Andrew B.; Wilson, Ian A.; Law, Mansun

    2014-08-26

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a Hepacivirus, is a major cause of viral hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 mediate fusion and entry into host cells and are the primary targets of the humoral immune response. The crystal structure of the E2 core bound to broadly neutralizing antibody AR3C at 2.65 angstroms reveals a compact architecture composed of a central immunoglobulin-fold β sandwich flanked by two additional protein layers. The CD81 receptor binding site was identified by electron microscopy and site-directed mutagenesis and overlaps with the AR3C epitope. The x-ray and electron microscopy E2 structures differ markedly from predictions of an extended, three-domain, class II fusion protein fold and therefore provide valuable information for HCV drug and vaccine design.

  2. Efficiency of Polish metallurgical industry based on data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Baran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to compare the technical efficiency of 12 sectors manufacturing basic metals and metal products in Poland. This article presents the use of Data Envelopment Analysis models, to determine overall technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency of metallurgical branches in Poland. The average technical efficiency of metallurgical industry in Poland was quite high. The analysis gives a possibility to create a ranking of sectors. Three branches were found to be fully efficient: manufacture of basic iron and steel and of ferroalloys, manufacture of basic precious and other non - ferrous metals and manufacture of tubes, pipes, hollow profiles and related fittings, of steel. The results point out the reasons of the inefficiency and provide improving directions for the inefficient sectors.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF REGIONAL EFFICIENCY IN CROATIA USING DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Rabar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, regional efficiency of Croatian counties is measured in three-year period (2005-2007 using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. The set of inputs and outputs consists of seven socioeconomic indicators. Analysis is carried out using models with assumption of variable returns-to-scale. DEA identifies efficient counties as benchmark members and inefficient counties that are analyzed in detail to determine the sources and the amounts of their inefficiency in each source. To enable proper monitoring of development dynamics, window analysis is applied. Based on the results, guidelines for implementing necessary improvements to achieve efficiency are given. Analysis reveals great disparities among counties. In order to alleviate naturally, historically and politically conditioned unequal county positions over which economic policy makers do not have total control, categorical approach is introduced as an extension to the basic DEA models. This approach, combined with window analysis, changes relations among efficiency scores in favor of continental counties.

  4. Determinants of foamy virus envelope glycoprotein mediated resistance to superinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Angelika; Pietschmann, Thomas; Rethwilm, Axel; Lindemann, Dirk

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about the nature of foamy virus (FV) receptor molecules on target cells and their interaction with the viral glycoproteins. Similar to other viruses, cellular expression of the FV Env protein is sufficient to induce resistance to exogenous FV, a phenomenon called superinfection resistance (SIR). In this study we define determinants of the FV Env protein essential for mediating SIR. FV Env requires the extracellular domains of the SU and the TM subunits as well as membrane anchorage, efficient cell surface transport, and most probably correct subunit processing. This is in contrast to murine leukemia virus where secreted proteins comprising the receptor-binding domain in SU are sufficient to induce SIR. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cellular expression of the prototype FV envelope proteins induces SIR against pseudotypes with glycoproteins of other FV species, including of simian, feline, bovine, and equine origin. This implies that all of them use the same receptor molecules for viral entry

  5. Bank branch operating efficiency: evaluation with data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh Talebi Zarinkamar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the relative efficiency of similar units has been a popular research especially when the units were mostly non-financial. Even, similar financial units may not be necessarily evaluated based on traditional financial figures such as return of equities, return of assets, etc. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to measure the relative efficiency of 30 branches of an Iranian bank named Bank Mellat. The study considers four inputs including operating expenses, interest paid, capital expenditures and fixed assets. In addition, we use customers’ bank deposit, commissions and loans paid as output parameters. Using three different data envelopment analyses, the study measures the relative efficiencies of all units. The preliminary results indicate that most banks were working under desirable level of efficiency.

  6. Low-Cost Phase Change Material for Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhari, Ramin [Renewable Energy Group

    2015-08-06

    A low-cost PCM process consisting of conversion of fats and oils to PCM-range paraffins, and subsequent “encapsulation” of the paraffin using conventional plastic compounding/pelletizing equipment was demonstrated. The PCM pellets produced were field-tested in a building envelope application. This involved combining the PCM pellets with cellulose insulation, whereby 33% reduction in peak heat flux and 12% reduction in heat gain was observed (average summertime performance). The selling price of the PCM pellets produced according to this low-cost process is expected to be in the $1.50-$3.00/lb range, compared to current encapsulated PCM price of about $7.00/lb. Whole-building simulations using corresponding PCM thermal analysis data suggest a payback time of 8 to 16 years (at current energy prices) for an attic insulation retrofit project in the Phoenix climate area.

  7. Nuclear envelope and genome interactions in cell fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamas, Jessica A.; Capelson, Maya

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic cell nucleus houses an organism’s genome and is the location within the cell where all signaling induced and development-driven gene expression programs are ultimately specified. The genome is enclosed and separated from the cytoplasm by the nuclear envelope (NE), a double-lipid membrane bilayer, which contains a large variety of trans-membrane and associated protein complexes. In recent years, research regarding multiple aspects of the cell nucleus points to a highly dynamic and coordinated concert of efforts between chromatin and the NE in regulation of gene expression. Details of how this concert is orchestrated and how it directs cell differentiation and disease are coming to light at a rapid pace. Here we review existing and emerging concepts of how interactions between the genome and the NE may contribute to tissue specific gene expression programs to determine cell fate. PMID:25852741

  8. Complex envelope control of pulsed accelerating fields in superconducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Czarski, T

    2010-01-01

    A digital control system for superconducting cavities of a linear accelerator is presented in this work. FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) based controller, managed by MATLAB, was developed to investigate a novel firmware implementation. The LLRF - Low Level Radio Frequency system for FLASH project in DESY is introduced. Essential modeling of a cavity resonator with signal and power analysis is considered as a key approach to the control methods. An electrical model is represented by the non-stationary state space equation for the complex envelope of the cavity voltage driven by the current generator and the beam loading. The electromechanical model of the superconducting cavity resonator including the Lorentz force detuning has been developed for a simulation purpose. The digital signal processing is proposed for the field vector detection. The field vector sum control is considered for multiple cavities driven by one klystron. An algebraic, complex domain model is proposed for the system analysis. The c...

  9. Solubilization of glycoproteins of envelope viruses by detergents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezin, V.E.; Zaides, V.M.; Artamsnov, A.F.; Isaeva, E.S.; Zhdanov, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    The action of a number of known ionic and nonionic detergents, as well as the new nonionic detergent MESK, on envelope viruses was investigated. It was shown that the nonionic detergents MESK, Triton X-100, and octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside selectively solubilize the outer glycoproteins of the virus particles. The nonionic detergent MESK has the mildest action. Using MESK, purified glycoproteins of influenza, parainfluenza, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, vesicular stomatitis, rabies, and herpes viruses were obtained. The procedure for obtaining glycoproteins includes incubation of the virus suspension with the detergent MESK, removal of subvirus structures by centrifuging, and purification of glycoproteins from detergents by dialysis. Isolated glycoproteins retain a native structure and biological activity and possess high immunogenicity. The detergent MESK is promising for laboratory tests and with respect to the production of subunit vaccines

  10. Envelope evolution of a laser pulse in an active medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.L.; Tajima, T.; Downer, M.C.; Siders, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    The authors show that the envelope velocity, v env , of a short laser pulse can, via propagation in an active medium, be made less than, equal to, or even greater than c, the vacuum phase velocity of light. Simulation results, based on moving frame propagation equations coupling the laser pulse, active medium and plasma, are presented, as well as equations that determines the design value of super- and sub-luminous v env . In this simulation the laser pulse evolves in time in a moving frame as opposed to their earlier work where the profile was fixed. The elimination of phase slippage and pump depletion effects in the laser wakefield accelerator is discussed as a particular application. Finally they discuss media properties necessary for an experimental realization of this technique

  11. Velocity structure of protostellar envelopes: gravitational collapse and rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belloche, Arnaud

    2002-01-01

    Stars form from the gravitational collapse of pre-stellar condensations in molecular clouds. The major aim of this thesis is to compare the predictions of collapse models with observations of both very young (class 0) protostars and starless condensations in millimeter molecular lines. We wish to understand what determines the masses of forming stars and whether the initial conditions have an effect on the dynamical evolution of a condensation. Using a Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code, we analyze rotation and infall spectroscopic signatures to study the velocity structure of a sample of protostellar condensations. We show that the envelope of the class 0 protostar IRAM 04191 in the Taurus molecular cloud is undergoing both extended, subsonic infall and fast, differential rotation. We propose that the inner part of the envelope is a magnetically supercritical core in the process of decoupling from the ambient cloud still supported by the magnetic field. We suggest that the kinematical properties observed for IRAM 04191 are representative of the physical conditions characterizing isolated protostars shortly after point mass formation. On the other hand, a similar study for the pre-stellar condensations of the Rho Ophiuchi proto-cluster yields mass accretion rates that are an order of magnitude higher than in IRAM 04191. This suggests that individual protostellar collapse in clusters is induced by external disturbances. Moreover, we show that the condensations do not have time to orbit significantly through the proto-cluster gas before evolving into protostars and pre-main-sequence stars. This seems inconsistent with models which resort to dynamical interactions and competitive accretion to build up a mass spectrum comparable to the stellar initial mass function. We conclude that protostellar collapse is nearly spontaneous in regions of isolated star formation such as the Taurus cloud but probably strongly induced in proto-clusters. (author) [fr

  12. Evolution of building envelope construction techniques in coastal British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattock, C.; Ito, K.; Oshikawa, T. [International Eco-House Inc., (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    Changes in the significant evolutionary development over the past 3 years in building envelope construction for multi storey wood frame housing in British Columbia are described. The urban areas of this region are characterized by a maritime climate which features a high frequency of wind driven rain and little accumulation of snow. Buildings are exposed to high wetting with little drying potential, and moderate temperatures allow for fungal growth even in the winter. While as in the rest of Canada wetting is often due to condensation of moisture contained in indoor air as it leaks out of the building, in British Columbia wind driven rain is a much larger source of moisture. Given this, the following principles of moisture control have been promoted to the B.C. building industry in order of priority: 1) deflection - using parts and elements of the building such as overhangs and flashings that reduce the exposure of the exterior walls to rain, 2) drainage - using envelope assemblies that will then redirect liquid water to the outside, 3) employing drying elements that promote drying through diffusion such as highly permeable wall sheathings, and 4) use of durable materials - using materials that resist rot such as treated lumber, stainless steel fastenings, etc. A variety of air barrier systems other than the conventional sealed polyethylene approach have been employed because of the introduction of recent building code requirements for enhanced airtightness and air barrier durability combined with the use of rain screen construction. This variety of air barrier systems includes: an airtight drywall, an exterior permeable membrane, and an exterior impermeable membrane.

