Blotnicky, Karen A.; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara; French, Frederick; Joy, Phillip
Background: A sample of 1448 students in grades 7 and 9 was drawn from public schools in Atlantic Canada to explore students' knowledge of science and mathematics requirements for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers. Also explored were their mathematics self-efficacy (MSE), their future career interests, their…
Lee, Sang Eun
This dissertation examines gender differences in career advancement outcomes among academic science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) scientists. In particular, this research examines effects of gender, PhD advisors and postdoctoral supervisors mentoring resources and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads on the career advancement…
This study explores the relationship between parental motivational practices, Children's mathematics achievement trajectories, and persistence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers. Nationally representative longitudinal survey data were analyzed using latent growth curve analysis. Findings indicate that…
Quinton, Jessica Elizabeth
Career interests develop over a lifetime and tend to solidify during late adolescence and early adulthood (Lent, Brown, and Hackett, 2002). The primary purpose of the present qualitative study, which is framed in Feminist Standpoint Theory (Haraway, 1988; Harding, 2007; Naples, 2007; Richardson, 2007), is to understand how eighth-grade, young women in a suburban, public, southern, middle school the South Carolina County School District (CCSD) (pseudonym) perceive their accessibility to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses and careers. The secondary purpose is to understand these young women's "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender in science and mathematics" and how their "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender" in the STEM fields may impact the careers that these young women may choose in the future (American Association of University Women, 2010, 9). Within the present study, the perceptions of young women who identified as "Interested in Science," "Somewhat Interested in Science" and "Uninterested in Science" were identified. STEM courses and careers are a major emphasis in education today. Increasing the numbers of Americans who pursue STEM careers is a government priority, as these careers will strengthen the economy (AAUW 2010). The present study reveals how young women who are highly motivated, talented students perceive STEM courses and careers and how they are influenced by their experiences, gendered messages, and knowledge of STEM careers. To analyze the data, four of Saldana's (2010) dramaturgical codes were utilized including: 1. OBJectives, or motives; 2. CONflicts the participants faced; 3. TACtics to dealing with obstacles; and 4. ATTitudes toward the setting, others, and the conflict. The InVivo Codes allowed the participants stories to emerge through the set of dramaturgical codes that allowed for viewing the girls' experience sin different ways that added depth to their stories. The young women in
Lee, Sang Eun
This dissertation examines gender differences in career advancement outcomes among academic science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) scientists. In particular, this research examines effects of gender, PhD advisors and postdoctoral supervisors mentoring resources and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads on the career advancement outcomes at early career stages. Female academic scientists have disadvantages in the career progress in the academic STEM. They tend to fall behind throughout their career paths and to leave the field compared to their male colleagues. Researchers have found that gender differences in the career advancement are shaped by gender-biased evaluations derived from gender stereotypes. Other studies demonstrate the positive impacts of mentoring and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads. To add greater insights to the current findings of female academic scientists' career disadvantages, this dissertation investigates comprehensive effects of gender, mentoring, and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads on female scientists' career advancement outcomes in academic science. Based on the Status Characteristics Theory, the concept of mentoring, Social Capital Theory, and Ingroup Bias Theory, causal path models are developed to test direct and indirect effects of gender, mentoring resources, and gender homophily on STEM faculty's career advancement. The research models were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM) with data collected from a national survey, funded by the National Science Foundation, completed in 2011 by tenured and tenure-track academic STEM faculty from higher education institutions in the United States. Findings suggest that there is no gender difference in career advancement controlling for mentoring resources and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads and other factors including research productivity and domestic caregiving responsibilities. Findings also show that the positive relationship between
Ocumpaugh, Jaclyn; San Pedro, Maria Ofelia; Lai, Huei-yi; Baker, Ryan S.; Borgen, Fred
Research suggests that trajectories toward careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) emerge early and are influenced by multiple factors. This paper presents a longitudinal study, which uses data from 76 high school students to explore how a student's vocational self-efficacy and interest are related to his or her middle school behavioral and affective engagement. Measures of vocational self-efficacy and interest are drawn from STEM-related scales in CAPAExplore, while measures of middle school performance and engagement in mathematics are drawn from several previously validated automated indicators extracted from logs of student interaction with ASSISTments, an online learning platform. Results indicate that vocational self-efficacy correlates negatively with confusion, but positively with engaged concentration and carelessness. Interest, which also correlates negatively with confusion, correlates positively with correctness and carelessness. Other disengaged behaviors, such as gaming the system, were not correlated with vocational self-efficacy or interest, despite previous studies indicating that they are associated with future college attendance. We discuss implications for these findings, which have the potential to assist educators or counselors in developing strategies to sustain students' interest in STEM-related careers.
Wang, Ming-Te; Ye, Feifei; Degol, Jessica Lauren
Career aspirations in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) are formulated in adolescence, making the high school years a critical time period for identifying the cognitive and motivational factors that increase the likelihood of future STEM employment. While past research has mainly focused on absolute cognitive ability levels in math and verbal domains, the current study tested whether relative cognitive strengths and interests in math, science, and verbal domains in high school were more accurate predictors of STEM career decisions. Data were drawn from a national longitudinal study in the United States (N = 1762; 48 % female; the first wave during ninth grade and the last wave at age 33). Results revealed that in the high-verbal/high-math/high-science ability group, individuals with higher science task values and lower orientation toward altruism were more likely to select STEM occupations. In the low-verbal/moderate-math/moderate-science ability group, individuals with higher math ability and higher math task values were more likely to select STEM occupations. The findings suggest that youth with asymmetrical cognitive ability profiles are more likely to select careers that utilize their cognitive strengths rather than their weaknesses, while symmetrical cognitive ability profiles may grant youth more flexibility in their options, allowing their interests and values to guide their career decisions.
Koyunlu Unlu, Zeynep; Dokme, Ilbilge; Unlu, Veli
Problem Statement: Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education has recently become a remarkable research topic, especially in developed countries as a result of the skilled workforce required in the fields of the STEM. Considering that professional tendencies are revealed at early ages, determining students' interest in STEM…
Miles, Rhea; Slagter van Tryon, Patricia J.; Mensah, Felicia Moore
TechMath is a professional development program that forms collaborations among businesses, colleges, and schools for the purpose of promoting Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) careers. TechMath has provided strategies for creating highquality professional development by bringing together teachers, students, and business…
Turner, Carol-Witkowski CW
Even now, women are underrepresented in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) careers. The literature shows that one significant approach to address this issue is to work with middle school girls, ages eleven to thirteen, to get them interested and excited about STEM career paths. In addition to appropriate in-school support a review of many different middle school programs indicates that such programs exist in certain service areas but are still missing in others, especially the rural areas. To address this situation, a one-day STEM workshop called "Full STEAHM Ahead!" was implemented spring 2012 in Elmira, New York, to address the career exploration "turning point" for rural middle school girls. The implementation involved pre-workshop, workshop, and post-workshop phases. The success and effectiveness of the workshop was demonstrated by survey comments and verbal feedback from both the girls and educators who attended.
Lamb, Richard; Annetta, Leonard; Vallett, David; Firestone, Jonah; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Walker, Heather; Deviller, Nicole; Hoston, Douglas
Attention on P-20 science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education has increased tremendously in recent years. Many efforts are underway to promote STEM major and career selection across the nation; specifically, in engineering and computer science. The authors' purpose was to examine an underlying profile combinations of latent…
Wendelberger, Joanne Roth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
This presentation will provide career advice for individuals seeking to go beyond just having a job to building a successful career in the areas of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Careful planning can be used to turn a job into a springboard for professional advancement and personal satisfaction. Topics to be addressed include setting priorities, understanding career ladders, making tough choices, overcoming stereotypes and assumptions by others, networking, developing a professional identify, and balancing a career with family and other personal responsibilities. Insights on the transition from individual technical work to leadership will also be provided. The author will draw upon experiences gained in academic, industrial, and government laboratory settings, as well as extensive professional service and community involvement.
Numerous federal and national commissions have called for policies, funds, and initiatives aimed at expanding the nation's science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce and education investments to create a significantly larger, more diverse talent pool of individuals who pursue technical careers. Career development professionals are poised to contribute to the equity discourse about broadening STEM participation. However, few are aware of STEM-related career development matters, career opportunities and pathways, or strategies for promoting STEM pursuits. The author summarizes STEM education and workforce trends and articulates an equity imperative for broadening and diversifying STEM participation. The author then offers a multicultural STEM-focused career development framework to encourage career development professionals' knowledge and awareness of STEM education and careers and delineates considerations for practice aimed at increasing the attainment and achievement of diverse groups in STEM fields. PMID:25750480
The lack of females entering STEM careers is well documented. Reasons for the gender gaps at all stages of the educational pipeline include both internal factors such as self-concept and external factors such as the influence of parents, media, and educators. Using latent growth curve analysis and nationally representative longitudinal survey…
Beekman, John A.; Ober, David
Nine years of results on 4.2 million of Indiana's Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress (ISTEP) mathematics (math) exams (grades 3-10) taken after the implementation of No Child Left Behind have been used to determine gender gaps and their associated trends. Sociocultural factors were investigated by comparing math gender gaps and gap…
Lubrica, Joel V.; Abiasen, Jovalson T.; Dolipas, Bretel B.; Ramos, Jennifer Lyn S.
In this article, we present results of our endeavours as physics educators to facilitate and support pedagogical change and development in the educational system of a developing country, the Philippines. We have discovered that the interaction of junior high school (years 7-10) students with physics apparatus can influence students’ interest in pursuing a career in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). This assertion stems from self-reports of students who gave their views immediately after their exposure to interactive apparatus in their own school, outside of their usual lessons. Participants claimed that their interest in following a STEM career path was ‘greatly increased’ due to their exposure to these apparatus. This was true even for students who were intending to take a non-STEM career path. Thus, we recommend that, in settings that have constraints involving access to practical equipment, ways to introduce school level interactive physics apparatus to secondary school students be conducted in order to attract more students towards STEM courses. Possibly, policies encouraging this type of exposure should also be formulated.
Hispanics, and women in particular, continue to be underrepresented in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The purpose of this study was to analyze cognitive and motivational factors that inspired Hispanic female college students to major in STEM programs and aspire to academic success. This mixed methods study was conducted using both quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis techniques in a sequential phase. Quantitative data were collected through the use of the 80-item Honey and Mumford Learning Styles Questionnaire, which was focused on the students' learning styles and how they impact Hispanic female students upon engaging in a STEM-related curriculum. Qualitative data were collected during interviews focusing on factors that led students to select, participate in, and make a commitment to some aspect of a STEM-related program. The questions that were asked during the interviews were intended to examine whether the existence of role models and STEM initiatives motivate Hispanic female students to major in STEM-related academic programs and aspire to academic success. The participants in this study were undergraduate Hispanic female students majoring in STEM-related academic programs and at a four-year university. The results indicate that the majority of the participants (88%) identified as reflectors, 4% as activists, 4% as theorists, and 4% as pragmatists. The results from the interviews suggested that the existence of role models (family members, educators, or STEM professionals) was a factor that motivated Hispanic females to major in STEM-related subjects and that exposure to STEM initiatives during K-12 education motivated Hispanic females to pursue a career in STEM.
Yoder, Jeremy B; Mattheis, Allison
A survey of individuals working in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans*, queer, or asexual (LGTBQA) was administered online in 2013. Participants completed a 58-item questionnaire to report their professional areas of expertise, levels of education, geographic location, and gender and sexual identities and rated their work and social communities as welcoming or hostile to queer identities. An analysis of 1,427 responses to this survey provided the first broad portrait of this population, and it revealed trends related to workplace practices that can inform efforts to improve queer inclusivity in STEM workplaces.
Sinn, Robb; Phipps, Marnie
A simulated academic career was combined with inquiry-based learning in an upper-division undergraduate mathematics course. Concepts such as tenure, professional conferences and journals were simulated. Simulation procedures were combined with student-led, inquiry-based classroom formats. A qualitative analysis (ethnography) describes the culture…
Kier, Meredith W.; Blanchard, Margaret R.; Osborne, Jason W.; Albert, Jennifer L.
Internationally, efforts to increase student interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers have been on the rise. It is often the goal of such efforts that increased interest in STEM careers should stimulate economic growth and enhance innovation. Scientific and educational organizations recommend that efforts to interest students in STEM majors and careers begin at the middle school level, a time when students are developing their own interests and recognizing their academic strengths. These factors have led scholars to call for instruments that effectively measure interest in STEM classes and careers, particularly for middle school students. In response, we leveraged the social cognitive career theory to develop a survey with subscales in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. In this manuscript, we detail the six stages of development of the STEM Career Interest Survey. To investigate the instrument's reliability and psychometric properties, we administered this 44-item survey to over 1,000 middle school students (grades 6-8) who primarily were in rural, high-poverty districts in the southeastern USA. Confirmatory factor analyses indicate that the STEM-CIS is a strong, single factor instrument and also has four strong, discipline-specific subscales, which allow for the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics subscales to be administered separately or in combination. This instrument should prove helpful in research, evaluation, and professional development to measure STEM career interest in secondary level students.
Full Text Available This article starts with an careful analysis of the factors that cause Chinese mathematics graduate’s heavy pressure in job hunting and career development, followed by a detailed introduction of American mathematics graduates’ positive employment potential and their benign career development prospect. Finally the author puts forward that mathematics majors should plan their curriculum study in relation to their future career development, with the help of systematic, professional career development consultancy and guidance. Suggestions on how to improve mathematics majors employment competitiveness are also provided in this article.
Rozek, Christopher S; Svoboda, Ryan C; Harackiewicz, Judith M; Hulleman, Chris S; Hyde, Janet S
During high school, developing competence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is critically important as preparation to pursue STEM careers, yet students in the United States lag behind other countries, ranking 35th in mathematics and 27th in science achievement internationally. Given the importance of STEM careers as drivers of modern economies, this deficiency in preparation for STEM careers threatens the United States' continued economic progress. In the present study, we evaluated the long-term effects of a theory-based intervention designed to help parents convey the importance of mathematics and science courses to their high-school-aged children. A prior report on this intervention showed that it promoted STEM course-taking in high school; in the current follow-up study, we found that the intervention improved mathematics and science standardized test scores on a college preparatory examination (ACT) for adolescents by 12 percentile points. Greater high-school STEM preparation (STEM course-taking and ACT scores) was associated with increased STEM career pursuit (i.e., STEM career interest, the number of college STEM courses, and students' attitudes toward STEM) 5 y after the intervention. These results suggest that the intervention can affect STEM career pursuit indirectly by increasing high-school STEM preparation. This finding underscores the importance of targeting high-school STEM preparation to increase STEM career pursuit. Overall, these findings demonstrate that a motivational intervention with parents can have important effects on STEM preparation in high school, as well as downstream effects on STEM career pursuit 5 y later.
Shin, Sein; Rachmatullah, Arif; Roshayanti, Fenny; Ha, Minsu; Lee, Jun-Ki
The purpose of this study was to understand the career motivation of secondary students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) by comparing Korean and Indonesian students. Effects of gender and educational level on students' STEM career motivation were also examined. To test for differences, we used Rasch analysis, 3-way…
Holmes, Kathryn; Gore, Jennifer; Smith, Max; Lloyd, Adam
Declining enrolments in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines and a lack of interest in STEM careers are concerning at a time when society is becoming more reliant on complex technologies. We examine student aspirations for STEM careers by drawing on surveys conducted annually from 2012 to 2015. School students in…
Kertil, Mahmut; Gurel, Cem
The purpose of this study is making a theoretical discussion on the relationship between mathematical modeling and integrated STEM education. First of all, STEM education perspective and the construct of mathematical modeling in mathematics education is introduced. A review of literature is provided on how mathematical modeling literature may…
Twyford, John; Järvinen, Esa-Matti
The issue of attracting more young people to choose careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has become critical for the United States. Recent studies by businesses, associations, and education have all agreed that the United States’ performance in the STEM disciplines have placed our nation in grave risk of relinquishing its competitive edge in the marketplace (e.g., Rising above the gathering storm, 2007). A Congressional Research Service (2006) report stated that...
Tan-Wilson, Anna; Stamp, Nancy
In career discussions, female undergraduates said that if they were to attend graduate school in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and were to follow a career based on their research training, they would have to give up having a family. A subsequent survey showed that many students, both men and women, thought work-life…
Winarno, N.; Widodo, A.; Rusdiana, D.; Rochintaniawati, D.; Afifah, R. M. A.
This study aims to investigate the profile of pre-service science teachers based on STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) Career Interest Survey. The study uses descriptive survey method as the research design. Samples collected from 66 preservice science teachers in a university located in Bandung, Indonesia. The results of the study are the profile of pre-service science teachers based on STEM Career Interest Survey shows that the average number of career interest in the field of technology is 4.08, in science 3.80, mathematics 3.39 and engineering 3.30. Pre-service science teachers are found to have interests in the STEM career fields. This research is necessary as there are many instances of people choosing majors or studies that are not in accordance with their interests and talents. The recommendation of this study is to develop learning in pre-service science teachers by using STEM approach.
Halim, Lilia; Rahman, Norshariani Abd; Ramli, Nor Aidillina Mohd; Mohtar, Lilia Ellany
Interest towards STEM and STEM careers is declining worldwide. Among the STEM related careers, the physics discipline has been the most affected in terms of numbers and imbalance of gender. This study investigates the role of self-efficacy in STEM towards STEM careers and Physics career based on gender and types of school. Findings showed that there is a positive and significant correlation between students' STEM self-efficacy and interest towards all disciplines in STEM and Physics career. Boys showed high level of self-efficacy in engineering discipline while the girls' associate more with science. Students from boarding schools showed higher self-efficacy and interest towards STEM careers compared to students from public schools. An implication of the study is that self-efficacy and interest in STEM careers are enhanced through engagement with STEM activities in and outside of school. Emphasis should be given to the role of counselors in making STEM careers relevant to students.
Hoffman, Jennifer L.; Fetrow, Kirsten J.; Broder, Dale E.; Murphy, Shannon M.; Tinghitella, Robin; Hart, Quyen N.
Despite gains in recent years, gender disparities persist in fields related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Although young women can perform as well as their male peers in STEM courses and tests, they are less likely to pursue higher education and careers in STEM. Our study examined the effectiveness of a STEM-focused summer camp at increasing middle-school girls’ career aspirations in STEM and self-confidence with respect to scientific topics. The 15 participants were Denver-area girls ages 10 to 13 years old from groups underrepresented in STEM fields. During the weeklong DU SciTech camp, these girls built telescopes and computers, collected and classified insects, completed inquiry activities, and interacted with female STEM professionals from a variety of scientific fields and racial backgrounds. We hypothesized that camp attendance would expand girls’ perceptions of who does science, increase their awareness of and interest in STEM careers, and increase their scientific self-efficacy, or belief in their ability to succeed at STEM tasks. We found that DU SciTech improved the girls’ scientific self-efficacy and awareness of STEM careers, but it did not increase their (already high) interest in pursuing their own careers in STEM. We will present our results and discuss their implications for future summer camps and efforts to broaden STEM participation by young women from underrepresented groups.
Connolly, Mark R.; Lee, You-Geon; Savoy, Julia N.
To help prepare future faculty in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) to teach undergraduates, more research universities are offering teaching development (TD) programs to doctoral students who aspire to academic careers. Using social cognitive career theory, we examine the effects of TD programs on early-career STEM…
Nugent, Gwen; Barker, Bradley; Welch, Greg; Grandgenett, Neal; Wu, ChaoRong; Nelson, Carl
The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of factors contributing to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning and career orientation, examining the complex paths and relationships among social, motivational, and instructional factors underlying these outcomes for middle school youth. Social cognitive career theory provided the foundation for the research because of its emphasis on explaining mechanisms which influence both career orientations and academic performance. Key constructs investigated were youth STEM interest, self-efficacy, and career outcome expectancy (consequences of particular actions). The study also investigated the effects of prior knowledge, use of problem-solving learning strategies, and the support and influence of informal educators, family members, and peers. A structural equation model was developed, and structural equation modeling procedures were used to test proposed relationships between these constructs. Results showed that educators, peers, and family-influenced youth STEM interest, which in turn predicted their STEM self-efficacy and career outcome expectancy. STEM career orientation was fostered by youth-expected outcomes for such careers. Results suggest that students' pathways to STEM careers and learning can be largely explained by these constructs, and underscore the importance of youth STEM interest.
A qualitative case study was conducted by examining the perceptions of fifth-grade African American girls about their experiences with science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education and potential for STEM as a future career. As the United States suffers from waning participation across all demographics in STEM and a high level…
Diekman, Amanda B; Brown, Elizabeth R; Johnston, Amanda M; Clark, Emily K
Although women have nearly attained equality with men in several formerly male-dominated fields, they remain underrepresented in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We argue that one important reason for this discrepancy is that STEM careers are perceived as less likely than careers in other fields to fulfill communal goals (e.g., working with or helping other people). Such perceptions might disproportionately affect women's career decisions, because women tend to endorse communal goals more than men. As predicted, we found that STEM careers, relative to other careers, were perceived to impede communal goals. Moreover, communal-goal endorsement negatively predicted interest in STEM careers, even when controlling for past experience and self-efficacy in science and mathematics. Understanding how communal goals influence people's interest in STEM fields thus provides a new perspective on the issue of women's representation in STEM careers.
Stevenson, Heidi J.
The Business Roundtable (2013) website presents a common narrative in regard to STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) education, "American students are falling behind in math and science. Fewer and fewer students are pursuing careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics, and American students are performing at…
Kovarik, Dina N.; Patterson, Davis G.; Cohen, Carolyn; Sanders, Elizabeth A.; Peterson, Karen A.; Porter, Sandra G.; Chowning, Jeanne Ting
We investigated the effects of our Bio-ITEST teacher professional development model and bioinformatics curricula on cognitive traits (awareness, engagement, self-efficacy, and relevance) in high school teachers and students that are known to accompany a developing interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers. The…
Karahan, Engin; Canbazoglu Bilici, Sedef; Unal, Aycin
Problem Statement: Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education aims at improving students' knowledge and skills in science and math, and thus their attitudes and career choices in these areas. The ultimate goal in STEM education is to create scientifically literate individuals who can survive in the global economy. The…
Asunda, Paul A.
At a minimum, employers rely on career and technical education (CTE) and workforce training systems to supply workers able to perform in their jobs. In CTE classes that seek to integrate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) concepts, it falls to the instructors to design and sequence the learning experiences that will promote…
Berk, Louis J.; Muret-Wagstaff, Sharon L.; Goyal, Riya; Joyal, Julie A.; Gordon, James A.; Faux, Russell; Oriol, Nancy E.
The most effective ways to promote learning and inspire careers related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) remain elusive. To address this gap, we reviewed the literature and designed and implemented a high-fidelity, medical simulation-based Harvard Medical School MEDscience course, which was integrated into high school…
Zhang, Lin; Barnett, Michael
Given that many urban students exclude Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics careers from their career choices, the present study focuses on urban high school students and adopts the social-cultural approach to understand the following questions: how do students envision their careers? What are the experiences that shape students'…
Tan-Wilson, Anna; Stamp, Nancy
In career discussions, female undergraduates said that if they were to attend graduate school in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and were to follow a career based on their research training, they would have to give up having a family. A subsequent survey showed that many students, both men and women, thought work–life balance would be more difficult to achieve in a STEM research path than in other professions they were considering. Their views of STEM research being less family-friendly were more pronounced on issues of parental leaves and caring for children than finding a spouse/partner and landing two jobs in the same locality. To provide role models of work–life balance in STEM professions, we convened panels of dual-career couples who described how they worked together to raise their children while advancing their scientific careers. Our selection of panelists and topics of discussion were based on findings of social science research on work–life balance. On a survey with the same questions administered afterward, the changes in paired responses of male and female students with respect to all four issues showed a significant shift toward thinking that a research-based STEM career would be no more difficult than other careers they were considering. PMID:26163564
Alsup, Philip R.
Inspiring learners toward career options available in STEM fields (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) is important not only for economic development but also for maintaining creative thinking and innovation. Limited amounts of research in STEM education have focused on the population of students enrolled in religious and parochial schools, and given the historic conflict between religion and science, this sector of American education is worthy of examination. The purpose of this quantitative study is to extend Gottfredson's (1981) Theory of Circumscription and Compromise as it relates to occupational aspirations. Bem's (1981) Gender Schema Theory is examined as it relates to the role of gender in career expectations, and Crenshaw's (1989) Intersectionality Theory is included as it pertains to religion as a group identifier. Six professionals in STEM career fields were video recorded while being interviewed about their skills and education as well as positive and negative aspects of their jobs. The interviews were compiled into a 25-minute video for the purpose of increasing understanding of STEM careers among middle school viewers. The research questions asked whether middle school students from conservative, Protestant Christian schools in a Midwest region increased in STEM-subject attitude and STEM-career interest as a result of viewing the video and whether gender interacted with exposure to the video. A quasi-experimental, nonequivalent control groups, pretest/posttest factorial design was employed to evaluate data collected from the STEM Semantic Survey. A Two-Way ANCOVA revealed no significant differences in dependent variables from pretest to posttest. Implications of the findings are examined and recommendations for future research are made. Descriptors: STEM career interest, STEM attitude, STEM gender disparity, Occupational aspirations, Conservative Protestant education.
Hefty, Lukas J.
The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' (NCTM's) "Principles and Standards for School Mathematics" (2000) outlines fi ve Process Standards that are essential for developing deep understanding of mathematics: (1) Problem Solving; (2) Reasoning and Proof; (3) Communication; (4) Connections; and (5) Representation. The Common Core…
Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald
Understanding middle school students' perceptions regarding STEM dispositions, and the role attitudes play in establishing STEM career aspirations, is imperative to preparing the STEM workforce of the future. Data were gathered from more than 800 middle school students participating in a hands-on, real world application curriculum to examine the…
Full Text Available There are two issues related to women and pathways to STEM careers. Recruitment to the field is one aspect. The second issue is the retention of women in STEM fields. This paper reports on the structured interviews with 14 women who have taken career breaks sometime after receiving their PhD in order to understand the pressures in place to take such breaks, how women remain connected (or not to their field during the break and issues related to re-entering the field after a career break. Suggestions based on the interviews include enhancements for women’s preparation for STEM fields and changes to the STEM culture itself. We suggest the inclusion workshops to detail what they might expect in their career and a provision for networking opportunities. We urge changes in the fee structure for society membership, differences in how resumes are reviewed as well as changes in maternity and child care leave.
