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Sample records for matrix bulk modulus

  1. Theory of thermal expansivity and bulk modulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Munish

    2005-01-01

    The expression for thermal expansivity and bulk modulus, claimed by Shanker et al. to be new [Physica B 233 (1977) 78; 245 (1998) 190; J. Phys. Chem. Solids 59 (1998) 197] are compared with the theory of high pressure-high temperature reported by Kumar and coworkers. It is concluded that the Shanker formulation and the relations based on this are equal to the approach of Kumar et al. up to second order

  2. Multiphase composites with extremal bulk modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibiansky, L. V.; Sigmund, Ole

    2000-01-01

    are described. Most of our new results are related to the two-dimensional problem. A numerical topology optimization procedure that solves the inverse homogenization problem is adopted and used to look for two-dimensional three-phase composites with a maximal effective bulk modulus. For the combination...... isotropic three-dimensional three-phase composites with cylindrical inclusions of arbitrary cross-sections (plane strain problem) or transversely isotropic thin plates (plane stress or bending of plates problems). (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  3. Effect of bulk modulus on performance of a hydrostatic transmission ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    an induction motor, a fixed or variable displacement motor, and all required ... oped a linear relation between oil bulk modulus and pressure for a HST system. ..... Piotrowska A 2003 The control of the rotational speed of hydraulic engine in ...

  4. Estimation of Bulk modulus and microhardness of tetrahedral semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorai, Sanjay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A general empirical formula was found for calculating of bulk modulus (B) and microhardness (H) from electronegativity and principal quantum number of II-VI, III-V semiconductors. Constant C1, appearing the in the expression of bulk modulus and constants C2 and C3, appearing in the expression of microhardness and the exponent M have following values respectively The numerical values of C1,C2, C3 and M are respectively 206.6, 8.234, 1.291, -1.10 for II-VI 72.4, 31.87, 7.592, -0.95 for III-V semiconductors. Both electro-negativity and principal quantum number can effectively reflect on the chemical bonding behaviour of constituent atoms in these semiconductors. The calculated values of bulk modulus and microhardness are in good agreement with the reported values in the literature. Present study helps in designing novel semiconductor materials, and to further explore the mechanical properties of these semiconductors.

  5. Bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi-Yim, H.; Johnson, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    Composites with a bulk metallic glass matrix were synthesized and characterized. This was made possible by the recent development of bulk metallic glasses that exhibit high resistance to crystallization in the undercooled liquid state. In this letter, experimental methods for processing metallic glass composites are introduced. Three different bulk metallic glass forming alloys were used as the matrix materials. Both ceramics and metals were introduced as reinforcement into the metallic glass. The metallic glass matrix remained amorphous after adding up to a 30 vol% fraction of particles or short wires. X-ray diffraction patterns of the composites show only peaks from the second phase particles superimposed on the broad diffuse maxima from the amorphous phase. Optical micrographs reveal uniformly distributed particles in the matrix. The glass transition of the amorphous matrix and the crystallization behavior of the composites were studied by calorimetric methods. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  6. The temperature dependence of the isothermal bulk modulus at 1 bar pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garai, J.; Laugier, A.

    2007-01-01

    It is well established that the product of the volume coefficient of thermal expansion and the bulk modulus is nearly constant at temperatures higher than the Debye temperature. Using this approximation allows predicting the values of the bulk modulus. The derived analytical solution for the temperature dependence of the isothermal bulk modulus has been applied to ten substances. The good correlations to the experiments indicate that the expression may be useful for substances for which bulk modulus data are lacking

  7. Cell wall elasticity: I. A critique of the bulk elastic modulus approach and an analysis using polymer elastic principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H. I.; Spence, R. D.; Sharpe, P. J.; Goeschl, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The traditional bulk elastic modulus approach to plant cell pressure-volume relations is inconsistent with its definition. The relationship between the bulk modulus and Young's modulus that forms the basis of their usual application to cell pressure-volume properties is demonstrated to be physically meaningless. The bulk modulus describes stress/strain relations of solid, homogeneous bodies undergoing small deformations, whereas the plant cell is best described as a thin-shelled, fluid-filled structure with a polymer base. Because cell walls possess a polymer structure, an alternative method of mechanical analysis is presented using polymer elasticity principles. This initial study presents the groundwork of polymer mechanics as would be applied to cell walls and discusses how the matrix and microfibrillar network induce nonlinear stress/strain relationships in the cell wall in response to turgor pressure. In subsequent studies, these concepts will be expanded to include anisotropic expansion as regulated by the microfibrillar network.

  8. A simple model for calculating the bulk modulus of the mixed ionic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    thermophysical properties, viz., bulk modulus, molecular force constant, reststrahlen fre- quency and Debye temperature using the three-body potential model. The calculated bulk modulus, from the TBPM model, for the pure end members (NH4Cl and NH4Br) are in agreement with the experimental values, as shown in ...

  9. The bulk modulus of cubic spinel selenides: an experimental and theoretical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waskowska, A.; Gerward, Leif; Olsen, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    It is argued that mainly the selenium sublattice determines the overall compressibility of the cubic spinel selenides, AB2Se4, and that the bulk modulus for these compounds is about 100GPa. The hypothesis is supported by experiments using high-pressure X-ray diffraction and synchrotron radiation...

  10. Characterizing bulk modulus of fine-grained subgrade soils under large capacity construction equipment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available laboratory testing program were used to determine bulk modulus at varying hydrostatic stress states, and moisture states chosen at optimum moisture content, 3% below and 3% above the optimum. The test results are analyzed, and used to develop regression...

  11. Effect of bulk modulus on deformation of the brain under rotational accelerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganpule, S.; Daphalapurkar, N. P.; Cetingul, M. P.; Ramesh, K. T.

    2018-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury such as that developed as a consequence of blast is a complex injury with a broad range of symptoms and disabilities. Computational models of brain biomechanics hold promise for illuminating the mechanics of traumatic brain injury and for developing preventive devices. However, reliable material parameters are needed for models to be predictive. Unfortunately, the properties of human brain tissue are difficult to measure, and the bulk modulus of brain tissue in particular is not well characterized. Thus, a wide range of bulk modulus values are used in computational models of brain biomechanics, spanning up to three orders of magnitude in the differences between values. However, the sensitivity of these variations on computational predictions is not known. In this work, we study the sensitivity of a 3D computational human head model to various bulk modulus values. A subject-specific human head model was constructed from T1-weighted MRI images at 2-mm3 voxel resolution. Diffusion tensor imaging provided data on spatial distribution and orientation of axonal fiber bundles for modeling white matter anisotropy. Non-injurious, full-field brain deformations in a human volunteer were used to assess the simulated predictions. The comparison suggests that a bulk modulus value on the order of GPa gives the best agreement with experimentally measured in vivo deformations in the human brain. Further, simulations of injurious loading suggest that bulk modulus values on the order of GPa provide the closest match with the clinical findings in terms of predicated injured regions and extent of injury.

  12. Bisphosphonate treatment affects trabecular bone apparent modulus through micro-architecture rather than matrix properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    2004-01-01

    and trabecular architecture independently. Conventional histomorphometry and microdamage data were obtained from the second and third lumbar vertebrae of the same dogs [Bone 28 (2001) 524]. Bisphosphonate treatment resulted in an increased apparent Young's modulus, decreased bone turnover, increased calcified...... matrix density, and increased microdamage. We could not detect any change in the effective Young's modulus of the calcified matrix in the bisphosphonate treated groups. The observed increase in apparent Young's modulus was due to increased bone mass and altered trabecular architecture rather than changes...... in the calcified matrix modulus. We hypothesize that the expected increase in the Young's modulus of the calcified matrix due to the increased calcified matrix density was counteracted by the accumulation of microdamage. Udgivelsesdato: 2004 May...

  13. Convergence analysis of modulus-based matrix splitting iterative methods for implicit complementarity problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An; Cao, Yang; Shi, Quan

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a complete version of the convergence theory of the modulus-based matrix splitting iteration methods for solving a class of implicit complementarity problems proposed by Hong and Li (Numer. Linear Algebra Appl. 23:629-641, 2016). New convergence conditions are presented when the system matrix is a positive-definite matrix and an [Formula: see text]-matrix, respectively.

  14. Modulus design multiwavelength polarization microscope for transmission Mueller matrix imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jialing; He, Honghui; Chen, Zhenhua; Wang, Ye; Ma, Hui

    2018-01-01

    We have developed a polarization microscope based on a commercial transmission microscope. We replace the halogen light source by a collimated LED light source module of six different colors. We use achromatic polarized optical elements that can cover the six different wavelength ranges in the polarization state generator (PSG) and polarization state analyzer (PSA) modules. The dual-rotating wave plate method is used to measure the Mueller matrix of samples, which requires the simultaneous rotation of the two quarter-wave plates in both PSG and PSA at certain angular steps. A scientific CCD detector is used as the image receiving module. A LabView-based software is developed to control the rotation angels of the wave plates and the exposure time of the detector to allow the system to run fully automatically in preprogrammed schedules. Standard samples, such as air, polarizers, and quarter-wave plates, are used to calibrate the intrinsic Mueller matrix of optical components, such as the objectives, using the eigenvalue calibration method. Errors due to the images walk-off in the PSA are studied. Errors in the Mueller matrices are below 0.01 using air and polarizer as standard samples. Data analysis based on Mueller matrix transformation and Mueller matrix polarization decomposition is used to demonstrate the potential application of this microscope in pathological diagnosis. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  15. Temperature dependence of bulk modulus and second-order elastic constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, P.P.; Kumar, Munish

    2004-01-01

    A simple theoretical model is developed to investigate the temperature dependence of the bulk modulus and second order elastic constants. The method is based on the two different approaches viz. (i) the theory of thermal expansivity formulated by Suzuki, based on the Mie-Gruneisen equation of state, (ii) the theory of high-pressure-high-temperature equation of state formulated by Kumar, based on thermodynamic analysis. The results obtained for a number of crystals viz. NaCl, KCl, MgO and (Mg, Fe) 2 SiO 4 are discussed and compared with the experimental data. It is concluded that the Kumar formulation is far better that the Suzuki theory of thermal expansivity

  16. High bulk modulus of ionic liquid and effects on performance of hydraulic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambic, Milan; Kalb, Roland; Tasner, Tadej; Lovrec, Darko

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years ionic liquids have gained in importance, causing a growing number of scientists and engineers to investigate possible applications for these liquids because of their unique physical and chemical properties. Their outstanding advantages such as nonflammable liquid within a broad liquid range, high thermal, mechanical, and chemical stabilities, low solubility for gases, attractive tribological properties (lubrication), and very low compressibility, and so forth, make them more interesting for applications in mechanical engineering, offering great potential for new innovative processes, and also as a novel hydraulic fluid. This paper focuses on the outstanding compressibility properties of ionic liquid EMIM-EtSO4, a very important physical chemically property when IL is used as a hydraulic fluid. This very low compressibility (respectively, very high Bulk modulus), compared to the classical hydraulic mineral oils or the non-flammable HFDU type of hydraulic fluids, opens up new possibilities regarding its usage within hydraulic systems with increased dynamics, respectively, systems' dynamic responses.

  17. Analysis of equations of state and temperature dependence of thermal expansivity and bulk modulus for silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandya, Tushar C; Bhatt, Apoorva D; Thakar, Nilesh A

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper an attempt has been made for the comparative study of different equations of state for silicon (Phase-1, cubic diamond structure) in the pressure range of 0-11 GPa. We compare the results of different equations of state (EOS) with available experimental data. The Kwon and Kim EOS is found to give far better agreement with the available experimental data. Results obtained by Poirier-Tarantola, Vinet, Tait and Suzuki's equations of state are not giving satisfactory agreement with the available experimental data. In the present study simple methods based on thermodynamic functions are presented to investigate the temperature dependence of thermal expansivity and bulk modulus for silicon. The results are reported for silicon. The calculated values of thermal expansivity are in good agreement with experimental data.

  18. Raman Spectra and Bulk Modulus of Nanodiamond in a Size Interval of 2-5 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Mikhail; Churkin, Valentin; Kirichenko, Alexey; Denisov, Viktor; Ovsyannikov, Danila; Kulnitskiy, Boris; Perezhogin, Igor; Aksenenkov, Viktor; Blank, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Nanodiamond in a 2-5-nm size interval (which is typical for an appearance of quantum confinement effect) show Raman spectra composed of 3 bands at 1325, 1600, and 1500 cm-1 (at the 458-nm laser excitation) which shifts to 1630 cm-1 at the 257-nm laser excitation. Contrary to sp2-bonded carbon, relative intensities of the bands do not depend on the 458- and 257-nm excitation wavelengths, and a halfwidth and the intensity of the 1600 cm-1 band does not change visibly under pressure at least up to 50 GPa. Bulk modulus of the 2-5-nm nanodiamond determined from the high-pressure study is around 560 GPa. Studied 2-5-nm nanodiamond was purified from contamination layers and dispersed in Si or NaCl.

  19. Aging bulk modulus obtained from enthalpy and volume relaxations of a-PMMA and its blends with PEO

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slobodian, P.; Verner, J.; Pelíšek, V.; Sáha, P.; Říha, Pavel; Rychwalski, R. W.; Kubát, J.; Emri, I.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2006), s. 1-15 ISSN 1385-2000 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2060401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : PMMA aging * Bulk modulus Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.583, year: 2006

  20. High Bulk Modulus of Ionic Liquid and Effects on Performance of Hydraulic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Kambic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over recent years ionic liquids have gained in importance, causing a growing number of scientists and engineers to investigate possible applications for these liquids because of their unique physical and chemical properties. Their outstanding advantages such as nonflammable liquid within a broad liquid range, high thermal, mechanical, and chemical stabilities, low solubility for gases, attractive tribological properties (lubrication, and very low compressibility, and so forth, make them more interesting for applications in mechanical engineering, offering great potential for new innovative processes, and also as a novel hydraulic fluid. This paper focuses on the outstanding compressibility properties of ionic liquid EMIM-EtSO4, a very important physical chemically property when IL is used as a hydraulic fluid. This very low compressibility (respectively, very high Bulk modulus, compared to the classical hydraulic mineral oils or the non-flammable HFDU type of hydraulic fluids, opens up new possibilities regarding its usage within hydraulic systems with increased dynamics, respectively, systems’ dynamic responses.

  1. Nano-fillers to tune Young’s modulus of silicone matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Lijin; Xu Zhonghua; Sun Leming; Caveney, Patrick M.; Zhang Mingjun

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated nanoparticles, nanofibers, and nanoclays for their filler effects on tuning the Young’s modulus of silicone matrix, a material with broad in vivo applications. Nano-fillers with different shapes, sizes, and surface properties were added into silicone matrix, and then their filler effects were evaluated through experimental studies. It was found that spherical nanoparticles could clearly improve Young’s modulus of the silicone matrix, while nanoclays and carbon nanofibers had limited effects. Smaller spherical nanoparticles were better in performance compared to larger nanoparticles. In addition, enhanced distribution of the nanoparticles in the matrix has been observed to improve the filler effect. In order to minimize toxicity of the nanoparticles for in vivo applications, spherical nanoparticles coated with amine, acid, or hydroxide groups were also investigated, but they were found only to diminish the filler effect of nanoparticles. This study demonstrated that spherical nanoparticles could serve as fillers to tune Young’s modulus of silicone matrix for potential applications in medicine.

  2. Determination of Lubricant Bulk Modulus in Metal Forming by Means of a Simple Laboratory Test and Inverse FEM Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hafis, S. M.; Christiansen, P.; Martins, P. A. F.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of workpiece surface topography on friction, lubrication and final surface equality in metal forming operations is well known and has been pointed out by many researchers.This is especially the case when liquid lubricants are applied in situations, where increased surface roughness ...... couples lubricant flow with plastic deformation of the metal directly. Results show that the proposed procedure allows determining an approximate bulk modulus for the lubricant.......The influence of workpiece surface topography on friction, lubrication and final surface equality in metal forming operations is well known and has been pointed out by many researchers.This is especially the case when liquid lubricants are applied in situations, where increased surface roughness...... facilitates the lubricant entrainment, pressurization and possible escape by micro-plasto-hydrodynamic lubrication. In order to model these mechanisms an important lubricant propertyd esignated as the bulk modulus is needed for characterizing the compressibility of the lubricant. The present paper describes...

  3. Young`s modulus of ceramic matrix composites with polysiloxane based matrix at elevated temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, Martin; Glogar, Petr

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2004), s. 2239-2242 ISSN 0022-2461 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/02/0177; GA ČR GP106/02/P025 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : composite material * Young `s modulus * high temperature Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 0.864, year: 2004

  4. Printing Three-Dimensional Heterogeneities in the Elastic Modulus of an Elastomeric Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Fattah, Abdel Rahman; Ghosh, Suvojit; Puri, Ishwar K

    2016-05-04

    We present a rapid and controllable method to create microscale heterogeneities in the 3D stiffness of a soft material by printing patterns with a ferrofluid ink. An ink droplet moved through a liquid polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) volume using an externally applied magnetic field sheds clusters of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in its wake. By varying the field spatiotemporally, a well-defined three-dimensional curvilinear feature is printed that contains MNP clusters. Subsequent cross-linking of the PDMS preserves the feature in place after the magnetic field is removed. Since the ferrofluid ink interferes with the cross-linking of PDMS, a 3D print containing ink density variations leads to corresponding spatial deviations in the elastic modulus of the matrix. The modulus is mapped in the experiments with atomic force microscopy. This rapid method to print 3D heterogeneities in soft matter promises the ability to mimic mechanical variations that occur in natural biomaterials.

  5. Effect of curing light emission spectrum on the nanohardness and elastic modulus of two bulk-fill resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Yaser; Watts, David C; Boyd, Daniel; Price, Richard B

    2016-04-01

    To determine the nanohardness and elastic moduli of two bulk-fill resin based composites (RBCs) at increasing depths from the surface and increasing distances laterally from the center after light curing. Two bulk-fill dental RBCs: Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TECBF) and Filtek Bulk Fill Flowable (FBFF) were light cured in a metal mold with a 6mm diameter and a 10mm long semi-circular notch. The RBCs were photo-polymerized for 10s using a light emitting diode (LED) Bluephase Style curing light, with the original light probe that lacked the homogenizer. This light has two blue light and one violet light LED emitters. By changing the probe orientation over the mold, the light output from only two LEDs reached the RBC. Measurements were made using: (i) the light from one violet and one blue LED, and (ii) the light from the two blue LEDs. Five specimens of each RBC were made using each LED orientation (total 20 specimens). Specimens were then stored in the dark at 37°C for 24h. Fifty indents were made using an Agilent G200 nanoindentor down to 4mm from the surface and 2.5mm right and left of the centerline. The results were analyzed (alpha=0.05) using multiple paired-sample t-tests, ANOVA, Bonferroni post-hoc tests, and Pearson correlations. The elastic modulus and nanohardness varied according to the depth and the distance from the centerline. For TECBF, no significant difference was found between the spatial variations in the elastic modulus or hardness values when violet-blue or blue-blue LEDs were used. For FBFF, the elastic modulus and nanohardness on the side exposed to the violet emitter were significantly less than the side exposed to the blue emitter. A strong correlation between nanohardness and elastic modulus was found in all groups (r(2)=0.9512-0.9712). Resin polymerization was not uniform throughout the RBC. The nanohardness and elastic modulus across two RBC materials were found to decline differently according to the orientation of the violet and blue

  6. Structure and bulk modulus of Ln-doped UO{sub 2} (Ln = La, Nd) at high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rittman, Dylan R., E-mail: drittman@stanford.edu [Department of Geological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Park, Sulgiye; Tracy, Cameron L. [Department of Geological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Zhang, Lei [Peter A. Rock Thermochemistry Laboratory and NEAT ORU, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Palomares, Raul I.; Lang, Maik [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Navrotsky, Alexandra [Peter A. Rock Thermochemistry Laboratory and NEAT ORU, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Mao, Wendy L. [Department of Geological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Ewing, Rodney C. [Department of Geological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2017-07-15

    The structure of lanthanide-doped uranium dioxide, Ln{sub x}U{sub 1-x}O{sub 2-0.5x+y} (Ln = La, Nd), was investigated at pressures up to ∼50–55 GPa. Samples were synthesized with different lanthanides at different concentrations (x ∼ 0.2 and 0.5), and all were slightly hyperstoichiometric (y ∼ 0.25–0.4). In situ high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to investigate their high-pressure phase behavior and determine their bulk moduli. All samples underwent a fluorite-to-cotunnite phase transformation with increasing pressure. The pressure of the phase transformation increased with increasing hyperstoichiometry, which is consistent with results from previous computational simulations. Bulk moduli are inversely proportional to both the ionic radius of the lanthanide and its concentration, as quantified using a weighted cationic radius ratio. This trend was found to be consistent with the behavior of other elastic properties measured for Ln-doped UO{sub 2}, such as Young's modulus. - Highlights: •Ln-doped UO{sub 2} transforms from fluorite to cotunnite at high pressure. •Transition pressure increases with increasing hyperstoichiometry. •Bulk modulus decreases with increasing Ln-dopant radius and concentration.

  7. Bulk modulus of CeO2 and PrO2-An experimental and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerward, L.; Staun Olsen, J.; Petit, L.; Vaitheeswaran, G.; Kanchana, V.; Svane, A.

    2005-01-01

    The high-pressure structural behaviour of CeO 2 and PrO 2 has been investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction at pressures up to 20 and 35 GPa, respectively. The experiments are accompanied by first principles calculations using the self-interaction corrected local spin density (SIC-LSD) approximation. The experimental values for the zero-pressure bulk modulus of CeO 2 and PrO 2 are 220(9) and 187(8) GPa, respectively. Our calculations reproduce the lattice constants with good accuracy, but find identical bulk modulii for CeO 2 (176.9 GPa) and PrO 2 (176.8 GPa)

  8. Experimental determination of bulk modulus of 14Å tobermorite using high pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Jae Eun; Clark, Simon M.; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a diamond anvil cell, 14 Å tobermorite, a structural analogue of calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H), was examined by high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction up to 4.8 GPa under hydrostatic conditions. The bulk modulus of 14 Å tobermorite was calculated, K o = 47 GPa. Comparison of the current results with previous high pressure studies on C-S-H(I) indicates that: (1) the compression behavior of the lattice parameters a and b of 14 Å tobermorite and C-S-H(I) are very similar, implying that both materials may have very similar Ca-O layers, and also implying that an introduction of structural defects into the Ca-O layers may not substantially change in-plane incompressibility of the ab plane of 14 Å tobermorite; and (2) the bulk modulus values of 14 Å tobermorite and C-S-H(I) are dominated by the incompressibility of the lattice parameter c, which is directly related to the interlayer spacing composed of dreierketten silicate chains, interlayer Ca, and water molecules. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental determination of bulk modulus of 14Å tobermorite using high pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Jae Eun

    2012-02-01

    Using a diamond anvil cell, 14 Å tobermorite, a structural analogue of calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H), was examined by high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction up to 4.8 GPa under hydrostatic conditions. The bulk modulus of 14 Å tobermorite was calculated, K o = 47 GPa. Comparison of the current results with previous high pressure studies on C-S-H(I) indicates that: (1) the compression behavior of the lattice parameters a and b of 14 Å tobermorite and C-S-H(I) are very similar, implying that both materials may have very similar Ca-O layers, and also implying that an introduction of structural defects into the Ca-O layers may not substantially change in-plane incompressibility of the ab plane of 14 Å tobermorite; and (2) the bulk modulus values of 14 Å tobermorite and C-S-H(I) are dominated by the incompressibility of the lattice parameter c, which is directly related to the interlayer spacing composed of dreierketten silicate chains, interlayer Ca, and water molecules. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Theoretical investigations of the bulk modulus in the tetra-cubic transition of PbTiO3 material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan A. P. Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resulting from ion displacement in a solid under pressure, piezoelectricity is an electrical polarization that can be observed in perovskite-type electronic ceramics, such as PbTiO3, which present cubic and tetragonal symmetries at different pressures. The transition between these crystalline phases is determined theoretically through the bulk modulus from the relationship between material energy and volume. However, the change in the material molecular structure is responsible for the piezoelectric effect. In this study, density functional theory calculations using the Becke 3-Parameter-Lee-Yang-Parr hybrid functional were employed to investigate the structure and properties associated with the transition state of the tetragonal-cubic phase change in PbTiO3 material.

  11. Study of pressure-volume relationships and higher derivatives of bulk modulus based on generalized equations of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwah, S.S.; Shrivastava, H.C.; Singh, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    We have generalized the pressure-volume (P-V) relationships using simple polynomial and logarithmic expansions so as to make them consistent with the infinite pressure extrapolation according to the model of Stacey. The formulations are used to evaluate P-V relationships and pressure derivatives of bulk modulus upto third order (K', K'' and K''') for the earth core material taking input parameters based on the seismological data. The results based on the equations of state (EOS) generalized in the present study are found to yield good agreement with the Stacey EOS. The generalized logarithmic EOS due to Poirier and Tarantola deviates substantially from the seismic values for P, K and K'. The generalized Rydberg EOS gives almost identical results with the Birch-Murnaghan third-order EOS. Both of them yield deviations from the seismic data, which are in opposite direction as compared to those found from the generalized Poirier-Tarantola logarithmic EOS

  12. Raman Spectra and Bulk Modulus of Nanodiamond in a Size Interval of 2-5 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Mikhail; Churkin, Valentin; Kirichenko, Alexey; Denisov, Viktor; Ovsyannikov, Danila; Kulnitskiy, Boris; Perezhogin, Igor; Aksenenkov, Viktor; Blank, Vladimir

    2017-10-10

    Nanodiamond in a 2-5-nm size interval (which is typical for an appearance of quantum confinement effect) show Raman spectra composed of 3 bands at 1325, 1600, and 1500 cm -1 (at the 458-nm laser excitation) which shifts to 1630 cm -1 at the 257-nm laser excitation. Contrary to sp 2 -bonded carbon, relative intensities of the bands do not depend on the 458- and 257-nm excitation wavelengths, and a halfwidth and the intensity of the 1600 cm -1 band does not change visibly under pressure at least up to 50 GPa. Bulk modulus of the 2-5-nm nanodiamond determined from the high-pressure study is around 560 GPa. Studied 2-5-nm nanodiamond was purified from contamination layers and dispersed in Si or NaCl.

  13. Micromechanical modeling of tungsten-based bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hao [Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Li Ke [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A and M University, TAMU 3123, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)]. E-mail: keli@tamu.edu; Subhash, Ghatu [Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Kecskes, Laszlo J. [Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Dowding, Robert J. [Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Micromechanics models are developed for tungsten (W)-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) matrix composites employing the Voronoi tessellation technique and the finite element (FE) method. The simulation results indicate that the computed elastic moduli are close to those measured in the experiments. The predicted stress-strain curves agree well with their experimentally obtained counterparts in the early stage of the plastic deformation. An increase in the W volume fraction leads to a decrease in the yield stress and an increase in the Young's modulus of the composite. In addition, contours of equivalent plastic strain for increasing applied strains provide an explanation why shear bands were observed in the glassy phase, along the W/BMG interface, and in the W phase of failed W/BMG composite specimens.

  14. Compressive behavior of wire reinforced bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Yub [Department of Materials Science, M/C 138-78, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Clausen, Bjorn [Lujan Neutron Science Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Uestuendag, Ersan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)]. E-mail: ustundag@iastate.edu; Choi-Yim, Haein [Department of Materials Science, M/C 138-78, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Aydiner, C. Can [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Bourke, Mark A.M. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) possess a unique set of mechanical properties that make them attractive structural materials. However, when loaded without constraint, BMGs fracture catastrophically due to formation of macroscopic shear bands and this behavior reduces their reliability. To address this issue, BMG matrix composites have been developed. In this investigation, neutron diffraction was used during uniaxial compressive loading to measure the internal strains in the second phases of various BMG composites reinforced with Ta, Mo, or stainless steel wires. The diffraction data were then employed to develop a finite element model that deduced the in situ constitutive behavior of each phase. It was found that the reinforcements yielded first and started transferring load to the matrix, which remained elastic during the whole experiment. While the present composites exhibited enhanced ductility, largely due to their ductile reinforcements, they yielded at applied stresses lower than those found in W reinforced composites.

  15. Calcium Sulfoaluminate Sodalite (Ca 4 Al 6 O 12 SO 4 ) Crystal Structure Evaluation and Bulk Modulus Determination

    KAUST Repository

    Hargis, Craig W.

    2013-12-12

    The predominant phase of calcium sulfoaluminate cement, Ca 4(Al6O12)SO4, was investigated using high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction from ambient pressure to 4.75 GPa. A critical review of the crystal structure of Ca4(Al 6O12)SO4 is presented. Rietveld refinements showed the orthorhombic crystal structure to best match the observed peak intensities and positions for pure Ca4(Al6O 12)SO4. The compressibility of Ca4(Al 6O12)SO4 was studied using cubic, orthorhombic, and tetragonal crystal structures due to the lack of consensus on the actual space group, and all three models provided similar results of 69(6) GPa. With its divalent cage ions, the bulk modulus of Ca4(Al6O 12)SO4 is higher than other sodalites with monovalent cage ions, such as Na8(AlSiO4)6Cl2 or Na8(AlSiO4)6(OH)2·H 2O. Likewise, comparing this study to previous ones shows the lattice compressibility of aluminate sodalites decreases with increasing size of the caged ions. Ca4(Al6O12)SO4 is more compressible than other cement clinker phases such as tricalcium aluminate and less compressible than hydrated cement phases such as ettringite and hemicarboaluminate. © 2013 The American Ceramic Society.

  16. Failure Modes of a Unidirectional Ultra-High-Modulus Carbon-Fiber/Carbon-Matrix Composite

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaldivar, R

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the effects of various microstructural features on the in situ, room-temperature tensile fracture behavior of an ultra-high-modulus, unidirectional carbon/carbon (C/C...

  17. Thermal expansivity and bulk modulus of ZnO with NaCl-type cubic structure at high pressures and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiaowei; Liu Zijiang; Chen Qifeng; Chu Yandong; Wang Chengwei

    2006-01-01

    The thermal expansivity and bulk modulus of ZnO with NaCl-type cubic structure were estimated by using the constant temperature and pressure molecular dynamics technique with effective pair potentials which consist of the Coulomb, dispersion, and repulsion interaction at high pressures and temperatures. It is shown that the calculated thermodynamic parameters including linear thermal expansion coefficient, isothermal bulk modulus and its pressure derivative are in good agreement with the available experimental data and the latest theoretical results. At an extended pressure and temperature ranges, linear thermal expansion coefficient and isothermal bulk modus have also been predicted. The thermodynamic properties of ZnO with NaCl-type cubic structure are summarized in the pressure 0-150 GPa ranges and the temperature up to 3000 K

  18. Determination of the bulk modulus of hydroxycancrinite, a possible zeolitic precursor in geopolymers, by high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Jae Eun

    2011-11-01

    Crystalline zeolitic materials, such as hydroxycancrinite, hydroxysodalite, herschelite and nepheline, are often synthesized from geopolymerization using fly-ash and solutions of NaOH at high temperatures. Comprised mainly of 6-membered aluminosilicate rings that act as basic building units, their crystal structures may provide insight into the reaction products formed in NaOH-activated fly ash-based geopolymers. Recent research indicates that the hydroxycancrinite and hydroxysodalite may play an important role as possible analogues of zeolitic precursor in geopolymers. Herein is reported a high pressure synchrotron study of the behavior of hydroxycancrinite exposed to pressures up to 6.1 GPa in order to obtain its bulk modulus. A refined equation of state for hydroxycancrinite yielded a bulk modulus of Ko = 46 ± 5 GPa (assuming Ko′ = 4.0) for a broad range of applied pressure. When low pressure values are excluded from the fit and only the range of 2.5 and 6.1 GPa is considered, the bulk modulus of hydroxycancrinite was found to be Ko = 46.9 ± 0.9 GPa (Ko′ = 4.0 ± 0.4, calculated). Comparison with the literature shows that all zeolitic materials possessing single 6-membered rings (i.e., hydroxycancrinite, sodalite and nepheline) have similar bulk moduli. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Frequency-dependent complex modulus at the glass transition in Pd40Ni10Cu30P20 bulk amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.L.; Li, Y.; Feng, Y.P.; Carter, W.C.

    2003-01-01

    We report frequency-dependent measurements of the dynamic elastic modulus of a Pd 40 Cu 30 Ni 10 P 20 bulk amorphous phase near its glass transition temperature. The storage and loss moduli exhibit a structural relaxation similar to those observed by other characterization techniques. Parameters obtained by fitting to the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman equation and the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts model exhibit similar behaviors to those other methods

  20. Effect of the valence electron concentration on the bulk modulus and chemical bonding in Ta2AC and Zr2AC (A=Al, Si, and P)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Jochen M.; Music, Denis; Sun Zhimei

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the effect of the valence electron concentration, on the bulk modulus and the chemical bonding in Ta 2 AC and Zr 2 AC (A=Al, Si, and P) by means of ab initio calculations. Our equilibrium volume and the hexagonal ratio (c/a) agree well (within 2.7% and 1.2%, respectively) with previously published experimental data for Ta 2 AlC. The bulk moduli of both Ta 2 AC and Zr 2 AC increase as Al is substituted with Si and P by 13.1% and 20.1%, respectively. This can be understood since the substitution is associated with an increased valence electron concentration, resulting in band filling and an extensive increase in cohesion

  1. Wear behaviour of Zr-based in situ bulk metallic glass matrix ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    based bulk metallic glass (BMG) and its in situ BMG matrix composites with diameter of 3 mm were fabricated by conventional Cu-mould casting method and ... The composites showed lower friction coefficient and wear rate than the pure BMG.

  2. On the role of API in determining porosity, pore structure and bulk modulus of the skeletal material in pharmaceutical tablets formed with MCC as sole excipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Cathy; Bawuah, Prince; Markl, Daniel; Zeitler, J Axel; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Peiponen, Kai-Erik; Gane, Patrick

    2017-06-30

    The physical properties and mechanical integrity of pharmaceutical tablets are of major importance when loading with active pharmaceutical ingredient(s) (API) in order to ensure ease of processing, control of dosage and stability during transportation and handling prior to patient consumption. The interaction between API and excipient, acting as functional extender and binder, however, is little understood in this context. The API indomethacin is combined in this study with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) at increasing loading levels. Tablets from the defined API/MCC ratios are made under conditions of controlled porosity and tablet thickness, resulting from different compression conditions, and thus compaction levels. Mercury intrusion porosimetry is used to establish the accessible pore volume, pore size distribution and, adopting the observed region of elastic intrusion-extrusion at high pressure, an elastic bulk modulus of the skeletal material is recorded. Porosity values are compared to previously published values derived from terahertz (THz) refractive index data obtained from exactly the same tablet sample sets. It is shown that the elastic bulk modulus is dependent on API wt% loading under constant tablet preparation conditions delivering equal dimensions and porosity. The findings are considered of novel value in respect to establishing consistency of tablet production and optimisation of physical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bulk metallic glass matrix composite for good biocompatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjoub, F; Metiri, W; Doghmane, A; Hadjoub, Z

    2012-01-01

    Reinforcement volume fraction effects on acoustical parameters of Zr 41.2 Ti 13.8 Cu 12.5 Ni 10 Be 22.5 matrix composites reinforced by Mg, Ag and Cd metals have been studied via a simulation program based on acoustic microscopy technique. Moreover, acoustical parameters of human bone were compared to those of BMGs in both monolithic and reinforced case. It was found that elastic behavior of BMGs matrix composites in high reinforcement volume fraction is similar of that of human bone. This behavior leads to high biocompatibility and good transfer of stress between composite material and human system.

  4. Bulk-boundary correlators in the hermitian matrix model and minimal Liouville gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgine, Jean-Emile; Ishiki, Goro; Rim, Chaiho

    2012-01-01

    We construct the one matrix model (MM) correlators corresponding to the general bulk-boundary correlation numbers of the minimal Liouville gravity (LG) on the disc. To find agreement between both discrete and continuous approach, we investigate the resonance transformation mixing boundary and bulk couplings. It leads to consider two sectors, depending on whether the matter part of the LG correlator is vanishing due to the fusion rules. In the vanishing case, we determine the explicit transformation of the boundary couplings at the first order in bulk couplings. In the non-vanishing case, no bulk-boundary resonance is involved and only the first order of pure boundary resonances have to be considered. Those are encoded in the matrix polynomials determined in our previous paper. We checked the agreement for the bulk-boundary correlators of MM and LG in several non-trivial cases. In this process, we developed an alternative method to derive the boundary resonance encoding polynomials.

  5. Links between matrix bulk density, macropore characteristics and hydraulic behavior of soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katuwal, Sheela; Møldrup, Per; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    characteristics on soil hydraulic functions has rarely been studied. With the objective of studying the links between these parameters we quantified macropore characteristics of intact soil columns (19 cm diameter x 20 cm high) from two agricultural field sites (Silstrup and Faardrup) in Denmark using coarse...... resolution X-ray CT and linked them with laboratory measurements of air permeability and leaching experiment. In addition to macropore characteristics, we also quantified the CT-number of the matrix as a measure of the bulk density of the matrix, i.e., excluding macropores in the soil. Soils from the two...

  6. Source apportionment of atmospheric bulk deposition in the Belgrade urban area using Positive Matrix factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasić, M.; Mijić, Z.; Rajšić, S.; Stojić, A.; Radenković, M.; Joksić, J.

    2009-04-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to assess anthropogenic impacts of heavy metals to the environment by determination of total atmospheric deposition of heavy metals. Atmospheric depositions (wet + dry) were collected monthly, from June 2002 to December 2006, at three urban locations in Belgrade, using bulk deposition samplers. Concentrations of Fe, Al, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn, Cr, V, As and Cd were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Based upon these results, the study attempted to examine elemental associations in atmospheric deposition and to elucidate the potential sources of heavy metal contaminants in the region by the use of multivariate receptor model Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF).

  7. Source apportionment of atmospheric bulk deposition in the Belgrade urban area using Positive Matrix factorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasic, M; Mijic, Z; Rajsic, S; Stojic, A; Radenkovic, M; Joksic, J

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to assess anthropogenic impacts of heavy metals to the environment by determination of total atmospheric deposition of heavy metals. Atmospheric depositions (wet + dry) were collected monthly, from June 2002 to December 2006, at three urban locations in Belgrade, using bulk deposition samplers. Concentrations of Fe, Al, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn, Cr, V, As and Cd were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Based upon these results, the study attempted to examine elemental associations in atmospheric deposition and to elucidate the potential sources of heavy metal contaminants in the region by the use of multivariate receptor model Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF).

  8. In-situ ductile metal/bulk metallic glass matrix composites formed by chemical partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choong Paul; Hays, Charles C.; Johnson, William L.

    2004-03-23

    A composite metal object comprises ductile crystalline metal particles in an amorphous metal matrix. An alloy is heated above its liquidus temperature. Upon cooling from the high temperature melt, the alloy chemically partitions, forming dendrites in the melt. Upon cooling the remaining liquid below the glass transition temperature it freezes to the amorphous state, producing a two-phase microstructure containing crystalline particles in an amorphous metal matrix. The ductile metal particles have a size in the range of from 0.1 to 15 micrometers and spacing in the range of from 0.1 to 20 micrometers. Preferably, the particle size is in the range of from 0.5 to 8 micrometers and spacing is in the range of from 1 to 10 micrometers. The volume proportion of particles is in the range of from 5 to 50% and preferably 15 to 35%. Differential cooling can produce oriented dendrites of ductile metal phase in an amorphous matrix. Examples are given in the Zr--Ti--Cu--Ni--Be alloy bulk glass forming system with added niobium.

  9. Elastic modulus of Al-Si/SiC metal matrix composites as a function of volume fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhosh Kumar, S; Rajasekharan, T [Powder Metallurgy Group, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh PO, Hyderabad-500 058 (India); Seshu Bai, V [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Central University PO, Hyderabad-500 046 (India); Rajkumar, K V; Sharma, G K; Jayakumar, T, E-mail: dearsanthosh@gmail.co [Non-Destructive Evaluation Division, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Chennai-603 102 (India)

    2009-09-07

    Aluminum alloy matrix composites have emerged as candidate materials for electronic packaging applications in the field of aerospace semiconductor electronics. Composites prepared by the pressureless infiltration technique with high volume fractions in the range 0.41-0.70 were studied using ultrasonic velocity measurements. For different volume fractions of SiC, the longitudinal velocity and shear velocity were found to be in the range of 7600-9300 m s{sup -1} and 4400-5500 m s{sup -1}, respectively. The elastic moduli of the composites were determined from ultrasonic velocities and were analysed as a function of the volume fraction of the reinforcement. The observed variation is discussed in the context of existing theoretical models for the effective elastic moduli of two-phase systems.

  10. Bulk modulus of basic sodalite, Na8[AlSiO4]6(OH)2·2H2O, a possible zeolitic precursor in coal-fly-ash-based geopolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Jae Eun

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic basic sodalite, Na8[AlSiO4] 6(OH)2•2H2O, cubic, P43n, (also known as hydroxysodalite hydrate) was prepared by the alkaline activation of amorphous aluminosilicate glass, obtained from the phase separation of Class F fly ash. The sample was subjected to a process similar to geopolymerization, using high concentrations of a NaOH solution at 90 °C for 24 hours. Basic sodalite was chosen as a representative analogue of the zeolite precursor existing in Na-based Class F fly ash geopolymers. To determine its bulk modulus, high-pressure synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction was applied using a diamond anvil cell (DAC) up to a pressure of 4.5 GPa. A curve-fit with a truncated third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state with a fixed K\\'o = 4 to pressure-normalized volume data yielded the isothermal bulk modulus, K o = 43 ± 4 GPa, indicating that basic sodalite is more compressible than sodalite, possibly due to a difference in interactions between the framework host and the guest molecules. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Characteristic of improved fatigue performance for Zr-based bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, J.W.; Huang, E.W.; Wang, G.Y.; Yang, H.J.; Liang, W.; Zhang, Y.; Liaw, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Zr 58.5 Ti 14.3 Nb 5.2 Cu 6.1 Ni 4.9 Be 11.0 bulk metallic glass matrix composites exhibit improved four-point-bending fatigue endurance with a fatigue limit of 567 MPa, compared to that under the tension–tension fatigue, due to the high-volume-fractioned dendrites, which can effectively blunt the fatigue-induced cracks. Illuminated by high-energy synchrotron X-ray at 200 and 100 K, the corresponding diffraction peaks, such as (110), (200), and (211) shift rightward to small lattice spacings, compared to those at 298 K. However, the peak widths at 100 K and 200 K are almost identical to that of room temperature. Since an identical fatigue specimen was measured under room temperature, 200 K, and 100 K, the invariant of the peak widths reveal the fact of the irreversible microstructure developments induced by fatigue. Even if the fatigue fracture stress is distinguishingly lower than the yielding strength, the deformation of dendrites locally prevails, evidenced by the occurrence of dislocations

  12. Wear behaviour of Zr-based in situ bulk metallic glass matrix ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    based bulk metallic glasses; in situ composites; ductile phase; wear behaviours. 1. Introduction ... crystalline alloys [2], which led to an abnormal phenomenon that the wear ... of BMGs does not follow the empirical Archard's wear equa- tion which ...

  13. A Novel Route for Development of Bulk Al/SiC Metal Matrix Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payodhar Padhi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Addition of nano particles, even in quantities as small as 2 weight percent can enhance the hardness or yield strength by a factor as high as 2. There are several methods for the production of metal matrix nanocomposites including mechanical alloying, vertex process, and spray deposition and so forth. However, the above processes are expensive. Solidification processing is a relatively cheaper route. During solidification processing, nano particulates tend to agglomerate as a result of van der Waals forces and thus proper dispersion of the nano particulate in metal matrix is a challenge. In the present study a noncontact method, where the ultrasonic probe is not in direct contact with the liquid metal, was attempted to disperse nanosized SiC particulates in aluminum matrix. In this method, the mold was subjected to ultrasonic vibration. Hardness measurements and microstructural studies using HRTEM were carried out on samples taken from different locations of the nanocomposite ingot cast by this method.

  14. Investigation of the microcrack evolution in a Ti-based bulk metallic glass matrix composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The initiation and evolution behavior of the shear-bands and microcracks in a Ti-based metallic-glass–matrix composite (MGMC were investigated by using an in-situ tensile test under transmission electron microscopy (TEM. It was found that the plastic deformation of the Ti-based MGMC related with the generation of the plastic deformation zone in crystalline and shear deformation zone in glass phase near the crack tip. The dendrites can suppress the propagation of the shear band effectively. Before the rapid propagation of cracks, the extending of plastic deformation zone and shear deformation zone ahead of crack tip is the main pattern in the composite.

  15. Quantum information aspects on bulk and nano interacting Fermi system: A spin-space density matrix approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afzali, R., E-mail: afzali@kntu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, 15418 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimian, N., E-mail: n.ebrahimian@shahed.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Shahed University, Tehran, 18155-159 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eghbalifar, B., E-mail: b.eghbali2011@yahoo.com [Department of Agricultural Management, Marvdasht Branch, Azad University, Marvdasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-07

    Highlights: • In contrast to a s-wave superconductor, the quantum correlation of the d-wave superconductor is sensitive to the change of the gap magnitude. • Quantum discord of the d-wave superconductor oscillates. • Quantum discord becomes zero at a characteristic length of the d-wave superconductor. • Quantum correlation strongly depends on the length of grain. Length of the superconductor lower, the quantum correlation length higher. • Quantum tripartite entanglement for a nano-scale d-wave superconductor is better than for a bulk d-wave superconductor. - Abstract: By approximating the energy gap, entering nano-size effect via gap fluctuation and calculating the Green's functions and the space-spin density matrix, the dependence of quantum correlation (entanglement, discord and tripartite entanglement) on the relative distance of two electron spins forming Cooper pairs, the energy gap and the length of bulk and nano interacting Fermi system (a nodal d-wave superconductor) is determined. In contrast to a s-wave superconductor, quantum correlation of the system is sensitive to the change of the gap magnitude and strongly depends on the length of the grain. Also, quantum discord oscillates. Furthermore, the entanglement length and the correlation length are investigated. Discord becomes zero at a characteristic length of the d-wave superconductor.

  16. Matrix-product-state simulation of an extended Brueschweiler bulk-ensemble database search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SaiToh, Akira; Kitagawa, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    Brueschweiler's database search in a spin Liouville space can be efficiently simulated on a conventional computer without error as long as the simulation cost of the internal circuit of an oracle function is polynomial, unlike the fact that in true NMR experiments, it suffers from an exponential decrease in the variation of a signal intensity. With the simulation method using the matrix-product-state proposed by Vidal [G. Vidal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 147902 (2003)], we perform such a simulation. We also show the extensions of the algorithm without utilizing the J-coupling or DD-coupling splitting of frequency peaks in observation: searching can be completed with a single query in polynomial postoracle circuit complexities in an extension; multiple solutions of an oracle can be found in another extension whose query complexity is linear in the key length and in the number of solutions (this extension is to find all of marked keys). These extended algorithms are also simulated with the same simulation method

  17. Investigation of different carbon nanotube reinforcements for fabricating bulk AlMg5 matrix nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallip, Kaspar, E-mail: kaspar.kallip@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology, Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Leparoux, Marc [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology, Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); AlOgab, Khaled A. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), National Centers for Advanced Materials, P O Box 6086, Riyadh, 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Clerc, Steve; Deguilhem, Guillaume [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology, Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Arroyo, Yadira [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology, Electron Microscopy Center, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Kwon, Hansang [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology, Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Pukyong National University, Department of Materials System Engineering, 365 Sinseon-ro, Busan 608-739 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    AlMg5-based metal matrix composites were successfully fabricated using high energy planetary ball-milling and hot pressing. The influence of 6 types of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with different properties was investigated for reinforcement. Over 3 fold increase in hardness and ultimate tensile strength was achieved with maximum values of 200 HV{sub 20} and 720 MPa respectively by varying CNT content from 0.5 to 5 vol%. The state, the dispersion as well as the reactivity of the different CNTs were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction and microscopy. The CNTs were considered to be dispersed homogeneously, but were shortened due to high energy milling. No significant differences in mechanical performances could be observed depending either on the nature or on the agglomeration initial state of the investigated CNTs. The milling time has to be however adjusted to the CNT content as higher concentrations require a longer milling time for achieving dispersion of the nano-reinforcement. - Highlights: • CNTs sustained the milling process and became homogeneously dispersed. • 3 times strengthening over unreinforced alloy achieved. • Flexible processing route for dispersing wide range of nanoparticulate materials.

  18. An Innovative Electrolysis Approach for the Synthesis of Metal Matrix Bulk Nanocomposites: A Case Study on Copper-Niobium System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrvash, Hussein; Rad, Rahim Yazdani; Massoudi, Abouzar

    2018-04-01

    Design and synthesis of a prototype Cu-Nb nanocomposite are presented. Oxygen-free Cu-Nb nanocomposites were prepared using an electrolysis facility with special emphasis on the cathodic deoxidation of Cu and nanometric Nb2O5 blends in a molten NaCl-CaCl2 electrolyte. The as-prepared nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The elemental analysis of the Cu matrix and Nb phase revealed the high solubility of Nb in the Cu structure (0.85 at. pct) and Cu in the Nb structure (10.59 at. pct) over short synthesis times (4-5 hours). Furthermore, precise analysis using field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the unique structure and nanocomposite morphology of the Cu-Nb nanocomposite. The successful synthesis of Cu-Nb nanocomposites offers a new conceptual and empirical outlook on the generation of bulk nanostructures of immiscible bimetals using electro-synthesis.

  19. The instantaneous shear modulus in the shoving model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.; Wang, W. H.

    2012-01-01

    We point out that the instantaneous shear modulus G∞ of the shoving model for the non-Arrhenius temperature dependence of viscous liquids’ relaxation time is the experimentally accessible highfrequency plateau modulus, not the idealized instantaneous affine shear modulus that cannot be measured....... Data for a large selection of metallic glasses are compared to three different versions of the shoving model. The original shear-modulus based version shows a slight correlation to the Poisson ratio, which is eliminated by the energy-landscape formulation of the model in which the bulk modulus plays...

  20. Experimental Young's modulus calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Jayakumar, R.; Yu, K.

    1994-01-01

    Coil is a very important magnet component. The turn location and the coil size impact both mechanical and magnetic behavior of the magnet. The Young's modulus plays a significant role in determining the coil location and size. Therefore, Young's modulus study is essential in predicting both the analytical and practical magnet behavior. To determine the coil Young's modulus, an experiment has been conducted to measure azimuthal sizes of a half quadrant QSE101 inner coil under different loading. All measurements are made at four different positions along an 8-inch long inner coil. Each measurement is repeated three times to determine the reproducibility of the experiment. To ensure the reliability of this experiment, the same measurement is performed twice with a open-quotes dummy coil,close quotes which is made of G10 and has the same dimension and similar azimuthal Young's modulus as the inner coil. The difference between the G10 azimuthal Young's modulus calculated from the experiments and its known value from the manufacturer will be compared. Much effort has been extended in analyzing the experimental data to obtain a more reliable Young's modulus. Analysis methods include the error analysis method and the least square method

  1. Theoretical approach to embed nanocrystallites into a bulk crystalline matrix and the embedding influence on the electronic band structure and optical properties of the resulting heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagan, Semyon Anatolyevich; Nazarov, Vladimir U; Shevlyagin, Alexander Vladimirovich; Goroshko, Dmitrii L; Galkin, N G

    2018-05-03

    We develop an approach and present results of the combined molecular dynamics and density functional theory calculations of the structural and optical properties of the nanometer-sized crystallites embedded in a bulk crystalline matrix. The method is designed and implemented for both compatible and incompatible lattices of the nanocrystallite (NC) and the host matrix, when determining the NC optimal orientation relative to the matrix constitutes a challenging problem. We suggest and substantiate an expression for the cost function of the search algorithm, which is the energy per supercell generalized for varying number of atoms in the latter. The epitaxial relationships at the Si/NC interfaces and the optical properties are obtained and found to be in a reasonable agreement with experimental data. Dielectric functions show significant sensitivity to the NC's orientation relative to the matrix at energies below 0.5 eV. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  2. Theoretical approach to embed nanocrystallites into a bulk crystalline matrix and the embedding influence on the electronic band structure and optical properties of the resulting heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagan, Semyon A.; Nazarov, Vladimir U.; Shevlyagin, Alexander V.; Goroshko, Dmitrii L.; Galkin, Nikolay G.

    2018-06-01

    We develop an approach and present results of the combined molecular dynamics and density functional theory calculations of the structural and optical properties of the nanometer-sized crystallites embedded in a bulk crystalline matrix. The method is designed and implemented for both compatible and incompatible lattices of the nanocrystallite (NC) and the host matrix, when determining the NC optimal orientation relative to the matrix constitutes a challenging problem. We suggest and substantiate an expression for the cost function of the search algorithm, which is the energy per supercell generalized for varying number of atoms in the latter. The epitaxial relationships at the Si/NC interfaces and the optical properties are obtained and found to be in a reasonable agreement with experimental data. Dielectric functions show significant sensitivity to the NC’s orientation relative to the matrix at energies below 0.5 eV.