  13. Supernovae from massive stars with extended tenuous envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessart, Luc; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Livne, Eli; Waldman, Roni

    2018-04-01

    Massive stars with a core-halo structure are interesting objects for stellar physics and hydrodynamics. Using simulations for stellar evolution, radiation hydrodynamics, and radiative transfer, we study the explosion of stars with an extended and tenuous envelope (i.e. stars in which 95% of the mass is contained within 10% or less of the surface radius). We consider both H-rich supergiant and He-giant progenitors resulting from close-binary evolution and dying with a final mass of 2.8-5 M⊙. An extended envelope causes the supernova (SN) shock to brake and a reverse shock to form, sweeping core material into a dense shell. The shock-deposited energy, which suffers little degradation from expansion, is trapped in ejecta layers of moderate optical depth, thereby enhancing the SN luminosity at early times. With the delayed 56Ni heating, we find that the resulting optical and near-IR light curves all exhibit a double-peak morphology. We show how an extended progenitor can explain the blue and featureless optical spectra of some Type IIb and Ib SNe. The dense shell formed by the reverse shock leads to line profiles with a smaller and near-constant width. This ejecta property can explain the statistically narrower profiles of Type IIb compared to Type Ib SNe, as well as the peculiar Hα profile seen in SN 1993J. At early times, our He-giant star explosion model shows a high luminosity, a blue colour, and featureless spectra reminiscent of the Type Ib SN 2008D, suggesting a low-mass progenitor.

  14. Analysis of beam envelope by transverse space charge effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Shin'ichi

    1997-09-01

    It is important for high current accelerators to estimate the contribution of the space charge effect to keep the beam off its beak up. The application of an envelope equation is examined in previous report in which the beam is just coasting beam (non accelerating). The analysis of space charge effect is necessary for the comparison in coming accelerator test in PNC. In order to evaluate the beam behavior in high current, the beam dynamics and beam parameters which are input to the equation for the evaluation are developed and make it ready to estimate the beam transverse dynamics by the space charge. The estimate needs to have enough accuracy for advanced code calculation. After the preparation of the analytic expression of transverse motion, the non-linear differential equation of beam dynamics is solved by a numerical method on a personal computer. The beam envelope from the equation is estimated by means of the beam emittance, current and energy. The result from the analysis shows that the transverse beam broadening is scarecely small around the beam current value of PNC design. The contribution to the beam broadening of PNC linac comes from its beam emittance. The beam broadening in 100 MeV case is almost negligible in the view of transverse space charge effect. Therefore, the electron beam is stable up to 10 A order in PNC linac design. Of course, the problem for RF supply is out of consideration here. It is important to estimate other longitudinal effect such as beam bunch effect which is lasting unevaluated. (author)

  15. Identification of new genes in a cell envelope-cell division gene cluster of Escherichia coli: cell envelope gene murG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmond, G P; Lutkenhaus, J F; Donachie, W D

    1980-01-01

    We report the identification, cloning, and mapping of a new cell envelope gene, murG. This lies in a group of five genes of similar phenotype (in the order murE murF murG murC ddl) all concerned with peptidoglycan biosynthesis. This group is in a larger cluster of at least 10 genes, all of which are involved in some way with cell envelope growth. Images PMID:6998962

  16. Inability of keratinocytes lacking their specific transglutaminase to form cross-linked envelopes: Absence of envelopes as a simple diagnostic test for lamellar ichthyosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Saewha; Djian, Philippe; Green, Howard

    1998-01-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes, late in their terminal differentiation, form cross-linked envelopes resistant to ionic detergent and reducing agent. Because the cross-linking process is catalyzed by the keratinocyte transglutaminase, the absence of active transglutaminase should result in failure of the keratinocyte to form a cross-linked envelope. Three keratinocyte strains bearing mutations in the keratinocyte transglutaminase were examined: two contained no detectable transglutaminase mRNA and no...

  17. Freed by trust, to believe together: Pursuing global ecumenism with Küng and Tracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Urbaniak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Focus and scope Publication ethics Journal metrics Frequent asked questions Supporting agencies Contact us Reading tools Print this article Indexing metadata Review policy Email this article Email the author Post a Comment Translate content Powered by Translate Related items Show all ✔ Open access ✔ Global visibility ✔ Rapid publication ✔ Quality peer review ✔ Author retains copyright ✔ Personalised service ✔ Submit online Home About Author Reviewer Reader Support Archives Search Home > Vol 70, No 1 (2014 > Urbaniak Original Research Bookmark and Share Freed by trust, to believe together: Pursuing global ecumenism with Küng and Tracy Jakub Urbaniak HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies; Vol 70, No 1 (2014, 9 pages. doi: 10.4102/hts.v70i1.2047 Submitted: 16 August 2013 Published: 11 April 2014 Abstract In the past decades it has emerged more clearly than before that Christian religion, which has so often contributed to human oppression, has rich theological resources that can be used to restore and perfect human freedom. These resources have been reflected upon not only by liberation theologians, but also within the ecumenically oriented theology of religions which targets what Hans Küng calls global responsibility based on global ethics. World religions have an essential role to play in rendering that global humanity more humane and free. The only way to accomplish this task leads through ongoing dialogue, directed both ad intra and ad extra, in the pursuit of a ‘global ecumenism’ which the present suggests and the future demands. For those liberating and unitive resources inherent in religious theory and praxis to be activated, fundamental trust in the reality of the world and of one’s own self appears indispensable. By deepening the theological insights of Hans Küng and David Tracy, the article seeks to explore the mutual correlation between such fundamental trust in reality and religious faith in God, interpreted

  18. Enhancement of feline immunodeficiency virus infection after immunization with envelope glycoprotein subunit vaccines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); E.J. Tijhaar (Edwin); R.C. Huisman (Robin); W. Huisman (Willem); A. de Ronde; I.H. Darby; M.J. Francis; G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractCats were immunized three times with different recombinant feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) candidate vaccines. Recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV)-expressed envelope glycoprotein with (vGR657) or without (vGR657 x 15) the cleavage site and an FIV envelope bacterial fusion protein

  19. The dynamics of short envelope solitons in media with controlled dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aseeva, N.V.; Gromov, E.M.; Tyutin, V.V.

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of short envelope solitons in media with controlled dispersion is investigated in the framework of the third-order nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Evolution of the solitons amplitude is analyzed in the adiabatic approximation. The existence of short envelope solitons independent from linear dispersion inhomogeneity is shown

  20. Implementation of Models for Building Envelope Air Flow Fields in a Whole Building Hygrothermal Simulation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karl Grau; Rode, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    cavity such as behind the exterior cladding of a building envelope, i.e. a flow which is parallel to the construction plane. (2) Infiltration/exfiltration of air through the building envelope, i.e. a flow which is perpendicular to the constructionplane. The paper presents the models and how they have...

  1. Effects of radial envelope modulations on the collisionless trapped-electron mode in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao-Tian; Chen, Liu

    2018-05-01

    Adopting the ballooning-mode representation and including the effects of radial envelope modulations, we have derived the corresponding linear eigenmode equation for the collisionless trapped-electron mode in tokamak plasmas. Numerical solutions of the eigenmode equation indicate that finite radial envelope modulations can affect the linear stability properties both quantitatively and qualitatively via the significant modifications in the corresponding eigenmode structures.

  2. Bursting the Bubble - Nuclear Envelope Rupture as a Path to Genomic Instability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, P.; Wolf, K.A.; Lammerding, J.

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear envelope safeguards the genetic material inside the nucleus by separating it from the cytoplasm. Until recently, it was assumed that nuclear envelope (NE) breakdown occurs only in a highly controlled fashion during mitosis when the chromatin is condensed and divided between the daughter

  3. 47 CFR 25.218 - Off-axis EIRP envelopes for FSS earth station operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Off-axis EIRP envelopes for FSS earth station operations. 25.218 Section 25.218 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.218 Off-axis EIRP envelopes for FSS...

  4. Efficiency Enhancement of an Envelope Tracking Power Amplifier Combining Supply Shaping and Dynamic Biasing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafuri, Felice Francesco; Sira, Daniel; Jensen, Ole Kiel

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new method to improve the performance of envelope tracking (ET) power amplifiers (PAs). The method consists of combining the supply modulation that characterizes the envelope tracking architecture with supply shaping and dynamic biasing. The inclusion of dynamic biasing allo...

  5. Design and evaluation of a Flight Envelope Protection haptic feedback system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellerbroek, J.; Rodriguez Martin, M.J.M.; Lombaerts, T; van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of a shared control, haptic feedback system to communicate Flight Envelope Protection System intent. The concept uses a combination of stiffness feedback and vibration to communicate proximity of the aircraft state to flight envelope boundaries. In

  6. Analyzing energy consumption while heating one-layer building envelopes in conditions of intermittent heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytchikov Yury

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on energy consumption for heating single layer building envelopes, used in conditions of intermittent heating in different physical and mechanical and thermophysical parameters of construction materials. The authors investigated several variants of single-layer building envelopes, used frequently in building practice, with different density and coefficients of building materials thermal conductivity. For each variant of a building envelope heat leakage and time spent on heating were calculated. Heating time was calculated by both exact and approximate analytical method. Then the researchers draw a graphic dependence of energy consumption on the density of the material taking this computational data as a basis. Further analysis showed that building envelopes made of lightweight aggregate concrete and porous concrete were the most energy efficient.This paper focuses on energy consumption for heating single layer building envelopes, used in conditions of intermittent heating in different physical and mechanical and thermophysical parameters of construction materials. The authors investigated several variants of single-layer building envelopes, used frequently in building practice, with different density and coefficients of building materials thermal conductivity. For each variant of a building envelope heat leakage and time spent on heating were calculated. Heating time was calculated by both exact and approximate analytical method. Then the researchers draw a graphic dependence of energy consumption on the density of the material taking this computational data as a basis. Further analysis showed that building envelopes made of lightweight aggregate concrete and porous concrete were the most energy efficient.

  7. Advancing the manufacture of complex geometry GFRC for today's building envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Henriksen

    2017-06-01

    With this research the current architectural knowledge base has been advanced in terms of complex geometry thin-walled GFRC for building envelopes. The identified solutions should allow building with complex geometries to be realised using thin-walled GFRC as the envelope cladding.

  8. Protamine-induced permeabilization of cell envelopes of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Charlotte; Verheul, A.; Gram, Lone

    1997-01-01

    carboxyfluorescein and ATP after 2 to 5 min. Maximum antibacterial activity was reached at alkaline pH and in the absence of divalent cations. The efficient permeabilization of cell envelopes of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria suggests that protamine causes a general disruption of the cell envelope...

  9. Incipient failure detection of space shuttle main engine turbopump bearings using vibration envelope detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, Charles B.

    1987-01-01

    The results of an analysis performed on seven successive Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) static test firings, utilizing envelope detection of external accelerometer data are discussed. The results clearly show the great potential for using envelope detection techniques in SSME incipient failure detection.

  10. On the relationship between multi-channel envelope and temporal fine structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Peter Lempel; Decorsiere, Remi Julien Blaise; Dau, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    The envelope of a signal is broadly defined as the slow changes in time of the signal, where as the temporal fine structure (TFS) are the fast changes in time, i.e. the carrier wave(s) of the signal. The focus of this paper is on envelope and TFS in multi-channel systems. We discuss the differenc...