Estrada, Mica; Eroy-Reveles, Alegra; Matsui, John
The United States’ inability to achieve equitable workforce development in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career pathways is well-recognized and has been attributed to the poor retention of a diverse stream of students in academia. Social science theory and research provide evidence that social contextual variables—specifically kindness cues affirming social inclusion—influence chronic underrepresentation of some groups within STEM career pathways. Review of the literature suggests that the current STEM academic context does not consistently provide cues that affirm social inclusion to all members of the academic population, and that policies that address this disparity are essential to broadening STEM workforce development in the United States. PMID:29657577
Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A.; Blotnicky, Karen; French, Frederick; Joy, Phillip
To enhance understanding of factors that might improve STEM career participation, we assessed students' self-perceptions of competency and interest in science/math, engagement in STEM activities outside of school, and knowledge of STEM career requirements. We show that the primary positive influencer directing students to a STEM career is high…
R. Bruce Ward
Full Text Available We report early findings on the efficacy of a technology-based project in increasing self-identification for girls and underserved youth to self-select STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics careers. ITEAMS (Innovative Technology- Enabled Astronomy for Middle Schools – an out-of-schooltime program with online, robotic telescopes as its central focus – targets girls and minority students underrepresented in STEMrelated vocations. The participating students attend urban schools in Eastern Massachusetts. ITEAMS’ twofold goal is to: a provide inspiration for the participants to pursue STEM careers, and b increase the students’ mastery of foundational subject matter so they are prepared for the rigor of further STEM study. We use an online system for surveys and assessments, the former to capture attitudinal changes about career choices, and the latter to assess the students’ subject matter knowledge. Participating students take pre-, intermediate, and post subject-matter tests and career-interest surveys. While we find statistically significant gains in subject matter knowledge free of gender, race, or school bias, we also find girls profess less interest than boys in STEM careers as early as grades five and six, although other attitudinal indicators suggest ways to reverse that trend.
Peterman, Karen; Kermish-Allen, Ruth; Knezek, Gerald; Christensen, Rhonda; Tyler-Wood, Tandra
This article describes Energy for ME and Going Green! Middle Schoolers Out to Save the World, two Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education programs with the common goal of improving students' attitudes about scientific careers. The authors represent two project teams, each with funding from the National Science…
Koyunlu Ünlü, Zeynep; Dökme, İlbilge
According to a report by the Turkish Industry and Business Association, Turkey will need approximately 1 million individuals to be employed in Science Technology Engineering Mathematics (STEM) fields by 2023, and 31% of this requirement will not be met. For continuous economic development, there is a need to integrate STEM into education in Turkey, which brings the need for research in this area. This study, based on a survey model, aimed to determine the level of interest of a sample of Turkish middle school students in STEM careers on the basis of gender, where they lived, grade levels, their end-of-semester grades, and their parents' educational status and levels of income. The research data was collected using the STEM Career Interest Survey (STEM-CIS) and Personal Information Form, which were applied to 851 middle school students (fifth and eighth graders). The collected data was analyzed with SPSS using Mann Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis H tests. It was found that middle school students' interest in STEM careers differed according to sex, where they lived, and grade levels but it did not differ in relation to their parents' educational status and the levels of income of the family. It is believed that the results obtained in this study reflecting the profile in Turkey will guide educational policy makers, curriculum developers, teachers, pre-service teachers, and researchers about STEM education.
Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica L.
Although the gender gap in math course-taking and performance has narrowed in recent decades, females continue to be underrepresented in math-intensive fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). Career pathways encompass the ability to pursue a career as well as the motivation to employ that ability. Individual differences…
Kovarik, Dina N; Patterson, Davis G; Cohen, Carolyn; Sanders, Elizabeth A; Peterson, Karen A; Porter, Sandra G; Chowning, Jeanne Ting
We investigated the effects of our Bio-ITEST teacher professional development model and bioinformatics curricula on cognitive traits (awareness, engagement, self-efficacy, and relevance) in high school teachers and students that are known to accompany a developing interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers. The program included best practices in adult education and diverse resources to empower teachers to integrate STEM career information into their classrooms. The introductory unit, Using Bioinformatics: Genetic Testing, uses bioinformatics to teach basic concepts in genetics and molecular biology, and the advanced unit, Using Bioinformatics: Genetic Research, utilizes bioinformatics to study evolution and support student research with DNA barcoding. Pre-post surveys demonstrated significant growth (n = 24) among teachers in their preparation to teach the curricula and infuse career awareness into their classes, and these gains were sustained through the end of the academic year. Introductory unit students (n = 289) showed significant gains in awareness, relevance, and self-efficacy. While these students did not show significant gains in engagement, advanced unit students (n = 41) showed gains in all four cognitive areas. Lessons learned during Bio-ITEST are explored in the context of recommendations for other programs that wish to increase student interest in STEM careers.
Tan-Wilson, Anna; Stamp, Nancy
In career discussions, female undergraduates said that if they were to attend graduate school in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and were to follow a career based on their research training, they would have to give up having a family. A subsequent survey showed that many students, both men and women, thought work-life balance would be more difficult to achieve in a STEM research path than in other professions they were considering. Their views of STEM research being less family-friendly were more pronounced on issues of parental leaves and caring for children than finding a spouse/partner and landing two jobs in the same locality. To provide role models of work-life balance in STEM professions, we convened panels of dual-career couples who described how they worked together to raise their children while advancing their scientific careers. Our selection of panelists and topics of discussion were based on findings of social science research on work-life balance. On a survey with the same questions administered afterward, the changes in paired responses of male and female students with respect to all four issues showed a significant shift toward thinking that a research-based STEM career would be no more difficult than other careers they were considering. © 2015 A. Tan-Wilson and N. Stamp. et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Endedijk, M.D.; van Veelen, R.; Möwes, Randy
Although there is a high demand of highly educated professionals in the technical sector, only about 50% of the graduates from a study program in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) opt for a career in the technical sector. Professional identity has been shown to influence
Dawson, Amy E.; Bernstein, Bianca L.; Bekki, Jennifer M.
This chapter outlines the psychosocial aspects of mentoring that help women combat the barriers they commonly face in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The authors describe the "Career"WISE online resilience training and how it can address the shortage of effective mentors and role models who have been shown to…
Full Text Available Amid growing concerns about the future of the U.S. economy and workforce, educators and policymakers alike have increasingly emphasized the need to expand the number of students interested in, qualified for and actually pursuing careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM. The current study draws on survey responses from a sample of 3852 high school students at inclusive STEM schools across the U.S. to investigate how project- and problem-based learning (PBL may work to address this need. Multivariate regression results indicate that student ratings of PBL are associated with interest in pursuing a career in STEM, as well as with intrinsic motivation for science and students’ ability beliefs for both science and math. Further, mediation analysis using Hayes’ (2014 MEDIATE macro suggests that science intrinsic motivation and ability beliefs mediate the relationship between perceived PBL experiences and student interest in a future STEM career (IFSC. Our results highlight the important potential of PBL for increasing student STEM attitudes and interest in future STEM careers. As one of the only large-scale quantitative analyses of its kind, this study provides critical information for educators, school administrators and policymakers as they continue to seek effective ways of encouraging students to pursue STEM careers.
Connolly, Mark R.; Lee, You-Geon
As a result of increased national emphasis on preparing future faculty in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) to teach undergraduates, more research universities offer teaching development (TD) programs to doctoral students who aspire to academic careers. Using social cognitive career theory, we examine the effects of these…
Cerinsek, Gregor; Hribar, Tina; Glodez, Natasa; Dolinsek, Slavko
This paper is addressing the problem of under-representation of young people in general, and females in particular, in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in Slovenia. It has two main objectives: (1) to identify which priorities male and female STEM students in Slovenia seek in their future careers, and (2) to…
Over the coming decade, America will need one million more science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professionals than was originally projected. This is the conclusion of a February 2012 report, "Engage to Excel: Producing One Million Additional College Graduates with Degrees in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics".…
The emphasis on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education in recent times could be perceived as business as usual or as an opportunity for innovation and change in mathematics classrooms. Either option presents challenges for mathematics educators who are expected to contribute to the foundations of a STEM literate…
Alexander Nealy, Yolande Kristine
This study examined factors that contribute to the success of African American professionals in STEM careers. Data were collected through a survey from 40 participants and in-depth interviews with eight of them. The survey was used to explore the participants' educational experiences from elementary school through college and on their STEM-related careers, whereas the individual interviews were used to gain insights into their perspectives as STEM professionals. The results of this study indicate that most of these African American STEM professionals attributed their choice of a STEM career to early exposure to and positive experiences in science and mathematics mediated by teachers and/or parents. Furthermore, the positive experiences and success in science and mathematics continued in high school and college, further solidifying their choice of a STEM career. However, for almost half of the participants, attending a HBCU seems to have played an important role in their enjoyment of and success in a STEM major. HBCUs provided them with role models and the necessary support and encouragement to succeed in their pursuit of a STEM degree. The results of this study illustrate the various factors that play a role in preventing leakage in the minority STEM pipeline: K-12 experiences mediated by parents and teachers; support systems in college and the workplace mediated by counselors, professors, peers, and administrators; and policies that facilitate integration and the development of such support systems. This study contributes to the current body of knowledge on minorities in STEM by focusing on what works, instead of focusing on the deficit model and what does not work. It is hoped that these results help validate the efforts of those who work towards a more equitable representation of the STEM fields.
Pumphrey, Karyn Christine
Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) professionals are responsible for the development of new technologies and breaking scientific discoveries. However, in the United States, racial minorities and females are vastly underrepresented in STEM professions. This problem is multiplied for individuals falling into both categories. Educators in must develop effective strategies to increase the number of minority females in STEM jobs. The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate if there was a difference in attitudes about future STEM educational choices and career opportunities after participation in a theme-based STEM event. The significant points reflected in the literature are statistics that demonstrate the extreme underrepresentation of this population and the importance of having all segments of the population represented in these important jobs. A descriptive non-experimental design study utilizing survey data taken before and after a STEM day at a public school was employed. The analysis tool was the Hopes and Goals Survey which has been found valid and reliable with similar samples of students. The data sets were pre-event and post-event surveys from minority females in grades 3, 4, and 5. The two data sets were compared using descriptive statistics to investigate any differences in opinions before and after the event. The results showed a difference in minority female student's attitudes regarding future STEM educational opportunities and careers after participation in a theme-based STEM event. The results indicate a need for increasing the number of STEM events in public schools. Future research may explore the differences between the opinion changes of males versus females to ascertain which gender responded most positively to STEM day.
In 2010 women represented half of the US population and over half of current graduates from college (57%) but less than a third of undergraduate degrees in science and engineering (STEM). This underrepresentation is worse in certain fields such as physics (21%), and engineering (22%) compared to 52% in chemistry. This underrepresentation is not only a social and cultural issue, but it is also cause for alarm in regard to the United States' ability to maintain its technological and economic dominance in the global economy. STEM fields provide valuable contributions to the nation's economic and environmental security (Augustine, 2005; Chang, 2009; Riegle-Crumb and King, 2010; Robelen, 2010; Tessler, 2008), paying practitioners well and bringing in revenue for successful businesses and governments (National Science Board [NSB], 2008; Riegle-Crumb and King). Consequently, addressing the underrepresentation of women and increasing their persistence in STEM fields will increase the number of scientists and engineers contributing to these fields, which could, in turn, improve the nation's economy, safety, and technological revenues. Research indicates that there are internal and external factors that affect the ability of women to see future success in STEM and to identify with the STEM and consequently persist. This presentation will summarize the current literature on issues affecting undergraduate women's retention in STEM as well as present strategies to improve this retention. Part of this presentation will draw from my own research studies in this area. The findings from my study and others reveal that only women who participate in redefinition strategies related to their marginalized status are able to persist; those who cannot redefine their marginality in relation to the dominant discourse of STEM begin to lose interest or doubt their competence in the field, resulting in their departure from STEM.
Diekman, Amanda B; Clark, Emily K; Johnston, Amanda M; Brown, Elizabeth R; Steinberg, Mia
The goal congruity perspective posits that 2 distinct social cognitions predict attraction to science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM) fields. First, individuals may particularly value communal goals (e.g., working with or helping others), due to either chronic individual differences or the salience of these goals in particular contexts. Second, individuals hold beliefs about the activities that facilitate or impede these goals, or goal affordance stereotypes. Women's tendency to endorse communal goals more highly than do men, along with consensual stereotypes that STEM careers impede communal goals, intersect to produce disinterest in STEM careers. We provide evidence for the foundational predictions that gender differences emerge primarily on communal rather than agentic goals (Studies 1a and 3) and that goal affordance stereotypes reflect beliefs that STEM careers are relatively dissociated from communal goals (Studies 1b and 1c). Most critically, we provide causal evidence that activated communal goals decrease interest in STEM fields (Study 2) and that the potential for a STEM career to afford communal goals elicits greater positivity (Study 3). These studies thus provide a novel demonstration that understanding communal goals and goal affordance stereotypes can lend insight into attitudes toward STEM pursuits.
Bachman, Jane T.; Kota, Dena H.; Kota, Aaron J.
Encouraging students at all grade levels to consider pursuing a career in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields i s a national focus. In 2005, the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Division (NSWCDD), a Department of Defense laboratory located in Da hlgren, Virginia, began work on the Virginia Demonstration Project (VDP) with the goal of increasing more student interest in STEM educatio n and pursuing STEM careers. This goal continues as the program enters its sixth year. This project has been successful through the partici pation of NSWCDD's scientists and engineers who are trained as mentor s to work in local middle school classrooms throughout the school year, As an extension of the in-class activities, several STEM summer aca demies have been conducted at NSWCDD, These academies are supported by the Navy through the VDP and the STEM Learning Module Project. These projects are part of more extensive outreach efforts offered by the National Defense Education Program (NDEP), sponsored by the Director, Defense Research and Engineering. The focus of this paper is on the types of activities conducted at the summer academy, an overview of the academy planning process, and recommendations to help support a nati onal plan of integrating modeling and simulation-based engineering and science into all grade levels. based upon the lessons learned
Middle school is a critical time for the development of girls' attitudes toward science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Existing research has indicated declining positive attitudes toward these fields among girls throughout adolescence. This study investigated how, to what extent, and for whom participation in a summer STEM Camp at a Midwestern college in the United States affected the STEM attitudes and career aspirations of 23 female participants, ages 10-14 years. Using a concurrent triangulation design, the researcher collected pre- and post-questionnaire data (N = 20), interviewed participants (N = 9), read journal entries (N = 22), and wrote field notes. The researcher adapted the Fennema-Sherman Attitude Scales (FSAS) to measure five of the original nine attitude scales concerning STEM: Male Domain, Confidence, Usefulness, Success, and Motivation. In addition to these standardized, Likert-type scale questions, the questionnaire included demographic items to gauge participants' anticipated career choices and the level of STEM motivation (e.g., extracurricular activities and guardians' STEM involvement). The interview questions elicited information about the participants' Camp experiences and the Camp's influence on participants' attitudes and career aspirations. The journal prompts provoked participants to think about their perceptions of, and relationship with, science and mathematics as well as how supportive their parents and peers had been regarding these two fields. Participants' incoming STEM attitudes were positive. Accordingly, there was no statistically significant difference between pre- and post-scores of attitudes toward STEM. Nevertheless, qualitative results showed that the Camp did strengthen participants' positive attitudes through enthusiastic instructors, STEM-motivated peers, and hands-on activities that allowed for creative freedom. Participating in the STEM Camp challenged participants' prior career aspirations by
Habig, Bobby; Gupta, Preeti; Levine, Brian; Adams, Jennifer
While there is extensive evidence that STEM careers can be important pathways for augmenting social mobility and for increasing individual prestige, many youth perceive a STEM trajectory as an unattractive option. In the USA, women and members of historically marginalized racial and ethnic groups continue to be underrepresented across STEM disciplines. One vehicle for generating and sustaining interest in STEM is providing youth long-term access to informal science education (ISE) institutions. Here, we incorporate triangulation methods, collecting and synthesizing both qualitative and quantitative data, to examine how participation in a longitudinal ISE out-of-school time (OST) program facilitated by the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) impacted the STEM trajectories of 66 alumni. Findings revealed that 83.2% of alumni engaged in a STEM major, and 63.1% in a STEM career, the majority whom were females and/or members of historically underrepresented racial and ethnic groups. Based on interviews with a purposeful sample of 21 AMNH alumni, we identified four program design principles that contributed to persistence in STEM: (1) affording multiple opportunities to become practitioners of science; (2) providing exposure to and repeated experiences with STEM professionals such as scientists, educators, and graduate students to build social networks; (3) furnishing opportunities for participants to develop shared science identities with like-minded individuals; and (4) offering exposure to and preparation for a variety of STEM majors and STEM careers so that youth can engage in discovering possible selves. These findings support our central thesis that long-term engagement in ISE OST programs fosters persistence in STEM.
Vijil, Veronica G.
An overall increased awareness of the importance of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has prompted attention toward the continued underrepresentation of Hispanic women in this field. The purpose of this collective case study was to explore the support systems, perceived barriers, and prior experiences influencing high school Hispanic girls' decisions to pursue advanced coursework and related careers through a career pathway in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) areas. Specifically, participants were interviewed regarding their mathematics and science experiences in elementary and middle schools, as well as perceived supports and barriers to their choices to pursue STEM careers and advanced coursework. Results indicated that the participants linked their elementary and middle school experiences with their teachers rather than specific activities. Accolades such as certificates and good grades for academic achievement contributed to the girls' strong self-efficacy at an early age. The participants possessed self-discipline and self-confidence, using intrinsic motivation to pursue their goals. Support systems included families and a few teachers. Barriers were revealed in different forms including derogatory comments by boys in class, difficult curricula with limited tutors available for higher level courses, and receipt of financial assistance to attend a university of their choice.
Peterman, Karen; Kermish-Allen, Ruth; Knezek, Gerald; Christensen, Rhonda; Tyler-Wood, Tandra
This article describes Energy for ME and Going Green! Middle Schoolers Out to Save the World, two Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education programs with the common goal of improving students' attitudes about scientific careers. The authors represent two project teams, each with funding from the National Science Foundation's ITEST program. Using different approaches and technology, both projects challenged students to use electricity monitoring system data to create action plans for conserving energy in their homes and communities. The impact of each project on students' career interests was assessed via a multi-method evaluation that included the Career Interest Questionnaire (CIQ), a measure that was validated within the context of ITEST projects and has since become one of the instruments used most commonly across the ITEST community. This article explores the extent to which the CIQ can be used to document the effects of technology-enhanced STEM educational experiences on students' career attitudes and intentions in different environments. The results indicate that the CIQ, and the Intent subscale in particular, served as significant predictors of students' self-reported STEM career aspirations across project context. Results from each project also demonstrated content gains by students and demonstrated the impact of project participation and gender on student outcomes. The authors conclude that the CIQ is a useful tool for providing empirical evidence to document the impact of technology-enhanced science education programs, particularly with regard to Intent to purse a STEM career. The need for additional cross-project comparison studies is also discussed.
Dorph, Rena; Bathgate, Meghan E.; Schunn, Christian D.; Cannady, Matthew A.
This paper proposes three new measures of components STEM career preferences (affinity, certainty, and goal), and then explores which dimensions of science learning activation (fascination, values, competency belief, and scientific sensemaking) are predictive of STEM career preferences. Drawn from the ALES14 dataset, a sample of 2938 sixth and eighth grade middle-school students from 11 schools in two purposefully selected diverse areas (Western Pennsylvania & the Bay Area of California) was used for the analyses presented in this paper. These schools were chosen to represent socio-economic and ethnic diversity. Findings indicate that, overall, youth who are activated towards science learning are more likely to have affinity towards STEM careers, certainty about their future career goals, and have identified a specific STEM career goal. However, different dimensions of science learning activation are more strongly correlated with different aspects career preference across different STEM career foci (e.g. science, engineering, technology, health, etc.). Gender, age, minority status, and home resources also have explanatory power. While many results are consistent with prior research, there are also novel results that offer important fodder for future research. Critically, our strategy of measuring affinity towards the specific disciplines that make up STEM, measuring STEM and health career goals separately, and looking at career affinity and career goals separately, offers interesting results and underscores the value of disentangling the conceptual melting pot of what has previously been known as 'career interest.' Study findings also have implications for design of science learning opportunities for youth.
Berk, Louis J; Muret-Wagstaff, Sharon L; Goyal, Riya; Joyal, Julie A; Gordon, James A; Faux, Russell; Oriol, Nancy E
The most effective ways to promote learning and inspire careers related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) remain elusive. To address this gap, we reviewed the literature and designed and implemented a high-fidelity, medical simulation-based Harvard Medical School MEDscience course, which was integrated into high school science classes through collaboration between medical school and K-12 faculty. The design was based largely on the literature on concepts and mechanisms of self-efficacy. A structured telephone survey was conducted with 30 program alumni from the inaugural school who were no longer in high school. Near-term effects, enduring effects, contextual considerations, and diffusion and dissemination were queried. Students reported high incoming attitudes toward STEM education and careers, and these attitudes showed before versus after gains (P science or healthcare-related career to the program. Additionally, 63% subsequently took additional science or health courses, 73% participated in a job or educational experience that was science related during high school, and 97% went on to college. Four of every five program graduates cited a health-related college major, and 83% offered their strongest recommendation of the program to others. Further study and evaluation of simulation-based experiences that capitalize on informal, naturalistic learning and promote self-efficacy are warranted. Copyright © 2014 The American Physiological Society.
Wasson, Jillian Woodford
There is a well-documented gender disparity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, which has been the focus of research for several decades (i.e., Betz & Hackett, 1981; Ceci & Williams, 2009, 2010; Wang, Eccles, & Kenny, 2013). Questions as to why this is the case are not new; however, with the growing body of research, there seem to be more questions than answers. This study drew primarily from the vocational psychology literature, particularly Social Cognitive Career Theory, building on previous literature in this area by examining differences in career choices made over time by qualified women across different stages in the education-to-career pathway. The results of the present study indicate that among qualified women many of the SCCT personal and contextual variables are relevant to STEM career development. Moreover, findings from the present study support the hypothesis (Lent et al., 1994) that personal, environmental, and behavioral variables affect one another. An important aspect of the SCCT model is the acknowledgment that at any given point in time, certain variables will carry different weight (Lent et al., 1994). The current study provides further support for this and underscores the necessity of understanding and framing career development as a process, unfolding across several developmental stages. These findings, their generalizability, and implications for practice should be carefully considered in the context of several limitations that this sample was influenced by: limitations in reliability and selection of variables, lack of diversity within the sample, as well as the extraneous variables related to overall economic and political backdrop.
Misher, Pamela Henry
This case study explored the utilization of project-based learning (PBL) and how it affected student engagement and interest in STEM careers. Sixty-seven students and nine teachers participated in this case study. Three research questions addressed student engagement, perceptions, and challenges during PBL implementation. This study was designed to understand the experiences teachers and students had when they participated in a PBL environment. This research investigated how to develop a globally skilled workforce utilizing a PBL approach and the challenges teachers encountered during implementation. The survey data and informal focus-group sessions with staff and students were utilized, analyzed, and summarized in order to obtain insight on perceptions, challenges, and implementation of PBL. PBL is an instructional approach that was designed to encourage more engaged learning. This approach was built upon realistic learning activities that stimulated student interest and motivation. This research discovered that PBL did teach content and 21st century skills as students worked collaboratively toward a common goal while responding to a question or problem. This study revealed that rigorous projects were carefully planned to aid students in learning important academic content. This study displayed how PBL allowed students to reflect on their projects and ideas with the opportunity to voice their decisions and findings. This instructional approach provided opportunities for students to investigate and strengthen interest in future STEM careers. The driving force of America's future economy and maintaining the competitive edge will be through more innovation, mainly derived from advances in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) careers. As business and industry leaders stressed the importance of improving STEM education, there continued to be a need to better prepare students to fill STEM-related careers. This research adds to the current body of research
Wang, Ming-Te; Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Kenny, Sarah
The pattern of gender differences in math and verbal ability may result in females having a wider choice of careers, in both science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and non-STEM fields, compared with males. The current study tested whether individuals with high math and high verbal ability in 12th grade were more or less likely to choose STEM occupations than those with high math and moderate verbal ability. The 1,490 subjects participated in two waves of a national longitudinal study; one wave was when the subjects were in 12th grade, and the other was when they were 33 years old. Results revealed that mathematically capable individuals who also had high verbal skills were less likely to pursue STEM careers than were individuals who had high math skills but moderate verbal skills. One notable finding was that the group with high math and high verbal ability included more females than males.