  3. The elastic modulus of alumina-zirconia composite using through transmission ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, K.S.; Hing, P.

    1996-01-01

    The elastic modulus of unstabilized Al 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 composites is determined from ultrasonic velocities and density measurements. The dynamic elastic modulus and the density of the green unstabilized Al 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 follow the rule of mixture. However, the elastic modulus and density of the sintered Al 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 do not follow the rule of mixture. The elastic modulus and diametrical compressive fracture stress of the Al 2 O 3 can be enhanced by (1) a high green (before sintering) compacting pressure and (2) addition of about 3wt% unstabilized ZrO 2 at a sintering time of two hours at 1550 degC. The ZrO 2 is found to improve the bulk density of the composite by a reduction in the porosity. This improves the elastic modulus and the diametrical compressive fracture stress. The thermal expansion on cooling with > 25wt% ZrO 2 in the Al 2 O 3 matrix has also been established. (author)

  4. Fe isotope composition of bulk chondrules from Murchison (CM2): Constraints for parent body alteration, nebula processes and chondrule-matrix complementarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezel, Dominik C.; Wilden, Johanna S.; Becker, Daniel; Steinbach, Sonja; Wombacher, Frank; Harak, Markus

    2018-05-01

    Chondrules are a major constituent of primitive meteorites. The formation of chondrules is one of the most elusive problems in cosmochemistry. We use Fe isotope compositions of chondrules and bulk chondrites to constrain the conditions of chondrule formation. Iron isotope compositions of bulk chondrules are so far only known from few studies on CV and some ordinary chondrites. We studied 37 chondrules from the CM chondrite Murchison. This is particularly challenging, as CM chondrites contain the smallest chondrules of all chondrite groups, except for CH chondrites. Bulk chondrules have δ56Fe between -0.62 and +0.24‰ relative to the IRMM-014 standard. Bulk Murchison has as all chondrites a δ56Fe of 0.00‰ within error. The δ56Fe distribution of the Murchison chondrule population is continuous and close to normal. The width of the δ56Fe distribution is narrower than that of the Allende chondrule population. Opaque modal abundances in Murchison chondrules is in about 67% of the chondrules close to 0 vol.%, and in 33% typically up to 6.5 vol.%. Chondrule Al/Mg and Fe/Mg ratios are sub-chondritic, while bulk Murchison has chondritic ratios. We suggest that the variable bulk chondrule Fe isotope compositions were established during evaporation and recondensation prior to accretion in the Murchison parent body. This range in isotope composition was likely reduced during aqueous alteration on the parent body. Murchison has a chondritic Fe isotope composition and a number of chondritic element ratios. Chondrules, however, have variable Fe isotope compositions and chondrules and matrix have complementary Al/Mg and Fe/Mg ratios. In combination, this supports the idea that chondrules and matrix formed from a single reservoir and were then accreted in the parent body. The formation in a single region also explains the compositional distribution of the chondrule population in Murchison.

  5. Fibonacci difference sequence spaces for modulus functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldip Raj

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we introduce Fibonacci difference sequence spaces l(F, Ƒ, p, u and  l_∞(F, Ƒ, p, u by using a sequence of modulus functions and a new band matrix F. We also make an effort to study some inclusion relations, topological and geometric properties of these spaces. Furthermore, the alpha, beta, gamma duals and matrix transformation of the space l(F, Ƒ, p, u are determined.

  6. Mechanical properties and fracture mechanism of as-cast Mg77TM12Zn5Y6 (TM = Cu, Ni) bulk amorphous matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, K.Q.; Hu, N.N.; Zhang, H.B.; Jiang, W.H.; Ren, Y.L.; Liaw, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    Comparative investigations on the microstructures, thermal stability and mechanical properties of Mg 77 Cu 12 Zn 5 Y 6 and Mg 77 Ni 12 Zn 5 Y 6 bulk metallic glass matrix composites were carried out by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), DSC and compressive tester. The results show that the microstructure of as-cast samples with 3 mm in diameter for Cu-containing alloy is consisted of Mg flakes and dotted Mg 2 Cu phase in the amorphous matrix, while the as-cast Ni-containing alloy with the same diameter is mainly consisted of Mg flakes in the amorphous matrix. The glass transition temperature and supercooled liquid region are 413 K and 27 K for the Cu-containing, 443 K and 32 K for the Ni-containing amorphous matrix composites, respectively. The fracture strength, yield strength and plastic strain are 532 MPa, 390 MPa and 2.4% for the Cu-containing alloy, 667 MPa, 412 MPa and 7% for the Ni-containing alloy, respectively. Furthermore, the fracture mechanism for the amorphous matrix composites was discussed according to both the fracture surfaces and the stress-strain curves.

  7. Effect of shock pressure on the structure and superconducting properties of Y-Ba-Cu-O in explosively fabricated bulk metal-matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murr, L. E.; Niou, C. S.; Pradhan-Advani, M.

    1991-01-01

    While it is now well established that copper-oxide-based power, or virtually any other ceramic superconductor powder, can be consolidated and encapsulated within a metal matrix by explosive consolidation, the erratic superconductivity following fabrication has posed a major problem for bulk applications. The nature of this behavior was found to arise from microstructural damage created in the shock wave front, and the residual degradation in superconductivity was demonstrated to be directly related to the peak shock pressure. The explosively fabricated or shock loaded YBa2Cu3Ox examples exhibit drastically altered rho (or R) - T curves. The deterioration in superconductivity is even more noticeable in the measurement of ac magnetic susceptibility and flux exclusion or shielding fraction which is also reduced in proportion to increasing peak shock pressure. The high frequency surface resistance (in the GHz range) is also correspondingly compromised in explosively fabricated, bulk metal-matrix composites based on YBa2Cu3O7. Transmission electron microscopy (including lattice imaging techniques) is being applied in an effort to elucidate the fundamental (microstructural) nature of the shock-induced degradation of superconductivity and normal state conductivity. One focus of TEM observations has assumed that oxygen displaced from b-chains rather than oxygen-vacancy disorder in the basal plane of oxygen deficient YBa2Cu3Ox may be a prime mechanism. Shock-wave displaced oxygen may also be locked into new positions or interstitial clusters or chemically bound to displaced metal (possibly copper) atoms to form precipitates, or such displacements may cause the equivalent of local lattice cell changes as a result of stoichiometric changes. While the shock-induced suppression of T(sub c) is not desirable in the explosive fabrication of bulk metal-matrix superconductors, it may be turned into an advantage if the atomic-scale distortion can be understood and controlled as local

  8. Structure and property evaluation of a vacuum plasma sprayed nanostructured tungsten-hafnium carbide bulk composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rea, K.E.; Viswanathan, V.; Kruize, A.; Hosson, J.Th.M. de; O'Dell, S.; McKechnie, T.; Rajagopalan, S.; Vaidyanathan, R.; Seal, S.

    2008-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spray (VPS) forming of tungsten-based metal matrix nanocomposites (MMCs) has shown to be a cost effective and time saving method for the formation of bulk monolithic nanostructured thermo-mechanical components. Spray drying of powder feedstock appears to have a significant effect on the improved mechanical properties of the bulk nanocomposite. The reported elastic modulus of the nanocomposite nearly doubles due to the presence of HfC nano particulates in the W matrix. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) revealed the retention of nanostructures at the select process conditions and is correlated with the enhanced mechanical properties of the nanocomposite

  9. Schottky diodes between Bi2S3 nanorods and metal nanoparticles in a polymer matrix as hybrid bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Sudip K.; Pal, Amlan J.

    2015-01-01

    We report the use of metal-semiconductor Schottky junctions in a conjugated polymer matrix as solar cells. The Schottky diodes, which were formed between Bi 2 S 3 nanorods and gold nanoparticles, efficiently dissociated photogenerated excitons. The bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) devices based on such metal-semiconductor Schottky diodes in a polymer matrix therefore acted as an efficient solar cell as compared to the devices based on only the semiconductor nanorods in the polymer matrix or when gold nanoparticles were added separately to the BHJs. In the latter device, gold nanoparticles offered plasmonic enhancement due to an increased cross-section of optical absorption. We report growth and characteristics of the Schottky junctions formed through an intimate contact between Bi 2 S 3 nanorods and gold nanoparticles. We also report fabrication and characterization of BHJ solar cells based on such heterojunctions. We highlight the benefit of using metal-semiconductor Schottky diodes over only inorganic semiconductor nanorods or quantum dots in a polymer matrix in forming hybrid BHJ solar cells

  10. Exact Wigner surmise type evaluation of the spacing distribution in the bulk of the scaled random matrix ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, P.J.; Witte, N.S.

    2000-01-01

    Random matrix ensembles with orthogonal and unitary symmetry correspond to the cases of real symmetric and Hermitian random matrices respectively. We show that the probability density function for the corresponding spacings between consecutive eigenvalues can be written exactly in the Wigner surmise type form a(s) e-b(s) for a simply related to a Painleve transcendent and b its anti-derivative. A formula consisting of the sum of two such terms is given for the symplectic case (Hermitian matrices with real quaternion elements)

  11. Non-monotonic compositional dependence of isothermal bulk modulus of the (Mg1–xMnxCr2O4 spinel solid solutions, and its origin and implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The compressibility of the spinel solid solutions, (Mg1−xMnxCr2O4 with x = 0.00 (0, 0.20 (0, 0.44 (2, 0.61 (2, 0.77 (2 and 1.00 (0, has been investigated by using a diamond-anvil cell coupled with synchrotron X-ray radiation up to ∼10 GPa (ambient T. The second-order Birch–Murnaghan equation of state was used to fit the PV data, yielding the following values for the isothermal bulk moduli (KT, 198.2 (36, 187.8 (87, 176.1 (32, 168.7 (52, 192.9 (61 and 199.2 (61 GPa, for the spinel solid solutions with x = 0.00 (0, 0.20 (0, 0.44 (2, 0.61 (2, 0.77 (2 and 1.00 (0, respectively (KT′ fixed as 4. The KT value of the MgCr2O4 spinel is in good agreement with existing experimental determinations and theoretical calculations. The correlation between the KT and x is not monotonic, with the KT values similar at both ends of the binary MgCr2O4MnCr2O4, but decreasing towards the middle. This non-monotonic correlation can be described by two equations, KT = −49.2 (11x + 198.0 (4 (x ≤ ∼0.6 and KT = 92 (41x + 115 (30 (x ≥ ∼0.6, and can be explained by the evolution of the average bond lengths of the tetrahedra and octahedra of the spinel solid solutions. Additionally, the relationship between the thermal expansion coefficient and composition is correspondingly reinterpreted, the continuous deformation of the oxygen array is demonstrated, and the evolution of the component polyhedra is discussed for this series of spinel solid solutions. Our results suggest that the correlation between the KT and composition of a solid solution series may be complicated, and great care should be paid while estimating the KT of some intermediate compositions from the KT of the end-members.

  12. Laser engineered net shaping of quasi-continuous network microstructural TiB reinforced titanium matrix bulk composites: Microstructure and wear performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yingbin; Ning, Fuda; Wang, Hui; Cong, Weilong; Zhao, Bo

    2018-02-01

    Titanium (Ti) and its alloys have been successfully applied to the aeronautical and biomedical industries. However, their poor tribological properties restrict their fields of applications under severe wear conditions. Facing to these challenges, this study investigated TiB reinforced Ti matrix composites (TiB-TMCs), fabricated by in-situ laser engineered net shaping (LENS) process, through analyzing parts quality, microstructure formation mechanisms, microstructure characterizations, and workpiece wear performance. At high B content areas (original B particle locations), reaction between Ti and B particles took place, generating flower-like microstructure. At low B content areas, eutectic TiB nanofibers contacted with each other with the formation of crosslinking microstructure. The crosslinking microstructural TiB aggregated and connected at the boundaries of Ti grains, forming a three-dimensional quasi-continuous network microstructure. The results show that compared with commercially pure Ti bulk parts, the TiB-TMCs exhibited superior wear performance (i.e. indentation wear resistance and friction wear resistance) due to the present of TiB reinforcement and the innovative microstructures formed inside TiB-TMCs. In addition, the qualities of the fabricated parts were improved with fewer interior defects by optimizing laser power, thus rendering better wear performance.

  13. Binding Energy and Compression Modulus of Infinite Nuclear Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... MeV at the normal nuclear matter saturation density consistent with the best available density-dependent potentials derived from the G-matrix approach. The results of the incompressibility modulus, k∞ is in excellent agreement with the results of other workers. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics, ...

  14. Strong work-hardening behavior induced by the solid solution strengthening of dendrites in TiZr-based bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, D.Q. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Jiao, W.T. [College of Education, Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhang, Y.F. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Hebei Vocational and Technical College of Building Materials, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Wang, B.A.; Li, J.; Zhang, X.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Ma, M.Z., E-mail: mz550509@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Liu, R.P. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2015-03-05

    Highlights: • Hardness of dendrite of TiZr-based BMGMCs increases. • Strong work-hardening behavior is obtained after solid solution strengthening. • Lattice distortions of dendrite suffering from rapid cooling are detected. - Abstract: A series of TiZr-based bulk metallic glass matrix composites (BMGMCs) with distinguished mechanical properties are successfully fabricated by adding different volume fractions of Ta (Ti{sub 38.8}Zr{sub 28.8}Cu{sub 6.2}Be{sub 16.2}Nb{sub 10} as the basic composition, denoted as Ta{sub 0.0}–Ta{sub 8.0}). Along with the growth of precipitated phase, typical dendritic morphology is fully developed in the TiZr-based BMGMCs of Ta{sub 8.0}. Energy-dispersive spectrometry analysis of the dendrites and glass matrix indicates that the metallic elements of Nb and Ta should preferentially form solid solution into dendrites. The chaotic structure of high-temperature precipitate phase is trapped down by the rapid cooling of the copper-mould. The detected lattice distortions in the dendrites are attributed to the strong solid solution strengthening of the metallic elements of Ti, Zr, Nb, and Ta. These lattice distortions increase the resistance of the dislocation motion and pin the dislocations, thus the strength and hardness of dendrite increase. Dendrites create a strong barrier for the shear band propagation and generate multiple shear bands after solid solution strengthening, thereby providing the TiZr-based BMGMCs with greatly improved capacity to sustain plastic deformation and resistance to brittle fracture. Thus, the TiZr-based BMGMCs possess distinguished work-hardening capability. Among these TiZr-based BMGMCs, the sample Ta{sub 0.5} possesses the largest plastic strain (ε{sub p}) at 20.3% and ultimate strength (σ{sub max}) of 2613 MPa during compressive loading. In addition, the sample of Ta{sub 0.5} exhibits work-hardening up to an ultrahigh tensile strength of 1680 MPa during the tensile process, and then progressively

  15. Modulus D-term inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Kenji; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Saga, Ikumi; Sumita, Keigo

    2018-04-01

    We propose a new model of single-field D-term inflation in supergravity, where the inflation is driven by a single modulus field which transforms non-linearly under the U(1) gauge symmetry. One of the notable features of our modulus D-term inflation scenario is that the global U(1) remains unbroken in the vacuum and hence our model is not plagued by the cosmic string problem which can exclude most of the conventional D-term inflation models proposed so far due to the CMB observations.

  16. Determination of dynamic Young’s modulus of vulnerable speleothems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečný, Pavel; Lednická, Markéta; Souček, Kamil; Staš, Lubomír; Kubina, Lukáš; Gribovszki, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2015), s. 156-163 ISSN 1335-1788 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : dynamic Young´s modulus * speleothem * bulk density * X-Ray Computed Tomography Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.390, year: 2015 http://actamont.tuke.sk/pdf/2015/n2/10Konecny.pdf

  17. Examining Young's modulus for wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkalskis, Benjamin S; Freeman, J Reuben; Suhov, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Symmetry considerations, dimensional analysis and simple approximations are used to derive a formula for Young's modulus of a simple anisotropic system, a straight-layer wood bar whose fibre axis makes an angle with respect to the bar's longitudinal axis. Agreement between the derived formula and experiment (carried out in far from ideal conditions) is within 10%. Improvements and extensions are suggested for this undergraduate physics experiment

  18. Mechanical properties and fracture mechanism of as-cast Mg{sub 77}TM{sub 12}Zn{sub 5}Y{sub 6} (TM = Cu, Ni) bulk amorphous matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, K.Q. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110178 (China)], E-mail: kqqiu@yahoo.com.cn; Hu, N.N.; Zhang, H.B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110178 (China); Jiang, W.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37990 (United States); Ren, Y.L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110178 (China); Liaw, P.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37990 (United States)

    2009-06-10

    Comparative investigations on the microstructures, thermal stability and mechanical properties of Mg{sub 77}Cu{sub 12}Zn{sub 5}Y{sub 6} and Mg{sub 77}Ni{sub 12}Zn{sub 5}Y{sub 6} bulk metallic glass matrix composites were carried out by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), DSC and compressive tester. The results show that the microstructure of as-cast samples with 3 mm in diameter for Cu-containing alloy is consisted of Mg flakes and dotted Mg{sub 2}Cu phase in the amorphous matrix, while the as-cast Ni-containing alloy with the same diameter is mainly consisted of Mg flakes in the amorphous matrix. The glass transition temperature and supercooled liquid region are 413 K and 27 K for the Cu-containing, 443 K and 32 K for the Ni-containing amorphous matrix composites, respectively. The fracture strength, yield strength and plastic strain are 532 MPa, 390 MPa and 2.4% for the Cu-containing alloy, 667 MPa, 412 MPa and 7% for the Ni-containing alloy, respectively. Furthermore, the fracture mechanism for the amorphous matrix composites was discussed according to both the fracture surfaces and the stress-strain curves.

  19. Young's modulus of a copper-stabilized niobium-titanium superconductive wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, H.M.; Moulder, J.C.; Austin, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    Young's modulus was determined for a 0.6-mm-dia niobium-titanium superconductive wire. Two methods were used: continuous-wave-resonance and laser-pulse-excitation. Young's moduli were also determined for the components - copper and Nb-Ti - in both wire and bulk forms. Some mechanical-deformation effects on Young's modulus were also measured. From the component' elastic moduli, that of the composite was predicted accurately by a simple rule-of-mixtures relationship

  20. Young's modulus of individual ZnO nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Dayong; Tian, Chunguang; Liu, Qingfei; Zhao, Man; Qin, Jieming; Hou, Jianhua; Gao, Shang; Liang, Qingcheng; Zhao, Jianxun

    2014-01-01

    We used a contact-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the mechanical properties of an individual ZnO nanowire in the open air. It is noteworthy that the Young's modulus can be determined by an AFM tip compressing a single nanowire on a rigid substrate, which can bring more repeatability and accuracy for the measurements. In particular, the calculated radial Young's modulus of ZnO nanowires is consistent with the data of ZnO bulks and thin films. We also present the Young's modulus with different diameters, and all these are discussed deeply

  1. Modulus stabilization in a non-flat warped braneworld scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Indrani [S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Department of Astrophysics and Cosmology, Kolkata (India); SenGupta, Soumitra [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Department of Theoretical Physics, Kolkata (India)

    2017-05-15

    The stability of the modular field in a warped brane world scenario has been a subject of interest for a long time. Goldberger and Wise (GW) proposed a mechanism to achieve this by invoking a massive scalar field in the bulk space-time neglecting the back-reaction. In this work, we examine the possibility of stabilizing the modulus without bringing about any external scalar field. We show that instead of flat 3-branes as considered in Randall-Sundrum (RS) warped braneworld model, if one considers a more generalized version of warped geometry with de Sitter 3-brane, then the brane vacuum energy automatically leads to a modulus potential with a metastable minimum. Our result further reveals that in this scenario the gauge hierarchy problem can also be resolved for an appropriate choice of the brane's cosmological constant. (orig.)

  2. Modeling the Role of Bulk and Surface Characteristics of Carbon Fiber on Thermal Conductance across the Carbon Fiber/Matrix Interface (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-09

    heat flow from carbon fiber to the matrix (most of the laser energy is absorbed by the carbon fiber), subsequently determining the temperature rise and...Reductase- Trimethoprim , a Drug-Receptor System. Proteins: Struct., Funct., Genet. 1988, 4, 31−47. (37) Sun, H.; Mumby, S. J.; Maple, J. R.; Hagler, A. T

  3. Thermal compression modulus of polarized neutron matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-Alla, M.

    1990-05-01

    We applied the equation of state for pure polarized neutron matter at finite temperature, calculated previously, to calculate the compression modulus. The compression modulus of pure neutron matter at zero temperature is very large and reflects the stiffness of the equation of state. It has a little temperature dependence. Introducing the spin excess parameter in the equation of state calculations is important because it has a significant effect on the compression modulus. (author). 25 refs, 2 tabs

  4. Young modulus and internal friction of a fiber-reinforced composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, H.M.; Lei, M.; Austin, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    By a kilohertz-frequency resonance method we determined the Young modulus and internal friction of a uniaxially fiber-reinforced composite. The composite comprised glass fibers in an epoxy-resin matrix. We studied three fiber contents: 0, 41, and 49 vol %. The Young modulus fit a linear rule of mixture. The internal friction fit a classical free-damped-oscillator model where one assumes a linear rule of mixture for three quantities: mass, force constant, and mechanical-resistance constant

  5. Effect of Carbonate Matrix on δ15N Analysis Tested for Simple Bulk Combustion on Coupled Elemental Analyzer-GC-IRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, D.; Grossman, E. L.; Maupin, C. R.; Roark, B.; O'Dea, A.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen isotopes (15N/14N) have been extensively used to reconstruct trophic structure, anthropogenic nutrient loading, ecosystem dynamics, and nutrient cycling in terrestrial and marine systems. Extending similar efforts to deep time is critical to investigate sources and fluxes of nutrients in past oceans, and explore causes of biotic turnover. To test the fidelity of N-isotope analyses of biogenic carbonate samples by simple bulk combustion, we performed two sets of experiments involving varying proportions of reagent CaCO3 (0, 2, 35 mg) and three organic standards (3.7-47.2 µg) viz. USGS40 (δ15NAir = -4.52‰), USGS41 (δ15NAir = +47.57‰), and in-house standard Rice (δ15NAir = +1.18‰). At high N contents (15-47.2 µg), δ15N values for CaCO3-amended samples are consistently either 0.5‰ higher (USGS40, -4.5‰), equivalent (Rice, 1.2‰), or 0.5‰ lower (USGS41, 47.6‰) relative to unamended samples. The difference thus depends on the δ15N of the standard relative to air. With decreasing N content (10-15 µg), δ15N values for CaCO3-amended samples diverge from expected values, with 35 mg CaCO3 samples diverging at the highest N content and 0 mg CaCO3 samples at the lowest (10 µg). The latter matches the lower sample-size limit for accurate measurement under the experimental conditions. At very low sample size (3.7-10 µg), all unamended standards show decreasing δ15N with decreasing N content, presumably because of non-linearity in instrument electronics and ion source behavior. The δ15N values of amended USGS41 also decrease with decreasing N content, but those of amended USGS40 and Rice samples increase, with samples containing more CaCO3 (35 versus 2 mg) showing greater deviation from expected values. Potential causes for deviation in δ15N values with CaCO3 amendments include N2 contamination from tin capsules and reagent CaCO3, and incomplete combustion due to energy consumption during CaCO3 decomposition. While tin capsules and reagent Ca

  6. Size-dependent effective Young’s modulus of silicon nitride cantilevers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babaei Gavan, K.; Westra, H.J.R.; Van der Drift, E.W.J.M.; Venstra, W.J.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.

    2009-01-01

    The effective Young’s modulus of silicon nitride cantilevers is determined for thicknesses in the range of 20–684 nm by measuring resonance frequencies from thermal noise spectra. A significant deviation from the bulk value is observed for cantilevers thinner than 150 nm. To explain the observations

  7. A Two-Step Methodology to Study the Influence of Aggregation/Agglomeration of Nanoparticles on Young's Modulus of Polymer Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinyue; Zare, Yasser; Rhee, Kyong Yop

    2017-12-01

    A two-step technique based on micromechanical models is suggested to determine the influence of aggregated/agglomerated nanoparticles on Young's modulus of polymer nanocomposites. The nanocomposite is assumed to include nanoparticle aggregation/agglomeration and effective matrix phases. This method is examined for different samples, and the effects of important parameters on the modulus are investigated. Moreover, the highest and the lowest levels of predicted modulus are calculated based on the current methodology. The suggested technique can correctly predict Young's modulus for the samples assuming the aggregation/agglomeration of nanoparticles. Additionally, the aggregation/agglomeration of nanoparticles decreases Young's modulus of polymer nanocomposites. It is demonstrated that the high modulus of nanoparticles is not sufficient to obtain a high modulus in nanocomposites, and the surface chemistry of components should be adjusted to prevent aggregation/agglomeration and to disperse nano-sized particles in the polymer matrix.

  8. Matrix thermalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Nguyen, Kévin

    2017-01-01

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  9. Matrix thermalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Nguyen, Kévin

    2017-02-01

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  10. Matrix thermalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craps, Ben [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Evnin, Oleg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Thanon Phayathai, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Nguyen, Kévin [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-02-08

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  11. Influence of substrate modulus on gecko adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klittich, Mena R.; Wilson, Michael C.; Bernard, Craig; Rodrigo, Rochelle M.; Keith, Austin J.; Niewiarowski, Peter H.; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2017-03-01

    The gecko adhesion system fascinates biologists and materials scientists alike for its strong, reversible, glue-free, dry adhesion. Understanding the adhesion system’s performance on various surfaces can give clues as to gecko behaviour, as well as towards designing synthetic adhesive mimics. Geckos encounter a variety of surfaces in their natural habitats; tropical geckos, such as Gekko gecko, encounter hard, rough tree trunks as well as soft, flexible leaves. While gecko adhesion on hard surfaces has been extensively studied, little work has been done on soft surfaces. Here, we investigate for the first time the influence of macroscale and nanoscale substrate modulus on whole animal adhesion on two different substrates (cellulose acetate and polydimethylsiloxane) in air and find that across 5 orders of magnitude in macroscale modulus, there is no change in adhesion. On the nanoscale, however, gecko adhesion is shown to depend on substrate modulus. This suggests that low surface-layer modulus may inhibit the gecko adhesion system, independent of other influencing factors such as macroscale composite modulus and surface energy. Understanding the limits of gecko adhesion is vital for clarifying adhesive mechanisms and in the design of synthetic adhesives for soft substrates (including for biomedical applications and wearable electronics).

  12. Nondestructive characterization of metal-matrix-composites by ultrasonic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Hyun

    1992-01-01

    Nondestructive characterizations using ultrasonic technique were conducted systematically on Al 2 O 3 short fiber reinforced pure Al and AC8A aluminium metal-matrix composites. In order to determine the elastic moduli of metal-matrix composites(MMCs), Al 2 O 3 /AC8A composites with volume fraction of Al 2 O 3 short fiber varying up to 30% were fabricated by squeeze casting technique. Pure Al and AC8A reinforced with Al 2 O 3 short fiber were also fabricated by changing the fabrication parameters such as the applied pressure, the volume fraction of fiber. The Influences of texture change associated with change of fabrication parameters were investigated using the sophisticated LFB acoustic microscope with the frequency of 225 MHz. Ultrasonic velocities of longitudinal, shear and Rayleigh waves of the composites were measured by pulse-echo method and line-focus-beam(LBF) acoustic microscope. Ultrasonic velocities of the longitudinal, the shear and Rayleigh waves were found to correlate primarily with the volume fraction of Al 2 O 3 . The elastic constants of composites including Young's Modulus, Shear Modulus, Bulk Modulus and Poisson's ratio were determined on the basis of the longitudinal and the shear wave velocities measured by an ultrasonic pulse-echo method. The Young's Modulus of the composites obtained by ultrasonic technique were slightly lower than those measured by 4-point-bend test and also showed relatively good agreements with the calculated results derived from the equal stress condition. The applicability of LFB acoustic microscope on material characterization of the MMCs was discussed on the basis of the relationships between Rayleigh wave velocity as a function of rotated angle of specimen and fabrication parameters of the MMCs.

  13. Determination of elastic modulus and residual stress of plasma-sprayed tungsten coating on steel substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, J.H.; Hoeschen, T.; Lindig, S.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed tungsten, which is a candidate material for the first wall armour, shows a porous, heterogeneous microstructure. Due to its characteristic morphology, the properties are significantly different from those of its dense bulk material. Measurements of the elastic modulus of this coating have not been reported in the literature. In this work Young's modulus of highly porous plasma-sprayed tungsten coatings deposited on steel (F82H) substrates was measured. For the fabrication of the coating system the vacuum plasma-spray process was applied. Measurements were performed by means of three-point and four-point bending tests. The obtained modulus values ranged from 53 to 57 GPa. These values could be confirmed by the test result of a detached coating strip, which was 54 GPa. The applied methods produced consistent results regardless of testing configurations and specimen sizes. The errors were less than 1%. Residual stress of the coating was also estimated

  14. Determination of elastic modulus and residual stress of plasma-sprayed tungsten coating on steel substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, J. H.; Höschen, T.; Lindig, S.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed tungsten, which is a candidate material for the first wall armour, shows a porous, heterogeneous microstructure. Due to its characteristic morphology, the properties are significantly different from those of its dense bulk material. Measurements of the elastic modulus of this coating have not been reported in the literature. In this work Young's modulus of highly porous plasma-sprayed tungsten coatings deposited on steel (F82H) substrates was measured. For the fabrication of the coating system the vacuum plasma-spray process was applied. Measurements were performed by means of three-point and four-point bending tests. The obtained modulus values ranged from 53 to 57 GPa. These values could be confirmed by the test result of a detached coating strip, which was 54 GPa. The applied methods produced consistent results regardless of testing configurations and specimen sizes. The errors were less than 1%. Residual stress of the coating was also estimated.

  15. Elastic modulus and fracture of boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Walther, G.

    1978-12-01

    The elastic modulus of hot-pressed boron carbide with 1 to 15% porosity was measured at room temperature. K/sub IC/ values were determined for the same porosity range at 500 0 C by the double torsion technique. The critical stress intensity factor of boron carbide with 8% porosity was evaluated from 25 to 1200 0 C

  16. Structural relaxation monitored by instantaneous shear modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe; Christensen, Tage Emil

    1998-01-01

    time definition based on a recently proposed expression for the relaxation time, where G [infinity] reflects the fictive temperature. All parameters entering the reduced time were determined from independent measurements of the frequency-dependent shear modulus of the equilibrium liquid....

  17. Thickness dependence of nanofilm elastic modulus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fedorchenko, Alexander I.; Wang, A. B.; Cheng, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 15 (2009), s. 152111-152113 ISSN 0003-6951 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : nanofilm * elastic modulus * thickness dependence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.554, year: 2009 http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/94/152111/1

  18. Effect of single-particle magnetostriction on the shear modulus of compliant magnetoactive elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Viktor M.; Snarskii, Andrei A.; Shamonin, Mikhail; Zorinets, Denis

    2017-03-01

    The influence of an external magnetic field on the static shear strain and the effective shear modulus of a magnetoactive elastomer (MAE) is studied theoretically in the framework of a recently introduced approach to the single-particle magnetostriction mechanism [V. M. Kalita et al., Phys. Rev. E 93, 062503 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.062503]. The planar problem of magnetostriction in an MAE with magnetically soft inclusions in the form of a thin disk (platelet) having the magnetic anisotropy in the plane of this disk is solved analytically. An external magnetic field acts with torques on magnetic filler particles, creates mechanical stresses in the vicinity of inclusions, induces shear strain, and increases the effective shear modulus of these composite materials. It is shown that the largest effect of the magnetic field on the effective shear modulus should be expected in MAEs with soft elastomer matrices, where the shear modulus of the matrix is less than the magnetic anisotropy constant of inclusions. It is derived that the effective shear modulus is nonlinearly dependent on the external magnetic field and approaches the saturation value in magnetic fields exceeding the field of particle anisotropy. It is shown that model calculations of the effective shear modulus correspond to a phenomenological definition of effective elastic moduli and magnetoelastic coupling constants. The obtained theoretical results compare well with known experimental data. Determination of effective elastic coefficients in MAEs and their dependence on magnetic field is discussed. The concentration dependence of the effective shear modulus at higher filler concentrations has been estimated using the method of Padé approximants, which predicts that both the absolute and relative changes of the magnetic-field-dependent effective shear modulus will significantly increase with the growing concentration of filler particles.

  19. Resilient modulus of black cotton soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Mamatha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Resilient modulus (MR values of pavement layers are the basic input parameters for the design of pavements with multiple layers in the current mechanistic empirical pavement design guidelines. As the laboratory determination of resilient modulus is costly, time consuming and cumbersome, several empirical models are developed for the prediction of resilient modulus for different regions of the world based on the database of resilient modulus values of local soils. For use of these relationships there is a need to verify the suitability of these models for local conditions. Expansive clay called black cotton soil (BC soil is found in several parts of India and is characterized by low strength and high compressibility. This soil shows swell – shrink behaviour upon wetting and drying and are problematic. The BC soil shows collapse behaviour on soaking and therefore the strength of the soil needs to be improved. Additive stabilization is found to be very effective in stabilizing black cotton soils and generally lime is used to improve the strength and durability of the black cotton soil. In this paper, the results of repeated load tests on black cotton soil samples for the determination of MR under soaked and unsoaked conditions at a relative compaction levels of 100% and 95% of both standard and modified proctor conditions are reported. The results indicate that the black cotton soil fails to meet the density requirement of the subgrade soil and shows collapse behaviour under soaked condition. To overcome this, lime is added as an additive to improve the strength of black cotton soil and repeated load tests were performed as per AASHTO T 307 - 99 for MR determination. The results have shown that the samples are stable under modified proctor condition with MR values ranging from 36 MPa to 388 MPa for a lime content of 2.5% and curing period ranging from 7 to 28 days. Also, it is observed that, the CBR based resilient modulus is not in agreement

  20. Ultrasound estimation and FE analysis of elastic modulus of Kelvin foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nohyu; Yang, Seung Yong [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The elastic modulus of a 3D-printed Kelvin foam plate is investigated by measuring the acoustic wave velocity of 1 MHz ultrasound. An isotropic tetrakaidecahedron foam with 3 mm unit cell is designed and printed layer upon layer to fabricate a Kelvin foam plate of 14 mm thickness with a 3D CAD/printer using ABS plastic. The Kelvin foam plate is completely filled with paraffin wax for impedance matching, so that the acoustic wave may propagate through the porous foam plate. The acoustic wave velocity of the foam plate is measured using the time-of-flight (TOF) method and is used to calculate the elastic modulus of the Kelvin foam plate based on acousto-elasticity. Finite element method (FEM) and micromechanics is applied to the Kelvin foam plate to calculate the theoretical elastic modulus using a non-isotropic tetrakaidecahedron model. The predicted elastic modulus of the Kelvin foam plate from FEM and micromechanics model is similar, which is only 3-4% of the bulk material. The experimental value of the elastic modulus from the ultrasonic method is approximately twice as that of the numerical and theoretical methods because of the flexural deformation of the cell edges neglected in the ultrasonic method.

  1. Ultrasound estimation and FE analysis of elastic modulus of Kelvin foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nohyu; Yang, Seung Yong

    2016-01-01

    The elastic modulus of a 3D-printed Kelvin foam plate is investigated by measuring the acoustic wave velocity of 1 MHz ultrasound. An isotropic tetrakaidecahedron foam with 3 mm unit cell is designed and printed layer upon layer to fabricate a Kelvin foam plate of 14 mm thickness with a 3D CAD/printer using ABS plastic. The Kelvin foam plate is completely filled with paraffin wax for impedance matching, so that the acoustic wave may propagate through the porous foam plate. The acoustic wave velocity of the foam plate is measured using the time-of-flight (TOF) method and is used to calculate the elastic modulus of the Kelvin foam plate based on acousto-elasticity. Finite element method (FEM) and micromechanics is applied to the Kelvin foam plate to calculate the theoretical elastic modulus using a non-isotropic tetrakaidecahedron model. The predicted elastic modulus of the Kelvin foam plate from FEM and micromechanics model is similar, which is only 3-4% of the bulk material. The experimental value of the elastic modulus from the ultrasonic method is approximately twice as that of the numerical and theoretical methods because of the flexural deformation of the cell edges neglected in the ultrasonic method

  2. Physical factors controlling the ductility of bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y. [Central South University, China; Liu, Chain T [ORNL; Zhang, Z. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Keppens, V. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2008-01-01

    In order to identify key physical factor controlling the deformation and fracture behavior of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), we compiled and analyzed the elastic moduli and compressive ductility for BMGs. In addition, new modulus data were generated in the critical ranges in order to facilitate the analysis. We have found that the intrinsic ductility of BMGs can be correlated with the bulk-to-shear modulus ratio B/G according to Pugh's [Philos. Mag. 45, 823 (1954) ] rule. In some individual BMG systems, for example, Fe based, the relationship seems to be very clear. The physical meaning of this correlation is discussed in terms of atomic bonding and connectivity.

  3. Bulk-fill resin-based composites: an in vitro assessment of their mechanical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, N; Bucuta, S; Draenert, M

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to assess the mechanical performance of seven bulk-fill RBCs (Venus Bulk Fill, Heraeus Kulzer; SureFil SDR flow, Dentsply Caulk; x-tra base and x-tra fil, VOCO; Filtek Bulk Fill, 3M ESPE; SonicFill, Kerr; Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, Ivoclar Vivadent) by determining their flexural strength (σ), reliability (Weibull parameter, m), flexural modulus (Eflexural), indentation modulus (YHU), Vickers hardness (HV), and creep (Cr). The significant highest flexural strengths were measured for SonicFill, x-tra base, and x-tra fil, while x-tra base, SureFil SDR flow, and Venus Bulk Fill showed the best reliability. The differences among the materials became more evident in terms of Eflexural and YHU, with x-tra fil achieving the highest values, while Filtek Bulk Fill and Venus Bulk Fill achieved the lowest. The enlarged depth of cure in bulk-fill RBCs seems to have been realized by enhancing the materials' translucency through decreasing the filler amount and increasing the filler size. The manufacturer's recommendation to finish a bulk-fill RBC restoration by adding a capping layer made of regular RBCs is an imperative necessity, since the modulus of elasticity and hardness of certain materials (SureFil SDR flow, Venus Bulk Fill, and Filtek Bulk Fill) were considerably below the mean values measured in regular nanohybrid and microhybrid RBCs. The class of bulk-fill RBCs revealed similar flexural strength values as the class of nanohybrid and microhybrid RBCs, and significantly higher values when compared to flowable RBCs. The modulus of elasticity (Eflexural), the indentation modulus (YHU), and the Vickers hardness (HV) classify the bulk-fill RBCs as between the hybrid RBCs and the flowable RBCs; in terms of creep, bulk-fill and the flowable RBCs perform similarly, both showing a significantly lower creep resistance when compared to the nanohybrid and microhybrid RBCs.

  4. Glass forming ability and mechanical properties of Zr50Cu42Al8 bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, L; Chan, K C; Wang, G; Liu, L

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we report that Zr 50 Cu 42 Al 8 bulk metallic glass (BMG) exhibits excellent glass forming ability and mechanical properties. Zr 50 Cu 42 Al 8 glassy rods with a diameter of 3 mm were prepared using conventional copper mould suction casting. The glassy rod exhibits a modulus of about 115 GPa and a fracture strength of about 2 GPa, and, as compared with other large-scale BMGs, it has excellent room-temperature plasticity of up to 20% under compression. The fracture mechanism of the rod was investigated by microstructural investigations, and it was found that the large plasticity of the as-cast rod is closely related to the in situ formation of nano-crystalline particles embedded in the amorphous matrix.

  5. Asphalt mix characterization using dynamic modulus and APA testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    final report summarizes two research efforts related to asphalt mix characterization: dynamic modulus and Asphalt Pavement Analyzer testing. One phase of the research consisted of a laboratory-based evaluation of dynamic modulus of Oregon dense-grade...

  6. Young Modulus of Crystalline Polyethylene from ab Initio Molecular Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, J.C.L.; Meier, Robert J.; Heinemann, M.; Groot, R.A. de

    1997-01-01

    The Young modulus for crystalline polyethylene is calculated using ab initio molecular dynamics based on density functional theory in the local density approximation (DFT-LDA). This modulus, which can be seen as the ultimate value for the Young modulus of polyethylene fibers, is found to be 334 GPa.

  7. Dynamic modulus of nanosilica modified porous asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, A. K.; Masri, K. A.; Ahmad, J.; Samsudin, M. S.

    2017-11-01

    Porous asphalt (PA) is a flexible pavement layer with high interconnected air void contents and constructed using open-graded aggregates. Due to high temperature environment and increased traffic volume in Malaysia, PA may have deficiencies particularly in rutting and stiffness of the mix. A possible way to improve these deficiencies is to improve the asphalt binder used. Binder is normally modified using polymer materials to improve its properties. However, nanotechnology presently is being gradually used for asphalt modification. Nanosilica (NS), a byproduct of rice husk and palm oil fuel ash is used as additive in this study. The aim of this study is to enhance the rutting resistance and stiffness performance of PA using NS. This study focused on the performance of PA in terms of dynamic modulus with the addition of NS modified binder to produce better and more durable PA. From the result of Dynamic SPT Test, it shows that the addition of NS was capable in enhancing the stiffness and rutting resistance of PA. The addition of NS also increase the dynamic modulus value of PA by 50%.

  8. In vivo performance of a reduced-modulus bone cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forehand, Brett Ramsey

    Total joint replacement has become one of the most common procedures in the area of orthopedics and is often the solution in patients with diseased or injured hip joints. Component loosening is a significant problem and is primarily caused by bone resorption at the bone-cement interface in cemented implants. It is our hypothesis that localized shear stresses are responsible for the resorption. It was previously shown analytically that local stresses at the interface could be reduced by using a cement of lower modulus. A new reduced modulus cement, polybutyl methylmethacrylate (PBMMA), was developed to test the hypothesis. PBMMA was formulated to exist as polybutyl methacrylate filler in a polymethyl methacrylate matrix. The success of PBMMA cement is based largely on the fact that the polybutyl component of the cement will be in the rubbery state at body temperature. In vitro characterization of the cement was undertaken previously and demonstrated a modulus of approximately one-eighth that of conventional bone cement, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and increased fracture toughness. The purpose of this experiment was to perform an in vivo comparison of the two cements. A sheep model was selected. Total hip arthroplasty was performed on 50 ewes using either PBMMA or PMMA. Radiographs were taken at 6 month intervals. At one year, the contralateral femur of each sheep was implanted so that each animal served as its own control, and the animals were sacrificed. The stiffness of the bone-cement interface of the femoral component within the femur was assessed by applying a torque to the femoral component and demonstrated a significant difference in loosening between the cements when the specimens were tested in external rotation (p sheep had a greater amount of loosening for each subject, 59% versus 4% for standard PMMA. A radiographic analysis demonstrated more signs of loosening in the PMMA series of subjects. A brief histological examination showed similar bony

  9. Estimating Young’s Modulus of Single-Walled Zirconia Nanotubes Using Nonlinear Finite Element Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Dauda Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The single-walled zirconia nanotube is structurally modeled and its Young’s modulus is valued by using the finite element approach. The nanotube was assumed to be a frame-like structure with bonds between atoms regarded as beam elements. The properties of the beam required for input into the finite element analysis were computed by connecting energy equivalence between molecular and continuum mechanics. Simulation was conducted by applying axial tensile strain on one end of the nanotube while the other end was fixed and the corresponding reaction force recorded to compute Young’s modulus. It was found out that Young’s modulus of zirconia nanotubes is significantly affected by some geometrical parameters such as chirality, diameter, thickness, and length. The obtained values of Young’s modulus for a certain range of diameters are in agreement with what was obtained in the few experiments that have been conducted so far. This study was conducted on the cubic phase of zirconia having armchair and zigzag configuration. The optimal diameter and thickness were obtained, which will assist in designing and fabricating bulk nanostructured components containing zirconia nanotubes for various applications.

  10. Size-induced enhancement of bulk modulus and transition pressure of nanocrystalline Ge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Liu, J.F.; He, Yongqi

    2007-01-01

    In situ energy dispersive X-ray diffraction measurements with synchrotron radiation source have been performed on nanocrystalline Ge with particle sizes 13, 49 and 100 nm by using diamond anvil cell. Whereas the percentage volume collapse at the transition is almost constant, the values of the bu...

  11. Study on Size-Dependent Young’s Modulus of a Silicon Nano beam by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, H.; Sun, C.; Zhang, W.W.; Lei, S.Y.; Huang, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Young’s modulus of a silicon nano beam with a rectangular cross-section is studied by molecular dynamics method. Dynamic simulations are performed for doubly clamped silicon nano beams with lengths ranging from 4.888 to 12.491 nm and cross-sections ranging from 1.22 nm ×1.22 nm to 3.39 nm × 3.39 nm. The results show that Young’s moduli of such small silicon nano beams are much higher than the value of Young’s modulus for bulk silicon. Moreover, the resonant frequency and Young’s modulus of the Si nano beam are strongly dependent not only on the size of the nano beam but also on surface effects. Young’s modulus increases significantly with the decreasing of the thickness of the silicon nano beam. This result qualitatively agrees with one of the conclusions based on a semi continuum model, in which the surface relaxation and the surface tension were taken into consideration. The impacts of the surface reconstruction with (2 ×1) dimmers on the resonant frequency and Young’s modulus are studied in this paper too. It is shown that the surface reconstruction makes the silicon nano beam stiffer than the one without the surface reconstruction, resulting in a higher resonant frequency and a larger Young’s modulus

  12. Mechanical properties of nano and bulk Fe pillars using molecular dynamics and dislocation dynamics simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Deb Nath

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Using molecular dynamics simulation, tension and bending tests of a Fe nanopillar are carried out to obtain its Young’s modulus and yield strength. Then the comparative study of Young’s modulus and yield strength of a Fe nanopillar under bending and tension are carried out varying its diameter in the range of diameter 1-15nm. We find out the reasons why bending Young’s modulus and yield strength of a Fe nanopillar are higher than those of tension Young’s modulus and yield strength of a Fe nanopillar. Using the mobility parameters of bulk Fe from the experimental study [N. Urabe and J. Weertman, Materials Science and Engineering 18, 41 (1975], its temperature dependent stress-strain relationship, yield strength and strain hardening modulus are obtained from the dislocation dynamics simulations. Strain rate dependent yield strength and strain hardening modulus of bulk Fe pillars under tension are studied. Temperature dependent creep behaviors of bulk Fe pillars under tension are also studied. To verify the soundness of the present dislocation dynamics studies of the mechanical properties of bulk Fe pillars under tension, the stress vs. strain relationship and dislocation density vs. strain of bulk Fe pillars obtained by us are compared with the published results obtained by S. Queyreau, G. Monnet, and B. Devincre, International Journal of Plasticity 25, 361 (2009.

  13. Vitamin A deficiency alters the pulmonary parenchymal elastic modulus and elastic fiber concentration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes Amey J

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bronchial hyperreactivity is influenced by properties of the conducting airways and the surrounding pulmonary parenchyma, which is tethered to the conducting airways. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is associated with an increase in airway hyperreactivity in rats and a decrease in the volume density of alveoli and alveolar ducts. To better define the effects of VAD on the mechanical properties of the pulmonary parenchyma, we have studied the elastic modulus, elastic fibers and elastin gene-expression in rats with VAD, which were supplemented with retinoic acid (RA or remained unsupplemented. Methods Parenchymal mechanics were assessed before and after the administration of carbamylcholine (CCh by determining the bulk and shear moduli of lungs that that had been removed from rats which were vitamin A deficient or received a control diet. Elastin mRNA and insoluble elastin were quantified and elastic fibers were enumerated using morphometric methods. Additional morphometric studies were performed to assess airway contraction and alveolar distortion. Results VAD produced an approximately 2-fold augmentation in the CCh-mediated increase of the bulk modulus and a significant dampening of the increase in shear modulus after CCh, compared to vitamin A sufficient (VAS rats. RA-supplementation for up to 21 days did not reverse the effects of VAD on the elastic modulus. VAD was also associated with a decrease in the concentration of parenchymal elastic fibers, which was restored and was accompanied by an increase in tropoelastin mRNA after 12 days of RA-treatment. Lung elastin, which was resistant to 0.1 N NaOH at 98°, decreased in VAD and was not restored after 21 days of RA-treatment. Conclusion Alterations in parenchymal mechanics and structure contribute to bronchial hyperreactivity in VAD but they are not reversed by RA-treatment, in contrast to the VAD-related alterations in the airways.

  14. Effective elastic modulus of isolated gecko setal arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autumn, K; Majidi, C; Groff, R E; Dittmore, A; Fearing, R

    2006-09-01

    Conventional pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) are fabricated from soft viscoelastic materials that satisfy Dahlquist's criterion for tack with a Young's modulus (E) of 100 kPa or less at room temperature and 1 Hz. In contrast, the adhesive on the toes of geckos is made of beta-keratin, a stiff material with E at least four orders of magnitude greater than the upper limit of Dahlquist's criterion. Therefore, one would not expect a beta-keratin structure to function as a PSA by deforming readily to make intimate molecular contact with a variety of surface profiles. However, since the gecko adhesive is a microstructure in the form of an array of millions of high aspect ratio shafts (setae), the effective elastic modulus (E(eff)) is much lower than E of bulk beta-keratin. In the first test of the E(eff) of a gecko setal adhesive, we measured the forces resulting from deformation of isolated arrays of tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) setae during vertical compression, and during tangential compression at angles of +45 degrees and -45 degrees . We tested the hypothesis that E(eff) of gecko setae falls within Dahlquist's criterion for tack, and evaluated the validity of a model of setae as cantilever beams. Highly linear forces of deformation under all compression conditions support the cantilever model. E(eff) of setal arrays during vertical and +45 degrees compression (along the natural path of drag of the setae) were 83+/-4.0 kPa and 86+/-4.4 kPa (means +/- s.e.m.), respectively. Consistent with the predictions of the cantilever model, setae became significantly stiffer when compressed against the natural path of drag: E(eff) during -45 degrees compression was 110+/-4.7 kPa. Unlike synthetic PSAs, setal arrays act as Hookean elastic solids; setal arrays function as a bed of springs with a directional stiffness, assisting alignment of the adhesive spatular tips with the contact surface during shear loading.

  15. Application of diffusion barriers to high modulus fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, R. D.; Douglas, F. C.; Paradis, E. L.; Galasso, F. S.

    1977-01-01

    Barrier layers were coated onto high-modulus fibers, and nickel and titanium layers were overcoated as simulated matrix materials. The objective was to coat the high-strength fibers with unreactive selected materials without degrading the fibers. The fibers were tungsten, niobium, and single-crystal sapphire, while the materials used as barrier coating layers were Al2O3, Y2O3, TiC, ZrC, WC with 14% Co, and HfO2. An ion-plating technique was used to coat the fibers. The fibers were subjected to high-temperature heat treatments to evaluate the effectiveness of the barrier layer in preventing fiber-metal interactions. Results indicate that Al2O3, Y2O3, and HfO2 can be used as barrier layers to minimize the nickel-tungsten interaction. Further investigation, including thermal cycling tests at 1090 C, revealed that HfO2 is probably the best of the three.

  16. Floating liquid bridge tensile behavior: Electric-field-induced Young's modulus measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Omar; Mendez Soares, David; Valente Filho, Juracyr Ferraz

    2013-12-01

    A floating bridge is formed spontaneously when high voltage is applied to polar fluids in two capillary tubes that were in contact and then separated. This bridge bends under its own weight, and its bending profile was used to calculate its Young's modulus. For electric field intensities of ˜106 V/m, water bridges exhibit viscoelastic behavior, with Young's moduli of ˜24 MPa; dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) bridges exhibited Young's moduli of ˜60 kPa. The scheme devised to measure the voltage drop across the water bridge for high voltages applied between the electrodes shows that the bulk water resistance decreases with increasing voltage.

  17. Thulium-based bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, H. B.; Yu, P.; Wang, W. H.; Bai, H. Y.

    2008-01-01

    We report the formation and properties of a thulium-based bulk metallic glass (BMG). Compared with other known rare-earth (RE) based BMGs, Tm-based BMGs show features of excellent glass formation ability, considerable higher elastic modulus, smaller Poisson's ratio, high mechanical strength, and intrinsic brittleness. The reasons for the different properties between the Tm-based and other RE-based BMGs are discussed. It is expected that the Tm-based glasses with the unique properties are appropriate candidates for studying some important issues in BMGs

  18. Calculated Bulk Properties of the Actinide Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.

    1978-01-01

    Self-consistent relativistic calculations of the electronic properties for seven actinides (Ac-Am) have been performed using the linear muffin-tin orbitals method within the atomic-sphere approximation. Exchange and correlation were included in the local spin-density scheme. The theory explains...... the variation of the atomic volume and the bulk modulus through the 5f series in terms of an increasing 5f binding up to plutonium followed by a sudden localisation (through complete spin polarisation) in americium...