  11. Paths correlation matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Weixian; Zhou, Xiaojun; Lu, Yingcheng; Xu, Jiang

    2015-09-15

    Both the Jones and Mueller matrices encounter difficulties when physically modeling mixed materials or rough surfaces due to the complexity of light-matter interactions. To address these issues, we derived a matrix called the paths correlation matrix (PCM), which is a probabilistic mixture of Jones matrices of every light propagation path. Because PCM is related to actual light propagation paths, it is well suited for physical modeling. Experiments were performed, and the reflection PCM of a mixture of polypropylene and graphite was measured. The PCM of the mixed sample was accurately decomposed into pure polypropylene's single reflection, pure graphite's single reflection, and depolarization caused by multiple reflections, which is consistent with the theoretical derivation. Reflection parameters of rough surface can be calculated from PCM decomposition, and the results fit well with the theoretical calculations provided by the Fresnel equations. These theoretical and experimental analyses verify that PCM is an efficient way to physically model light-matter interactions.

  12. Partially separable t matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasakawa, T.; Okuno, H.; Ishikawa, S.; Sawada, T.

    1982-01-01

    The off-shell t matrix is expressed as a sum of one nonseparable and one separable terms so that it is useful for applications to more-than-two body problems. All poles are involved in this one separable term. Both the nonseparable and the separable terms of the kernel G 0 t are regular at the origin. The nonseparable term of this kernel vanishes at large distances, while the separable term behaves asymptotically as the spherical Hankel function. These properties make our expression free from defects inherent in the Jost or the K-matrix expressions, and many applications are anticipated. As the application, a compact expression of the many-level formula is presented. Also the application is suggested to the breakup threebody problem based on the Faddeev equation. It is demonstrated that the breakup amplitude is expressed in a simple and physically interesting form and we can calculate it in coordinate space

  13. Exactly soluble matrix models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju Viswanathan, R.

    1991-09-01

    We study examples of one dimensional matrix models whose potentials possess an energy spectrum that can be explicitly determined. This allows for an exact solution in the continuum limit. Specifically, step-like potentials and the Morse potential are considered. The step-like potentials show no scaling behaviour and the Morse potential (which corresponds to a γ = -1 model) has the interesting feature that there are no quantum corrections to the scaling behaviour in the continuum limit. (author). 5 refs

  14. Inside the NIKE matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, Barbara; Schlegelmilch, Bodo B.; Ambos, Björn

    2013-01-01

    This case describes how Nike, a consumer goods company with an ever expanding portfolio and a tremendous brand value, manages the tradeoff between local responsiveness and global integration. In particular, the case highlights Nike's organizational structure that consists of a global matrix organization that is replicated at a regional level for the European market. While this organizational structure allows Nike to respond to local consumer tastes it also ensures that the company benefits f...

  15. A matrix contraction process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Michael; Grant, John

    2018-03-01

    We consider a stochastic process in which independent identically distributed random matrices are multiplied and where the Lyapunov exponent of the product is positive. We continue multiplying the random matrices as long as the norm, ɛ, of the product is less than unity. If the norm is greater than unity we reset the matrix to a multiple of the identity and then continue the multiplication. We address the problem of determining the probability density function of the norm, \

  16. Matrix String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R; Verlinde, Herman L

    1997-01-01

    Via compactification on a circle, the matrix model of M-theory proposed by Banks et al suggests a concrete identification between the large N limit of two-dimensional N=8 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIA string theory. In this paper we collect evidence that supports this identification. We explicitly identify the perturbative string states and their interactions, and describe the appearance of D-particle and D-membrane states.

  17. Matrix groups for undergraduates

    CERN Document Server

    Tapp, Kristopher

    2016-01-01

    Matrix groups touch an enormous spectrum of the mathematical arena. This textbook brings them into the undergraduate curriculum. It makes an excellent one-semester course for students familiar with linear and abstract algebra and prepares them for a graduate course on Lie groups. Matrix Groups for Undergraduates is concrete and example-driven, with geometric motivation and rigorous proofs. The story begins and ends with the rotations of a globe. In between, the author combines rigor and intuition to describe the basic objects of Lie theory: Lie algebras, matrix exponentiation, Lie brackets, maximal tori, homogeneous spaces, and roots. This second edition includes two new chapters that allow for an easier transition to the general theory of Lie groups. From reviews of the First Edition: This book could be used as an excellent textbook for a one semester course at university and it will prepare students for a graduate course on Lie groups, Lie algebras, etc. … The book combines an intuitive style of writing w...

  18. Extracellular matrix structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theocharis, Achilleas D; Skandalis, Spyros S; Gialeli, Chrysostomi; Karamanos, Nikos K

    2016-02-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a non-cellular three-dimensional macromolecular network composed of collagens, proteoglycans/glycosaminoglycans, elastin, fibronectin, laminins, and several other glycoproteins. Matrix components bind each other as well as cell adhesion receptors forming a complex network into which cells reside in all tissues and organs. Cell surface receptors transduce signals into cells from ECM, which regulate diverse cellular functions, such as survival, growth, migration, and differentiation, and are vital for maintaining normal homeostasis. ECM is a highly dynamic structural network that continuously undergoes remodeling mediated by several matrix-degrading enzymes during normal and pathological conditions. Deregulation of ECM composition and structure is associated with the development and progression of several pathologic conditions. This article emphasizes in the complex ECM structure as to provide a better understanding of its dynamic structural and functional multipotency. Where relevant, the implication of the various families of ECM macromolecules in health and disease is also presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Standard Errors for Matrix Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Haruhiko

    1999-01-01

    Derives the asymptotic standard errors and intercorrelations for several matrix correlations assuming multivariate normality for manifest variables and derives the asymptotic standard errors of the matrix correlations for two factor-loading matrices. (SLD)

  20. A Functional Henipavirus Envelope Glycoprotein Pseudotyped Lentivirus Assay System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broder Christopher C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus (NiV are newly emerged zoonotic paramyxoviruses discovered during outbreaks in Queensland, Australia in 1994 and peninsular Malaysia in 1998/9 respectively and classified within the new Henipavirus genus. Both viruses can infect a broad range of mammalian species causing severe and often-lethal disease in humans and animals, and repeated outbreaks continue to occur. Extensive laboratory studies on the host cell infection stage of HeV and NiV and the roles of their envelope glycoproteins have been hampered by their highly pathogenic nature and restriction to biosafety level-4 (BSL-4 containment. To circumvent this problem, we have developed a henipavirus envelope glycoprotein pseudotyped lentivirus assay system using either a luciferase gene or green fluorescent protein (GFP gene encoding human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 genome in conjunction with the HeV and NiV fusion (F and attachment (G glycoproteins. Results Functional retrovirus particles pseudotyped with henipavirus F and G glycoproteins displayed proper target cell tropism and entry and infection was dependent on the presence of the HeV and NiV receptors ephrinB2 or B3 on target cells. The functional specificity of the assay was confirmed by the lack of reporter-gene signals when particles bearing either only the F or only G glycoprotein were prepared and assayed. Virus entry could be specifically blocked when infection was carried out in the presence of a fusion inhibiting C-terminal heptad (HR-2 peptide, a well-characterized, cross-reactive, neutralizing human mAb specific for the henipavirus G glycoprotein, and soluble ephrinB2 and B3 receptors. In addition, the utility of the assay was also demonstrated by an examination of the influence of the cytoplasmic tail of F in its fusion activity and incorporation into pseudotyped virus particles by generating and testing a panel of truncation mutants of NiV and HeV F

  1. Characterizing Functional Domains for TIM-Mediated Enveloped Virus Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller-Tank, Sven; Albritton, Lorraine M.; Rennert, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) and other TIM family members were recently identified as phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-mediated virus entry-enhancing receptors (PVEERs). These proteins enhance entry of Ebola virus (EBOV) and other viruses by binding PtdSer on the viral envelope, concentrating virus on the cell surface, and promoting subsequent internalization. The PtdSer-binding activity of the immunoglobulin-like variable (IgV) domain is essential for both virus binding and internalization by TIM-1. However, TIM-3, whose IgV domain also binds PtdSer, does not effectively enhance virus entry, indicating that other domains of TIM proteins are functionally important. Here, we investigate the domains supporting enhancement of enveloped virus entry, thereby defining the features necessary for a functional PVEER. Using a variety of chimeras and deletion mutants, we found that in addition to a functional PtdSer-binding domain PVEERs require a stalk domain of sufficient length, containing sequences that promote an extended structure. Neither the cytoplasmic nor the transmembrane domain of TIM-1 is essential for enhancing virus entry, provided the protein is still plasma membrane bound. Based on these defined characteristics, we generated a mimic lacking TIM sequences and composed of annexin V, the mucin-like domain of α-dystroglycan, and a glycophosphatidylinositol anchor that functioned as a PVEER to enhance transduction of virions displaying Ebola, Chikungunya, Ross River, or Sindbis virus glycoproteins. This identification of the key features necessary for PtdSer-mediated enhancement of virus entry provides a basis for more effective recognition of unknown PVEERs. IMPORTANCE T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) and other TIM family members are recently identified phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-mediated virus entry-enhancing receptors (PVEERs). These proteins enhance virus entry by binding the phospholipid, PtdSer, present on the viral

  2. Condensins Exert Force on Chromatin-Nuclear Envelope Tethers to Mediate Nucleoplasmic Reticulum Formation in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozler, Julianna; Nguyen, Huy Q.; Rogers, Gregory C.; Bosco, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Although the nuclear envelope is known primarily for its role as a boundary between the nucleus and cytoplasm in eukaryotes, it plays a vital and dynamic role in many cellular processes. Studies of nuclear structure have revealed tissue-specific changes in nuclear envelope architecture, suggesting that its three-dimensional structure contributes to its functionality. Despite the importance of the nuclear envelope, the factors that regulate and maintain nuclear envelope shape remain largely unexplored. The nuclear envelope makes extensive and dynamic interactions with the underlying chromatin. Given this inexorable link between chromatin and the nuclear envelope, it is possible that local and global chromatin organization reciprocally impact nuclear envelope form and function. In this study, we use Drosophila salivary glands to show that the three-dimensional structure of the nuclear envelope can be altered with condensin II-mediated chromatin condensation. Both naturally occurring and engineered chromatin-envelope interactions are sufficient to allow chromatin compaction forces to drive distortions of the nuclear envelope. Weakening of the nuclear lamina further enhanced envelope remodeling, suggesting that envelope structure is capable of counterbalancing chromatin compaction forces. Our experiments reveal that the nucleoplasmic reticulum is born of the nuclear envelope and remains dynamic in that they can be reabsorbed into the nuclear envelope. We propose a model where inner nuclear envelope-chromatin tethers allow interphase chromosome movements to change nuclear envelope morphology. Therefore, interphase chromatin compaction may be a normal mechanism that reorganizes nuclear architecture, while under pathological conditions, such as laminopathies, compaction forces may contribute to defects in nuclear morphology. PMID:25552604

  3. Condensins exert force on chromatin-nuclear envelope tethers to mediate nucleoplasmic reticulum formation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozler, Julianna; Nguyen, Huy Q; Rogers, Gregory C; Bosco, Giovanni

    2014-12-30

    Although the nuclear envelope is known primarily for its role as a boundary between the nucleus and cytoplasm in eukaryotes, it plays a vital and dynamic role in many cellular processes. Studies of nuclear structure have revealed tissue-specific changes in nuclear envelope architecture, suggesting that its three-dimensional structure contributes to its functionality. Despite the importance of the nuclear envelope, the factors that regulate and maintain nuclear envelope shape remain largely unexplored. The nuclear envelope makes extensive and dynamic interactions with the underlying chromatin. Given this inexorable link between chromatin and the nuclear envelope, it is possible that local and global chromatin organization reciprocally impact nuclear envelope form and function. In this study, we use Drosophila salivary glands to show that the three-dimensional structure of the nuclear envelope can be altered with condensin II-mediated chromatin condensation. Both naturally occurring and engineered chromatin-envelope interactions are sufficient to allow chromatin compaction forces to drive distortions of the nuclear envelope. Weakening of the nuclear lamina further enhanced envelope remodeling, suggesting that envelope structure is capable of counterbalancing chromatin compaction forces. Our experiments reveal that the nucleoplasmic reticulum is born of the nuclear envelope and remains dynamic in that they can be reabsorbed into the nuclear envelope. We propose a model where inner nuclear envelope-chromatin tethers allow interphase chromosome movements to change nuclear envelope morphology. Therefore, interphase chromatin compaction may be a normal mechanism that reorganizes nuclear architecture, while under pathological conditions, such as laminopathies, compaction forces may contribute to defects in nuclear morphology. Copyright © 2015 Bozler et al.