Nix, Samantha; Perez-Felkner, Lara; Thomas, Kirby
Students' perceptions of their mathematics ability vary by gender and seem to influence science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degree choice. Related, students' perceptions during academic difficulty are increasingly studied in educational psychology, suggesting a link between such perceptions and task persistence. Despite interest in examining the gender disparities in STEM, these concepts have not been considered in tandem. In this manuscript, we investigate how perceived ability under challenge—in particular in mathematics domains—influences entry into the most sex-segregated and mathematics-intensive undergraduate degrees: physics, engineering, mathematics, and computer science (PEMC). Using nationally representative Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS) data, we estimate the influence of perceived ability under challenging conditions on advanced high school science course taking, selection of an intended STEM major, and specific major type 2 years after high school. Demonstrating the importance of specificity when discussing how gender influences STEM career pathways, the intersecting effects of gender and perceived ability under mathematics challenge were distinct for each scientific major category. Perceived ability under challenge in secondary school varied by gender, and was highly predictive of selecting PEMC and health sciences majors. Notably, women's 12th grade perceptions of their ability under mathematics challenge increased their probability of selecting PEMC majors over and above biology. In addition, gender moderated the effect of growth mindset on students' selection of health science majors. Perceptions of ability under challenge in general and verbal domains also influenced retention in and declaration of certain STEM majors. The implications of these results are discussed, with particular attention to access to advanced scientific coursework in high school and interventions aimed at enhancing young women
Nix, Samantha; Perez-Felkner, Lara; Thomas, Kirby
Students' perceptions of their mathematics ability vary by gender and seem to influence science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degree choice. Related, students' perceptions during academic difficulty are increasingly studied in educational psychology, suggesting a link between such perceptions and task persistence. Despite interest in examining the gender disparities in STEM, these concepts have not been considered in tandem. In this manuscript, we investigate how perceived ability under challenge-in particular in mathematics domains-influences entry into the most sex-segregated and mathematics-intensive undergraduate degrees: physics, engineering, mathematics, and computer science (PEMC). Using nationally representative Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS) data, we estimate the influence of perceived ability under challenging conditions on advanced high school science course taking, selection of an intended STEM major, and specific major type 2 years after high school. Demonstrating the importance of specificity when discussing how gender influences STEM career pathways, the intersecting effects of gender and perceived ability under mathematics challenge were distinct for each scientific major category. Perceived ability under challenge in secondary school varied by gender, and was highly predictive of selecting PEMC and health sciences majors. Notably, women's 12th grade perceptions of their ability under mathematics challenge increased their probability of selecting PEMC majors over and above biology. In addition, gender moderated the effect of growth mindset on students' selection of health science majors. Perceptions of ability under challenge in general and verbal domains also influenced retention in and declaration of certain STEM majors. The implications of these results are discussed, with particular attention to access to advanced scientific coursework in high school and interventions aimed at enhancing young women's perceptions of
Estrada, Mica; Hernandez, Paul R; Schultz, P Wesley
African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans are historically underrepresented minorities (URMs) among science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degree earners. Viewed from a perspective of social influence, this pattern suggests that URMs do not integrate into the STEM academic community at the same rate as non-URM students. Estrada and colleagues recently showed that Kelman's tripartite integration model of social influence (TIMSI) predicted URM persistence into science fields. In this paper, we longitudinally examine the integration of URMs into the STEM community by using growth-curve analyses to measure the development of TIMIS's key variables (science efficacy, identity, and values) from junior year through the postbaccalaureate year. Results showed that quality mentorship and research experience occurring in the junior and senior years were positively related to student science efficacy, identity, and values at that same time period. Longitudinal modeling of TIMSI further shows that, while efficacy is important, and perhaps a necessary predictor of moving toward a STEM career, past experiences of efficacy may not be sufficient for maintaining longer-term persistence. In contrast, science identity and values do continue to be predictive of STEM career pathway persistence up to 4 years after graduation. © 2018 M. Estrada et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2018 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Milaturrahmah, Naila; Mardiyana, Pramudya, Ikrar
This 21st century demands competent human resources in science, technology, engineering design and mathematics so that education is expected to integrate the four disciplines. This paper aims to describe the importance of STEM as mathematics learning approach in Indonesia in the 21st century. This paper uses a descriptive analysis research method, and the method reveals that STEM education growing in developed countries today can be a framework for innovation mathematics in Indonesia in the 21st century. STEM education integrate understanding of science, math skills, and the available technology with the ability to perform engineering design process. Implementation of mathematics learning with STEM approach makes graduates trained in using of mathematics knowledge that they have to create innovative products that are able to solve the problems that exist in society.
Dorph, Rena; Bathgate, Meghan E.; Schunn, Christian D.; Cannady, Matthew A.
This paper proposes three new measures of components STEM career preferences (affinity, certainty, and goal), and then explores which dimensions of "science learning activation" (fascination, values, competency belief, and scientific sensemaking) are predictive of STEM career preferences. Drawn from the ALES14 dataset, a sample of 2938…
Rakich, Sladjana S.; Tran, Vinh
Often STEM schools and STEM enrichment programs attract primarily high achieving students or those with strong motivation or interest. However, to ensure that more students pursue interest in STEM, steps must be taken to provide access for all students. For a balanced and integrated career development focus, schools must provide learning…
Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica; Ye, Feifei
Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1) which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2) whether students’ motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in 12th grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women’s underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices. PMID:25741292
Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica; Ye, Feifei
Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1) which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2) whether students' motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in 12th grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women's underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices.
Weinberg, Paul J.
Because reasoning about mechanism is critical to disciplined inquiry in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) domains, this study focuses on ways to support the development of this form of reasoning. This study attends to how mechanistic reasoning is constituted through mathematical description. This study draws upon Smith's…
Craig, Cheryl J.; Verma, Rakesh; Stokes, Donna; Evans, Paige; Abrol, Bobby
This research examines the influence of parents on students' studying the STEM disciplines and entering STEM careers. Cases of two graduate students (one female, one male) and one undergraduate student (male) are featured. The first two students in the convenience sample are biology and physics majors in a STEM teacher education programme; the third is enrolled in computer science. The narrative inquiry research method is used to elucidate the students' academic trajectories. Incidents of circumstantial and planned parent curriculum making surfaced when the data was serially interpreted. Other themes included: (1) relationships between (student) learners and (teacher) parents, (2) invitations to inquiry, (3) modes of inquiry, (4) the improbability of certainty, and (5) changed narratives = changed lives. While policy briefs provide sweeping statements about parents' positive effects on their children, narrative inquiries such as this one illuminate parents' inquiry moves within home environments. These actions became retrospectively revealed in their adult children's lived narratives. Nurtured by their mothers and/or fathers, students enter STEM disciplines and STEM-related careers through multiple pathways in addition to the anticipated pipeline.
Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica
The United States has made a significant effort and investment in STEM education, yet the size and the composition of the STEM workforce continues to fail to meet demand. It is thus important to understand the barriers and factors that influence individual educational and career choices. In this article, we conduct a literature review of the current knowledge surrounding individual and gender differences in STEM educational and career choices, using expectancy-value theory as a guiding framework. The overarching goal of this paper is to provide both a well-defined theoretical framework and complementary empirical evidence for linking specific sociocultural, contextual, biological, and psychological factors to individual and gender differences in STEM interests and choices. Knowledge gained through this review will eventually guide future research and interventions designed to enhance individual motivation and capacity to pursue STEM careers, particularly for females who are interested in STEM but may be constrained by misinformation or stereotypes.
Stout, Jane G; Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Hunsinger, Matthew; McManus, Melissa A
Three studies tested a stereotype inoculation model, which proposed that contact with same-sex experts (advanced peers, professionals, professors) in academic environments involving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) enhances women's self-concept in STEM, attitudes toward STEM, and motivation to pursue STEM careers. Two cross-sectional controlled experiments and 1 longitudinal naturalistic study in a calculus class revealed that exposure to female STEM experts promoted positive implicit attitudes and stronger implicit identification with STEM (Studies 1-3), greater self-efficacy in STEM (Study 3), and more effort on STEM tests (Study 1). Studies 2 and 3 suggested that the benefit of seeing same-sex experts is driven by greater subjective identification and connectedness with these individuals, which in turn predicts enhanced self-efficacy, domain identification, and commitment to pursue STEM careers. Importantly, women's own self-concept benefited from contact with female experts even though negative stereotypes about their gender and STEM remained active. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Students’ perceptions of their mathematics ability vary by gender and seem to influence science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM degree choice. Related, students’ perceptions during academic difficulty are increasingly studied in educational psychology, suggesting a link between such perceptions and task persistence. Despite interest in examining the gender disparities in STEM, these concepts have not been considered in tandem. We investigate how perceived ability under challenge – in particular in mathematics domains – influences entry into the most sex-segregated and mathematics-intensive undergraduate degrees: physics, engineering, mathematics, and computer science (PEMC. Using nationally representative Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS data, we estimate the influence of perceived ability under challenging conditions on advanced high school science course taking, selection of an intended STEM major, and specific major type two years after high school. Demonstrating the importance of specificity when discussing how gender influences STEM career pathways, the intersecting effects of gender and perceived ability under mathematics challenge were distinct for each scientific major category. Perceived ability under challenge in secondary school varied by gender, and was highly predictive of selecting PEMC and health sciences majors. Notably, women’s 12th grade perceptions of their ability under mathematics challenge increased the probability that they would select PEMC majors, increasing women's probability of selecting PEMC over and above biology. In addition, gender moderated the effect of growth mindset on students’ selection of health science majors. The implications of these results are discussed, with particular attention to access to advanced scientific coursework in high school and interventions aimed at enhancing young women’s perceptions of their ability to facilitate their pathways to scientific degrees.
Cadavid, A. C.; Pedone, V. A.; Horn, W.; Rich, H.
STEPS (Students Targeting Engineering and Physical Science) is an NSF-funded program designed to increase the number of California State University Northridge students getting bachelor's degrees in the natural sciences, mathematics, engineering and computer science. The greatest loss of STEM majors occurs between sophomore and junior- years, so we designed Summer Interdisciplinary Team Experience (SITE) as an early career program for these students. Students work closely with a faculty mentor in teams of ten to investigate regionally relevant problems, many of which relate to sustainability efforts on campus or the community. The projects emphasize hands-on activities and team-based learning and decision making. We report data for five years of projects, qualitative assessment through entrance and exit surveys and student interviews, and in initial impact on retention of the participants.
The field of STEM education is an educational framework that has surged in application over the past decade. Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) is infused in nearly every facet of our society. Filling the gap of current research in middle school career and technical education (CTE) and STEM programs is important as traditional CTE…
This report documents the preparation and distribution of materials designed to aid students is assessing their interests in and prospects for a career in the mathematical sciences. Activities included the preparation of two books, two videos, a world wide web home page, and a workshop meeting on ``Math in Careers`` held at the University of California at Berkeley in January, 1995.
Amon, Mary J.
Although efforts have been directed toward the advancement of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) positions, little research has directly examined women’s perspectives and bottom-up strategies for advancing in male-stereotyped disciplines. The present study utilized Photovoice, a Participatory Action Research method, to identify themes that underlie women’s experiences in traditionally male-dominated fields. Photovoice enables participants to convey unique aspects of their experiences via photographs and their in-depth knowledge of a community through personal narrative. Forty-six STEM women graduate students and postdoctoral fellows completed a Photovoice activity in small groups. They presented photographs that described their experiences pursuing leadership positions in STEM fields. Three types of narratives were discovered and classified: career strategies, barriers to achievement, and buffering strategies or methods for managing barriers. Participants described three common types of career strategies and motivational factors, including professional development, collaboration, and social impact. Moreover, the lack of rewards for these workplace activities was seen as limiting professional effectiveness. In terms of barriers to achievement, women indicated they were not recognized as authority figures and often worked to build legitimacy by fostering positive relationships. Women were vigilant to other people’s perspectives, which was costly in terms of time and energy. To manage role expectations, including those related to gender, participants engaged in numerous role transitions throughout their day to accommodate workplace demands. To buffer barriers to achievement, participants found resiliency in feelings of accomplishment and recognition. Social support, particularly from mentors, helped participants cope with negative experiences and to envision their future within the field. Work-life balance also helped participants
Amon, Mary J
Although efforts have been directed toward the advancement of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) positions, little research has directly examined women's perspectives and bottom-up strategies for advancing in male-stereotyped disciplines. The present study utilized Photovoice, a Participatory Action Research method, to identify themes that underlie women's experiences in traditionally male-dominated fields. Photovoice enables participants to convey unique aspects of their experiences via photographs and their in-depth knowledge of a community through personal narrative. Forty-six STEM women graduate students and postdoctoral fellows completed a Photovoice activity in small groups. They presented photographs that described their experiences pursuing leadership positions in STEM fields. Three types of narratives were discovered and classified: career strategies, barriers to achievement, and buffering strategies or methods for managing barriers. Participants described three common types of career strategies and motivational factors, including professional development, collaboration, and social impact. Moreover, the lack of rewards for these workplace activities was seen as limiting professional effectiveness. In terms of barriers to achievement, women indicated they were not recognized as authority figures and often worked to build legitimacy by fostering positive relationships. Women were vigilant to other people's perspectives, which was costly in terms of time and energy. To manage role expectations, including those related to gender, participants engaged in numerous role transitions throughout their day to accommodate workplace demands. To buffer barriers to achievement, participants found resiliency in feelings of accomplishment and recognition. Social support, particularly from mentors, helped participants cope with negative experiences and to envision their future within the field. Work-life balance also helped participants find
Definitions of genders and, races, ethnicities, abilities and sexualities tend to exist on a binary scale (e.g. male/female, black/white) both for inclusiveness and evaluation of programs. This has the potential to be a schism for individuals who are choosing to enter STEM fields when if their self-identity does not fit this these predefined multi-polar templates. At InsightSTEM, in our Campus Ambassadors program (which has over 290 grassroots members in over 25 countries) we have been striving to nullify this effect... For example, on our application, we choose to not ask for any demographic data, in any spectrum, because those data make no sense on a global stage. We question that if race, gender, sexuality and ethnicity are all on a spectrum: is any program devoted to a particular group appropriate? Instead we deliver professional development to students worldwide to train them to become aware and inclusive STEM educators, involving everyone in their programs no matter what their background. We will present the ways we work with our Campus Ambassadors to create programs that, rather than focusing on particular groups, are truly inclusive, in developing their skills and empowering them to create inclusive programs worldwide for all. InsightSTEM Campus Ambassadors: Welcoming, Including, and & Supporting All in STEM Careers Worldwide
Connolly, Mark R; Lee, You-Geon; Savoy, Julia N
To help prepare future faculty in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) to teach undergraduates, more research universities are offering teaching development (TD) programs to doctoral students who aspire to academic careers. Using social cognitive career theory, we examine the effects of TD programs on early-career STEM scholars' sense of self-efficacy as postsecondary teachers. In 2011, a survey questionnaire was administered to 2156 people who in 2009 were doctoral students in STEM departments at three U.S. research universities; 1445 responded (67%). Regression analysis revealed positive relationships between TD participation and participants' college teaching self-efficacy and positive interaction effects for women. These findings may be used to improve the quality and quantity of TD offerings and help them gain wider acceptance. © 2018 M. R. Connolly et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2018 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Morales, Marie Paz E.; Avilla, Ruel A.; Espinosa, Allen A.
The present study explored gender inequality in K to 12 basic education, based on the experiences of first year pre-service science and mathematics teachers. It also determined if pre-service teachers' pursuit of a career in science or mathematics teaching was related to gender influences. A survey instrument was used to gather data for the study.…
Stuart, A. L.
Enrollments in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) curricula currently lag workforce needs. Participation of women and minorities in STEM careers also remains low despite efforts to improve their representation in these fields. We discuss the development and evaluation of a science museum exhibit aimed at stimulating interest of middle school children (particularly girls) in STEM careers. The exhibit was designed to teach science, while addressing two factors identified as limiting the interest of girls in STEM fields — perceived lack of social relevance and lack of female role models. Further, it was designed to apply best practices in science education, including inquiry-based learning and interdisciplinary content. The exhibit was developed through collaboration between students and faculty researchers at the University of South Florida and science education and evaluation specialists at the Museum of Science and Industry of Tampa. A few stages of formative and summative assessment, including focus group discussions, visitor observation, and surveys were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the exhibit to educational project goals. The installed exhibit is focused on teaching content related to interactions between air pollution, urban design, and human health. The approximately 25 square foot exhibit space involves four different types of components. A three-dimensional model of a city, with underlying dynamic computer simulations, allows visitors to interactively explore relationships between city design, air pollution and exposures. A computer game, with quiz questions requiring user decisions on personal to community behavior, provides visual feedback regarding impacts on air pollution. Traditional panels with graphics and text, including results of current research, display integrative scientific content with open-ended questions to stimulate discussion. Finally, personal profiles highlight the diverse family, work, and social lives
Bozeman, B.; Youtie, J.; Bretschneider, S.
As a part of discussion on knowledge utilization on science and technology, the mixed of papers presented in the panel discussion is designed to illustrate the patterns of collaboration, mobility, and diffusion of knowledge as well as those of labor force. In particular, the first two papers presented in the panel explore the potential of STEM career success through cosmopolitan collaboration and international community collaboration (focused on the relationships between China and Russia) in nanotechnology, which would provide implications on national and international benchmarking of innovation. For policy implications on graduate education and innovation, mobility pattern of non-U.S. Ph.D. degree holders is examined, and impact of a policy report on the target academic communities is investigated through development of credibility map. This panel is designed to highlight a recent effort of understanding geographical, cognitive or social spaces that are present in the scientific and technological activity as well as in doctoral education. The papers presented in this panel, therefore, will provide a rich set of significant and relevant insights drawn from examining STI knowledge utilization patterns to the STI-ENID community. The anticipated length of the event may be 90 minutes and there is no preferred number of attendees in particular although it is expected to be in between 35 and 60 at the minimum. (Author)
Lazarides, Rebecca; Watt, Helen M G
According to Eccles and Jacobs' (1986) parent socialization model, parents' gendered ability and value beliefs influence girls' and boys' interpretations of those beliefs, and hence students' domain-specific valuing of tasks and competence beliefs and subsequent career plans. Studies have rarely analyzed how both student-perceived mothers' and fathers' beliefs affect girls' and boys' task values, success expectancies, and career plans across domains. This study analyzed survey data of 459 students (262 boys) assessed through Grades 9, 10, and 11 from three coeducational secondary schools in Sydney, Australia. Longitudinal structural equation models revealed gendered value transmission pathways for girls in mathematics. Although mathematics test scores did not vary statistically significantly, girls reported statistically significantly lower mothers' ability beliefs for them in mathematics than boys at Time 1, which led to their statistically significantly lower mathematics intrinsic value at Time 2 and mathematics-related career plans at Time 3. Such gendered pathways did not occur in English. Matched same-gender effects and gendered pathways in parent socialization processes were evident; perceived mothers' value beliefs were more strongly related to girls' than boys' importance values in English. Student-perceived fathers' ability beliefs positively predicted boys', not girls', importance value in mathematics. Implications for educational practice emphasize the need to target girls' and boys' interest when aiming to enhance their mathematical career motivations. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.
Knowles, J. Geoff
This research analyzed the effects of teacher professional development and lesson implementation in integrated Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) on: 1.) Teacher self-efficacy and their confidence to teach specific STEM subjects; 2.) Teaching outcome expectancy beliefs concerning the impact of actions by teachers on student learning; and 3.) Teacher awareness of STEM careers. High school science and technology education teachers participating in the Teachers and Researchers Advancing Integrated Lessons in STEM (TRAILS) project experimental group attended a ten-day summer professional development institute designed to educate teachers in using an integrated STEM education model to implement integrated STEM lessons. The research design utilized a quasi-experimental nonequivalent comparison group design that incorporated an experimental group and an untreated comparison group with both pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest assessments on non-randomized participants. Teacher self-efficacy has been identified as a key factor in effective teaching and student learning, and teacher awareness of STEM careers impacts students as they consider career choices. The T-STEM Survey for teachers was given for the pretest and posttest assessments to measure attitudes and beliefs toward the specific constructs of this study. Significant effects of the TRAILS professional development were found in the teacher group (experimental or comparison) and teacher subject (technology or science) in pretest and posttest scores using cumulative link models for the constructs of teacher self-efficacy and beliefs to teach STEM subjects, teacher outcome expectancy beliefs, and teacher awareness of STEM careers. Effect sizes ranged from small to large varying by construct and assessment time. Highly significant p-values and effect sizes revealed impacts on science teachers were greater when teacher subject groups were analyzed separately.
van Tuijl, Cathy; van der Molen, Juliette H.
Although science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) study paths and STEM work fields may be relatively difficult and therefore not appropriate for everyone, too many children prematurely exclude STEM-related study and work options, based on negative images of the field or negative ability beliefs. In the present article, we provide an…
van Tuijl, Cathy; Walma van der Molen, Julie Henriëtte
Although science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) study paths and STEM work fields may be relatively difficult and therefore not appropriate for everyone, too many children prematurely exclude STEM-related study and work options, based on negative images of the field or negative
Ellis, Jessica; Fosdick, Bailey K; Rasmussen, Chris
The substantial gender gap in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce can be traced back to the underrepresentation of women at various milestones in the career pathway. Calculus is a necessary step in this pathway and has been shown to often dissuade people from pursuing STEM fields. We examine the characteristics of students who begin college interested in STEM and either persist or switch out of the calculus sequence after taking Calculus I, and hence either continue to pursue a STEM major or are dissuaded from STEM disciplines. The data come from a unique, national survey focused on mainstream college calculus. Our analyses show that, while controlling for academic preparedness, career intentions, and instruction, the odds of a woman being dissuaded from continuing in calculus is 1.5 times greater than that for a man. Furthermore, women report they do not understand the course material well enough to continue significantly more often than men. When comparing women and men with above-average mathematical abilities and preparedness, we find women start and end the term with significantly lower mathematical confidence than men. This suggests a lack of mathematical confidence, rather than a lack of mathematically ability, may be responsible for the high departure rate of women. While it would be ideal to increase interest and participation of women in STEM at all stages of their careers, our findings indicate that if women persisted in STEM at the same rate as men starting in Calculus I, the number of women entering the STEM workforce would increase by 75%.
Ellis, Jessica; Fosdick, Bailey K.; Rasmussen, Chris
The substantial gender gap in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce can be traced back to the underrepresentation of women at various milestones in the career pathway. Calculus is a necessary step in this pathway and has been shown to often dissuade people from pursuing STEM fields. We examine the characteristics of students who begin college interested in STEM and either persist or switch out of the calculus sequence after taking Calculus I, and hence either continue to pursue a STEM major or are dissuaded from STEM disciplines. The data come from a unique, national survey focused on mainstream college calculus. Our analyses show that, while controlling for academic preparedness, career intentions, and instruction, the odds of a woman being dissuaded from continuing in calculus is 1.5 times greater than that for a man. Furthermore, women report they do not understand the course material well enough to continue significantly more often than men. When comparing women and men with above-average mathematical abilities and preparedness, we find women start and end the term with significantly lower mathematical confidence than men. This suggests a lack of mathematical confidence, rather than a lack of mathematically ability, may be responsible for the high departure rate of women. While it would be ideal to increase interest and participation of women in STEM at all stages of their careers, our findings indicate that if women persisted in STEM at the same rate as men starting in Calculus I, the number of women entering the STEM workforce would increase by 75%. PMID:27410262
Full Text Available The substantial gender gap in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM workforce can be traced back to the underrepresentation of women at various milestones in the career pathway. Calculus is a necessary step in this pathway and has been shown to often dissuade people from pursuing STEM fields. We examine the characteristics of students who begin college interested in STEM and either persist or switch out of the calculus sequence after taking Calculus I, and hence either continue to pursue a STEM major or are dissuaded from STEM disciplines. The data come from a unique, national survey focused on mainstream college calculus. Our analyses show that, while controlling for academic preparedness, career intentions, and instruction, the odds of a woman being dissuaded from continuing in calculus is 1.5 times greater than that for a man. Furthermore, women report they do not understand the course material well enough to continue significantly more often than men. When comparing women and men with above-average mathematical abilities and preparedness, we find women start and end the term with significantly lower mathematical confidence than men. This suggests a lack of mathematical confidence, rather than a lack of mathematically ability, may be responsible for the high departure rate of women. While it would be ideal to increase interest and participation of women in STEM at all stages of their careers, our findings indicate that if women persisted in STEM at the same rate as men starting in Calculus I, the number of women entering the STEM workforce would increase by 75%.
Neisy Rodríguez Morales
Full Text Available The article shows the theoretical elements related with the conception of the curricular strategies and its instrumentation in the process of the student's of the Mathematical career formation - Physics. Examples are presented that demonstrate how to deal with the computer science's curricular strategy from the teaching process - learning of the subject Algebra I in the third year of the career. They give the possibility that the formation process be more effective, they facilitate the systematizing knowledge and abilities as well as the development of the integral general culture in the future professors of Mathematics - Physics.
Barry, Deborah S.
As the realities of the academic job market have forced some PhD recipients to accept less-preferable position types, there has been increasing concerns that these students are not prepared for their careers, especially in STEM fields. However, aside from the labor market, few studies have explored the influences on career aspiration and attainment among doctoral degree holders. This study utilized the socialization theory framework to identify aspects of the doctoral education process that are predictive of the likelihood of certain career aspirations among science and engineering doctoral candidates and career attainment among STEM doctoral recipients by utilizing nationally representative datasets: The National Research Council's Assessment of Research Doctorate Programs student questionnaire and the National Science Foundation's Survey of Earned Doctorates. This study identified field of study, research productivity rank of doctoral programs, primary type of finding doctoral students received, level of satisfaction with research experiences, and their sense of belonging within their doctoral program as factors that predict the likelihood of certain career aspirations compared with a career in education. Doctoral candidates' background characteristics that were significant predictors of career aspirations were gender, marital status, dependent status, race, age, and citizenship status. Further, this study identified participant's field of study, the Carnegie Rank of institutions attended, primary type of funding received, length of time to PhD, gender, marital status, dependent status, race, citizenship stats, and age as factors that predict the likelihood of the career outcomes investigated in this study, including doctoral recipients' employment field and primary work activity.
Mahoney, Michael Sean
Hailed as one of the greatest mathematical results of the twentieth century, the recent proof of Fermat's Last Theorem by Andrew Wiles brought to public attention the enigmatic problem-solver Pierre de Fermat, who centuries ago stated his famous conjecture in a margin of a book, writing that he did not have enough room to show his "truly marvelous demonstration" Along with formulating this proposition-xn+yn=zn has no rational solution for n > 2-Fermat, an inventor of analytic geometry, also laid the foundations of differential and integral calculus, established, together with Pascal, the conceptual guidelines of the theory of probability, and created modern number theory. In one of the first full-length investigations of Fermat's life and work, Michael Sean Mahoney provides rare insight into the mathematical genius of a hobbyist who never sought to publish his work, yet who ranked with his contemporaries Pascal and Descartes in shaping the course of modern mathematics.
inquiry and scientific pedagogy . 2.0 PROGRAM OBJECTIVES The DoD selected AFRL/XPPD, Domestic Partnering Branch, as the NDEP coordinator at...users access to LabTV, STEM career videos , STEM Education Quality Framework and Curriculum developed by the Dayton Regional STEM Center. In October
During the last 30 years, women have made tremendous advances in educational attainment especially in post-secondary education. Despite these advances, recent researchers have revealed that women continue to remain underrepresented in attainment of graduate degrees in the sciences. The researcher's purpose in this study was to extend previous research and to develop a model of variables that significantly contribute to persistence in and attainment of a graduate degree and an eventual career in the science, mathematics, or technology professions. Data were collected from the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:93/03). Variables in the categories of demographics, academics, finances, values and attitudes toward educational experiences, and future employment were analyzed by t tests and logistic regressions to determine gender differences in graduate degree attainment and career goals by male and female who majored in science, technology and mathematics. Findings supported significant gender differences in expectations for a graduate degree, age at baccalaureate degree attainment, number of science and engineering credits taken, and the value of faculty interactions. Father's education had a significant effect on degree attainment. Women and men had similar expectations at the beginning of their educational career, but women tended to fall short of their degree expectations ten years later. A large proportion of women dropped out of the science pipeline by choosing different occupations after degree completion. Additionally, women earned fewer science and math credits than men. The professions of science and technology are crucial for the nation's economic growth and competitiveness; therefore, additional researchers should focus on retaining both men and women in the STEM professions.