  19. Determination of elastic modulus for hollow spherical shells via resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiaojun [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Tang, Xing; Wang, Zongwei [Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Chen, Qian; Qian, Menglu [Institute of Acoustic, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Meng, Jie [Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Tang, Yongjian [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Shen, Hao [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Gao, Dangzhong, E-mail: dgaocn@163.com [Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The axisymmetric frequency equation of an isotropic hollow two-layer sphere is deduced by three dimension elasticity theory and global matrix method. • The simulated results demonstrate that the natural frequencies of a hollow sphere are more strongly dependent on Young’s modulus than Poisson's ratio. • The Young’s moduli of polymer capsules with an sub-millimeter inner radius are measured accurately with an uncertainty of ∼10%. - Abstract: The elastic property of a capsule is one of the essential parameters both in engineering applications and scientific understanding of material nature in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The axisymmetric frequency equation of an isotropic hollow two-layer sphere is deduced by three dimension elasticity theory and global matrix method, and a combined resonant ultrasound spectroscopy(RUS), which consists of a piezoelectric-based resonant ultrasound spectroscopy(PZT-RUS) and a laser-based resonant ultrasound spectroscopy(LRUS), is developed for determining the elastic modulus of capsule. To understand the behavior of natural frequencies varying with elastic properties, the dependence of natural frequencies on Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio are calculated numerically. Some representative polymer capsules are measured using PZT-RUS and LRUS. Based on the theoretical and experimental results, the Young’s moduli of these capsules are measured accurately with an uncertainty of ∼10%.

  20. Bulk oil clauses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, N.

    1993-01-01

    The Institute Bulk Oil Clauses produced by the London market and the American SP-13c Clauses are examined in detail in this article. The duration and perils covered are discussed, and exclusions, adjustment clause 15 of the Institute Bulk Oil Clauses, Institute War Clauses (Cargo), and Institute Strikes Clauses (Bulk Oil) are outlined. (UK)

  1. The strongly generalized double difference χ sequence spaces defined by a modulus - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i4.16184

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Nagarajan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the strongly generalized difference sequence spaces of modulus function and is a non-negative four dimensional matrix of complex numbers and (pi(mn is a sequence of positive real numbers. We also give natural relationship between strongly generalized difference summable sequences with respect of modulus. We examine some topological properties of the above spaces and investigate some inclusion relations between these spaces.  

  2. Temperature dependence of Young's modulus of silica refractories

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gregorová, E.; Černý, Martin; Pabst, W.; Esposito, L.; Zanelli, C.; Hamáček, J.; Kutzendorfer, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2015), s. 1129-1138 ISSN 0272-8842 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : mechanical properties * elastic modulus (Young's modulus ) * SiO2 * Silica brick materials (cristobalite, tridymite) Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 2.758, year: 2015

  3. On Young's modulus of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    load transfer in nanocomposites. In the present work, CNT/Al ... calculations. The theoretical modulus of the graphene sheet is supposed to be 1060 GPa (Harris 2004). The reason why multi-walled nanotubes have a modulus > 1060 GPa (that of graphene sheet) is currently not understood. However, in the present paper, ...

  4. Determination of elastic modulus in nickel alloy from ultrasonic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    als scientists, and solid-state theorists; they connect to tech- nological, structural economics and safety, to various mate- rials phenomena and to their fundamental interatomic forces. (Ledbetter 1983). In any material which is a multiphase alloy, the elastic modulus is determined by the modulus of the indi- vidual phases and ...

  5. Young’s modulus of multi-layer microcantilevers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhikang Deng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model for calculating the Young’s modulus of multi-layer microcantilevers with a coating is proposed, and validated by a three-dimensional (3D finite element (FE model using ANSYS parametric design language (APDL and atomic force microscopy (AFM characterization. Compared with typical theoretical models (Rayleigh-Ritz model, Euler-Bernoulli (E-B beam model and spring mass model, the proposed theoretical model can obtain Young’s modulus of multi-layer microcantilevers more precisely. Also, the influences of coating’s geometric dimensions on Young’s modulus and resonant frequency of microcantilevers are discussed. The thickness of coating has a great influence on Young’s modulus and resonant frequency of multi-layer microcantilevers, and the coating should be considered to calculate Young’s modulus more precisely, especially when fairly thicker coating is employed.

  6. Estimation of Dry Fracture Weakness, Porosity, and Fluid Modulus Using Observable Seismic Reflection Data in a Gas-Bearing Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaizhen; Zhang, Guangzhi

    2017-05-01

    Fracture detection and fluid identification are important tasks for a fractured reservoir characterization. Our goal is to demonstrate a direct approach to utilize azimuthal seismic data to estimate fluid bulk modulus, porosity, and dry fracture weaknesses, which decreases the uncertainty of fluid identification. Combining Gassmann's (Vier. der Natur. Gesellschaft Zürich 96:1-23, 1951) equations and linear-slip model, we first establish new simplified expressions of stiffness parameters for a gas-bearing saturated fractured rock with low porosity and small fracture density, and then we derive a novel PP-wave reflection coefficient in terms of dry background rock properties (P-wave and S-wave moduli, and density), fracture (dry fracture weaknesses), porosity, and fluid (fluid bulk modulus). A Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo nonlinear inversion method is proposed to estimate fluid bulk modulus, porosity, and fracture weaknesses directly from azimuthal seismic data. The inversion method yields reasonable estimates in the case of synthetic data containing a moderate noise and stable results on real data.

  7. Elastic properties of Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 bulk glass in supercooled liquid region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishiyama, N.; Inoue, A.; Jiang, Jianzhong

    2001-01-01

    In situ ultrasonic measurements for the Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 bulk glass in three states: Glassy solid, supercooled liquid, and crystalline, have been performed. It is found that velocities of both longitudinal and transverse waves and elastic moduli (shear modulus, bulk modulus, Young's modulus......, and Lame parameter), together with Debye temperature, gradually decrease with increasing temperature through the glass transition temperature as the Poisson's ratio increases. The behavior of the velocity of transverse wave vs. temperature in the supercooled liquid region could be explained by viscosity...

  8. A molecular dynamics study on Young's modulus and tribology of carbon nanotube reinforced styrene-butadiene rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Raj; Sharma, Sumit

    2018-03-18

    Styrene-butadiene rubber is a copolymer widely used in making car tires and has excellent abrasion resistance. The Young's modulus and tribology of pure styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) polymer and carbon nanotube reinforced polymer composites have been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The mechanism of enhanced tribology properties using carbon nanotube has been studied and discussed. The obtained Young's modulus shows the enhancement in mechanical properties of SBR polymer when carbon nanotubes are used as reinforcement. The concentration, temperature and velocity profiles, radial distribution function, frictional stresses, and cohesive energy density are calculated and analyzed in detail. The Young's modulus of SBR matrix increases about 29.16% in the presence of the 5% CNT. The atom movement velocity and average cohesive energy density in the friction area of pure SBR matrix was found to be more than that of the CNT/SBR composite. Graphical abstract Initial and final conditions of (a) pure SBR matrix and (b) CNT/SBR matrix subjected toshear loading and frictional stresses of top Fe layers of both pure SBR and CNT/SBR composite.

  9. Theory of bulk-surface coupling in topological insulator films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Kush; Garate, Ion

    2014-12-01

    We present a quantitative microscopic theory of the disorder- and phonon-induced coupling between surface and bulk states in doped topological insulator films. We find a simple mathematical structure for the surface-to-bulk scattering matrix elements and confirm the importance of bulk-surface coupling in transport and photoemission experiments, assessing its dependence on temperature, carrier density, film thickness, and particle-hole asymmetry.

  10. A Study on Accelerated Thermal Aging of High Modulus Carbon/Epoxy Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Min Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite materials have been used increasingly for various space applications due to the favorable characteristic of high modulus to density ratio and potential for near-zero coefficient of thermal expansion. In composite system, depending on the orientation of fibers, strength and stiffness can be changed so that the optimum structure can be accomplished. This is because the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE of carbon fibers is negative. For spacecraft and orbiting space structure, which are thermally cycled by moving through the earth' shadow for at least 5 years, it is necessary to investigate the change of properties of the material over time. In this study, thermal aging of epoxy matrix/high modulus carbon fiber composite materials are accelerated to predict the long term creep property. Specimens are tested at various temperatures of 100~140°C with dynamic mechanical analysis to obtain creep compliances that are functions of time and temperature. Using Time Temperature Superposition method, creep compliance curves at each temperature are shifted to the reference temperature by shift factor and a master curve is generated at the reference temperature. This information is useful to predict the long term thermal aging of high modulus composite material for spacecraft application.

  11. Influence of the Testing Gage Length on the Strength, Young's Modulus and Weibull Modulus of Carbon Fibres and Glass Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claudio Pardini

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fibres and glass fibres are reinforcements for advanced composites and the fiber strength is the most influential factor on the strength of the composites. They are essentially brittle and fail with very little reduction in cross section. Composites made with these fibres are characterized by a high strength/density ratio and their properties are intrisically related to their microstructure, i.e., amount and orientation of the fibres, surface treatment, among other factors. Processing parameters have an important role in the fibre mechanical behaviour (strength and modulus. Cracks, voids and impurities in the case of glass fibres and fibrillar misalignments in the case of carbon fibres are created during processing. Such inhomogeneities give rise to an appreciable scatter in properties. The most used statistical tool that deals with this characteristic variability in properties is the Weibull distribution. The present work investigates the influence of the testing gage length on the strength, Young's modulus and Weibull modulus of carbon fibres and glass fibres. The Young's modulus is calculated by two methods: (i ASTM D 3379M, and (ii interaction between testing equipment/specimen The first method resulted in a Young modulus of 183 GPa for carbon fibre, and 76 GPa for glass fibre. The second method gave a Young modulus of 250 GPa for carbon fibre and 50 GPa for glass fibre. These differences revelead differences on how the interaction specimen/testing machine can interfere in the Young modulus calculations. Weibull modulus can be a tool to evaluate the fibre's homogeneity in terms of properties and it is a good quality control parameter during processing. In the range of specimen gage length tested the Weibull modulus for carbon fibre is ~ 3.30 and for glass fibres is ~ 5.65, which indicates that for the batch of fibres tested, the glass fibre is more uniform in properties.

  12. Standardizing lightweight deflectometer modulus measurements for compaction quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the compaction of unbound geomaterials under unsaturated conditions and replace the conventional methods with a practical modulus-based specification using LWD, this study examined three different LWDs, the Zorn ZFG 3000 LWD, Dynatest 303...

  13. Estimate of K-functionals and modulus of smoothness constructed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    functional and a modulus of smoothness for the Dunkl transform on Rd. Author Affiliations. M El Hamma1 R Daher1. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences Aïn Chock, University of Hassan II, Casablanca, Morocco. Dates.

  14. Frequency-dependent complex modulus of the uterus: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, Miklos Z [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hobson, Maritza A [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Varghese, Tomy [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Harter, Josephine [Department of Surgical Pathology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Kliewer, Mark A [Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hartenbach, Ellen M [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Zagzebski, James A [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2006-08-07

    The frequency-dependent complex moduli of human uterine tissue have been characterized. Quantification of the modulus is required for developing uterine ultrasound elastography as a viable imaging modality for diagnosing and monitoring causes for abnormal uterine bleeding and enlargement, as well assessing the integrity of uterine and cervical tissue. The complex modulus was measured in samples from hysterectomies of 24 patients ranging in age from 31 to 79 years. Measurements were done under small compressions of either 1 or 2%, at low pre-compression values (either 1 or 2%), and over a frequency range of 0.1-100 Hz. Modulus values of cervical tissue monotonically increased from approximately 30-90 kPa over the frequency range. Normal uterine tissue possessed modulus values over the same range, while leiomyomas, or uterine fibroids, exhibited values ranging from approximately 60-220 kPa.

  15. Frequency-dependent complex modulus of the uterus: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, Miklos Z; Hobson, Maritza A; Varghese, Tomy; Harter, Josephine; Kliewer, Mark A; Hartenbach, Ellen M; Zagzebski, James A

    2006-01-01

    The frequency-dependent complex moduli of human uterine tissue have been characterized. Quantification of the modulus is required for developing uterine ultrasound elastography as a viable imaging modality for diagnosing and monitoring causes for abnormal uterine bleeding and enlargement, as well assessing the integrity of uterine and cervical tissue. The complex modulus was measured in samples from hysterectomies of 24 patients ranging in age from 31 to 79 years. Measurements were done under small compressions of either 1 or 2%, at low pre-compression values (either 1 or 2%), and over a frequency range of 0.1-100 Hz. Modulus values of cervical tissue monotonically increased from approximately 30-90 kPa over the frequency range. Normal uterine tissue possessed modulus values over the same range, while leiomyomas, or uterine fibroids, exhibited values ranging from approximately 60-220 kPa

  16. Arithmetic convergent sequence space defined by modulus function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taja Yaying

    2019-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to introduce the sequence spaces $AC(f$ and $AS(f$ using arithmetic convergence and modulus function, and study algebraic and topological properties of this space, and certain inclusion results.

  17. Resilient Modulus Characterization of Alaskan Granular Base Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Resilient modulus (MR) of base course material is an important material input for : pavement design. In Alaska, due to distinctiveness of local climate, material source, : fines content and groundwater level, resilient properties of D-1 granular base...

  18. Influence of various factors on the Young modulus of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drapkin, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    The equivalence of temperature and pressure effects in the elastic area on the Young modulus of different metals (Ni, Mo, W, Na, Fe and ets.) is established on the basis of the analysis of literature and calculated data. It is shown that the value of the change in the Young modulus of the alloy is connected with mutual arrangement of alloy components in the periodic system of elements

  19. Non-toxic invert analog glass compositions of high modulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, J. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Glass compositions having a Young's modulus of at least 15 million psi are described. They and a specific modulus of at least 110 million inches consist essentially of, in mols, 15 to 40% SiO2, 6 to 15% Li2O, 24 to 45% of at least two bivalent oxides selected from the group consisting of Ca, NzO, MgO and CuO; 13 to 39% of at least two trivalent oxides selected from the group consisting of Al2O3, Fe2O3, B2O3, La2O3, and Y2O3 and up to 15% of one or more tetravelent oxides selected from the group consisting of ZrO2, TiO2 and CeO2. The high modulus, low density glass compositions contain no toxic elements. The composition, glass density, Young's modulus, and specific modulus for 28 representative glasses are presented. The fiber modulus of five glasses are given.

  20. Determination of elastic modulus of ceramics using ultrasonic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmita, Firmansyah; Wibisono, Gatot; Judawisastra, Hermawan; Priambodo, Toni Agung

    2018-04-01

    Elastic modulus is important material property on structural ceramics application. However, bending test as a common method for determining this property require particular specimen preparation. Furthermore, elastic modulus of ceramics could vary because it depends on porosity content. For structural ceramics industry, such as ceramic tiles, this property is very important. This drives the development of new method to improve effectivity or verification method as well. In this research, ultrasonic testing was conducted to determine elastic modulus of soda lime glass and ceramic tiles. The experiment parameter was frequency of probe (1, 2, 4 MHz). Characterization of density and porosity were also done for analysis. Results from ultrasonic testing were compared with elastic modulus resulted from bending test. Elastic modulus of soda-lime glass based on ultrasonic testing showed excellent result with error 2.69% for 2 MHz probe relative to bending test result. Testing on red and white ceramic tiles were still contained error up to 41% and 158%, respectively. The results for red ceramic tile showed trend that 1 MHz probe gave better accuracy in determining elastic modulus. However, testing on white ceramic tile showed different trend. It was due to the presence of porosity and near field effect.

  1. Large area bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  2. Compressive yielding of tungsten fiber reinforced bulk metallic glass composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, B.; Lee, S.-Y.; Uestuendag, E.; Aydiner, C.C.; Conner, R.D.; Bourke, M.A.M

    2003-07-15

    In-situ uniaxial compression tests were conducted on four tungsten fiber reinforced bulk metallic glass matrix composites using neutron diffraction. The results were interpreted with a finite element model. Both phases were seen to approximately obey the von Mises yield criterion. The fibers were observed to yield first and then transfer load to the matrix.

  3. Compressive yielding of tungsten fiber reinforced bulk metallic glass composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, B.; Lee, S.-Y.; Uestuendag, E.; Aydiner, C.C.; Conner, R.D.; Bourke, M.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    In-situ uniaxial compression tests were conducted on four tungsten fiber reinforced bulk metallic glass matrix composites using neutron diffraction. The results were interpreted with a finite element model. Both phases were seen to approximately obey the von Mises yield criterion. The fibers were observed to yield first and then transfer load to the matrix

  4. Determination of the shear modulus of gelatine hydrogels by magnetization measurements using dispersed nickel nanorods as mechanical probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, P.; Tschöpe, A.; Birringer, R.

    2013-01-01

    Ni nanorods are dispersed into gelatine gels and used as nanoprobes to estimate the shear modulus of the surrounding gel matrix by magnetization measurements. The nanorods are synthesized via pulsed electrodeposition of Ni into porous alumina, released from the templates by dissolution of the oxide layer and after several processing steps dispersed into gelatine gels with an isotropic orientation-distribution. Magnetization measurements of the resulting gels show a significant influence of the gelatine concentration on their magnetic behavior. In particular, with decreasing gelatine concentration the measured coercivity is reduced indicating a mechanical rotation of the nanorods in the field direction. A theoretical model which relates the measured coercivity to the shear modulus of the surrounding gel matrix is introduced and applied to investigate the ageing process of gelatine gels with different gelatine concentrations at room temperature. - Highlights: • AAO-template synthesis of uniaxial ferromagnetic single domain Ni nanorods. • Embedding nanorods as magnetic probes in soft elastic gelatine hydrogels. • Coercivity of isotropic samples increases with gelation time and gelatine concentration. • Quantitative relationship between coercivity and matrix shear modulus is obtained from an extended Stoner–Wohlfarth-model. • Semi-quantitative method for magnetic rheometry of soft elastic materials

  5. Determination of the shear modulus of gelatine hydrogels by magnetization measurements using dispersed nickel nanorods as mechanical probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, P., E-mail: nano@p-bender.de; Tschöpe, A., E-mail: antsch@mx.uni-saarland.de; Birringer, R., E-mail: r.birringer@nano.uni-saarland.de

    2013-11-15

    Ni nanorods are dispersed into gelatine gels and used as nanoprobes to estimate the shear modulus of the surrounding gel matrix by magnetization measurements. The nanorods are synthesized via pulsed electrodeposition of Ni into porous alumina, released from the templates by dissolution of the oxide layer and after several processing steps dispersed into gelatine gels with an isotropic orientation-distribution. Magnetization measurements of the resulting gels show a significant influence of the gelatine concentration on their magnetic behavior. In particular, with decreasing gelatine concentration the measured coercivity is reduced indicating a mechanical rotation of the nanorods in the field direction. A theoretical model which relates the measured coercivity to the shear modulus of the surrounding gel matrix is introduced and applied to investigate the ageing process of gelatine gels with different gelatine concentrations at room temperature. - Highlights: • AAO-template synthesis of uniaxial ferromagnetic single domain Ni nanorods. • Embedding nanorods as magnetic probes in soft elastic gelatine hydrogels. • Coercivity of isotropic samples increases with gelation time and gelatine concentration. • Quantitative relationship between coercivity and matrix shear modulus is obtained from an extended Stoner–Wohlfarth-model. • Semi-quantitative method for magnetic rheometry of soft elastic materials.

  6. Variable modulus cellular structures using pneumatic artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontecorvo, Michael E.; Niemiec, Robert J.; Gandhi, Farhan S.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a novel variable modulus cellular structure based on a hexagonal unit cell with pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) inclusions. The cell considered is pin-jointed, loaded in the horizontal direction, with three PAMs (one vertical PAM and two horizontal PAMs) oriented in an "H" configuration between the vertices of the cell. A method for calculation of the hexagonal cell modulus is introduced, as is an expression for the balance of tensile forces between the horizontal and vertical PAMs. An aluminum hexagonal unit cell is fabricated and simulation of the hexagonal cell with PAM inclusions is then compared to experimental measurement of the unit cell modulus in the horizontal direction with all three muscles pressurized to the same value over a pressure range up to 758 kPa. A change in cell modulus by a factor of 1.33 and a corresponding change in cell angle of 0.41° are demonstrated experimentally. A design study via simulation predicts that differential pressurization of the PAMs up to 2068 kPa can change the cell modulus in the horizontal direction by a factor of 6.83 with a change in cell angle of only 2.75°. Both experiment and simulation show that this concept provides a way to decouple the length change of a PAM from the change in modulus to create a structural unit cell whose in-plane modulus in a given direction can be tuned based on the orientation of PAMs within the cell and the pressure supplied to the individual muscles.

  7. Micromechanical performance of interfacial transition zone in fiber-reinforced cement matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharda, V.; Němeček, J.; Štemberk, P.

    2017-09-01

    The paper investigates microstructure, chemical composition and micromechanical behavior of an interfacial transition zone (ITZ) in steel fiber reinforced cement matrix. For this goal, a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nanoindentation and elastic homogenization theory are used. The investigated sample of cement paste with dispersed reinforcement consists of cement CEM I 42,5R and a steel fiber TriTreg 50 mm. The microscopy revealed smaller portion of clinkers and larger porosity in the ITZ. Nanoindentation delivered decreased elastic modulus in comparison with cement bulk (67%) and the width of ITZ (∼ 40 μm). The measured properties served as input parameters for a simple two-scale model for elastic properties of the composite. Although, no major influence of ITZ properties on the composite elastic behavior was found, the findings about the ITZ reduced properties and its size can serve as input to other microstructural fracture based models.

  8. Impedance and electric modulus analysis of Sm-modified Pb(Zr{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}){sub 1-x/4}O{sub 3} ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjan, Rajiv [Department of Physics, J. Co-operative College, Kolhan University, Jharkhand 831036 (India); Kumar, Rajiv [Department of Physics, J. Worker' s College, Kolhan University, Jharkhand 831012 (India); Kumar, Nawnit [Department of Physics and Meteorology, IIT Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Behera, Banarji [School of Physics, Sambalpur University, Jyoti Vihar, Bula 768019, Orissa (India); Choudhary, R.N.P., E-mail: crnpfl@gmail.com [Department of Physics, ITER, S.O.A. University, Bhubaneswar 751 013, Orissa (India)

    2011-06-02

    Highlights: > The PSZT ceramics with samarium were prepared by solid-state reaction technique. > Bulk resistive contribution is found to decrease with the increase in temperature. > PSZT ceramics exhibit NTCR type behavior usually found in semiconductors. > Modulus plots show the presence of grain boundary along with bulk contributions. > Impedance analysis has confirmed the presence of non-Debye type of relaxation. - Abstract: The polycrystalline ceramic samples of Pb{sub 1-x}Sm{sub x}(Zr{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}){sub 1-x/4}O{sub 3} (x = 0.00, 0.03, 0.06 and 0.09) were prepared by solid-state reaction technique at high temperature. Electric impedance (Z) and modulus (M) properties of the materials have been investigated within a wide range of temperature and frequency using complex impedance spectroscopy (CIS) technique. The complex impedance analysis has suggested the presence of mostly bulk resistive (grain) contributions in the materials. This bulk resistance is found to decrease with the increase in temperature. It indicates that the PSZT compounds exhibit a typical negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) behavior. The bulk contribution also exhibits an increasing trend with the increase in Sm{sup 3+} substitution to PZT. The complex modulus plots have confirmed the presence of grain (bulk) as well as grain boundary contributions in the materials. Both the complex impedance and modulus studies have suggested the presence of non-Debye type of relaxation in the materials.

  9. Relationship between low-temperature boson heat capacity peak and high-temperature shear modulus relaxation in a metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, A. N.; Voloshok, T. N.; Granato, A. V.; Joncich, D. M.; Mitrofanov, Yu. P.; Khonik, V. A.

    2009-01-01

    Low-temperature (2 K≤T≤350 K) heat capacity and room-temperature shear modulus measurements (ν=1.4 MHz) have been performed on bulk Pd 41.25 Cu 41.25 P 17.5 in the initial glassy, relaxed glassy, and crystallized states. It has been found that the height of the low-temperature Boson heat capacity peak strongly correlates with the changes in the shear modulus upon high-temperature annealing. It is this behavior that was earlier predicted by the interstitialcy theory, according to which dumbbell interstitialcy defects are responsible for a number of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of crystalline, (supercooled) liquid, and solid glassy states.

  10. Carbon fiber polymer-matrix structural composites tailored for multifunctionality by filler incorporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seungjin

    . Exfoliated graphite (EG) as a sole filler is more effective than carbon nanotube (SWCNT/MWCNT), halloysite nanotube (HNT) or nanoclay as sole fillers in enhancing the loss tangent, if the curing pressure is 2.0 (not 0.5) MPa. The MWCNT, SiC whisker and halloysite nanotube as sole fillers are effective for increasing the storage modulus. The combined use of a storage-modulus-enhancing filler (CNT, SiC whisker or HNT) and a loss-tangent-enhancing filler (EG or nanoclay) gives the best performance. With EG, HNT and 2.0-MPa curing, the loss modulus is increased by 110%, while the flexural strength is decreased by 14% and the flexural modulus is not affected. With nanoclay, HNT and 0.5-MPa curing, the loss modulus is increased by 96%, while the flexural strength and modulus are essentially not affected. The low through-thickness thermal conductivity limits heat dissipation from continuous carbon fiber polymer-matrix composites. This conductivity is increased by up to 60% by raising the curing pressure from 0.1 to 2.0 MPa and up to 33% by incorporation of a filler (61.5 vol.%) at the interlaminar interface. The thermal resistivity is dominated by the lamina resistivity (which is contributed substantially by the intralaminar fiber--fiber interfacial resistivity), with the interlaminar interface thermal resistivity being unexpectedly negligible. The lamina resistivity and intralaminar fiber-fiber interfacial resistivity are decreased by up to 56% by raising the curing pressure and up to 36% by filler incorporation. Thermoelectric structural materials are potentially attractive for large-scale energy harvesting. Through filler incorporation and unprecedented decoupling of the bulk (laminae) and interfacial (interlaminar interfaces) contributions to the Seebeck voltage (through-thickness Seebeck voltage of a crossply continuous carbon fiber/epoxy composite laminate), this work provides thermoelectric power magnitudes at ˜70°C up to 110, 1670 and 11000 microV/K for the laminate, a

  11. Crack arrest within teeth at the dentinoenamel junction caused by elastic modulus mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtle, Sabine; Fett, Theo; Rizzi, Gabriele; Habelitz, Stefan; Klocke, Arndt; Schneider, Gerold A

    2010-05-01

    Enamel and dentin compose the crowns of human teeth. They are joined at the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) which is a very strong and well-bonded interface unlikely to fail within healthy teeth despite the formation of multiple cracks within enamel during a lifetime of exposure to masticatory forces. These cracks commonly are arrested when reaching the DEJ. The phenomenon of crack arrest at the DEJ is described in many publications but there is little consensus on the underlying cause and mechanism. Explanations range from the DEJ having a larger toughness than both enamel and dentin up to the assumption that not the DEJ itself causes crack arrest but the so-called mantle dentin, a thin material layer close to the DEJ that is somewhat softer than the bulk dentin. In this study we conducted 3-point bending experiments with bending bars consisting of the DEJ and surrounding enamel and dentin to investigate crack propagation and arrest within the DEJ region. Calculated stress intensities around crack tips were found to be highly influenced by the elastic modulus mismatch between enamel and dentin and hence, the phenomenon of crack arrest at the DEJ could be explained accordingly via this elastic modulus mismatch. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of Young's Modulus of Graphene by Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Ung; Yoon, Duhee; Cheong, Hyeonsik

    2012-02-01

    The mechanical properties of graphene are interesting research subjects because its Young's modulus and strength are extremely high. Values of ˜1 TPa for the Young's modulus have been reported [Lee et al. Science, 321, 385 (2008), Koenig et al. Nat. Nanotech. 6, 543 (2011)]. We made a graphene sample on a SiO2/Si substrate with closed-bottom holes by mechanical exfoliation. A pressure difference across the graphene membrane was applied by putting the sample in a vacuum chamber. This pressure difference makes the graphene membrane bulge upward like a balloon. By measuring the shifts of the Raman G and 2D bands, we estimated the amount of strain on the graphene membrane. By comparing the strain estimated from the Raman measurements with numerical simulations based on the finite element method, we obtained the Young's modulus of graphene.

  13. Temperature, Frequency and Young’s Modulus of a Wineglass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitta Miller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A crystal soda-lime wineglass, heated to temperatures ranging from 25 °C to 150 °C, was tapped and the frequency recorded. It was shown that the relative change in the frequency at different temperatures can be used to determine the effect of temperature on Young’s Modulus of the glass. This simple method of tapping a wineglass is proposed as an effective way of determining the relative effect of temperature on Young’ Modulus of glass.

  14. Effective Elastic Modulus of Structured Adhesives: From Biology to Biomimetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Micro- and nano-hierarchical structures (lamellae, setae, branches, and spatulae on the toe pads of many animals play key roles for generating strong but reversible adhesion for locomotion. The hierarchical structure possesses significantly reduced, effective elastic modulus (Eeff, as compared to the inherent elastic modulus (Einh of the corresponding biological material (and therefore contributes to a better compliance with the counterpart surface. Learning from nature, three types of hierarchical structures (namely self-similar pillar structure, lamella–pillar hybrid structure, and porous structure have been developed and investigated.

  15. A high-damping magnetorheological elastomer with bi-directional magnetic-control modulus for potential application in seismology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Miao, E-mail: yumiao@cqu.edu.cn; Qi, Song; Fu, Jie; Zhu, Mi [Key Lab for Optoelectronic Technology and Systems, Ministry of Education, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-09-14

    A high-damping magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) with bi-directional magnetic-control modulus is developed. This MRE was synthesized by filling NdFeB particles into polyurethane (PU)/ epoxy (EP) interpenetrating network (IPN) structure. The anisotropic samples were prepared in a permanent magnetic field and magnetized in an electromagnetic field of 1 T. Dynamic mechanical responses of the MRE to applied magnetic fields are investigated through magneto-rheometer, and morphology of MREs is observed via scanning electron microscope (SEM). Test result indicates that when the test field orientation is parallel to that of the sample's magnetization, the shear modulus of sample increases. On the other hand, when the orientation is opposite to that of the sample's magnetization, shear modulus decreases. In addition, this PU/EP IPN matrix based MRE has a high-damping property, with high loss factor and can be controlled by applying magnetic field. It is expected that the high damping property and the ability of bi-directional magnetic-control modulus of this MRE offer promising advantages in seismologic application.

  16. Maximisation of the ratio of microhardness to the Young's modulus of Ti-12Mo-13Nb alloy through microstructure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Sinara B; de Almeida, Luiz H; Nunes, Carlos A; Dille, Jean; Soares, Glória A

    2013-08-01

    Alloys for orthopaedic and dentistry applications require high mechanical strength and a low Young's modulus to avoid stress shielding. Metastable β titanium alloys appear to fulfil these requirements. This study investigated the correlation of phases precipitated in a Ti-12Mo-13Nb alloy with changes in hardness and the Young's modulus. The alloy was produced by arc melting under an argon atmosphere, after which, it was heat treated and cold forged. Two different routes of heat treatment were employed. Phase transformations were studied by employing X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Property characterisation was based on Vickers microhardness tests and Young's modulus measurements. The highest ratio of microhardness to the Young's modulus was obtained using thermomechanical treatment, which consists of heating at 1000°C for 24h, water quenching, cold forging to reduce 80% of the area, and ageing at 500°C for 24h, where the final microstructure consisted of an α phase dispersed in a β matrix. The α phase appeared in two different forms: as fine lamellas (with 240±100 nm length) and massive particles of 200-500 nm size. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of mechanical properties of Dy123 bulk superconductors by 3-point bending tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, K.; Hatakeyama, Y.; Sato, T.; Kasaba, K.; Shoji, Y.; Murakami, A.; Teshima, H.; Hirano, H.

    2006-01-01

    In order to evaluate the mechanical properties, such as Young's modulus and strength, of Dy123 bulk superconductors and those with 10 wt.% Ag 2 O, we performed 3-point bending tests at room (RT) and liquid nitrogen temperatures (LNT) using specimens cut from the bulks. The Young's modulus and the bending strength increased with decrease in temperature. In the tests loading in the direction of c-axis and ones perpendicular to it, Young's moduli were almost comparable at both RT and LNT. Although the strengths for both orientations were also comparable at LNT, those at RT were different. Young's moduli loaded in the direction of c-axis for Ag 2 O added bulk specimens, 127 GPa in average at RT, were almost comparable to those without Ag 2 O, and 134 GPa at LNT, were slightly lower than those without Ag 2 O. On the other hand, the strengths at both RT and LNT were enhanced by 20% by the Ag addition. The mechanical properties of Dy123 bulks without Ag 2 O were compared with those of Y123 bulks obtained previously. The Young's modulus for loading in the direction of c-axis was slightly lower, and the strength was comparable to those in Y123 bulks, respectively

  18. Nanoindentation measurements of the mechanical properties of zirconium matrix and hydrides in unirradiated pre-hydrided nuclear fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rico, A.; Martin-Rengel, M.A.; Ruiz-Hervias, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Gomez-Sanchez, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the mechanical properties of the nuclear fuel cladding may be affected by the presence of hydrides. The average mechanical properties of hydrided cladding have been extensively investigated from a macroscopic point of view. In addition, the mechanical and fracture properties of bulk hydride samples fabricated from zirconium plates have also been reported. In this paper, Young’s modulus, hardness and yield stress are measured for each phase, namely zirconium hydrides and matrix, of pre-hydrided nuclear fuel cladding. To this end, nanoindentation tests were performed on ZIRLO samples in as-received state, on a hydride blister and in samples with 150 and 1200 ppm of hydrogen homogeneously distributed along the hoop direction of the cladding. The results show that the measured mechanical properties of the zirconium hydrides and ZIRLO matrix (Young’s modulus, hardness and yield stress) are rather similar. From the experimental data, the hydride volume fraction in the cladding samples with 150 and 1200 ppm was estimated and the average mechanical properties were calculated by means of the rule of mixtures. These values were compared with those obtained from ring compression tests. Good agreement between the results obtained by both methods was found

  19. Superductile bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, K.F.; Ruan, F.; Yang, Y.Q.; Chen, N.

    2006-01-01

    Usually, monolithic bulk metallic glasses undergo inhomogeneous plastic deformation and exhibit poor ductility (<2%) at room temperature. We report a newly developed Pd-Si binary bulk metallic glass, which exhibits a uniform plastic deformation and a large plastic engineering strain of 82% and a plastic true strain of 170%, together with initial strain hardening, slight strain softening and final strain hardening characteristics. The uniform shear deformation and the ultrahigh plasticity are mainly attributed to strain hardening, which results from the nanoscale inhomogeneity due to liquid phase separation. The formed nanoscale inhomogeneity will hinder, deflect, and bifurcate the propagation of shear bands

  20. Development of superconductor bulk for superconductor bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Joong; Jun, Byung Hyuk; Park, Soon Dong (and others)

    2008-08-15

    Current carrying capacity is one of the most important issues in the consideration of superconductor bulk materials for engineering applications. There are numerous applications of Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) bulk superconductors e.g. magnetic levitation train, flywheel energy storage system, levitation transportation, lunar telescope, centrifugal device, magnetic shielding materials, bulk magnets etc. Accordingly, to obtain YBCO materials in the form of large, single crystals without weak-link problem is necessary. A top seeded melt growth (TSMG) process was used to fabricate single crystal YBCO bulk superconductors. The seeded and infiltration growth (IG) technique was also very promising method for the synthesis of large, single-grain YBCO bulk superconductors with good superconducting properties. 5 wt.% Ag doped Y211 green compacts were sintered at 900 .deg. C {approx} 1200 .deg.C and then a single crystal YBCO was fabricated by an infiltration method. A refinement and uniform distribution of the Y211 particles in the Y123 matrix were achieved by sintering the Ag-doped samples. This enhancement of the critical current density was ascribable to a fine dispersion of the Y211 particles, a low porosity and the presence of Ag particles. In addition, we have designed and manufactured large YBCO single domain with levitation force of 10-13 kg/cm{sup 2} using TSMG processing technique.

  1. Connecting Jacobi elliptic functions with different modulus parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    found in the literature do not involve any change in the modulus parameter m. For ... Here, the right-hand side contains the sum of two terms with arguments separated ...... able thing is that, it is precisely these sums for which Landen formulas, mentioned above ... ematical sciences (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1989) vol. 80.

  2. Device to measure elastic modulus of superconducting windings

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    This device was made to measure elastic modulus of the Po dipole superconducting coils. More elaborated devices, but based on the same concept, were later used to measure the apparent elastic moduli of the LHC superconducting magnet coils. See also 7903547X, 7901386.

  3. Estimate of K-functionals and modulus of smoothness constructed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... and -functionals. The main result of the paper is the proof of the equivalence theorem for a -functional and a modulus of smoothness for the Dunkl transform on R d . Author Affiliations. M El Hamma1 R Daher1. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences Aïn Chock, University of Hassan II, Casablanca, Morocco ...

  4. Modulus of smoothness and theorems concerning approximation on compact groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vaezi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the generalized shift operator defined by (Shuf(g=∫Gf(tut−1gdt on a compact group G, and by using this operator, we define “spherical” modulus of smoothness. So, we prove Stechkin and Jackson-type theorems.

  5. Elastic Modulus at High Frequency of Polymerically Stabilized Suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nommensen, P.A.; Duits, Michael H.G.; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mellema, J.

    2000-01-01

    The elastic moduli of polymerically stabilized suspensions consisting of colloidal silica particles coated with endgrafted PDMS (Mn = 80 000) in heptane, were measured as a function of concentration. And the elastic modulus at high frequency G'.. was quantitatively described by model calculations

  6. Properties of Bulk Sintered Silver As a Function of Porosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Ferber, Mattison K [ORNL; Liang, Zhenxian [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes a study where various properties of bulk-sintered silver were investigated over a range of porosity. This work was conducted within the National Transportation Research Center's Power Device Packaging project that is part of the DOE Vehicle Technologies Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program. Sintered silver, as an interconnect material in power electronics, inherently has porosity in its produced structure because of the way it is made. Therefore, interest existed in this study to examine if that porosity affected electrical properties, thermal properties, and mechanical properties because any dependencies could affect the intended function (e.g., thermal transfer, mechanical stress relief, etc.) or reliability of that interconnect layer and alter how its performance is modeled. Disks of bulk-sintered silver were fabricated using different starting silver pastes and different sintering conditions to promote different amounts of porosity. Test coupons were harvested out of the disks to measure electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress. The authors fully recognize that the microstructure of processed bulk silver coupons may indeed not be identical to the microstructure produced in thin (20-50 microns) layers of sintered silver. However, measuring these same properties with such a thin actual structure is very difficult, requires very specialized specimen preparation and unique testing instrumentation, is expensive, and has experimental shortfalls of its own, so the authors concluded that the herein measured responses using processed bulk sintered silver coupons would be sufficient to determine acceptable values of those properties. Almost all the investigated properties of bulk sintered silver changed with porosity content within a range of 3-38% porosity. Electrical resistivity, electrical conductivity

  7. Nanoindentation study of WC-12Co hardmetals obtained from nanocrystalline powders: Evaluation of hardness and modulus on individual phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonache, V.; Rayon, E.; Salvador, M.D.; Busquets, D.

    2010-01-01

    With the development of finer hardmetals, the study of mechanical properties of the different constituents down the micrometric level is a question of concern for materials optimization. Nanoindentation has been developed in last years in order to cope with mechanical characterisation at the nanolevel, but difficulties on phase detection are an issue. In the present work, individual hardness and Young's modulus of the constituents of WC-12Co composite were obtained by the use of very shallow nanoindentations (30 nm depth), with the aid of in situ 3D imaging to identify these. By this method three different phases at the sub-micrometric level have been identified and characterised: namely cobalt matrix, tungsten carbide and η phase. The presence of the latter phase and its characterisation is of paramount importance in understanding the behaviour of hardmetals. Values of hardness from 8 (cobalt matrix) to 25 GPa (η phase) have been obtained. Also, for these phases Young's modulus varied from 250 to 400 GPa respectively. Furthermore, it is firstly reported these values for the WC prismatic planes {1 0 1 0} being in the range of 40-55 and 700-900 GPa respectively. These values decrease to a hardness in the range of 25-30 GPa and modulus in the range from 450 to 550 GPa for the WC basal plane {0 0 0 1}.

  8. Neurite extension and neuronal differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cell derived neural stem cells on polyethylene glycol hydrogels containing a continuous Young's Modulus gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Matthew C; Lim, Hyun Ju; Chen, Jing; Yang, Yueh-Hsun; Li, Shenglan; Liu, Ying; Smith Callahan, Laura A

    2017-03-01

    Mechanotransduction in neural cells involves multiple signaling pathways that are not fully understood. Differences in lineage and maturation state are suggested causes for conflicting reports on neural cell mechanosensitivity. To optimize matrices for use in stem cell therapy treatments transplanting human induced pluripotent stem cell derived neural stem cells (hNSC) into lesions after spinal cord injury, the effects of Young's Modulus changes on hNSC behavior must be understood. The present study utilizes polyethylene glycol hydrogels containing a continuous gradient in Young's modulus to examine changes in the Young's Modulus of the culture substrate on hNSC neurite extension and neural differentiation. Changes in the Young's Modulus of the polyethylene glycol hydrogels was found to affect neurite extension and cellular organization on the matrices. hNSC cultured on 907 Pa hydrogels were found to extend longer neurites than hNSC cultured on other tested Young's Moduli hydrogels. The gene expression of β tubulin III and microtubule-associated protein 2 in hNSC was affected by changes in the Young's Modulus of the hydrogel. The combinatory method approach used in the present study demonstrates that hNSC are mechanosensitive and the matrix Young's Modulus should be a design consideration for hNSC transplant applications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 824-833, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Temperature dependence of the mechanical properties of melt-processed Dy-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors evaluated by three point bending tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, K; Nyilas, A; Sato, T; Hatakeyama, Y; Hokari, T; Teshima, H; Iwamoto, A; Mito, T

    2006-01-01

    Dy-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductor has an excellent capability of trapping magnetic flux and lower heat conductivity at cryogenic temperatures as compared with Y-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductor. The Young's modulus and the bending strength in the range from room temperature to 7 K were measured by the three-point bending tests using specimens cut from a melt-processed Dy-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductor. They were tested in a helium gas flow type cryostat at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and in a liquid nitrogen bath at Iwate University. The Young's modulus was calculated by either the slope of stress-strain curve or that of the load-deflection curve of the specimen. Although the bending strength measured in the two institutes coincided well, there was a significant discrepancy in the Young's modulus. The Young's modulus and bending strength increased with decrease of temperature down to 7 K. The amount of increase in the Young's modulus and the bending strength were about 32% and 36% of those at room temperature, respectively. The scatter of data for each run was significant and did not depend on temperature. The temperature dependence of the Young's modulus coincided with that in Y-Ba-Cu-O obtained by ultrasonic velocity. The temperature dependence of the Young's modulus and the bending strength was discussed from the view point of interatomic distance of the bulk crystal

  10. Auctioning Bulk Mobile Messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Meij (Simon); L-F. Pau (Louis-François); H.W.G.M. van Heck (Eric)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe search for enablers of continued growth of SMS traffic, as well as the take-off of the more diversified MMS message contents, open up for enterprises the potential of bulk use of mobile messaging , instead of essentially one-by-one use. In parallel, such enterprises or value added

  11. Diffusion or bulk flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    is currently matter of discussion, called passive symplasmic loading. Based on the limited material available, this review compares the different loading modes and suggests that diffusion is the driving force in apoplasmic loaders, while bulk flow plays an increasing role in plants having a continuous...

  12. Ferromagnetic bulk glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Akihisa; Makino, Akihiro; Mizushima, Takao

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the review on the formation, thermal stability and magnetic properties of the Fe-based bulk glassy alloys in as-cast bulk and melt-spun ribbon forms. A large supercooled liquid region over 50 K before crystallization was obtained in Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si), Fe-(Cr, Mo, Nb)-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B) and (Fe, Co, Ni)-Zr-M-B (M=Ti, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo and W) systems and bulk glassy alloys were produced in a thickness range below 2 mm for the Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) system and 6 mm for the Fe-Co-(Zr, Nb, Ta)-(Mo, W)-B system by copper-mold casting. The ring-shaped glassy Fe-(Al, Ga)-(P, C, B, Si) alloys exhibit much better soft magnetic properties as compared with the ring-shaped alloy made from the melt-spun ribbon because of the formation of the unique domain structure. The good combination of high glass-forming ability and good soft magnetic properties indicates the possibility of future development as a new bulk glassy magnetic material

  13. Matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Joel N

    2003-01-01

    Mathematically rigorous introduction covers vector and matrix norms, the condition-number of a matrix, positive and irreducible matrices, much more. Only elementary algebra and calculus required. Includes problem-solving exercises. 1968 edition.

  14. Determining the complex modulus of alginate irreversible hydrocolloid dental material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Shalinie; See, Howard; Thomas, Graham; Swain, Michael

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the visco-elastic response of an alginate irreversible hydrocolloid dental impression material during setting. A novel squeeze film Micro-Fourier Rheometer (MFR, GBC Scientific Equipment, Australia) was used to determine the complex modulus of an alginate irreversible hydrocolloid dental impression material (Algident, ISO 1563 Class A Type 1, Dentalfarm Australia Pty. Ltd.) during setting after mixing. Data was collected every 30s for 10 min in one study and every 10 min for a total of 60 min in another study. A high level of repeatability was observed. The results indicate that the MFR is capable of recording the complex shear modulus of alginate irreversible hydrocolloid for 60 min from the start of mixing and to simultaneously report the changing visco-elastic parameters at all frequencies between 1 Hz and 100 Hz. The storage modulus shows a dramatic increase to 370% of its starting value after 6 min and then reduces to 55% after 60 min. The loss modulus increases to a maximum of 175% of its starting value after 10 min and then reduces to 94% after 60 min. The MFR enables the changes in the complex modulus through the complete setting process to be followed. It is anticipated this approach may provide a better method to compare the visco-elastic properties of impression materials and assist with identification of optimum types for different clinical requirements. The high stiffness of the instrument and the use of band-limited pseudo-random noise as the input signal are the main advantages of this technique over conventional rheometers for determining the changes in alginate visco-elasticity.

  15. Powder metallurgical low-modulus Ti-Mg alloys for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Li, Kaiyang; Luo, Tao; Song, Min; Wu, Hong; Xiao, Jian; Tan, Yanni; Cheng, Ming; Chen, Bing; Niu, Xinrui; Hu, Rong; Li, Xiaohui; Tang, Huiping

    2015-11-01

    In this work, powder metallurgical (PM) Ti-Mg alloys were prepared using combined techniques of mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. The alloys mainly consist of super saturations of Mg in Ti matrix, and some laminar structured Ti- and Mg-rich phases. The PM Ti-Mg alloys contain a homogeneous mixtures of nanocrystalline Mg and Ti phases. The novel microstructures result in unconventional mechanical and biological properties. It has been shown that the PM Ti-Mg alloys have a much lower compression modulus (36-50GPa) compared to other Ti alloys, but still remain a very high compressive strength (1500-1800MPa). In addition, the PM Ti-Mg alloys show good biocompatibility and bioactivity. Mg can dissolve in the simulated body fluids, and induce the formation of the calcium phosphate layer. The compression modulus of PM Ti-Mg alloys decreases with the amount of Mg, while the bioactivity increases. Although the corrosion resistance of Ti-Mg alloys decreases with the content of Mg, the alloys still show good stability in simulated body fluid under electrochemical conditions. The indirect and direct cytotoxicity results show that PM Ti-Mg alloys have a good biocompatibility to NIH-3T3 cells. Therefore, the PM Ti-Mg alloys are promising candidates in biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Homocomposites of chopped fluorinated polyethylene fiber with low-density polyethylene matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maity, J.; Jacob, C.; Das, C.K.; Alam, S.; Singh, R.P.

    2008-01-01

    Conventional composites are generally prepared by adding reinforcing agent to a matrix and the matrix wherein the reinforcing agents are different in chemical composition with the later having superior mechanical properties. This work presents the preparation and properties of homocomposites consisting of a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) matrix and an ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber reinforcing phase. Direct fluorination is an important surface modification process by which only a thin upper layer is modified, the bulk properties of the polymer remaining unchanged. In this work, surface fluorination of UHMWPE fiber was done and then fiber characterization was performed. It was observed that after fluorination the fiber surface became rough. Composites were then prepared using both fluorinated and non-fluorinated polyethylene fiber with a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) matrix to prepare single polymer composites. It was found that the thermal stability and mechanical properties were improved for fluorinated fiber composites. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the crystallinity of the composites increased and it is maximum for fluorinated fiber composites. Tensile strength (TS) and modulus also increased while elongation at break (EB) decreased for fiber composites and was a maximum for fluorinated fiber composites. Scanning electron microscopic analysis indicates that that the distribution of fiber into the matrix is homogeneous. It also indicates the better adhesion between the matrix and the reinforcing agent for modified fiber composites. We also did surface fluorination of the prepared composites and base polymer for knowing its application to different fields such as printability wettability, etc. To determine the various properties such as printability, wettability and adhesion properties, contact angle measurement was done. It was observed that the surface energies of surface modified composites and base polymer increases

  17. Bendable Electro-Acoustic Transducer Fabricated Utilizing Frequency Dispersion of Elastic Modulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Tetsu; Ohga, Juro

    2013-09-01

    To realize the speaker diaphragm that can be united with a flexible display without deteriorating lightweight properties and flexibility, a novel bendable electro-acoustic transducer (BEAT) based on 0-3-type piezoelectric composites has been developed. To overcome the trade-off between flexibility and the transmission efficiency of vibration energy, a viscoelastic polymer that has local maximum points in the loss factor as well as large frequency dispersion in the storage modulus near room temperature was employed as the matrix of the piezoelectric composite layer. Against the comparatively slow (10 Hz or less) deformation from the outside, the viscoelastic matrix is viscous enough to prevent cracking and delamination. On the other hand, in the audible range (20 Hz to 20 kHz), the matrix is elastic enough to transmit piezoelectric vibration energy, maintaining a moderately large loss factor as well as a high sound velocity. For the first time, we successfully demonstrated a rollable speaker that can continue to generate a high-quality sound while being rolled and unrolled repeatedly onto a cylinder with a curvature radius of 4 mm.

  18. An Experimental Simulation to Validate FEM to Predict Transverse Young’s Modulus of FRP Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Sai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element method finds application in the analysis of FRP composites due to its versatility in getting the solution for complex cases which are not possible by exact classical analytical approaches. The finite element result is questionable unless it is obtained from converged mesh and properly validated. In the present work specimens are prepared with metallic materials so that the arrangement of fibers is close to hexagonal packing in a matrix as similar arrangement in case of FRP is complex due to the size of fibers. Transverse Young’s moduli of these specimens are determined experimentally. Equivalent FE models are designed and corresponding transverse Young’s moduli are compared with the experimental results. It is observed that the FE values are in good agreement with the experimental results, thus validating FEM for predicting transverse modulus of FRP composites.

  19. Insufficiency of the Young’s modulus for illustrating the mechanical behavior of GaN nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani Kouhpanji, Mohammad Reza; Behzadirad, Mahmoud; Feezell, Daniel; Busani, Tito

    2018-05-01

    We use a non-classical modified couple stress theory including the acceleration gradients (MCST-AG), to precisely demonstrate the size dependency of the mechanical properties of gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires (NWs). The fundamental elastic constants, Young’s modulus and length scales of the GaN NWs were estimated both experimentally, using a novel experimental technique applied to atomic force microscopy, and theoretically, using atomic simulations. The Young’s modulus, static and the dynamic length scales, calculated with the MCST-AG, were found to be 323 GPa, 13 and 14.5 nm, respectively, for GaN NWs from a few nanometers radii to bulk radii. Analyzing the experimental data using the classical continuum theory shows an improvement in the experimental results by introducing smaller error. Using the length scales determined in MCST-AG, we explain the inconsistency of the Young’s moduli reported in recent literature, and we prove the insufficiency of the Young’s modulus for predicting the mechanical behavior of GaN NWs.

  20. Characterisation of bulk solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. McGlinchey [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Centre for Industrial Bulk Solids Handling

    2005-07-01

    Handling of powders and bulk solids is a critical industrial technology across a broad spectrum of industries, including minerals processing. With contributions from leading authors in their respective fields, this book provides the reader with a sound understanding of the techniques, importance and application of particulate materials characterisation. It covers the fundamental characteristics of individual particles and bulk particulate materials, and includes discussion of a wide range of measurement techniques, and the use of material characteristics in design and industrial practice. Contents: Characterising particle properties; Powder mechanics and rheology; Characterisation for hopper and stockpile design; Fluidization behaviour; Characterisation for pneumatic conveyor design; Explosiblility; 'Designer' particle characteristics; Current industrial practice; and Future trends. 130 ills.

  1. Micromegas in a bulk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giomataris, I.; De Oliveira, R.; Andriamonje, S.; Aune, S.; Charpak, G.; Colas, P.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer, E.; Giganon, A.; Rebourgeard, Ph.; Salin, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel way to manufacture the bulk Micromegas detector. A simple process based on the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) technology is employed to produce the entire sensitive detector. Such a fabrication process could be extended to very large area detectors made by the industry. The low cost fabrication together with the robustness of the electrode materials will make it attractive for several applications ranging from particle physics and astrophysics to medicine

  2. Young's Modulus of Single-Crystal Fullerene C Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokushi Kizuka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed bending tests on single-crystal nanotubes composed of fullerene C70 molecules by in situ transmission electron microscopy with measurements of loading forces by an optical deflection method. The nanotubes with the outer diameters of 270–470 nm were bent using simple-beam and cantilever-beam loading by the piezomanipulation of silicon nanotips. Young's modulus of the nanotubes increased from 61 GPa to 110 GPa as the outer diameter decreased from 470 nm to 270 nm. Young's modulus was estimated to be 66% of that of single-crystal C60 nanotubes of the same outer diameter.