  4. Accretion Disk Assembly During Common Envelope Evolution: Implications for Feedback and LIGO Binary Black Hole Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murguia-Berthier, Ariadna; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Antoni, Andrea; Macias, Phillip [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); MacLeod, Morgan, E-mail: armurgui@ucsc.edu [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, 1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    During a common envelope (CE) episode in a binary system, the engulfed companion spirals to tighter orbital separations under the influence of drag from the surrounding envelope material. As this object sweeps through material with a steep radial gradient of density, net angular momentum is introduced into the flow, potentially leading to the formation of an accretion disk. The presence of a disk would have dramatic consequences for the outcome of the interaction because accretion might be accompanied by strong, polar outflows with enough energy to unbind the entire envelope. Without a detailed understanding of the necessary conditions for disk formation during CE, therefore, it is difficult to accurately predict the population of merging compact binaries. This paper examines the conditions for disk formation around objects embedded within CEs using the “wind tunnel” formalism developed by MacLeod et al. We find that the formation of disks is highly dependent on the compressibility of the envelope material. Disks form only in the most compressible of stellar envelope gas, found in envelopes’ outer layers in zones of partial ionization. These zones are largest in low-mass stellar envelopes, but comprise small portions of the envelope mass and radius in all cases. We conclude that disk formation and associated accretion feedback in CE is rare, and if it occurs, transitory. The implication for LIGO black hole binary assembly is that by avoiding strong accretion feedback, CE interactions should still result in the substantial orbital tightening needed to produce merging binaries.

  5. Solar envelope zoning: application to the city planning process. Los Angeles case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Solar envelope zoning represents a promising approach to solar access protection. A solar envelope defines the volume within which a building will not shade adjacent lots or buildings. Other solar access protection techniques, such as privately negotiated easements, continue to be tested and implemented but none offer the degree of comprehensiveness evident in this approach. Here, the City of Los Angeles, through the Mayor's Energy Office, the City Planning Department, and the City Attorney's Office, examine the feasibility of translating the concept of solar envelopes into zoning techniques. They concluded that envelope zoning is a fair and consistent method of guaranteeing solar access, but problems of complexity and uncertainty may limit its usefulness. Envelope zoning may be inappropriate for the development of high density centers and for more restrictive community plans. Aids or tools to administer envelope zoning need to be developed. Finally, some combination of approaches, including publicly recorded easements, subdivision approval and envelope zoning, need to be adopted to encourage solar use in cities. (MHR)

  6. Gravitational Waves from Accreting Neutron Stars Undergoing Common-envelope Inspiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgado, A. Miguel; Ricker, Paul M.; Huerta, E. A.

    2018-04-01

    The common-envelope phase is a likely formation channel for close binary systems containing compact objects. Neutron stars in common envelopes accrete at a fraction of the Bondi–Hoyle–Lyttleton accretion rate, since the stellar envelope is inhomogeneous, but they may still be able to accrete at hypercritical rates (though not enough to become black holes). We show that common-envelope systems consisting of a neutron star with a massive primary may be gravitational-wave (GW) sources detectable in the Advanced LIGO band as far away as the Magellanic Clouds. To characterize their evolution, we perform orbital integrations using 1D models of 12 M ⊙ and 20 M ⊙ primaries, considering the effects of density gradient on the accretion onto the NS and spin evolution. From the range of possible accretion rates relevant to common-envelope evolution, we find that these systems may be louder GW sources than low-mass X-ray binaries like Sco X-1, which are currently the target of directed searches for continuous GWs. We also find that their strain amplitude signal may allow for novel constraints on the orbital separation and inspiral timescale in common envelopes when combined with pre-common-envelope electromagnetic observations.

  7. The multi-order envelope periodic solutions to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation and cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Yafeng; Xue Haili; Zhang Hongqing

    2011-01-01

    Based on Jacobi elliptic function and the Lame equation, the perturbation method is applied to get the multi-order envelope periodic solutions of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation and cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation. These multi-order envelope periodic solutions can degenerate into the different envelope solitary solutions. (authors)

  8. Prediction of Intelligibility of Noisy and Time-Frequency Weighted Speech based on Mutual Information Between Amplitude Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper; Taal, C.H.

    2013-01-01

    of Shannon information the critical-band amplitude envelopes of the noisy/processed signal convey about the corresponding clean signal envelopes. The resulting intelligibility predictor turns out to be a simple function of the correlation between noisy/processed and clean amplitude envelopes. The proposed...

  9. 78 FR 31838 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    .... When failure states occur in the electronic flight control system, flight envelope protection features... any change in envelope limiting or maneuverability is produced by single or multiple failures of the...; Flight Envelope Protection: General Limiting Requirements AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...

  10. Data Envelopment Analysis of different climate policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosetti, Valentina; Buchner, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments in the political, scientific and economic debate on climate change suggest that it is of critical importance to develop new approaches able to compare policy scenarios for their environmental effectiveness, their distributive effects, their enforceability, their costs and many other dimensions. This paper discusses a quantitative methodology to assess the relative performance of different climate policy scenarios when accounting for their long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. The proposed procedure is based on Data Envelopment Analysis, here employed in evaluating the relative efficiency of eleven global climate policy scenarios. The methodology provides a promising comparison framework; it can be seen as a way of setting some basic guidelines to frame further debates and negotiations and can be flexibly adopted and modified by decision makers to obtain relevant information for policy design. Three major findings emerge from this analysis: (1) stringent climate policies can outperform less ambitious proposals if all sustainability dimensions are taken into account; (2) a carefully chosen burden-sharing rule is able to bring together climate stabilisation and equity considerations; and (3) the most inefficient strategy results from the failure to negotiate a post-2012 global climate agreement. (author)

  11. Synthetic aperture radar imaging simulator for pulse envelope evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balster, Eric J.; Scarpino, Frank A.; Kordik, Andrew M.; Hill, Kerry L.

    2017-10-01

    A simulator for spotlight synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image formation is presented. The simulator produces radar returns from a virtual radar positioned at an arbitrary distance and altitude. The radar returns are produced from a source image, where the return is a weighted summation of linear frequency-modulated (LFM) pulse signals delayed by the distance of each pixel in the image to the radar. The imagery is resampled into polar format to ensure consistent range profiles to the position of the radar. The SAR simulator provides a capability enabling the objective analysis of formed SAR imagery, comparing it to an original source image. This capability allows for analysis of various SAR signal processing techniques previously determined by impulse response function (IPF) analysis. The results suggest that IPF analysis provides results that may not be directly related to formed SAR image quality. Instead, the SAR simulator uses image quality metrics, such as peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and structured similarity index (SSIM), for formed SAR image quality analysis. To showcase the capability of the SAR simulator, it is used to investigate the performance of various envelopes applied to LFM pulses. A power-raised cosine window with a power p=0.35 and roll-off factor of β=0.15 is shown to maximize the quality of the formed SAR images by improving PSNR by 0.84 dB and SSIM by 0.06 from images formed utilizing a rectangular pulse, on average.

  12. Ultraviolet extinction in M-supergiant circumstellar envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buss, R.H. Jr.; Snow, T.P. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Using International Ultraviolet (IUS) archival low-dispersion spectra, ultraviolet spectral extinctions were derived for the circumstellar envelopes of two M supergiants: HD 60414 and HD 213310. The observed stellar systems belong to a class of widely-separated spectroscopic binaries that are called VV Cephei stars. The total extinction was calculated by dividing the reddened fluxes with unreddened comparison fluxes of similar stars (g B2.5 for HD 213310 and a normalized s+B3 for HD 60414) from the reference atlas. After substracting the interstellar extinctions, which were estimated from the E(B-V) reddening of nearby stars, the resultant circumstellar extinctions were normalized at about 3.5 inverse microns. Not only is the 2175 A extinction bump absent in the circumstellar extinctions, but the far-ultraviolet extinction rise is also absent. The rather flat, ultraviolet extinction curves were interpreted as signatures of a population of noncarbonaceous, oxygen-rich grains with diameters larger than the longest observed wavelength

  13. Microclimatic conditions at the external surface of building envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kragh, M.K.

    1998-12-31

    The project is described, the motivation for the research and the microclimate is defined in relation to both building physics research and applications. Air temperatur, air humidity, solar radiation and air velocity are briefly considered, whilst driving rain and long-wave radiation are described in more detail. Convective heat transfer and surface coefficients are discussed, although they are not microclimatic factors, merely resulting from combinations of such factors. They are included as they are important in relation to transfer of heat and moisture at the surface of the building envelope. Driving rain measurement is the main area of interest, including development of measurement equipment. Long-wave irradiation is measured and compared with empirical formulae from the literature. Window convection heat transfer is another main area of interest. Nocturnal convective heat transfer from a double pane glazing is studied and measurement principles are discussed. Finally, a compilation of meteorological data for hygrothermal simulations, including estimation of driving rain, is described. System error estimation in relation to the window convection measurements, design notes on an apparatus for external convection measurement, formulae for conversion of relative humitity and dry-bulb temperature into dew point temperature. (EG) 66 refs.

  14. Fusogenic properties of Sendai virosome envelopes in rat brain preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, C M; Bryant, S O; Notabartolo, D; Wu, P; Meyer, E M

    1993-10-01

    Sendai virosomes were characterized with respect to their ability to bind to, fuse with, and introduce substances into several rat brain preparations. Encapsulation efficiency for Sendai virosomes was enhanced but binding to cerebral cortical P2 preparations was attenuated by addition of bovine brain phosphatidylcholine during reconstitution. A higher percentage of Sendai virosomes than phosphatidylcholine liposomes appeared to bind to, fuse with and subsequently deliver [14C]sucrose into osmotically labile pools of the P2 preparation. Fusogenic activity was estimated by measuring dequenching of fluorescently labelled N-NBD-phosphatidylethanolamine. More virosomally encapsulated [14C]sucrose was bound to the P2 fraction than introduced into osmotically labile organelles, and the fraction of vesicles undergoing fusion was intermediate between these two values. Non-encapsulated [14C]sucrose did not bind to and was not taken up by the P2 fraction in a quantifiable manner. Virosomal envelopes also bound to primary cultures of rat brain neurons and glia in an apparently saturable manner. Addition of increasing amounts of the adenoassociated virus-derived vector pJDT95 increased encapsulation efficiency, and virosomes reconstituted in the presence of 60 micrograms DNA retained most of their binding activity (5.4% of total label) compared to those containing [14C]sucrose alone (8.4%). These data indicate that Sendai virosomes may be useful in the delivery of substances into brain-derived tissues, potentially for the modulation of gene expression and neurotransmission.