Estrada, Mica; Hernandez, Paul R.; Schultz, P. Wesley
African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans are historically underrepresented minorities (URMs) among science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degree earners. Viewed from a perspective of social influence, this pattern suggests that URMs do not integrate into the STEM academic community at the same rate as non-URM students.…
Full Text Available This article discusses the concepts of professional motivation and career barriers from the gender point of view. The research problem is expressed in the following questions: what personal and socio-cultural factors motivate young people to choose Physics and Mathematics study programmes? Are there significant differences in expression of motives and career barriers among male and female students? The sample consisted of 86 undergraduate students: 45 females and 41 male. Respondents were asked to write down their reflections as a free text answering the question why did they make such a professional choice choosing Physics and Mathematics studies. Motives that influenced the choice of Physics and Mathematics mostly expressed the dimension of self-realization and the dimension of material achievements. It was also found that both personality and social-cultural factors were important in choosing Physics and Mathematics, i.e. sensation of vocation and professional aptitude, as well as encouragement of relatives and good evaluation of future profession’s status. There were also found differences in expression of motives and career barriers among male and female students.
Hinton, Tracy Barger
With the large expected growth in STEM-related careers in American industries, there are not enough graduates to fill these positions (United States Department of Labor, 2015). Increased efforts are being made to reform STEM education from early childhood to college level studies, mainly through increased efforts to incorporate new technologies and project-based learning activities (Hegedorn & Purnamasari, 2012). At the middle school level, a robotics educational platform can be a worthwhile activity that provides hands-on learning as students learn basic programming and engineering skills (Grubbs, 2013). Based on the popularity of LEGO toys, LEGO Education developed an engaging and effective way to learn about computer programming and basic engineering concepts (Welch & Huffman, 2011). LEGO MINDSTORMS offers a project-based learning environment that engages students in real-life, problem-solving challenges. The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the instructional use of a robotics educational curriculum on middle school students' attitudes toward and interests in STEM and their experiences with LEGO Robotics activities. Participants included 23 seventh grade students who were enrolled in a Career Cluster Technologies I class in a suburban middle school. Data for the study were collected from three focus group interviews, open-ended surveys, classroom observations, and the Career Cruising program. Findings revealed that the robotics activities led to an increased interest and higher self-efficacy in STEM tasks. If students continue to nurture and develop their STEM interests, it is possible that many of them may develop higher confidence and eventually set personal goals related to STEM classes and careers. While other studies have been conducted on similar topics, this qualitative research is unique because it contributed to the gap in research that investigates the impact of an in-class robotics curriculum on middle school students' attitudes
Nov 15, 2017 ... A new partnership with UNESCO's Organization for Women in Science for ... in STEM fields and role models for the next generation of female scientists. ... Linking research to urban planning at the ICLEI World Congress 2018.
O'Neal, Melissa Jean
Canonical correlation analysis was used to analyze data from Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011 achievement databases encompassing information from fourth/eighth grades. Student achievement in life science/biology was correlated with achievement in mathematics and other sciences across three analytical areas: mathematics and science student performance, achievement in cognitive domains, and achievement in content domains. Strong correlations between student achievement in life science/biology with achievement in mathematics and overall science occurred for both high- and low-performing education systems. Hence, partial emphases on the inter-subject connections did not always lead to a better student learning outcome in STEM education. In addition, student achievement in life science/biology was positively correlated with achievement in mathematics and science cognitive domains; these patterns held true for correlations of life science/biology with mathematics as well as other sciences. The importance of linking student learning experiences between and within STEM domains to support high performance on TIMSS assessments was indicated by correlations of moderate strength (57 TIMSS assessments was indicated by correlations of moderate strength (57 mathematics, and other sciences. At the eighth grade level, students who built increasing levels of cognitive complexity upon firm foundations were prepared for successful learning throughout their educational careers. The results from this investigation promote a holistic design of school learning opportunities to improve student achievement in life science/biology and other science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) subjects at the elementary and middle school levels. While the curriculum can vary from combined STEM subjects to separated mathematics or science courses, both professional learning communities (PLC) for teachers and problem-based learning (PBL) for learners can be
Belcher, Aaron Heath
The purpose of this disquisition is to disseminate an improvement initiative in a public high school that addressed female Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) disparity in STEM classes. In this high school current instructional and career guidance practices were inadequate in providing female STEM students opportunities to experience relevant instruction in STEM through the application of real world practices. The improvement initiative identified four interventions using qualitative research that addressed the question, how do instructional and career guidance practices that emphasize the real world application of STEM impact the academic choices and career aspirations of female STEM students? The interventions include (1) instructional feedback (2) instructional resources, (3) career coaching, and (4) community college partnership. These interventions were chosen as a result of insider research methods that followed a scan, focus, summarize framework for understanding the problem. The aim of the improvement initiative was to develop structured protocols that impact STEM classroom and career guidance practices. An intervention team intended to identify opportunities for female STEM students to experience the real world application of STEM. First, the research context is explained. Then, a review of the literature explains foundation knowledge that led to the conceptual and leadership framework. Next, the research methodology is outlined including design and participants, survey instruments, procedures, timeline, and measures. The research methodology is followed by an analysis of data for instructional and career guidance practice efficacy. Finally, a discussion of the initiative and its outcome are illustrated through the stories of three female STEM students. As a result of these stories, the intervention team developed STEM classroom observation protocols. These protocols can be used by school leaders as a structure for STEM instruction and career
Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Wang, Ming-Te
Drawing on Eccles' expectancy-value model of achievement-related choices, we examined the personal aptitudes and motivational beliefs at 12th grade that move individuals toward or away from science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) occupations at age 29. In the first set of analyses, occupational and lifestyle values, math ability…
König, Johannes; Blömeke, Sigrid; Kaiser, Gabriele
We examined several facets of general pedagogical knowledge and skills of early career mathematics teachers, asking how they are associated with characteristics of teacher education, teaching experience, and working conditions. Declarative general pedagogical knowledge (GPK) was assessed via a paper-and-pencil test, while early career teachers'…
Sahin, Alpaslan; Gulacar, Ozcan; Stuessy, Carol
Social cognitive theory guided the design of a survey to investigate high school students' perceptions of factors affecting their career contemplations and beliefs regarding the influence of their participation in the international Science Olympiad on their subject interests and twenty-first century skills. In addition, gender differences in students' choice of competition category were studied. Mixed methods analysis of survey returns from 172 Olympiad participants from 31 countries showed that students' career aspirations were affected most by their teachers, personal interests, and parents, respectively. Students also indicated that they believed that their participation in the Olympiad reinforced their plan to choose a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) major at college and assisted them in developing and improving their twenty-first century skills. Furthermore, female students' responses indicated that their project choices were less likely to be in the engineering category and more likely to be in the environment or energy categories. Findings are discussed in the light of increasing the awareness of the role and importance of Science Olympiads in STEM career choice and finding ways to attract more female students into engineering careers.
Sayler, Michael F.
The University of North Texas's Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science began admitting students to its 2-year early college entrance science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) program in the fall of 1988. This program provided accelerated entry for top students in Texas in the areas of mathematics and science. Approximately 200…
Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica L
Although the gender gap in math course-taking and performance has narrowed in recent decades, females continue to be underrepresented in math-intensive fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). Career pathways encompass the ability to pursue a career as well as the motivation to employ that ability. Individual differences in cognitive capacity and motivation are also influenced by broader sociocultural factors. After reviewing research from the fields of psychology, sociology, economics, and education over the past 30 years, we summarize six explanations for US women's underrepresentation in math-intensive STEM fields: (a) cognitive ability, (b) relative cognitive strengths, (c) occupational interests or preferences, (d) lifestyle values or work-family balance preferences, (e) field-specific ability beliefs, and (f) gender-related stereotypes and biases. We then describe the potential biological and sociocultural explanations for observed gender differences on cognitive and motivational factors and demonstrate the developmental period(s) during which each factor becomes most relevant. We then propose evidence-based recommendations for policy and practice to improve STEM diversity and recommendations for future research directions.
Karen Louise Kelly
Full Text Available Setting students on a path to success in careers in science is a challenge in poor rural Appalachian public schools. Students face many socioeconomic obstacles. Their teachers are also limited by many factors including inadequate facilities, under-funding, geographical isolation of the schools, and state-testing constraints. Additionally, students and teachers lack the availability of outside science educational opportunities. In an effort to address this situation, 24 academically strong high school junior girls and their teachers from the Carter County School System in rural east Tennessee were invited for a laboratory day at Milligan College, a small liberal arts college in the heart of the county. Science faculty, female science majors, and admissions staff volunteered in service to the project. The event included three laboratory sessions, lunch in the college cafeteria, and campus tours. This successful example, as evidenced by positive evaluations by the invited girls and their teachers, of educational outreach by a local, small liberal arts college to a rural county school system provides a model for establishing a relationship between higher education institutions and these underprivileged schools, with the intention of drawing more of these poor, rural Appalachian students, particularly girls, into a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM career path.
Goldman, Amy D.; Penner, Andrew M.
This study provides an international perspective on mathematics by examnnng mathematics self-concept, achievement, and the desire to enter a career involving mathematics among eighth graders in 49 countries. Using data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, this study shows that self-concept in mathematics is more closely related to the desire to enter a career using mathematics than achievement is. Further, while gender differences in mathematics self-concept are smaller in more egalitarian countries, both girls and boys have lower mathematics self-concepts and less interest in mathematics careers in these countries. These findings reveal a policy paradox: policies aimed at training the next generation of STEM professionals often highlight the need to close the gender gap, but countries with smaller gender gaps have fewer boys and girls interested in mathematics-intensive careers. We conclude by highlighting the importance of disentangling instrumental and expressive aspects of gender inequality in STEM fields. PMID:27840545
Mark, Sheron L.
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is a domain of knowledge, skills, and practices that is pervasive and of critical importance in our highly technological, rapidly advancing, and increasingly connected world; however, non-dominant youth, namely from non-White, lower-income, non-English-speaking, and immigrant backgrounds,…
Lautz, L.; McCay, D.; Driscoll, C. T.; Glas, R. L.; Gutchess, K. M.; Johnson, A.; Millard, G.
Recognizing that over half of STEM Ph.D. graduates are finding work outside of academia, a new, NSF-funded program at Syracuse University, EMPOWER (or Education Model Program on Water-Energy Research) is encouraging its graduate students to take ownership of their graduate program and design it to meet their anticipated needs. Launched in 2016, EMPOWER's goal is to prepare graduate students for careers in the water-energy field by offering targeted workshops, professional training coursework, a career capstone experience, a professional development mini-grant program, and an interdisciplinary "foundations" seminar. Through regular student feedback and program evaluation, EMPOWER has learned some important lessons this first year: career options and graduate students' interests are diverse, requiring individualized programs designed to meet the needs of prospective employers and employees; students need exposure to the range of careers in their field to provide a roadmap for designing their own graduate school experience; effective programs nurture a culture that values professional development thereby giving students permission to pursue career paths and professional development opportunities that meet their own needs and interests; and existing university resources support the effective and efficient integration of professional development activities into graduate programs. Many of the positive outcomes experienced by EMPOWER students may be achieved in departmental graduate programs with small changes to their graduate curricula.
Turney, D.; Grigsby, B.; Murchie, S. L.; Buczkowski, D.; Seelos, K. D.; Nair, H.; McGovern, A.; Morgan, F.; Viviano, C. E.; Goudge, T. A.; Thompson, D.
United States Senate was a chance for students to practice high level communication and presentation skills and was reported to have made a strong impression on the participating students. MESDT develops foundational abilities needed by all students such as critical thinking, problem solving, cooperative group work, and communication skills. The implications of having students involved in authentic data analysis from an orbiting spacecraft include increased technical abilities as well as increased confidence to pursue a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) major or career. Formative assessments and teacher, parent, and student testimonials show MESDT has had a definite impact on students and their decisions to pursue STEM related majors and careers, in addition to leading to student scholarships and awards.
Kartal, Ozgul; Dunya, Beyza Aksu; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Zawojewski, Judith S.
Critical to many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career paths is mathematical modeling--specifically, the creation and adaptation of mathematical models to solve problems in complex settings. Conventional standardized measures of mathematics achievement are not structured to directly assess this type of mathematical…
Kuenzi, Jeffrey J; Matthews, Christine M; Mangan, Bonnie F
There is growing concern that the United States is not preparing a sufficient number of students, teachers, and practitioners in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM...
Motivation in mathematics and science appears to be more important to STEM occupational choice than ability. Using the expectancy value model, parents may be able to recognize potential barriers to children's selection of a STEM occupation and take actions to help facilitate talent development. These are especially important for parents of…
Yildirim, Bekir; Türk, Cumhur
In this study, the opinions of middle school science teachers and mathematics teachers towards STEM education were examined. The research was carried out for 30 hours with 28 middle school science and mathematics teachers who were working in Istanbul during the spring semester of 2016-2017 academic year. 75% of these teachers are female teachers…
Amon, Mary J.
Although efforts have been directed toward the advancement of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) positions, little research has directly examined women’s perspectives and bottom-up strategies for advancing in male-stereotyped disciplines. The present study utilized Photovoice, a Participatory Action Research method, to identify themes that underlie women’s experiences in traditionally male-dominated fields. Photovoice enables participants to convey unique aspect...
Scott, Jill Rice
The purpose of this project was to create and study an online mentoring community that connected fifth and sixth grade girls and female STEM mentors. The project was designed to give girls who were interested in science the chance to communicate online with women who were successful STEM professionals. The community provided the girls a venue to ask the women questions about their careers, their interests, and their science identities. Through this venue the girls were able to explore various STEM careers, be exposed to role models, and potentially increase their interest in science for the future. Mentoring has been shown to have a positive impact on girls and help improve their attitudes toward science and interests in STEM. The project examined the nature of the online mentoring process as well as the participants' perceptions of the opportunities and constraints of the community. The girls were members of an afterschool academy and the mentoring took place through the Internet using a secure educational social networking program. The program spanned a four-week period between April and May 2013. The main purpose of this study was formative since online mentoring is a relatively new area of research. This investigation produced detailed accounts of activities between the girls and the mentors. Findings revealed that the participants approached the community uniquely and explored many aspects of career exploration, STEM interest, and science identity. The participants also identified what they perceived as the opportunities afforded by the community as well as the constraints posed by the community. The research represented by this study was practitioner research with the work connecting theory with practice. The knowledge gained through the intentional reflection on and study of the Einstein Girls online mentoring community was useful in the production of knowledge that is transformative for the researcher's professional practice and transferable to other
Archer, Louise; DeWitt, Jennifer; Dillon, Justin
Background: It is widely agreed that more needs to be done to improve participation in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Despite considerable investment in interventions, it has been difficult to discern their effectiveness and/or impact on participation. Purpose: This paper discusses findings from a six-week pilot STEM careers intervention that was designed and overseen by a teacher from one London girls' school. We reflect on the challenges for those attempting such interventions and the problems associated with evaluating them. Sample: Data were collected from Year 9 students (girls aged 13-14 years) at the school. Design and methods: Pre- and post-intervention surveys of 68 students, classroom observations of intervention activities, three post-intervention discussion groups (five or six girls per group) and a post-intervention interview with the lead teacher were conducted. Results: Although the intervention did not significantly change students' aspirations or views of science, it did appear to have a positive effect on broadening students' understanding of the range of jobs that science can lead to or be useful for. Conclusions: Student aspirations may be extremely resistant to change and intervention, but students' understanding of 'where science can lead' may be more amenable to intervention. Implications are discussed, including the need to promote the message that science is useful for careers in and beyond science, at degree and technical levels.
Hancock, Sally; Walsh, Elaine
The science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) doctorate is the established entry qualification for a scientific research career. However, contemporary STEM doctoral graduates assume increasingly diverse professional paths, with many forging non-academic careers. Using the UK as an example, the authors suggest that the STEM PhD fails to…
Michaluk, Lynnette; Stoiko, Rachel; Stewart, Gay; Stewart, John
Elementary teachers often hold inaccurate beliefs about the Nature of Science (NoS) and have negative attitudes toward science and mathematics. Using a pre-post design, the current study examined beliefs about the NoS, attitudes toward science and mathematics, and beliefs about the teaching of mathematics and science in a large sample study ( N = 343) of pre-service teachers receiving a curriculum-wide intervention to improve these factors in comparison with Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) and non-STEM majors in other physics courses ( N = 6697) who did not receive the intervention, over a 10-year period. Pre-service teachers evidenced initially more negative attitudes about mathematics and science than STEM majors and slightly more positive attitudes than non-STEM majors. Their attitudes toward mathematics and science and beliefs about the NoS were more similar to non-STEM than STEM majors. Pre-service teachers initially evidenced more positive beliefs about the teaching of mathematics and science, and their beliefs even increased slightly over the course of the semester, while these beliefs in other groups remained the same. Beliefs about the NoS and the teaching of mathematics and science were significantly negatively correlated for STEM and non-STEM majors, but were not significantly correlated for pre-service teachers. Beliefs about the NoS and attitudes toward mathematics and science were significantly positively correlated for both pre-service teachers and STEM students pursing the most mathematically demanding STEM majors. Attitudes toward science and mathematics were significantly positively correlated with accurate beliefs about the teaching of mathematics and science for all student groups.
Pierce, Kristin B.; Hernandez, Victor M.
A quasi experimental study tested a contextual teaching and learning model for integrating reading and mathematics competencies through 13 introductory career and technical education (CTE) courses. The treatment group consisted of students in the 13 introductory courses taught by the CTE teachers who designed the units and the control group…
Orlando, Joanne; Attard, Catherine
Digital natives are now of age and comprise the new generation of early career teachers (ECTs). This is an important change in teacher demographics given that new technologies have been introduced into classrooms with expectations that teachers embed them effectively into the teaching of mathematics. This paper draws on the data of three separate…
Koch, Melissa; Gorges, Torie
Underrepresented populations such as women, African-Americans, and Latinos/as often come to STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) careers by less traditional paths than White and Asian males. To better understand how and why women might shift toward STEM, particularly computer science, careers, we investigated the education and…
Mahoney, Melissa M.
The increased demand for qualified STEM workers, necessitates addressing the bachelor's science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) degree achievement among African Americans and other underrepresented populations. Using inquiry derived from Harper's (2010) Anti-Deficit Achievement Framework, this study sought to explore the factors that contribute to the successful degree completion of African American STEM students within a large comprehensive university system. Coding of the twelve semi-structured interviews revealed six major themes: a) K-12/precollege educational experiences, b) motivation to complete a STEM degree, c) systems of social support, d) extracurricular activities and out-of-class experiences, e) addressing stereotyping and discrimination, and f) faculty behaviors and dispositions. All themes were intertwined at each phase of participants' academic careers, thereby, highlighting the complexity of this population's experience and what is needed to address their low STEM degree attainment. Findings indicated that this student population benefits from positive, sustained faculty-student interactions, holistic STEM success programming, and genuine networks of social support. Furthermore, Harper's framework can be modified to explore the motivation of African American STEM students as well as the African American student's relationship with disability support services.
Nikischer, Andrea B.
This research investigates science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) high school opportunity structures, including student experiences with math and science course sequences and progress, college guidance and counseling, and STEM extracurricular activities (Weis and Eisenhart, 2009), specifically related to STEM fields and career and college choice, for top-performing math and science students. Differences in these structures and processes as they play out in two representative high schools that vary by social class and racial/ethnic makeup are examined. This comparative ethnography includes 36 school and classroom observations, 56 semi-structured individual interviews, and a review of relevant documents, all gathered during the focal students' junior year of high school. Three data chapters are presented, discussing three distinct, yet interconnected themes. In the first, I examine the ways in which chronic attendance problems and classroom distractions negatively impact math and science instruction time and lead to an instruction (time) deficit. In the second, I compare the math and science course and extra-curricular offerings at each school, and discuss the significant differences between sites regarding available STEM exposure and experience, also known as "STEM educational dose" (Wai, et al., 2010). In the third, I investigate available guidance counseling services and STEM and college-linking at each site. Perceived failures in the counseling services available are discussed. This dissertation is grounded in the literature on differences in academic achievement based on school setting, the nature/distribution of knowledge based on social class, and STEM opportunity structures. The concepts of "social capital" and "STEM capital" are engaged throughout. Ultimately, I argue through this dissertation that segregation by race, and most importantly social class, both between and within districts, damages the STEM pipeline for high-performing math and
Yanik, H. Bahadir; Karabas, Celil
Modeling requires that people develop representations or procedures to address particular problem situations (Lesh et al. 2000). Mathematical modeling is used to describe essential characteristics of a phenomenon or a situation that one intends to study in the real world through building mathematical objects. This article describes how fifth-grade…
O’Brien, Katharine R.; McAbee, Samuel T.; Hebl, Michelle R.; Rodgers, John R.
The present study examines the consequences of perceived interpersonal discrimination on stress, health, and performance in a sample of 210 science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) academicians. Using a path model, we test the relation that perceived interpersonal discrimination has on stress and the relation of stress to physical health maladies and on current and future performance. In so doing, we assess the link between discrimination and decrements in performance over time. Additionally, we test supervisor social support as a moderator of the discrimination–stress relation. Findings support relations between perceived interpersonal discrimination and stress, which in turn relates to declines in physical health and performance outcomes. Moreover, supervisory support is shown to mitigate the influence of interpersonal discrimination on stress in STEM academicians. PMID:27199848
anthropology (0190), mathematical statistics (1529), general math (AFIT faculty only), metallurgy (1321), and actuarial science (1510). 97 Tier II. Few...linking or frEE DownloAD At www.rand.org C O R P O R A T I O N Research Report Air Force–Wide Needs for Science , Technology, Engineering, and...00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Air Force-Wide Needs for Science , Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Academic Degrees 5a. CONTRACT
Knezek, Gerald; Christensen, Rhonda; Tyler-Wood, Tandra; Gibson, David
Data gathered from 325 middle school students in four U.S. states indicate that both male (p < 0.0005, RSQ = 0.33) and female (p < 0.0005, RSQ = 0.36) career aspirations for "being a scientist" are predictable based on knowledge of dispositions toward mathematics, science and engineering, plus self-reported creative tendencies. For…
AND SUBTITLE Mobile STEMship Discovery Center: K-12 Aerospace-Based Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Mobile Teaching Vehicle...Center program to be able to expose Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) space-inspired science centers for DC Metro beltway schools
Wasserman, Nicholas H.; Rossi, Dara
The recent trend to unite mathematically related disciplines (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) under the broader umbrella of STEM education has advantages. In this new educational context of integration, however, STEM teachers need to be able to distinguish between sufficient proof and reasoning across different disciplines,…
Hogue, Barbara A.
Research into women's underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines has become a topic of interest due to the increasing need for employees with technical expertise and a shortage of individuals to fill STEM jobs. The discrepancy in women's representation between STEM and other fields cannot adequately be explained by factors such as women's need to balance work and family (medicine and law are both extremely demanding careers), women's fear of competition (admissions into medical and law schools are highly competitive), or women's inability to excel in science (e.g., entry into medicine requires excellent achievement in the basic sciences). The purpose of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of the role and/or impact a sense of belonging has inside and outside of STEM classrooms. Research questions focused on the role and/or impact of belonging contributes to students' self-efficacy beliefs as a STEM major. Bandura's self-efficacy theory serves as the theoretical framework. Data sources include close-ended surveys of 200 sophomore- and junior-level college students majoring in a STEM discipline. A quantitative exploratory approach allowed participants' responses to be analyzed using both correlation and multiple regression analyses to understand whether a student's sense of belonging is associated with his or her self-efficacy beliefs. Findings suggested that positive support systems impact students' self-efficacy and play a role in fostering students' motivation and decision to major in STEM disciplines. This study contributes to positive social change by providing empirical evidence faculty and administrators may use to promote university-based STEM support programs reflecting the impact belonging has on students' self-efficacy and potentially increasing the number of students majoring in STEM disciplines.
Skells, Kristin Marie
Extant data was used to consider the association between science anxiety, social cognitive factors and STEM career aspirations of high school freshmen in general science classes. An adapted model based on social cognitive career theory (SCCT) was used to consider these relationships, with science anxiety functioning as a barrier in the model. The study assessed the following research questions: (1) Do social cognitive variables relate in the expected way to STEM career aspirations based on SCCT for ninth graders taking general science classes? (2) Is there an association between science anxiety and outcomes and processes identified in the SCCT model for ninth graders taking general science classes? (3) Does gender moderate these relationships? Results indicated that support was found for many of the central tenants of the SCCT model. Science anxiety was associated with prior achievement, self-efficacy, and science interest, although it did not relate directly to STEM career goals. Gender was found to moderate only the relationship between prior achievement and science self-efficacy.
Schmidt, Shelly J.; Bohn, Dawn M.; Rasmussen, Aaron J.; Sutherland, Elizabeth A.
The overarching goal of the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Initiative is to foster effective STEM teaching and learning throughout the educational system at the local, state, and national levels, thereby producing science literate citizens and a capable STEM workforce. To contribute to achieving this goal, we…
Education Council, 2015
There are many factors that affect student engagement in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Underlying this are the views of the broader community--and parents in particular--about the relevance of STEM, and the approach to the teaching and learning of STEM from the early years and continuing throughout schooling. Connected…
Furner, Joseph M.