  3. Mechanical Researches on Young's Modulus of SCS Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinhua Jin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructures of SingleCrystalSilicon (SCS with superior electrical, mechanical, thermal, and optical properties are emerging in the development of novel nanodevices. Mechanical properties especially Young's modulus are essential in developing and utilizing such nanodevices. In this paper, experimental researches including bending tests, resonance tests, and tensile tests on Young' s modulus of nanoscaled SCS are reviewed, and their results are compared. It was found that the values of E measured by different testing methods cannot match to each other. As the differences cannot be explained as experimental errors, it should be understood by taking surface effect into account. With a simplified model, we qualitatively explained the difference in E value measured by tensile test and by resonance test for Si nanobeams.

  4. Effect of uncertainty parameters on graphene sheets Young's modulus prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahlaoui, Habib; Sidhom Habib; Guedri, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Software based on molecular structural mechanics approach (MSMA) and using finite element method (FEM) has been developed to predict the Young's modulus of graphene sheets. Obtained results have been compared to results available in the literature and good agreement has been shown when the same values of uncertainty parameters are used. A sensibility of the models to their uncertainty parameters has been investigated using a stochastic finite element method (SFEM). The different values of the used uncertainty parameters, such as molecular mechanics force field constants k_r and k_θ, thickness (t) of a graphene sheet and length ( L_B) of a carbon carbon bonds, have been collected from the literature. Strong sensibilities of 91% to the thickness and of 21% to the stretching force (k_r) have been shown. The results justify the great difference between Young's modulus predicted values of the graphene sheets and their large disagreement with experimental results.

  5. High modulus invert analog glass compositions containing beryllia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, J. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Glass compositions having a Young's modulus of at least 15 million psi and a specific modulus of at least 110 million inches consisting essentially of, in mols, 10-45% SiO2, 2-15% Li2O, 3-34% BeO, 12-36% of at least one bivalent oxide selected from the group consisting of CaO, ZnO, MgO and CuO, 10-39% of at least one trivalent oxide selected from the group consisting of Al2O3, B2O3, La2O3, Y2O3 and the mixed rare earth oxides, the total number of said bivalent and trivalent oxides being at least three, and up to 10% of a tetravalent oxide selected from the group consisting of ZrO2, TiO2 and CeO2.

  6. Multigene Genetic Programming for Estimation of Elastic Modulus of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mohammadi Bayazidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new multigene genetic programming (MGGP approach for estimation of elastic modulus of concrete. The MGGP technique models the elastic modulus behavior by integrating the capabilities of standard genetic programming and classical regression. The main aim is to derive precise relationships between the tangent elastic moduli of normal and high strength concrete and the corresponding compressive strength values. Another important contribution of this study is to develop a generalized prediction model for the elastic moduli of both normal and high strength concrete. Numerous concrete compressive strength test results are obtained from the literature to develop the models. A comprehensive comparative study is conducted to verify the performance of the models. The proposed models perform superior to the existing traditional models, as well as those derived using other powerful soft computing tools.

  7. Charged string solutions with dilaton and modulus fields

    CERN Document Server

    Cvetic, M

    1994-01-01

    We find charged, abelian, spherically symmetric solutions (in flat space-time) corresponding to the effective action of $D=4$ heterotic string theory with scale-dependent dilaton $\\p$ and modulus $\\vp$ fields. We take into account perturbative (genus-one), moduli-dependent `threshold' corrections to the coupling function $f(\\p,\\vp)$ in the gauge field kinetic term $f(\\p,\\vp) F^2_{\\m\

  8. A maximum modulus theorem for the Oseen problem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kračmar, S.; Medková, Dagmar; Nečasová, Šárka; Varnhorn, W.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 192, č. 6 (2013), s. 1059-1076 ISSN 0373-3114 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/11/1304; GA MŠk LC06052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Oseen problem * maximum modulus theorem * Oseen potentials Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.909, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10231-012-0258-x

  9. Young's modulus of elasticity of Schlemm's canal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dehong; Juzkiw, Taras; Read, A Thomas; Chan, Darren W-H; Glucksberg, Matthew R; Ethier, C Ross; Johnson, Mark

    2010-02-01

    Schlemm's canal (SC) endothelial cells are likely important in the physiology and pathophysiology of the aqueous drainage system of the eye, particularly in glaucoma. The mechanical stiffness of these cells determines, in part, the extent to which they can support a pressure gradient and thus can be used to place limits on the flow resistance that this layer can generate in the eye. However, little is known about the biomechanical properties of SC endothelial cells. Our goal in this study was to estimate the effective Young's modulus of elasticity of normal SC cells. To do so, we combined magnetic pulling cytometry of isolated cultured human SC cells with finite element modeling of the mechanical response of the cell to traction forces applied by adherent beads. Preliminary work showed that the immersion angles of beads attached to the SC cells had a major influence on bead response; therefore, we also measured bead immersion angle by confocal microscopy, using an empirical technique to correct for axial distortion of the confocal images. Our results showed that the upper bound for the effective Young's modulus of elasticity of the cultured SC cells examined in this study, in central, non-nuclear regions, ranged between 1,007 and 3,053 Pa, which is similar to, although somewhat larger than values that have been measured for other endothelial cell types. We compared these values to estimates of the modulus of primate SC cells in vivo, based on images of these cells under pressure loading, and found good agreement at low intraocular pressure (8-15 mm Hg). However, increasing intraocular pressure (22-30 mm Hg) appeared to cause a significant increase in the modulus of these cells. These moduli can be used to estimate the extent to which SC cells deform in response to the pressure drop across the inner wall endothelium and thereby estimate the extent to which they can generate outflow resistance.

  10. Using data logging to measure Young’s modulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David

    2018-03-01

    Historically the Young’s modulus of a material is measured by increasing the applied force to a wire and measuring the extension. The cross sectional area and original length allow this to be plotted as a graph of stress versus strain. This article describes how data logging sensors can be used to measure how the force changes with extension, allowing a strain versus stress graph to be plotted into the region of plastic deformation.

  11. Bulk glass formation and crystallization in zirconium based bulk metallic glass forming alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savalia, R.T.; Neogy, S.; Dey, G.K.; Banerjee, S.

    2002-01-01

    The microstructures of Zr based metallic glasses produced in bulk form have been described in the as-cast condition and after crystallization. Various microscopic techniques have been used to characterize the microstructures. The microstructure in the as-cast condition was found to contain isolated crystals and crystalline aggregates embedded in the amorphous matrix. Quenched-in nuclei of crystalline phases were found to be present in fully amorphous regions. These glasses after crystallization gave rise to nanocrystalline solids. (author)

  12. Elastic modulus of tree frog adhesive toe pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, W Jon P; Goodwyn, Pablo J Perez; Nokhbatolfoghahai, Mohsen; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2011-10-01

    Previous work using an atomic force microscope in nanoindenter mode indicated that the outer, 10- to 15-μm thick, keratinised layer of tree frog toe pads has a modulus of elasticity equivalent to silicone rubber (5-15 MPa) (Scholz et al. 2009), but gave no information on the physical properties of deeper structures. In this study, micro-indentation is used to measure the stiffness of whole toe pads of the tree frog, Litoria caerulea. We show here that tree frog toe pads are amongst the softest of biological structures (effective elastic modulus 4-25 kPa), and that they exhibit a gradient of stiffness, being stiffest on the outside. This stiffness gradient results from the presence of a dense network of capillaries lying beneath the pad epidermis, which probably has a shock absorbing function. Additionally, we compare the physical properties (elastic modulus, work of adhesion, pull-off force) of the toe pads of immature and adult frogs.

  13. Electronic properties and bulk moduli of novel boron nitride polymorphs: hyperdiamond B12N12 and the simple cubic B24N24, B12N12 fulborenites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrivnyj, V.V.; Bekenev, V.L.

    2006-01-01

    Equation of states, energy band structure, electronic density of states, and bulk moduli of the boron nitride fulborenite crystals: B 12 N 12 with a diamond lattice and B 24 N 24 , B 12 N 12 with a simple cubic lattice have been calculated for the first time by FLAPW method. Calculated parameters of these compounds are as follows: equilibrium lattice parameter, the length of B-N bond, the number of atoms per conventional cell, density, bulk modulus, band gap. Hyperdiamond B 12 N 12 is shown to have the record bulk modulus B 0 = 658 GPa [ru

  14. Structure and Young modulus of age hardening elinvar 45NKhT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraz, V.R.; Strizhak, V.A.; Tsykin, D.N.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of quenching and ageing on structural features and Young modulus of precipitation hardening elinvar alloy 45 NKhT is under study. It is shown that the quenched alloy possesses a decreased elastic modulus which value drops with a quenching temperature increase. The ally ageing results in restoration of elastic modulus. The temperature range of Young modulus stability is shown to be independent of heat treatment conditions. The anomalies of elastic modulus in quenched alloy are conditioned by structural and magnetoelastic factors. The mechanisms of continuous and discontinuous precipitation mechanism has no effect on efficiency of Young modulus restoration. 13 refs., 6 figs

  15. Calcium Sulfoaluminate Sodalite (Ca 4 Al 6 O 12 SO 4 ) Crystal Structure Evaluation and Bulk Modulus Determination

    KAUST Repository

    Hargis, Craig W.; Moon, Juhyuk; Lothenbach, Barbara; Winnefeld, Frank; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The predominant phase of calcium sulfoaluminate cement, Ca 4(Al6O12)SO4, was investigated using high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction from ambient pressure to 4.75 GPa. A critical review of the crystal structure of Ca4(Al 6O12)SO4 is presented

  16. Temperature dependence of Young's modulus and internal friction of G-10CR and G-11CR epoxy resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, H.M.; Maerz, G.

    1980-01-01

    The Young's moduli of the epoxy-resin matrix material used in NEMA-designation G-10CR and G-11CR fiberglass-cloth-reinforced composites were measured dynamically and semicontinuously between ambient and liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Both materials exhibit regular temperature behavior, showing large Young's-modulus changes, about 125 and 50%, respectively. Internal friction decreased about 80% during cooling to liquid-nitrogen temperature (76 0 K). The different thermoelastic coefficients of the two materials indicate a different internal structure

  17. Determination of resilient modulus values for typical plastic soils in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    "The objectives of this research are to establish a resilient modulus test results database and to develop : correlations for estimating the resilient modulus of Wisconsin fine-grained soils from basic soil properties. A : laboratory testing program ...

  18. Standardizing lightweight deflectometer modulus measurements for compaction quality assurance : research summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The mechanistic-empirical pavement design method requires the elastic resilient modulus as the key input for characterization of geomaterials. Current density-based QA procedures do not measure resilient modulus. Additionally, the density-based metho...

  19. Maximisation of the ratio of microhardness to the Young's modulus of Ti–12Mo–13Nb alloy through microstructure changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, Sinara B., E-mail: sinara@metalmat.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais, C.P. 68505, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21945-970 (Brazil); Centro Universitário de Volta Redonda, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, Luiz H. de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais, C.P. 68505, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21945-970 (Brazil); Nunes, Carlos A. [Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, C.P. 116, Lorena, SP 12.600-970 (Brazil); Dille, Jean [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Chemical and Materials Department, Av. F. Roosevelt 50, C. P. 194/03, Brussels (Belgium); Soares, Glória A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais, C.P. 68505, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21945-970 (Brazil)

    2013-08-01

    Alloys for orthopaedic and dentistry applications require high mechanical strength and a low Young's modulus to avoid stress shielding. Metastable β titanium alloys appear to fulfil these requirements. This study investigated the correlation of phases precipitated in a Ti–12Mo–13Nb alloy with changes in hardness and the Young's modulus. The alloy was produced by arc melting under an argon atmosphere, after which, it was heat treated and cold forged. Two different routes of heat treatment were employed. Phase transformations were studied by employing X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Property characterisation was based on Vickers microhardness tests and Young's modulus measurements. The highest ratio of microhardness to the Young's modulus was obtained using thermomechanical treatment, which consists of heating at 1000 °C for 24 h, water quenching, cold forging to reduce 80% of the area, and ageing at 500 °C for 24 h, where the final microstructure consisted of an α phase dispersed in a β matrix. The α phase appeared in two different forms: as fine lamellas (with 240 ± 100 nm length) and massive particles of 200–500 nm size. - Highlights: • The work presents microstructure change and properties of Ti–12Mo–13Nb alloy. • The better condition was achieved by the α phase distributed in the β matrix. • The values obtained were higher than of the Ti–6Al–4V alloy and cp Ti.

  20. AC conductivity and dielectric behavior of bulk Furfurylidenemalononitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nahass, M. M.; Ali, H. A. M.

    2012-06-01

    AC conductivity and dielectric behavior for bulk Furfurylidenemalononitrile have been studied over a temperature range (293-333 K) and frequency range (50-5×106 Hz). The frequency dependence of ac conductivity, σac, has been investigated by the universal power law, σac(ω)=Aωs. The variation of the frequency exponent (s) with temperature was analyzed in terms of different conduction mechanisms, and it was found that the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model is the predominant conduction mechanism. The temperature dependence of σac(ω) showed a linear increase with the increase in temperature at different frequencies. The ac activation energy was determined at different frequencies. Dielectric data were analyzed using complex permittivity and complex electric modulus for bulk Furfurylidenemalononitrile at various temperatures.

  1. Low modulus Ti–Nb–Hf alloy for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, M., E-mail: Marta.Gonzalez.Colominas@upc.edu [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Materials Science, Elisava Escola Superior de Disseny i Enginyeria de Barcelona, La Rambla 30-32, 08002 Barcelona (Spain); Peña, J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Materials Science, Elisava Escola Superior de Disseny i Enginyeria de Barcelona, La Rambla 30-32, 08002 Barcelona (Spain); Gil, F.J.; Manero, J.M. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ciber-BBN (Spain)

    2014-09-01

    β-Type titanium alloys with a low elastic modulus are a potential strategy to reduce stress shielding effect and to enhance bone remodeling in implants used to substitute failed hard tissue. For biomaterial application, investigation on the mechanical behavior, the corrosion resistance and the cell response is required. The new Ti25Nb16Hf alloy was studied before and after 95% cold rolling (95% C.R.). The mechanical properties were determined by tensile testing and its corrosion behavior was analyzed by potentiostatic equipment in Hank's solution at 37 °C. The cell response was studied by means of cytotoxicity evaluation, cell adhesion and proliferation measurements. The stress–strain curves showed the lowest elastic modulus (42 GPa) in the cold worked alloy and high tensile strength, similar to that of Ti6Al4V. The new alloy exhibited better corrosion resistance in terms of open circuit potential (E{sub OCP}), but was similar in terms of corrosion current density (i{sub CORR}) compared to Ti grade II. Cytotoxicity studies revealed that the chemical composition of the alloy does not induce cytotoxic activity. Cell studies in the new alloy showed a lower adhesion and a higher proliferation compared to Ti grade II presenting, therefore, mechanical features similar to those of human cortical bone and, simultaneously, a good cell response. - Highlights: • Presents low elastic modulus and high strength and elastic deformability. • Exhibits good biocompatibility in terms of cytotoxicity and cell response. • Corrosion resistance of this alloy is good, similar to that of Ti grade II. • Potential candidate for implants used to substitute failed hard tissue.

  2. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  3. Mechanical Components from Highly Recoverable, Low Apparent Modulus Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Santo, II (Inventor); Noebe, Ronald D. (Inventor); Stanford, Malcolm K. (Inventor); DellaCorte, Christopher (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A material for use as a mechanical component is formed of a superelastic intermetallic material having a low apparent modulus and a high hardness. The superelastic intermetallic material is conditioned to be dimensionally stable, devoid of any shape memory effect and have a stable superelastic response without irrecoverable deformation while exhibiting strains of at least 3%. The method of conditioning the superelastic intermetallic material is described. Another embodiment relates to lightweight materials known as ordered intermetallics that perform well in sliding wear applications using conventional liquid lubricants and are therefore suitable for resilient, high performance mechanical components such as gears and bearings.

  4. Simple Backdoors on RSA Modulus by Using RSA Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hung-Min; Wu, Mu-En; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    This investigation proposes two methods for embedding backdoors in the RSA modulus N=pq rather than in the public exponent e. This strategy not only permits manufacturers to embed backdoors in an RSA system, but also allows users to choose any desired public exponent, such as e=216+1, to ensure efficient encryption. This work utilizes lattice attack and exhaustive attack to embed backdoors in two proposed methods, called RSASBLT and RSASBES, respectively. Both approaches involve straightforward steps, making their running time roughly the same as that of normal RSA key-generation time, implying that no one can detect the backdoor by observing time imparity.

  5. Resonant frequency and elastic modulus measurements on hardened cement pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.J.

    1982-12-01

    A new technique for measuring resonant frequency and elastic modulus is described. This has been used on specimens of hardened cement paste containing water with no simulated waste, and the results compared with measurements of ultrasonic pulse velocity, dimensional movements and compressive strength made on the same formulations. In addition, measurements were made on a specimen containing simulated waste which demonstrated the applicability of the new technique for following the development of the mechanical properties of cemented simulant radioactive waste in the laboratory. (U.K.)

  6. Bulk muscles, loose cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Chamari R D G; Kodali, Venkata

    2014-10-17

    The accessibility and usage of body building supplements is on the rise with stronger internet marketing strategies by the industry. The dangers posed by the ingredients in them are underestimated. A healthy young man came to the emergency room with palpitations and feeling unwell. Initial history and clinical examination were non-contributory to find the cause. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A detailed history for any over the counter or herbal medicine use confirmed that he was taking supplements to bulk muscle. One of the components in these supplements is yohimbine; the onset of symptoms coincided with the ingestion of this product and the patient is symptom free after stopping it. This report highlights the dangers to the public of consuming over the counter products with unknown ingredients and the consequential detrimental impact on health. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. Matrix calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Bodewig, E

    1959-01-01

    Matrix Calculus, Second Revised and Enlarged Edition focuses on systematic calculation with the building blocks of a matrix and rows and columns, shunning the use of individual elements. The publication first offers information on vectors, matrices, further applications, measures of the magnitude of a matrix, and forms. The text then examines eigenvalues and exact solutions, including the characteristic equation, eigenrows, extremum properties of the eigenvalues, bounds for the eigenvalues, elementary divisors, and bounds for the determinant. The text ponders on approximate solutions, as well

  8. MMP-sensitive PEG diacrylate hydrogels with spatial variations in matrix properties stimulate directional vascular sprout formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael V Turturro

    Full Text Available The spatial presentation of immobilized extracellular matrix (ECM cues and matrix mechanical properties play an important role in directed and guided cell behavior and neovascularization. The goal of this work was to explore whether gradients of elastic modulus, immobilized matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-sensitivity, and YRGDS cell adhesion ligands are capable of directing 3D vascular sprout formation in tissue engineered scaffolds. PEGDA hydrogels were engineered with mechanical and biofunctional gradients using perfusion-based frontal photopolymerization (PBFP. Bulk photopolymerized hydrogels with uniform mechanical properties, degradation, and immobilized biofunctionality served as controls. Gradient hydrogels exhibited an 80.4% decrease in elastic modulus and a 56.2% decrease in immobilized YRGDS. PBFP hydrogels also demonstrated gradients in hydrogel degradation with degradation times ranging from 10-12 hours in the more crosslinked regions to 4-6 hours in less crosslinked regions. An in vitro model of neovascularization, composed of co-culture aggregates of endothelial and smooth muscle cells, was used to evaluate the effect of these gradients on vascular sprout formation. Aggregate invasion in gradient hydrogels occurred bi-directionally with sprout alignment observed in the direction parallel to the gradient while control hydrogels with homogeneous properties resulted in uniform invasion. In PBFP gradient hydrogels, aggregate sprout length was found to be twice as long in the direction parallel to the gradient as compared to the perpendicular direction after three weeks in culture. This directionality was found to be more prominent in gradient regions of increased stiffness, crosslinked MMP-sensitive peptide presentation, and immobilized YRGDS concentration.

  9. Dynamic analysis of bulk-fill composites: Effect of food-simulating liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eweis, Ahmed Hesham; Yap, Adrian U-Jin; Yahya, Noor Azlin

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of food simulating liquids on visco-elastic properties of bulk-fill restoratives using dynamic mechanical analysis. One conventional composite (Filtek Z350 [FZ]), two bulk-fill composites (Filtek Bulk-fill [FB] and Tetric N Ceram [TN]) and a bulk-fill giomer (Beautifil-Bulk Restorative [BB]) were evaluated. Specimens (12 × 2 × 2mm) were fabricated using customized stainless steel molds. The specimens were light-cured, removed from their molds, finished, measured and randomly divided into six groups. The groups (n = 10) were conditioned in the following mediums for 7 days at 37°C: air (control), artificial saliva (SAGF), distilled water, 0.02N citric acid, heptane, 50% ethanol-water solution. Specimens were assessed using dynamic mechanical testing in flexural three-point bending mode and their respective mediums at 37°C and a frequency range of 0.1-10Hz. The distance between the supports were fixed at 10mm and an axial load of 5N was employed. Data for elastic modulus, viscous modulus and loss tangent were subjected to ANOVA/Tukey's tests at significance level p food-simulating liquids on the visco-elastic properties of bulk-fill composites was material and medium dependent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship Between Cell Compatibility and Elastic Modulus of Silicone Rubber/Organoclay Nanobiocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Motahare Sadat; Tazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Amjadi, Issa; Haghighipour, Nooshin; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Ghafourian Boroujerdnia, Mehri

    2012-01-01

    Background Substrates in medical science are hydrophilic polymers undergoing volume expansion when exposed to culture medium that influenced on cell attachment. Although crosslinking by chemical agents could reduce water uptake and promote mechanical properties, these networks would release crosslinking agents. In order to overcome this weakness, silicone rubber is used and reinforced by nanoclay. Objectives Attempts have been made to prepare nanocomposites based on medical grade HTV silicone rubber (SR) and organo-modified montmorillonite (OMMT) nanoclay with varying amounts of clay compositions. Materials and Methods Incorporation of nanocilica platelets into SR matrix was carried out via melt mixing process taking advantage of a Brabender internal mixer. The tensile elastic modulus of nanocomposites was measured by performing tensile tests on the samples. Produced polydimetylsiloxane (PDMS) composites with different flexibilities and crosslink densities were employed as substrates to investigate biocompatibility, cell compaction, and differential behaviors. Results The results presented here revealed successful nanocomposite formation with SR and OMMT, resulting in strong PDMS-based materials. The results showed that viability, proliferation, and spreading of cells are governed by elastic modulus and stiffness of samples. Furthermore, adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) cultured on PDMS and corresponding nanocomposites could retain differentiation potential of osteocytes in response to soluble factors, indicating that inclusion of OMMT would not prevent osteogenic differentiation. Moreover, better spread out and proliferation of cells was observed in nanocomposite samples. Conclusions Considering cell behavior and mechanical properties of nanobiocomposites it could be concluded that silicone rubber substrate filled by nanoclay are a good choice for further experiments in tissue engineering and medical regeneration due to its cell compatibility and differentiation

  11. Low-modulus PMMA bone cement modified with castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alejandro; Hoess, Andreas; Thersleff, Thomas; Ott, Marjam; Engqvist, Håkan; Persson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Some of the current clinical and biomechanical data suggest that vertebroplasty causes the development of adjacent vertebral fractures shortly after augmentation. These findings have been attributed to high injection volumes as well as high Young's moduli of PMMA bone cements compared to that of the osteoporotic cancellous bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of castor oil as a plasticizer for PMMA bone cements. The Young's modulus, yield strength, maximum polymerization temperature, doughing time, setting time and the complex viscosity curves during curing, were determined. The cytotoxicity of the materials extracts was assessed on cells of an osteoblast-like cell line. The addition of up to 12 wt% castor oil decreased yield strength from 88 to 15 MPa, Young's modulus from 1500 to 446 MPa and maximum polymerization temperature from 41.3 to 25.6°C, without affecting the setting time. However, castor oil seemed to interfere with the polymerization reaction, giving a negative effect on cell viability in a worst-case scenario.

  12. Microfabricated Bulk Piezoelectric Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barham, Oliver M.

    Piezoelectric voltage transformers (PTs) can be used to transform an input voltage into a different, required output voltage needed in electronic and electro- mechanical systems, among other varied uses. On the macro scale, they have been commercialized in electronics powering consumer laptop liquid crystal displays, and compete with an older, more prevalent technology, inductive electromagnetic volt- age transformers (EMTs). The present work investigates PTs on smaller size scales that are currently in the academic research sphere, with an eye towards applications including micro-robotics and other small-scale electronic and electromechanical sys- tems. PTs and EMTs are compared on the basis of power and energy density, with PTs trending towards higher values of power and energy density, comparatively, indicating their suitability for small-scale systems. Among PT topologies, bulk disc-type PTs, operating in their fundamental radial extension mode, and free-free beam PTs, operating in their fundamental length extensional mode, are good can- didates for microfabrication and are considered here. Analytical modeling based on the Extended Hamilton Method is used to predict device performance and integrate mechanical tethering as a boundary condition. This model differs from previous PT models in that the electric enthalpy is used to derive constituent equations of motion with Hamilton's Method, and therefore this approach is also more generally applica- ble to other piezoelectric systems outside of the present work. Prototype devices are microfabricated using a two mask process consisting of traditional photolithography combined with micropowder blasting, and are tested with various output electri- cal loads. 4mm diameter tethered disc PTs on the order of .002cm. 3 , two orders smaller than the bulk PT literature, had the followingperformance: a prototype with electrode area ratio (input area / output area) = 1 had peak gain of 2.3 (+/- 0.1), efficiency of 33 (+/- 0

  13. Stiff, light, strong and ductile: nano-structured High Modulus Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, H; Baron, C; Szczepaniak, A; Uhlenwinkel, V; Raabe, D

    2017-06-05

    Structural material development for lightweight applications aims at improving the key parameters strength, stiffness and ductility at low density, but these properties are typically mutually exclusive. Here we present how we overcome this trade-off with a new class of nano-structured steel - TiB 2 composites synthesised in-situ via bulk metallurgical spray-forming. Owing to the nano-sized dispersion of the TiB 2 particles of extreme stiffness and low density - obtained by the in-situ formation with rapid solidification kinetics - the new material has the mechanical performance of advanced high strength steels, and a 25% higher stiffness/density ratio than any of the currently used high strength steels, aluminium, magnesium and titanium alloys. This renders this High Modulus Steel the first density-reduced, high stiffness, high strength and yet ductile material which can be produced on an industrial scale. Also ideally suited for 3D printing technology, this material addresses all key requirements for high performance and cost effective lightweight design.

  14. Dynamic strength behavior of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass under shock loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yu-Ying; Xi Feng; Dai Cheng-Da; Cai Ling-Cang; Tan Ye; Li Xue-Mei; Wu Qiang; Tan Hua

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic strength behavior of Zr 51 Ti 5 Ni 10 Cu 25 Al 9 bulk metallic glass (BMG) up to 66 GPa was investigated in a series of plate impact shock-release and shock-reload experiments. Particle velocity profiles measured at the sample/LiF window interface were used to estimate the shear stress, shear modulus, and yield stress in shocked BMG. Beyond confirming the previously reported strain-softening of shear stress during the shock loading process for BMGs, it is also shown that the softened Zr-BMG still has a high shear modulus and can support large yield stress when released or reloaded from the shocked state, and both the shear modulus and the yield stress appear as strain-hardening behaviors. The work provides a much clearer picture of the strength behavior of BMGs under shock loading, which is useful to comprehensively understand the plastic deformation mechanisms of BMGs. (paper)

  15. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  16. Thermal expansion properties of Bi-2212 in Ag or an Ag-alloy matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenbrink, J.; Krauth, H.

    1994-01-01

    The thermal expansion properties of polycrystalline Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O 8+x melt-processed bulk specimens, and Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O 8+x monocore as well as multifilamentary round wires in Ag or Ag-alloy matrix have been investigated over the temperature range from -150 to 800 degrees C. Although the thermal expansion of Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O 8+x is distinctly lower compared with Ag, the thermal expansion properties of the Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O 8+x -Ag or AgNiMg-alloy composite conductors are essentially governed by the matrix material. The thermal expansion of the encountered oxide-dispersion-strengthened AgNiMg alloys is only slightly lower compared with that of pure Ag. Therefore the thermal expansion of all investigated Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O 8+x -Ag or Ag-alloy composite wires was found to be close to that of pure Ag. The reason for this striking behaviour is shown to be related to a surprisingly low elastic modulus of the polycrystalline Bi-2212 wire cores of the order of 10 to a maximum 40 GPa. (author)

  17. Room temperature Young's modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio and hardness of PbTe-PbS thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Jennifer E [Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Case, Eldon D., E-mail: casee@egr.msu.edu [Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Khabir, Kristen N; Stewart, Ryan C [Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Wu, Chun-I; Hogan, Timothy P [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Timm, Edward J [Mechanical Engineering Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Girard, Steven N; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Two-phase PbTe-PbS materials, in which PbS is a nanostructured phase, are promising thermoelectric materials for the direct conversion of heat energy into electricity. In this study, a Vickers indentation mean hardness of 1.18 {+-} 0.09 GPa was measured for hot pressed specimens Pb{sub 0.95}Sn{sub 0.05}Te-PbS 8% while the mean hardness of cast specimens was 0.68 {+-} 0.07 GPa. The mean fracture toughness of the not pressed specimens was estimated as 0.35 {+-} 0.04 MPa m{sup 1/2} via Vickers indentation. Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) measurements on hot pressed specimens gave mean values of Young's modulus, shear modulus and Poisson's ratio of 53.1 GPa, 21.4 GPa and 0.245, respectively while for the cast specimens the Young's and shear moduli were about 10% lower than for the hot pressed, with a mean value of Poisson's ratio of 0.245. The differences between the hardness and elastic moduli values for the cast and hot pressed specimens are discussed.

  18. Effect of time of sintering of a castable with andalusite aggregates in the rupture modulus and elastic modulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.R.; Garcia, G.C.R.; Claudinei, S.; Ribeiro, S.

    2011-01-01

    The studied castable contain andalusite aggregates, and when sintered in temperatures above 1280 deg C, transformed into mullite improving the properties of concrete due to its low expansion and thermal conductivity, creep resistance and thermal shock. The refractory was homogenized in a mixer with 5.5% m/m of water and poured into a metal mold resulting in prismatic bars. After curing for 48 hours, were sintered at 1450 ° C for 0 h, 1 h, 2.5 h and 10 h with heating and cooling rates of 2 ° C / min. The results of elastic modules were, respectively, in GPa: 25.75±1.75, 37.79±0.36, 39.03±1.97 and 54.47±4.01, and rupture, MPa: 8.40±0.78, 11.94±0.68, 10.91±0.91 and 11,34±1.16, showing the increase in elastic modulus for longer times and for times exceeding one hour, no significant changes in results of the modulus of rupture , stabilizing the change of this refractory's properties after the first hour of sintering. (author)

  19. Dataset for acrylate/silica nanoparticles formulations and photocured composites: Viscosity, filler dispersion and bulk Poisson׳s ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Gojzewski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available UV-curable polymer composites are of importance in industry, biomedical applications, scientific fields, and daily life. Outstanding physical properties of polymer composites were achieved with nanoparticles as filler, primarily in enhancing mechanical strength or barrier properties. Structure-property relationships of the resulting nanocomposites are dictated by the polymer-filler molecular architecture, i.e. interactions between polymer matrix and filler, and high surface area to volume ratio of the filler particles. Among monomers, acrylates and methacrylates attracted wide attention due to their ease of polymerization and excellent physicochemical and mechanical properties of the derived polymers. We prepared and photopolymerized two series of formulations containing hydrophobized silica nanofiller (Aerosil R7200 dispersed in 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA or polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA monomers. We compared selected physical properties of the formulations, both before and after photocuring; specifically the viscosity of formulations and dispersion of the filler in the polymer matrices. Additionally, we estimated the bulk Poisson׳s ratio of the investigated nanocomposites. This article contains data related to the research article entitled “Nanoscale Young׳s modulus and surface morphology in photocurable polyacrylate/nanosilica composites” (Gojzewski et al., 2017 [1].

  20. Synthesis and mechanical properties of bulk Al{sub 76}Ni{sub 8}Ti{sub 8}Zr{sub 4}Y{sub 4} alloy fabricated by consolidation of mechanically alloyed amorphous powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xinfu; Wang, Kun; Li, Zhendong; Wang, Xingfu; Wang, Dan; Han, Fusheng, E-mail: fshan@issp.ac.cn

    2015-05-25

    Graphical abstract: Different regions indentation morphologies under 50 g load consolidated at 723 K (left), nanohardness of the Al{sub 76}Ni{sub 8}Ti{sub 8}Zr{sub 4}Y{sub 4} alloy as a function consolidation temperature (right). It can be seen from the above figures that the consolidated sample presents white regions, and the microhardness in the white regions is a little lower than the matrix, which could be caused by the difference of the chemical composition and chemical bonding forces between them. Interestingly, the cracks were formed around the indentation periphery in the white regions, which are not shown in the matrix. The nanohardness of the bulk composites increased from 11.16 to 13.27 GPa with the consolidation temperature increasing, mechanical softening was also found in the present alloys. - Highlights: • Bulk amorphous–nanocrystalline Al-based alloys were prepared by HPS process. • The Vickers microhardness of bulk samples is in the range of 945–1177HV0.1. • The nanohardness agrees well with the Vickers hardness testing results. - Abstract: Mechanically alloyed amorphous Al{sub 76}Ni{sub 8}Ti{sub 8}Zr{sub 4}Y{sub 4} (at.%) alloy powder was consolidated by high-pressure sintering process. The influence of the consolidation temperature on the structure and mechanical properties of the consolidated bulk alloys was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Optical microscopy (OM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Vickers Hardness Tester and Nano Indenter. Structural investigations of the bulk materials revealed that most of the amorphous structure was retained after consolidation at 623 K, however, compaction at 723 K and 823 K caused crystallization of the amorphous phase with the appearance of white regions. The results also indicate that application of high pressure affected the crystallization products of the present alloy. Micro mechanical analysis showed that the microhardness of the bulk composites increased from 945HV{sub 0.1} to 1177HV

  1. Separation of attractors in 1-modulus quantum corrected special geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, S; Marrani, A; Shcherbakov, A

    2008-01-01

    We study the solutions to the N=2, d=4 Attractor Equations in a dyonic, extremal, static, spherically symmetric and asymptotically flat black hole background, in the simplest case of perturbative quantum corrected cubic Special Kahler geometry consistent with continuous axion-shift symmetry, namely in the 1-modulus Special Kahler geometry described (in a suitable special symplectic coordinate) by the holomorphic Kahler gauge-invariant prepotential F=t^3+i*lambda, with lambda real. By performing computations in the ``magnetic'' charge configuration, we find evidence for interesting phenomena (absent in the classical limit of vanishing lambda). Namely, for a certain range of the quantum parameter lambda we find a ``splitting'' of attractors, i.e. the existence of multiple solutions to the Attractor Equations for fixed supporting charge configuration. This corresponds to the existence of ``area codes'' in the radial evolution of the scalar t, determined by the various disconnected regions of the moduli space, wh...

  2. Size dependent elastic modulus and mechanical resilience of dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Simona; Shaw, Jeremy; Zhao, Xiaoli; Abbott, Paul V; Munroe, Paul; Xu, Jiang; Habibi, Daryoush; Xie, Zonghan

    2014-03-21

    Human tooth enamel exhibits a unique microstructure able to sustain repeated mechanical loading during dental function. Although notable advances have been made towards understanding the mechanical characteristics of enamel, challenges remain in the testing and interpretation of its mechanical properties. For example, enamel was often tested under dry conditions, significantly different from its native environment. In addition, constant load, rather than indentation depth, has been used when mapping the mechanical properties of enamel. In this work, tooth specimens are prepared under hydrated conditions and their stiffnesses are measured by depth control across the thickness of enamel. Crystal arrangement is postulated, among other factors, to be responsible for the size dependent indentation modulus of enamel. Supported by a simple structure model, effective crystal orientation angle is calculated and found to facilitate shear sliding in enamel under mechanical contact. In doing so, the stress build-up is eased and structural integrity is maintained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Young’s modulus of [111] germanium nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksud, M.; Palapati, N. K. R.; Subramanian, A., E-mail: asubramanian@vcu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Yoo, J. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Harris, C. T. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This paper reports a diameter-independent Young’s modulus of 91.9 ± 8.2 GPa for [111] Germanium nanowires (Ge NWs). When the surface oxide layer is accounted for using a core-shell NW approximation, the YM of the Ge core approaches a near theoretical value of 147.6 ± 23.4 GPa. The ultimate strength of a NW device was measured at 10.9 GPa, which represents a very high experimental-to-theoretical strength ratio of ∼75%. With increasing interest in this material system as a high-capacity lithium-ion battery anode, the presented data provide inputs that are essential in predicting its lithiation-induced stress fields and fracture behavior.

  4. Nanoscale elastic modulus variation in loaded polymeric micelle reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, Alim; Aytun, Taner; Deuschle, Julia K; Ow-Yang, Cleva W

    2012-07-17

    Tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM) enables mapping of chemical composition at the nanoscale by taking advantage of the variation in phase angle shift arising from an embedded second phase. We demonstrate that phase contrast can be attributed to the variation in elastic modulus during the imaging of zinc acetate (ZnAc)-loaded reverse polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) diblock co-polymer micelles less than 100 nm in diameter. Three sample configurations were characterized: (i) a 31.6 μm thick polystyrene (PS) support film for eliminating the substrate contribution, (ii) an unfilled PS-b-P2VP micelle supported by the same PS film, and (iii) a ZnAc-loaded PS-b-P2VP micelle supported by the same PS film. Force-indentation (F-I) curves were measured over unloaded micelles on the PS film and over loaded micelles on the PS film, using standard tapping mode probes of three different spring constants, the same cantilevers used for imaging of the samples before and after loading. For calibration of the tip geometry, nanoindentation was performed on the bare PS film. The resulting elastic modulus values extracted by applying the Hertz model were 8.26 ± 3.43 GPa over the loaded micelles and 4.17 ± 1.65 GPa over the unloaded micelles, confirming that phase contrast images of a monolayer of loaded micelles represent maps of the nanoscale chemical and mechanical variation. By calibrating the tip geometry indirectly using a known soft material, we are able to use the same standard tapping mode cantilevers for both imaging and indentation.

  5. Nanocrystalline β-Ti alloy with high hardness, low Young's modulus and excellent in vitro biocompatibility for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Kelvin Y.; Wang, Yanbo; Zhao, Yonghao; Chang, Li; Wang, Guocheng; Chen, Zibin; Cao, Yang; Liao, Xiaozhou; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Valiev, Ruslan Z.; Sarrafpour, Babak; Zoellner, Hans; Ringer, Simon P.

    2013-01-01

    High strength, low Young's modulus and good biocompatibility are desirable but difficult to simultaneously achieve in metallic implant materials for load bearing applications, and these impose significant challenges in material design. Here we report that a nano-grained β-Ti alloy prepared by high-pressure torsion exhibits remarkable mechanical and biological properties. The hardness and modulus of the nano-grained Ti alloy were respectively 23% higher and 34% lower than those of its coarse-grained counterpart. Fibroblast cell attachment and proliferation were enhanced, demonstrating good in vitro biocompatibility of the nano-grained Ti alloy, consistent with demonstrated increased nano-roughness on the nano-grained Ti alloy. Results suggest that the nano-grained β-Ti alloy may have significant application as an implant material in dental and orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • A bulk nanocrystalline β-Ti alloy was produced by high-pressure torsion processing. • Excellent mechanical properties for biomedical implants were obtained. • Enhanced in vitro biocompatibility was also demonstrated

  6. Young’s Modulus of Polycrystalline Titania Microspheres Determined by In Situ Nanoindentation and Finite Element Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peida Hao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ nanoindentation was employed to probe the mechanical properties of individual polycrystalline titania (TiO2 microspheres. The force-displacement curves captured by a hybrid scanning electron microscope/scanning probe microscope (SEM/SPM system were analyzed based on Hertz’s theory of contact mechanics. However, the deformation mechanisms of the nano/microspheres in the nanoindentation tests are not very clear. Finite element simulation was employed to investigate the deformation of spheres at the nanoscale under the pressure of an AFM tip. Then a revised method for the calculation of Young’s modulus of the microspheres was presented based on the deformation mechanisms of the spheres and Hertz’s theory. Meanwhile, a new force-displacement curve was reproduced by finite element simulation with the new calculation, and it was compared with the curve obtained by the nanoindentation experiment. The results of the comparison show that utilization of this revised model produces more accurate results. The calculated results showed that Young’s modulus of a polycrystalline TiO2 microsphere was approximately 30% larger than that of the bulk counterpart.

  7. Impedance/modulus analysis of sol-gel Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}TiO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saif, Alaeddin A.; Poopalan, P. [University Malaysia Perlis, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2010-12-15

    Perovskite-structure-type sol-gel barium-strontium-titanate (BST) thin films with molar formula Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}TiO{sub 3} (x = 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8) have been successfully fabricated as Al/BST/Pt capacitors. In order to study the role of the grain size in the conduction mechanisms, we present atomic force microscopy (AFM) results. The impedance and the electric modulus of Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}TiO{sub 3} thin films have been analyzed in order to correlate the effect of the film regional processes on the conduction mechanism. The impedance and the electric modulus complex planes show three overlapping regions as response for the bulk, the grain boundary and the film/electrode interface mechanisms, and an equivalent circuit has been proposed for each mechanism. The conduction mechanism resulting from the bulk and the grain boundaries is discussed; the results show that the grain boundaries have less effect on the conduction mechanism than the bulk.

  8. Mining the bulk positron lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aourag, H.; Guittom, A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to investigate the bulk positron lifetimes of new systems based on data-mining techniques. Through data mining of bulk positron lifetimes, we demonstrate the ability to predict the positron lifetimes of new semiconductors on the basis of available semiconductor data already studied. Informatics techniques have been applied to bulk positron lifetimes for different tetrahedrally bounded semiconductors in order to discover computational design rules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Matrix inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Xingzhi

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this monograph is to report on recent developments in the field of matrix inequalities, with emphasis on useful techniques and ingenious ideas. Among other results this book contains the affirmative solutions of eight conjectures. Many theorems unify or sharpen previous inequalities. The author's aim is to streamline the ideas in the literature. The book can be read by research workers, graduate students and advanced undergraduates.

  10. Impedance and modulus spectroscopic study of nano hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogiya, B. V.; Jethava, H. O.; Tank, K. P.; Raviya, V. R.; Joshi, M. J.

    2016-05-01

    Hydroxyapatite (Ca10 (PO4)6 (OH)2, HAP) is the main inorganic component of the hard tissues in bones and also important material for orthopedic and dental implant applications. Nano HAP is of great interest due to its various bio-medical applications. In the present work the nano HAP was synthesized by using surfactant mediated approach. Structure and morphology of the synthesized nano HAP was examined by the Powder XRD and TEM. Impedance study was carried out on pelletized sample in a frequency range of 100Hz to 20MHz at room temperature. The variation of dielectric constant, dielectric loss, and a.c. conductivity with frequency of applied field was studied. The Nyquist plot as well as modulus plot was drawn. The Nyquist plot showed two semicircle arcs, which indicated the presence of grain and grain boundary effect in the sample. The typical behavior of the Nyquist plot was represented by equivalent circuit having two parallel RC combinations in series.

  11. Low elastic modulus titanium–nickel scaffolds for bone implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Yang, Hailin; Wang, Huifeng; Ruan, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    The superelastic nature of repeating the human bones is crucial to the ideal artificial biomedical implants to ensure smooth load transfer and foster the ingrowth of new bone tissues. Three dimensional interconnected porous TiNi scaffolds, which have the tailorable porous structures with micro-hole, were fabricated by slurry immersing with polymer sponge and sintering method. The crystallinity and phase composition of scaffolds were studied by X-ray diffraction. The pore morphology, size and distribution in the scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The porosity ranged from 65 to 72%, pore size was 250–500 μm. Compressive strength and elastic modulus of the scaffolds were ∼ 73 MPa and ∼ 3GPa respectively. The above pore structural and mechanical properties are similar to those of cancellous bone. In the initial cell culture test, osteoblasts adhered well to the scaffold surface during a short time, and then grew smoothly into the interconnected pore channels. These results indicate that the porous TiNi scaffolds fabricated by this method could be bone substitute materials. - Highlights: • A novel approach for the fabrication of porous TiNi scaffolds • Macroporous structures are replicated from the polymer sponge template. • The pore characteristics and mechanical properties of TiNi scaffolds agree well with the requirement of trabecular bone. • Cytocompatibility of TiNi scaffolds is assessed, and it closely associated with pore property

  12. Regional variation in wood modulus of elasticity (stiffness) and modulus of rupture (strength) of planted loblolly pine in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony Finto; Lewis Jordan; Laurence R. Schimleck; Alexander Clark; Ray A. Souter; Richard F. Daniels

    2011-01-01

    Modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), and specific gravity (SG) are important properties for determining the end-use and value of a piece of lumber. This study addressed the variation in MOE, MOR, and SG with physiographic region, tree height, and wood type. Properties were measured from two static bending samples (dimensions 25.4 mm × 25.4 mm × 406.4...

  13. Use of waste materials in rubber matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajtášová Mariana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with the use of waste materials as ecological fillers into rubber matrix. Waste materials were used as partial replacement of the commercial filler – carbon black, designated as N339. These prepared rubber compounds were characterized on the basis of the rheology and vulcanization characteristics – minimum torque (ML, maximum torque (MH, optimum time of vulcanization (t(c90, processing safety of compound (ts, rate coefficient of vulcanization (Rv. In the case of the prepared vulcanizates, physical-mechanical properties (tensile strength, tensibility and hardness and dynamic-mechanical properties (storage modulus, loss modulus, loss angle tan δ were investigated. Using the dependency of loss angle on temperature, the selected properties for tyre tread vulcanizates were evaluated, including traction on snow and ice, traction on the wet surface and rolling resistance.

  14. Elasticity Modulus and Flexural Strength Assessment of Foam Concrete Layer of Poroflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, Matej; Decky, Martin; Drusa, Marian; Orininová, Lucia; Scherfel, Walter

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, it is necessary to develop new building materials, which are in accordance to the principles of the following provisions of the Roads Act: The design of road is a subject that follows national technical standards, technical regulations and objectively established results of research and development for road infrastructure. Foam concrete, as a type of lightweight concrete, offers advantages such as low bulk density, thermal insulation and disadvantages that will be reduced by future development. The contribution focuses on identifying the major material characteristics of foam concrete named Poroflow 17-5, in order to replace cement-bound granular mixtures. The experimental measurements performed on test specimens were the subject of diploma thesis in 2015 and continuously of the dissertation thesis and grant research project. At the beginning of the contribution, an overview of the current use of foam concrete abroad is elaborated. Moreover, it aims to determine the flexural strength of test specimens Poroflow 17-5 in combination with various basis weights of the underlying geotextile. Another part of the article is devoted to back-calculation of indicative design modulus of Poroflow based layers based on the results of static plate load tests provided at in situ experimental stand of Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Žilina (FCE Uniza). Testing stand has been created in order to solve problems related to research of road and railway structures. Concern to building construction presents a physical homomorphic model that is identical with the corresponding theory in all structural features. Based on the achieved material characteristics, the tensile strength in bending of previously used road construction materials was compared with innovative alternative of foam concrete and the suitability for the base layers of pavement roads was determined.

  15. The variation in elastic modulus throughout the compression of foam materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yongle; Amirrasouli, B.; Razavi, S.B.; Li, Q.M.; Lowe, T.; Withers, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a comprehensive experimental study of the variation in apparent unloading elastic modulus of polymer (largely elastic), aluminium (largely plastic) and fibre-reinforced cement (quasi-brittle) closed-cell foams throughout uniaxial compression. The results show a characteristic “zero-yield-stress” response and thereafter a rapid increase in unloading modulus during the supposedly “elastic” regime of the compressive stress–strain curve. The unloading modulus then falls with strain due to the localised cell-wall yielding or failure in the pre-collapse stage and the progressive cell crushing in the plateau stage, before rising sharply during the densification stage which is associated with global cell crushing and foam compaction. A finite element model based on the actual 3D cell structure of the aluminium foam imaged by X-ray computed tomography (CT) predicts an approximately linear fall of elastic modulus from zero strain until a band of collapsed cells forms. It shows that the subsequent gradual decrease in modulus is caused by the progressive collapse of cells. The elastic modulus rises sharply after the densification initiation strain has been reached. However, the elastic modulus is still well below that of the constituent material even when the “fully” dense state is approached. This work highlights the fact that the unloading elastic modulus varies throughout compression and challenges the idea that a constant elastic modulus can be applied in a homogenised foam model. It is suggested that the most representative value of elastic modulus may be obtained by extrapolating the measured unloading modulus to zero strain.

  16. Fracture Toughness and Elastic Modulus of Epoxy-Based Nanocomposites with Dopamine-Modified Nano-Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Liang Koh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of surface treatment and filler shape factor on the fracture toughness and elastic modulus of epoxy-based nanocomposite. Two forms of nanofillers, polydopamine-coated montmorillonite clay (D-clay and polydopamine-coated carbon nanofibres (D-CNF were investigated. It was found that Young’s modulus increases with increasing D-clay and D-CNF loading. However, the fracture toughness decreases with increased D-clay loading but increases with increased D-CNF loading. Explanations have been provided with the aid of fractographic analysis using electron microscope observations of the crack-filler interactions. Fractographic analysis suggests that although polydopamine provides a strong adhesion between the fillers and the matrix, leading to enhanced elastic stiffness, the enhancement prohibits energy release via secondary cracking, resulting in a decrease in fracture toughness. In contrast, 1D fibre is effective in increasing the energy dissipation during fracture through crack deflection, fibre debonding, fibre break, and pull-out.

  17. Fracture Toughness and Elastic Modulus of Epoxy-Based Nanocomposites with Dopamine-Modified Nano-Fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kwang Liang; Ji, Xianbai; Lu, Xuehong; Lau, Soo Khim; Chen, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of surface treatment and filler shape factor on the fracture toughness and elastic modulus of epoxy-based nanocomposite. Two forms of nanofillers, polydopamine-coated montmorillonite clay (D-clay) and polydopamine-coated carbon nanofibres (D-CNF) were investigated. It was found that Young’s modulus increases with increasing D-clay and D-CNF loading. However, the fracture toughness decreases with increased D-clay loading but increases with increased D-CNF loading. Explanations have been provided with the aid of fractographic analysis using electron microscope observations of the crack-filler interactions. Fractographic analysis suggests that although polydopamine provides a strong adhesion between the fillers and the matrix, leading to enhanced elastic stiffness, the enhancement prohibits energy release via secondary cracking, resulting in a decrease in fracture toughness. In contrast, 1D fibre is effective in increasing the energy dissipation during fracture through crack deflection, fibre debonding, fibre break, and pull-out. PMID:28773136

  18. The effect of elastic modulus on ablation catheter contact area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jon J; Linte, Cristian A; Rettmann, Maryam E; Sun, Deyu; Packer, Douglas L; Robb, Richard A; Holmes, David R

    2015-02-21

    Cardiac ablation consists of navigating a catheter into the heart and delivering RF energy to electrically isolate tissue regions that generate or propagate arrhythmia. Besides the challenges of accurate and precise targeting of the arrhythmic sites within the beating heart, limited information is currently available to the cardiologist regarding intricate electrode-tissue contact, which directly impacts the quality of produced lesions. Recent advances in ablation catheter design provide intra-procedural estimates of tissue-catheter contact force, but the most direct indicator of lesion quality for any particular energy level and duration is the tissue-catheter contact area, and that is a function of not only force, but catheter pose and material elasticity as well. In this experiment, we have employed real-time ultrasound (US) imaging to determine the complete interaction between the ablation electrode and tissue to accurately estimate contact, which will help to better understand the effect of catheter pose and position relative to the tissue. By simultaneously recording tracked position, force reading and US image of the ablation catheter, the differing material properties of polyvinyl alcohol cryogel [1] phantoms are shown to produce varying amounts of tissue depression and contact area (implying varying lesion quality) for equivalent force readings. We have shown that the elastic modulus significantly affects the surface-contact area between the catheter and tissue at any level of contact force. Thus we provide evidence that a prescribed level of catheter force may not always provide sufficient contact area to produce an effective ablation lesion in the prescribed ablation time.