  15. Tides in differentially rotating convective envelopes. II. The tidal coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharlemann, E.T.

    1982-01-01

    The tidal coupling between a star with an extended, differentially rotating convective envelope, and its companion in a close binary system, is calculated from the tidal velocity field derived in Paper I. The derived coupling torque can be tested using observations of RS Canum Venaticorum systems, for which a photometric wave in the light curve provides an accurate stellar rotation rate, and for which observed orbital period changes require the stars in the systems to be coupled. The coupling torque is sufficient to explain the nearly synchronous rotation of the active star in RS CVn systems, despite the observed orbital period changes, but may not be able to explain the extreme tightness of the coupling implied by the very long periods for the migration of the photometric waves in the systems. This conclusion depends on the origin of the orbital period changes, but not on the nature of the wave or the wave migration. When the coupling torque vanishes, a specific latitude at the surface of the convective star will exactly corotate with the binary system: this corotation latitude is calculated. Finally, it is shown that the additional viscous terms introduced by tides should not suppress differential rotation in binary systems with RS Cvn parameters

  16. Implications of the Galilean satellites ice envelope explosions. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agafonova, I.I.; Drobyshevski, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    Secondary explosions of the primary ice fragments ejected in the explosion of the electrolyzed massive ice envelopes of the Galilean satellites are capable of imparting velocities of up to 5 km s -1 to the secondary fragments. As a result, the secondary fragments can enter the orbits of the irregular satellites and the Trojan libration orbits. Since the icy mix of the fragments contains hydrocarbons and particulate material (silicates and the like), after ice sublimation from the surface layers the Trojans should reveal type C and RD spectra typical for Jupiter's irregular satellites, comet nuclei and other distant ice bodies of similar origin. Among the Trojans there cannot be rocky or metallic objects which are known to exist in the main asteroid belt. It is shown that a velocity perturbation of 150-200 m s -1 resulting from a purely mechanical impact of two bodies may be sufficient to move collision fragments from the orbits of the Trojans to horseshoe-shaped trajectories with a subsequent transfer to the cometary orbits of Jupiter's family. (Auth.)

  17. Shape Transformation of the Nuclear Envelope during Closed Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qian; Zheng, Fan; Liu, Allen P; Qian, Jin; Fu, Chuanhai; Lin, Yuan

    2016-11-15

    The nuclear envelope (NE) in lower eukaryotes such as Schizosaccharomyces pombe undergoes large morphology changes during closed mitosis. However, which physical parameters are important in governing the shape evolution of the NE, and how defects in the dividing chromosomes/microtubules are reflected in those parameters, are fundamental questions that remain unresolved. In this study, we show that improper separation of chromosomes in genetically deficient cells leads to membrane tethering or asymmetric division in contrast to the formation of two equal-sized daughter nuclei in wild-type cells. We hypothesize that the poleward force is transmitted to the nuclear membrane through its physical contact with the separated sister chromatids at the two spindle poles. A theoretical model is developed to predict the morphology evolution of the NE where key factors such as the work done by the poleward force and bending and surface energies stored in the membrane have been taken into account. Interestingly, the predicted phase diagram, summarizing the dependence of nuclear shape on the size of the load transmission regions, and the pole-to-pole distance versus surface area relationship all quantitatively agree well with our experimental observations, suggesting that this model captures the essential physics involved in closed mitosis. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Coronavirus envelope (E) protein remains at the site of assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatagopalan, Pavithra; Daskalova, Sasha M.; Lopez, Lisa A.; Dolezal, Kelly A.; Hogue, Brenda G.

    2015-01-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) assemble at endoplasmic reticulum Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) membranes and egress from cells in cargo vesicles. Only a few molecules of the envelope (E) protein are assembled into virions. The role of E in morphogenesis is not fully understood. The cellular localization and dynamics of mouse hepatitis CoV A59 (MHV) E protein were investigated to further understanding of its role during infection. E protein localized in the ERGIC and Golgi with the amino and carboxy termini in the lumen and cytoplasm, respectively. E protein does not traffic to the cell surface. MHV was genetically engineered with a tetracysteine tag at the carboxy end of E. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) showed that E is mobile in ERGIC/Golgi membranes. Correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM) confirmed the presence of E in Golgi cisternae. The results provide strong support that E proteins carry out their function(s) at the site of budding/assembly. - Highlights: • Mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV-CoV) E protein localizes in the ERGIC and Golgi. • MHV-CoV E does not transport to the cell surface. • MHV-CoV can be genetically engineered with a tetracysteine tag appended to E. • First FRAP and correlative light electron microscopy of a CoV E protein. • Live-cell imaging shows that E is mobile in ERGIC/Golgi membranes

  19. Functional Analysis of Glycosylation of Zika Virus Envelope Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes-Garfias, Camila R; Shan, Chao; Luo, Huanle; Muruato, Antonio E; Medeiros, Daniele B A; Mays, Elizabeth; Xie, Xuping; Zou, Jing; Roundy, Christopher M; Wakamiya, Maki; Rossi, Shannan L; Wang, Tian; Weaver, Scott C; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2017-10-31

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection causes devastating congenital abnormities and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The ZIKV envelope (E) protein is responsible for viral entry and represents a major determinant for viral pathogenesis. Like other flaviviruses, the ZIKV E protein is glycosylated at amino acid N154. To study the function of E glycosylation, we generated a recombinant N154Q ZIKV that lacks the E glycosylation and analyzed the mutant virus in mammalian and mosquito hosts. In mouse models, the mutant was attenuated, as evidenced by lower viremia, decreased weight loss, and no mortality; however, knockout of E glycosylation did not significantly affect neurovirulence. Mice immunized with the mutant virus developed a robust neutralizing antibody response and were completely protected from wild-type ZIKV challenge. In mosquitoes, the mutant virus exhibited diminished oral infectivity for the Aedes aegypti vector. Collectively, the results demonstrate that E glycosylation is critical for ZIKV infection of mammalian and mosquito hosts. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Penicillin-binding site on the Escherichia coli cell envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, L.; Lee, Y.; Schwarz, U.; Lorian, V.

    1986-01-01

    The binding of 35 S-labeled penicillin to distinct penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) of the cell envelope obtained from the sonication of Escherichia coli was studied at different pHs ranging from 4 to 11. Experiments distinguishing the effect of pH on penicillin binding by PBP 5/6 from its effect on beta-lactamase activity indicated that although substantial binding occurred at the lowest pH, the amount of binding increased with pH, reaching a maximum at pH 10. Based on earlier studies, it is proposed that the binding at high pH involves the formation of a covalent bond between the C-7 of penicillin and free epsilon amino groups of the PBPs. At pHs ranging from 4 to 8, position 1 of penicillin, occupied by sulfur, is considered to be the site that establishes a covalent bond with the sulfhydryl groups of PBP 5. The use of specific blockers of free epsilon amino groups or sulfhydryl groups indicated that wherever the presence of each had little or no effect on the binding of penicillin by PBP 5, the presence of both completely prevented binding. The specific blocker of the hydroxyl group of serine did not affect the binding of penicillin

  1. An extended data envelopment analysis for the decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Meng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on the CCR model, we propose an extended data envelopment analysis to evaluate the efficiency of decision making units with historical input and output data. The contributions of the work are threefold. First, the input and output data of the evaluated decision making unit are variable over time, and time series method is used to analyze and predict the data. Second, there are many sample decision making units, which are divided into several ordered sample standards in terms of production strategy, and the constraint condition consists of one of the sample standards. Furthermore, the efficiency is illustrated by considering the efficiency relationship between the evaluated decision making unit and sample decision making units from constraint condition. Third, to reduce the computation complexity, we introduce an algorithm based on the binary search tree in the model to choose the sample standard that has similar behavior with the evaluated decision making unit. Finally, we provide two numerical examples to illustrate the proposed model.

  2. Efficiency Assessment of Inbound Tourist Service Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Shen Chen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The successful and sustainable development of inbound tourism necessitates a long-term commitment, balancing between tourism supply and tourist demands. This study manipulated a performance appraisal of tourism service quality in Taiwan with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA by employing input and output constructs to assess service quality efficiency. The empirical results of the estimation of technical efficiency (TE revealed that (1 the domestic tourism market is competitive, but still needs enhancements for tourism service; (2 Mainland Chinese tourists had the highest score among all foreign tourists, followed by Hong Kong and Macau tourists, tourists from other countries, Japanese tourists, and South Korean tourists; and (3 South Korean tourists had higher travel expenditure than others, but felt less satisfaction with travel services, which can be regarded as inefficient. Tourists from other countries had lower travel expenditure, but had higher satisfaction levels, which was considered efficient based on input and output index. The findings could contribute to bridging the gap between research and practice in assessing the efficiency of inbound tourist service. Tourism practitioners should be aware of tourists’ needs and interests, as these could be key fundamentals for improving tourists’ satisfaction with Taiwan’s service offerings.

  3. Multi-dimensional flood vulnerability assessment using data envelopment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Zalina; Saharizan, Nurul Syuhada; Hamzah, Paezah; Hussin, Siti Aida Sheikh; Khairi, Siti Shaliza Mohd

    2017-11-01

    Malaysia has been greatly impacted by flood during monsoon seasons. Even though flood prone areas are well identified, assessment on the vulnerability of the disaster is lacking. Assessment of flood vulnerability, defined as the potential for loss when a disaster occurs, is addressed in this paper. The focus is on the development of flood vulnerability measurement in 11 states in Peninsular Malaysia using a non-parametric approach of Data Envelopment Analysis. Scores for three dimensions of flood vulnerability (Population Vulnerability, Social Vulnerability and Biophysical) were calculated using secondary data of selected input and output variables across an 11-year period from 2004 to 2014. The results showed that Johor and Pahang were the most vulnerable to flood in terms of Population Vulnerability, followed by Kelantan, the most vulnerable to flood in terms of Social Vulnerability and Kedah, Pahang and Terengganu were the most vulnerable to flood in terms of Biophysical Vulnerability among the eleven states. The results also showed that the state of Johor, Pahang and Kelantan to be most vulnerable across the three dimensions. Flood vulnerability assessment is important as it provides invaluable information that will allow the authority to identify and develop plans for flood mitigation and to reduce the vulnerability of flood at the affected regions.