Today, being confident and having a sound understanding of mathematics is critical in an age of STEM. Teachers must play in important role in seeing that all students display their confidence in their ability to do mathematics. This paper explains the process of using bibliotherapy when teaching mathematics to address both the math anxious or the…
An expanding ethnicity gap exists in the number of students pursuing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers in the United States. The National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering revealed that the number of minorities pursuing STEM degrees and careers has declined over the past few years. The specific origins of…
Students do not pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM) because of a lack of ability, but rather a lack of positive experiences with mathematics. Research has concluded that attitudes in math directly influence success in mathematics. As many as 75% of high school graduates in the United States suffer from mild to…
Mathematical learning instruction and teacher motivation factors affecting science technology engineering and math (STEM) major choices in 4-year colleges and universities: Multilevel structural equation modeling
Using the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002/06, this study examined the effects of the selected mathematical learning and teacher motivation factors on graduates' science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) related major choices in 4-year colleges and universities, as mediated by math performance and math self-efficacy. Using multilevel structural equation modeling, I analyzed: (1) the association between mathematical learning instruction factors (i.e., computer, individual, and lecture-based learning activities in mathematics) and students' STEM major choices in 4-year colleges and universities as mediated by math performance and math self-efficacy and (2) the association between school factor, teacher motivation and students' STEM major choices in 4-year colleges and universities via mediators of math performance and math self-efficacy. The results revealed that among the selected learning experience factors, computer-based learning activities in math classrooms yielded the most positive effects on math self-efficacy, which significantly predicted the increase in the proportion of students' STEM major choice as mediated by math self-efficacy. Further, when controlling for base-year math Item Response Theory (IRT) scores, a positive relationship between individual-based learning activities in math classrooms and the first follow-up math IRT scores emerged, which related to the high proportion of students' STEM major choices. The results also indicated that individual and lecture-based learning activities in math yielded positive effects on math self-efficacy, which related to STEM major choice. Concerning between-school levels, teacher motivation yielded positive effects on the first follow up math IRT score, when controlling for base year IRT score. The results from this study inform educators, parents, and policy makers on how mathematics instruction can improve student math performance and encourage more students to prepare for STEM careers. Students
Heilbronner, Nancy N.
Many men and women who are talented in science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics (STEM) choose not to pursue undergraduate majors or careers in these fields. To develop talents in STEM, educators must understand the factors that contribute to an individual's retention in STEM domains, as well as the factors that act as barriers to…
Gustiani, Ineu; Widodo, Ari; Suwarma, Irma Rahma
This study is intended to examine the development and validation of simple machines instructional material that developed based on Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) framework that provides guidance to help students learn and practice for real life and enable individuals to use knowledge and skills they need to be an informed citizen. Sample of this study consist of one class of 8th grader at a junior secondary school in Bandung, Indonesia. To measure student learning, a pre-test and post-test were given before and after implementation of the STEM based instructional material. In addition, a questionnaire of readability was given to examine the clarity and difficulty level of each page of instructional material. A questionnaire of students' response towards instructional material given to students and teachers at the end of instructional material reading session to measure layout aspects, content aspects and utility aspects of instructional material for being used in the junior secondary school classroom setting. The results show that readability aspect and students' response towards STEM based instructional material of STEM based instructional material is categorized as very high. Pretest and posttest responses revealed that students retained significant amounts information upon completion of the STEM instructional material. Student overall learning gain is 0.67 which is categorized as moderate. In summary, STEM based instructional material that was developed is valid enough to be used as educational materials necessary for conducting effective STEM education.
Coester, Lee Anne
This study was designed to gather input from early career elementary teachers with the goal of finding ways to improve elementary mathematics methods courses. Multiple areas were explored including the degree to which respondents' elementary mathematics methods course focused on the NCTM Process Standards, the teachers' current standards-based…
Full Text Available Although young women now obtain higher course grades in math than boys and are just as likely to be enrolled in advanced math courses in high school, females continue to be underrepresented in some STEM occupations. This study drew on expectancy-value theory to assess (1 which intellectual and motivational factors in high school predict gender differences in career choices and (2 whether students’ motivational beliefs mediated the pathway of gender on STEM career via math achievement by using a national longitudinal sample in the United States. We found that math achievement in twelfth grade mediated the association between gender and attainment of a STEM career by the early to mid-thirties. However, math achievement was not the only factor distinguishing gender differences in STEM occupations. Even though math achievement explained career differences between men and women, math task value partially explained the gender differences in STEM career attainment that were attributed to math achievement. The identification of potential factors of women’s underrepresentation in STEM will enhance our ability to design intervention programs that are optimally tailored to female needs to impact STEM achievement and occupational choices.
Pacheco, Heather A.
This is a qualitative study about sources of self-efficacy and roles of assistive technologies (AT) associated with the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) choice and participation of STEM professionals and graduate students with sensory and orthopedic disabilities. People with disabilities are underrepresented in STEM, which can be traced back along the STEM pipeline to early undergraduate participation in STEM. Little research exists, however, about pathways and factors associated with successful STEM participation for people with disabilities at any point along their trajectories. Eighteen STEM professionals and graduate students with sensory and orthopedic disabilities were interviewed for this study. Sources of self-efficacy were sought from interview transcripts, as were emergent themes associated with the types, uses and roles of AT. Findings suggest that people with sensory and orthopedic disabilities weigh sources of self-efficacy differently from white males without disabilities in STEM and more like other underrepresented minorities in STEM. Social persuasions were most frequently reported and in far more detail than other sources, suggesting that this source may be most impactful in the development of self-efficacy beliefs for this group. Additionally, findings indicate that AT is critical to the successful participation of people with sensory and orthopedic disabilities in STEM at all points along their STEM pathways. Barriers center around issues of access to full engagement in mainstream STEM classrooms and out of school opportunities as well as the impact of ill-informed perceptions about the capabilities of people with disabilities held by parents, teachers and college faculty who can act as gatekeepers along STEM pathways. Gaps in disability specialists' knowledge about STEM-specific assistive technologies, especially at the college level, are also problematic. The prevalence of mainstream public school attendance reported by
Rodriguez Flecha, Samuel
The purpose of this study was to examine high school students' math values, perceived math achievement, and STEM career choice. Participants (N=515) were rural high school students from the U.S. Northwest. Data was collected by administering the "To Do or Not to Do:" STEM pilot survey. Most participants (n=294) were Latinos, followed by Caucasians (n=142). Fifty-three percent of the students rated their math achievement as C or below. Of high math students, 57% were male. Females were 53% of low math students. Caucasians (61%) rated themselves as high in math in a greater proportion than Latinos (39%). Latinos (58%) rated themselves as low in math in a greater proportion than Caucasians (39%). Math Values play a significant role in students' perceived math achievement. Internal math values (r =.68, R2 =.46, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.70, R2 =.49, p =.001; females: r =.65, R2 =.43, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.66, R2 =.44, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.72, R2 =.51, p =.001). External math values (r =.53, R2 =.28, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.54, R2 =.30, p =.001; females: r =.49, R2 =.24, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.47, R2 =.22, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.58, R2 =.33, p =.001). Most high-math students indicated an awareness of being good at math at around 11 years old. Low-math students said that they realized that math was difficult for them at approximately 13 years of age. The influence of parents, teachers, and peers may vary at different academic stages. Approximately half of the participants said there was not a person who had significantly impacted their career choice; only a minority said their parents and teachers were influencing them to a STEM career. Parents and teachers are the most influential relationships in students' career choice. More exposure to STEM role models and in a variety of professions is needed. Possible strategies to impact students
Serious attention has been directed in recent years towards the need for increasing the number of high school graduates in the United States who are prepared for postsecondary education, training and careers in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The number of jobs in U.S. STEM occupations grew by 10.5 percent…
Wei, Xin; Yu, Jennifer W; Shattuck, Paul; McCracken, Mary; Blackorby, Jose
Little research has examined the popular belief that individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are more likely than the general population to gravitate toward science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. This study analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, a nationally representative sample of students with an ASD in special education. Findings suggest that students with an ASD had the highest STEM participation rates although their college enrollment rate was the third lowest among 11 disability categories and students in the general population. Disproportionate postsecondary enrollment and STEM participation by gender, family income, and mental functioning skills were found for young adults with an ASD. Educational policy implications are discussed.
Manley, P. L.; Ambos, E. L.
international UR community are particularly important to considerations of broadening and strengthening the pipeline of students entering careers in geosciences and other STEM disciplines: (1) embedding UR more effectively and systematically throughout the undergraduate curriculum, (2) connecting UR experiences with student developmental arcs in content knowledge and skill integration, and, (3) growing the scholarship of study of impact of UR on student success and professional achievements. Case studies of institutions, particularly those that represent collaborations between two and four year colleges and universities, that are successfully addressing these focus areas will be presented, along with specific challenges to expanding the use of UR in lower division curricula.
Xu, Yonghong Jade
Using data from a nationally representative, longitudinal survey of college graduates, this study examines student transition from college to their chosen career paths and identifies factors influencing college graduates' choosing an occupation related to ones' undergraduate major. Within the context of expanded econometric framework a wide range…
Roth, W.-M.; Eijck, van M.W.
Challenged by a National Science Foundation–funded conference, 2020 Vision: The Next Generation of STEM Learning Research, in which participants were asked to recognize science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning as lifelong, life-wide, and life-deep, we draw upon 20 years of
Rising concern about America's ability to maintain its competitive position in the global economy has renewed interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education. To understand who enters into and completes undergraduate programs in STEM fields, this report examined data from three major national studies: the 1995-96…
Güereque, M.; Olgin, J. G.; Kier, M. W.; Winston, C. E.; Fitzgerald, R. M.; Morris, V. R.
The NOAA Center for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) sponsors a network of high school and middle school summer camps entitled "Channeling Atmospheric Research into Educational Experiences Reaching Students program, CAREERS". These camps are conducted nationwide at NCAS academic partners; the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP), Howard University (HU), University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez (UPRM), and Jackson State University (JSU). The goals of these camps are to increase the interest of secondary school (HS) students in atmospheric and weather related sciences, target under-represented students, and to ultimately boost their college enrollment in STEM related fields. For 2014 at UTEP, the annual student-outreach weather camp program underwent a thematic overhaul that sought to incorporate more of the geological and environmental context of the region. Doctoral students were allowed to assume greater responsibility for the design, development and implementation of the camp activities. The prevailing assumption was that these Ph.D. students were better suited for peer mentoring, bridging the age and interest gap, and delivering the material through the modern technologies and modes of communication. The redesigned approach focused on the identification of climate drivers within the region and this concept formed a thread throughout the planning and design of the camp modules. The outcome resulted in the incorporation of project based learning (PBL) activities, field excursions, and deployment of weather instrumentation, for explaining regional climate processes and events. Standardized surveys were administered to camp participants to evaluate the efficacy, as well as student perceptions of the camp and its activities. Results will be presented that are based on qualitative and quantitative analysis of student responses.
LeBeau, Brandon; Harwell, Michael; Monson, Debra; Dupuis, Danielle; Medhanie, Amanuel; Post, Thomas R.
Background: The importance of increasing the number of US college students completing degrees in science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) has prompted calls for research to provide a better understanding of factors related to student participation in these majors, including the impact of a student's high-school mathematics curriculum. Purpose: This study examines the relationship between various student and high-school characteristics and completion of a STEM major in college. Of specific interest is the influence of a student's high-school mathematics curriculum on the completion of a STEM major in college. Sample: The sample consisted of approximately 3500 students from 229 high schools. Students were predominantly Caucasian (80%), with slightly more males than females (52% vs 48%). Design and method: A quasi-experimental design with archival data was used for students who enrolled in, and graduated from, a post-secondary institution in the upper Midwest. To be included in the sample, students needed to have completed at least three years of high-school mathematics. A generalized linear mixed model was used with students nested within high schools. The data were cross-sectional. Results: High-school predictors were not found to have a significant impact on the completion of a STEM major. Significant student-level predictors included ACT mathematics score, gender and high-school mathematics GPA. Conclusions: The results provide evidence that on average students are equally prepared for the rigorous mathematics coursework regardless of the high-school mathematics curriculum they completed.
Erica S. Weisgram
Full Text Available Two studies extended the communal goal congruity perspective to examine perceived incongruity between science careers and family caregiving goals. Study 1 examined beliefs about science careers among young adolescents, older adolescents, and young adults. Science careers were perceived as unlikely to afford family goals, and this belief emerged more strongly with age cohort. Study 1 also documented that the perception that science affords family goals predicts interest in pursuing science. Study 2 then employed an experimental methodology to investigate the impact of framing a science career as integrated with family life or not. For family-oriented women, the family-friendly framing of science produced greater personal favorability toward pursuing a science career. In addition, perceived fulfilment of the scientist described predicted personal favorability toward a science career path. We discuss the implications of these findings for research and for policy.
Glennie, Elizabeth; Mason, Marcinda; Dalton, Ben
Some states have created science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) schools to encourage student interest and enhance student proficiency in STEM subjects. We examined a set of STEM schools serving disadvantaged students to see whether these students were more likely to take and pass advanced science and mathematics classes than…
belonging for women STEM majors in the college domain; understanding the climate/culture of the STEM college/ workplace and defining strategies to achieve...a “sense of fit” to enable confidence and satisfaction; understanding the stereotypes and biases toward women in STEM; and seeking/developing...avid slalom water skier. This speaker, a 35ish Caucasian women , told how she fell victim to the stereotype that “girls are not as good at math as
Kolo, Yovonda Ingram
African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.
Brown, Elizabeth R; Thoman, Dustin B; Smith, Jessi L; Diekman, Amanda B
To remain competitive in the global economy, the United States (and other countries) is trying to broaden participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) by graduating an additional 1 million people in STEM fields by 2018. Although communion (working with, helping, and caring for others) is a basic human need, STEM careers are often (mis)perceived as being uncommunal. Across three naturalistic studies we found greater support for the communal affordance hypothesis, that perceiving STEM careers as affording greater communion is associated with greater STEM career interest, than two alternative hypotheses derived from goal congruity theory. Importantly, these findings held regardless of major (Study 1), college enrollment (Study 2), and gender (Studies 1-3). For undergraduate research assistants, mid-semester beliefs that STEM affords communion predicted end of the semester STEM motivation (Study 3). Our data highlight the importance of educational and workplace motivational interventions targeting communal affordances beliefs about STEM.
Driven largely by societal discourse regarding the underrepresentation of African American males pursuing science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) majors, careers and professions, it becomes salient to understand how African American males experience mathematics in K-12 public schools in relation to their mathematics identity…
Gürefe, Nejla; Akçakin, Veysel
Persistent in mathematical studies is an important element allowing students to be successful in their STEM careers, and there is a need for affective measurement instruments to assess persistence in mathematics in spite of problems. For this reason, this study aims to adapt the Mathematical Resilience Scale developed to assess resilience, which…
Chow, Christina M.
Maintaining a competitive edge within the 21st century is dependent on the cultivation of human capital, producing qualified and innovative employees capable of competing within the new global marketplace. Technological advancements in communications technology as well as large scale, infrastructure development has led to a leveled playing field where students in the U.S. will ultimately be competing for jobs with not only local, but also international, peers. Thus, the ability to understand and learn from our global competitors, starting with the examination of innovative education systems and best practice strategies, is tantamount to the economic development, and ultimate survival, of the U.S. as a whole. The purpose of this study was to investigate the current state of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education and workforce pipelines in the U.S., China, and Taiwan. Two broad research questions examined STEM workforce production in terms of a) structural differences in primary and secondary school systems, including analysis of minimum high school graduation requirements and assessments as well as b) organizational differences in tertiary education and trends in STEM undergraduate and graduate degrees awarded in each region of interest. While each of the systems studied had their relative strengths and weaknesses, each of the Asian economies studied had valuable insights that can be categorized broadly in terms of STEM capacity, STEM interest and a greater understanding of global prospects that led to heightened STEM awareness. In China and Taiwan, STEM capacity was built via both traditional and vocational school systems. Focused and structured curriculum during the primary and early secondary school years built solid mathematics and science skills that translated into higher performance on international assessments and competitions. Differentiated secondary school options, including vocational high school and technical colleges and
Kondrick, Linda C.
The purpose of this study was to determine which factors encourage the persistence of women in the pursuit of Science, Math, and Engineering (SME) careers. Surveys with 36 parallel pairs of theory and history questions regarding the importance and the aptness of variables identified in the literature were completed by 205 SME career women. The variables covered three educational levels: High School, Undergraduate and Graduate. Results reveal which variables fit the experiences of these women and were also believed by them to be important to women in the pursuit of an SME career goal. False Negatives, women who according to the SME literature should not have persisted but did, were identified. Their existence, together with the false positives identified in the SME literature, is evidence, according to Confirmation/Disconfirmation Theory, that important variables in SME persistence are yet to be discovered. Follow-up telephone interviews with nineteen respondents identified important affective variables. Love of math or science was in itself a powerful motivator. Respondents made suggestions for intervention programs that may help to develop that abiding interest. Mentors, role models, and social support networks were identified as important in building the confidence and sustaining the focus needed to cope with the rigorous curriculum and negative sex-bias encountered in SME programs. The qualitative and quantitative results were synthesized in a Causal Event Flow Network, a cognitive map of the longitudinal effects of both positive and negative push/pull vectors operating on women in pursuit of an SME career goal.
Thisgaard, Malene; Makransky, Guido
The present study compared the value of using a virtual learning simulation compared to traditional lessons on the topic of evolution, and investigated if the virtual learning simulation could serve as a catalyst for STEM academic and career development, based on social cognitive career theory. The investigation was conducted using a crossover repeated measures design based on a sample of 128 high school biology/biotech students. The results showed that the virtual learning simulation increas...
Laut, Jeffrey; Bartolini, Tiziana; Porfiri, Maurizio
Attracting K-12 students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is viewed as a critical element for benefiting both the economy and society. This paper describes an outreach program, conducted in a Brooklyn, New York, USA, public middle school, aimed at educating students in mechatronics, biology, and…
Heaverlo, Carol Ann
Researchers, policymakers, business, and industry have indicated that the United States will experience a shortage of professionals in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. Several strategies have been suggested to address this shortage, one of which includes increasing the representation of girls and women in the STEM fields. In order to increase the representation of women in the STEM fields, it is important to understand the developmental factors that impact girls' interest and confidence in STEM academics and extracurricular programs. Research indicates that greater confidence leads to greater interest and vice versa (Denissen et al., 2007). This study identifies factors that impact girls' interest and confidence in mathematics and science, defined as girls' STEM development. Using Bronfenbrenner's (2005) bioecological model of human development, several factors were hypothesized as having an impact on girls' STEM development; specifically, the macrosystems of region of residence and race/ethnicity, and the microsystems of extracurricular STEM activities, family STEM influence, and math/science teacher influence. Hierarchical regression analysis results indicated that extracurricular STEM involvement and math teacher influence were statistically significant predictors for 6--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in mathematics. Furthermore, hierarchical regression analysis results indicated that the only significant predictor for 6--12th grade girls' interest and confidence in science was science teacher influence. This study provides new knowledge about the factors that impact girls' STEM development. Results can be used to inform and guide educators, administrators, and policy makers in developing programs and policy that support and encourage the STEM development of 6--12th grade girls.
Lindahl, Jonas; Danell, Rickard
The aim of this study was to provide a framework to evaluate bibliometric indicators as decision support tools from a decision making perspective and to examine the information value of early career publication rate as a predictor of future productivity. We used ROC analysis to evaluate a bibliometric indicator as a tool for binary decision making. The dataset consisted of 451 early career researchers in the mathematical sub-field of number theory. We investigated the effect of three different definitions of top performance groups-top 10, top 25, and top 50 %; the consequences of using different thresholds in the prediction models; and the added prediction value of information on early career research collaboration and publications in prestige journals. We conclude that early career performance productivity has an information value in all tested decision scenarios, but future performance is more predictable if the definition of a high performance group is more exclusive. Estimated optimal decision thresholds using the Youden index indicated that the top 10 % decision scenario should use 7 articles, the top 25 % scenario should use 7 articles, and the top 50 % should use 5 articles to minimize prediction errors. A comparative analysis between the decision thresholds provided by the Youden index which take consequences into consideration and a method commonly used in evaluative bibliometrics which do not take consequences into consideration when determining decision thresholds, indicated that differences are trivial for the top 25 and the 50 % groups. However, a statistically significant difference between the methods was found for the top 10 % group. Information on early career collaboration and publication strategies did not add any prediction value to the bibliometric indicator publication rate in any of the models. The key contributions of this research is the focus on consequences in terms of prediction errors and the notion of transforming uncertainty
Griffin, Amanda; Manning, Kelvin
At NASA, we fully support the President's Educate to Innovate Program in the hopes that American students move from the middle of the pack to the top in the next decade; and that we are expanding STEM education and career opportunities for underrepresented groups, including minorities and females. The first goal we have implemented to help accomplish this is to Strengthen NASA and the Nation's future workforce - Many of you in the audience could be our potential workforce, and the co-op and intern program at NASA is helping students like you. The second goal is to Attract and retain students in STEM disciplines-To compete effectively for the minds, imaginations and career ambitions of young people like you, throughout NASA, we regularly send educators and NASA speakers into classrooms to work directly with you, encouraging you to follow in the footsteps of NASA engineers and scientists. The Third goal is to Engage Americans in NASA's mission- To get young people involved in NASA's mission, we have many exciting programs for college students like the Lunabotics Mining Competition and the Cubes Satellites sent to space
Wang, Hui-Hui; Billington, Barbara L.
This article addresses economically disadvantaged minority girls' knowledge and perceptions of science and engineering and the influence of their experiences with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) on their choices for future careers. We interviewed three girls who participated in a 4-H-led gender-inclusive STEM program. Our…
Gaps between science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM…
Heilbronner, Nancy N.
In previous decades, researchers have identified a gender gap in the careers and academic achievement of men and women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Recently, it has been suggested that some of these gender gaps no longer exist; however, the picture is more nuanced, for women are represented well in some STEM fields…
Bowen, Bradley; Marx, Adam; Williams, Thomas; Napoleon, Larry, Jr.
Teacher retention in the STEM fields is of national interest. Several factors, such as job satisfaction, classroom control, and school influence have been linked to teachers leaving the profession. By statistically analyzing various questions from the Schools and Staffing Survey Teacher Questionnaire, this study evaluated the current state of how…
Joseph M. Furner
Full Text Available Today, being confident and having a sound understanding of mathematics is critical in an age of STEM.Teachers must play in important role in seeing that all students display their confidence in their ability to domathematics. This paper explains the process of using bibliotherapy when teaching mathematics to addressboth the math anxious or the math gifted student to build more math confidence in a STEM world. Oftengifted students of mathematics can be made to feel bad by their peers just because they know mathematicsand things come easy to them. Today there are many students in school that have math anxiety. Children'sand adolescent literature has been recognized now as a means to teaching mathematics to students throughthe use of stories to make the mathematics concepts relevant and meaningful. Literature can also be usedas a form of therapy, bibliotherapy, to reach students who may be frustrated with children picking on themfor knowing a lot of mathematics or who are math anxious. Story and picture books such as Counting onFrank, Math Curse and A Gebra Named Al are now available to use in the classroom as forms of bibliotherapyin helping students come to terms with issues that haunt them as it relates to mathematics. Children's bookscan be beneficial to address the math anxious and even the gifted. In this paper the author proposes usingreading and discussion (bibliotherapy to help all students become confident in mathematics in the STEMworld we live in.
STEM Career Cluster Engineering and Technology Education pathway in Georgia: Perceptions of Georgia engineering and technology education high school teachers and CTAE administrators as measured by the Characteristics of Engineering and Technology Education survey
Crenshaw, Mark VanBuren
This study examined the perceptions held by Georgia Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Career Cluster Engineering and Technology Education (ETE) high school pathway teachers and Georgia's Career, Technical and Agriculture Education (CTAE) administrators regarding the ETE pathway and its effect on implementation within their district and schools. It provides strategies for ETE teaching methods, curriculum content, STEM integration, and how to improve the ETE pathway program of study. Current teaching and curricular trends were examined in ETE as well as the role ETE should play as related to STEM education. The study, using the Characteristics of Engineering and Technology Education Survey, was conducted to answer the following research questions: (a) Is there a significant difference in the perception of ETE teaching methodology between Georgia ETE high school teachers and CTAE administrators as measured by the Characteristics of Engineering and Technology Education Survey? (b) Is there a significant difference in the perception of ETE curriculum content between Georgia ETE high school teachers and CTAE administrators as measured by the Characteristics of Engineering and Technology Education Survey? (c) Is there a significant difference in the perception of STEM integration in the ETE high school pathway between Georgia ETE high school teachers and CTAE administrators as measured by the Characteristics of Engineering and Technology Education Survey? and (d) Is there a significant difference in the perception of how to improve the ETE high school pathway between Georgia ETE high school teachers and CTAE administrators as measured by the Characteristics of Engineering and Technology Education Survey? Suggestions for further research also were offered.
This book presents the findings of a survey that analyzes a unique set of data in science and technolog and provides a clear and simple synthesis of heterogeneous databases on the gender gap in the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) setting, helping readers understand key trends and developments. The need for more women in innovative fields, particularly with regard to STEM-based innovations, has now been broadly recognized. The book provides insights into both the education and employment of women in STEM. It investigates how the gender gap has evolved among STEM graduates and professionals around the world, drawing on specific data from public and private databases. As such, the book provides readers an understanding of how the so-called ‘leaky pipeline’ operates, and of how more women than men drop out of STEM studies and jobs by geographical area.
Heacock, Lucy Vogel
The continuous underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), referred to as the leaky pipeline, has been examined from multiple perspectives internationally, while the attitudes and perceptions of preadolescent girls regarding STEM remain largely ignored. Employing a constructivist paradigm, this qualitative case study explored the perceptions and attitudes of 40 public elementary school female students across three grade levels regarding science, scientists, and career aspirations. Mixed-methods data collections included three survey instruments combined with semi-structured interviews. Self-efficacy, stereotype threat, and career choice theory provided the framework for the overarching research question: What are the attitudes and perceptions of female preadolescent students at the third, fourth, and fifth grade levels regarding science and scientists, and how might these dispositions affect their early development of STEM career aspirations and interests? The Three-Dimensions of Student Attitude Towards Science (TDSAS) instrument informed the exploration of self-efficacy; the modified Draw-A-Scientist Test (mDAST) and Rubric informed the exploration of stereotype threat; and the STEM-Career Interest Survey (CIS) informed the exploration of career aspirations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six participants. Results from this study indicated that the majority of the preadolescent girls thought science was an important topic to study and displayed an attitude of self-confident ability to learn science and be successful in science class. They highly enjoyed scientific experimentation and deeply valued problem solving. While they inferred they did not experience gender bias, the girls did engage in stereotyping scientists. Over half the girls expected to use science in their future careers, while a minority had already determined they wanted to be scientists when they grow up. The study concludes with
Toglia, Thomas V.
Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 has significant implications for gender equity in career and technical education (CTE) and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs--and the relatively low number of women and girls pursuing nontraditional careers has significant economic and social implications. From an…
Irish, Teresa J.