  19. Modelling of bulk superconductor magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainslie, M D; Fujishiro, H

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a topical review of the current state of the art in modelling the magnetization of bulk superconductors, including both (RE)BCO (where RE = rare earth or Y) and MgB 2 materials. Such modelling is a powerful tool to understand the physical mechanisms of their magnetization, to assist in interpretation of experimental results, and to predict the performance of practical bulk superconductor-based devices, which is particularly important as many superconducting applications head towards the commercialization stage of their development in the coming years. In addition to the analytical and numerical techniques currently used by researchers for modelling such materials, the commonly used practical techniques to magnetize bulk superconductors are summarized with a particular focus on pulsed field magnetization (PFM), which is promising as a compact, mobile and relatively inexpensive magnetizing technique. A number of numerical models developed to analyse the issues related to PFM and optimise the technique are described in detail, including understanding the dynamics of the magnetic flux penetration and the influence of material inhomogeneities, thermal properties, pulse duration, magnitude and shape, and the shape of the magnetization coil(s). The effect of externally applied magnetic fields in different configurations on the attenuation of the trapped field is also discussed. A number of novel and hybrid bulk superconductor structures are described, including improved thermal conductivity structures and ferromagnet–superconductor structures, which have been designed to overcome some of the issues related to bulk superconductors and their magnetization and enhance the intrinsic properties of bulk superconductors acting as trapped field magnets. Finally, the use of hollow bulk cylinders/tubes for shielding is analysed. (topical review)

  20. Development of non-destructive Young's modulus measurement techniques in non-oriented CeF$_{3}$ crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Pietroni, P; Lebeau, M; Majni, G; Rinaldi, D

    2005-01-01

    For a reliable mechanical assembly of scintillating crystals for the application to radiographic systems such as Positron Emission Tomographer (PET) and high-energy physics calorimeters (e.g. in CMS at CERN LHC), the evaluation of the monocrystal elastic constant (Young's modulus) is needed. Its knowledge is also essential in the photoelastic analysis for the determination of residual stresses. In this work non-destructive techniques based on elastic wave propagation are tested. They differ in the mechanical excitation device: instrumented hammer, traditional ultrasonic probes and laser- generated ultrasound. We have analysed three non-oriented cerium fluoride crystal samples produced for scintillation applications. Finally, we have validated the experimental results comparing them with the elastic constant calculated by using the stiffness matrix.

  1. Development of non-destructive Young's modulus measurement techniques in non-oriented CeF3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietroni, P.; Paone, N.; Lebeau, M.; Majni, G.; Rinaldi, D.

    2005-01-01

    For a reliable mechanical assembly of scintillating crystals for the application to radiographic systems such as Positron Emission Tomographer (PET) and high-energy physics calorimeters (e.g. in CMS at CERN LHC), the evaluation of the monocrystal elastic constant (Young's modulus) is needed. Its knowledge is also essential in the photoelastic analysis for the determination of residual stresses. In this work non-destructive techniques based on elastic wave propagation are tested. They differ in the mechanical excitation device: instrumented hammer, traditional ultrasonic probes and laser-generated ultrasound. We have analysed three non-oriented cerium fluoride crystal samples produced for scintillation applications. Finally, we have validated the experimental results comparing them with the elastic constant calculated by using the stiffness matrix

  2. Estimation of the Young’s modulus of cellulose Iß by MM3 and quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young’s modulus provides a measure of the resistance to deformation of an elastic material. In this study, modulus estimations for models of cellulose Iß relied on calculations performed with molecular mechanics (MM) and quantum mechanics (QM) programs. MM computations used the second generation emp...

  3. Particle size dependence of the Young's modulus of filled polymers: 1. Preliminary experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollenberg, P.H.T.; Heikens, D.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental results are reported from which it appears that in the case of polymer filled with silane-treated glass beads the Young's modulus is, in accordance with present theory, independent of the particle size of the filler. However, if pure glass beads are used as filler, the Young's modulus

  4. Determination of young's modulus of PZT-influence of cantilever orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeer, H.; Woldering, L.A.; Abelmann, Leon; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    Calculation of the resonance frequency of cantilevers fabricated from an elastically anisotropic material requires the use of an effective Young’s modulus. In this paper a technique to determine the appropriate effective Young’s modulus for arbitrary cantilever geometries is introduced. This

  5. E-modulus evolution and its relation to solids formation of pastes from commercial cements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maia, Lino; Azenha, Miguel; Geiker, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Models for early age E-modulus evolution of cement pastes are available in the literature, but their validation is limited. This paper provides correlated measurements of early age evolution of E-modulus and hydration of pastes from five commercial cements differing in limestone content. A recently...

  6. Resilient modulus characteristics of soil subgrade with geopolymer additive in peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Nasuhi; Hadiwardoyo, Sigit Pranowo; Rahayu, Wiwik

    2017-06-01

    Resilient modulus characteristics of peat soil are generally very low with high potential of deformation and low bearing capacity. The efforts to improve the peat subgrade resilient modulus characteristics is required, one among them is by adding the geopolymer additive. Geopolymer was made as an alternative to replace portland cement binder in the concrete mix in order to promote environmentally friendly, low shrinkage value, low creep value, and fire resistant material. The use of geopolymer to improve the mechanical properties of peat as a road construction subgrade, hence it becomes important to identify the effect of geopolymer addition on the resilient modulus characteristics of peat soil. This study investigated the addition of 0% - 20% geopolymer content on peat soil derived from Ogan Komering Ilir, South Sumatera Province. Resilient modulus measurement was performed by using cyclic triaxial test to determine the resilience modulus model as a function of deviator stresses and radial stresses. The test results showed that an increase in radial stresses did not necessarily lead to an increase in modulus resilient, and on the contrary, an increase in deviator stresses led to a decrease in modulus resilient. The addition of geopolymer in peat soil provided an insignificant effect on the increase of resilient modulus value.

  7. First-principles studies of electronic, transport and bulk properties of pyrite FeS2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipendra Banjara

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We present results from first principle, local density approximation (LDA calculations of electronic, transport, and bulk properties of iron pyrite (FeS2. Our non-relativistic computations employed the Ceperley and Alder LDA potential and the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO formalism. The implementation of the LCAO formalism followed the Bagayoko, Zhao, and Williams (BZW method, as enhanced by Ekuma and Franklin (BZW-EF. We discuss the electronic energy bands, total and partial densities of states, electron effective masses, and the bulk modulus. Our calculated indirect band gap of 0.959 eV (0.96, using an experimental lattice constant of 5.4166 Å, at room temperature, is in agreement with the measured indirect values, for bulk samples, ranging from 0.84 eV to 1.03 ± 0.05 eV. Our calculated bulk modulus of 147 GPa is practically in agreement with the experimental value of 145 GPa. The calculated, partial densities of states reproduced the splitting of the Fe d bands to constitute the dominant upper most valence and lower most conduction bands, separated by the generally accepted, indirect, experimental band gap of 0.95 eV.

  8. Matrix analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    1997-01-01

    A good part of matrix theory is functional analytic in spirit. This statement can be turned around. There are many problems in operator theory, where most of the complexities and subtleties are present in the finite-dimensional case. My purpose in writing this book is to present a systematic treatment of methods that are useful in the study of such problems. This book is intended for use as a text for upper division and gradu­ ate courses. Courses based on parts of the material have been given by me at the Indian Statistical Institute and at the University of Toronto (in collaboration with Chandler Davis). The book should also be useful as a reference for research workers in linear algebra, operator theory, mathe­ matical physics and numerical analysis. A possible subtitle of this book could be Matrix Inequalities. A reader who works through the book should expect to become proficient in the art of deriving such inequalities. Other authors have compared this art to that of cutting diamonds. One first has to...

  9. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of High Modulus Asphalt Concrete Modified with Different Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate comprehensive performance of high modulus asphalt concrete (HMAC and propose common values for establishing evaluation system. Three gradations with different modifiers were conducted to study the high and low temperature performance, shearing behavior, and water stability. The laboratory tests for HMAC included static and dynamic modulus tests, rutting test, uniaxial penetration test, bending test, and immersion Marshall test. Dynamic modulus test results showed that modifier can improve the static modulus and the improvements were remarkable at higher temperature. Moreover, modulus of HMAC-20 was better than those of HMAC-16 and HMAC-25. The results of performance test indicated that HMAC has good performance to resist high temperature rutting, and the resistances of the HMAC-20 and HMAC-25 against rutting were better than that of HMAC-16. Then, the common values of dynamic stability were recommended. Furthermore, common values of HMAC performance were established based on pavement performance tests.

  10. E-modulus evolution and its relation to solids formation of pastes from commercial cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, Lino; Azenha, Miguel; Geiker, Mette; Figueiras, Joaquim

    2012-01-01

    Models for early age E-modulus evolution of cement pastes are available in the literature, but their validation is limited. This paper provides correlated measurements of early age evolution of E-modulus and hydration of pastes from five commercial cements differing in limestone content. A recently developed methodology allowed continuous monitoring of E-modulus from the time of casting. The methodology is a variant of classic resonant frequency methods, which are based on determination of the first resonant frequency of a composite beam containing the material. The hydration kinetics — and thus the rate of formation of solids — was determined using chemical shrinkage measurements. For the cements studied similar relationships between E-modulus and chemical shrinkage were observed for comparable water-to-binder ratio. For commercial cements it is suggested to model the E-modulus evolution based on the amount of binder reacted, instead of the degree of hydration.

  11. A Prediction Method of Tensile Young's Modulus of Concrete at Early Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isamu Yoshitake

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the tensile Young's modulus of concrete at early ages is important for estimating the risk of cracking due to restrained shrinkage and thermal contraction. However, most often, the tensile modulus is considered equal to the compressive modulus and is estimated empirically based on the measurements of compressive strength. To evaluate the validity of this approach, the tensile Young's moduli of 6 concrete and mortar mixtures are measured using a direct tension test. The results show that the tensile moduli are approximately 1.0–1.3-times larger than the compressive moduli within the material's first week of age. To enable a direct estimation of the tensile modulus of concrete, a simple three-phase composite model is developed based on random distributions of coarse aggregate, mortar, and air void phases. The model predictions show good agreement with experimental measurements of tensile modulus at early age.

  12. Proposal of Design Formulae for Equivalent Elasticity of Masonry Structures Made with Bricks of Low Modulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ridwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bricks of low elastic modulus are occasionally used in some developing countries, such as Indonesia and India. Most of the previous research efforts focused on masonry structures built with bricks of considerably high elastic modulus. The objective of this study is to quantify the equivalent elastic modulus of lower-stiffness masonry structures, when the mortar has a higher modulus of elasticity than the bricks, by employing finite element (FE simulations and adopting the homogenization technique. The reported numerical simulations adopted the two-dimensional representative volume elements (RVEs using quadrilateral elements with four nodes. The equivalent elastic moduli of composite elements with various bricks and mortar were quantified. The numerically estimated equivalent elastic moduli from the FE simulations were verified using previously established test data. Hence, a new simplified formula for the calculation of the equivalent modulus of elasticity of such masonry structures is proposed in the present study.

  13. Assessment of Characteristic Function Modulus of Vibroacoustic Signal Given a Limit State Parameter of Diagnosed Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukov, V. N.; Naumenko, A. P.; Kudryavtseva, I. S.

    2018-01-01

    Improvement of distinguishing criteria, determining defects of machinery and mechanisms, by vibroacoustic signals is a recent problem for technical diagnostics. The work objective is assessment of instantaneous values by methods of statistical decision making theory and risk of regulatory values of characteristic function modulus. The modulus of the characteristic function is determined given a fixed parameter of the characteristic function. It is possible to determine the limits of the modulus, which correspond to different machine’s condition. The data of the modulus values are used as diagnostic features in the vibration diagnostics and monitoring systems. Using such static decision-making methods as: minimum number of wrong decisions, maximum likelihood, minimax, Neumann-Pearson characteristic function modulus limits are determined, separating conditions of a diagnosed object.

  14. The study of stiffness modulus values for AC-WC pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, AS; Muis, Z. A.; Iskandar, T. D.

    2018-02-01

    One of the parameters of the asphalt mixture in order for the strength and durability to be achieved as required is the stress-and-strain showing the stiffness of a material. Stiffness modulus is a very necessary factor that will affect the performance of asphalt pavements. If the stiffness modulus value decreases there will be a cause of aging asphalt pavement crack easily when receiving a heavy load. The high stiffness modulus asphalt concrete causes more stiff and resistant to bending. The stiffness modulus value of an asphalt mixture material can be obtained from the theoretical (indirect methods) and laboratory test results (direct methods). For the indirect methods used Brown & Brunton method, and Shell Bitumen method; while for the direct methods used the UMATTA tool. This study aims to determine stiffness modulus values for AC-WC pavement. The tests were conducted in laboratory that used 3 methods, i.e. Brown & Brunton Method, Shell Bitumen Method and Marshall Test as a substitute tool for the UMATTA tool. Hotmix asphalt made from type AC-WC with pen 60/70 using a mixture of optimum bitumen content was 5.84% with a standard temperature variation was 60°C and several variations of temperature that were 30, 40, 50, 70 and 80°C. The stiffness modulus value results obtained from Brown & Brunton Method, Shell Bitumen Method and Marshall Test which were 1374,93 Mpa, 235,45 Mpa dan 254,96 Mpa. The stiffness modulus value decreases with increasing temperature of the concrete asphalt. The stiffness modulus value from the Bitumen Shell method and the Marshall Test has a relatively similar value.The stiffness modulus value from the Brown & Brunton method is greater than the Bitumen Shell method and the Marshall Test, but can not measure the stiffness modulus value at temperature above 80°C.

  15. Matrix pentagons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitsky, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    The Operator Product Expansion for null polygonal Wilson loop in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory runs systematically in terms of multi-particle pentagon transitions which encode the physics of excitations propagating on the color flux tube ending on the sides of the four-dimensional contour. Their dynamics was unraveled in the past several years and culminated in a complete description of pentagons as an exact function of the 't Hooft coupling. In this paper we provide a solution for the last building block in this program, the SU(4) matrix structure arising from internal symmetry indices of scalars and fermions. This is achieved by a recursive solution of the Mirror and Watson equations obeyed by the so-called singlet pentagons and fixing the form of the twisted component in their tensor decomposition. The non-singlet, or charged, pentagons are deduced from these by a limiting procedure.

  16. Matrix pentagons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Belitsky

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Operator Product Expansion for null polygonal Wilson loop in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory runs systematically in terms of multi-particle pentagon transitions which encode the physics of excitations propagating on the color flux tube ending on the sides of the four-dimensional contour. Their dynamics was unraveled in the past several years and culminated in a complete description of pentagons as an exact function of the 't Hooft coupling. In this paper we provide a solution for the last building block in this program, the SU(4 matrix structure arising from internal symmetry indices of scalars and fermions. This is achieved by a recursive solution of the Mirror and Watson equations obeyed by the so-called singlet pentagons and fixing the form of the twisted component in their tensor decomposition. The non-singlet, or charged, pentagons are deduced from these by a limiting procedure.

  17. Measurement of Young’s modulus and residual stress of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 and Pt thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkl, Fabian; Daus, Alwin; English, Timothy S.; Provine, J.; Feyh, Ando; Urban, Gerald; Kenny, Thomas W.

    2017-08-01

    The accurate measurement of mechanical properties of thin films is required for the design of reliable nano/micro-electromechanical devices but is increasingly challenging for thicknesses approaching a few nanometers. We apply a combination of resonant and static mechanical test structures to measure elastic constants and residual stresses of 8-27 nm thick Al2O3 and Pt layers which have been fabricated through atomic layer deposition. Young’s modulus of poly-crystalline Pt films was found to be reduced by less than 15% compared to the bulk value, whereas for amorphous Al2O3 it was reduced to about half of its bulk value. We observed no discernible dependence of the elastic constant on thickness or deposition method for Pt, but the use of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition was found to increase Young’s modulus of Al2O3 by 10% compared to a thermal atomic layer deposition. As deposited, the Al2O3 layers had an average tensile residual stress of 131 MPa. The stress was found to be higher for thinner layers and layers deposited without the help of a remote plasma. No residual stress values could be extracted for Pt due to insufficient adhesion of the film without an underlying layer to promote nucleation.

  18. Distinguishing bulk traps and interface states in deep-level transient spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, A V P; Adam, M C; Boudinov, H

    2011-01-01

    A new method for the distinction of discrete bulk deep levels and interface states related peaks in deep-level transient spectroscopy spectra is proposed. The measurement of two spectra using different reverse voltages while keeping pulse voltage fixed causes different peak maximum shifts in each case: for a reverse voltage modulus increase, a bulk deep-level related peak maximum will remain unchanged or shift towards lower temperatures while only interface states related peak maximum will be able to shift towards higher temperatures. This method has the advantage of being non-destructive and also works in the case of bulk traps with strong emission rate dependence on the electric field. Silicon MOS capacitors and proton implanted GaAs Schottky diodes were employed to experimentally test the method.

  19. Bulk viscosity and cosmological evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beesham, A.

    1996-01-01

    In a recent interesting paper, Pimentel and Diaz-Rivera (Nuovo Cimento B, 109(1994) 1317) have derived several solutions with bulk viscosity in homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models. They also discussed the properties of these solutions. In this paper the authors relate the solutions of Pimentel and Diaz-Rivera by simple transformations to previous solutions published in the literature, showing that all the solutions can be derived from the known existing ones. Drawbacks to these approaches of studying bulk viscosity are pointed out, and better approaches indicated

  20. Mechanical spectra of glass-forming liquids. I. Low-frequency bulk and shear moduli of DC704 and 5-PPE measured by piezoceramic transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecksher, Tina; Olsen, Niels Boye; Nelson, Keith Adam

    2013-01-01

    We present dynamic shear and bulk modulus measurements of supercooled tetraphenyl-tetramethyl-trisiloxane (DC704) and 5-phenyl-4-ether over a range of temperatures close to their glass transition. The data are analyzed and compared in terms of time-temperature superposition (TTS), the relaxation ...

  1. Zirconium based bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, G.K.; Neogy, S.; Savalia, R.T.; Tewari, R.; Srivastava, D.; Banerjee, S.

    2006-01-01

    Metallic glasses have come into prominence in recent times because their nanocrystalline atomic arrangement imparts many useful and unusual properties to these metallic solids. In this study, bulk glasses have been obtained in Zr based multicomponent alloy by induction melting these alloys in silica crucibles and casting these in form of rods 3 and 6 mm in diameter in a copper mould

  2. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja

    2009-01-01

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10(-15) g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise...

  3. Bulk viscosity of molecular fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Frederike; Matar, Omar K.; Müller, Erich A.

    2018-05-01

    The bulk viscosity of molecular models of gases and liquids is determined by molecular simulations as a combination of a dilute gas contribution, arising due to the relaxation of internal degrees of freedom, and a configurational contribution, due to the presence of intermolecular interactions. The dilute gas contribution is evaluated using experimental data for the relaxation times of vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom. The configurational part is calculated using Green-Kubo relations for the fluctuations of the pressure tensor obtained from equilibrium microcanonical molecular dynamics simulations. As a benchmark, the Lennard-Jones fluid is studied. Both atomistic and coarse-grained force fields for water, CO2, and n-decane are considered and tested for their accuracy, and where possible, compared to experimental data. The dilute gas contribution to the bulk viscosity is seen to be significant only in the cases when intramolecular relaxation times are in the μs range, and for low vibrational wave numbers (<1000 cm-1); This explains the abnormally high values of bulk viscosity reported for CO2. In all other cases studied, the dilute gas contribution is negligible and the configurational contribution dominates the overall behavior. In particular, the configurational term is responsible for the enhancement of the bulk viscosity near the critical point.

  4. The Effect of Thermal Cycling Treatments on the Thermal Stability and Mechanical Properties of a Ti-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Bu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermal cycling treatments on the thermal stability and mechanical properties of a Ti48Zr20Nb12Cu5Be15 bulk metallic glass composite (BMGC has been investigated. Results show that moderate thermal cycles in a temperature range of −196 °C (cryogenic temperature, CT to 25 °C (room temperature, RT or annealing time at CT has not induced obvious changes of thermal stability and then it decreases slightly over critical thermal parameters. In addition, the dendritic second phases with a bcc structure are homogeneously embedded in the amorphous matrix; no visible changes are detected, which shows structural stability. Excellent mechanical properties as high as 1599 MPa yield strength and 34% plastic strain are obtained, and the yield strength and elastic modulus also increase gradually. The effect on the stability is analyzed quantitatively by crystallization kinetics and plastic-flow models, and indicates that the reduction of structural relaxation enthalpy, which is related to the degradation of spatial heterogeneity, reduces thermal stability but does not imperatively deteriorate the plasticity.

  5. Reliable measurement of elastic modulus of cells by nanoindentation in an atomic force microscope

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Zhoulong; Ngan, Alfonso H W; Tang, Bin; Wang, Anxun

    2012-01-01

    The elastic modulus of an oral cancer cell line UM1 is investigated by nanoindentation in an atomic force microscope with a flat-ended tip. The commonly used Hertzian method gives apparent elastic modulus which increases with the loading rate, indicating strong effects of viscoelasticity. On the contrary, a rate-jump method developed for viscoelastic materials gives elastic modulus values which are independent of the rate-jump magnitude. The results show that the rate-jump method can be used as a standard protocol for measuring elastic stiffness of living cells, since the measured values are intrinsic properties of the cells. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. On the common modulus attack into the LUC4,6 cryptosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tze Jin; Said, Mohd Rushdan Md; Othman, Mohamed; Koo, Lee Feng

    2015-05-01

    The LUC4,6 cryptosystem is a system analogy with RSA cryptosystem and extended from LUC and LUC3 cryptosystems. The process of encryption and decryption are derived from the fourth order linear recurrence sequence and based on Lucas function. This paper reports an investigation into the common modulus attack on the LUC4,6 cryptosystem. In general, the common modulus attack will be succeeded if the sender sends the plaintext to two users used same RSA-modulus and both of encryption keys of them are relatively prime to each other. However, based on the characteristics of high order Lucas sequence, the LUC4,6 cryptosystem is unattackable

  7. Reliable measurement of elastic modulus of cells by nanoindentation in an atomic force microscope

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Zhoulong

    2012-04-01

    The elastic modulus of an oral cancer cell line UM1 is investigated by nanoindentation in an atomic force microscope with a flat-ended tip. The commonly used Hertzian method gives apparent elastic modulus which increases with the loading rate, indicating strong effects of viscoelasticity. On the contrary, a rate-jump method developed for viscoelastic materials gives elastic modulus values which are independent of the rate-jump magnitude. The results show that the rate-jump method can be used as a standard protocol for measuring elastic stiffness of living cells, since the measured values are intrinsic properties of the cells. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Characteristics of low polymerization shrinkage flowable resin composites in newly-developed cavity base materials for bulk filling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Keiko; Nomoto, Rie; Tsubota, Yuji; Tsuchikawa, Masuji; Hayakawa, Tohru

    2017-11-29

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate polymerization shrinkage and other physical properties of newly-developed cavity base materials for bulk filling technique, with the brand name BULK BASE (BBS). Polymerization shrinkage was measured according to ISO/FDIS 17304. BBS showed the significantly lowest polymerization shrinkage and significantly higher depth of cure than conventional flowable resin composites (p<0.05). The Knoop hardness, flexural strength and elastic modulus of that were significantly lower than conventional flowable resin composites (p<0.05). BBS had the significantly greatest filler content (p<0.05). SEM images of the surface showed failure of fillers. The lowest polymerization shrinkage was due to the incorporation of a new type of low shrinkage monomer, which has urethane moieties. There were no clear correlations between inorganic filler contents and polymerization shrinkage, flexural strength and elastic modulus. In conclusion, the low polymerization shrinkage of BBS will be useful for cavity treatment in dental clinics.

  9. The structural relaxation effect on the nanomechanical properties of a Ti-based bulk metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yongjiang, E-mail: yjhuang@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Key Laboratory of Micro-Systems and Micro-Structures Manufacturing, Harbin Institute of Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhou, Binjun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Chiu, YuLung, E-mail: y.chiu@bham.ac.uk [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Fan, Hongbo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Dongjun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Key Laboratory of Micro-Systems and Micro-Structures Manufacturing, Harbin Institute of Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150001 (China); Sun, Jianfei; Shen, Jun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • The effect of structural relaxation on the nano-mechanical behaviors of BMGs is studied. • The indent load at first pop-in event, the hardness and Young’s modulus are enhanced after annealing. • The differences in nanomechanical properties can be attributed to their different atomic structure. - Abstract: Indentation experiments were performed on the as-cast and the annealed Ti-based bulk metallic glass samples to investigate the effect of structural relaxation on the nanomechanical behaviors of the material. The onset of pop-in event, Young’s modulus, and hardness were found to be sensitive to the structural relaxation of the testing material. The difference in nanomechanical properties between the as-cast and annealed BMG samples is interpreted in terms of free volume theory.

  10. The structural relaxation effect on the nanomechanical properties of a Ti-based bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yongjiang; Zhou, Binjun; Chiu, YuLung; Fan, Hongbo; Wang, Dongjun; Sun, Jianfei; Shen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of structural relaxation on the nano-mechanical behaviors of BMGs is studied. • The indent load at first pop-in event, the hardness and Young’s modulus are enhanced after annealing. • The differences in nanomechanical properties can be attributed to their different atomic structure. - Abstract: Indentation experiments were performed on the as-cast and the annealed Ti-based bulk metallic glass samples to investigate the effect of structural relaxation on the nanomechanical behaviors of the material. The onset of pop-in event, Young’s modulus, and hardness were found to be sensitive to the structural relaxation of the testing material. The difference in nanomechanical properties between the as-cast and annealed BMG samples is interpreted in terms of free volume theory

  11. Nonlinear QR code based optical image encryption using spiral phase transform, equal modulus decomposition and singular value decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravi; Bhaduri, Basanta; Nishchal, Naveen K.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we propose a quick response (QR) code based nonlinear optical image encryption technique using spiral phase transform (SPT), equal modulus decomposition (EMD) and singular value decomposition (SVD). First, the primary image is converted into a QR code and then multiplied with a spiral phase mask (SPM). Next, the product is spiral phase transformed with particular spiral phase function, and further, the EMD is performed on the output of SPT, which results into two complex images, Z 1 and Z 2. Among these, Z 1 is further Fresnel propagated with distance d, and Z 2 is reserved as a decryption key. Afterwards, SVD is performed on Fresnel propagated output to get three decomposed matrices i.e. one diagonal matrix and two unitary matrices. The two unitary matrices are modulated with two different SPMs and then, the inverse SVD is performed using the diagonal matrix and modulated unitary matrices to get the final encrypted image. Numerical simulation results confirm the validity and effectiveness of the proposed technique. The proposed technique is robust against noise attack, specific attack, and brutal force attack. Simulation results are presented in support of the proposed idea.

  12. Scheduling of Iterative Algorithms with Matrix Operations for Efficient FPGA Design—Implementation of Finite Interval Constant Modulus Algorithm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šůcha, P.; Hanzálek, Z.; Heřmánek, Antonín; Schier, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2007), s. 35-53 ISSN 0922-5773 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1ET300750402; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0567; GA MPO(CZ) FD-K3/082 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : high-level synthesis * cyclic scheduling * iterative algorithms * imperfectly nested loops * integer linear programming * FPGA * VLSI design * blind equalization * implementation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.449, year: 2007 http://www.springerlink.com/content/t217kg0822538014/fulltext.pdf

  13. Free volume and elastic properties changes in Cu-Zr-Ti-Pd bulk glassy alloy on heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Yavari, Alain Reza; Fukuhara, Mikio; Ota, Katsumi; Xie, Guoqiang; Vaughan, Gavin; Inoue, Akihisa

    2007-01-01

    The variation of free volume and elastic properties of the Cu 55 Zr 30 Ti 10 Pd 5 glassy alloy on heating was studied. The structure changes on heating were studied by synchrotron X-ray diffraction, differential scanning and isothermal calorimetries. The studied glassy alloy shows a rather high Poisson's ratio exceeding 0.42 which is maintained after the structure relaxation and primary devitrification. Young's and Shear modules decrease upon primary devitrification while Bulk modulus exhibits a maximum after structural relaxation

  14. Ordered Nanopillar Structured Electrodes for Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.; Zhitomirsky, David; Bass, John D.; Rice, Philip M.; Topuria, Teya; Krupp, Leslie; Thon, Susanna M.; Ip, Alexander H.; Debnath, Ratan; Kim, Ho-Cheol; Sargent, Edward H.

    2012-01-01

    A bulk heterojunction of ordered titania nanopillars and PbS colloidal quantum dots is developed. By using a pre-patterned template, an ordered titania nanopillar matrix with nearest neighbours 275 nm apart and height of 300 nm is fabricated and subsequently filled in with PbS colloidal quantum dots to form an ordered depleted bulk heterojunction exhibiting power conversion efficiency of 5.6%. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Synthesis and magnetic properties of bulk transparent PMMA/Fe-oxide nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanghua; Qin, Jian; Fornara, Andrea; Toprak, Muhammet; Muhammed, Mamoun; Kim, Do Kyung

    2009-05-01

    PMMA/Fe-oxide nanocomposites are fabricated by a chemical method. Monodispersed Fe-oxide nanoparticles are well dispersed in the PMMA matrix by in situ polymerization, resulting in a bulk transparent polymeric nanocomposite. The magnetic behavior of the PMMA/Fe-oxide nanocomposites is investigated. The transparent PMMA/Fe-oxide nanocomposite has potentially interesting magneto-optic applications without compromising the advantages of a lightweight, noncorrosive polymeric material with very high transparency even for bulk samples.

  16. Synthesis and magnetic properties of bulk transparent PMMA/Fe-oxide nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shanghua; Qin Jian; Fornara, Andrea; Toprak, Muhammet; Muhammed, Mamoun; Kim, Do Kyung

    2009-01-01

    PMMA/Fe-oxide nanocomposites are fabricated by a chemical method. Monodispersed Fe-oxide nanoparticles are well dispersed in the PMMA matrix by in situ polymerization, resulting in a bulk transparent polymeric nanocomposite. The magnetic behavior of the PMMA/Fe-oxide nanocomposites is investigated. The transparent PMMA/Fe-oxide nanocomposite has potentially interesting magneto-optic applications without compromising the advantages of a lightweight, noncorrosive polymeric material with very high transparency even for bulk samples.

  17. High performance bulk metallic glass/carbon nanotube composite cathodes for electron field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojati-Talemi, Pejman; Gibson, Mark A.; East, Daniel; Simon, George P.

    2011-01-01

    We report the preparation of new nanocomposites based on a combination of bulk metallic glass and carbon nanotubes for electron field emission applications. The use of bulk metallic glass as the matrix ensures high electrical and thermal conductivity, high thermal stability, and ease of processing, whilst the well dispersed carbon nanotubes act as highly efficient electron emitters. These advantages, alongside excellent electron emission properties, make these composites one of the best reported options for electron emission applications to date.

  18. High performance bulk metallic glass/carbon nanotube composite cathodes for electron field emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojati-Talemi, Pejman [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia); Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Gibson, Mark A. [Process Science and Engineering, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Clayton, Vic 3168 (Australia); East, Daniel; Simon, George P. [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia)

    2011-11-07

    We report the preparation of new nanocomposites based on a combination of bulk metallic glass and carbon nanotubes for electron field emission applications. The use of bulk metallic glass as the matrix ensures high electrical and thermal conductivity, high thermal stability, and ease of processing, whilst the well dispersed carbon nanotubes act as highly efficient electron emitters. These advantages, alongside excellent electron emission properties, make these composites one of the best reported options for electron emission applications to date.

  19. Ordered Nanopillar Structured Electrodes for Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.

    2012-03-30

    A bulk heterojunction of ordered titania nanopillars and PbS colloidal quantum dots is developed. By using a pre-patterned template, an ordered titania nanopillar matrix with nearest neighbours 275 nm apart and height of 300 nm is fabricated and subsequently filled in with PbS colloidal quantum dots to form an ordered depleted bulk heterojunction exhibiting power conversion efficiency of 5.6%. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Resilient modulus for unbound granular materials and subgrade soils in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Rabah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanistic Empirical (ME pavement design methods started to gain attention especially the last couple of years in Egypt and the Middle East. One of the challenges facing the spread of these methods in Egypt is lack of advanced properties of local soil and asphalt, which are needed as input data in ME design. Resilient modulus (Mr for example is an important engineering property that expresses the elastic behavior of soil/unbound granular materials (UGMs under cyclic traffic loading for ME design. In order to overcome the scarcity of the resilient modulus data for soil/UGMs in Egypt, a comprehensive laboratory testing program was conducted to measure resilient modulus of typical UGMs and subgrade soils typically used in pavement construction in Egypt. The factors that affect the resilient modulus of soil/UGMs were reviewed, studied and discussed. Finally, the prediction accuracy of the most well-known Mr Prediction models for the locally investigated materials was investigated.

  1. Elastic modulus of muscle and tendon with shear wave ultrasound elastography: variations with different technical settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Chin Wing Kot

    Full Text Available Standardization on Shear wave ultrasound elastography (SWUE technical settings will not only ensure that the results are accurate, but also detect any differences over time that may be attributed to true physiological changes. The present study evaluated the variations of elastic modulus of muscle and tendon using SWUE when different technical aspects were altered. The results of this study indicated that variations of elastic modulus of muscle and tendon were found when different transducer's pressure and region of interest (ROI's size were applied. No significant differences in elastic modulus of the rectus femoris muscle and patellar tendon were found with different acquisition times of the SWUE sonogram. The SWUE on the muscle and tendon should be performed with the lightest transducer's pressure, a shorter acquisition time for the SWUE sonogram, while measuring the mean elastic modulus regardless the ROI's size.

  2. Short cellulosic fiber/starch acetate composites — micromechanical modeling of Young’s modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Joffe, Roberts; Peltola, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    This study is presented to predict the Young’s modulus of injection-molded short cellulosic fiber/plasticized starch acetate composites with variable fiber and plasticizer content. A modified rule of mixtures model is applied where the effect of porosity is included, and where the fiber weight...... (density and Young’s modulus). The measured Young’s modulus of the composites varies in the range 1.1—8.3 GPa, and this is well predicted by the model calculations. A property diagram is presented to be used for the tailor-making of composites with Young’s modulus in the range 0.2—10 GPa....

  3. Young's modulus of defective graphene sheet from intrinsic thermal vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Siby; Mrudul, M S; Ajith, K M; Valsakumar, M C

    2016-01-01

    Classical molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to establish a relation between thermally excited ripples and Young's modulus of defective graphene sheet within a range of temperatures. The presence of the out-of-plane intrinsic ripples stabilizes the graphene membranes and the mechanical stability is analyzed by means of thermal mean square vibration amplitude in the long wavelength regime. We observed that the presence of vacancy and Stone-Wales (SW) defects reduces the Young's modulus of graphene sheets. Graphene sheet with vacancy defects possess superior Young's modulus to that of a sheet with Stone-Wales defects. The obtained room temperature Young's modulus of pristine and defective graphene sheet is ∼ 1 TPa, which is comparable to the results of earlier experimental and atomistic simulation studies. (paper)

  4. Wind Diffusivity Current, METOP ASCAT, 0.25 degrees, Global, Near Real Time, Modulus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes near real time Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  5. Wind Stress, METOP ASCAT, 0.25 degrees, Global, Near Real Time, Modulus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes near real time wind stress data in zonal, meridional, modulus, and wind stress curl sets. This data begins with wind velocity...

  6. Variation of the Young's modulus with plastic strain applying to elastoplastic software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morestin, F.; Boivin, M.

    1993-01-01

    Work hardening of steel involves modifications of the elastic properties of the material, for instance, an increase of its yield stress. It may be also the cause of an appreciable decrease of the Young's modulus. This property decreases as plastic strain increases. Experiments with a microcomputer controlled tensile test machine indicated that diminution could reach more than 10% of the initial value, after only 5% of plastic strain. In spite of this fact, lots of elastoplastic softwares don't combine the decrease of the Young's modulus with plastification though it may involve obvious differences among results. As an application we have developed a software which computes the deformation of steel sheet in press forming, after springback. This software takes into account the decrease of the Young's modulus and its results are very close to experimental values. Quite arbitrarily, we noticed a recovery of the Young's modulus of plastified specimens after few days but not for all steels tested. (author)

  7. Young's Modulus of Wurtzite and Zinc Blende InP Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaevskiy, Mikhail; Geydt, Pavel; Lähderanta, Erkki; Alekseev, Prokhor; Haggrén, Tuomas; Kakko, Joona-Pekko; Jiang, Hua; Lipsanen, Harri

    2017-06-14

    The Young's modulus of thin conical InP nanowires with either wurtzite or mixed "zinc blende/wurtzite" structures was measured. It has been shown that the value of Young's modulus obtained for wurtzite InP nanowires (E [0001] = 130 ± 30 GPa) was similar to the theoretically predicted value for the wurtzite InP material (E [0001] = 120 ± 10 GPa). The Young's modulus of mixed "zinc blende/wurtzite" InP nanowires (E [111] = 65 ± 10 GPa) appeared to be 40% less than the theoretically predicted value for the zinc blende InP material (E [111] = 110 GPa). An advanced method for measuring the Young's modulus of thin and flexible nanostructures is proposed. It consists of measuring the flexibility (the inverse of stiffness) profiles 1/k(x) by the scanning probe microscopy with precise control of loading force in nanonewton range followed by simulations.

  8. Design values of resilient modulus of stabilized and non-stabilized base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    The primary objective of this research study is to determine design value ranges for typical base materials, as allowed by LADOTD specifications, through laboratory tests with respect to resilient modulus and other parameters used by pavement design ...

  9. The creep compliance, the relaxation modulus and the complex compliance of linear viscoelastic, homogeneous, isotropic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a study to obtain the creep compliance, the relaxation modulus and the complex compliance derived from the concept of mechanical resistance for the constitutive equation of a class of linear viscoelastic, homogeneous, isotropic materials

  10. Elastic Metamaterials with Simultaneously Negative Effective Shear Modulus and Mass Density

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying; Lai, Yun; Zhang, Zhao-Qing

    2011-01-01

    We propose a type of elastic metamaterial comprising fluid-solid composite inclusions which can possess a negative shear modulus and negative mass density over a large frequency region. Such a material has the unique property that only transverse

  11. Hardness and Elastic Modulus of Titanium Nitride Coatings Prepared by Pirac Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Siyuan; Wu, Shoujun; Zhang, Guoyun; Zhang, Weiguo

    In the present work, hardness and elastic modulus of a titanium nitride coatings prepared on Ti6Al4V by powder immersion reaction-assisted coating (PIRAC) are tested and comparatively studied with a physical vapor deposition (PVD) TiN coating. Surface hardness of the PIRAC coatings is about 11GPa, much lower than that of PVD coating of 22GPa. The hardness distribution profile from surface to substrate of the PVD coatings is steeply decreased from ˜22GPa to ˜4.5GPa of the Ti6Al4V substrate. The PIRAC coatings show a gradually decreasing hardness distribution profile. Elastic modulus of the PVD coating is about 426GPa. The PIRAC coatings show adjustable elastic modulus. Elastic modulus of the PIRAC coatings prepared at 750∘C for 24h and that at 800∘C for 8h is about 234 and 293GPa, respectively.

  12. Wind Stress, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Modulus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality wind stress data in zonal, meridional, modulus, and wind stress curl sets. This data begins with wind velocity...

  13. The dimensional stability and elastic modulus of cemented simulant Winfrith reactor (SGHWR) sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, T.R.; Lee, D.J.

    1985-12-01

    Dimensional changes and elastic modulus have been monitored on cemented simulant sludge stored in various environments. Specimens prepared using a blended cement show no serious detrimental effects during sealed storage, underwater storage or freeze/thaw cycling. (author)

  14. Coulombic Fluids Bulk and Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Freyland, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Ionic liquids have attracted considerable interest in recent years. In this book the bulk and interfacial physico-chemical characteristics of various fluid systems dominated by Coulomb interactions are treated which includes molten salts, ionic liquids as well as metal-molten salt mixtures and expanded fluid metals. Of particular interest is the comparison of the different systems. Topics in the bulk phase concern the microscopic structure, the phase behaviour and critical phenomena, and the metal-nonmetal transition. Interfacial phenomena include wetting transitions, electrowetting, surface freezing, and the electrified ionic liquid/ electrode interface. With regard to the latter 2D and 3D electrochemical phase formation of metals and semi-conductors on the nanometer scale is described for a number of selected examples. The basic concepts and various experimental methods are introduced making the book suitable for both graduate students and researchers interested in Coulombic fluids.

  15. Shear elastic modulus of magnetic gels with random distribution of magnetizable particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskakova, L. Yu; Zubarev, A. Yu

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic gels present new type of composite materials with rich set of uniquie physical properties, which find active applications in many industrial and bio-medical technologies. We present results of mathematically strict theoretical study of elastic modulus of these systems with randomly distributed magnetizable particles in an elastic medium. The results show that an external magnetic field can pronouncedly increase the shear modulus of these composites.

  16. A two-crown finite element technique for the determination of tearing modulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suo, X.Z.; Combescure, A.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of approach to the subject of crack instability for the design of structures containing cracks has increased considerably over the last few years. The tearing modulus theory recently enunciated by Paris and co-workers has emerged as one of the leading criterions for stable crack growth and for instability, and the estimation of T termed Tearing modulus in the theory has since been extensively investigated theoretically as well as experimentally. Analytical methods exist for calculating the tearing modulus of various crack configurations in simple-shaped structures under certain loading conditions. However, for arbitrary structures under general loading, more sophisticated calculation techniques are required. Extending the virtual crack extension method introduced independently by Hellen and Parks, a new numerical approach for calculating the tearing modulus is presented hereafter and put in a form suitable for the instability analysis of structures containing one single crack or several interacting cracks. As it is well-known that the calculation of the energy release rate in elasticity by the virtual crack extension method is related to a stiffness derivative to which only a small region around the crack tip has a contribution, the technique described in the paper shows that it would be reasonable to evaluate the tearing modulus, or rather, the second derivative of potential energy with respect to the crack length, by means of two stiffness derivative calculations in two crowns around the crack tip. In particular, when one crown is strictly included in another one, computation is largely curtailed at this point with some saving of computer time, but a very accurate value of tearing modulus is obtained. As an interesting consequence, an another expression of the tearing modulus is carried out. In Section 4: the classical tearing modulus is proved to be precisely equivalent to a line integral which is independent of integration path. Numerical example

  17. Shear modulus and damping ratio of natural rubber containing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Ibrahim, A.; Rusop, M.; Adnan, A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into the potential application of Natural rubber (NR) containing Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) by measuring its shear modulus and damping ratio. Four different types of rubber specimens which fabricated with different MWCNT loadings: 0 wt% (pure natural rubber), 1 wt%, 3 wt%, and 5 wt%. It is observed that the shear modulus and damping ratio of CNTs filled rubber composites are remarkably higher than that of raw rubber indicating the inherent reinforcing potential of CNTs.

  18. Bulk Superconductors in Mobile Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, F. N.; Delor, U. Floegel-; Rothfeld, R.; Riedel, T.; Wippich, D.; Goebel, B.; Schirrmeister, P.

    We investigate and review concepts of multi - seeded REBCO bulk superconductors in mobile application. ATZ's compact HTS bulk magnets can trap routinely 1 T@77 K. Except of magnetization, flux creep and hysteresis, industrial - like properties as compactness, power density, and robustness are of major device interest if mobility and light-weight construction is in focus. For mobile application in levitated trains or demonstrator magnets we examine the performance of on-board cryogenics either by LN2 or cryo-cooler application. The mechanical, electric and thermodynamical requirements of compact vacuum cryostats for Maglev train operation were studied systematically. More than 30 units are manufactured and tested. The attractive load to weight ratio is more than 10 and favours group module device constructions up to 5 t load on permanent magnet (PM) track. A transportable and compact YBCO bulk magnet cooled with in-situ 4 Watt Stirling cryo-cooler for 50 - 80 K operation is investigated. Low cooling power and effective HTS cold mass drives the system construction to a minimum - thermal loss and light-weight design.

  19. Geometrical modulus of a casting and its influence on solidification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Havlicek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Object: The work analyses the importance of the known criterion for evaluating the controlled solidification of castings, so called geometrical modulus defined by N. Chvorinov as the first one. Geometrical modulus influences the solidification process. The modulus has such specificity that during the process of casting formation it is not a constant but its initial value decreases with the solidification progress because the remaining melt volume can decrease faster than its cooling surface.Methodology: The modulus is determined by a simple calculation from the ratio of the casting volume after pouring the metal in the mould to the cooled mould surface. The solidified metal volume and the cooled surface too are changed during solidification. That calculation is much more complicated. Results were checked up experimentally by measuring the temperatures in the cross-section of heavy steel castings during cooling them.Results: The given experimental results have completed the original theoretical calculations by Chvorinov and recent researches done with use of numerical calculations. The contribution explains how the geometrical modulus together with the thermal process in the casting causes the higher solidification rate in the axial part of the casting cross-section and shortening of solidification time. Practical implications: Change of the geometrical modulus negatively affects the casting internal quality. Melt feeding by capillary filtration in the dendritic network in the casting central part decreases and in such a way the shrinkage porosity volume increases. State of stress character in the casting is changed too and it increases.

  20. Modular correction method of bending elastic modulus based on sliding behavior of contact point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Zhichao; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhang, Qixun; Liu, Changyi

    2015-01-01

    During the three-point bending test, the sliding behavior of the contact point between the specimen and supports was observed, the sliding behavior was verified to affect the measurements of both deflection and span length, which directly affect the calculation of the bending elastic modulus. Based on the Hertz formula to calculate the elastic contact deformation and the theoretical calculation of the sliding behavior of the contact point, a theoretical model to precisely describe the deflection and span length as a function of bending load was established. Moreover, a modular correction method of bending elastic modulus was proposed, via the comparison between the corrected elastic modulus of three materials (H63 copper–zinc alloy, AZ31B magnesium alloy and 2026 aluminum alloy) and the standard modulus obtained from standard uniaxial tensile tests, the universal feasibility of the proposed correction method was verified. Also, the ratio of corrected to raw elastic modulus presented a monotonically decreasing tendency as the raw elastic modulus of materials increased. (technical note)

  1. Developing the elastic modulus measurement of asphalt concrete using the compressive strength test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Arief; Suparma, Latif Budi; Mulyono, Agus Taufik

    2017-11-01

    Elastic modulus is a fundamental property of an asphalt mixture. An analytical method of the elastic modulus is needed to determine the thickness of flexible pavement. It has a role as one of the input values on a stress-strain analysis in the finite element method. The aim of this study was to develop the measurement of the elastic modulus by using compressive strength testing. This research used a set of specimen mold tool and Delta Dimensi software to record strain changes occurring in the proving ring of compression machine and the specimens. The elastic modulus of the five types of aggregate gradation and 2 types of asphalt were measured at optimum asphalt content. Asphalt Cement 60/70 and Elastomer Modified Asphalt (EMA) were used as a binder. Manufacturing success indicators of the specimens used void-in-the-mix (VIM) 3-5 % criteria. The success rate of the specimen manufacturing was more than 76%. Thus, the procedure and the compressive strength test equipment could be used for the measurement of the elastic modulus. The aggregate gradation and asphalt types significantly affected the elastic modulus of the asphalt concrete.

  2. Granular model, percolation-resistivity, ESR and elastic modulus of carbonaceous materials application to the babassu endocarp heat treated up to 22000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmerich, F.G.

    1987-01-01

    A microscopic model (granular model) is presented to study heat treated carbons. A granular structure is defined in the carbon matrix, composed of turbostratic graphite-like microcrystallites, cross-linkings and micropores. A general expression is developed to calculate the volume fraction X of the conducting phase of the granular structure as a function of structural parameters obtained from X-ray diffraction small angle X-ray scattering. The granular model and the percolation theory are used to explain the electrical resistivity behaviour with the heat treatment temperature (HTT), where X is the fundamental parameter. An electron spin resonance (ESR) study of the low and high HTT ranges is presented, including the transition range (700-1300 0 C). The elucitation of the spin center nature in this range and the liking with the two adjacent ranges has been pursued. An expression to calculate the elastic modulus (Young's modulus), based on the microscopic granular model with the fundamental participation of the cross-linkings, is derived to account for the behavior of the modulus with the HTT. The granular model with the expression of X, the percolation-resistivity theory, the ESR study, and the expression of the elastic modulus are applied to the babassu endocarp carbon heat treated up to 2200 0 C. This material can be classified as a tipical non-graphitic carbon, being useful to search the validity of the model and the proposed expressions. It is observed that the theoretical expressions describe with reasonable accuracy the respective experimental behaviours. The measurements of physical and chemical parameters of the babassu endocarp treated up to 2200 0 C area also included. (author) [pt

  3. Delocalization transition for the Google matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Olivier; Georgeot, Bertrand; Shepelyansky, Dima L

    2009-08-01

    We study the localization properties of eigenvectors of the Google matrix, generated both from the world wide web and from the Albert-Barabási model of networks. We establish the emergence of a delocalization phase for the PageRank vector when network parameters are changed. For networks with localized PageRank, eigenvalues of the matrix in the complex plane with a modulus above a certain threshold correspond to localized eigenfunctions while eigenvalues below this threshold are associated with delocalized relaxation modes. We argue that, for networks with delocalized PageRank, the efficiency of information retrieval by Google-type search is strongly affected since the PageRank values have no clear hierarchical structure in this case.

  4. Spectral properties of Google matrix of Wikipedia and other networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermann, Leonardo; Frahm, Klaus M.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2013-05-01

    We study the properties of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Google matrix of the Wikipedia articles hyperlink network and other real networks. With the help of the Arnoldi method, we analyze the distribution of eigenvalues in the complex plane and show that eigenstates with significant eigenvalue modulus are located on well defined network communities. We also show that the correlator between PageRank and CheiRank vectors distinguishes different organizations of information flow on BBC and Le Monde web sites.

  5. No evidence for bulk velocity from type Ia supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huterer, Dragan; Shafer, Daniel L. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Schmidt, Fabian, E-mail: huterer@umich.edu, E-mail: dlshafer@umich.edu, E-mail: fabians@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    We revisit the effect of peculiar velocities on low-redshift type Ia supernovae. Velocities introduce an additional guaranteed source of correlations between supernova magnitudes that should be considered in all analyses of nearby supernova samples but has largely been neglected in the past. Applying a likelihood analysis to the latest compilation of nearby supernovae, we find no evidence for the presence of these correlations, although, given the significant noise, the data is also consistent with the correlations predicted for the standard ΛCDM model. We then consider the dipolar component of the velocity correlations—the frequently studied ''bulk velocity''—and explicitly demonstrate that including the velocity correlations in the data covariance matrix is crucial for drawing correct and unambiguous conclusions about the bulk flow. In particular, current supernova data is consistent with no excess bulk flow on top of what is expected in ΛCDM and effectively captured by the covariance. We further clarify the nature of the apparent bulk flow that is inferred when the velocity covariance is ignored. We show that a significant fraction of this quantity is expected to be noise bias due to uncertainties in supernova magnitudes and not any physical peculiar motion.

  6. No evidence for bulk velocity from type Ia supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huterer, Dragan; Shafer, Daniel L.; Schmidt, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the effect of peculiar velocities on low-redshift type Ia supernovae. Velocities introduce an additional guaranteed source of correlations between supernova magnitudes that should be considered in all analyses of nearby supernova samples but has largely been neglected in the past. Applying a likelihood analysis to the latest compilation of nearby supernovae, we find no evidence for the presence of these correlations, although, given the significant noise, the data is also consistent with the correlations predicted for the standard ΛCDM model. We then consider the dipolar component of the velocity correlations—the frequently studied ''bulk velocity''—and explicitly demonstrate that including the velocity correlations in the data covariance matrix is crucial for drawing correct and unambiguous conclusions about the bulk flow. In particular, current supernova data is consistent with no excess bulk flow on top of what is expected in ΛCDM and effectively captured by the covariance. We further clarify the nature of the apparent bulk flow that is inferred when the velocity covariance is ignored. We show that a significant fraction of this quantity is expected to be noise bias due to uncertainties in supernova magnitudes and not any physical peculiar motion

  7. Effects of High-Temperature Annealing in Air on Hi-Nicalon Fiber-Reinforced Celsian Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    2008-01-01

    BN/SiC-coated Hi-Nicalon fiber-reinforced celsian matrix composites (CMC) were annealed for 100 h in air at various temperatures to 1200 C, followed by flexural strength measurements at room temperature. Values of yield stress and strain, ultimate strength, and composite modulus remain almost unchanged for samples annealed up to 1100 C. A thin porous layer formed on the surface of the 1100 C annealed sample and its density decreased from 3.09 to 2.90 g/cu cm. The specimen annealed at 1200 C gained 0.43 wt%, was severely deformed, and was covered with a porous layer of thick shiny glaze which could be easily peeled off. Some gas bubbles were also present on the surface. This surface layer consisted of elongated crystals of monoclinic celsian and some amorphous phase(s). The fibers in this surface ply of the CMC had broken into small pieces. The fiber-matrix interface strength was characterized through fiber push-in technique. Values of debond stress, alpha(sub d), and frictional sliding stress, tau(sub f), for the as-fabricated CMC were 0.31+/-0.14 GPa and 10.4+/-3.1 MPa, respectively. These values compared with 0.53+/-0.47 GPa and 8.33+/-1.72 MPa for the fibers in the interior of the 1200 C annealed sample, indicating hardly any change in fiber-matrix interface strength. The effects of thermal aging on microstructure were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Only the surface ply of the 1200 C annealed specimens had degraded from oxidation whereas the bulk interior part of the CMC was unaffected. A mechanism is proposed explaining the various steps involved during the degradation of the CMC on annealing in air at 1200 C.