  4. LONGITUDINAL EVALUATION OF ACADEMIC DEPARTMENTS USING DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Meleu das Neves

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Corresponding to the smallest structure in a University for educational-academic, administrative and personnel allocation purposes, the academic department is currently a sui generis entity. The research proposes a temporal analysis of the relative efficiency of 93 academic departments at Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS over the period of 1998 through 2007, using the mathematical modeling technique called data envelopment analysis, as well as indicators equally related to education, research and extension. Among other conclusions, it can be observed that adding a professor to the faculty does not proportionally impact productivity; actually, the synergy may bring even better results. Likewise, removing a professor may not proportionally decrease department output. Furthermore, the research traces a relationship between the results obtained in the replicated model and the model practiced to establish a criteria of faculty position distribution: the department index. The authors present their findings by means of a mixed method technique. The homogeneity of those departments more dedicated to research and the increasing investment on the part of UFRGS in extension evidence the contrast between models, even considering that reorganizations in the system employed for this analysis may leave room for questioning.

  5. Microclimatic conditions at the external surface of building envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kragh, M K

    1999-12-31

    The project is described, the motivation for the research and the microclimate is defined in relation to both building physics research and applications. Air temperatur, air humidity, solar radiation and air velocity are briefly considered, whilst driving rain and long-wave radiation are described in more detail. Convective heat transfer and surface coefficients are discussed, although they are not microclimatic factors, merely resulting from combinations of such factors. They are included as they are important in relation to transfer of heat and moisture at the surface of the building envelope. Driving rain measurement is the main area of interest, including development of measurement equipment. Long-wave irradiation is measured and compared with empirical formulae from the literature. Window convection heat transfer is another main area of interest. Nocturnal convective heat transfer from a double pane glazing is studied and measurement principles are discussed. Finally, a compilation of meteorological data for hygrothermal simulations, including estimation of driving rain, is described. System error estimation in relation to the window convection measurements, design notes on an apparatus for external convection measurement, formulae for conversion of relative humitity and dry-bulb temperature into dew point temperature. (EG) 66 refs.

  6. Control room envelope unfiltered air inleakage test protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagus, P.L.; Grot, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    In 1983, the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) recommended that the US NRC develop a control room HVAC performance testing protocol. To date no such protocol has been forthcoming. Beginning in mid-1994, an effort was funded by NRC under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant to develop several simplified test protocols based on the principles of tracer gas testing in order to measure the total unfiltered inleakage entering a CRE during emergency mode operation of the control room ventilation system. These would allow accurate assessment of unfiltered air inleakage as required in SRP 6.4. The continuing lack of a standard protocol is unfortunate since one of the significant parameters required to calculate operator dose is the amount of unfiltered air inleakage into the control room. Often it is assumed that, if the Control Room Envelope (CRE) is maintained at +1/8 in. w.g. differential pressure relative to the surroundings, no significant unfiltered inleakage can occur it is further assumed that inleakage due to door openings is the only source of unfiltered air. 23 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Nucleocytoplasmic transport of nucleocapsid proteins of enveloped RNA viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu eWulan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Most viruses with non-segmented single stranded RNA genomes complete their life cycle in the cytoplasm of infected cells. However, despite undergoing replication in the cytoplasm, the structural proteins of some of these RNA viruses localize to the nucleus at specific times in the virus life cycle, primarily early in infection. Limited evidence suggests that this enhances successful viral replication by interfering with or inhibiting the host antiviral response. Nucleocapsid proteins of RNA viruses have a well-established, essential cytoplasmic role in virus replication and assembly. Intriguingly, nucleocapsid proteins of some RNA viruses also localize to the nucleus/nucleolus of infected cells. Their nuclear function is less well understood although significant advances have been made in recent years. This review will focus on the nucleocapsid protein of cytoplasmic enveloped RNA viruses, including their localization to the nucleus/nucleolus and function therein. A greater understanding of the nuclear localization of nucleocapsid proteins has the potential to enhance therapeutic strategies as it can be a target for the development of live-attenuated vaccines or antiviral drugs.

  8. ACCEPTABILITY ENVELOPE FOR METAL HYDRIDE-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, B.; Corgnale, C.; Tamburello, D.; Garrison, S.; Anton, D.

    2011-07-18

    The design and evaluation of media based hydrogen storage systems requires the use of detailed numerical models and experimental studies, with significant amount of time and monetary investment. Thus a scoping tool, referred to as the Acceptability Envelope, was developed to screen preliminary candidate media and storage vessel designs, identifying the range of chemical, physical and geometrical parameters for the coupled media and storage vessel system that allow it to meet performance targets. The model which underpins the analysis allows simplifying the storage system, thus resulting in one input-one output scheme, by grouping of selected quantities. Two cases have been analyzed and results are presented here. In the first application the DOE technical targets (Year 2010, Year 2015 and Ultimate) are used to determine the range of parameters required for the metal hydride media and storage vessel. In the second case the most promising metal hydrides available are compared, highlighting the potential of storage systems, utilizing them, to achieve 40% of the 2010 DOE technical target. Results show that systems based on Li-Mg media have the best potential to attain these performance targets.

  9. The lower limit of interval efficiency in Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Rahmani Parchikolaei

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In data envelopment analysis technique, the relative efficiency of the homogenous decision making units is calculated. These calculations are done based on the classical model of linear programming such as CCR,BCC,.... Because of maximizing the weighted sum of outputs to that in inputs of one unit under certain conditions, the obtained efficiency in all of these models is the upper limit of exact relative efficiency. In other words, the efficiency is calculatedfrom the optimistic viewpoint. To caculated the lower limit of efficiency, i.e. the efficiency obtained from a pessimistic viewpoint for certain weights, the existing models cannot calculate the exact lower limit and in some cases, there exist some models that show an incorrect lower limit. Through the model introduced in the present study, we can calculate the exact lower limit of the interval efficiency. The designed model can be obtained by minimizing the ratio of weighted sum of outputs to that of inputs for every unit under certion conditions. The exact lower limit can be calculated in all states through our adopted model.

  10. Protein composition of the hepatitis A virus quasi-envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Kevin L; Xie, Ling; González-López, Olga; Rivera-Serrano, Efraín E; Chen, Xian; Lemon, Stanley M

    2017-06-20

    The Picornaviridae are a diverse family of RNA viruses including many pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Classically considered "nonenveloped," recent studies show that some picornaviruses, notably hepatitis A virus (HAV; genus Hepatovirus) and some members of the Enterovirus genus, are released from cells nonlytically in membranous vesicles. To better understand the biogenesis of quasi-enveloped HAV (eHAV) virions, we conducted a quantitative proteomics analysis of eHAV purified from cell-culture supernatant fluids by isopycnic ultracentrifugation. Amino acid-coded mass tagging (AACT) with stable isotopes followed by tandem mass spectrometry sequencing and AACT quantitation of peptides provided unambiguous identification of proteins associated with eHAV versus unrelated extracellular vesicles with similar buoyant density. Multiple peptides were identified from HAV capsid proteins (53.7% coverage), but none from nonstructural proteins, indicating capsids are packaged as cargo into eHAV vesicles via a highly specific sorting process. Other eHAV-associated proteins ( n = 105) were significantly enriched for components of the endolysosomal system (>60%, P hepatitis A. No LC3-related peptides were identified by mass spectrometry. RNAi depletion studies confirmed that ESCRT-III proteins, particularly CHMP2A, function in eHAV biogenesis. In addition to identifying surface markers of eHAV vesicles, the results support an exosome-like mechanism of eHAV egress involving endosomal budding of HAV capsids into multivesicular bodies.

  11. Coronavirus envelope (E) protein remains at the site of assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatagopalan, Pavithra [The Biodesign Institute, Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5401 (United States); School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5401 (United States); Microbiology Graduate Program, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5401 (United States); Daskalova, Sasha M. [The Biodesign Institute, Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5401 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Chemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5401 (United States); Lopez, Lisa A. [The Biodesign Institute, Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5401 (United States); School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5401 (United States); Molecular and Cellular Biology Graduate Program, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5401 (United States); Dolezal, Kelly A. [The Biodesign Institute, Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5401 (United States); School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5401 (United States); Microbiology Graduate Program, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5401 (United States); Hogue, Brenda G., E-mail: Brenda.Hogue@asu.edu [The Biodesign Institute, Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5401 (United States); School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5401 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) assemble at endoplasmic reticulum Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) membranes and egress from cells in cargo vesicles. Only a few molecules of the envelope (E) protein are assembled into virions. The role of E in morphogenesis is not fully understood. The cellular localization and dynamics of mouse hepatitis CoV A59 (MHV) E protein were investigated to further understanding of its role during infection. E protein localized in the ERGIC and Golgi with the amino and carboxy termini in the lumen and cytoplasm, respectively. E protein does not traffic to the cell surface. MHV was genetically engineered with a tetracysteine tag at the carboxy end of E. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) showed that E is mobile in ERGIC/Golgi membranes. Correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM) confirmed the presence of E in Golgi cisternae. The results provide strong support that E proteins carry out their function(s) at the site of budding/assembly. - Highlights: • Mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV-CoV) E protein localizes in the ERGIC and Golgi. • MHV-CoV E does not transport to the cell surface. • MHV-CoV can be genetically engineered with a tetracysteine tag appended to E. • First FRAP and correlative light electron microscopy of a CoV E protein. • Live-cell imaging shows that E is mobile in ERGIC/Golgi membranes.

  12. A new algorithm for benchmarking in integer data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Omran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of integer data in data envelopment analysis (DEA. The inputs and outputs in different types of DEA are considered to be continuous. In most application-oriented problems, some or all data are integers; and subsequently, the continuous condition of the values is omitted. For example, situations in which the inputs/outputs are representatives of the number of cars, people, etc. In fact, the benchmark unit is artificial and does not contain integer inputs/outputs after projection on the efficiency frontier. By rounding off the projection point, we may lose the feasibility or end up having inefficient DMU. In such cases, it is required to provide a benchmark unit such that the considered unit reaches the efficiency. In the present short communication, by proposing a novel algorithm, the projecting of an inefficient DMU is carried out in such a way that produced benchmarking takes values with fully integer inputs/outputs.

  13. Control room envelope unfiltered air inleakage test protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagus, P.L. [Lagus Applied Technology, San Diego, CA (United States); Grot, R.A. [Lagus Applied Technology, Olney, MD (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In 1983, the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) recommended that the US NRC develop a control room HVAC performance testing protocol. To date no such protocol has been forthcoming. Beginning in mid-1994, an effort was funded by NRC under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant to develop several simplified test protocols based on the principles of tracer gas testing in order to measure the total unfiltered inleakage entering a CRE during emergency mode operation of the control room ventilation system. These would allow accurate assessment of unfiltered air inleakage as required in SRP 6.4. The continuing lack of a standard protocol is unfortunate since one of the significant parameters required to calculate operator dose is the amount of unfiltered air inleakage into the control room. Often it is assumed that, if the Control Room Envelope (CRE) is maintained at +1/8 in. w.g. differential pressure relative to the surroundings, no significant unfiltered inleakage can occur it is further assumed that inleakage due to door openings is the only source of unfiltered air. 23 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Matrix organization increases physician, management cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissoneau, R; Williams, F G; Cowley, J L

    1984-04-01

    Because of the development of multihospital systems and the establishment of diagnosis related groups, hospitals increasingly will establish matrix organizations for their corporate structures. St. Luke's Hospital adopted the matrix concept in the mid-1970s, utilizing program administrators for each specialty service or "clinical center of excellence." Such centers have been developed in digestive diseases, cardiovascular and pulmonary medicine, orthopedics and rheumatology, ophthalmology, and behavioral health. The program administrator's functions are diverse: To serve as primary liaison between physicians and the hospital; To project levels of program utilization and patient and physician satisfaction, to identify areas requiring administrative and marketing emphasis, and to develop the program's marketing plan; To develop, implement, and evaluate the program's strategic, operational, and financial plans; To recruit physicians to practice at St. Luke's and to cultivate referrals from outside physicians; To participate in selecting members of all board and medical staff committees relating to the particular specialty area; and To determine the need for new programs within the specialty area and to develop services. As indicated by a medical staff survey, most physicians at St. Luke's believe that the program administrator system has improved communication with the hospital administration, that the program administrator is able to respond effectively to physician requests and problems, and that the quality of patient care has been enhanced. A great majority said they would recommend the system to other hospitals.