The aim of this study was to provide insights addressing national concerns in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education by examining how a set of six perimeter urban K-12 schools were transformed into STEM-focused professional learning communities (PLC). The concept of a STEM Academy as a STEM-focused PLC emphasizes the development of a STEM culture where professional discourse and teaching are focused on STEM learning. The STEM Academies examined used the STEM Academy Measurement Tool and Rubric (Tool) as a catalyst for discussion and change. This Tool was developed with input from stakeholders and used for school-wide initiatives, teacher professional development and K-12 student engagement to improve STEM teaching and learning. Two primary goals of this study were to assess the levels of awareness and use of the tool by all stakeholders involved in the project and to determine how the Tool assisted in the development and advancement of these schools as STEM PLCs. Data from the STEM Academy Participant Survey was analyzed to determine stakeholders' perceptions of the Tool in terms of (i) how aware stakeholders were of the Tool, (ii) whether they participated in the use of the Tool, (iii) how the characteristics of PLCs were perceived in their schools, and finally (iv) how the awareness of the Tool influenced teachers' perceptions of the presence of PLC characteristics. Findings indicate that school faculty were aware of the Tool on a number of different levels and evidence exists that the use of the Tool assisted in the development of STEM Academies, however impact varied from school to school. Implications of this study suggest that the survey should be used for a longer period of time to gain more in-depth knowledge on teachers' perceptions of the Tool as a catalyst across time. Additional findings indicate that the process for using the Tool should be ongoing and involve the stakeholders to have the greatest impact on school culture
Torcivia, Patrice Prusko
Numerous studies have addressed science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) and their relation to education and gender ranging from elementary school pedagogy to career choices for traditional-aged college students. Little research has addressed nontraditional female students returning to the university to in the STEM fields. This…
Goldfien, Andrea C.; Badway, Norena Norton
Bridge programs, in which underprepared students gain the academic and technical skills necessary for college level courses and entry-level employment, are a promising initiative for expanding access to, and success in, community college education. For career pathways related to science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM), bridge…
Katharine Ridgway O'Brien
Full Text Available The present study examines the consequences of perceived interpersonal discrimination on stress, health, and performance in a sample of 210 STEM academicians. Using a path model, we test the relation that perceived interpersonal discrimination has on stress and the relation of stress to physical health maladies and on current and future performance. In so doing, we assess the link between discrimination and decrements in performance over time. Additionally, we test supervisor social support as a moderator of the discrimination–stress relation. Findings support relations between perceived interpersonal discrimination and stress, which in turn relates to declines in physical health and performance outcomes. Moreover, supervisory support is shown to mitigate the influence of interpersonal discrimination on stress in STEM academicians.
sciences. According to the article, gender stereotyping was still an issue for women in STEM while treatment in other fields improved. The authors...Minimum Maximum Sum Mean Std. Deviation Gender DV (1= Male ) .00 1.00 50.00 .7692 .42460 Google Scholar Articles 0 192 2658 42.87 38.863 Years...Predictors: (Constant), Gender DV (1= Male ) Dependent Variable: Rank Results of analysis supported the hypothesis that gender is a predictor of the
Koch, Melissa; Gorges, Torie
Underrepresented populations such as women, African-Americans, and Latinos/as often come to STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) careers by less traditional paths than White and Asian males. To better understand how and why women might shift toward STEM, particularly computer science, careers, we investigated the education and career direction of afterschool facilitators, primarily women of color in their twenties and thirties, who taught Build IT, an afterschool computer science curriculum for middle school girls. Many of these women indicated that implementing Build IT had influenced their own interest in technology and computer science and in some cases had resulted in their intent to pursue technology and computer science education. We wanted to explore the role that teaching Build IT may have played in activating or reactivating interest in careers in computer science and to see whether in the years following implementation of Build IT, these women pursued STEM education and/or careers. We reached nine facilitators who implemented the program in 2011-12 or shortly after. Many indicated that while facilitating Build IT, they learned along with the participants, increasing their interest in and confidence with technology and computer science. Seven of the nine participants pursued further STEM or computer science learning or modified their career paths to include more of a STEM or computer science focus. Through interviews, we explored what aspects of Build IT influenced these facilitators' interest and confidence in STEM and when relevant their pursuit of technology and computer science education and careers.
Jorge Arroyo Hernández
Full Text Available This article describes the purpose and activities of the project Promoting Mathematics Education in Rural Areas of Costa Rica. The activity has focused on two objectives. First, supporting and monitoring students who have expressed interest in studying a mathematics teacher. To achieve this, it has been working with students who have an ideal profile for the career, mainly from rural areas. The second objective is to conduct training workshops for high school in-service teachers, to strengthen and improve their knowledge in the area of mathematics. Among the results of the project, it can be highlighted a significant increase in the enrollment of students in the career of Mathematics Education in 2010 and 2011, and the training processes in the field of Real Functions of Real Variable and Geometry at different regional areas mostly rural as Aguirre, Sarapiquí, Coto, Buenos Aires, Limón, Cañas, Pérez Zeledón, Nicoya, Los Santos, Turrialba, Puriscal, Desamparados, San Carlos, Puntarenas, Limón, Liberia, Santa Cruz y Upala.
van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra I.; Walma van der Molen, Juliette H.
Despite the large body of research on students' educational and career choices in the field of technology, design, and science, we still lack a clear understanding of how to stimulate more students to opt for a study path or career within the STEM fields (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics). In this article, we outline a new theoretical…
Women’s participation in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) courses and careers lags behind that of men. Multiple factors contribute to the underrepresentation of women and girls in STEM. Academic research suggests three areas, which account for the under representation of girls in STEM: social and environmental factors, the school climate and the influence of bias. In order to engage and to retain girls in STEM, educators need to: eliminate bias in the classroom, change ...
Ana Lucía Alfaro Arce
Full Text Available This paper summarizes the opinions of students who have enrolled in the Precalculus course offered by the MATEM project. The aim is to systematize the views expressed by the students enrolled in MATEM, which are related to general aspects of the project, and also to know the professional areas these students select when entering to the university. The information for this study was collected through two questionnaires administered to the participating students during 2005-2009. The most relevant results are the following: the students listed benefits from MATEM such as the opportunity to practice for their Mathematics test (Ministry of Education exam, obtaining new knowledge and developing mathematical and reasoning skills. Most students would recommend others to participate in the project. Regarding the careers that students pursue, it was found a preference for higher studies in public universities at Costa Rica; these majors include mathematics courses in their curriculum (Engineering, Economics, Statistics, Medicine, among others.
余民寧 Min-Ning Yu
Full Text Available 本研究參考社會認知生涯理論的選擇模型與興趣模型，建立影響學生選擇數學職業意圖的因素結構關係模型圖，以Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study（簡稱TIMSS）2003 年國中生資料驗證之，試圖探究影響國中學生在選擇數學職業意圖的因素。本研究發現，在社會認知生涯理論的興趣模型方面，「數學學習興趣」受「數學結果期待」、「數學自我效能」的直接影響，而「數學成就」則是產生間接影響；至於社會認知生涯理論的選擇模型方面，「選擇數學職業意圖」受「數學結果期待」、「數學學習興趣」的直接影響，而「數學成就」、「數學自我效能」則是產生間接影響。上述潛在結構並無性別差異存在。最後，本研究亦根據研究結果，提出在教育實務應用與未來繼續研究上的建議。 The purpose of this study was to investigate impact factor on mathematics career-choice process used TIMSS dataset of Taiwan 8th grade students. The interest development model and career choice model of social cognitive career theory (SCCT used to establish a latent variable model. The results showed, concerning interest development model, math outcome expectations & math self-efficacy had a direct effect on math learning interests but math achievement had an indirect effect on. As to career choice model, math outcome expectations & math learning interests had a direct effect on math career-choice intentions but math achievement & math self-efficacy had an indirect effect on. The above-mentioned hadn’t sex differences in math career choice process. Finally, some conclusions and suggestions for practice applications and future researches were suggested and proposed.
Ortiz-Correa, Z. M.; Lautenbach, J.; Franco-Diaz, E.; Raizada, S.; Ghosh, T.; Rivera-Valentín, E.; Ortiz, A.
This project was developed to encourage secondary students to pursue STEM related careers through exposure to the interdisciplinary nature of the Arecibo Observatory (AO) in Puerto Rico. The idea for this project was initiated due to the NSF-funded Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Summer Program. The AO RET summer program allows teaching faculty from public schools to collaborate with scientist on their ongoing research or instrument development projects at the AO for five weeks. Subsequently, the research is disseminated among secondary students through several workshops and hands-on activities. Through the workshops and hands-on activities underrepresented secondary students will learn about the research conducted at the AO to study Earth's upper atmosphere, asteroids and other Solar System bodies, as well as stars and galaxies beyond. Afterwards, students will develop virtual worlds simulating the different AO facilities (Lidar Laboratory, Radio Telescope, Planetary Radar System, HF Facility, Visitor Center, among others) and showing their functions using digital game-based learning.
Jaimie L. Miller
Full Text Available We report preliminarily on the efficacy of an innovative, STEM education project for middle-school youth participating in outof- school-time programs, targeting girls and students from underrepresented communities. Participating students attend urban schools in Eastern Massachusetts. The two main goals for the technology-based project are to inspire the participants to consider STEM careers and increase the student mastery of fundamental STEM subject matter. The students control robotic telescopes – either from school or home – to acquire and then process images of solar system and deep space objects. Project teachers attend workshops to become adept at using the robotic telescopes, meet weekly with the students, pilot project curricula, collaborate with staff to plan and supervise field trips and star parties, and assist in all project evaluation. There are both academic and non-academic partners; the latter include amateur astronomers and retired engineers. We use an online system to evaluate teacher and student subject matter knowledge and survey students and parents about STEM careers.
Mills, Nadia Monrose
The ability to succeed in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) careers is contingent on a student's ability to engage in mathematical problem solving. As a result, there has been increased focus on students' ability to think critically by providing them more with problem solving experiences in the classroom. Much research has…
Kalevitch, Maria; Maurer, Cheryl; Badger, Paul; Holdan, Greg; Sirinterlikci, Arif
The School of Engineering, Mathematics, and Science (SEMS) at Robert Morris University (RMU) was awarded a five-year grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to fund scholarships to 21 academically talented but financially challenged students majoring in the disciplines of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Each…
South African Journal of Education, Volume 38, Number 2, May 2018. 1 ... Second, the global need for STEM-related skills in careers and everyday life is rising, ... an economic factor in developing countries, emerging economies, and in long ... mathematics to guide policy. .... security, time for family, job transferability); social.
Eringen, A Cemal
Continuum Physics: Volume 1 - Mathematics is a collection of papers that discusses certain selected mathematical methods used in the study of continuum physics. Papers in this collection deal with developments in mathematics in continuum physics and its applications such as, group theory functional analysis, theory of invariants, and stochastic processes. Part I explains tensor analysis, including the geometry of subspaces and the geometry of Finsler. Part II discusses group theory, which also covers lattices, morphisms, and crystallographic groups. Part III reviews the theory of invariants th
Bilgin, Ali; Boedeker, Peter; Capraro, Robert M.; Capraro, Mary M.
Vocabulary is at the surface level of language usage; thus, students need to develop mathematical and scientific vocabulary to be able to explicitly communicate their mathematical and scientific reasoning with others. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) and the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) have both created…
I studied in the first two years of college were world history, eco- nomics, civics and Sanskrit. ... me, our third daughter had arrived. I worked as a pool officer ... years started saying that the mothers of all her friends had jobs and worked all day, ...
Full Text Available The present study compared the value of using a virtual learning simulation compared to traditional lessons on the topic of evolution, and investigated if the virtual learning simulation could serve as a catalyst for STEM academic and career development, based on social cognitive career theory. The investigation was conducted using a crossover repeated measures design based on a sample of 128 high school biology/biotech students. The results showed that the virtual learning simulation increased knowledge of evolution significantly, compared to the traditional lesson. No significant differences between the simulation and lesson were found in their ability to increase the non-cognitive measures. Both interventions increased self-efficacy significantly, and none of them had a significant effect on motivation. In addition, the results showed that the simulation increased interest in biology related tasks, but not outcome expectations. The findings suggest that virtual learning simulations are at least as efficient in enhancing learning and self-efficacy as traditional lessons, and high schools can thus use them as supplementary educational methods. In addition, the findings indicate that virtual learning simulations may be a useful tool in enhancing student’s interest in and goals toward STEM related careers.
Thisgaard, Malene; Makransky, Guido
The present study compared the value of using a virtual learning simulation compared to traditional lessons on the topic of evolution, and investigated if the virtual learning simulation could serve as a catalyst for STEM academic and career development, based on social cognitive career theory. The investigation was conducted using a crossover repeated measures design based on a sample of 128 high school biology/biotech students. The results showed that the virtual learning simulation increased knowledge of evolution significantly, compared to the traditional lesson. No significant differences between the simulation and lesson were found in their ability to increase the non-cognitive measures. Both interventions increased self-efficacy significantly, and none of them had a significant effect on motivation. In addition, the results showed that the simulation increased interest in biology related tasks, but not outcome expectations. The findings suggest that virtual learning simulations are at least as efficient in enhancing learning and self-efficacy as traditional lessons, and high schools can thus use them as supplementary educational methods. In addition, the findings indicate that virtual learning simulations may be a useful tool in enhancing student's interest in and goals toward STEM related careers.
Kachchaf, Rachel; Ko, Lily; Hodari, Apriel; Ong, Maria
The National Science Foundation recently recognized that career-life balance in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) may present some unique challenges for women of color compared with their White and/or male counterparts, thus negatively impacting retention and advancement for a minority demographic that has long been…
Bridges, Jon P.
Improving the STEM readiness of students from historically underserved groups is a moral and economic imperative requiring greater attention and effort than has been shown to date. The current literature suggests a high school science sequence beginning with physics and centered on developing conceptual understanding, using inquiry labs and modeling to allow students to explore new ideas, and addressing and correcting student misconceptions can increase student interest in and preparation for STEM careers. The purpose of this study was to determine if the science college readiness of historically underserved students can be improved by implementing an inquiry-based high school science sequence comprised of coursework in physics, chemistry, and biology for every student. The study used a retrospective cohort observational design to address the primary research question: are there differences between historically underserved students completing a Physics First science sequence and their peers completing a traditional science sequence in 1) science college-readiness test scores, 2) rates of science college-and career-readiness, and 3) interest in STEM? Small positive effects were found for all three outcomes for historically underserved students in the Physics First sequence.
Fornari, Chiara; Balbo, Gianfranco; Halawani, Sami M; Ba-Rukab, Omar; Ahmad, Ab Rahman; Calogero, Raffaele A; Cordero, Francesca; Beccuti, Marco
Nowadays multidisciplinary approaches combining mathematical models with experimental assays are becoming relevant for the study of biological systems. Indeed, in cancer research multidisciplinary approaches are successfully used to understand the crucial aspects implicated in tumor growth. In particular, the Cancer Stem Cell (CSC) biology represents an area particularly suited to be studied through multidisciplinary approaches, and modeling has significantly contributed to pinpoint the crucial aspects implicated in this theory. More generally, to acquire new insights on a biological system it is necessary to have an accurate description of the phenomenon, such that making accurate predictions on its future behaviors becomes more likely. In this context, the identification of the parameters influencing model dynamics can be advantageous to increase model accuracy and to provide hints in designing wet experiments. Different techniques, ranging from statistical methods to analytical studies, have been developed. Their applications depend on case-specific aspects, such as the availability and quality of experimental data, and the dimension of the parameter space. The study of a new model on the CSC-based tumor progression has been the motivation to design a new work-flow that helps to characterize possible system dynamics and to identify those parameters influencing such behaviors. In detail, we extended our recent model on CSC-dynamics creating a new system capable of describing tumor growth during the different stages of cancer progression. Indeed, tumor cells appear to progress through lineage stages like those of normal tissues, being their division auto-regulated by internal feedback mechanisms. These new features have introduced some non-linearities in the model, making it more difficult to be studied by solely analytical techniques. Our new work-flow, based on statistical methods, was used to identify the parameters which influence the tumor growth. The
Harvard Educational Review, 2011
In 1976, the challenges faced by women of color who pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields were first brought to national attention by Shirley M. Malcom, Paula Hall, and Janet Brown in a report titled "The Double Bind: The Price of Being a Minority Woman in Science." In commemoration of the 35th…
Stein, Sherman K
Anyone can appreciate the beauty, depth, and vitality of mathematics with the help of this highly readable text, specially developed from a college course designed to appeal to students in a variety of fields. Readers with little mathematical background are exposed to a broad range of subjects chosen from number theory, topology, set theory, geometry, algebra, and analysis. Starting with a survey of questions on weight, the text discusses the primes, the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, rationals and irrationals, tiling, tiling and electricity, probability, infinite sets, and many other topi
After-school enrichment and the activity theory: How can a management service organization assist schools with reducing the achievement gap among minority and non-minority students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) during the after-school hours?
Flowers, Reagan D.
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate how a management service organization can assist schools with reducing the achievement gap between minority and non-minority students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) during the after-school hours. Developing a strategic plan through creating a program that provides support services for the implementation of hands-on activities in STEM for children during the after-school hours was central to this purpose. This Project Demonstrating Excellence (PDE), a social action project, also presents historical and current after-school program developments in the nation. The study is quantitative and qualitative in nature. Surveys were utilized to quantitatively capture the opinions of participants in the social action project on three specific education related issues: (1) disparity in academic motivation of students to participate in after-school STEM enrichment programs; (2) whether teachers and school administrators saw a need for STEM after-school enrichment; and (3) developing STEM after-school programs that were centered on problem-solving and higher-order thinking skills to develop students' interest in STEM careers. The sample consisted of 50 participants comprised of students, teachers, and administrators. The focus groups and interviews provided the qualitative data for the study. The qualitative sample consisted of 14 participants comprised of students, parents and teachers, administrators, an education consultant, and a corporate sponsor. The empirical data obtained from the study survey, focus groups, and interviews provided a comprehensive profile on the current views and future expectations of STEM after-school enrichment, student and school needs, and community partnerships with STEM companies. Results of the study and review of the implementation of the social action project, C-STEM (communication, science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) Teacher and Student Support
The 1988 progress report of the Mathematics center (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Center is composed of different research teams: analysis, Riemann geometry, group theory, formal calculus and algorithm geometry, dynamical systems, topology and singularity. For each team, the members, the research topics, the national and international cooperations, are given. The papers concerning the investigations carried out in 1988, are listed [fr
Shoemaker, Sarah E.; Thomas, Christopher; Roberts, Todd; Boltz, Robin
The North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics (NCSSM) offers students a wide variety of real-world opportunities to develop skills and talent critical for students to gain the essential professional and personal skills that lead to success in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers. One of the key avenues available…
Borgerding, Lisa A.
A shortage of highly qualified math and science teachers pervades the U.S. public school system. Clearly, recruitment of talented STEM educators is critical. Previous literature offers many suggestions for how STEM teacher recruitment programs and participant selection should occur. This study investigates how early STEM majors who are not already…
Full Text Available Our professional development workshops have provided participating teachers (inservice and pre-service with interdisciplinary experiences in earth and environmental science that have built their content into real-world problem based research initiatives (STEM, Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. One of our real-world issues has been the detection of phenol since it has been a concern in the real-world coal mining industry. Coal tars are a complex of variable mixtures of phenols. Phenol and phenol derivative compounds are widely used in the production of polymers, drugs, dyes, explosives, pesticides, stabilizers and antioxidants. These phenolic compounds are discharged into the environment and can represent a serious hazard, mainly by the contamination of superficial and underground waters. The toxic effect of phenol can cause comas, convulsions, cyanosis, liver damage, kidney damage, lung damage and death. The mining industry for coal is an alternative source of energy and used in thermoelectric power plants. However, the pollutant phenol that can be found in coal has high need to be detected and is an important aspect to keep an eye on due to these harmful chemicals such as phenol discharging into the environment. Our inquiry-based labs have engaged our inservice and pre-service students by visiting a mine and learning the positive and negative aspects of mining and the importance of water quality. Thus, this inquiry-based module will illustrate the use of an electrochemistry modified carbon nanotube poly-3-hexylthiophene electrode to detect such harmful chemicals as phenol by unique electrochemistry techniques such as Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV.
Glass, Jennifer L.; Sassler, Sharon; Levitte, Yael; Michelmore, Katherine M.
We follow female college graduates in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and compare the trajectories of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)-related occupations to other professional occupations. Results show that women in STEM occupations are significantly more likely to leave their occupational field than professional women, especially early in their career, while few women in either group leave jobs to exit the labor force. Family factors cannot ac...
Hooker, Sascha K.; Simmons, Samantha E.; Stimpert, Alison K.; McDonald, Birgitte I.
It is widely acknowledged that family and care-giving responsibilities are driving women away from Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. Marine mammal science often incurs heavy fieldwork and travel obligations, which make it a challenging career in which to find work-life balance. This opinion piece explores gender equality, equity (the principles of fairness that lead to equality), and work-life balance in science generally and in this field in particular. We aim ...
Miller, Beverly A. King
This grounded theory case study examines the experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women and their membership in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) training and careers. The shortage of Science and Math teachers in 48 of 50 States heightens the need for those trained in STEM. Females of African phenotype have persistently been underrepresented in STEM. However, this trend does not appear to have held for Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women. The current study explores issues related to STEM participation for these women by addressing the overarching question: What key factors from the lived experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women in STEM careers can be used to inform work with females of African phenotype in their pursuit of STEM education and STEM careers? Five women were identified for inclusion in the study's purposive sample. The study draws upon assertions and implications about the relevance of self-identity and collective-identity for membership in STEM. Data for the study was gathered through qualitative interviews, surveys, and observations. The grounded theory approach was used to analyze emergent themes related to participants' responses to the research questions. Two models, the STEM Attainment Model (SAM) and the Ecological Model of Self-Confidence and Bi-Directional Effect, are proposed from evaluation of the identified information. Socio-cultural values and learned strategies were determined to influence self-confidence which is identified as important for persistence in STEM training and careers for females of African phenotype. Evidence supports that the influences of parents, country of origin, neighborhood communities, schools and teachers are factors for persistence. Through the voices of these women, recommendations are offered to the gatekeepers of STEM academic pathways and ultimately STEM careers.
towards cloud computing technologies and capabilities demand needs for developing new tools that work in ensemble to handle security challenges. A...programs with the schools and/or hire from their pool of students. Therefore, no real STEM standards exist at the tertiary and beyond levels of education ...successful in cyber operations and network security related jobs much early on into the new STEM education model pipeline. Subjects such as computer
Full Text Available In this work it is both discussed and provided a framework of specific competences that may serve as a guide for setting up an ongoing process in the professional development of Science, Technology and Mathematics (STEM teachers. The fundamentals of the TPACK model serve to base the theoretical background of this scheme, to which we have incorporated an additional feature which means to consider the linguistic (L dimension, thus transforming it into the TPACLK model. The different detailed professional STEM capacities have been classified into six main sections. The two first points discussed establish the STEM disciplinary and didactic capacities; the third section corresponds to the role of language in the STEM classroom; the fourth category is focused on the motivational elements of the teaching and learning process; the fifth corresponds to the self-perception of teachers and the last section summarises how to integrate effectively the information and communication technologies into the educational STEM activity. This professional development is framed within innovative and research educational activities.
Whitfield, Frank Albert
The lack of an adequate supply of human resources in science and engineering has been well documented. Efforts from a number of agencies, such as the National Science Foundation, have been implemented to alleviate this national problem. However, it is unclear what concerted efforts state agencies are taking to increase the number of African American students' scientific literacy, and career choices in science and engineering. The purpose of this study was to select a talent pool of African American students who are academically able to pursue a career in a math-based major. The selection of this talent pool lead to the recommendation of an encouragement process model to be used by the Tennessee Board of Regents (TBR) system to encourage the selectees of this talent pool to enter math-based programs at TBR universities. An integrated literature review was conducted. This review includes perspectives on national, state, and local educational policy decisions which affect educational purposes, institutional governance and secondary-postsecondary linkages. Existing TBR system data were analyzed and tabulated. This tabulated data along with the recommended model will be offered to the TBR system for possible adoption. The results of these data support the methodological notion that there are an appreciable number of potential TBR system African American students academically able to enter math related majors who, however, may be reluctant to choose a career direction in a math-based career field. Implications of this study and suggestions for further research are discussed. On an applied level, the study might suggest to other states ways in which to deal with similar problems.
Merrill, Cathy A.
Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education concepts are naturally contextualized in the study of food and nutrition. In 2014 a pilot group of Utah high school Career and Technical Education Family and Consumer Sciences teachers rewrote the Food and Nutrition Sciences curriculum to add and enhance the STEM-related content. This study is an online needs assessment by Utah Food and Nutrition 1 teachers on the implementation of the STEM-enhanced curriculum after its first y...
Vyas, Shreena A; Desai, Sukumar P
Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher and William Sealy Gosset were responsible for laying the foundations of statistical inference. Tests that bear their names are used by students and researchers in a wide variety of scientific disciplines. Similar and different in many respects, their lives and careers are the subject of this essay. They were not teacher and pupil; in fact the student was 14 years older than the professor. Their careers did not require them to interact with one another much but they were aware of one another's work. Although Sir Ronald is assigned the role of the professor, his success as a teacher was impaired by his inability to understand the limitations of his students. Meanwhile Gosset was forced to publish his work under the pseudonym 'Student' in order to make contributions to the field of mathematical statistics. Both men are undisputed giants in the field of statistics and we celebrate their achievements as much as we try to understand their struggles. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Berta, R.; Bellotti, F.; van der Spek, E.D.; Winkler, T.; Nakatsu, R.; Rauterberg, M.; Ciancarini, P.
The chapter’s idea stems from the observation that technology is difficult to learn in an abstract way (books, lectures, etc.) and practical activities are needed not only to apply concepts but also to help learning itself. This is particularly challenging in a younger age where this concern is
Presser, Ashley Lewis; Busey, Amy
This research brief describes the value of using mobile technologies in and out of elementary mathematics classrooms, and investigates the view that teachers may not be getting the guidance they need to best leverage those technologies. The authors explore three areas of concern: How can teachers use technology in developmentally appropriate ways…
Waters, Sharon Campbell
A variety of previous studies have suggested that inaccurate, stereotypical or missing media depictions of science, engineering, and technology (SET) workers and fields have contributed to a growing shortage of youth interested in pursuing careers within the scientific endeavor. However, studies on the perceptions of African American youth have not usually been the focus of such research. In this exploratory study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 34 fifth grade African American students to determine the relative influence television and film portrayals of SET workers had on these children's perceptions of roles in SET fields and careers and school coursework related to them. Framed within the theoretical perspectives of cultivation analysis and the construction of social reality, results indicated the majority of participants perceived scientists as ambiguous, possessing either mythic characteristics of the fantastic persona or they saw them as altruistically inclined figures that saved the world from disease, destruction, and decay. Television and film portrayals of SET workers were found in varying degrees and ways to shape these African American children's perceptions toward SET careers. While children exhibited self-concepts about SET workers that were sometimes idealistic, distorted, or unrealistic, most had favorable perceptions toward math and science courses in school. However, it was the absence of television and film portrayals of African Americans in SET roles that was problematic for the majority of students. Recommendations for media producers, educators, scientific research foundations, and parents were suggested to dispel some of these commonly found media stereotypes of SET workers and African Americans in these roles and their effects.