  8. Oxygenation and cracking in melt-textured YBCO bulk superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kracunovska, S; Diko, P; Litzkendorf, D; Habisreuther, T; Bierlich, J; Gawalek, W

    2005-01-01

    Microstructural changes during the oxygenation of YBCO bulks were studied. It was shown that a lower temperature of oxygenation leads to the formation of a denser structure of a/b- and c-macrocracks and causes faster and more homogeneous oxygenation of the sample. The opening of created macrocracks is the way in which the macroscopic stresses induced by macroscopic 211 particle concentration inhomogeneity are released. This is very important, because it prevents the formation of fatal c-macrocracks, which divide the sample into more domains, during cooling from oxygenation temperature or during sample performance. Oxygenation with a multistage programme causes the oxygen concentration difference between the oxygenated layer and the tetragonal matrix to be smaller, and consequently fewer macrocracks are formed. This leads to the prolongation of oxygenation times for full oxygenation and to the insufficient release of macroscopic stresses. 211 low concentration regions and pores also enhance the oxygenation rate of YBCO bulks

  9. Modelling of polypropylene fibre-matrix composites using finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene (PP fibre-matrix composites previously prepared and studied experimentally were modelled using finite element analysis (FEA in this work. FEA confirmed that fibre content and composition controlled stress distribution in all-PP composites. The stress concentration at the fibre-matrix interface became greater with less fibre content. Variations in fibre composition were more significant in higher stress regions of the composites. When fibre modulus increased, the stress concentration at the fibres decreased and the shear stress at the fibre-matrix interface became more intense. The ratio between matrix modulus and fibre modulus was important, as was the interfacial stress in reducing premature interfacial failure and increasing mechanical properties. The model demonstrated that with low fibre concentration, there were insufficient fibres to distribute the applied stress. Under these conditions the matrix yielded when the applied stress reached the matrix yield stress, resulting in increased fibre axial stress. When the fibre content was high, there was matrix depletion and stress transfer was inefficient. The predictions of the FEA model were consistent with experimental and published data.

  10. Bulk moduli and high pressure phases of ThX compounds. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staun Olsen, J.; Gerward, L.; Benedict, U.; Luo, H.; Vogt, O.

    1989-01-01

    The high-pressure crystal structures of the members of the ThX series, where X = S, Se and Te, have been studied using synchrotron X-ray diffraction in the pressure range up to about 60 GPa. A distorted fcc structure is observed for ThS above 20 GPa. These transforms to the CsCl structure at 15 GPa. has the CsCl structure already at atmospheric pressure and no further phase transition has been observed. A log-log plot of bulk modulus versus specific volume gives a straight line with slope -1.85. (orig.)

  11. Change and anisotropy of elastic modulus in sheet metals due to plastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitsuka, Yuki; Arikawa, Shuichi; Yoneyama, Satoru

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the effect of the plastic deformation on the microscopic structure and the anisotropy of the elastic modulus in the cold-rolled steel sheet (SPCC) is investigated. Various uniaxial plastic strains (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%) are applied to the annealed SPCC plates, then, the specimens for the tensile tests are cut out from them. The elastic moduli in the longitudinal direction and the transverse direction to the direction that are pre-strained are measured by the tensile tests. Cyclic tests are performed to investigate the effects of the internal friction caused by the movable dislocations in the elastic deformation. Also, the movable dislocations are quantified by the boundary tracking for TEM micrographs. In addition, the behaviors of the change of the elastic modulus in the solutionized and thermal aged aluminum alloy (A5052) are measured to investigate the effect on the movable dislocations with the amount of the depositions. As a result in SPCC, the elastic moduli of the 0° and 90° directions decrease more than 10% as 10% prestrain applied. On the other hand, the elastic modulus shows the recovery behavior after the strain aging and the annealing. The movable dislocation and the internal friction show a tendency to increase as the plastic strain increases. The marked anisotropy is not observed in the elastic modulus and the internal friction. The elastic modulus in A5052 with many and few depositions decreases similarly by the plastic deformation. From the above, the movable dislocations affect the elastic modulus strongly without depending on the deposition amount. Moreover, the elastic modulus recovers after the plastic deformation by reducing the effects of them with the strain aging and the heat treatment.

  12. Resilient modulus prediction of soft low-plasticity Piedmont residual soil using dynamic cone penetrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hamed Mousavi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP has been used for decades to estimate the shear strength and stiffness properties of the subgrade soils. There are several empirical correlations in the literature to predict the resilient modulus values at only a specific stress state from DCP data, corresponding to the predefined thicknesses of pavement layers (a 50 mm asphalt wearing course, a 100 mm asphalt binder course and a 200 mm aggregate base course. In this study, field-measured DCP data were utilized to estimate the resilient modulus of low-plasticity subgrade Piedmont residual soil. Piedmont residual soils are in-place weathered soils from igneous and metamorphic rocks, as opposed to transported or compacted soils. Hence the existing empirical correlations might not be applicable for these soils. An experimental program was conducted incorporating field DCP and laboratory resilient modulus tests on “undisturbed” soil specimens. The DCP tests were carried out at various locations in four test sections to evaluate subgrade stiffness variation laterally and with depth. Laboratory resilient modulus test results were analyzed in the context of the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG recommended universal constitutive model. A new approach for predicting the resilient modulus from DCP by estimating MEPDG constitutive model coefficients (k1, k2 and k3 was developed through statistical analyses. The new model is capable of not only taking into account the in situ soil condition on the basis of field measurements, but also representing the resilient modulus at any stress state which addresses a limitation with existing empirical DCP models and its applicability for a specific case. Validation of the model is demonstrated by using data that were not used for model development, as well as data reported in the literature. Keywords: Dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP, Resilient modulus, Mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG, Residual

  13. Impedance Spectroscopy and AC Conductivity Studies of Bulk 3-Amino-7-(dimethylamino)-2-methyl-hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shabaan, M. M.

    2018-02-01

    Impedance spectroscopy and alternating-current (AC) conductivity (σ AC) studies of bulk 3-amino-7-(dimethylamino)-2-methyl-hydrochloride (neutral red, NR) have been carried out over the temperature (T) range from 303 K to 383 K and frequency (f) range from 0.5 kHz to 5 MHz. Dielectric data were analyzed using the complex impedance (Z *) and complex electric modulus (M *) for bulk NR at various temperatures. The impedance loss peaks were found to shift towards high frequencies, indicating an increase in the relaxation time (τ 0) and loss in the material, with increasing temperature. For each temperature, a single depressed semicircle was observed at high frequencies, originating from the bulk transport, and a spike in the low-frequency region, resulting from the electrode effect. Fitting of these curves yielded an equivalent circuit containing a parallel combination of a resistance R and constant-phase element (CPE) Q. The carrier transport in bulk NR is governed by the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) mechanism, some parameters of which, such as the maximum barrier height (W M), charge density (N), and hopping distance (r), were determined as functions of both temperature and frequency. The frequency dependence of σ AC at different temperatures indicated that the conduction in bulk NR is a thermally activated process. The σ AC value at different frequencies increased linearly with temperature.

  14. Ordered bulk degradation via autophagy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Jörn; Kristensen, Anders Riis; Andersen, Jens S

    2008-01-01

    During amino acid starvation, cells undergo macroautophagy which is regarded as an unspecific bulk degradation process. Lately, more and more organelle-specific autophagy subtypes such as reticulophagy, mitophagy and ribophagy have been described and it could be shown, depending on the experimental...... at proteasomal and lysosomal degradation ample cross-talk between the two degradation pathways became evident. Degradation via autophagy appeared to be ordered and regulated at the protein complex/organelle level. This raises several important questions such as: can macroautophagy itself be specific and what...

  15. Effect of Carbon Nanofiber-Matrix Adhesion on Polymeric Nanocomposite Properties—Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Lafdi

    2008-01-01

    carbon nanocomposite. Carbon nanofibers were subjected to electrochemical oxidation in 0.1 M nitric acid for varying times. The strength of adhesion between the nanofiber and an epoxy matrix was characterized by flexural strength and modulus. The surface functional groups formed and their concentration of nanofibers showed a dependence on the degree of oxidation. The addition of chemical functional groups on the nanofiber surface allows them to physically and chemically adhere to the continuous resin matrix. The chemical interaction with the continuous epoxy matrix results in the creation of an interphase region. The ability to chemically and physically interact with the epoxy region is beneficial to the mechanical properties of a carbon nanocomposite. A tailored degree of surface functionalization was found to increase adhesion to the matrix and increase flexural modulus.

  16. Characterization of multilayer nitride coatings by electron microscopy and modulus mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pemmasani, Sai Pramod; Rajulapati, Koteswararao V.; Ramakrishna, M.; Valleti, Krishna; Gundakaram, Ravi C.; Joshi, Shrikant V.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses multi-scale characterization of physical vapour deposited multilayer nitride coatings using a combination of electron microscopy and modulus mapping. Multilayer coatings with a triple layer structure based on TiAlN and nanocomposite nitrides with a nano-multilayered architecture were deposited by Cathodic arc deposition and detailed microstructural studies were carried out employing Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, Electron Backscattered Diffraction, Focused Ion Beam and Cross sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy in order to identify the different phases and to study microstructural features of the various layers formed as a result of the deposition process. Modulus mapping was also performed to study the effect of varying composition on the moduli of the nano-multilayers within the triple layer coating by using a Scanning Probe Microscopy based technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt on modulus mapping of cathodic arc deposited nitride multilayer coatings. This work demonstrates the application of Scanning Probe Microscopy based modulus mapping and electron microscopy for the study of coating properties and their relation to composition and microstructure. - Highlights: • Microstructure of a triple layer nitride coating studied at multiple length scales. • Phases identified by EDS, EBSD and SAED (TEM). • Nanolayered, nanocomposite structure of the coating studied using FIB and TEM. • Modulus mapping identified moduli variation even in a nani-multilayer architecture

  17. Effect of the Young modulus variability on the mechanical behaviour of a nuclear containment vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrard, T. de, E-mail: delarrard@lmt.ens-cachan.f [LMT-ENS Cachan, CNRS/UPMC/PRES UniverSud Paris (France); Colliat, J.B.; Benboudjema, F. [LMT-ENS Cachan, CNRS/UPMC/PRES UniverSud Paris (France); Torrenti, J.M. [Universite Paris-Est, LCPC (France); Nahas, G. [IRSN/DSR/SAMS/BAGS, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2010-12-15

    This study aims at investigating the influence of the Young modulus variability on the mechanical behaviour of a nuclear containment vessel in case of a loss of cooling agent accident and under the assumption of an elastic behaviour. To achieve this investigation, the Monte-Carlo Method is carried out thanks to a middleware which encapsulates the different components (random field generation, FE simulations) and enables calculations parallelisation. The main goal is to quantify the uncertainty propagation by comparing the maximal values of outputs of interest (orthoradial stress and Mazars equivalent strain) for each realisation of the considered random field with the ones obtained from a reference calculation taking into account uniform field (equal to the expected value of the random field). The Young modulus is supposed to be accurately represented by a weakly homogeneous random field and realisations are provided through its truncated Karhunen-Loeve expansion. This study reveals that the expected value for the maximal equivalent strain in the structure is more important when considering the Young modulus spatial variability than the value obtained from a deterministic approach with a uniform Young modulus field. The influence of the correlation length is investigated too. Finally it is shown that there is no correlation between the maximal values location of equivalent strain and the ones where the Young modulus extreme values are observed for each realisation.

  18. Determining the Gaussian Modulus and Edge Properties of 2D Materials: From Graphene to Lipid Bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelisko, Matthew; Ahmadpoor, Fatemeh; Gao, Huajian; Sharma, Pradeep

    2017-08-01

    The dominant deformation behavior of two-dimensional materials (bending) is primarily governed by just two parameters: bending rigidity and the Gaussian modulus. These properties also set the energy scale for various important physical and biological processes such as pore formation, cell fission and generally, any event accompanied by a topological change. Unlike the bending rigidity, the Gaussian modulus is, however, notoriously difficult to evaluate via either experiments or atomistic simulations. In this Letter, recognizing that the Gaussian modulus and edge tension play a nontrivial role in the fluctuations of a 2D material edge, we derive closed-form expressions for edge fluctuations. Combined with atomistic simulations, we use the developed approach to extract the Gaussian modulus and edge tension at finite temperatures for both graphene and various types of lipid bilayers. Our results possibly provide the first reliable estimate of this elusive property at finite temperatures and appear to suggest that earlier estimates must be revised. In particular, we show that, if previously estimated properties are employed, the graphene-free edge will exhibit unstable behavior at room temperature. Remarkably, in the case of graphene, we show that the Gaussian modulus and edge tension even change sign at finite temperatures.

  19. Minimization of complementary energy to predict shear modulus of laminates with intralaminar cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannadakis, K; Varna, J

    2012-01-01

    The most common damage mode and the one examined in this work is the formation of intralaminar cracks in layers of laminates. These cracks can occur when the composite structure is subjected to mechanical and/or thermal loading and eventually lead to degradation of thermo-elastic properties. In the present work, the shear modulus reduction due to cracking is studied. Mathematical models exist in literature for the simple case of cross-ply laminates. The in-plane shear modulus of a damaged laminate is only considered in a few studies. In the current work, the shear modulus reduction in cross-plies will be analysed based on the principle of minimization of complementary energy. Hashin investigated the in-plane shear modulus reduction of cross-ply laminates with cracks in inside 90-layer using this variational approach and assuming that the in-plane shear stress in layers does not depend on the thickness coordinate. In the present study, a more detailed and accurate approach for stress estimation is followed using shape functions for this dependence with parameters obtained by minimization. The results for complementary energy are then compared with the respective from literature and finally an expression for shear modulus degradation is derived.

  20. Microhardness of bulk-fill composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Kelić, Katarina; Matić, Sanja; Marović, Danijela; Klarić, Eva; Tarle, Zrinka

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine microhardness of high- and low-viscosity bulk-fill composite resins and compare it with conventional composite materials. Four materials of high-viscosity were tested, including three bulk-fills: QuiXfi l (QF), x-tra fil (XTF) and Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TEBCF), while nanohybrid composite GrandioSO (GSO) served as control. The other four were low-viscosity composites, three bulk-fill materials: Smart Dentin Replacement (SDR), Venus Bulk Fill (VBF) and ...

  1. Handling of bulk solids theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shamlou, P A

    1990-01-01

    Handling of Bulk Solids provides a comprehensive discussion of the field of solids flow and handling in the process industries. Presentation of the subject follows classical lines of separate discussions for each topic, so each chapter is self-contained and can be read on its own. Topics discussed include bulk solids flow and handling properties; pressure profiles in bulk solids storage vessels; the design of storage silos for reliable discharge of bulk materials; gravity flow of particulate materials from storage vessels; pneumatic transportation of bulk solids; and the hazards of solid-mater

  2. Compressive deformation of in situ formed bulk metallic glass composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, B. [Lujan Neutron Science Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Lee, S.Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Ustuendag, E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)]. E-mail: ustundag@iastate.edu; Kim, C.P. [Liquidmetal Technologies, Lake Forest, CA 92630 (United States); Brown, D.W. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Bourke, M.A.M. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2006-02-15

    A bulk metallic glass matrix composite with dendc second phase precipitates was investigated using neutron diffraction and self-consistent modeling (SCM) to ascertain its deformation mechanisms. The compressive behavior of both the composite and the second phase (in its monolithic form) were investigated. The diffraction data were compared to the predictions of a new SCM resulting in good agreement. For the first time, this model considered both amorphous and crystalline phases and allowed the calculation of single crystal elastic constants from polycrystalline diffraction data. It was shown that the ductile second phase yielded first upon loading, and this was followed by multiple shear band formation in the matrix, a process which enhanced the ductility of the composite.

  3. Compressive deformation of in situ formed bulk metallic glass composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, B.; Lee, S.Y.; Ustuendag, E.; Kim, C.P.; Brown, D.W.; Bourke, M.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    A bulk metallic glass matrix composite with dendritic second phase precipitates was investigated using neutron diffraction and self-consistent modeling (SCM) to ascertain its deformation mechanisms. The compressive behavior of both the composite and the second phase (in its monolithic form) were investigated. The diffraction data were compared to the predictions of a new SCM resulting in good agreement. For the first time, this model considered both amorphous and crystalline phases and allowed the calculation of single crystal elastic constants from polycrystalline diffraction data. It was shown that the ductile second phase yielded first upon loading, and this was followed by multiple shear band formation in the matrix, a process which enhanced the ductility of the composite

  4. Fabricating Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Microcomponent by Suction Casting Using Silicon Micromold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijing Zhu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A suction casting process for fabricating Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 bulk metallic glass microcomponent using silicon micromold has been studied. A complicated BMG microgear with 50 μm in module has been cast successfully. Observed by scanning electron microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy, we find that the cast microgear duplicates the silicon micromold including the microstructure on the surface. The amorphous state of the microgear is confirmed by transmission election microscopy. The nanoindentation hardness and elasticity modulus of the microgear reach 6.5 GPa and 94.5 GPa. The simulation and experimental results prove that the suction casting process with the silicon micromold is a promising one-step method to fabricate bulk metallic glass microcomponents with high performance for applications in microelectromechanical system.

  5. Comparison of mechanical behavior between bulk and ribbon Cu-based metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, W.H.; Liu, F.X.; Wang, Y.D.; Zhang, H.F.; Choo, H.; Liaw, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    As-cast bulk and as-spun ribbon Cu 60 Zr 30 Ti 10 metallic glasses were characterized using differential-scanning calorimetry and instrumented nanoindentation. Two alloys show a significant difference in the amount of free volume, which is attributed to the difference in a cooling rate, while exhibiting a similar serrated plastic flow. Atomic-force-microscopy observations demonstrate the pile-ups containing shear bands around the indents in both alloys. The as-cast bulk alloy has higher hardness and elastic modulus than the as-spun ribbon alloy. The difference in the strengths of two alloys may be related to the different amount of free volume. The strength seems to be more sensitive to a cooling rate during solidification than the plastic-flow behavior in the Cu 60 Zr 30 Ti 10

  6. Nanocrystalline β-Ti alloy with high hardness, low Young's modulus and excellent in vitro biocompatibility for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Kelvin Y. [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wang, Yanbo, E-mail: yanbo.wang@sydney.edu.au [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Zhao, Yonghao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Chang, Li; Wang, Guocheng; Chen, Zibin; Cao, Yang [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Liao, Xiaozhou, E-mail: xiaozhou.liao@sydney.edu.au [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Lavernia, Enrique J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Valiev, Ruslan Z. [Institute of Physics of Advanced Materials, Ufa State Aviation Technical University, K. Marksa 12, Ufa 450000 (Russian Federation); Sarrafpour, Babak; Zoellner, Hans [The Cellular and Molecular Pathology Research Unit, Department of Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Sydney, Westmead Centre for Oral Health, Westmead Hospital, NSW 2145 (Australia); Ringer, Simon P. [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2013-08-01

    High strength, low Young's modulus and good biocompatibility are desirable but difficult to simultaneously achieve in metallic implant materials for load bearing applications, and these impose significant challenges in material design. Here we report that a nano-grained β-Ti alloy prepared by high-pressure torsion exhibits remarkable mechanical and biological properties. The hardness and modulus of the nano-grained Ti alloy were respectively 23% higher and 34% lower than those of its coarse-grained counterpart. Fibroblast cell attachment and proliferation were enhanced, demonstrating good in vitro biocompatibility of the nano-grained Ti alloy, consistent with demonstrated increased nano-roughness on the nano-grained Ti alloy. Results suggest that the nano-grained β-Ti alloy may have significant application as an implant material in dental and orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • A bulk nanocrystalline β-Ti alloy was produced by high-pressure torsion processing. • Excellent mechanical properties for biomedical implants were obtained. • Enhanced in vitro biocompatibility was also demonstrated.

  7. Evaluating elastic modulus and strength of hard coatings by relative method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Y.W.; Zhou, Y.C.; Bu, X.X.; Qiu, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A simple approach named relative method is developed for determining the elastic modulus and strength of hard coatings. Analytical relationship among the moduli of the film, the substrate, and the film/substrate system was derived based on bending model, from which the elastic modulus of the coating can be determined uniquely via the measured moduli of the samples before and after coating. Furthermore, the relationship between the strength of the films and the bending strength of the coated sample is derived, thus both the modulus and the strength of coating can be evaluated via traditional tests on coated samples. Mathematic expressions of those calculations were derived, respectively for rectangular beam samples with three types of coating configurations: single face coating, sandwich coating and around coating. Experimental results using various brittle coatings demonstrated the validity and convenience of this method

  8. Consequence of reduced necrotic bone elastic modulus in a Perthes' hip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmingo, Remel A.; Skytte, Tina Lercke; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    Introduction Perthes is a destructive hip joint disorder characterized as a malformation of the femoral head which affects young children. Several studies have shown the change of mechanical properties of the femoral head in Perthes’ disease. However, the consequence of the changes in bone...... mechanical properties in a Perthes’ hip is not well established. Due to the material differences, changes in bone mechanical properties might lead to localization of stress and deformation. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of reduced elastic modulus of necrotic bone...... weight) was applied on the top of the femoral head. The distal part of the femur was fixed. The same Poisson’s ratio 0.3 was set for the femoral and necrotic bone. The elastic modulus (E) of femoral bone was 500 MPa. To investigate the effects of reduced elastic modulus, the necrotic bone E was reduced...

  9. Evaluating elastic modulus and strength of hard coatings by relative method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Y.W. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); China Building Materials Academy, Beijing 100024 (China)], E-mail: ywbao@imr.ac.cn; Zhou, Y.C. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Bu, X.X. [China Building Materials Academy, Beijing 100024 (China); Qiu, Y. [China Building Materials Academy, Beijing 100024 (China)

    2007-06-15

    A simple approach named relative method is developed for determining the elastic modulus and strength of hard coatings. Analytical relationship among the moduli of the film, the substrate, and the film/substrate system was derived based on bending model, from which the elastic modulus of the coating can be determined uniquely via the measured moduli of the samples before and after coating. Furthermore, the relationship between the strength of the films and the bending strength of the coated sample is derived, thus both the modulus and the strength of coating can be evaluated via traditional tests on coated samples. Mathematic expressions of those calculations were derived, respectively for rectangular beam samples with three types of coating configurations: single face coating, sandwich coating and around coating. Experimental results using various brittle coatings demonstrated the validity and convenience of this method.

  10. Use of the laboratory tests of soil modulus in modelling pile behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyka, Ireneusz

    2012-10-01

    This article deals with the question of theoretical description of behaviour of a single pile rested in a layered soil medium. Particular attention is paid to soil modulus which is used in calculation method for pile load-settlement curve. A brief analysis of the results obtained by laboratory tests to assess soil modulus and its nonlinear variability has been presented. The results of tests have been used in triaxial apparatus and resonant column/torsional shear device. There have also been presented the results of load-settlement calculation for a single pile under axial load with implementation of different models of soil modulus degradation. On this basis, possibilities of using particular kinds of laboratory tests in calculation procedure of foundation settlement have been presented as well as further developments of them.

  11. Mechanical properties of concrete with SAP. Part II: Modulus of elasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jespersen, Morten H. Seneka; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2010-01-01

    In this study, focus is on the modulus of elasticity for concrete with superabsorbent polymers (SAP). The results show that based on composite theory it is possible to establish a model, which predicts overall concrete elasticity. The model assumes a three phase material of aggregate, cement paste......, and air with volume fractions of the three phases as well as elastic properties of paste and aggregates as input parameters. Addition of SAP changes the E-modulus, because it both has an influence on properties of the cement paste and on the volume of air voids. Here, the E-modulus is an example...... a more or less empirical relation. The results show that when introducing SAP, models of a more empirical nature can be misleading (and e.g. relations stated in codes are often of this empirical nature). The reason is twofold: First, the empirical models often have a general problem with the effect...

  12. The effect of gamma ray irradiation on PAN-based intermediate modulus carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bin; Feng, Yi; Qian, Gang; Zhang, Jingcheng; Zhuang, Zhong; Wang, Xianping

    2013-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) were conducted on PAN-based intermediate modulus carbon fibers to investigate the structure and surface hydrophilicity of the carbon fibers before and after gamma irradiation. Two methods were used to determine Young’s modulus of the carbon fibers. The results show that gamma ray irradiation improved the degree of graphitization and introduced compressive stress into carbon fiber surface. Gamma ray also improved the carbon fiber surface hydrophilicity through increasing the value of O/C and enhancing the quantity of oxygen functional groups on carbon fibers. No distinct morphology change was observed after gamma ray irradiation. The Young’s modulus of the fibers increased with increasing irradiation dose

  13. Using the ultrasound and instrumented indentation techniques to measure the elastic modulus of engineering materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meza, J. M.; Franco, E. E.; Farias, M. C. M.; Buiochi, F.; Souza, R. M.; Cruz, J.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, the acoustic and nano indentation techniques are two of the most used techniques for materials elastic modulus measurement. In this article fundamental principles and limitations of both techniques are shown and discussed. Last advances in nano indentation technique are also reviewed. an experimental study in ceramic, metallic, composite and single crystals was also done. Results shown that ultrasonic technique is capable to provide results in agreement with those reported in literature. However, ultrasonic technique does not allow measuring the elastic modulus of some small samples and single crystals. On the other hand, the nano indentation technique estimates the elastic modulus values in reasonable agreement with those measured by acoustic methods, particularly in amorphous materials, while in some policristaline materials some deviation from expected values was obtained. (Author) 29 refs

  14. 3-D FDTD simulation of shear waves for evaluation of complex modulus imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orescanin, Marko; Wang, Yue; Insana, Michael

    2011-02-01

    The Navier equation describing shear wave propagation in 3-D viscoelastic media is solved numerically with a finite differences time domain (FDTD) method. Solutions are formed in terms of transverse scatterer velocity waves and then verified via comparison to measured wave fields in heterogeneous hydrogel phantoms. The numerical algorithm is used as a tool to study the effects on complex shear modulus estimation from wave propagation in heterogeneous viscoelastic media. We used an algebraic Helmholtz inversion (AHI) technique to solve for the complex shear modulus from simulated and experimental velocity data acquired in 2-D and 3-D. Although 3-D velocity estimates are required in general, there are object geometries for which 2-D inversions provide accurate estimations of the material properties. Through simulations and experiments, we explored artifacts generated in elastic and dynamic-viscous shear modulus images related to the shear wavelength and average viscosity.

  15. A Regev-Type Fully Homomorphic Encryption Scheme Using Modulus Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhigang; Wang, Jian; Song, Xinxia

    2014-01-01

    A critical challenge in a fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) scheme is to manage noise. Modulus switching technique is currently the most efficient noise management technique. When using the modulus switching technique to design and implement a FHE scheme, how to choose concrete parameters is an important step, but to our best knowledge, this step has drawn very little attention to the existing FHE researches in the literature. The contributions of this paper are twofold. On one hand, we propose a function of the lower bound of dimension value in the switching techniques depending on the LWE specific security levels. On the other hand, as a case study, we modify the Brakerski FHE scheme (in Crypto 2012) by using the modulus switching technique. We recommend concrete parameter values of our proposed scheme and provide security analysis. Our result shows that the modified FHE scheme is more efficient than the original Brakerski scheme in the same security level. PMID:25093212

  16. Influence of dynamic dislocation drag on amplitude dependences of damping decrement and modulus defect in lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soifer, Y.M.; Golosovskii, M.A.; Kobelev, N.P.

    1981-01-01

    A study was made of the amplitude dependences of the damping decrement and the modulus defect in lead at low temperatures at frequencies of 100 kHz and 5 MHz. It was shown that in pure lead at high frequencies a change in the amplitude dependences of the damping decrement and the modulus defect under the superconducting transition is due mainly to the change in the losses caused by the dynamic drag of dislocations whereas in measurements at low frequencies the influence of the superconducting transition is due to the change in the conditions of dislocation unpinning from point defects. The influence of the dynamic dislocation drag on the amplitude dependences of the damping decrement and the modulus defect is calculated and a method is presented for experimental estimation of the contribution of dynamic effects to the amplitude-dependent internal friction

  17. Chromium effect on the Young modulus and thermoelastic coefficient of elinvars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazykina, A.V.; Khomenko, O.A.

    1976-01-01

    The effect was studied of thermal and thermal-mechanical treatment upon the elastic modules and its temperature coefficient in iron-nickel Elinvars with different chromium contents (from 0 to 6.7%). It has been shown that doping with chromium results in an increase in the modulus of elasticity of Elinvars after hardening. The elastic modulus of alloys containing no chromium increases after a cold plastic deformation (drawing), whereas that of chromous Elinvars decreases upon such a treatment. It has been established that the elastic modulus of hardened and cold drawn after hardening Elinvars increases upon ageing. An increase in chromium content in iron-nickel Elinvars reduces the effect of the temperature of ageing upon the thermoelastic coefficient during the usual heat treatment and the thermalmechanical treatment and lowers its sensitivity to the influence of an external magnetic field [ru

  18. Effects of SBS Configuration on Performance of High Modulus Bitumen Based on Dynamic Mechanical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available High modulus bitumens modified by polystyrene-block-polybutadiene-block-polystyrene (SBS with different molecular structure were investigated on dynamic shear rheometer and fluorescence microscopy to evaluate viscoelastic properties and morphology of binders. The results shows that storage modulus (G’ is obviously less than loss modulus (G”, which means viscous behaviour of bitumen is dominant, and anti-rutting factor (G* ⁄ sin δ is markedly enhanced by star SBS than by linear SBS. The morphology indicated that star SBS improved the softening point more obviously, tending to form a cross-linked network in bitumen. As for linear SBS, it is dispersed in bitumen in the form of globules and enhances the ductility of binder.

  19. Increasing Accuracy of Tissue Shear Modulus Reconstruction Using Ultrasonic Strain Tensor Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, C.

    Previously, we developed three displacement vector measurement methods, i.e., the multidimensional cross-spectrum phase gradient method (MCSPGM), the multidimensional autocorrelation method (MAM), and the multidimensional Doppler method (MDM). To increase the accuracies and stabilities of lateral and elevational displacement measurements, we also developed spatially variant, displacement component-dependent regularization. In particular, the regularization of only the lateral/elevational displacements is advantageous for the lateral unmodulated case. The demonstrated measurements of the displacement vector distributions in experiments using an inhomogeneous shear modulus agar phantom confirm that displacement-component-dependent regularization enables more stable shear modulus reconstruction. In this report, we also review our developed lateral modulation methods that use Parabolic functions, Hanning windows, and Gaussian functions in the apodization function and the optimized apodization function that realizes the designed point spread function (PSF). The modulations significantly increase the accuracy of the strain tensor measurement and shear modulus reconstruction (demonstrated using an agar phantom).

  20. Laser additive manufacturing bulk graphene-copper nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zengrong; Chen, Feng; Lin, Dong; Nian, Qiong; Parandoush, Pedram; Zhu, Xing; Shao, Zhuqiang; Cheng, Gary J

    2017-11-03

    The exceptional mechanical properties of graphene make it an ideal nanofiller for reinforcing metal matrix composites (MMCs). In this work, graphene-copper (Gr-Cu) nanocomposites have been fabricated by a laser additive manufacturing process. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy were utilized to characterize the fabricated nanocomposites. The XRD, Raman spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and TEM results demonstrated the feasibility of laser additive manufacturing of Gr-Cu nanocomposites. The microstructures were characterized by high resolution TEM and the results further revealed the interface between the copper matrix and graphene. With the addition of graphene, the mechanical properties of the composites were enhanced significantly. Nanoindentation tests showed that the average modulus value and hardness of the composites were 118.9 GPa and 3 GPa respectively; 17.6% and 50% increases were achieved compared with pure copper, respectively. This work demonstrates a new way to manufacture graphene copper nanocomposites with ultra-strong mechanical properties and provides alternatives for applications in electrical and thermal conductors.

  1. Diagnostic procedure on brake pad assembly based on Young's modulus estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiariotti, P; Santolini, C; Tomasini, E P; Martarelli, M

    2013-01-01

    Quality control of brake pads is an important issue, since the pad is a key component of the braking system. Typical damage of a brake pad assembly is the pad–backing plate detachment that affects and modifies the mechanical properties of the whole system. The most sensitive parameter to the damage is the effective Young's modulus, since the damage induces a decrease of the pad assembly stiffness and therefore of its effective Young's modulus: indeed its variation could be used for diagnostic purposes. The effective Young's modulus can be estimated from the first bending resonance frequency identified from the frequency response function measured on the pad assembly. Two kinds of excitation methods, i.e. conventional impulse excitation and magnetic actuation, will be presented and two different measurement sensors, e.g. laser Doppler vibrometer and microphone, analyzed. The robustness of the effective Young's modulus as a diagnostic feature will be demonstrated in comparison to the first bending resonance frequency, which is more sensitive to geometrical dimensions. Variability in the sample dimension, in fact, will induce a variation of the resonance frequency which could be mistaken for damage. The diagnostic approach has been applied to a set of undamaged and damaged pad assemblies showing good performance in terms of damage identification. The environmental temperature can be an important interfering input for the diagnostic procedure, since it influences the effective Young's modulus of the assembly. For that reason, a test at different temperatures in the range between 15 °C and 30 °C has been performed, evidencing that damage identification technique is efficient at any temperature. The robustness of the Young's modulus as a diagnostic feature with respect to damping is also presented. (paper)

  2. Polymerization Behavior and Mechanical Properties of High-Viscosity Bulk Fill and Low Shrinkage Resin Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, S; Takamizawa, T; Nojiri, K; Imai, A; Tsujimoto, A; Endo, H; Suzuki, S; Suda, S; Barkmeier, W W; Latta, M A; Miyazaki, M

    The present study determined the mechanical properties and volumetric polymerization shrinkage of different categories of resin composite. Three high viscosity bulk fill resin composites were tested: Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TB, Ivoclar Vivadent), Filtek Bulk Fill posterior restorative (FB, 3M ESPE), and Sonic Fill (SF, Kerr Corp). Two low-shrinkage resin composites, Kalore (KL, GC Corp) and Filtek LS Posterior (LS, 3M ESPE), were used. Three conventional resin composites, Herculite Ultra (HU, Kerr Corp), Estelite ∑ Quick (EQ, Tokuyama Dental), and Filtek Supreme Ultra (SU, 3M ESPE), were used as comparison materials. Following ISO Specification 4049, six specimens for each resin composite were used to determine flexural strength, elastic modulus, and resilience. Volumetric polymerization shrinkage was determined using a water-filled dilatometer. Data were evaluated using analysis of variance followed by Tukey's honestly significant difference test (α=0.05). The flexural strength of the resin composites ranged from 115.4 to 148.1 MPa, the elastic modulus ranged from 5.6 to 13.4 GPa, and the resilience ranged from 0.70 to 1.0 MJ/m 3 . There were significant differences in flexural properties between the materials but no clear outliers. Volumetric changes as a function of time over a duration of 180 seconds depended on the type of resin composite. However, for all the resin composites, apart from LS, volumetric shrinkage began soon after the start of light irradiation, and a rapid decrease in volume during light irradiation followed by a slower decrease was observed. The low shrinkage resin composites KL and LS showed significantly lower volumetric shrinkage than the other tested materials at the measuring point of 180 seconds. In contrast, the three bulk fill resin composites showed higher volumetric change than the other resin composites. The findings from this study provide clinicians with valuable information regarding the mechanical properties and

  3. Structure and property evaluation of a vacuum plasma sprayed nanostructured tungsten-hafnium carbide bulk composite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rea, K. E.; Viswanathan, V.; Kruize, A.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; O'Dell, S.; McKechnie, T.; Rajagopalan, S.; Vaidyanathan, R.; Seal, S.; O’Dell, S.

    2008-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spray (VPS) forming of tungsten-based metal matrix nanocomposites (MMCs) has shown to be a cost effective and time saving method for the formation of bulk monolithic nanostructured then no-mechanical components. Spray drying of powder feedstock appears to have a significant effect on

  4. A physical model to predict climate dynamics in ventilated bulk-storage of agricultural produce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukasse, L.J.S.; Kramer-Cuppen, de J.E.; Voort, van der A.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a physical model for predicting climate dynamics in ventilated bulk-storage of agricultural produce. A well-ordered model presentation was obtained by combining an object-oriented zonal decomposition with a process-oriented decomposition through matrix¿vector notation. The

  5. Bulk handling benefits from ICT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    The efficiency and accuracy of bulk handling is being improved by the range of management information systems and services available today. As part of the program to extend Richards Bay Coal Terminal, Siemens is installing a manufacturing execution system which coordinates and monitors all movements of raw materials. The article also reports recent developments by AXSMarine, SunGuard Energy, Fuelworx and Railworx in providing integrated tools for tracking, managing and optimising solid/liquid fuels and rail car maintenance activities. QMASTOR Ltd. has secured a contract with Anglo Coal Australia to provide its Pit to Port.net{reg_sign} and iFuse{reg_sign} software systems across all their Australians sites, to include pit-to-product stockpile management. 2 figs.

  6. Bulk analysis using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsaru, M.; Holmes, R.J.; Mathew, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    Bulk analysis techniques developed for the mining industry are reviewed. Using penetrating neutron and #betta#-radiations, measurements are obtained directly from a large volume of sample (3-30 kg) #betta#-techniques were used to determine the grade of iron ore and to detect shale on conveyor belts. Thermal neutron irradiation was developed for the simultaneous determination of iron and aluminium in iron ore on a conveyor belt. Thermal-neutron activation analysis includes the determination of alumina in bauxite, and manganese and alumina in manganese ore. Fast neutron activation analysis is used to determine silicon in iron ores, and alumina and silica in bauxite. Fast and thermal neutron activation has been used to determine the soil in shredded sugar cane. (U.K.)

  7. A Research on Low Modulus Distributed Fiber Optical Sensor for Pavement Material Strain Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingjian; Wang, Linbing; Hou, Yue; Yan, Guannan

    2017-10-19

    The accumulated irreversible deformation in pavement under repeated vehicle loadings will cause fatigue failure of asphalt concrete. It is necessary to monitor the mechanical response of pavement under load by using sensors. Previous studies have limitations in modulus accommodation between the sensor and asphalt pavement, and it is difficult to achieve the distributed monitoring goal. To solve these problems, a new type of low modulus distributed optical fiber sensor (DOFS) for asphalt pavement strain monitoring is fabricated. Laboratory experiments have proved the applicability and accuracy of the newly-designed sensor. This paper presents the results of the development.

  8. The Near-IR TRGB Magnitude and Distance Modulus to NGC 185

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-J. Sohn

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We determined values of distance modulus to nearby dwarf galaxy NGC 185 from the Tip of Red-Giant Branch (TRGB method. Apparent magnitudes of the TRGB are estimated from the near-infrared JHK luminosity functions (LFs of the resolved giant branch stars. Theoretical absolute magnitudes of the TRGB in near-infrared bands have been extracted from the Yonsei-Yale isochrones. The observed apparent and theoretical absolute magnitudes of the TRGB provide values of distance modulus to NGC 185 as (m - M.

  9. Elastic Modulus Measurement of ORNL ATF FeCrAl Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Zachary T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Elastic modulus and Poisson’s ratio for a number of wrought FeCrAl alloys, intended for accident tolerant fuel cladding application, are determined via resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy. The results are reported as a function of temperature from room temperature to 850°C. The wrought alloys were in the fully annealed and unirradiated state. The elastic modulus for the wrought FeCrAl alloys is at least twice that of Zr-based alloys over the temperature range of this study. The Poisson’s ratio of the alloys was 0.28 on average and increased very slightly with increasing temperature.

  10. Elastic modulus, thermal expansion, and specific heat at a phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testardi, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    The interrelation of the elastic modulus, thermal-expansion coefficient, and specific heat of a transformed phase relative to the untransformed phase is calculated assuming a particular but useful form of the thermodynamic potential. For second-order phase transitions where this potential applies, measurements of modulus, expansion, and specific heat can yield the general (longitudinal as well as shear) first- and second-order stress (or strain) dependences of the transition temperature and of the order parameter at absolute zero. An exemplary application to one type of phase transition is given

  11. Linear analysis using secants for materials with temperature dependent nonlinear elastic modulus and thermal expansion properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, John W.

    2017-08-01

    Thermally induced stress is readily calculated for linear elastic material properties using Hooke's law in which, for situations where expansion is constrained, stress is proportional to the product of the material elastic modulus and its thermal strain. When material behavior is nonlinear, one needs to make use of nonlinear theory. However, we can avoid that complexity in some situations. For situations in which both elastic modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion vary with temperature, solutions can be formulated using secant properties. A theoretical approach is thus presented to calculate stresses for nonlinear, neo-Hookean, materials. This is important for high acuity optical systems undergoing large temperature extremes.

  12. Back-analysing rock mass modulus from monitoring data of two tunnels in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bertuzzi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two case studies where the rock mass modulus and in situ stress are estimated from the monitoring data obtained during the construction of underground excavations in Sydney, Australia. The case studies comprise the widening of existing twin road tunnels within Hawkesbury sandstone and the excavation of a large cavern within Ashfield shale. While back-analysis from detailed systematic monitoring has been previously published, this paper presents a relatively simple methodology to derive rock mass modulus and in situ stress from the relatively simple displacement data routinely recorded during tunnelling.

  13. Modelling of the Elasticity Modulus for Rock Using Genetic Expression Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Atici

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In rock engineering projects, statically determined parameters are more reflective of actual load conditions than dynamic parameters. This study reports a new and efficient approach to the formulation of the static modulus of elasticity Es applying gene expression programming (GEP with nondestructive testing (NDT methods. The results obtained using GEP are compared with the results of multivariable linear regression analysis (MRA, univariate nonlinear regression analysis (URA, and the dynamic elasticity modulus (Ed. The GEP model was found to produce the most accurate calculation of Es. The proposed approach is a simple, nondestructive, and practical way to determine Es for anisotropic and heterogeneous rocks.

  14. The Effect of Annealing on the Elastic Modulus of Orthodontic Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbottom, Kyle

    Introduction: Nickel Titanium orthodontic wires are currently used in orthodontic treatment due to their heat activated properties and their delivery of constant force. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of annealing on the elastic modulus of Nickel Titanium, Stainless Steel and Beta-titanium (TMA) wires. Different points along the wire were tested in order to determine how far from the annealed ends the elastic modulus of the wires was affected. Methods: Eighty (80) orthodontic wires consisting of 4 equal groups (SS/TMA/Classic NitinolRTM/Super Elastic NitinolRTM) were used as the specimens for this study. All wires were measured and marked at 5mm measurements, and cut into 33.00mm sections. The wires were heated with a butane torch until the first 13.00mm of the wires were red hot. Load deflection tests using an InstronRTM universal testing machine were run at 5mm distances from the end of the wire that had been annealed. The change in elastic modulus was then determined. Results: There was a significant difference (F = 533.001, p = 0.0005) in the change in elastic modulus for the four distances. There was also a significant difference (F = 57.571, p = 0.0005) in the change in elastic modulus for the four wire types. There was a significant interaction (F = 19.601, p = 0.005) between wire type and distance, however this interaction negated the differences between the wires. Conclusion: 1) There are significant differences in the changes in elastic modulus between the areas of the wires within the annealed section and those areas 5mm and 10mm away from the annealed section. The change in elastic modulus within the annealed section was significantly greater at 8 mm than it was at 13mm, and this was significantly greater than 18mm and 23mm (5mm and 10mm beyond the annealed section). However, there was no statistical difference in the change in elastic modulus between 5mm and 10mm away from the annealed section (18mm and 23mm respectively). 2

  15. Efficiency criterion for teleportation via channel matrix, measurement matrix and collapsed matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Wei Zha

    Full Text Available In this paper, three kinds of coefficient matrixes (channel matrix, measurement matrix, collapsed matrix associated with the pure state for teleportation are presented, the general relation among channel matrix, measurement matrix and collapsed matrix is obtained. In addition, a criterion for judging whether a state can be teleported successfully is given, depending on the relation between the number of parameter of an unknown state and the rank of the collapsed matrix. Keywords: Channel matrix, Measurement matrix, Collapsed matrix, Teleportation

  16. Extended biorthogonal matrix polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Shehata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials for commutative matrices were first introduced by Varma and Tasdelen in [22]. The main aim of this paper is to extend the properties of the pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials of Varma and Tasdelen and certain generating matrix functions, finite series, some matrix recurrence relations, several important properties of matrix differential recurrence relations, biorthogonality relations and matrix differential equation for the pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials J(A,B n (x, k and K(A,B n (x, k are discussed. For the matrix polynomials J(A,B n (x, k, various families of bilinear and bilateral generating matrix functions are constructed in the sequel.

  17. Matrix completion by deep matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jicong; Cheng, Jieyu

    2018-02-01

    Conventional methods of matrix completion are linear methods that are not effective in handling data of nonlinear structures. Recently a few researchers attempted to incorporate nonlinear techniques into matrix completion but there still exists considerable limitations. In this paper, a novel method called deep matrix factorization (DMF) is proposed for nonlinear matrix completion. Different from conventional matrix completion methods that are based on linear latent variable models, DMF is on the basis of a nonlinear latent variable model. DMF is formulated as a deep-structure neural network, in which the inputs are the low-dimensional unknown latent variables and the outputs are the partially observed variables. In DMF, the inputs and the parameters of the multilayer neural network are simultaneously optimized to minimize the reconstruction errors for the observed entries. Then the missing entries can be readily recovered by propagating the latent variables to the output layer. DMF is compared with state-of-the-art methods of linear and nonlinear matrix completion in the tasks of toy matrix completion, image inpainting and collaborative filtering. The experimental results verify that DMF is able to provide higher matrix completion accuracy than existing methods do and DMF is applicable to large matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ab-initio Computation of the Electronic, transport, and Bulk Properties of Calcium Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbolle, Augustine; Banjara, Dipendra; Malozovsky, Yuriy; Franklin, Lashounda; Bagayoko, Diola

    We report results from ab-initio, self-consistent, local Density approximation (LDA) calculations of electronic and related properties of calcium oxide (CaO) in the rock salt structure. We employed the Ceperley and Alder LDA potential and the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) formalism. Our calculations are non-relativistic. We implemented the LCAO formalism following the Bagayoko, Zhao, and Williams (BZW) method, as enhanced by Ekuma and Franklin (BZW-EF). The BZW-EF method involves a methodical search for the optimal basis set that yields the absolute minima of the occupied energies, as required by density functional theory (DFT). Our calculated, indirect band gap of 6.91eV, from towards the L point, is in excellent agreement with experimental value of 6.93-7.7eV, at room temperature (RT). We have also calculated the total (DOS) and partial (pDOS) densities of states as well as the bulk modulus. Our calculated bulk modulus is in excellent agreement with experiment. Work funded in part by the US Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) (Award No.DE-NA0002630), the National Science Foundation (NSF) (Award No, 1503226), LaSPACE, and LONI-SUBR.

  19. Matrix factorizations and homological mirror symmetry on the torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, Johanna; Omer, Harun

    2007-01-01

    We consider matrix factorizations and homological mirror symmetry on the torus T 2 using a Landau-Ginzburg description. We identify the basic matrix factorizations of the Landau-Ginzburg superpotential and compute the full spectrum taking into account the explicit dependence on bulk and boundary moduli. We verify homological mirror symmetry by comparing three-point functions in the A-model and the B-model

  20. Microstructure and mechanical properties of bulk highly faulted fcc/hcp nanostructured cobalt microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, Aliou Hamady [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, LSPM CNRS UPR 3407, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Laboratoire Chimie des Matériaux, Département de Chimie, Faculté des Sciences et Technique, Université de Nouakchott (Mauritania, Islamic Republic of); Dirras, Guy, E-mail: dirras@unv-paris13.fr [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, LSPM CNRS UPR 3407, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Schoenstein, Frederic; Tétard, Florent; Jouini, Noureddine [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, LSPM CNRS UPR 3407, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2014-05-01

    Nanostructured cobalt powders with an average particle size of 50 nm were synthesized using a polyol method and subsequently consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS). SPS experiments performed at 650 °C with sintering times ranging from 5 to 45 min under a pressure of 100 MPa, yielded to dense bulk nanostructured cobalt (relative density greater than 97%). X-ray diffraction patterns of the as-prepared powders showed only a face centered cubic (fcc) crystalline phase, whereas the consolidated samples exhibited a mixture of both fcc and hexagonal close packed (hcp) phases. Transmission electron microscopy observations revealed a lamellar substructure with a high density of nanotwins and stacking faults in every grain of the sintered samples. Room temperature compression tests, carried out at a strain rate of 10{sup −3} s{sup −1}, yielded to highest strain to fracture values of up to 5% for sample of holding time of 15 min, which exhibited a yield strength of 1440 MPa, an ultimate strength as high as 1740 MPa and a Young's modulus of 205 GPa. The modulus of elasticity obtained from the nanoindentation tests, ranges from 181 to 218 GPa. The lowest modulus value of 181 GPa was obtained for the sample with the highest sintering time (45 min), which could be related to mass density loss as a consequence of trapped gases releasing. - Highlights: • Co nanopowder (50 nm) was prepared by reduction in polyol medium. • SPS was used to process bulk nanostructured Co specimens. • Microstructures were made of intricate fcc/hcp, along with nanotwins and SFs. • High strengths and moderate compressive ductility were obtained. • Deformation mechanisms related to complex interplay of different length scales.

  1. Small compression modulus of the flux line lattice and large density fluctuations at high fields may explain peak effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, E.H.

    1976-01-01

    The elastic properties of the flux line lattice in Type II superconductors as calculated from the Ginsburg-Landau theory are discussed. They are non-local on a length scale much larger than the flux line distance and divergent at Hsub(c2). The compression modulus may become much smaller than its long-wavelength limit, B 2 /4π, and if the deformation is not homogeneous, at Hsub(c2) the modulus vanishes as (Hsub(c2) - B) 2 . At arbitrary induction the compression modulus of strain waves with wavelengths of several flux line distances is of the order of the (small) shear modulus. (author)

  2. Thermal, spectral, and surface properties of LED light-polymerized bulk fill resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pişkin, Mehmet Burçin; Atalı, Pınar Yılmaz; Figen, Aysel Kantürk

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the thermal, spectral, and surface properties of four different bulk fill materials – SureFil SDR (SDR, Dentsplay DETREY), QuixFil (QF, Dentsplay DETREY), X-tra base (XB, Voco) X-tra fil (XF, Voco) – polymerized by light-emitting diode (LED). Resin matrix, filler type, size and amount, and photoinitiator types influence the degree of conversion. LED-cured bulk fill composites achieved sufficient polymerization. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis revealed different patterns of surface roughness, depending on the composite material. Bulk fill materials showed surface characteristics similar to those of nanohybrid composites. Based on the thermal analysis results, glass transition (T(g)) and initial degradation (T(i)) temperatures changed depending on the bulk fill resin composites.

  3. 2 filler on the dielectric permittivity and electrical modulus of PMMA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The real and imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity decreased with the increase in frequency but increased with temperature. The electrical conductivity measurement showed a plateau-like behaviour in the low-frequency region and dispersion in the high-frequency region. The frequency-dependent electrical modulus ...

  4. Shear Modulus of Sintered 'House of Cards'-Like Assemblies of Crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaink, H.M.; Malssen, van K.

    2007-01-01

    A cell model of a 'house of cards'-like assembly of crystals is used for the study of the evolution of the shear modulus during sintering. The crystals are assumed to have a lozenge shape. The cell model takes different crystal-crystal contacts into account. The force needed to separate two sintered

  5. Speed of sound reflects Young's modulus as assessed by microstructural finite element analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergh, van den J.P.W.; Lenthe, van G.H.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Corstens, F.H.M.; Smals, A.G.H.; Huiskes, H.W.J.

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed the ability of the quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameter, speed of sound (SOS), and bone mineral density (BMD), as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), to predict Young's modulus, as assessed by microstructural finite element analysis (muFEA) from microcomputed

  6. Determination of the Young's modulus of pulsed laser deposited epitaxial PZT thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeer, H.; Nguyen, Duc Minh; Woldering, L.A.; Abelmann, Leon; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2011-01-01

    We determined the Young’s modulus of pulsed laser deposited epitaxially grown PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) thin films on microcantilevers by measuring the difference in cantilever resonance frequency before and after deposition. By carefully optimizing the accuracy of this technique, we were able to show

  7. Investigation of statistical relationship between dynamic modulus and thermal strength of asphalt concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, A.; Gular, M.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic modulus is a performance indicator for asphalt concrete and is used to qualify asphalt mixtures based on stress-strain characteristics under repeated loading. Moreover, the low temperature cracking of asphalt concrete mixes are measured in terms of fracture strength and fracture temperature. Dynamic modulus test was selected as one of the simple performance tests in the AASHTO 2002 guidelines to rate mixtures according to permanent deformation performance. However, AASHTO 2002 guidelines is silent in relating dynamic modulus values to low temperature cracking, probably because of weak correlations reported between these two properties. The present study investigates the relation between these two properties under the influence of aggregate type and mix gradation. Mixtures were prepared with two types of aggregate and gradations, while maintaining the binder type and air voids constant. The mixtures were later tested for dynamic modulus and fracture strength using thermal stress restrained specimen test (TSRST). Results indicate that there exists a fair correlation between the thermal fracture strength and stiffness at a selected test temperature and frequency level. These correlations are highly dependent upon the type of aggregate and mix gradation. (author)

  8. A summary of modulus of elasticity and knot size surveys for laminating grades of lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. W. Wolfe; R. C. Moody

    1981-01-01

    A summary of modulus of elasticity (MOE) and knot data is presented for grades of lumber commonly used to manufacture glued-laminated (glulam) timber by the laminating Industry. Tabulated values represent 30 different studies covering a time span of over 16 years. Statistical estimates of average and near-maximum knot sizes as well as mean and coefficient of variation...