  15. The cellulose resource matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Edwin R P; Yılmaz, Gülden; van Dam, Jan E G

    2013-03-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where large scale competition can be expected and already is observed for the traditional industries such as the paper industry. Cellulose and lignocellulosic raw materials (like wood and non-wood fibre crops) are being utilised in many industrial sectors. Due to the initiated transition towards biobased economy, these raw materials are intensively investigated also for new applications such as 2nd generation biofuels and 'green' chemicals and materials production (Clark, 2007; Lange, 2007; Petrus & Noordermeer, 2006; Ragauskas et al., 2006; Regalbuto, 2009). As lignocellulosic raw materials are available in variable quantities and qualities, unnecessary competition can be avoided via the choice of suitable raw materials for a target application. For example, utilisation of cellulose as carbohydrate source for ethanol production (Kabir Kazi et al., 2010) avoids the discussed competition with easier digestible carbohydrates (sugars, starch) deprived from the food supply chain. Also for cellulose use as a biopolymer several different competing markets can be distinguished. It is clear that these applications and markets will be influenced by large volume shifts. The world will have to reckon with the increase of competition and feedstock shortage (land use/biodiversity) (van Dam, de Klerk-Engels, Struik, & Rabbinge, 2005). It is of interest - in the context of sustainable development of the bioeconomy - to categorize the already available and emerging lignocellulosic resources in a matrix structure. When composing such "cellulose resource matrix" attention should be given to the quality aspects as well as to the available quantities and practical possibilities of processing the

  16. Monte Carlo investigation of the low-dose envelope from scanned proton pencil beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawakuchi, Gabriel O; Titt, Uwe; Mirkovic, Dragan; Ciangaru, George; Zhu, X Ronald; Sahoo, Narayan; Gillin, Michael T; Mohan, Radhe

    2010-01-01

    Scanned proton pencil beams carry a low-dose envelope that extends several centimeters from the individual beam's central axis. Thus, the total delivered dose depends on the size of the target volume and the corresponding number and intensity of beams necessary to cover the target volume uniformly. This dependence must be considered in dose calculation algorithms used by treatment planning systems. In this work, we investigated the sources of particles contributing to the low-dose envelope using the Monte Carlo technique. We used a validated model of our institution's scanning beam line to determine the contributions to the low-dose envelope from secondary particles created in a water phantom and particles scattered in beam line components. Our results suggested that, for high-energy beams, secondary particles produced by nuclear interactions in the water phantom are the major contributors to the low-dose envelope. For low-energy beams, the low-dose envelope is dominated by particles undergoing multiple Coulomb scattering in the beam line components and water phantom. Clearly, in the latter situation, the low-dose envelope depends directly on beam line design features. Finally, we investigated the dosimetric consequences of the low-dose envelope. Our results showed that if not modeled properly the low-dose envelope may cause clinically relevant dose disturbance in the target volume. This work suggested that this low-dose envelope is beam line specific for low-energy beams, should be thoroughly experimentally characterized and validated during commissioning of the treatment planning system, and therefore is of great concern for accurate delivery of proton scanning beam doses.

  17. Random matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Deift, Percy

    2009-01-01

    This book features a unified derivation of the mathematical theory of the three classical types of invariant random matrix ensembles-orthogonal, unitary, and symplectic. The authors follow the approach of Tracy and Widom, but the exposition here contains a substantial amount of additional material, in particular, facts from functional analysis and the theory of Pfaffians. The main result in the book is a proof of universality for orthogonal and symplectic ensembles corresponding to generalized Gaussian type weights following the authors' prior work. New, quantitative error estimates are derive

  18. Matrix vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenman, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    This outstanding text and reference applies matrix ideas to vector methods, using physical ideas to illustrate and motivate mathematical concepts but employing a mathematical continuity of development rather than a physical approach. The author, who taught at the U.S. Air Force Academy, dispenses with the artificial barrier between vectors and matrices--and more generally, between pure and applied mathematics.Motivated examples introduce each idea, with interpretations of physical, algebraic, and geometric contexts, in addition to generalizations to theorems that reflect the essential structur

  19. Matrix Encryption Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhakim Chillali

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In classical cryptography, the Hill cipher is a polygraphic substitution cipher based on linear algebra. In this work, we proposed a new problem applicable to the public key cryptography, based on the Matrices, called “Matrix discrete logarithm problem”, it uses certain elements formed by matrices whose coefficients are elements in a finite field. We have constructed an abelian group and, for the cryptographic part in this unreliable group, we then perform the computation corresponding to the algebraic equations, Returning the encrypted result to a receiver. Upon receipt of the result, the receiver can retrieve the sender’s clear message by performing the inverse calculation.

  20. Matrix string partition function

    CERN Document Server

    Kostov, Ivan K; Kostov, Ivan K.; Vanhove, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    We evaluate quasiclassically the Ramond partition function of Euclidean D=10 U(N) super Yang-Mills theory reduced to a two-dimensional torus. The result can be interpreted in terms of free strings wrapping the space-time torus, as expected from the point of view of Matrix string theory. We demonstrate that, when extrapolated to the ultraviolet limit (small area of the torus), the quasiclassical expressions reproduce exactly the recently obtained expression for the partition of the completely reduced SYM theory, including the overall numerical factor. This is an evidence that our quasiclassical calculation might be exact.

  1. Does Believing in "Use It or Lose It" Relate to Self-Rated Memory Control, Strategy Use, and Recall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, Christopher; McGuire, Christy L.; Horhota, Michelle; Jopp, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    After an oral free recall task, participants were interviewed about their memory. Despite reporting similar levels of perceived personal control over memory, older and young adults differed in the means in which they believed memory could be controlled. Older adults cited health and wellness practices and exercising memory, consistent with a "use…

  2. Believing in "making a difference" to collective efforts : Participative efficacy beliefs as a unique predictor of collective action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zomeren, Martijn; Saguy, Tamar; Schellhaas, Fabian M. H.

    When rational actors believe that their group can achieve its goals through collective action (i.e., when they have strong group efficacy beliefs), they should not participate in it because they expect little benefit from their own participation. Paradoxically, however, research shows that

  3. Word Problems and Make-Believe: Using Frame Analysis and Ethnomethodology to Explore Aspects of the Culture of Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benincasa, Luciana

    2017-01-01

    The paper applies Goffman's frame analysis and ethnomethodology to student performance on mathematical word problems. In educational research, frame analysis has usually been limited to primary frames. Instead, in this paper I focus on the kind of secondary frame that Goffman calls 'utilitarian make-believe'. The data consist of a fragment of…

  4. What Is at Play? Meta-techniques in Serious Games and Their Effects on Social Believability and Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linssen, Johannes Maria; Theune, Mariet; de Groot, T.F.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss several examples of meta-techniques, used in Live Action Role Play to communicate information outside the story world, and suggest that they may be used to make non-player characters more socially believable by providing players with insight into what is at play in characters’ minds. We

  5. Discretion vs. Valor: The Development and Evaluation of a Simulation Game about Being a Believer in the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Barbara

    A study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of "Discretion vs. Valor," a simulation game designed to give North American players a chance to: (1) identify with "believers" (Christians) in the Soviet Union in order to form new images of these persons; (2) gain empathy for Christians by understanding the dilemmas they…

  6. Word problems and make-believe: Using frame analysis and ethnomethodology to explore aspects of the culture of schooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benincasa Luciana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper applies Goffman’s frame analysis and ethnomethodology to student performance on mathematical word problems. In educational research, frame analysis has usually been limited to primary frames. Instead, in this paper I focus on the kind of secondary frame that Goffman calls ‘utilitarian make-believe’. The data consist of a fragment of verbal interaction between a teacher and a 12-year-old pupil during an oral mathematics exam. By evoking the idea of ‘as-ifness’, word problems introduce pupils to a make-believe world. The text consists only of ‘filler words’ because what really matters are the figures. Word problems and possibly other aspects of schooling can be interpreted in terms of a utilitarian make-believe key. Readiness to adopt this make-believe frame when required may be the difference between school success and failure. I argue that maths achievement takes more than just ‘being good with numbers’. It is a joint enterprise of people interacting within a culturally-shaped setting, organized so as to make some phenomena stand out rather than others. Finally, I argue that ‘word problems and possibly other ‘school genres’ could be added to the list of utilitarian make-believe frames provided by Goffman.

  7. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... recommended services. You may also make use of SAP and employee assistance program (EAP) services in assisting... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support group services even after the employee returns to...

  8. Matrix algebra for linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Gruber, Marvin H J

    2013-01-01

    Matrix methods have evolved from a tool for expressing statistical problems to an indispensable part of the development, understanding, and use of various types of complex statistical analyses. This evolution has made matrix methods a vital part of statistical education. Traditionally, matrix methods are taught in courses on everything from regression analysis to stochastic processes, thus creating a fractured view of the topic. Matrix Algebra for Linear Models offers readers a unique, unified view of matrix analysis theory (where and when necessary), methods, and their applications. Written f

  9. Symmetries and Invariants of the Time-dependent Oscillator Equation and the Envelope Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Hong

    2005-01-01

    Single-particle dynamics in a time-dependent focusing field is examined. The existence of the Courant-Snyder invariant* is fundamentally the result of the corresponding symmetry admitted by the oscillator equation with time-dependent frequency.** A careful analysis of the admitted symmetries reveals a deeper connection between the nonlinear envelope equation and the oscillator equation. A general theorem regarding the symmetries and invariants of the envelope equation, which includes the existence of the Courant-Snyder invariant as a special case, is demonstrated. The symmetries of the envelope equation enable a fast algorithm for finding matched solutions without using the conventional iterative shooting method.

  10. Envelope detection using temporal magnetization dynamics of resonantly interacting spin-torque oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y.; Nishikawa, M.; Osawa, H.; Okamoto, Y.; Kanao, T.; Sato, R.

    2018-05-01

    In this article, we propose the detection method of the recorded data pattern by the envelope of the temporal magnetization dynamics of resonantly interacting spin-torque oscillator on the microwave assisted magnetic recording for three-dimensional magnetic recording. We simulate the envelope of the waveform from recorded dots with the staggered magnetization configuration, which are calculated by using a micromagnetic simulation. We study the data detection methods for the envelope and propose a soft-output Viterbi algorithm (SOVA) for partial response (PR) system as a signal processing system for three dimensional magnetic recording.

  11. Envelope correlation in (N, N) MIMO antenna array from scattering parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    the envelope correlation coefficient. This approach has the advantage that it does not require knowledge of the antenna radiation pattern. Numerical data that include conductor and permittivity loss are shown to validate the approach. Using the scattering parameters for calculating the envelope correlation......A simple closed-form equation to calculate the envelope correlation between any two receiver or transmitter antennas in a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system of an arbitrary number of elements is derived. The equation uses the scattering parameters obtained at the antenna feed point to calculate...