Stoeger, Heidrun; Hopp, Manuel; Ziegler, Albert
Online mentoring provides an effective means of extracurricular gifted education for talented girls in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Comparative studies on the effectiveness of one-on-one versus group mentoring are lacking, however. The authors investigated this question in the context of a Germany-wide online mentoring…
Development of Analytical Thinking Ability and Attitudes towards Science Learning of Grade-11 Students through Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM Education) in the Study of Stoichiometry
Chonkaew, Patcharee; Sukhummek, Boonnak; Faikhamta, Chatree
The purpose of this study was to investigate the analytical thinking abilities and attitudes towards science learning of grade-11 students through science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education integrated with a problem-based learning in the study of stoichiometry. The research tools consisted of a pre- and post-analytical…
Full Text Available A review of several studies of teachers’ career motivation since Bulgarian Renaissance till nowadays is presented in this paper. 203 Bulgarian teachers in public schools were studied by means of a questionnaire created by Slavchov & Stoyanova (2007 measuring career motivational types, according to Moses’ typology (2003. The career motivational type of Authenticity seekers was the most preferred by the studied Bulgarian teachers, followed by Personal developers and Stability seekers. Career builders as a career motivational type was minor career motivator, the least preferred one by Bulgarian teachers. A lot of significant positive correlations existed between teachers’ career motivational types. Some social-demographic factors (such as gender, specialty, work experience, and age differentiated teachers’ career motivators. The type of Autonomy seekers was more preferred career motivator by male teachers than by female teachers in correspondence to the traditional stereotypes for men. Longer teachers’ work experience and teachers’ advance in age were related to more frequency of Stability seekers, but less frequency of Novelty seekers career motivator. Preschool and elementary school teachers preferred more strongly Authenticity seekers as a career motivator than teachers in natural sciences and mathematics. Establishing major career motivators for teachers may be related to opportunities for improvement of performance and work satisfaction.
Enrichment Experiences in Engineering (E[superscript 3]) for Teachers Summer Research Program: An Examination of Mixed-Method Evaluation Findings on High School Teacher Implementation of Engineering Content in High School STEM Classrooms
Page, Cheryl A.; Lewis, Chance W.; Autenrieth, Robin L.; Butler-Purry, Karen L.
Ongoing efforts across the U.S. to encourage K-12 students to consider science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) careers have been motivated by concerns that the STEM pipeline is shrinking because of declining student enrollment and increasing rates of retirement in industry. The Enrichment Experiences in Engineering (E[superscript…
Nör, Jacques Eduardo
Targeting key regulators of the cancer stem cell phenotype to overcome their critical influence on tumor growth is a promising new strategy for cancer treatment. Here we present a modeling framework that operates at both the cellular and molecular levels, for investigating IL-6 mediated, cancer stem cell driven tumor growth and targeted treatment with anti-IL6 antibodies. Our immediate goal is to quantify the influence of IL-6 on cancer stem cell self-renewal and survival, and to characterize the subsequent impact on tumor growth dynamics. By including the molecular details of IL-6 binding, we are able to quantify the temporal changes in fractional occupancies of bound receptors and their influence on tumor volume. There is a strong correlation between the model output and experimental data for primary tumor xenografts. We also used the model to predict tumor response to administration of the humanized IL-6R monoclonal antibody, tocilizumab (TCZ), and we found that as little as 1mg/kg of TCZ administered weekly for 7 weeks is sufficient to result in tumor reduction and a sustained deceleration of tumor growth. PMID:29351275
Petersen, Anne Marie
In the United States, careers in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) are increasing yet there are not enough trained personnel to meet this demand. In addition, of those that seek to pursue STEM fields in the United States, only 26% are female. In order to increase the number of women seeking STEM based bachelor's degrees, K-12 education must provide a foundation that prepares students for entry into these fields. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to determine the perceived K-12 experiences that influenced females to pursue a STEM field. Twelve college juniors or seniors seeking a degree in Biology, Mathematics, or Physics were interviewed concerning their K-12 experiences. These interviews were analyzed and six themes emerged. Teacher passion and classroom characteristics such as incorporating challenging activities played a significant role in the females' decisions to enter STEM fields. Extra-curricular activities such as volunteer and mentor opportunities and the females' need to benefit others also influenced females in their career choice. Both the formal (within the school) and informal (outside of the traditional classroom) pipeline opportunities that these students encountered helped develop a sense of self-efficacy in science and mathematics; this self-efficacy enabled them to persist in pursuing these career fields. Several participants cited barriers that they encountered in K-12 education, but these barriers were primarily internal as they struggled with overcoming self-imposed obstacles in learning and being competitive in the mathematics and science classrooms. The experiences from these female students can be used by K-12 educators to prepare and encourage current female students to enter STEM occupations.
Means, Barbara; Wang, Haiwen; Wei, Xin; Lynch, Sharon; Peters, Vanessa; Young, Viki; Allen, Carrie
Inclusive STEM high schools (ISHSs) (where STEM is science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) admit students on the basis of interest rather than competitive examination. This study examines the central assumption behind these schools-that they provide students from subgroups underrepresented in STEM with experiences that equip them academically and attitudinally to enter and stay in the STEM pipeline. Hierarchical modeling was applied to data from student surveys and state longitudinal data records for 5113 students graduating from 39 ISHSs and 22 comprehensive high schools in North Carolina and Texas. Compared to peers from the same demographic group with similar Grade 8 achievement levels, underrepresented minority and female ISHS students in both states were more likely to undertake advanced STEM coursework. Hispanics in Texas and females in both states expressed more STEM career interest in Grade 12 if they attended an ISHS. Positive relationships between ISHS attendance and grade point average were found in the total sample and each subgroup in North Carolina. Positive ISHS advantages in terms of test scores for the total student sample were found for science in both states and for mathematics in Texas. For the various student subgroups, test score differences favored the ISHS samples but attained statistical significance only for African Americans' science achievement scores in the Texas study.
Gowland, Emily; Ball, Karen Le; Bryant, Catherine; Birns, Jonathan
Acute care common stem acute medicine (ACCS AM) training was designed to develop competent multi-skilled acute physicians to manage patients with multimorbidity from 'door to discharge' in an era of increasing acute hospital admissions. Recent surveys by the Royal College of Physicians have suggested that acute medical specialties are proving less attractive to trainees. However, data on the career pathways taken by trainees completing core acute medical training has been lacking. Using London as a region with a 100% fill rate for its ACCS AM training programme, this study showed only 14% of trainees go on to higher specialty training in acute internal medicine and a further 10% to pursue higher medical specialty training with dual accreditation with internal medicine. 16% of trainees switched from ACCS AM to emergency medicine or anaesthetics during core ACCS training, and intensive care medicine proved to be the most popular career choice for ACCS AM trainees (21%). The ACCS AM training programme therefore does not appear to be providing what it was set out to do and this paper discusses the potential causes and effects. © Royal College of Physicians 2016. All rights reserved.
An expanding ethnicity gap exists in the number of students pursuing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers in the United States. The National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering revealed that the number of minorities pursuing STEM degrees and careers has declined over the past few years. The specific origins of this trend are not quite evident; one variable to consider is that undergraduate minority students are failing in STEM disciplines at various levels of education from elementary to postsecondary. The failure of female and minority students to enter STEM disciplines in higher education have led various initiatives to establish programs to promote STEM disciplines among these groups. Additional funding for minority STEM programs have led to a increase in undergraduate minority students entering STEM disciplines, but the minority students' graduation rate in STEM disciplines is approximately 7% lower than the graduation of nonminority students in STEM disciplines. This phenomenological qualitative research study explores the lived experiences of underrepresented minority undergraduate college students participating in an undergraduate minority-mentoring program. The following nine themes emerged from the study: (a) competitiveness, (b) public perception, (c) dedication, (d) self-perception, (e) program activities, (f) time management, (g) exposure to career and graduate opportunities, (h) rigor in the curriculum, and (i) peer mentoring. The themes provided answers and outcomes to better support a stronger minority representation in STEM disciplines.
Simon, Richard M.; Wagner, Ashley; Killion, Brooke
Masculinity and femininity have played a substantial role in how social scientists explain the gender gap in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers. The masculine culture of science is thought to be inconsistent with occupational values associated with feminine personalities, and to create a discriminatory academic…
Carbajal, Sandy C.
Drawing from Latino/a Critical Race Theory and the related Community Cultural Wealth (CCW) model, I concentrate on three forms of CCW---aspirational, navigational, and resistance capital---for this qualitative study on the undergraduate experience of Latina students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) majors, focusing on strategies and achieving baccalaureate attainment. I interviewed ten Latina students and asked them questions regarding their educational experiences in STEM majors, what contributed to their degree completion, and the strategies they employed for achieving baccalaureate attainment. I identified and described six themes within the study (the underrepresentation of Latinas in STEM majors, the lack of preparation by academic programs for upper division courses, motivators, involvement, time management, and support networks) that, when combined, contributed to participants' degree attainment. This study concludes with implications for policy and practice that would allow universities to better assist Latinas in STEM majors to achieve baccalaureate attainment.
Full Text Available Abstract Participation rates of women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM is comparatively low and their attrition rates high. An obvious solution is to attract more women to study such subjects. In 2016 the authors undertook research to find out why so few women enrolled in STEM subjects and investigate ways of increasing their recruitment and retention in this area. The informants in our study were enrolled in a tertiary preparation course as well as nursing and education programs. A critique of the literature was used to develop a survey that informed focus group and interview schedules which were used in collecting data. Our study found that many of the factors that hindered women from applying for STEM courses twenty years ago still apply today and recommends actions that can help increase recruitment of women into STEM and assist their retention and graduation in those areas of tertiary education.
Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Cribbs, Jennifer D; Godwin, Allison; Scott, Tyler D; Klotz, Leidy
We report on a study of the effect of peers' interest in high school biology, chemistry, and physics classes on students' STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics)-related career intentions and course achievement. We define an interest quorum as a science class where students perceive a high level of interest for the subject matter from their classmates. We hypothesized that students who experience such an interest quorum are more likely to choose STEM careers. Using data from a national survey study of students' experiences in high school science, we compared the effect of five levels of peer interest reported in biology, chemistry, and physics courses on students' STEM career intentions. The results support our hypothesis, showing a strong, positive effect of an interest quorum even after controlling for differences between students that pose competing hypotheses such as previous STEM career interest, academic achievement, family support for mathematics and science, and gender. Smaller positive effects of interest quorums were observed for course performance in some cases, with no detrimental effects observed across the study. Last, significant effects persisted even after controlling for differences in teaching quality. This work emphasizes the likely importance of interest quorums for creating classroom environments that increase students' intentions toward STEM careers while enhancing or maintaining course performance.
Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Cribbs, Jennifer D.; Godwin, Allison; Scott, Tyler D.; Klotz, Leidy
We report on a study of the effect of peers’ interest in high school biology, chemistry, and physics classes on students’ STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics)–related career intentions and course achievement. We define an interest quorum as a science class where students perceive a high level of interest for the subject matter from their classmates. We hypothesized that students who experience such an interest quorum are more likely to choose STEM careers. Using data from a national survey study of students‘ experiences in high school science, we compared the effect of five levels of peer interest reported in biology, chemistry, and physics courses on students‘ STEM career intentions. The results support our hypothesis, showing a strong, positive effect of an interest quorum even after controlling for differences between students that pose competing hypotheses such as previous STEM career interest, academic achievement, family support for mathematics and science, and gender. Smaller positive effects of interest quorums were observed for course performance in some cases, with no detrimental effects observed across the study. Last, significant effects persisted even after controlling for differences in teaching quality. This work emphasizes the likely importance of interest quorums for creating classroom environments that increase students’ intentions toward STEM careers while enhancing or maintaining course performance. PMID:28808678
Jothi, A Lenin
Financial services, particularly banking and insurance services is the prominent sector for the development of a nation. After the liberalisation of financial sector in India, the scope of getting career opportunities has been widened. It is heartening to note that various universities in India have introduced professional courses on banking and insurance. A new field of applied mathematics has come into prominence under the name of Financial Mathematics. Financial mathematics has attained much importance in the recent years because of the role played by mathematical concepts in decision - m
This slide presentation examines the role of mathematical proficiency and how it relates to advantages in careers. It emphasises the role of math in attaining entrance to college, graduate schools, and a career that is interesting and well paying.
Runyon, C. R.; Hall, C.; Baber, M.
There are more than 50 million Americans with disabilities, approximately half of whom are students in a mainstreamed classroom. The National Association for Gifted Children estimates that approximately 3 million of those, 6% of the student population, are academically gifted, and 150,000 - 300,000 students of those are twice or triple exceptional (2e and 3e, respectively). The 2e and 3e refers to intellectually gifted children who also have some form(s) of disability. Unfortunately most schools in the US identify children by their giftedness or by their disability, but rarely by both. An apparent trend with 2e children, particularly when autism is paired with gifted, is that students identify with their disability instead of their strengths. 2e students have shown a propensity for interests in the science and technology fields. Few specialized programs and/or resources in STEM exist to engage and involve these exceptional students and fewer still is the number of faculty and staff trained to work with the twice and triple exceptionalities. Palmetto Scholars Academy (PSA), Charleston, SC a school for gifted and talented, provides a differentiated program to meet the educational needs of gifted learners, while also addressing the students' social/emotional needs. The Brown/MIT NASA Lunar Science Institute, in conjunction with the NASA South Carolina Space Grant Consortium, is working directly with educators from the PSA to identify what kinds of materials they need and what mediums work best for the different student (cap)abilities. This partnership will provide a means of 'consciousness raising' for teachers to help students develop their strengths and educators will gain a new understanding of 2e and 3e that will transfer into better instruction. One technique being implemented is the use of STEM-oriented engineering and technology design challenges and problem solving. These tasks allow students to use a variety of integrative and multi-disciplinary skills for
Han, Xueying; Appelbaum, Richard P
In keeping with China's President Xi Jinping's "Chinese Dream," China has set a goal of becoming a world-class innovator by 2050. China's higher education Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) research environment will play a pivotal role in influencing whether China is successful in transitioning from a manufacturing-based economy to an innovation-driven, knowledge-based economy. Past studies on China's research environment have been primarily qualitative in nature or based on anecdotal evidence. In this study, we surveyed STEM faculty from China's top 25 universities to get a clearer understanding of how faculty members view China's overall research environment. We received 731 completed survey responses, 17% of which were from individuals who received terminal degrees from abroad and 83% of which were from individuals who received terminal degrees from domestic institutions of higher education. We present results on why returnees decided to study abroad, returnees' decisions to return to China, and differences in perceptions between returnees and domestic degree holders on the advantages of having a foreign degree. The top five challenges to China's research environment identified by survey respondents were: a promotion of short-term thinking and instant success (37% of all respondents); research funding (33%); too much bureaucratic or governmental intervention (31%); the evaluation system (27%); and a reliance on human relations (26%). Results indicated that while China has clearly made strides in its higher education system, there are numerous challenges that must be overcome before China can hope to effectively produce the kinds of innovative thinkers that are required if it is to achieve its ambitious goals. We also raise questions about the current direction of education and inquiry in China, particularly indications that government policy is turning inward, away from openness that is central to innovative thinking.
The purpose of this study was (1) to introduce the exploratory method of decision tree analysis as a complementary alternative to current confirmatory methods used in scientometric prediction studies of research performance; and (2) as an illustrative case, to explore predictors of future research excellence at the individual level among 493 early career mathematicians in the sub-field of number theory between 1999 and 2010. A conceptual introduction to decision tree analysis is provided including an overview of the main steps of the tree-building algorithm and the statistical method of cross-validation used to evaluate the performance of decision tree models. A decision tree analysis of 493 mathematicians was conducted to find useful predictors and important relationships between variables in the context of predicting research excellence. The results suggest that the number of prestige journal publications and a topically diverse output are important predictors of future research excellence. Researchers with no prestige journal publications are very unlikely to produce excellent research. Limitations of decision three analysis are discussed. (Author)
Liskey, Brian K.
science (Group B) also had the lowest average values for achievement in science as assessed by science literacy score according to PISA. The United States (Group C) and the International Average (Group D) were both intermediate in each of the two categories. The analysis also showed an identical country group sequence from highest responses to lowest responses for the "systems" or variables of a) self-efficacy, b) preparation for a science career, and c) information about a career in science. The group sequence from high to low values was Group C, Group B, Group D, Group A. When comparing this country group sequence there appears to be a weak negative association between students in countries that expect a career in science and the values for self-efficacy, being prepared for, and informed about a career in science. The findings from this study indicate that the greatest factor affecting students' perception for expecting a career in science is high achievement in science. These results provide key insight on the Systems Theory of Career Development missing from the existing body of literature. Leaders in the fields of education and educational policy can use this information to guide practices and promote programs that will aid in higher achievement in science and engineering. This research can also be used by leaders in career counseling to advise students on appropriate career paths and prepare students for future careers in science and technology. Finally, leadership within state and federal institutions can utilize results from this study to guide future research and funding that encourages students on career pathways in the fields of Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM).
Glass, Jennifer L; Sassler, Sharon; Levitte, Yael; Michelmore, Katherine M
We follow female college graduates in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and compare the trajectories of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)-related occupations to other professional occupations. Results show that women in STEM occupations are significantly more likely to leave their occupational field than professional women, especially early in their career, while few women in either group leave jobs to exit the labor force. Family factors cannot account for the differential loss of STEM workers compared to other professional workers. Few differences in job characteristics emerge either, so these cannot account for the disproportionate loss of STEM workers. What does emerge is that investments and job rewards that generally stimulate field commitment, such as advanced training and high job satisfaction, fail to build commitment among women in STEM.
Chen, P. Daniel; Simpson, Patricia A.
This study utilized John Holland's personality typology and the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) to examine the factors that may affect students' self-selection into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Results indicated that gender, race/ethnicity, high school achievement, and personality type were statistically…
McKenna, Rachel Lynn-Pleis
Over the past decade, there has been a considerable push in emphasizing STEM--an acronym standing for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math--as an integral aspect of educational curriculums. Even though research suggests that females tend to outperform males in standardized testing in STEM areas, they remain underrepresented in STEM careers…
Harackiewicz, Judith M; Rozek, Christopher S; Hulleman, Chris S; Hyde, Janet S
The pipeline toward careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) begins to leak in high school, when some students choose not to take advanced mathematics and science courses. We conducted a field experiment testing whether a theory-based intervention that was designed to help parents convey the importance of mathematics and science courses to their high school-aged children would lead them to take more mathematics and science courses in high school. The three-part intervention consisted of two brochures mailed to parents and a Web site, all highlighting the usefulness of STEM courses. This relatively simple intervention led students whose parents were in the experimental group to take, on average, nearly one semester more of science and mathematics in the last 2 years of high school, compared with the control group. Parents are an untapped resource for increasing STEM motivation in adolescents, and the results demonstrate that motivational theory can be applied to this important pipeline problem.
Traulsen, Arne; Lenaerts, Tom; Pacheco, Jorge M; Dingli, David
The theory of the clonal origin of cancer states that a tumour arises from one cell that acquires mutation(s) leading to the malignant phenotype. It is the current belief that many of these mutations give a fitness advantage to the mutant population allowing it to expand, eventually leading to disease. However, mutations that lead to such a clonal expansion need not give a fitness advantage and may in fact be neutral--or almost neutral--with respect to fitness. Such mutant clones can be eliminated or expand stochastically, leading to a malignant phenotype (disease). Mutations in haematopoietic stem cells give rise to diseases such as chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) and paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH). Although neutral drift often leads to clonal extinction, disease is still possible, and in this case, it has important implications both for the incidence of disease and for therapy, as it may be more difficult to eliminate neutral mutations with therapy. We illustrate the consequences of such dynamics, using CML and PNH as examples. These considerations have implications for many other tumours as well.
Heilbronner, Nancy N.
Many men and women who are talented in science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics (STEM) choose not to pursue undergraduate majors or careers in these fields. To develop talents in STEM, educators must understand the factors that contribute to an individual's retention in STEM domains, as well as the factors that act as barriers to success, such as the role that gender plays in the underrepresentation of women in certain STEM fields (e.g., computer science and engineering) and changes in recent decades in the process of selecting STEM majors and careers. The purpose of this study was to explore the influences that guide decisions related to the selection of majors and occupations during high school, post-secondary education, and early careers. Survey methodology was used to explore the perceptions of 360 Science Talent Search (STS) semifinalists and finalists during the years 1987-1989 and 1997-1999, and quantitative procedures were used to analyze the data. A majority (74.2%) of STS participants majored in a STEM field in college, and most (68.6%) currently work in a STEM field. A greater percentage of men selected computer science, engineering, physics, and mathematics majors, and a greater percentage of women selected biological science and chemistry. Belief in one's ability to achieve in STEM was a predictor of STEM majors in college and STEM concentrations in graduate school, but differences were found between men's and women's self-efficacy in STEM during high school and in college, as women had lower self-efficacy. Sex was a predictor of STEM majors in college, but perceived quality of academic courses was not. STEM majors also reported more satisfaction with their STEM courses in high school and college than non-STEM majors. In a departure from the results of previous research, the reasons that men and women selected occupations were similar, as were the reasons they chose to leave or not to enter STEM. The most frequently cited reason for
Patchin, Stephen H.
Not since the Cold War and the launch of Sputnik has there been such a focus on producing college graduates in fields related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). As manually driven careers disappear, new diverse careers are created and they have one thing in common, STEM. As students move into these challenging curriculums they will need to have faith in their abilities to achieve their goals. This self-efficacy is vital component for their collegiate and career success. This mixed methods study examines the unique pre-college STEM outreach phenomenon called Mind Trekkers. Mind Trekkers uses the "WOW" of experiential learning in the areas of STEM to motivate K-12 students to engage in STEM related fields. The focus of the study is on the first-year college freshmen that join this program, becoming STEM serviceteers, and how being part of this STEM phenomenon impacts their self-efficacy. The findings can be summed up in a quote. I get to help people understanding in a different way than I would if I was just doing volunteering like I did in high school. It's cool. I just love it and it gives me the confidence that what I am doing is the right thing here at (the university). (Jean). The results of the study indicate that the Mind Trekkers program acted as a catalyst to increase the self-efficacy of the students that participated in it, through personal social and academic impact.
Liu, Yi-hui; Lou, Shi-jer; Shih, Ru-chu
This study employed social cognitive theory and social cognitive career theory (SCCT) as foundations to explore the influence of high school students' beliefs about female gender roles and female engineer role models on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) self-efficacy and professional commitment to engineering. A total of 88…
Miranda, Felix A.
This presentation provides a description of technology efforts illustrative of NASA Glenn Research Center Core competencies and which exemplifies how NASA serves the interest of humankind in aerospace exploration. Examples are provided as talking points to illustrate the role that career paths in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) plays in the aforementioned endeavor.
Priscila Cadorin Nicolete
Full Text Available A pesar de que la matemática es una habilidad fundamental, la falta de motivación está causando estudiantes brasileños un pobre desempeño en esta disciplina. El trabajo presentado en este documento tiene como objetivo contribuir al desarrollo de diversas prácticas de enseñanza y aprendizaje a través del uso de las Tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC, co n el fin de motivar el estudio de las matemáticas desde los primeros años de educación básica. Las actividades se dividen en dos áreas: un a enfocada en la formación y capacitación de los maestro s y la otra centrada en la integración de tecnologías e n el aula a través del uso del aprendizaje móvil. La experiencia se realizó con niños de 5º año, mediante la enseñanza de los conceptos de fracciones. Las actividades son parte del proyecto denominado " Propuesta de i ntegración de la tecnología e n la enseñanza de disciplinas STEM e n la educación básica pública", co n el apoyo del CNPq - Consejo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico, y el proyecto "U so de e xperimentación remota en dispositivos móviles para la educación básica e n las escuelas públicas" co n el apoyo de FRIDA ( Fondo Regional para la Innovación Digital en América Latina y el Caribe . En 2011, este proyecto fue seleccionado como uno de los cuatro proyectos más innovadores e n la educación brasileña , en una selección realizada por el Instituto para el Desarrollo y la Innovación Educativa (IDIE de la Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos para la Educación, Ciencia y Cultura (OEI y patrocinado por la Fundación Telefónica.