  9. Phenomenology of mixed modulus-anomaly mediation in fluxed string compactifications and brane models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kiwoon; Jeong, Kwang-Sik; Okumura, Ken-ichi

    2005-01-01

    In some string compactifications, for instance the recently proposed KKLT set-up, light moduli are stabilized by nonperturbative effects at supersymmetric AdS vacuum which is lifted to a dS vacuum by supersymmetry breaking uplifting potential. In such models, soft supersymmetry breaking terms are determined by a specific mixed modulus-anomaly mediation in which the two mediations typically give comparable contributions to soft parameters. Similar pattern of soft terms can arise also in brane models to stabilize the radion by nonperturbative effects. We examine some phenomenological consequences of this mixed modulus-anomaly mediation, including the pattern of low energy sparticle spectrum and the possibility of electroweak symmetry breaking. It is noted that adding the anomaly-mediated contributions at M GUT amounts to replacing the messenger scale of the modulus mediation by a mirage messenger scale (m 3/2 /M Pl ) α/2 M GUT where α = m 3/2 /[M 0 ln (M Pl /m 3/2 )] for M 0 denoting the modulus-mediated contribution to the gaugino mass at M GUT . The minimal KKLT set-up predicts α = 1. As a consequence, for α = O(1), the model can lead to a highly distinctive pattern of sparticle masses at TeV scale, particularly when α = 2

  10. High modulus asphalt (EME) technology transfer to South Africa and Australia: shared experiences

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes experiences with the implementation of French enrobés à module élevé (EME) (high modulus asphalt) technology in South Africa and Australia. Tentative performance specifications for EME mixes were set in the two countries based...

  11. Estimates of the integral modulus of continuity of functions with rarely changing Fourier coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telyakovskii, S A

    2002-01-01

    The functions under consideration are those satisfying the condition Δa i =Δb i =0 for all i≠n j , where {n j } is a lacunary sequence. An asymptotic estimate of the rate of decrease of the modulus of continuity in the L-metric of such functions in terms of their Fourier coefficients is obtained

  12. Young's modulus and residual stress of GeSbTe phase-change thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeer, H.; Bhaskaran, Harish; Woldering, L.A.; Abelmann, Leon

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical properties of phase change materials alter when the phase is transformed. In this paper, we report on experiments that determine the change in crucial parameters such as Young's modulus and residual stress for two of the most widely employed compositions of phase change films,

  13. Elastic modulus and internal friction of SOFC electrolytes at high temperatures under controlled atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushi, Takuto; Sato, Kazuhisa; Unemoto, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Amezawa, Koji; Kawada, Tatsuya

    2011-10-01

    Mechanical properties such as Young's modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio and internal friction of conventional electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells, Zr0.85Y0.15 O1.93 (YSZ), Zr0.82Sc0.18O1.91 (ScSZ), Zr0.81Sc0.18Ce0.01O2-δ (ScCeSZ), Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ (GDC), La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.15Co0.05O3-δ (LSGMC), La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ (LSGM), were evaluated by a resonance method at temperatures from room temperature to 1273 K in various oxygen partial pressures. The Young's modulus of GDC gradually decreased with increasing temperature in oxidizing conditions. The Young's moduli of the series of zirconia and lanthanum gallate based materials drastically decreased in an intermediate temperature range and increased slightly with increasing temperature at higher temperatures. The Young's modulus of GDC considerably decreased above 823 K in reducing atmospheres in response to the change of oxygen nonstoichiometry. However, temperature dependences of the Young's moduli of ScCeSZ and LSGMC in reducing atmospheres did not show any significant differences with those in oxidizing atmospheres.

  14. Diameter effect on stress-wave evaluation of modulus of elasticity of logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; Brian K. Brashaw; John Punches; John R. Erickson; John W. Forsman; Roy E. Pellerin

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies on nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of logs have shown that a longitudinal stress-wave method can be used to nondestructively evaluate the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of logs. A strong relationship has been found between stress-wave MOE and static MOE of logs, but a significant deviation was observed between stress-wave and static values. The objective of...

  15. A decreased subchondral trabecular bone tissue elastic modulus is associated with pre-arthritic cartilage damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, J; Ding, Ming; van der Linden, JC

    2001-01-01

    determined using a combination of finite element models and mechanical testing. The bone tissue modulus was reduced by 60% in the medial condyle of the cases with cartilage damage compared to the control specimens. Neither the presence of cartilage damage nor the anatomic site (medial vs. lateral) affected...

  16. Influence of the cementitious paste composition on the E-modulus and heat of hydration evolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, Lino; Azenha, Miguel; Faria, Rui; Figueiras, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    E-modulus and heat of hydration are features of cement-based materials that follow a rapid rate of change at early ages. This paper analyses the influence of the composition of cementitious pastes on these features by using two methods: (i) a novel technique for continuously monitoring the E-modulus of cement-based materials, based on evaluating the first resonant frequency of a composite beam containing the material under testing, and (ii) an isothermal calorimeter to determine the released heat of hydration. Seventeen mixes are tested, encompassing pastes with five w/c ratios, as well as different contents of limestone filler, fly ash, silica fume and metakaolin. The results permit the comparison of the E-modulus and heat of hydration sensitivities to mix composition changes, and to check possible relations between these features. This work also helps to establish the technique (i) as a non-destructive method for monitoring the E-modulus evolution in cement-based materials since casting.

  17. Influence of heat treatment and veneering on the storage modulus and surface of zirconia ceramic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siavikis, G.; Behr, M.; van der Zel, J.M.; Feilzer, A.J.; Rosentritt, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Glass-ceramic veneered zirconia is used for the application as fixed partial dentures. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether the heat treatment during veneering, the application of glass-ceramic for veneering or long term storage has an influence on the storage modulus of

  18. Noninvasive Vascular Displacement Estimation for Relative Elastic Modulus Reconstruction in Transversal Imaging Planes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L. de Korte

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic plaque rupture can initiate stroke or myocardial infarction. Lipid-rich plaques with thin fibrous caps have a higher risk to rupture than fibrotic plaques. Elastic moduli differ for lipid-rich and fibrous tissue and can be reconstructed using tissue displacements estimated from intravascular ultrasound radiofrequency (RF data acquisitions. This study investigated if modulus reconstruction is possible for noninvasive RF acquisitions of vessels in transverse imaging planes using an iterative 2D cross-correlation based displacement estimation algorithm. Furthermore, since it is known that displacements can be improved by compounding of displacements estimated at various beam steering angles, we compared the performance of the modulus reconstruction with and without compounding. For the comparison, simulated and experimental RF data were generated of various vessel-mimicking phantoms. Reconstruction errors were less than 10%, which seems adequate for distinguishing lipid-rich from fibrous tissue. Compounding outperformed single-angle reconstruction: the interquartile range of the reconstructed moduli for the various homogeneous phantom layers was approximately two times smaller. Additionally, the estimated lateral displacements were a factor of 2–3 better matched to the displacements corresponding to the reconstructed modulus distribution. Thus, noninvasive elastic modulus reconstruction is possible for transverse vessel cross sections using this cross-correlation method and is more accurate with compounding.

  19. Modeling of nano-reinforced polymer composites: Microstructure effect on Young’s modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, R.D.; Zhou, H.W.; Wang, H.W.

    2012-01-01

    ” algorithm was developed in the ABAQUS Scripting Interface. In the computational studies, it was observed that the elastic modulus increases with the increasing the aspect ratio of nanoparticles. The thickness and properties of effective interface layers and the shape and degree of particles clustering have...

  20. MODULUS OF ELASTICITY AND HARDNESS OF COMPRESSION AND OPPOSITE WOOD CELL WALLS OF MASSON PINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Huang,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Compression wood is commonly found in Masson pine. To evaluate the mechanical properties of the cell wall of Masson pine compression and opposite wood, nanoindentation was used. The results showed that the average values of hardness and cell wall modulus of elasticity of opposite wood were slightly higher than those of compression wood. With increasing age of the annual ring, the modulus of elasticity showed a negative correlation with microfibril angle, but a weak correlation was observed for hardness. In opposite and compression wood from the same annual ring, the differences in average values of modulus of elasticity and hardness were small. These slight differences were explained by the change of microfibril angle (MFA, the press-in mode of nanoindentation, and the special structure of compression wood. The mechanical properties were almost the same for early, transition, and late wood in a mature annual ring of opposite wood. It can therefore be inferred that the average modulus of elasticity (MOE and hardness of the cell walls in a mature annual ring were not being affected by cell wall thickness.

  1. Effect of stress level on static young's modulus of certain structural materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vojtenko, A.F.; Skripnik, Yu.D.; Solov' eva, N.G.; Nadezhdin, G.N. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Problem Prochnosti)

    1982-11-01

    Certain steels, titanium and aluminium alloys have been studied for their dynamic and static Young moduli. It is shown that a stress rise in materials to the level of microplastic strain realization results in a significant reduction of the static modulus of elasticity in the materials studied.

  2. Detail of photo 7903109 stack of superconducting cables in the modulus measuring device

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The picture shows an assembly of insulated superconducting cables of the type used in the Po dipole magnet inserted in the elastic modulus measuring device (photos 7903547X and 7903169) in order to measures its mechanical properties under azimuthal compression. See also 7903547X, 7903169, 8307552X.

  3. Effect of stress level on static young's modulus of certain structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojtenko, A.F.; Skripnik, Yu.D.; Solov'eva, N.G.; Nadezhdin, G.N.

    1982-01-01

    Certain steels, titanium and aluminium alloys have been studied for their dynamic and static Young moduli. It is shown that a stress rise in materials to the level of microplastic strain realization results in a significant reduction of the static modulus of elasticity in the materials studied

  4. Use of an ultrasonic device for the determination of elastic modulus of dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Masashi; Inage, Hirohiko; Onose, Hideo

    2002-03-01

    The mechanical properties of dentin substrate are one of the important factors in determining bond strength of dentin bonding systems. The purpose of this study was to determine the elastic modulus of dentin substrate with the use of an ultrasonic device. The dentin disks of about 1 mm thickness were obtaining from freshly extracted human third molars, and the dentin disk was shaped in a rectangular form with a line diamond point. The size and weight of each specimen was measured to calculate the density of the specimen. The ultrasonic equipment employed in this study was composed of a Pulser-Receiver (Model 5900PR, Panametrics), transducers (V155, V156, Panametrics) and an oscilloscope. The measured two-way transit time through the dentin disk was divided by two to account for the down-and-back travel path, and then multiplied by the velocity of sound in the test material. Measuring the longitudinal and share wave sound velocity determine elastic modulus. The mean elastic modulus of horizontally sectioned specimens was 21.8 GPa and 18.5 GPa for the vertically sectioned specimens, and a significant difference was found between the two groups. The ultrasonic method used in this study shows considerable promise for determination of the elastic modulus of the tooth substrate.

  5. Determining shear modulus of thin wood composite materials using a cantilever beam vibration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Guan; Houjiang Zhang; John F. Hunt; Haicheng Yan

    2016-01-01

    Shear modulus (G) of thin wood composite materials is one of several important indicators that characterizes mechanical properties. However, there is not an easy method to obtain this value. This study presents the use of a newly developed cantilever beam free vibration test apparatus to detect in-plane G of thin wood composite...

  6. Crystalline cellulose elastic modulus predicted by atomistic models of uniform deformation and nanoscale indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiawa Wu; Robert J. Moon; Ashlie Martini

    2013-01-01

    The elastic modulus of cellulose Iß in the axial and transverse directions was obtained from atomistic simulations using both the standard uniform deformation approach and a complementary approach based on nanoscale indentation. This allowed comparisons between the methods and closer connectivity to experimental measurement techniques. A reactive...

  7. Stiffness modulus and creep properties of the coconut shell in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coconut shell (CS) is an agricultural waste engineered into a road construction material. This study was conducted to evaluate the stiffness modulus and dynamic creep properties of the asphaltic concrete containing CS as an aggregate replacement. A mixture design incorporating the bitumen penetration grade 60/70 was ...

  8. The influence of resin flexural modulus on the magnitude of ceramic strengthening.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleming, Garry J P

    2012-07-01

    The aim was to determine the magnitude of ceramic resin-strengthening with resin-based materials with varying flexural moduli using a regression technique to assess the theoretical strengthening at a \\'zero\\' resin-coating thickness. The hypothesis tested was that experimentally, increasing resin flexural modulus results in increased resin-strengthening observed at a theoretical \\'zero\\' resin-coating thickness.

  9. Finite element determination of tearing modulus for application to industrial cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charras, T.; Combescure, A.

    1984-12-01

    The Tearing modulus, coming from a derivative of J with respect to crack-length is difficult to compute, specially in 3D, where computation costs are important. This paper presents a method to determine this value without doing two complete computations with two cracks lengths

  10. Mechanical improvement of metal reinforcement rings for a finite ring-shaped superconducting bulk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Guang; Zhou, You-He

    2018-03-01

    As a key technique, reinforcement of type-II superconducting bulks with metal rings can efficiently improve their mechanical properties to enhance the maximum trapped field. In this paper, we study the magnetostrictive and fracture behaviors of a finite superconducting ring bulk reinforced by three typical reinforcing structures composed of metal rings during the magnetizing process by means of the minimization of magnetic energy and the finite element method. After a field-dependent critical current density is adopted, the magnetostriction, pinning-induced stress, and crack tip stress intensity factor are calculated considering the demagnetization effects. The results show that the mechanical properties of the ring bulk are strongly dependent on the reinforcing structure and the material and geometrical parameters of the metal rings. Introducing the metal ring can significantly reduce the hoop stress, and the reduction effect by internal reinforcement is much improved relative to external reinforcement. By comparison, bilateral reinforcement seems to be the best candidate structure. Only when the metal rings have particular Young's modulus and radial thickness will they contribute to improve the mechanical properties the most. In addition, if an edge crack is pre-existing in the ring bulk, the presence of metal rings can effectively avoid crack propagation since it reduces the crack tip stress intensity factor by nearly one order of magnitude.

  11. Microstructure and tensile properties of bulk nanostructured aluminum/graphene composites prepared via cryomilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.L., E-mail: ljlhpu123@163.com; Xiong, Y.C.; Wang, X.D.; Yan, S.J.; Yang, C.; He, W.W.; Chen, J.Z.; Wang, S.Q.; Zhang, X.Y.; Dai, S.L.

    2015-02-25

    In order to develop high strength metal–matrix composites with acceptable ductility, bulk nanostructured aluminum–matrix composites reinforced with graphene nanoflakes were fabricated by cryomilling and hot extrusion processes. Microstructure and mechanical properties were characterized and determined using transmission electron microscopy, electron dispersion spectroscopy, as well as static tensile tests. The results show that, with an addition of only 0.5 wt% graphene nanoflakes, the bulk nanostructured aluminum/graphene composite exhibited increased strength and unsubdued ductility over pure aluminum. Besides, the mechanical properties of the composites with higher content of graphene nanoflakes were also measured and investigated. Above 1.0 wt% of graphene nanoflakes, however, this strengthening effect sharply dropped due to the clustering of graphene nanoflakes. Furthermore, the optimal addition of graphene nanoflakes into the nanocrystalline aluminum matrix was calculated and discussed.

  12. Coupling brane fields to bulk supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parameswaran, Susha L. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Schmidt, Jonas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In this note we present a simple, general prescription for coupling brane localized fields to bulk supergravity. We illustrate the procedure by considering 6D N=2 bulk supergravity on a 2D orbifold, with brane fields localized at the fixed points. The resulting action enjoys the full 6D N=2 symmetries in the bulk, and those of 4D N=1 supergravity at the brane positions. (orig.)

  13. Influence of Bulk PDMS Network Properties on Water Wettability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, Matthew; Walker, Edwin; Klein, Zoe; Efimenko, Kirill; Genzer, Jan

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) is one of the most common elastomers, with applications ranging from sealants and marine antifouling coatings to absorbents for water treatment. Fundamental understanding of how liquids spread on the surface of and absorb into PDMS networks is of critical importance for the design and use of another application - medical devices. We have systematically studied the effects of polymer molecular weight, loading of tetra-functional crosslinker, and end-group chemical functionality on the mechanical and surface properties of end-linked PDMS networks. Wettability was investigated through the sessile drop technique, wherein a DI water droplet was placed on the bulk network surface and droplet volume, shape, surface area, and contact angle were monitored as a function of time. Various silicone substrates ranging from incredibly soft and flexible materials (E' 50 kPa) to highly rigid networks (E' 5 MPa) were tested. The dynamic behavior of the droplet on the surfaces demonstrated equilibration times between the droplet and surface on the order of 5 minutes. Similar trends were observed for the commercial PDMS material, Sylgard-184. Our results have provided new evidence for the strong influence that substrate modulus and molecular network structure have on the wettability of PDMS elastomers. These findings will aid in the design and implementation of efficient, accurate, and safe PDMS-based medical devices and microfluidic materials that involve aqueous media.

  14. Determination of the bulk modulus of hydroxycancrinite, a possible zeolitic precursor in geopolymers, by high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Jae Eun; Clark, Simon M.; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Crystalline zeolitic materials, such as hydroxycancrinite, hydroxysodalite, herschelite and nepheline, are often synthesized from geopolymerization using fly-ash and solutions of NaOH at high temperatures. Comprised mainly of 6-membered

  15. Comments on the paper 'Temperature dependence of bulk modulus and second-order elastic constants' by P.P. Singh and M. Kumar [Physica B 344 (2004) 41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    Singh and Kumar have questioned the validity of the Mie-Grueneisen equation using an incorrect formulation. The Suzuki equation for thermal expansivity has been expressed by them in terms of thermal pressure using a wrong definition. The formulations already reported in the literature have been rediscovered by them and redesignated as the Kumar formulation. In the present communication we have reinforced the validity of the Mie-Grueneisen EOS using the correct definition of thermal pressure in the Suzuki formulation

  16. Longitudinal and bulk viscosities of expanded rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaheri, Ali Hossein Mohammad; Srivastava, Sunita; Tankeshwar, K

    2003-01-01

    First three non-vanishing sum rules for the bulk and longitudinal stress auto-correlation functions have been evaluated for liquid Rb at six thermodynamic states along the liquid-vapour coexistence curve. The Mori memory function formalism and the frequency sum rules have been used to calculate bulk and longitudinal viscosities. The results thus obtained for the ratio of bulk viscosity to shear viscosity have been compared with experimental and other theoretical predictions wherever available. The values of the bulk viscosity have been found to be more than the corresponding values of the shear viscosity for all six thermodynamic states investigated here

  17. Nanopatterned Bulk Metallic Glass Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Emily R; Padmanabhan, Jagannath; Yu, Roy; Corona, Sydney L; Li, Jinyang; Vaddiraju, Sagar; Legassey, Allen; Loye, Ayomiposi; Balestrini, Jenna; Solly, Dawson A; Schroers, Jan; Taylor, André D; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios; Herzog, Raimund I; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2017-12-22

    Nanopatterning as a surface area enhancement method has the potential to increase signal and sensitivity of biosensors. Platinum-based bulk metallic glass (Pt-BMG) is a biocompatible material with electrical properties conducive for biosensor electrode applications, which can be processed in air at comparably low temperatures to produce nonrandom topography at the nanoscale. Work presented here employs nanopatterned Pt-BMG electrodes functionalized with glucose oxidase enzyme to explore the impact of nonrandom and highly reproducible nanoscale surface area enhancement on glucose biosensor performance. Electrochemical measurements including cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric voltammetry (AV) were completed to compare the performance of 200 nm Pt-BMG electrodes vs Flat Pt-BMG control electrodes. Glucose dosing response was studied in a range of 2 mM to 10 mM. Effective current density dynamic range for the 200 nm Pt-BMG was 10-12 times greater than that of the Flat BMG control. Nanopatterned electrode sensitivity was measured to be 3.28 μA/cm 2 /mM, which was also an order of magnitude greater than the flat electrode. These results suggest that nonrandom nanotopography is a scalable and customizable engineering tool which can be integrated with Pt-BMGs to produce biocompatible biosensors with enhanced signal and sensitivity.

  18. Aspects of silicon bulk lifetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, P. T.

    1985-01-01

    The best lifetimes attained for bulk crytalline silicon as a function of doping concentrations are analyzed. It is assumed that the dopants which set the Fermi level do not contribute to the recombination traffic which is due to the unknown defect. This defect is assumed to have two charge states: neutral and negative, the neutral defect concentration is frozen-in at some temperature T sub f. The higher doping concentrations should include the band-band Auger effect by using a generalization of the Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) mechanism. The generalization of the SRH mechanism is discussed. This formulation gives a straightforward procedure for incorporating both band-band and band-trap Auger effects in the SRH procedure. Two related questions arise in this context: (1) it may sometimes be useful to write the steady-state occupation probability of the traps implied by SRH procedure in a form which approximates to the Fermi-Dirac distribution; and (2) the effect on the SRH mechanism of spreading N sub t levels at one energy uniformly over a range of energies is discussed.

  19. Effects of Bone Young’s Modulus on Finite Element Analysis in the Lateral Ankle Biomechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. X. Niu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element analysis (FEA is a powerful tool in biomechanics. The mechanical properties of biological tissue used in FEA modeling are mainly from experimental data, which vary greatly and are sometimes uncertain. The purpose of this study was to research how Young’s modulus affects the computations of a foot-ankle FEA model. A computer simulation and an in-vitro experiment were carried out to investigate the effects of incremental Young’s modulus of bone on the stress and strain outcomes in the computational simulation. A precise 3-dimensional finite element model was constructed based on an in-vitro specimen of human foot and ankle. Young’s moduli were assigned as four levels of 7.3, 14.6, 21.9 and 29.2 GPa respectively. The proximal tibia and fibula were completely limited to six degrees of freedom, and the ankle was loaded to inversion 10° and 20° through the calcaneus. Six cadaveric foot-ankle specimens were loaded as same as the finite element model, and strain was measured at two positions of the distal fibula. The bone stress was less affected by assignment of Young’s modulus. With increasing of Young’s modulus, the bone strain decreased linearly. Young’s modulus of 29.2 GPa was advisable to get the satisfactory surface strain results. In the future study, more ideal model should be constructed to represent the nonlinearity, anisotropy and inhomogeneity, as the same time to provide reasonable outputs of the interested parameters.

  20. The Matrix Cookbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kaare Brandt; Pedersen, Michael Syskind

    Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices.......Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices....

  1. Carbonate fuel cell matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooque, Mohammad; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    1996-01-01

    A carbonate fuel cell matrix comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles.

  2. Matrix with Prescribed Eigenvectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faiz

    2011-01-01

    It is a routine matter for undergraduates to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a given matrix. But the converse problem of finding a matrix with prescribed eigenvalues and eigenvectors is rarely discussed in elementary texts on linear algebra. This problem is related to the "spectral" decomposition of a matrix and has important technical…

  3. Triangularization of a Matrix

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Much of linear algebra is devoted to reducing a matrix (via similarity or unitary similarity) to another that has lots of zeros. The simplest such theorem is the Schur triangularization theorem. This says that every matrix is unitarily similar to an upper triangular matrix. Our aim here is to show that though it is very easy to prove it ...

  4. Matrix density effects on the mechanical properties of SiC fiber-reinforced silicon nitride matrix properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Kiser, Lames D.

    1990-01-01

    The room temperature mechanical properties were measured for SiC fiber reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride composites (SiC/RBSN) of different densities. The composites consisted of approx. 30 vol percent uniaxially aligned 142 micron diameter SiC fibers (Textron SCS-6) in a reaction-bonded Si3N4 matrix. The composite density was varied by changing the consolidation pressure during RBSN processing and by hot isostatically pressing the SiC/RBSN composites. Results indicate that as the consolidation pressure was increased from 27 to 138 MPa, the average pore size of the nitrided composites decreased from 0.04 to 0.02 microns and the composite density increased from 2.07 to 2.45 gm/cc. Nonetheless, these improvements resulted in only small increases in the first matrix cracking stress, primary elastic modulus, and ultimate tensile strength values of the composites. In contrast, HIP consolidation of SiC/RBSN resulted in a fully dense material whose first matrix cracking stress and elastic modulus were approx. 15 and 50 percent higher, respectively, and ultimate tensile strength values were approx. 40 percent lower than those for unHIPed SiC/RBSN composites. The modulus behavior for all specimens can be explained by simple rule-of-mixture theory. Also, the loss in ultimate strength for the HIPed composites appears to be related to a degradation in fiber strength at the HIP temperature. However, the density effect on matrix fracture strength was much less than would be expected based on typical monolithic Si3N4 behavior, suggesting that composite theory is indeed operating. Possible practical implications of these observations are discussed.

  5. Mechanical properties study of particles reinforced aluminum matrix composites by micro-indentation experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhanwei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available By using instrumental micro-indentation technique, the microhardness and Young’s modulus of SiC particles reinforced aluminum matrix composites were investigated with micro-compression-tester (MCT. The micro-indentation experiments were performed with different maximum loads, and with three loading speeds of 2.231, 4.462 and 19.368 mN/s respectively. During the investigation, matrix, particle and interface were tested by micro-indentation experiments. The results exhibit that the variations of Young’s modulus and microhardness at particle, matrix and interface were highly dependent on the loading conditions (maximum load and loading speed and the locations of indentation. Micro-indentation hardness experiments of matrix show the indentation size effects, i.e. the indentation hardness decreased with the indentation depth increasing. During the analysis, the effect of loading conditions on Young’s modulus and microhardness were explained. Besides, the elastic–plastic properties of matrix were analyzed. The validity of calculated results was identified by finite element simulation. And the simulation results had been preliminarily analyzed from statistical aspect.

  6. Determining a membrane's shear modulus, independent of its area-dilatation modulus, via capsule flow in a converging micro-capillary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakopoulos, P; Kuriakose, S

    2015-04-14

    Determination of the elastic properties of the membrane of artificial capsules is essential for the better design of the various devices that are utilized in their engineering and biomedical applications. However this task is complicated owing to the combined effects of the shear and area-dilatation moduli on the capsule deformation. Based on computational investigation, we propose a new methodology to determine a membrane's shear modulus, independent of its area-dilatation modulus, by flowing strain-hardening capsules in a converging micro-capillary of comparable size under Stokes flow conditions, and comparing the experimental measurements of the capsule elongation overshooting with computational data. The capsule prestress, if any, can also be determined with the same methodology. The elongation overshooting is practically independent of the viscosity ratio for low and moderate viscosity ratios, and thus a wide range of capsule fluids can be employed. Our proposed experimental device can be readily produced via glass fabrication while owing to the continuous flow in the micro-capillary, the characterization of a large number of artificial capsules is possible.

  7. System of multifunctional Jones matrix tomography of phase anisotropy in diagnostics of endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, V. O.; Koval, G. D.; Ushenko, Yu. O.; Pidkamin, L. Y.; Sidor, M. I.; Vanchuliak, O.; Motrich, A. V.; Gorsky, M. P.; Meglinskiy, I.

    2017-09-01

    The paper presents the results of Jones-matrix mapping of uterine wall histological sections with second-degree and third-degree endometriosis. The technique of experimental measurement of coordinate distributions of the modulus and phase values of Jones matrix elements is suggested. Within the statistical and cross-correlation approaches the modulus and phase maps of Jones matrix images of optically thin biological layers of polycrystalline films of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid are analyzed. A set of objective parameters (statistical and generalized correlation moments), which are the most sensitive to changes in the phase of anisotropy, associated with the features of polycrystalline structure of uterine wall histological sections with second-degree and third-degree endometriosis are determined.

  8. A new soft dielectric silicone elastomer matrix with high mechanical integrity and low losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Daugaard, Anders Egede

    2015-01-01

    Though dielectric elastomers (DEs) have many favourable properties, the issue of high driving voltages limits the commercial viability of the technology. Driving voltage can be lowered by decreasing the Young's modulus and increasing the dielectric permittivity of silicone elastomers. A decrease...... in Young's modulus, however, is often accompanied by the loss of mechanical stability and thereby the lifetime of the DE. A new soft elastomer matrix, with no loss of mechanical stability and high dielectric permittivity, was prepared through the use of alkyl chloride-functional siloxane copolymers...

  9. Porous InP as piezoelectric matrix material in 1-3 magnetoelectric composite sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerngross, M.-D.; Leisner, M.; Carstensen, J.; Foell, H.

    2011-01-01

    This work shows the results of the fabrication of semi-insulating piezoelectric porous InP structures by electrochemical etching and subsequent purely chemical post-etching in an isotropic HF, HNO 3 , EtOH and HAc containing electrolyte. The piezoelectric modulus d 14 of porous InP is measured to around |60| pm / V, which larger by a factor of 30 compared to bulk InP.

  10. 27 CFR 20.191 - Bulk articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk articles. 20.191... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Operations by Users § 20.191 Bulk articles. Users who convey articles in containers exceeding one gallon may provide the recipient with a photocopy of subpart G of this...

  11. On the bulk viscosity of relativistic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuto, V.; Hsieh, S.-H.

    1978-01-01

    An expression for the bulk viscosity coefficient in terms of the trace of the hydrodynamic energy-stress tensor is derived from the Kubo formula. This, along with a field-theoretic model of an interacting system of scalar particles, suggests that at high temperatures the bulk viscosity tends to zero, contrary to the often quoted resuls of Iso, Mori and Namiki. (author)

  12. Bulk-viscosity-driven asymmetric inflationary universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waga, I.; Lima, J.A.S.; Portugal, R.

    1987-01-01

    A primordial net bosinic charge is introduced in the context of the bulk-viscosity-driven inflationary models. The analysis is carried through a macroscopic point of view in the framework of the causal thermodynamic theory. The conditions for having exponetial and generalized inflation are obtained. A phenomenological expression for the bulk viscosity coefficient is also derived. (author) [pt

  13. Phonon dispersion relations in monoatomic superlattices: a transfer matrix theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, E.L. de; Fulco, P.

    1986-01-01

    We present a lattice dynamical theory for monoatomic superlattices consisting of alternating layers of two different materials. Using a transfer matrix method we obtain explicit the equation for dispersion of the phonon's bulk modes, including the well known result in the long wave-length limit which can be obtained by elasticity theory. An illustation is shown and its features discussed. (Author) [pt

  14. Physico-mechanical characteristics of commercially available bulk-fill composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprince, Julian G; Palin, William M; Vanacker, Julie; Sabbagh, Joseph; Devaux, Jacques; Leloup, Gaetane

    2014-08-01

    Bulk-fill composites have emerged, arguably, as a new "class" of resin-based composites, which are claimed to enable restoration in thick layers, up to 4mm. The objective of this work was to compare, under optimal curing conditions, the physico-mechanical properties of most currently available bulk-fill composites to those of two conventional composite materials chosen as references, one highly filled and one flowable "nano-hybrid" composite. Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (Ivoclar-Vivadent), Venus Bulk Fill (Heraeus-Kulzer), SDR (Dentsply), X-tra Fil (VOCO), X-tra Base (VOCO), Sonic Fill (Kerr), Filtek Bulk Fill (3M-Espe), Xenius (GC) were compared to the two reference materials. The materials were light-cured for 40s in a 2mm×2mm×25mm Teflon mould. Degree of conversion was measured by Raman spectroscopy, Elastic modulus and flexural strength were evaluated by three point bending, surface hardness using Vickers microindentation before and after 24h ethanol storage, and filler weight content by thermogravimetric analysis. The ratio of surface hardness before and after ethanol storage was considered as an evaluation of polymer softening. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test (p=0.05). The mechanical properties of the bulk-fill composites were mostly lower compared with the conventional high viscosity material, and, at best, comparable to the conventional flowable composite. Linear correlations of the mechanical properties investigated were poor with degree of conversion (0.090.8). Softening in ethanol revealed differences in polymer network density between material types. The reduction of time and improvement of convenience associated with bulk-fill materials is a clear advantage of this particular material class. However, a compromise with mechanical properties compared with more conventional commercially-available nano-hybrid materials was demonstrated by the present work. Given the lower mechanical properties of most bulk-fill materials

  15. Calculation of wear (f.i. wear modulus) in the plastic cup of a hip joint prosthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, D.J.

    1975-01-01

    The wear equation is applied to the wear process in a hip joint prosthesis and a wear modulus is defined. The sliding distance, wear modulus, wear volume, wear area, contact angle and the maximum normal stress were calculated and the theoretical calculations applied to test results. During the wear

  16. Particle size dependence of the Young's modulus of filled polymers: 2. Annealing and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollenberg, P.H.T.; Haan, de J.W.; Ven, van de L.J.M.; Heikens, D.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental results are reported from which it appears that in the case of polymer filled with silane-treated glass beads the Young's modulus is, in accordance with present theory, independent of the particle size of the filler. However, if pure glass beads are used as filler, the Young's modulus

  17. Enhancement of wear and corrosion resistance of low modulus β-type Zr-20Nb-xTi (x=0, 3) dental alloys through thermal oxidation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Gan, Xiaxia; Tang, Hongqun; Zhan, Yongzhong

    2017-07-01

    In order to obtain material with low elastic modulus, good abrasion resistance and high corrosion stability as screw for dental implant, the biomedical Zr-20Nb and Zr-20Nb-3Ti alloy with low elastic modulus were thermal oxidized respectively at 700°C for 1h and 600°C for 1.25h to obtain the compact oxidized layer to improve its wear resistance and corrosion resistance. The results show that smooth compact oxidized layer (composed of monoclinic ZrO 2 , tetragonal ZrO 2 and 6ZrO 2 -Nb 2 O 5 ) with 22.6μm-43.5μm thickness and 1252-1306HV hardness can be in-situ formed on the surface of the Zr-20Nb-xTi (x=0, 3). The adhesion of oxidized layers to the substrates is determined to be 58.35-66.25N. The oxidized Zr-20Nb-xTi alloys reveal great improvement of the pitting corrosion resistance in comparison with the un-oxidized alloys. In addition, the oxidized Zr-20Nb-3Ti exhibits sharply reduction of the corrosion rates and the oxidized Zr-20Nb shows higher corrosion rates than un-oxidized alloys, which is relevant with the content of the t-ZrO 2 . Wear test in artificial saliva demonstrates that the wear losses of the oxidized Zr-20Nb-xTi (x=0, 3) are superior to pure Ti. All of the un-oxidized Zr-20Nb-xTi (x=0, 3) alloys suffer from serious adhesive wear due to its high plasticity. Because of the protection from compact oxide layer with high adhesion and high hardness, the coefficients of friction and wear losses of the oxidized Zr-20Nb-xTi (x=0, 3) alloys decrease 50% and 95%, respectively. The defects on the oxidized Zr-20Nb have a negative effect on the friction and wear properties. In addition, after the thermal oxidation, compression test show that elastic modulus and strength of Zr-20Nb-xTi (x=0, 3) increase slightly with plastic deformation after 40% of transformation. Furthermore, stripping of the oxidized layer from the alloy matrix did not occur during the whole experiments. As the surface oxidized Zr-20Nb-3Ti alloy has a combination of excellent performance

  18. Nanomechanical properties of thick porous silicon layers grown on p- and p+-type bulk crystalline Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charitidis, C.A.; Skarmoutsou, A.; Nassiopoulou, A.G.; Dragoneas, A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The nanomechanical properties of bulk crystalline Si. → The nanomechanical properties of porous Si. → The elastic-plastic deformation of porous Si compared to bulk crystalline quantified by nanoindentation data analysis. - Abstract: The nanomechanical properties and the nanoscale deformation of thick porous Si (PSi) layers of two different morphologies, grown electrochemically on p-type and p+-type Si wafers were investigated by the depth-sensing nanoindentation technique over a small range of loads using a Berkovich indenter and were compared with those of bulk crystalline Si. The microstructure of the thick PSi layers was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. PSi layers on p+-type Si show an anisotropic mesoporous structure with straight vertical pores of diameter in the range of 30-50 nm, while those on p-type Si show a sponge like mesoporous structure. The effect of the microstructure on the mechanical properties of the layers is discussed. It is shown that the hardness and Young's modulus of the PSi layers exhibit a strong dependence on their microstructure. In particular, PSi layers with the anisotropic straight vertical pores show higher hardness and elastic modulus values than sponge-like layers. However, sponge-like PSi layers reveal less plastic deformation and higher wear resistance compared with layers with straight vertical pores.

  19. Measurement of the elastic modulus of Kapton perpendicular to the plane of the film at room and cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, M.; Bastian, S.; Markley, F.

    1992-04-01

    Understanding the short term elastic properties, (i.e. the instantaneous modulus) of Kapton is essential in determining the loss of prestress during storage and operation of SSC dipole magnets. The magnet prestress contributes directly to the coil response to the Lorentz forces during ramping. The instantaneous modulus is important in extrapolating short term stress relaxation data to longer times. Most theoretical fits assume a time independent component and a time dependent component. The former may be represented by the Kapton modulus near zero K where all relaxation processes have been ''frozen'' out. Modulus measurements at 77K and 4.2K may point to a correct value for the near zero K modulus. Three companion papers presented at this conference will be: ''Stress Relaxation in SSC 50 mm Dipole Coils'' ''Temperature Dependence of the Viscoelastic Properties of SSC Coil Insulation (Kapton)'' ''Theoretical Methods for Creep and Stress Relaxation Studies of SSC Coil.''

  20. Fatigue testing of wood composites for aerogenerator blades. Pt. 11: Assessment of fatigue damage accumulation using a fatigue modulus approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, C L; Ansell, M P [Bath Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    Stress-strain hysteresis loops have been captured during fatigue tests performed at R=10 (compression-compression) and R=0.1 (tension-tension) on Khaya epoxy wood composites. A fatigue modulus approach, proposed by Hwang and Han in 1989, has been applied to the data and a relationship established between the initial change in fatigue modulus and fatigue life. By following changes in fatigue modulus during the first 100 test cycles it is possible to predict the life of the sample allowing rapid evaluation of the fatigue performance of wood composites. Fatigue modulus values have also been calculated for hysteresis loops captured during complex load - time history tests. Similar trends in change in fatigue modulus suggest that this approach could be used in complex loading conditions to evaluate fatigue damage accumulation and predict fatigue life. (Author)

  1. Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus of lipid bilayers in different phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh eJadidi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A general computational method is introduced to estimate the Poisson's ratio for membranes with small thickness.In this method, the Poisson's ratio is calculated by utilizing a rescaling of inter-particle distancesin one lateral direction under periodic boundary conditions. As an example for the coarse grained lipid model introduced by Lenz and Schmid, we calculate the Poisson's ratio in the gel, fluid, and interdigitated phases. Having the Poisson's ratio, enable us to obtain the Young's modulus for the membranes in different phases. The approach may be applied to other membranes such as graphene and tethered membranes in orderto predict the temperature dependence of its Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus.

  2. Determining the Young's modulus of a cellular titanium implant by FEM simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginov, Yu. N.; Golodnov, A. I.; Stepanov, S. I.; Kovalev, E. Yu.

    2017-12-01

    The role of additive manufacturing is noted for the construction of titanium medical implants. The purpose of the study is to determine the Young's modulus of cellular titanium implants, which is based on calculations performed by finite element analysis. A honeycomb structure from intersecting cylinder surfaces is offered for the implant made of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Boundary conditions are stated for the loading of the implant structure. It is demonstrated that the Young's modulus can be reduced more than three times comparing to a solid titanium alloy. Zones of strain and stress localization located near the abutment of the cylindrical surfaces. Recommendations for the further improvement of the implant architecture are generated.

  3. Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio of Monolayer Graphyne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rouhi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite its numerous potential applications, two-dimensional monolayer graphyne, a novel form of carbon allotropes with sp and sp2 carbon atoms, has received little attention so far, perhaps as a result of its unknown properties. Especially, determination of the exact values of its elastic properties can pave the way for future studies on this nanostructure. Hence, this article describes a density functional theory (DFT investigation into elastic properties of graphyne including surface Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio. The DFT analyses are performed within the framework of generalized gradient approximation (GGA, and the Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof (PBE exchange correlation is adopted. This study indicates that the elastic modulus of graphyne is approximately half of that of graphene due to its lower number of bonds.

  4. In situ determination of a rock mass modulus using a high resolution tiltmeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, B.; Husein Malkawi, A.I. [University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Blum, P.A. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-04-01

    A very sensitive, compact tiltmeter made of melted silica, developed for the measurement of small deformations of various civil engineering structures, was described. The instrument is capable of giving a continuous record and was used to establish a new approach to directly evaluating the in situ average elastic rock mass modulus. Such information is important in decision making during the design stages of large civil engineering works, such as dams, nuclear plant facilities, and underground structures. Five tiltmeters were installed on the facades of the Louvre in Paris to study the deformation induced by internal structural work and by the impact of the Paris metro traffic movement. The data was used to determine displacement using the Boussinesq equation. Results were consistent with typical elastic rock-mass modulus for the rock found in the museum`s foundations. 13 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  5. Zipping, entanglement, and the elastic modulus of aligned single-walled carbon nanotube films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Yoonjin; Gao, Yuan; Panzer, Matthew A.; Xiang, Rong; Maruyama, Shigeo; Kenny, Thomas W.; Cai, Wei; Goodson, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    Reliably routing heat to and from conversion materials is a daunting challenge for a variety of innovative energy technologies––from thermal solar to automotive waste heat recovery systems––whose efficiencies degrade due to massive thermomechanical stresses at interfaces. This problem may soon be addressed by adhesives based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes, which promise the revolutionary combination of high through-plane thermal conductivity and vanishing in-plane mechanical stiffness. Here, we report the data for the in-plane modulus of aligned single-walled carbon nanotube films using a microfabricated resonator method. Molecular simulations and electron microscopy identify the nanoscale mechanisms responsible for this property. The zipping and unzipping of adjacent nanotubes and the degree of alignment and entanglement are shown to govern the spatially varying local modulus, thereby providing the route to engineered materials with outstanding combinations of mechanical and thermal properties. PMID:24309375

  6. Evaluation of time-accelerated irradiation method of elastomer by modulus-ultimate elongation profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masayuki; Oka, Toshitaka; Hama, Yosimasa

    2009-01-01

    'Generalized modulus-ultimate elongation profile' was induced from the relationship between the modulus and the ultimate elongation of an elastomer that was quantitatively added crosslinking and scission. This profile can be used to evaluate the time-accelerated irradiation methods of ethylene-propylene-diene elastomer. The irradiation under low dose rate (0.33 kGy/h) at room temperature was the reference condition. The short-time irradiation condition was 4.2 kGy/h in 0.5 MPa oxygen at room temperature and 5.0 kGy/h in air at 70 o C. The former tended to bring about the higher ratio of scission than the reference condition; the latter tended to bring about the higher ratio of crosslinking.

  7. Influence of seed layer moduli on finite element method-based modulus backcalculation result

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matsui, K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available ) Static backcalculation E1 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 10 50 - 11 00 11 00 - 11 50 11 50 - 12 00 12 00 - 12 50 12 50 - 13 00 13 00 - 13 50 13 50 - 14 00 Layer modulus (MPa) Fr e qu e n c y E2 0 200 400... 600 800 1000 1200 10 0 - 12 0 12 0 - 14 0 14 0 - 16 0 16 0 - 18 0 18 0 - 20 0 20 0 - 22 0 22 0 - 24 0 Layer modulus (MPa) Fr e qu e n c y E3 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 70 - 80 80 - 90 90 - 10 0...

  8. Young's modulus and fracture toughness of silicon nitride ceramics at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouxel, T. [Rennes Univ. (France). Lab. de Recherche en Mecanique Applicee

    2002-07-01

    The temperature dependencies of Young's modulus (E) and fracture toughness (K{sub 1c}) of several silicon nitride-based monolithic and composite materials, are reviewed. A transition range is observed between 1130 and 1180 C on the E(T) curves, which is systematically 150 to 200 C above the T{sub g} of oxynitride glasses of composition close to that of the intergranular glassy pockets. It is thus supposed that this transition reflects the behaviour of the interfacial glassy films. The higher the glassy phase content, the higher is the temperature sensitivity. The presence of SiC particles greatly attenuates the sensitivity. Thus, Young's modulus decreases more slowly with temperature and fracture toughness changes little up to 1300 C. The K{sub 1c} (T) curves exhibit four different stages which are discussed and interpreted on the basis of a theoretical model. (orig.)

  9. The information exchange between moduluses in the system of module programming of the computation complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinin, A.I.; Kolesov, V.E.; Nevinitsa, A.I.

    1975-01-01

    The report contains description of the method of construction of computer programs complexes for computation purposes for M-220 computers using the ALGOL-60 code for programming. The complex is organised on the modulus system principle and can include substantial number of modulus programs. The information exchange between separate moduli is done by means of special interpreting program and the information unit exchanged is a specially arranged file of data. For addressing to the interpreting program in the ALGOL-60 frameworks small number of specially created procedure-codes is used. The method proposed gives possibilities to program separate moduli of the complex independently and to expand the complex if necessary. In this case separate moduli or groups of moduli depending on the method of segmentation of the general problem solved by the complex will be of the independent interest and could be used out of the complex as traditional programs. (author)

  10. Size effect of the elastic modulus of rectangular nanobeams: Surface elasticity effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Hai-Yan; Fan Wen-Liang; Yun Guo-Hong

    2013-01-01

    The size-dependent elastic property of rectangular nanobeams (nanowires or nanoplates) induced by the surface elasticity effect is investigated by using a developed modified core-shell model. The effect of surface elasticity on the elastic modulus of nanobeams can be characterized by two surface related parameters, i.e., inhomogeneous degree constant and surface layer thickness. The analytical results show that the elastic modulus of the rectangular nanobeam exhibits a distinct size effect when its characteristic size reduces below 100 nm. It is also found that the theoretical results calculated by a modified core-shell model have more obvious advantages than those by other models (core-shell model and core-surface model) by comparing them with relevant experimental measurements and computational results, especially when the dimensions of nanostructures reduce to a few tens of nanometers. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  11. High modulus rare earth and beryllium containing silicate glass compositions. [for glass reinforcing fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, J. F. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Glass compositions having a Young's modulus of at least 16 million psi and a specific modulus of at least 110 million inches consisting essentially of approximately, by weight, 20 to 43% SiO2, 8 to 21% Al2O3, 4 to 10% BeO, 27 to 58% of at least one oxide selected from a first group consisting of Y2O3, La2O3, Nd2O3, Ce2O3, Ce2O3, and the mixed rare earth oxides, and 3 to 12% of at least one oxide selected from a second group consisting of MgO, ZrO2, ZnO and CaO are described. The molar ratio of BeO to the total content of the first group oxides is from 1.0 to 3.0.

  12. Dielectric and modulus studies of polycrystalline BaZrO3 ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Deepash S.; Singh, Sunder; Kumar, Anil; Bhattacharya, D.

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, dielectric and modulus studies of polycrystalline BaZrO3 ceramic, prepared by modified combustion method followed by conventional sintering, are investigated over the frequency range of 100 Hz to 106 Hz at different temperatures from 250 to 500 °C in air. The high value of dielectric constant (ɛ' ˜ 103) of BaZrO3 at high temperature and low frequency can be attributed to the Maxwell-Wagner polarization mechanism as well as to the thermally activated mechanism of charge carriers. Electric modulus reveal two type relaxations in the 250 °C to 800 °C temperature region as studied at different frequencies over 100 Hz to 106 Hz in air.

  13. Bulk hydrogen analysis, using neutrons. Final report of the first research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    There are many situations when hydrogen is required to be measured in a bulk medium. For this reason neutrons are used due to their high penetrating power in dense material. In addition, the mass attenuation coefficient for neutrons in hydrogen is significantly larger than for all other elements, meaning that neutrons have a higher probability of interacting with hydrogen than with other elements in the sample matrix. This CRP was recommended for further development of the techniques and new applications in the following areas: Fast Neutron/Gamma Transmission Technique; Digital Neutron Imaging; Hydrogen Detection by Epithermal Neutrons; Microscopic Behaviour of Hydrogen in Bulk Materials

  14. Fabrication and structure of bulk nanocrystalline Al-Si-Ni-mishmetal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latuch, Jerzy; Cieslak, Grzegorz; Kulik, Tadeusz

    2007-01-01

    Al-based alloys of structure consisting of nanosized Al crystals, embedded in an amorphous matrix, are interesting for their excellent mechanical properties, exceeding those of the commercial crystalline Al-based alloys. Recently discovered nanocrystalline Al alloys containing silicon (Si), rare earth metal (RE) and late transition metal (Ni), combine high tensile strength and good wear resistance. The aim of this work was to manufacture bulk nanocrystalline alloys from Al-Si-Ni-mishmetal (Mm) system. Bulk nanostructured Al 91-x Si x Ni 7 Mm 2 (x = 10, 11.6, 13 at.%) alloys were produced by ball milling of nanocrystalline ribbons followed by high pressure hot isostating compaction

  15. Structural and functional polymer-matrix composites for electromagnetic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junhua

    This dissertation addresses the science and technology of functional and structural polymer-matrix composite materials for electromagnetic applications, which include electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding and low observability (Stealth). The structural composites are continuous carbon fiber epoxy-matrix composites, which are widely used for airframes. The functional composites are composites with discontinuous fillers and in both bulk and coating forms. Through composite structure variation, attractive electromagnetic properties have been achieved. With no degradation of the tensile strength or modulus, the shielding effectiveness of the structural composites has been improved by enhancing multiple reflections through light activation of the carbon fiber. The multiple reflections loss of the electromagnetic wave increases from 1.1 to 10.2 dB at 1.0 GHz due to the activation. Such a large effect of multiple reflections has not been previously reported in any material. The observability of these composites has been lowered by decreasing the electrical conductivity (and hence decreasing the reflection loss) through carbon fiber coating. The incorporation of mumetal, a magnetic alloy particulate filler (28-40 mum size), in a latex paint has been found to be effective for enhancing the shielding only if the electrical resistivity of the resulting composite coating is below 10 O.cm, as rendered by a conductive particulate filler, such as nickel flake (14-20 mum size). This effectiveness (39 dB at 1.0 GHz) is attributed to the absorption of the electromagnetic wave by the mumetal and the nickel flake, with the high conductivity rendered by the presence of the nickel flake resulting in a relatively high reflection loss of 15.5 dB. Without the nickel flake, the mumetal gives only 3 dB of shielding and 1.5 dB of reflection loss at 1.0 GHz. Nickel powder (0.3-0.5 mum size) has been found to be an effective filler for improving the shielding of polyethersulfone (PES

  16. Temperature, Frequency, and Young’s Modulus of an Aluminum Tuning Fork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachery L. Greer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency produced by a standard C (523.3 Hz aluminum alloy tuning fork when struck at temperatures ranging from 29 ̊C to 300 ̊C was studied. It was found that frequency decreased with increasing temperature with an inverse exponential relationship. The frequency was used to calculate Young’s Modulus for aluminum, with the results being in close agreement with published values.

  17. An autonomic self-healing organogel with a photo-mediated modulus

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yubing

    2016-11-15

    A new method is described for fabricating autonomic, self-healing, deformable organogels. We combined imidazolium-based poly(ionic liquid) (PIL) and azobenzene-grafted poly(carboxylic acid) (PAA-Azo) in N,N-dimethyl formamide. Further, complexing PIL with unirradiated (trans) or irradiated (cis) PAA-Azo tuned the elastic modulus of the organogel. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Determination of Rock Mass Modulus Using the Plate Loading Method at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finley, R.E.; George, J.T.; Riggins, M.

    1999-01-01

    A suite of plate loading tests has recently been conducted by Sandia National Laboratories at the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Fielding of these in situ tests as well as other approaches undertaken for the determination of rock mass modulus are described. The various methodologies are evaluated and their data compared. Calculation by existing empirical methods and numerical modeling are compared to each other as well as to field data

  19. Implicit implementation and consistent tangent modulus of a viscoplastic model for polymers

    OpenAIRE

    ACHOUR, Nadia; CHATZIGEORGIOU, George; MERAGHNI, Fodil; CHEMISKY, Yves; FITOUSSI, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the phenomenological viscoplastic DSGZ model (Duan et al., 2001 [13]), developed for glassy or semi-crystalline polymers, is numerically implemented in a three-dimensional framework, following an implicit formulation. The computational methodology is based on the radial return mapping algorithm. This implicit formulation leads to the definition of the consistent tangent modulus which permits the implementation in incremental micromechanical scale transition analysis. The extende...