  12. Characterization of supercapacitors matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakka, Monzer Al, E-mail: Monzer.Al.Sakka@vub.ac.b [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); FEMTO-ST Institute, ENISYS Department, FCLAB, UFC-UTBM, bat.F, 90010 Belfort (France); Gualous, Hamid, E-mail: Hamid.Gualous@unicaen.f [Laboratoire LUSAC, Universite de Caen Basse Normandie, Rue Louis Aragon - BP 78, 50130 Cherbourg-Octeville (France); Van Mierlo, Joeri [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-10-30

    This paper treats supercapacitors matrix characterization. In order to cut off transient power peaks and to compensate for the intrinsic limitations in embedded sources, the use of supercapacitors as a storage system is quite suitable, because of their appropriate electrical characteristics (huge capacitance, small series resistance, high specific energy, high specific power), direct storage (energy ready for use), and easy control by power electronic conversion. This use requires supercapacitors modules where several cells connected in serial and/or in parallel, thus a bypass system to balance the charging or the discharging of supercapacitors is required. In the matrix of supercapacitors, six elements of three parallel BCAP0350 supercapacitors in serial connections have been considered. This topology permits to reduce the number of the bypass circuits and it can work in degraded mode. Actually, it allows the system to have more reliability by providing power continually to the load even when there are one or more cells failed. Simulation and experimental results are presented and discussed.

  13. Characterization of supercapacitors matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakka, Monzer Al; Gualous, Hamid; Van Mierlo, Joeri

    2010-01-01

    This paper treats supercapacitors matrix characterization. In order to cut off transient power peaks and to compensate for the intrinsic limitations in embedded sources, the use of supercapacitors as a storage system is quite suitable, because of their appropriate electrical characteristics (huge capacitance, small series resistance, high specific energy, high specific power), direct storage (energy ready for use), and easy control by power electronic conversion. This use requires supercapacitors modules where several cells connected in serial and/or in parallel, thus a bypass system to balance the charging or the discharging of supercapacitors is required. In the matrix of supercapacitors, six elements of three parallel BCAP0350 supercapacitors in serial connections have been considered. This topology permits to reduce the number of the bypass circuits and it can work in degraded mode. Actually, it allows the system to have more reliability by providing power continually to the load even when there are one or more cells failed. Simulation and experimental results are presented and discussed.

  14. Palmitoylation of the feline immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein and its effect on fusion activity and envelope incorporation into virions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Silvia A.; Paladino, Monica G. [Laboratorio de Virologia, CONICET-Universidad de Belgrano (UB), Villanueva 1324 (C1426BMJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Affranchino, Jose L., E-mail: jose.affranchino@comunidad.ub.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Virologia, CONICET-Universidad de Belgrano (UB), Villanueva 1324 (C1426BMJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-06-20

    The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) envelope glycoprotein (Env) possesses a short cytoplasmic domain of 53 amino acids containing four highly conserved cysteines at Env positions 804, 811, 815 and 848. Since palmitoylation of transmembrane proteins occurs at or near the membrane anchor, we investigated whether cysteines 804, 811 and 815 are acylated and analyzed the relevance of these residues for Env functions. Replacement of cysteines 804, 811 and 815 individually or in combination by serine residues resulted in Env glycoproteins that were efficiently expressed and processed. However, mutations C804S and C811S reduced Env fusogenicity by 93% and 84%, respectively, compared with wild-type Env. By contrast, mutant C815S exhibited a fusogenic capacity representing 50% of the wild-type value. Remarkably, the double mutation C804S/C811S abrogated both Env fusion activity and Env incorporation into virions. Finally, by means of Click chemistry assays we demonstrated that the four FIV Env cytoplasmic cysteines are palmitoylated.

  15. Palmitoylation of the feline immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein and its effect on fusion activity and envelope incorporation into virions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Silvia A.; Paladino, Mónica G.; Affranchino, José L.

    2012-01-01

    The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) envelope glycoprotein (Env) possesses a short cytoplasmic domain of 53 amino acids containing four highly conserved cysteines at Env positions 804, 811, 815 and 848. Since palmitoylation of transmembrane proteins occurs at or near the membrane anchor, we investigated whether cysteines 804, 811 and 815 are acylated and analyzed the relevance of these residues for Env functions. Replacement of cysteines 804, 811 and 815 individually or in combination by serine residues resulted in Env glycoproteins that were efficiently expressed and processed. However, mutations C804S and C811S reduced Env fusogenicity by 93% and 84%, respectively, compared with wild-type Env. By contrast, mutant C815S exhibited a fusogenic capacity representing 50% of the wild-type value. Remarkably, the double mutation C804S/C811S abrogated both Env fusion activity and Env incorporation into virions. Finally, by means of Click chemistry assays we demonstrated that the four FIV Env cytoplasmic cysteines are palmitoylated.

  16. Venezuelan equine encephalitis emergence: Enhanced vector infection from a single amino acid substitution in the envelope glycoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Aaron C.; Powers, Ann M.; Ortiz, Diana; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Weaver, Scott C.

    2004-01-01

    In 1993 and 1996, subtype IE Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus caused epizootics in the Mexican states of Chiapas and Oaxaca. Previously, only subtype IAB and IC VEE virus strains had been associated with major outbreaks of equine and human disease. The IAB and IC epizootics are believed to emerge via adaptation of enzootic (sylvatic, equine-avirulent) strains for high titer equine viremia that results in efficient infection of mosquito vectors. However, experimental equine infections with subtype IE equine isolates from the Mexican outbreaks demonstrated neuro-virulence but little viremia, inconsistent with typical VEE emergence mechanisms. Therefore, we hypothesized that changes in the mosquito vector host range might have contributed to the Mexican emergence. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the susceptibility of the most abundant mosquito in the deforested Pacific coastal locations of the VEE outbreaks and a proven epizootic vector, Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus. The Mexican epizootic equine isolates exhibited significantly greater infectivity compared with closely related enzootic strains, supporting the hypothesis that adaptation to an efficient epizootic vector contributed to disease emergence. Reverse genetic studies implicated a Ser → Asn substitution in the E2 envelope glycoprotein as the major determinant of the increased vector infectivity phenotype. Our findings underscore the capacity of RNA viruses to alter their vector host range through minor genetic changes, resulting in the potential for disease emergence. PMID:15277679

  17. Crystal structure of the pestivirus envelope glycoprotein E(rns) and mechanistic analysis of its ribonuclease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, Thomas; Bontems, Francois; Vonrhein, Clemens; Vaney, Marie-Christine; Bricogne, Gerard; Rümenapf, Till; Rey, Félix A

    2012-05-09

    Pestiviruses, which belong to the Flaviviridae family of RNA viruses, are important agents of veterinary diseases causing substantial economical losses in animal farming worldwide. Pestivirus particles display three envelope glycoproteins at their surface: E(rns), E1, and E2. We report here the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of E(rns), the ribonucleolytic activity of which is believed to counteract the innate immunity of the host. The structure reveals a three-dimensional fold corresponding to T2 ribonucleases from plants and fungi. Cocrystallization experiments with mono- and oligonucleotides revealed the structural basis for substrate recognition at two binding sites previously identified for T2 RNases. A detailed analysis of poly-U cleavage products using (31)P-NMR and size exclusion chromatography, together with molecular docking studies, provides a comprehensive mechanistic picture of E(rns) activity on its substrates and reveals the presence of at least one additional nucleotide binding site. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Bandwidths of a Matrix. A Survey of Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafteiu-Scai Liviu Octavian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The bandwidth, average bandwidth, envelope, profile and antibandwidth of the matrices have been the subjects of study for at least 45 years. These problems have generated considerable interest over the years because of them practical relevance in areas like: solving the system of equations, finite element methods, circuit design, hypertext layout, chemical kinetics, numerical geophysics etc. In this paper a brief description of these problems are made in terms of their definitions, followed by a comparative study of them, using both approaches: matrix geometry and graph theory. Time evolution of the corresponding algorithms as well as a short description of them are made. The work also contains concrete real applications for which a large part of presented algorithms were developed.

  19. VOLATILE TRANSPORT INSIDE SUPER-EARTHS BY ENTRAPMENT IN THE WATER-ICE MATRIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, A.; Podolak, M. [Department of Geophysics and Planetary Science, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Sasselov, D., E-mail: amitlevi.planetphys@gmail.com [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-05-20

    Whether volatiles can be entrapped in a background matrix composing planetary envelopes and be dragged via convection to the surface is a key question in understanding atmospheric fluxes, cycles, and composition. In this paper, we consider super-Earths with an extensive water mantle (i.e., water planets), and the possibility of entrapment of methane in their extensive water-ice envelopes. We adopt the theory developed by van der Waals and Platteeuw for modeling solid solutions, often used for modeling clathrate hydrates, and modify it in order to estimate the thermodynamic stability field of a new phase called methane filled ice Ih. We find that in comparison to water ice VII the filled ice Ih structure may be stable not only at the high pressures but also at the high temperatures expected at the core-water mantle transition boundary of water planets.

  20. Plasticity and Epitope Exposure of the HIV-1 Envelope Trimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Rebecca L R; Totrov, Maxim; Itri, Vincenza; Liu, Xiaomei; Fox, Alisa; Zolla-Pazner, Susan

    2017-09-01

    We recently showed that mutations in the HIV-1 envelope (Env) destabilize the V3 loop, rendering neutralization-resistant viruses sensitive to V3-directed monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Here, we investigated the propagation of this effect on other Env epitopes, with special emphasis on V2 loop exposure. Wild-type JR-FL and 19 mutant JR-FL pseudoviruses were tested for neutralization sensitivity to 21 MAbs specific for epitopes in V2, the CD4 binding site (CD4bs), and the CD4-induced (CD4i) region. Certain glycan mutants, mutations in the gp120 hydrophobic core, and mutations in residues involved in intraprotomer interactions exposed epitopes in the V2i region (which overlies the α4β7 integrin binding site) and the V3 crown, suggesting general destabilization of the distal region of the trimer apex. In contrast, other glycan mutants, mutations affecting interprotomer interactions, and mutations affecting the CD4bs exposed V3 but not V2i epitopes. These data indicate for the first time that V3 can move independently of V2, with V3 pivoting out from its "tucked" position in the trimer while apparently leaving the V2 apex intact. Notably, none of the mutations exposed V2 epitopes without also exposing V3, suggesting that movement of V2 releases V3. Most mutations increased sensitivity to CD4bs-directed MAbs without exposure of the CD4i epitope, implying these mutations facilitate the trimers' maintenance of an intermediate energy state between open and closed conformations. Taken together, these data indicate that several transient Env epitopes can be rendered more accessible to antibodies (Abs) via specific mutations, and this may facilitate the design of V1V2-targeting immunogens. IMPORTANCE Many epitopes of the HIV envelope (Env) spike are relatively inaccessible to antibodies (Abs) compared to their exposure in the open Env conformation induced by receptor binding. However, the reduced infection rate that resulted from the vaccine used in the RV144 HIV-1 vaccine