  20. An autonomic self-healing organogel with a photo-mediated modulus

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yubing; Chen, Zhijun; Wang, Hong; Ackermann, Lisa Maria; Klapper, Markus; Butt, Hans Jü rgen; Wu, Si

    2016-01-01

    A new method is described for fabricating autonomic, self-healing, deformable organogels. We combined imidazolium-based poly(ionic liquid) (PIL) and azobenzene-grafted poly(carboxylic acid) (PAA-Azo) in N,N-dimethyl formamide. Further, complexing PIL with unirradiated (trans) or irradiated (cis) PAA-Azo tuned the elastic modulus of the organogel. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Thermal oxidation induced degradation of carbon fiber reinforced composites and carbon nanotube sheet enhanced fiber/matrix interface for high temperature aerospace structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Mohammad Hamidul

    Recent increase in the use of carbon fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite, especially for high temperature applications in aerospace primary and secondary structures along with wind energy and automotive industries, have generated new challenges to predict its failure mechanisms and service life. This dissertation reports the experimental study of a unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced bismaleimide (BMI) composites (CFRC), an excellent candidate for high temperature aerospace components, undergoing thermal oxidation at 260 °C in air for over 3000 hours. The key focus of the work is to investigate the mechanical properties of the carbon fiber BMI composite subjected to thermal aging in three key aspects - first, studying its bulk flexural properties (in macro scale), second, characterizing the crack propagation along the fiber direction, representing the interfacial bonding strength between fiber and matrix (in micro scale), and third, introducing nano-structured materials to modify the interface (in nano scale) between the carbon fiber and BMI resin and mechanical characterization to study its influence on mitigating the aging effect. Under the first category, weight loss and flexural properties have been monitored as the oxidation propagates through the fiber/matrix interface. Dynamic mechanical analysis and micro-computed tomography analysis have been performed to analyze the aging effects. In the second category, the long-term effects of thermal oxidation on the delamination (between the composite plies) and debonding (between fiber and matrix) type fracture toughness have been characterized by preparing two distinct types of double cantilever beam specimens. Digital image correlation has been used to determine the deformation field and strain distribution around the crack propagation path. Finally the resin system and the fiber/matrix interface have been modified using nanomaterials to mitigate the degradations caused by oxidation. Nanoclay modified

  2. Indentation modulus and hardness of viscoelastic thin films by atomic force microscopy: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passeri, D.; Bettucci, A.; Biagioni, A.; Rossi, M.; Alippi, A.; Tamburri, E.; Lucci, M.; Davoli, I.; Berezina, S.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a nanoindentation technique based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) that allows one to deduce both indentation modulus and hardness of viscoelastic materials from the force versus penetration depth dependence, obtained by recording the AFM cantilever deflection as a function of the sample vertical displacement when the tip is pressed against (loading phase) and then removed from (unloading phase) the surface of the sample. Reliable quantitative measurements of both indentation modulus and hardness of the investigated sample are obtained by calibrating the technique through a set of different polymeric samples, used as reference materials, whose mechanical properties have been previously determined by standard indentation tests. By analyzing the dependence of the cantilever deflection versus time, the proposed technique allows one to evaluate and correct the effect of viscoelastic properties of the investigated materials, by adapting a post-experiment data processing procedure well-established for standard depth sensing indentation tests. The technique is described in the case of the measurement of indentation modulus and hardness of a thin film of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(4-styrenesulfonate), deposited by chronoamperometry on an indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate.

  3. Indentation modulus and hardness of viscoelastic thin films by atomic force microscopy: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passeri, D., E-mail: daniele.passeri@uniroma1.it [Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Via A. Scarpa 16, 00161 Roma (Italy); Bettucci, A.; Biagioni, A.; Rossi, M.; Alippi, A. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Via A. Scarpa 16, 00161 Roma (Italy); Tamburri, E. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy); Lucci, M.; Davoli, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy); Berezina, S. [Department of Physics, University of Zilina, 01026, Univerzitna 1 Zilina (Slovakia)

    2009-11-15

    We propose a nanoindentation technique based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) that allows one to deduce both indentation modulus and hardness of viscoelastic materials from the force versus penetration depth dependence, obtained by recording the AFM cantilever deflection as a function of the sample vertical displacement when the tip is pressed against (loading phase) and then removed from (unloading phase) the surface of the sample. Reliable quantitative measurements of both indentation modulus and hardness of the investigated sample are obtained by calibrating the technique through a set of different polymeric samples, used as reference materials, whose mechanical properties have been previously determined by standard indentation tests. By analyzing the dependence of the cantilever deflection versus time, the proposed technique allows one to evaluate and correct the effect of viscoelastic properties of the investigated materials, by adapting a post-experiment data processing procedure well-established for standard depth sensing indentation tests. The technique is described in the case of the measurement of indentation modulus and hardness of a thin film of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(4-styrenesulfonate), deposited by chronoamperometry on an indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate.

  4. The effect of compressive stress on the Young's modulus of unirradiated and irradiated nuclear graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, T.; Usui, T.; Ero, M.; Fukuda, Y.

    1977-01-01

    The Young's moduli of unirradiated and high temperature (800 to 1000 0 C) irradiated graphites for HTGR were measured by the ultrasonic method in the direction of applied compressive stress during and after stressing. The Young's moduli of all the tested graphites decreased with increasing compressive stress both during and after stressing. In order to investigate the reason for the decrease in Young's modulus by applying compressive stress, the mercury pore diameter distributions of a part of the unirradiated and irradiated specimens were measured. The change in pore distribution is believed to be associated with structural changes produced by irradiation and compressive stressing. The residual strain, after removing the compressive stress, showed a good correlation with the decrease in Young's modulus caused by the compressive stress. The decrease in Young's modulus by applying compressive stress was considered to be due to the increase in the mobile dislocation density and the growth or formation of cracks. The results suggest, however, that the mechanism giving the larger contribution depends on the brand of graphite, and in anisotropic graphite it depends on the direction of applied stress and the irradiation conditions. (author)

  5. Compressive Strength and Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete with Cubed Waste Tire Rubbers as Coarse Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, Y.; Hermanto, N. I. S.; Pamudji, G.; Wardana, K. P.

    2017-11-01

    One feasible solution to overcome the issue of tire disposal waste is the use of waste tire rubber to replace aggregate in concrete. We have conducted an experimental investigation on the effect of rubber tire waste aggregate in cuboid form on the compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of concrete. The test was performed on 72 cylindrical specimens with the height of 300 mm and diameter of 150 mm. We found that the workability of concrete with waste tire rubber aggregate has increased. The concrete density with waste tire rubber aggregate was decreased, and so was the compressive strength. The decrease of compressive strength is up to 64.34%. If the content of waste tire rubber aggregate is more than 40%, then the resulting concrete cannot be categorized as structural concrete. The modulus of elasticity decreased to 59.77%. The theoretical equation developed to determine the modulus of elasticity of concrete with rubber tire waste aggregate has an accuracy of 84.27%.

  6. Fast, High Resolution, and Wide Modulus Range Nanomechanical Mapping with Bimodal Tapping Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocun, Marta; Labuda, Aleksander; Meinhold, Waiman; Revenko, Irène; Proksch, Roger

    2017-10-24

    Tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM), also known as amplitude modulated (AM) or AC mode, is a proven, reliable, and gentle imaging mode with widespread applications. Over the several decades that tapping mode has been in use, quantification of tip-sample mechanical properties such as stiffness has remained elusive. Bimodal tapping mode keeps the advantages of single-frequency tapping mode while extending the technique by driving and measuring an additional resonant mode of the cantilever. The simultaneously measured observables of this additional resonance provide the additional information necessary to extract quantitative nanomechanical information about the tip-sample mechanics. Specifically, driving the higher cantilever resonance in a frequency modulated (FM) mode allows direct measurement of the tip-sample interaction stiffness and, with appropriate modeling, the set point-independent local elastic modulus. Here we discuss the advantages of bimodal tapping, coined AM-FM imaging, for modulus mapping. Results are presented for samples over a wide modulus range, from a compliant gel (∼100 MPa) to stiff materials (∼100 GPa), with the same type of cantilever. We also show high-resolution (subnanometer) stiffness mapping of individual molecules in semicrystalline polymers and of DNA in fluid. Combined with the ability to remain quantitative even at line scan rates of nearly 40 Hz, the results demonstrate the versatility of AM-FM imaging for nanomechanical characterization in a wide range of applications.

  7. Sensitive determination of the Young's modulus of thin films by polymeric microcantilevers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombi, Paolo; Bergese, Paolo; Bontempi, Elza

    2013-01-01

    A method for the highly sensitive determination of the Young's modulus of TiO2 thin films exploiting the resonant frequency shift of a SU-8 polymer microcantilever (MC) is presented. Amorphous TiO2 films with different thickness ranging from 10 to 125 nm were grown at low temperature (90 °C......) with subnanometer thickness resolution on SU-8 MC arrays by means of atomic layer deposition. The resonant frequencies of the MCs were measured before and after coating and the elastic moduli of the films were determined by a theoretical model developed for this purpose. The Young's modulus of thicker TiO2 films...... (>75 nm) was estimated to be about 110 GPa, this value being consistent with the value of amorphous TiO2. On the other hand we observed a marked decrease of the Young's modulus for TiO2 films with a thickness below 50 nm. This behavior was found not to be related to a decrease of the film mass density...

  8. Loss tangent and complex modulus estimated by acoustic radiation force creep and shear wave dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Carolina; Urban, Matthew W; Chen, Shigao; Greenleaf, James F

    2012-03-07

    Elasticity imaging methods have been used to study tissue mechanical properties and have demonstrated that tissue elasticity changes with disease state. In current shear wave elasticity imaging methods typically only shear wave speed is measured and rheological models, e.g. Kelvin-Voigt, Maxwell and Standard Linear Solid, are used to solve for tissue mechanical properties such as the shear viscoelastic complex modulus. This paper presents a method to quantify viscoelastic material properties in a model-independent way by estimating the complex shear elastic modulus over a wide frequency range using time-dependent creep response induced by acoustic radiation force. This radiation force induced creep method uses a conversion formula that is the analytic solution of a constitutive equation. The proposed method in combination with shearwave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry is used to measure the complex modulus so that knowledge of the applied radiation force magnitude is not necessary. The conversion formula is shown to be sensitive to sampling frequency and the first reliable measure in time according to numerical simulations using the Kelvin-Voigt model creep strain and compliance. Representative model-free shear complex moduli from homogeneous tissue mimicking phantoms and one excised swine kidney were obtained. This work proposes a novel model-free ultrasound-based elasticity method that does not require a rheological model with associated fitting requirements.

  9. Enhancement and prediction of modulus of elasticity of palm kernel shell concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alengaram, U. Johnson; Mahmud, Hilmi; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Micro-pores of size 16-24 μm were found on the outer surface of palm kernel shell. → Infilling of pores by mineral admixtures was evident. → Sand content influenced both modulus of elasticity and compressive strength. → Proposed equation predicts modulus of elasticity within ±1.5 kN/mm 2 of test results. -- Abstract: This paper presents results of an investigation conducted to enhance and predict the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of palm kernel shell concrete (PKSC). Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis on palm kernel shell (PKS) was conducted. Further, the effect of varying sand and PKS contents and mineral admixtures (silica fume and fly ash) on compressive strength and MOE was investigated. The variables include water-to-binder (w/b) and sand-to-cement (s/c) ratios. Nine concrete mixes were prepared, and tests on static and dynamic moduli of elasticity and compressive strength were conducted. The SEM result showed presence of large number of micro-pores on PKS. The mineral admixtures uniformly filled the micro-pores on the outer surface of PKS. Further, the increase in sand content coupled with reduction in PKS content enhanced the compressive strength and static MOE: The highest MOE recorded in this investigation, 11 kN/mm 2 , was twice that previously published. Moreover, the proposed equation based on CEB/FIP code formula appears to predict the MOE close to the experimental values.

  10. Observations of borehole deformation modulus values before and after extensive heating of a granitic rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, W.C.; Yow, J.L.; Caxelrod, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    An extensive campaign of in situ deformation modulus measurements was recently completed using a standard NX borehole jack. These results were obtained in a granite intrusive where spent nuclear-fuel assemblies and electrical heaters had raised the rock temperatures 10 0 C to 40 0 C above ambient. We present an analysis of temperature effects based on 41 preheat and 63 post-heat measurements in three boreholes. Using analysis of covariance statistical techniques, we found that the deformation modulus is affected by heat, loading direction, and position within the borehole. The analysis also uncovered a significant interaction between the effects of heating and loading direction. We used 123 measurements from the same boreholes to evaluate the ''Draft Standard Guide for Estimating the In Situ Modulus of Rock Masses Using the NX-Borehole Jack'' which was recently proposed by Heuze. In particular, we examined the criterion for screening measurements in those cases where contact between the jack platen and the borehole wall was incomplete. We found that the proposed screen appears to operate randomly on the data and is therefore ineffective

  11. Can reliable values of Young's modulus be deduced from Fisher's (1971) spinning lens measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, H J; Wilde, G S; Judge, S J

    2006-04-01

    The current textbook view of the causes of presbyopia rests very largely on a series of experiments reported by R.F. Fisher some three decades ago, and in particular on the values of lens Young's modulus inferred from the deformation caused by spinning excised lenses about their optical axis (Fisher 1971) We studied the extent to which inferred values of Young's modulus are influenced by assumptions inherent in the mathematical procedures used by Fisher to interpret the test and we investigated several alternative interpretation methods. The results suggest that modelling assumptions inherent in Fisher's original method may have led to systematic errors in the determination of the Young's modulus of the cortex and nucleus. Fisher's conclusion that the cortex is stiffer than the nucleus, particularly in middle age, may be an artefact associated with these systematic errors. Moreover, none of the models we explored are able to account for Fisher's claim that the removal of the capsule has only a modest effect on the deformations induced in the spinning lens.

  12. Flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of different types of resin-based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Junior, Sinval Adalberto; Zanchi, Cesar Henrique; Carvalho, Rodrigo Varella de; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test whether the filler composition of resin composites influences their flexural strength and modulus of elasticity. Flexural strength and modulus of elasticity were obtained through a three-point bending test. Twelve bar shaped specimens of 5 commercially available composites--Supreme (3M/ESPE), a universal nanofilled composite; Esthet-X (Dentsply), Z-250 (3M/ESPE), Charisma (Heraeus Kulzer), universal hybrid composites; and Helio Fill (Vigodent), a microfine composite--were confectioned according to the ISO 4049/2000 specifications. The test was performed after a 7-days storage time using a universal test machine with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The filler weight content was determined by the ashing technique. The data obtained on the mechanical properties were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey test (p elasticity results were observed among the universal hybrid composites. The nanofilled composite presented intermediary results. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it could be concluded that the filler content significantly interfered in the flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of the composites tested.

  13. Influence of grain size distribution on dynamic shear modulus of sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyka Ireneusz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of laboratory tests, that verify the correlation between the grain-size characteristics of non-cohesive soils and the value of the dynamic shear modulus. The problem is a continuation of the research performed at the Institute of Soil Mechanics and Rock Mechanics in Karlsruhe, by T. Wichtmann and T. Triantafyllidis, who derived the extension of the applicability of the Hardin’s equation describing the explicite dependence between the grain size distribution of sands and the values of dynamic shear modulus. For this purpose, piezo-ceramic bender elements generating elastic waves were used to investigate the mechanical properties of the specimens with artificially generated particle distribution. The obtained results confirmed the hypothesis that grain size distribution of non-cohesive soils has a significant influence on the dynamic shear modulus, but at the same time they have shown that obtaining unambiguous results from bender element tests is a difficult task in practical applications.

  14. Evaluation of linear polymerization shrinkage, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of dental composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Queiroz de Melo Monteiro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear polymerization shrinkage (LPS, flexural strength (FS and modulus of elasticity (ME of 7 dental composites (Filtek Z350™, Filtek Z250™/3M ESPE; Grandio™, Polofil Supra™/VOCO; TPH Spectrum™, TPH3™, Esthet-X™/Denstply were measured. For the measurement of LPS, composites were applied to a cylindrical metallic mold and polymerized (n = 8. The gap formed at the resin/mold interface was observed using scanning electron microscopy (1500×. For FS and ME, specimens were prepared according to the ISO 4049 specifications (n = 10. Statistical analysis of the data was performed with one-way ANOVA and the Tukey test. TPH Spectrum presented significantly higher LPS values (29.45 µm. Grandio had significantly higher mean values for FS (141.07 MPa and ME (13.91 GPa. The relationship between modulus of elasticity and polymerization shrinkage is the main challenge for maintenance of the adhesive interface, thus composites presenting high shrinkage values, associated with a high modulus of elasticity tend to disrupt the adhesive interface under polymerization.

  15. The Relationship between Trabecular Bone Structure Modeling Methods and the Elastic Modulus as Calculated by FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Topoliński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trabecular bone cores were collected from the femoral head at the time of surgery (hip arthroplasty. Investigated were 42 specimens, from patients with osteoporosis and coxarthrosis. The cores were scanned used computer microtomography (microCT system at an isotropic spatial resolution of 36 microns. Image stacks were converted to finite element models via a bone voxel-to-element algorithm. The apparent modulus was calculated based on the assumptions that for the elastic properties, E=10 MPa and ν=0.3. The compressive deformation as calculated by finite elements (FE analysis was 0.8%. The models were coarsened to effectively change the resolution or voxel size (from 72 microns to 288 microns or from 72 microns to 1080 microns. The aim of our study is to determine how an increase in the distance between scans changes the elastic properties as calculated by FE models. We tried to find a border value voxel size at which the module values were possible to calculate. As the voxel size increased, the mean voxel volume increased and the FEA-derived apparent modulus decreased. The slope of voxel size versus modulus relationship correlated with several architectural indices of trabecular bone.

  16. A Six-Week Resistance Training Program Does Not Change Shear Modulus of the Triceps Brachii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Ryota; Shikiba, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Jun; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effect of a 6-week resistance training program on the shear modulus of the triceps brachii (TB). Twenty-three young men were randomly assigned to either the training (n = 13) or control group (n = 10). Before and after conducting the resistance training program, the shear modulus of the long head of the TB was measured at the point 70% along the length of the upper arm from the acromial process of the scapula to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus using shear wave ultrasound elastography. Muscle thickness of the long head of the TB was also determined at the same site by ultrasonography used during both tests. A resistance exercise was performed 3 days a week for 6 weeks using a dumbbell mass-adjusted to 80% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM). The training effect on the muscle thickness and 1RM was significant. Nevertheless, the muscle shear modulus was not significantly changed after the training program. From the perspective of muscle mechanical properties, the present results indicate that significant adaptation must occur to make the TB more resistant to subsequent damaging bouts during the 6-week training program to target the TB.

  17. Bulk viscosity in holographic Lifshitz hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyos, Carlos; Kim, Bom Soo; Oz, Yaron

    2014-01-01

    We compute the bulk viscosity in holographic models dual to theories with Lifshitz scaling and/or hyperscaling violation, using a generalization of the bulk viscosity formula derived in arXiv:1103.1657 from the null focusing equation. We find that only a class of models with massive vector fields are truly Lifshitz scale invariant, and have a vanishing bulk viscosity. For other holographic models with scalars and/or massless vector fields we find a universal formula in terms of the dynamical exponent and the hyperscaling violation exponent

  18. Parallelism in matrix computations

    CERN Document Server

    Gallopoulos, Efstratios; Sameh, Ahmed H

    2016-01-01

    This book is primarily intended as a research monograph that could also be used in graduate courses for the design of parallel algorithms in matrix computations. It assumes general but not extensive knowledge of numerical linear algebra, parallel architectures, and parallel programming paradigms. The book consists of four parts: (I) Basics; (II) Dense and Special Matrix Computations; (III) Sparse Matrix Computations; and (IV) Matrix functions and characteristics. Part I deals with parallel programming paradigms and fundamental kernels, including reordering schemes for sparse matrices. Part II is devoted to dense matrix computations such as parallel algorithms for solving linear systems, linear least squares, the symmetric algebraic eigenvalue problem, and the singular-value decomposition. It also deals with the development of parallel algorithms for special linear systems such as banded ,Vandermonde ,Toeplitz ,and block Toeplitz systems. Part III addresses sparse matrix computations: (a) the development of pa...

  19. Neutrino mass matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    Given the many conflicting experimental results, examination is made of the neutrino mass matrix in order to determine possible masses and mixings. It is assumed that the Dirac mass matrix for the electron, muon, and tau neutrinos is similar in form to those of the quarks and charged leptons, and that the smallness of the observed neutrino masses results from the Gell-Mann-Ramond-Slansky mechanism. Analysis of masses and mixings for the neutrinos is performed using general structures for the Majorana mass matrix. It is shown that if certain tentative experimental results concerning the neutrino masses and mixing angles are confirmed, significant limitations may be placed on the Majorana mass matrix. The most satisfactory simple assumption concerning the Majorana mass matrix is that it is approximately proportional to the Dirac mass matrix. A very recent experimental neutrino mass result and its implications are discussed. Some general properties of matrices with structure similar to the Dirac mass matrices are discussed

  20. Mechanical properties of Nd-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Motohide; Sakai, Naomichi; Murakami, Masato; Osamura, Kozo

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Nd422 and Ag particles on the mechanical properties in Nd-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors. Both Nd422 and Ag particles were effective in decreasing the amount of microcracks running along the c direction. In the case of Nd422, however, excessive Nd422 addition enhanced the crack propagation, resulting in the degradation of mechanical strength. In the case of Ag addition, the beneficial effect of its ductile mechanical property was not observed. This was due to a relatively large size of Ag particles and low interfacial strength between Ag and Nd123 matrix. It was remarkable that the Weibull coefficient of the sample with Ag 2 O addition exceeded 13, which is reliable enough for practical engineering applications

  1. Muscle shear elastic modulus is linearly related to muscle torque over the entire range of isometric contraction intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateş, Filiz; Hug, François; Bouillard, Killian; Jubeau, Marc; Frappart, Thomas; Couade, Mathieu; Bercoff, Jeremy; Nordez, Antoine

    2015-08-01

    Muscle shear elastic modulus is linearly related to muscle torque during low-level contractions (torque over the entire range of isometric contraction and (ii) the influence of the size of the region of interest (ROI) used to average the shear modulus value. Ten healthy males performed two incremental isometric little finger abductions. The joint torque produced by Abductor Digiti Minimi was considered as an index of muscle torque and elastic modulus. A high coefficient of determination (R(2)) (range: 0.86-0.98) indicated that the relationship between elastic modulus and torque can be accurately modeled by a linear regression over the entire range (0% to 100% of MVC). The changes in shear elastic modulus as a function of torque were highly repeatable. Lower R(2) values (0.89±0.13 for 1/16 of ROI) and significantly increased absolute errors were observed when the shear elastic modulus was averaged over smaller ROI, half, 1/4 and 1/16 of the full ROI) than the full ROI (mean size: 1.18±0.24cm(2)). It suggests that the ROI should be as large as possible for accurate measurement of muscle shear modulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Interfacial reaction effects on erosion of aluminum matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, J.P.; Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima; Matsumura, M.

    1999-01-01

    Alumina borate (A 18 B 4 O 33 ) whisker reinforced aluminum composites have attracted interest because of their high specific strength, high modulus and low cost. An obvious feature of the microstructure in A 18 B 4 O 33 /Al composite is that an interfacial reaction exists between the whisker and the aluminum alloy. In order to discuss the influence of interface interaction between the whisker and matrix on the erosion resistance of composites, two reaction treatments are conducted. From the results of the treated composites, it can be obtained about the erosion characteristics of the composite materials under steady-state conditions

  3. Bulk Leisure--Problem or Blessing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    With an increasing number of the nation's work force experiencing "bulk leisure" time because of new work scheduling procedures, parks and recreation offices are encouraged to examine their program scheduling and content. (JM)

  4. Technical specifications for the bulk shielding reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    This report provides information concerning the technical specifications for the Bulk Shielding Reactor. Areas covered include: safety limits and limiting safety settings; limiting conditions for operation; surveillance requirements; design features; administrative controls; and monitoring of airborne effluents. 10 refs

  5. Force measurements for levitated bulk superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachi, Y.; Sawa, K.; Iwasa, Y.; Nagashima, K.; Otani, T.; Miyamoto, T.; Tomita, M.; Murakami, M.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a force measurement system which enables us to directly measure the levitation force of levitated bulk superconductors. Experimental data of the levitation forces were compared with the results of numerical simulation based on the levitation model that we deduced in our previous paper. They were in fairly good agreement, which confirms that our levitation model can be applied to the force analyses for levitated bulk superconductors. (author)

  6. Force measurements for levitated bulk superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachi, Y. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama (Japan); ISTEC, Superconductivity Research Laboratory, 1-16-25 Shibaura, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan). E-mail: tachi at istec.or.jp; Uemura, N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama (Japan); ISTEC, Superconductivity Research Laboratory, 1-16-25 Shibaura, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Sawa, K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama (Japan); Iwasa, Y. [Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Nagashima, K. [Railway Technical Research Institute, Hikari-cho, Kokubunji-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Otani, T.; Miyamoto, T.; Tomita, M.; Murakami, M. [ISTEC, Superconductivity Research Laboratory, 1-16-25 Shibaura, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    We have developed a force measurement system which enables us to directly measure the levitation force of levitated bulk superconductors. Experimental data of the levitation forces were compared with the results of numerical simulation based on the levitation model that we deduced in our previous paper. They were in fairly good agreement, which confirms that our levitation model can be applied to the force analyses for levitated bulk superconductors. (author)

  7. ANALISIS KESELAMATAN TERMOHIDROLIK BULK SHIELDING REAKTOR KARTINI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizul Khakim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK ANALISIS KESELAMATAN TERMOHIDROLIK BULK SHIELDING REAKTOR KARTINI. Bulk shielding merupakan fasilitas yang terintegrasi dengan reaktor Kartini yang berfungsi sebagai penyimpanan sementara bahan bakar bekas. Fasilitas ini merupakan fasilitas yang termasuk dalam struktur, sistem dan komponen (SSK yang penting bagi keselamatan. Salah satu fungsi keselamatan dari sistem penanganan dan penyimpanan bahan bakar adalah mencegah kecelakaan kekritisan yang tak terkendali dan membatasi naiknya temperatur bahan bakar. Analisis keselamatan paling kurang harus mencakup analisis keselamatan dari sisi neutronik dan termo hidrolik Bulk shielding. Analisis termo hidrolik ditujukan untuk memastikan perpindahan panas dan proses pendinginan bahan bakar bekas berjalan baik dan tidak terjadi akumulasi panas yang mengancam integritas bahan bakar. Code tervalidasi PARET/ANL digunakan untuk analisis pendinginan dengan mode konveksi alam. Hasil perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa mode pendinginan konvekasi alam cukup memadai dalam mendinginkan panas sisa tanpa mengakibatkan kenaikan temperatur bahan bakar yang signifikan. Kata kunci: Bulk shielding, bahan bakar bekas, konveksi alam, PARET.   ABSTRACT THERMAL HYDRAULIC SAFETY ANALYSIS OF BULK SHIELDING KARTINI REACTOR. Bulk shielding is an integrated facility to Kartini reactor which is used for temporary spent fuels storage. The facility is one of the structures, systems and components (SSCs important to safety. Among the safety functions of fuel handling and storage are to prevent any uncontrolable criticality accidents and to limit the fuel temperature increase. Safety analyses should, at least, cover neutronic and thermal hydraulic calculations of the bulk shielding. Thermal hydraulic analyses were intended to ensure that heat removal and the process of the spent fuels cooling takes place adequately and no heat accumulation that challenges the fuel integrity. Validated code, PARET/ANL was used for analysing the

  8. Influence of Selected Factors on the Relationship between the Dynamic Elastic Modulus and Compressive Strength of Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurowski, Krystian; Grzeszczyk, Stefania

    2018-03-22

    In this paper, the relationship between the static and dynamic elastic modulus of concrete and the relationship between the static elastic modulus and compressive strength of concrete have been formulated. These relationships are based on investigations of different types of concrete and take into account the type and amount of aggregate and binder used. The dynamic elastic modulus of concrete was tested using impulse excitation of vibration and the modal analysis method. This method could be used as a non-destructive way of estimating the compressive strength of concrete.

  9. Design of the Elastic Modulus of Nanoparticles-Containing PVA/PVAc Films by the Response Surface Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinska, N.; Kalnins, M.; Kovalovs, A.; Chate, A.

    2015-11-01

    By the surface response method, a regression equation is constructed, and the tensile elastic modulus of films made from polyvinyl alcohol/polyvinyl acetate (PVA/PVAc) blends filled with montmorillonite clay and microcrystalline cellulose nanoparticles is investigated. It is established that the introduction of the nanoparticles improves the mechanical properties of the blends in tension considerably: their strength and elastic modulus increase with content of the particles. Using the regression equation, the optimum composition of nanoparticlefilled PVA/PVAc blends with the highest value of elastic modulus is found.

  10. Influence of Selected Factors on the Relationship between the Dynamic Elastic Modulus and Compressive Strength of Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurowski, Krystian; Grzeszczyk, Stefania

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the relationship between the static and dynamic elastic modulus of concrete and the relationship between the static elastic modulus and compressive strength of concrete have been formulated. These relationships are based on investigations of different types of concrete and take into account the type and amount of aggregate and binder used. The dynamic elastic modulus of concrete was tested using impulse excitation of vibration and the modal analysis method. This method could be used as a non-destructive way of estimating the compressive strength of concrete. PMID:29565830

  11. Crack Driving Forces in a Multilayered Coating System for Ceramic Matrix Composite Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the top coating thickness, modulus and shrinkage strains on the crack driving forces for a baseline multilayer Yttria-Stabilized-Zirconia/Mullite/Si thermal and environment barrier coating (TEBC) system for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite substrates are determined for gas turbine applications. The crack driving forces increase with increasing modulus, and a low modulus thermal barrier coating material (below 10 GPa) will have no cracking issues under the thermal gradient condition analyzed. Since top coating sintering increases the crack driving forces with time, highly sintering resistant coatings are desirable to maintain a low tensile modulus and maintain a low crack driving force with time. Finite element results demonstrated that an advanced TEBC system, such as ZrO2/HfO2, which possesses improved sintering resistance and high temperature stability, exhibited excellent durability. A multi-vertical cracked structure with fine columnar spacing is an ideal strain tolerant coating capable of reducing the crack driving forces to an acceptable level even with a high modulus of 50 GPa.

  12. Strain rate sensitivity studies on bulk nanocrystalline aluminium by nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varam, Sreedevi; Rajulapati, Koteswararao V., E-mail: kvrse@uohyd.ernet.in; Bhanu Sankara Rao, K.

    2014-02-05

    Nanocrystalline aluminium powder synthesized using high energy ball milling process was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The studies indicated the powder having an average grain size of ∼42 nm. The consolidation of the powder was carried out by high-pressure compaction using a uni-axial press at room temperature by applying a pressure of 1.5 GPa. The cold compacted bulk sample having a density of ∼98% was subjected to nanoindentation which showed an average hardness and elastic modulus values of 1.67 ± 0.09 GPa and 83 ± 8 GPa respectively at a peak force of 8000 μN and a strain rate of 10{sup −2} s{sup −1}. Achieving good strength along with good ductility is challenging in nanocrystalline metals. When enough sample sizes are not available to measure ductility and other mechanical properties as per ASTM standards, as is the case with nanocrystalline materials, nanoindentation is a very promising technique to evaluate strain rate sensitivity. Strain rate sensitivity is a good measure of ductility and in the present work it is measured by performing indentation at various loads with varying loading rates. Strain rate sensitivity values of 0.024–0.054 are obtained for nanocrystalline Al which are high over conventional coarse grained Al. In addition, Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) image of the indent shows that there is some plastically flown region around the indent suggesting that this nanocrystalline aluminium is ductile.

  13. Patience of matrix games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Podolskii, Vladimir V.

    2013-01-01

    For matrix games we study how small nonzero probability must be used in optimal strategies. We show that for image win–lose–draw games (i.e. image matrix games) nonzero probabilities smaller than image are never needed. We also construct an explicit image win–lose game such that the unique optimal...

  14. Matrix comparison, Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Borlund, Pia

    2007-01-01

    The present two-part article introduces matrix comparison as a formal means for evaluation purposes in informetric studies such as cocitation analysis. In the first part, the motivation behind introducing matrix comparison to informetric studies, as well as two important issues influencing such c...

  15. Unitarity of CKM Matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Saleem, M

    2002-01-01

    The Unitarity of the CKM matrix is examined in the light of the latest available accurate data. The analysis shows that a conclusive result cannot be derived at present. Only more precise data can determine whether the CKM matrix opens new vistas beyond the standard model or not.

  16. Impact of matrix stiffness on fibroblast function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Mohri, Hichem; Wu, Yang; Mohanty, Swetaparna; Ghosh, Gargi, E-mail: gargi@umich.edu

    2017-05-01

    Chronic non-healing wounds, caused by impaired production of growth factors and reduced vascularization, represent a significant burden to patients, health care professionals, and health care system. While several wound dressing biomaterials have been developed, the impact of the mechanical properties of the dressings on the residing cells and consequently on the healing of the wounds is largely overlooked. The primary focus of this study is to explore whether manipulation of the substrate mechanics can regulate the function of fibroblasts, particularly in the context of their angiogenic activity. A photocrosslinkable hydrogel platform with orthogonal control over gel modulus and cell adhesive sites was developed to explore the quantitative relationship between ECM compliance and fibroblast function. Increase in matrix stiffness resulted in enhanced fibroblast proliferation and stress fiber formation. However, the angiogenic activity of fibroblasts was found to be optimum when the cells were seeded on compliant matrices. Thus, the observations suggest that the stiffness of the wound dressing material may play an important role in the progression of wound healing. - Highlights: • Proliferation and stress fiber formation of fibroblasts increase with increasing matrix mechanics. • Cell area correlates with the growth of fibroblasts. • Angiogenic activity of fibroblasts optimum when cells seeded on compliant gels.

  17. Bulk Renormalization Group Flows and Boundary States in Conformal Field Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cardy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose using smeared boundary states $e^{-\\tau H}|\\cal B\\rangle$ as variational approximations to the ground state of a conformal field theory deformed by relevant bulk operators. This is motivated by recent studies of quantum quenches in CFTs and of the entanglement spectrum in massive theories. It gives a simple criterion for choosing which boundary state should correspond to which combination of bulk operators, and leads to a rudimentary phase diagram of the theory in the vicinity of the RG fixed point corresponding to the CFT, as well as rigorous upper bounds on the universal amplitude of the free energy. In the case of the 2d minimal models explicit formulae are available. As a side result we show that the matrix elements of bulk operators between smeared Ishibashi states are simply given by the fusion rules of the CFT.

  18. Fuzzy risk matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowski, Adam S.; Mannan, M. Sam

    2008-01-01

    A risk matrix is a mechanism to characterize and rank process risks that are typically identified through one or more multifunctional reviews (e.g., process hazard analysis, audits, or incident investigation). This paper describes a procedure for developing a fuzzy risk matrix that may be used for emerging fuzzy logic applications in different safety analyses (e.g., LOPA). The fuzzification of frequency and severity of the consequences of the incident scenario are described which are basic inputs for fuzzy risk matrix. Subsequently using different design of risk matrix, fuzzy rules are established enabling the development of fuzzy risk matrices. Three types of fuzzy risk matrix have been developed (low-cost, standard, and high-cost), and using a distillation column case study, the effect of the design on final defuzzified risk index is demonstrated

  19. Fuzzy vulnerability matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, Jorge H.; Rivera, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    The so-called vulnerability matrix is used in the evaluation part of the probabilistic safety assessment for a nuclear power plant, during the containment event trees calculations. This matrix is established from what is knows as Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement. This matrix is usually established with numerical values obtained with traditional arithmetic using the set theory. The representation of this matrix with fuzzy numbers is much more adequate, due to the fact that the Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement are better represented with linguistic variables, such as 'highly probable', 'probable', 'impossible', etc. In the present paper a methodology to obtain a Fuzzy Vulnerability Matrix is presented, starting from the recommendations on the Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement. (author)

  20. Structural and mechanical properties of a giomer-based bulk fill restorative in different curing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Sarp Kaya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The main goal of this study was to compare the polymerization degree of bulk-fill giomer resin cured with three different light-curing units (LCUs: a polywave third-generation (Valo; a monowave (DemiUltra: DU; and a second-generation LED (Optima 10: Opt LCUs by using structural and mechanical properties. Material and methods: Giomer samples of 2 and 4 mm cured with three LCUs were employed in vitro analysis. The degree of curing (DC% was determined with Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. Microstructural features were observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Flexural strength (FS, compression strength (CS, elastic modulus and fracturing strain were determined for mechanical properties. Surface microhardness (SMH values were also measured. Oneway ANOVA, two-way analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparison tests were used for statistically analyzing the FS and SMH. Results: DC% values were 58.2, 47.6, and 39.7 for the 2 mm samples cured with DU, Opt., and Valo LCUs, respectively. DC% values of the 4 mm samples were 50.4, 44.6, and 38.2 for DU, Opt, and Valo, respectively. SMH values were Valo, Optmodulus and fracturing strain (% varied depending on the curing protocol. Conclusions: Based on the results, it can be concluded that curing device and protocol strongly affect crosslinking reactions and thus DC%, SMH, compressive modulus and strain at break values. Consequently, it can be deduced that curing protocol is possibly the most important parameter for microstructure formation of highly-filled composite restoratives because it may bring some structural defects and physical frailties on restorations due to lower degree of polymerization.

  1. The Young's Modulus, Fracture Stress, and Fracture Strain of Gellan Hydrogels Filled with Whey Protein Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Cherry Wing Yu; Ikeda, Shinya

    2017-05-01

    Texture modifying abilities of whey protein microparticles are expected to be dependent on pH during heat-induced aggregation of whey protein in the microparticulation process. Therefore, whey protein microparticles were prepared at either pH 5.5 or 6.8 and their effects on small and large deformation properties of gellan gels containing whey protein microparticles as fillers were investigated. The majority of whey protein microparticles had diameters around 2 μm. Atomic force microscopy images showed that whey protein microparticles prepared at pH 6.8 partially collapsed and flatted by air-drying, while those prepared at pH 5.5 did not. The Young's modulus of filled gels adjusted to pH 5.5 decreased by the addition of whey protein microparticles, while those of filled gels adjusted to pH 6.8 increased with increasing volume fraction of filler particles. These results suggest that filler particles were weakly bonded to gel matrices at pH 5.5 but strongly at pH 6.8. Whey protein microparticles prepared at pH 5.5 showed more enhanced increases in the Young's modulus than those prepared at pH 6.8 at volume fractions between 0.2 and 0.4, indicating that microparticles prepared at pH 5.5 were mechanically stronger. The fracture stress of filled gels showed trends somewhat similar to those of the Young's modulus, while their fracture strains decreased by the addition of whey protein microparticles in all examined conditions, indicating that the primary effect of these filler particles was to enhance the brittleness of filled gels. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Simultaneous estimation of Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus using a single indentation: a finite element study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Y P; Choi, A P C; Ling, H Y; Huang, Y P

    2009-01-01

    Indentation is commonly used to determine the mechanical properties of different kinds of biological tissues and engineering materials. With the force–deformation data obtained from an indentation test, Young's modulus of the tissue can be calculated using a linear elastic indentation model with a known Poisson's ratio. A novel method for simultaneous estimation of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of the tissue using a single indentation was proposed in this study. Finite element (FE) analysis using 3D models was first used to establish the relationship between Poisson's ratio and the deformation-dependent indentation stiffness for different aspect ratios (indentor radius/tissue original thickness) in the indentation test. From the FE results, it was found that the deformation-dependent indentation stiffness linearly increased with the deformation. Poisson's ratio could be extracted based on the deformation-dependent indentation stiffness obtained from the force–deformation data. Young's modulus was then further calculated with the estimated Poisson's ratio. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated in virtue of using the indentation models with different material properties in the FE analysis. The numerical results showed that the percentage errors of the estimated Poisson's ratios and the corresponding Young's moduli ranged from −1.7% to −3.2% and 3.0% to 7.2%, respectively, with the aspect ratio (indentor radius/tissue thickness) larger than 1. It is expected that this novel method can be potentially used for quantitative assessment of various kinds of engineering materials and biological tissues, such as articular cartilage

  3. Calculating tissue shear modulus and pressure by 2D log-elastographic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, Joyce R; Zhang, Ning; Manduca, Armando

    2010-01-01

    Shear modulus imaging, often called elastography, enables detection and characterization of tissue abnormalities. In this paper the data are two displacement components obtained from successive MR or ultrasound data sets acquired while the tissue is excited mechanically. A 2D plane strain elastic model is assumed to govern the 2D displacement, u. The shear modulus, μ, is unknown and whether or not the first Lamé parameter, λ, is known the pressure p = λ∇ . u which is present in the plane strain model cannot be measured and is unreliably computed from measured data and can be shown to be an order one quantity in the units kPa. So here we present a 2D log-elastographic inverse algorithm that (1) simultaneously reconstructs the shear modulus, μ, and p, which together satisfy a first-order partial differential equation system, with the goal of imaging μ; (2) controls potential exponential growth in the numerical error and (3) reliably reconstructs the quantity p in the inverse algorithm as compared to the same quantity computed with a forward algorithm. This work generalizes the log-elastographic algorithm in Lin et al (2009 Inverse Problems 25) which uses one displacement component, is derived assuming that the component satisfies the wave equation and is tested on synthetic data computed with the wave equation model. The 2D log-elastographic algorithm is tested on 2D synthetic data and 2D in vivo data from Mayo Clinic. We also exhibit examples to show that the 2D log-elastographic algorithm improves the quality of the recovered images as compared to the log-elastographic and direct inversion algorithms

  4. Effects of confinement on rock mass modulus: A synthetic rock mass modelling (SRM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Vazaios

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to examine the influence of the applied confining stress on the rock mass modulus of moderately jointed rocks (well interlocked undisturbed rock mass with blocks formed by three or less intersecting joints. A synthetic rock mass modelling (SRM approach is employed to determine the mechanical properties of the rock mass. In this approach, the intact body of rock is represented by the discrete element method (DEM-Voronoi grains with the ability of simulating the initiation and propagation of microcracks within the intact part of the model. The geometry of the pre-existing joints is generated by employing discrete fracture network (DFN modelling based on field joint data collected from the Brockville Tunnel using LiDAR scanning. The geometrical characteristics of the simulated joints at a representative sample size are first validated against the field data, and then used to measure the rock quality designation (RQD, joint spacing, areal fracture intensity (P21, and block volumes. These geometrical quantities are used to quantitatively determine a representative range of the geological strength index (GSI. The results show that estimating the GSI using the RQD tends to make a closer estimate of the degree of blockiness that leads to GSI values corresponding to those obtained from direct visual observations of the rock mass conditions in the field. The use of joint spacing and block volume in order to quantify the GSI value range for the studied rock mass suggests a lower range compared to that evaluated in situ. Based on numerical modelling results and laboratory data of rock testing reported in the literature, a semi-empirical equation is proposed that relates the rock mass modulus to confinement as a function of the areal fracture intensity and joint stiffness. Keywords: Synthetic rock mass modelling (SRM, Discrete fracture network (DFN, Rock mass modulus, Geological strength index (GSI, Confinement

  5. The Effect of Aqueous Alteration in Antarctic Carbonaceous Chondrites from Comparative ICP-MS Bulk Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Azcarate, J.; Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.; Moyano-Cambero, C. E.; Zolensky, M.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial ages of Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites (CC) indicate that these meteorites have been preserved in or on ice for, at least, tens of thousands of years. Due to the porous structure of these chondrites formed by the aggregation of silicate-rich chondrules, refractory inclusions, metal grains, and fine-grained matrix materials, the effect of pervasive terrestrial water is relevant. Our community defends that pristine CC matrices are representing samples of scarcely processed protoplanetary disk materials as they contain stellar grains, but they might also trace parent body processes. It is important to study the effects of terrestrial aqueous alteration in promoting bulk chemistry changes, and creating distinctive alteration minerals. Particularly because it is thought that aqueous alteration has particularly played a key role in some CC groups in modifying primordial bulk chemistry, and homogenizing the isotopic content of fine-grained matrix materials. Fortunately, the mineralogy produced by parent-body and terrestrial aqueous alteration processes is distinctive. With the goal to learn more about terrestrial alteration in Antarctica we are obtaining reflectance spectra of CCs, but also performing ICP-MS bulk chemistry of the different CC groups. A direct comparison with the mean bulk elemental composition of recovered falls might inform us on the effects of terrestrial alteration in finds. With such a goal, in the current work we have analyzed some members representative of CO and CM chondrite groups.

  6. Direct measurement of elastic modulus of Nb 3Sn using extracted filaments from superconducting composite wire and resin impregnation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, M.; Matsuoka, T.; Hashimoto, M.; Tanaka, M.; Sugano, M.; Ochiai, S.; Miyashita, K.

    2006-10-01

    Young's modulus of Nb3Sn filaments in Nb3Sn/Cu superconducting composite wire was investigated in detail. Nb3Sn filaments were first extracted from composite wire. Nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid were used to remove copper stabilizer, Nb3Sn/Nb barrier and bronze. Then, Nb3Sn filaments were impregnated with epoxy resin to form simple filament bundle composite rods. A large difference in Young's moduli of filaments and epoxy resin enhance the accuracy of the measurement of Nb3Sn filament modulus. The ratio of Nb3Sn to Nb in filaments and the number of filaments in the fiber bundle composite rods were used in the final calculation of the Young's modulus of Nb3Sn. The obtained modulus of 127 GPa was the lower bound of the already reported values.

  7. Direct measurement of elastic modulus of Nb3Sn using extracted filaments from superconducting composite wire and resin impregnation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, M.; Matsuoka, T.; Hashimoto, M.; Tanaka, M.; Sugano, M.; Ochiai, S.; Miyashita, K.

    2006-01-01

    Young's modulus of Nb 3 Sn filaments in Nb 3 Sn/Cu superconducting composite wire was investigated in detail. Nb 3 Sn filaments were first extracted from composite wire. Nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid were used to remove copper stabilizer, Nb 3 Sn/Nb barrier and bronze. Then, Nb 3 Sn filaments were impregnated with epoxy resin to form simple filament bundle composite rods. A large difference in Young's moduli of filaments and epoxy resin enhance the accuracy of the measurement of Nb 3 Sn filament modulus. The ratio of Nb 3 Sn to Nb in filaments and the number of filaments in the fiber bundle composite rods were used in the final calculation of the Young's modulus of Nb 3 Sn. The obtained modulus of 127 GPa was the lower bound of the already reported values

  8. Wind Diffusivity Current, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Modulus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  9. Anisotropic surface strain in single crystalline cobalt nanowires and its impact on the diameter-dependent Young's modulus

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Xiaohu; Li, Guanghai; Kong, Lingbing; Huang, Yizhong; Wu, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Understanding and measuring the size-dependent surface strain of nanowires are essential to their applications in various emerging devices. Here, we report on the diameter-dependent surface strain and Young's modulus of single-crystalline Co

  10. Natural asphalt modified binders used for high stiffness modulus asphalt concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilski, Marcin; Słowik, Mieczysław

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a set of test results supporting the possibility of replacing, in Polish climate conditions, hard road 20/30 penetration grade bitumen used in the binder course and/or base course made of high stiffness modulus asphalt concrete with binders comprising of 35/50 or 50/70 penetration grade bitumens and additives in the form of natural Gilsonite or Trinidad Epuré asphalts. For the purpose of comparing the properties of the discussed asphalt binders, values of the Performance Grade have been determined according to the American Superpave system criteria.

  11. On the Space of Functions with Growths Tempered by a Modulus of Continuity and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Banaś

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We are going to study the space of real functions defined on a bounded metric space and having growths tempered by a modulus of continuity. We prove also a sufficient condition for the relative compactness in the mentioned function space. Using that condition and the classical Schauder fixed point theorem, we show the existence theorem for some quadratic integral equations of Fredholm type in the space of functions satisfying the Hölder condition. An example illustrating the mentioned existence result is also included.

  12. Optimization of flexible substrate by gradient elastic modulus design for performance improvement of flexible electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Minggang; Liang, Chunping; Hu, Ruixue; Cheng, Zhaofang; Liu, Shiru; Zhang, Shengli

    2018-05-01

    It is imperative and highly desirable to buffer the stress in flexible electronic devices. In this study, we designed and fabricated lamellate poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) samples with gradient elastic moduli, motivated by the protection of the pomelo pulp by its skin, followed by the measurements of their elastic moduli. We demonstrated that the electrical and fatigue performances of a Ag-nanowire thin film device on the PDMS substrate with a gradient elastic modulus are significantly better than those of a device on a substrate with a monolayer PDMS. This study provides a robust scheme to effectively protect flexible electronic devices.

  13. Lateral Earth Pressure at Rest and Shear Modulus Measurements on Hanford Sludge Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Boeringa, Gregory K.; Bauman, Nathan N.; Guzman, Anthony D.; Arduino, P.; Keller, P. J.

    2010-09-30

    This report describes the equipment, techniques, and results of lateral earth pressure at rest and shear modulus measurements on kaolin clay as well as two chemical sludge simulants. The testing was performed in support of the problem of hydrogen gas retention and release encountered in the double- shell tanks (DSTs) at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Wastes from single-shell tanks (SSTs) are being transferred to double-shell tanks (DSTs) for safety reasons (some SSTs are leaking or are in danger of leaking), but the available DST space is limited.

  14. Elastic Metamaterials with Simultaneously Negative Effective Shear Modulus and Mass Density

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying

    2011-09-02

    We propose a type of elastic metamaterial comprising fluid-solid composite inclusions which can possess a negative shear modulus and negative mass density over a large frequency region. Such a material has the unique property that only transverse waves can propagate with a negative dispersion while longitudinal waves are forbidden. This leads to many interesting phenomena such as negative refraction, which is demonstrated by using a wedge sample and a significant amount of mode conversion from transverse waves to longitudinal waves that cannot occur on the interface of two natural solids.

  15. Design of a 5.8 GHz Multi-Modulus Prescaler

    OpenAIRE

    Myklebust, Vidar

    2006-01-01

    A 64-modulus prescaler operating at 5.8 GHz has been designed in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The prescaler uses a four-phase high-speed ÷4 circuit at the input, composed of two identical cascaded ÷2 circuits implemented in pseudo-NMOS. The high-speed divider is followed by a two-bits phase switching stage, which together with the input divider forms a ÷4/5/6/7 circuit. The phase switching stage is mostly implemented in complementary CMOS. After this follows four identical ÷2/3 cells with local fe...

  16. Assessment of longitudinal modulus of elasticity in structural elements of Pinus Caribaea timber beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Christoforo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The current standard NBR 7190/1997 (Project of Timber Structures makes no reference to tests for determining the stiffness and strength in parts of structural lumber; restricting the analysis to bodies-of-tests with small dimensions and without defects. This paper presents an alternative method to determine the longitudinal modulus of elasticity in timber beams, based on the Finite Element Method, as well as the Inverse Analysis Method with an optimization technique. Results show that the methodology proposed by the Brazilian standard can also be applied to pieces of structural dimensions.

  17. arXiv A Simple No-Scale Model of Modulus Fixing and Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Romano, Antonio Enea; Zapata, Oscar

    We construct a no-scale model of inflation with a single modulus whose real and imaginary parts are fixed by simple power-law corrections to the no-scale K{\\" a}hler potential. Assuming an uplift of the minimum of the effective potential, the model yields a suitable number of e-folds of expansion and values of the tilt in the scalar cosmological density perturbations and of the ratio of tensor and scalar perturbations that are compatible with measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation.

  18. Measurement of the Young's modulus of thin or flexible specimen with digital-image correlation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lianyun; Hou, Zhende; Qin, Yuwen

    2002-05-01

    Because some composite material, thin film material, and biomaterial, are very thin and some of them are flexible, the classical methods for measuring their Young's moduli, by mounting extensometers on specimens, are not available. A bi-image method based on image correlation for measuring Young's moduli is developed in this paper. The measuring precision achieved is one order enhanced with general digital image correlation or called single image method. By this way, the Young's modulus of a SS301 stainless steel thin tape, with thickness 0.067mm, is measured, and the moduli of polyester fiber films, a kind of flexible sheet with thickness 0.25 mm, are also measured.

  19. Application of tearing modulus stability concepts to nuclear piping. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotter, K.H.; Chang, H.Y.; Zahoor, A.

    1982-02-01

    The recently developed tearing modulus stability concept was successfully applied to several boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) piping systems. Circumferentially oriented through-the-thickness cracks were postulated at numerous locations in each system. For each location, the simplified tearing stability methods developed in USNRC Report NUREG/CR-0838 were used to determine crack stability. The J-T diagram was used to present the results of the computations. The piping systems considered included Type 304 stainless steel as well as A106 carbon steel materials. These systems were analyzed using the piping analysis computer code MINK

  20. Application of tearing modulus stability concepts to nuclear piping. Final report. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotter, K.H.; Chang, H.Y.; Zahoor, A.

    1982-02-01

    The recently developed tearing modulus stability concept was successfully applied to several boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) piping systems. Circumferentially oriented through-the-thickness cracks were postulated at numerous locations in each system. For each location, the simplified tearing stability methods developed in USNRC Report NUREG/CR-0838 were used to determine crack stability. The J-T diagram was used to present the results of the computations. The piping systems considered included Type 304 stainless steel as well as A106 carbon steel materials. These systems were analyzed using the piping analysis computer code MINK.