Are Universities Providing Non-STEM Students the Mathematics Preparation Required by Their Programs?: A Case Study of A Quantitative Literacy Pathway and Vertical Alignment from Remediation to Degree Completion
Informed by Gagne's belief in the necessity of prerequisite knowledge for new learning, and Bruner's Spiral Curriculum Theory, the objective of this case study was to explore the postsecondary pathway from remedial mathematics, through one gateway mathematics course, and into the quantitative literacy requirements of various non-STEM programs of…
Diogo L Pinheiro
Full Text Available Placement in prestigious research institutions for STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics PhD recipients is generally considered to be optimal. Yet some doctoral recipients are not interested in intensive research careers and instead seek alternative careers, outside but also within academe (for example teaching positions in Liberal Arts Schools. Recent attention to non-academic pathways has expanded our understanding of alternative PhD careers. However, career preferences and placements are also nuanced along the academic pathway. Existing research on academic careers (mostly research-centric has found that certain factors have a significant impact on the prestige of both the institutional placement and the salary of PhD recipients. We understand less, however, about the functioning of career preferences and related placements outside of the top academic research institutions. Our work builds on prior studies of academic career placement to explore the impact that prestige of PhD-granting institution, advisor involvement, and cultural capital have on the extent to which STEM PhDs are placed in their preferred academic institution types. What determines whether an individual with a preference for research oriented institutions works at a Research Extensive university? Or whether an individual with a preference for teaching works at a Liberal Arts college? Using survey data from a nationally representative sample of faculty in biology, biochemistry, civil engineering and mathematics at four different Carnegie Classified institution types (Research Extensive, Research Intensive, Master's I & II, and Liberal Arts Colleges, we examine the relative weight of different individual and institutional characteristics on institutional type placement. We find that doctoral institutional prestige plays a significant role in matching individuals with their preferred institutional type, but that advisor involvement only has an impact on those
Pinheiro, Diogo L; Melkers, Julia; Newton, Sunni
Placement in prestigious research institutions for STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) PhD recipients is generally considered to be optimal. Yet some doctoral recipients are not interested in intensive research careers and instead seek alternative careers, outside but also within academe (for example teaching positions in Liberal Arts Schools). Recent attention to non-academic pathways has expanded our understanding of alternative PhD careers. However, career preferences and placements are also nuanced along the academic pathway. Existing research on academic careers (mostly research-centric) has found that certain factors have a significant impact on the prestige of both the institutional placement and the salary of PhD recipients. We understand less, however, about the functioning of career preferences and related placements outside of the top academic research institutions. Our work builds on prior studies of academic career placement to explore the impact that prestige of PhD-granting institution, advisor involvement, and cultural capital have on the extent to which STEM PhDs are placed in their preferred academic institution types. What determines whether an individual with a preference for research oriented institutions works at a Research Extensive university? Or whether an individual with a preference for teaching works at a Liberal Arts college? Using survey data from a nationally representative sample of faculty in biology, biochemistry, civil engineering and mathematics at four different Carnegie Classified institution types (Research Extensive, Research Intensive, Master's I & II, and Liberal Arts Colleges), we examine the relative weight of different individual and institutional characteristics on institutional type placement. We find that doctoral institutional prestige plays a significant role in matching individuals with their preferred institutional type, but that advisor involvement only has an impact on those with a
Maria Ramona S. Braza
Full Text Available This study determined the career choice of the high school students of the different private institutions in San Jose, Batangas as a basis for developing a career program guide to help the students in choosing their career.The descriptive method was used the study with the questionnaire and standardized test as the main data gathering instruments. Parents, students and teachers served as respondents of the study. The study revealed that most preferred career of the respondents is the academic track particularly the Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM strand. The proposed program guide formulated focused on how to help the students decide on their future career. When properly given, it will benefit the students. The researchers recommended that the proposed career program guide that has been formulated may be shown to school heads for their suggestions; the students should be provided with effective orientation on what career is really all about. This could be done by the school guidance counselor or by the teachers and parents as well and there must be a close–up tie among the guidance personnel, teachers, students, and parents to promote a better understanding of the factors which influence the career choice of the students.
Quality STEM education is the key in helping the United States maintain its lead in global competitiveness and in preparing for new economic and security challenges in the future. Policymakers and professional societies emphasize STEM education by legislating the addition of engineering standards to the existing science standards. On the other hand, the nature of the work of most STEM professionals requires people to actively apply STEM knowledge to make critical decisions. Therefore, using an integrated approach to teaching STEM in K-12 is expected. However, science teachers encounter numerous difficulties in adapting the new STEM integration reforms into their classrooms because of a lack of knowledge and experience. Therefore, high quality STEM integration professional development programs are an urgent necessity. In order to provide these high quality programs, it is important to understand teachers' perceptions and classroom practices regarding STEM integration. A multiple-case study was conducted with five secondary school science teachers in order to gain a better understanding of teachers' perceptions and classroom practices in using STEM integration. This study addresses the following research questions: 1) What are secondary school science teachers' practices of STEM integration? 2) What are secondary science teachers' overall perceptions of STEM integration? and 3) What is the connection between secondary science teachers' perceptions and understanding of STEM integration with their classroom practices? This research aims to explore teachers' perceptions and classroom practices in order to set up the baseline for STEM integration and also to determine STEM integration professional development best practices in science education. Findings from the study provide critical data for making informed decision about the direction for STEM integration in science education in K-12.
Utah State Office of Education, 2011
Utah has adopted more rigorous mathematics standards known as the Utah Mathematics Core Standards. They are the foundation of the mathematics curriculum for the State of Utah. The standards include the skills and understanding students need to succeed in college and careers. They include rigorous content and application of knowledge and reflect…
Mark, Sheron L.
Black males, as one non-dominant population, remain underrepresented and less successful in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Researchers focused on non-dominant populations are advised against generalizations and to examine cultural intersections (i.e. race, ethnicity, gender, and more) and also to explore cases of success, in addition to cases of under-achievement and underrepresentation. This study has focused on one African American male, Randy, who expressed high-achieving STEM career goals in computer science and engineering. Furthermore, recognizing that culture and identity development underlie STEM engagement and persistence, this long-term case study focused on how Randy developed a STEM identity during the course of the study and the implications of that process for his STEM career exploration. Étienne Wenger's (1999) communities-of-practice (CoP) was employed as a theoretical framework and, in doing so, (1) the informal STEM program in which Randy participated was characterized as a STEM-for-social-justice CoP and (2) Randy participated in ways that consistently utilized an "economics" lens from beyond the boundaries of the CoP. In doing so, Randy functioned as a broker within the CoP and developed a non-traditional STEM identity-in-practice which integrated STEM, "economics", and community engagement. Randy's STEM identity-in-practice is discussed in terms of the contextual factors that support scientific identity development (Hazari et al. in J Res Sci Teach 47:978-1003, 2010), the importance of recognizing and supporting the development of holistic and non-traditional STEM identities, especially for diverse populations in STEM, and the implications of this new understanding of Randy's STEM identity for his long-term STEM career exploration.
Delp, Matthew J.
This study utilized survey research to investigate how school districts within K-12 education select, implement, and evaluate Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) programs. Thirty school districts within the Math and Science Collaborative located in Western Pennsylvania participated in this research. In addition to characterizing the STEM programs of the participating school districts, this study also analyzed the alignment of these programs to the components of comprehensive STEM programs and critical approaches to substantiate STEM program implementation as stated in the literature (Augustine, 2005; Bybee, 2010a, 2010b; Carnevale et al., 2011; DeJarnette, 2010; Epstein & Miller, 2011b; Gardner et al., 1983; Hossain & Robinson, 2011, 2012; Kuenzi, 2008). Findings suggest that the primary goal for school districts, as it relates to STEM program implementation, is to influence students' interest and pursuit of STEM-related careers and degrees. In order to achieve this goal, results of this study indicate the focus of STEM program implementation occurs with the greatest frequency at the middle school (grades seven and eight) level, are developed as an adaptation to the curriculum, and are very diverse from one school district to the next. In addition, findings suggest that although school districts maintain they aim to promote careers and degrees in STEM, districts rely on traditional methods of evaluating STEM program implementation (i.e. standardized test scores) and do not track the longitudinal impact their STEM programs as they related to degrees and careers in STEM. Furthermore, results indicate district STEM programs are not aligned to the characteristics of comprehensive STEM programs as defined by the literature. In order to address the misalignment of school district goals and evaluation processes involved in STEM program implementation and the absence of the characteristics commensurate with comprehensive STEM programs, this study has
In an exploratory study (Note 1) of the role of salary level and other factors in motivating undergraduate math, science, and technology majors to consider a career as a K-12 teacher, the salary level students said would motivate them to consider a career in teaching was related to the salary expected in their chosen non-teaching occupation, but not to three of the Big 5 personality dimensions of extroversion, agreeableness, and openness, nor concern for others or career risk aversion. An ann...
Jayarajah, Kamaleswaran; Saat, Rohaida Mohd; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abdul
The purpose of this study is to explore the research base of STEM education in Malaysia through an analysis review of articles for a 14-year period, from 1999 to 2013. The research base review focuses on identifying four characteristics of STEM education: a) temporal distribution, b) the research areas involved in each discipline, c) the types of…
Pupils ask STEM subject teachers about jobs and careers in science, but where else do they learn about work? This article outlines career-related learning within schools in England alongside other factors that influence pupils' career decisions. The effect of the Education Act 2011 will be to change career learning in schools. The impact on…
Full Text Available In an exploratory study (Note 1 of the role of salary level and other factors in motivating undergraduate math, science, and technology majors to consider a career as a K-12 teacher, the salary level students said would motivate them to consider a career in teaching was related to the salary expected in their chosen non-teaching occupation, but not to three of the Big 5 personality dimensions of extroversion, agreeableness, and openness, nor concern for others or career risk aversion. An annual starting salary 45% above the local average would attract 48% of the sophomore students and 37% of the juniors. Focus group results suggested that low pay was an important reason for not considering K-12 teaching, but that perceived job demands and abilities and interests were also important reasons for not being attracted to a teaching career.
Dishauzi, Karen M.
Extensive research exists on female, African American, and Hispanic students pursuing Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) field disciplines. However, little research evaluates students with disabilities and career decision-making relating to STEM field disciplines. This study explored the career decision-making experiences and self-efficacy for students with disabilities. The purpose of this research study was to document experiences and perceptions of students with disabilities who pursue, and may consider pursuing, careers in the STEM field disciplines by exploring the career decision-making self-efficacy of students with disabilities. This study documented the level of influence that the students with disabilities had or may not have had encountered from parents, friends, advisors, counselors, and instructors as they managed their decision-making choice relating to their academic major/career in the STEM or non-STEM field disciplines. A total of 85 respondents of approximately 340 students with disabilities at one Midwestern public university completed a quantitatively designed survey instrument. The Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form by Betz and Hackett was the instrument used, and additional questions were included in the survey. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. Based upon the results, college students with disabilities are not currently being influenced by individuals and groups of individuals to pursue the STEM field disciplines. This is a cohort of individuals who can be marketed to increase enrollment in STEM programs at academic institutions. This research further found that gender differences at the institution under study did not affect the career decision-making self-efficacy scores. The men did not score any higher in confidence in career decision-making than the women. Disability type did not significantly affect the relationship between the Career Decision-Making Self
Zacher, Hannes; Ambiel, Rodolfo A.M.; Noronha, Ana Paula Porto
Career adaptability constitutes a resource that can help employees to effectively manage career changes and challenges. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between the two higher-order constructs of career adaptability and career entrenchment (i.e., the perceived inability
Gaps between science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM disciplines and ask whether frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education cover all of important STEM competencies. In this study, we identify important STEM competencies and evaluate the relevance of current frameworks applied in education using the standardized job-specific database operated and maintained by the US Department of Labor. Our analysis of the importance of 109 skills, types of knowledge and work activities, revealed 18 skills, seven categories of knowledge, and 27 work activities important for STEM workers. We investigate the perspectives of STEM and non-STEM job incumbents, comparing the importance of each skill, knowledge, and work activity for the two groups. We aimed to condense dimensions of the 52 key areas by categorizing them according to the Katz and Kahn (1978) framework and testing for inter-rater reliability. Our findings show frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education do not encompass all important STEM competencies. Implications for STEM education programs are discussed, including how they can bridge gaps between education and important workplace competencies.
Afterschool Alliance, 2014
After the school bell rings, young people are learning, exploring, making and questioning. Afterschool programs have long influenced students' personal development and supported their social and emotional growth. Today, the afterschool field has enthusiastically embraced STEM as an integral part of their educational offerings. This handout…
Park, Travis; Pearson, Donna; Richardson, George B.
All students need to learn how to read, write, solve mathematics problems, and understand and apply scientific principles to succeed in college and/or careers. The challenges posed by entry-level career fields are no less daunting than those posed by college-level study. Thus, career and technical education students must learn effective math,…
Becker, Bryan K; Schiller, Alicia M; Zucker, Irving H; Eager, Eric A; Bronner, Liliana P; Godfrey, Maurice
Underserved minority groups are disproportionately absent from the pursuit of careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. One such underserved population, Native Americans, are particularly underrepresented in STEM fields. Although recent advocacy and outreach designed toward increasing minority involvement in health care-related occupations have been mostly successful, little is known about the efficacy of outreach programs in increasing minority enthusiasm toward careers in traditional scientific professions. Furthermore, very little is known about outreach among Native American schools toward increasing involvement in STEM. We collaborated with tribal middle and high schools in South Dakota and Nebraska through a National Institutes of Health Science Education Partnership Award to hold a day-long physiology, activity-based event to increase both understanding of physiology and enthusiasm to scientific careers. We recruited volunteer biomedical scientists and trainees from the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Nebraska Wesleyan University, and University of South Dakota. To evaluate the effectiveness of the day of activities, 224 of the ~275-300 participating students completed both a pre- and postevent evaluation assessment. We observed increases in both students self-perceived knowledge of physiology and enthusiasm toward scientific career opportunities after the day of outreach activities. We conclude that activity-based learning opportunities in underserved populations are effective in increasing both knowledge of science and interest in scientific careers. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Classens, Anver; Hooper, Dick; Johnson, Bruce
Central Piedmont Community College (CPCC), located in Charlotte, North Carolina, established the Carolinas Energy Career Center (Center) - a comprehensive training entity to meet the dynamic needs of the Charlotte region's energy workforce. The Center provides training for high-demand careers in both conventional energy (fossil) and renewable energy (nuclear and solar technologies/energy efficiency). CPCC completed four tasks that will position the Center as a leading resource for energy career training in the Southeast: • Development and Pilot of a New Advanced Welding Curriculum, • Program Enhancement of Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) Technology, • Student Support through implementation of a model targeted toward Energy and STEM Careers to support student learning, • Project Management and Reporting. As a result of DOE funding support, CPCC achieved the following outcomes: • Increased capacity to serve and train students in emerging energy industry careers; • Developed new courses and curricula to support emerging energy industry careers; • Established new training/laboratory resources; • Generated a pool of highly qualified, technically skilled workers to support the growing energy industry sector.
Quagliata, Andrew B.
STEM education is argued as an essential ingredient in preparing our children for careers of the future. This study describes a university festival that includes the promotion of STEM-related career interests in young people among its goals. A total of 203 participants between the age of 7 and 17 completed both pre-event and post-event surveys. In…
Diversity and the underrepresentation of women, African-Americans, Hispanics and American Indians in the nation's science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields are the subjects of the XV: A View from the Gatekeepers—STEM Department Chairs at America's Top 200 Research Universities on Female and Underrepresented Minority Undergraduate STEM Students. Annual public opinion research project commissioned by Bayer Corporation, the Bayer Facts surveys examine science education and science literacy issues. The 15th in the series and the fifth to explore diversity and underrepresentation, this research is a direct outgrowth of last year's results which found 40 percent of the country's female and underrepresented minority (URM) chemists and chemical engineers working today were discouraged from pursuing their STEM career at some point in their lives. US colleges were cited as places where this discouragement most often happened and college professors as the individuals most likely responsible. Does such discouragement still occur in American colleges today? To answer this and other questions about the undergraduate environment in which today's students make their career decisions, the survey polls 413 STEM department chairs at the nation's 200 top research universities and those that produce the highest proportion of female and URM STEM graduates. The survey also asks the chairs about their institutions track record recruiting and retaining female and URM STEM undergraduates, preparedness of these students to study STEM, the impact of traditional introductory STEM courses on female and URM students and barriers these students face pursuing their STEM degrees.
Watt, Helen M. G.; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Morris, Zoe A.; Durik, Amanda M.; Keating, Daniel P.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.
In this international, longitudinal study, we explored gender differences in, and gendered relationships among, math-related motivations emphasized in the Eccles (Parsons) et al. (1983) expectancy-value framework, high school math participation, educational aspirations, and career plans. Participants were from Australia, Canada, and the United…
Arthur, Michael B.; Khapova, S.N.; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.
This paper compares contemporary career theory with the theory applied in recent career success research. The research makes inconsistent use of career theory, and in particular neglects the interdependence of the objective and subjective careers, and boundaryless career issues of
Caudill, Lester; Hill, April; Hoke, Kathy; Lipan, Ovidiu
Funded by innovative programs at the National Science Foundation and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Richmond faculty in biology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, and computer science teamed up to offer first- and second-year students the opportunity to contribute to vibrant, interdisciplinary research projects. The result was not only good science but also good science that motivated and informed course development. Here, we describe four recent undergraduate research projects involving students and faculty in biology, physics, mathematics, and computer science and how each contributed in significant ways to the conception and implementation of our new Integrated Quantitative Science course, a course for first-year students that integrates the material in the first course of the major in each of biology, chemistry, mathematics, computer science, and physics.
Ntemngwa, Celestin; Oliver, J. Steve
The research study reported here was conducted to investigate the implementation of integrated STEM lessons within courses that have a single subject science focus. The purpose also included development of a pedagogical theory. This technology-based teaching was conceptualized by school administrators and teachers in order to provide middle school…
Abdullah, Nasarudin; Halim, Lilia; Zakaria, Effandi
This study aimed to determine the impact of strategic thinking and visual representation approaches (VStops) on the achievement, conceptual knowledge, metacognitive awareness, awareness of problem-solving strategies, and student attitudes toward mathematical word problem solving among primary school students. The experimental group (N = 96)…
Butkovich, Nancy J.
Doctoral candidates may request short-term embargoes on the release of their dissertations in order to apply for patents. This study examines how often inventions described in dissertations in chemical engineering, chemistry, physics, and mathematics are converted into U.S. patent applications, as well as the relationship between dissertation…
Caudill, Lester; Hill, April; Hoke, Kathy; Lipan, Ovidiu
Funded by innovative programs at the National Science Foundation and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Richmond faculty in biology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, and computer science teamed up to offer first- and second-year students the opportunity to contribute to vibrant, interdisciplinary research projects. The result was…
Pinasa, Siwa; Siripun, Kulpatsorn; Yuenyong, Chokchai
Creative thinking on applying science and mathematics knowledge is required by the future STEM career. The STEM education should be provided for the required skills of future STEM career. This paper aimed to clarify the developing STEM education learning activities to enhance students' creative thinking. The learning activities were developed for Grade 10 students who will study in the subject of independent study (IS) of Khon Kaen Wittayayon School, Khon Kaen, Thailand. The developing STEM education learning activities for enhancing students' creative thinking was developed regarding on 6 steps including (1) providing of understanding of fundamental STEM education concept, (2) generating creative thinking from prototype, (4) revised ideas, (5) engineering ability, and (6) presentation and discussion. The paper will clarify the 18 weeks activities that will be provided based these 6 steps of developing learning activities. Then, these STEM learning activities will be discussed to provide the chance of enhancing students' creative thinking. The paper may have implication for STEM education in school setting.
Full Text Available Lack of preparation in science leads to high rates of attrition among science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM majors, even among students who are highly oriented toward STEM. Using data for twenty-seven countries from the 2006 Program for International Student Assessment, we compare the United States with other industrialized countries in terms of fifteen-year-olds’ science achievement and their expectations to focus on STEM in the future. The United States trails most countries in the mean science achievement of the general student population and among students expecting to pursue STEM majors or careers. Lack of curricular standardization in the United States is related to this lower science achievement. Countries with higher curricular standardization exhibit higher average science achievement scores; science achievement and students’ future orientation toward science are also better aligned in these countries. We discuss the implications of these findings for American colleges and universities as they seek to reduce student attrition in STEM fields.
Watt, Helen M G; Shapka, Jennifer D; Morris, Zoe A; Durik, Amanda M; Keating, Daniel P; Eccles, Jacquelynne S
In this international, longitudinal study, we explored gender differences in, and gendered relationships among, math-related motivations emphasized in the Eccles (Parsons) et al. (1983) expectancy-value framework, high school math participation, educational aspirations, and career plans. Participants were from Australia, Canada, and the United States (Ns = 358, 471, 418, respectively) in Grades 9/10 at Time 1 and Grades 11/12 at Time 2. The 3 samples came from suburban middle to upper-middle socioeconomic backgrounds, primarily of Anglo-European descent. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed stereotypic gender differences in educational and occupational outcomes only among the Australian sample. Multigroup structural equation models identified latent mean differences where male adolescents held higher intrinsic value for math in the Australian sample and higher ability/success expectancy in both North American samples. Ability/success expectancy was a key predictor in the North American samples, in contrast to intrinsic value in the Australian sample. Attainment/utility ("importance") values were more important for female adolescents' career choices, except in the Australian sample. Findings are interpreted in relation to gender socialization practices, degree and type of early choice, and specialization across settings. Implications are discussed for long-term math engagement and career selection for female and male adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Of the 205,000 U.S. students abroad during the 2004-2005 academic year, only 6,557 or slightly more than 3% of them studied in Germany. The Ohio Alliance reports that only 13% of all U.S. students who studied abroad during the 2004-2005 academic year were from the STEM fields of study. The Institute of International Education Open Doors Report,…
Ryan C. Svoboda
Full Text Available High school students from lower–socioeconomic status (SES backgrounds are less likely to enroll in advanced mathematics and science courses compared to students from higher-SES backgrounds. The current longitudinal study draws on identity-based and expectancy-value theories of motivation to explain the SES and mathematics and science course-taking relationship. This was done by gathering reports from students and their parents about their expectations, values, and future identities for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM topics beginning in middle school through age 20. Results showed that parental education predicted mathematics and science course taking in high school and college, and this relationship was partially mediated by students’ and parents’ future identity and motivational beliefs concerning mathematics and science. These findings suggest that psychological interventions may be useful for reducing social class gaps in STEM course taking, which has critical implications for the types of opportunities and careers available to students.
Caudill, Lester; Hill, April; Hoke, Kathy; Lipan, Ovidiu
Funded by innovative programs at the National Science Foundation and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Richmond faculty in biology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, and computer science teamed up to offer first- and second-year students the opportunity to contribute to vibrant, interdisciplinary research projects. The result was not only good science but also good science that motivated and informed course development. Here, we describe four recent undergraduate research proj...
Wang, Haiwen; Wei, Xin; Lynch, Sharon; Peters, Vanessa; Young, Viki; Allen, Carrie
Abstract Inclusive STEM high schools (ISHSs) (where STEM is science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) admit students on the basis of interest rather than competitive examination. This study examines the central assumption behind these schools—that they provide students from subgroups underrepresented in STEM with experiences that equip them academically and attitudinally to enter and stay in the STEM pipeline. Hierarchical modeling was applied to data from student surveys and state longitudinal data records for 5113 students graduating from 39 ISHSs and 22 comprehensive high schools in North Carolina and Texas. Compared to peers from the same demographic group with similar Grade 8 achievement levels, underrepresented minority and female ISHS students in both states were more likely to undertake advanced STEM coursework. Hispanics in Texas and females in both states expressed more STEM career interest in Grade 12 if they attended an ISHS. Positive relationships between ISHS attendance and grade point average were found in the total sample and each subgroup in North Carolina. Positive ISHS advantages in terms of test scores for the total student sample were found for science in both states and for mathematics in Texas. For the various student subgroups, test score differences favored the ISHS samples but attained statistical significance only for African Americans’ science achievement scores in the Texas study. PMID:28919649
Stevens, Sally; Andrade, Rosi; Page, Melissa
Data indicate that females and ethnic/race minority groups are underrepresented in the science and engineering workforce calling for innovative strategies to engage and retain them in science education and careers. This study reports on the development, delivery, and outcomes of a culturally driven science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) program, iSTEM, aimed at increasing engagement in STEM learning among Native American 3rd-8th grade students. A culturally relevant theoretical framework, Funds of Knowledge, informs the iSTEM program, a program based on the contention that the synergistic effect of a hybrid program combining two strategic approaches (1) in-school mentoring and (2) out-of-school informal science education experiences would foster engagement and interest in STEM learning. Students are paired with one of three types of mentors: Native American community members, university students, and STEM professionals. The iSTEM program is theme based with all program activities specifically relevant to Native people living in southern Arizona. Student mentees and mentors complete interactive flash STEM activities at lunch hour and attend approximately six field trips per year. Data from the iSTEM program indicate that the program has been successful in engaging Native American students in iSTEM as well as increasing their interest in STEM and their science beliefs.
Deegan, William L.; And Others
Concern for career education concepts stems from fact that about 2.5 million students graduate from U.S. high schools each year without adequate preparation for a career. Also, estimates indicate that 8 out of 10 jobs in the 70's will not require a college degree. (DS)
Jeffrey D. Weld
Full Text Available A comprehensive statewide STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics reform initiative enters its fifth year in the U.S. state of Iowa. A significant proportion of the state’s pre K-12 students and teachers participate in one or more of the twenty programs offered, ranging from classroom curricular innovations to teacher professional development, and from community STEM festivals to career exploration events. An external, inter-university evaluation consortium measures annual progress of the initiative through the Iowa STEM Monitoring Project. Results show citizens to be increasingly aware of and supporting of STEM education; students to be increasingly interested in STEM as well as outperforming nonparticipating peers on state math and science tests; and teachers more confident and knowledgeable in teaching STEM. Iowa’s STEM initiative has garnered national acclaim though challenges remain with regard to expanding the participation of learners of diversity, as well as ensuring the long-term sustainability of the programs and structures that define Iowa’s statewide STEM initiative.
William C DeFraine
Full Text Available The demand for employees trained in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM fields continues to increase, yet the number of Millennial students pursuing STEM is not keeping pace. We evaluated whether this shortfall is associated with Millennials' preference for flexibility and work/life-interaction in their careers-a preference that may be inconsistent with the traditional idea of a science career endorsed by many lab directors. Two contrasting approaches to running STEM labs and training students were explored, and we created a lab recruitment video depicting each. The work-focused video emphasized the traditional notions of a science lab, characterized by long work hours and a focus on individual achievement and conducting research above all else. In contrast, the work/life-interaction-focused video emphasized a more progressive view - lack of demarcation between work and non-work lives, flexible hours, and group achievement. In Study 1, 40 professors rated the videos, and the results confirmed that the two lab types reflected meaningful real-world differences in training approaches. In Study 2, we recruited 53 current and prospective graduate students in STEM fields who displayed high math-identification and a commitment to science careers. In a between-subjects design, they watched one of the two lab-recruitment videos, and then reported their anticipated sense of belonging to and desire to participate in the lab depicted in the video. Very large effects were observed on both primary measures: Participants who watched the work/life-interaction-focused video reported a greater sense of belonging to (d = 1.49 and desire to participate in (d = 1.33 the lab, relative to participants who watched the work-focused video. These results suggest Millennials possess a strong desire for work/life-interaction, which runs counter to the traditional lab-training model endorsed by many lab directors. We discuss implications of these
DeFraine, William C; Williams, Wendy M; Ceci, Stephen J
The demand for employees trained in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields continues to increase, yet the number of Millennial students pursuing STEM is not keeping pace. We evaluated whether this shortfall is associated with Millennials' preference for flexibility and work/life-interaction in their careers-a preference that may be inconsistent with the traditional idea of a science career endorsed by many lab directors. Two contrasting approaches to running STEM labs and training students were explored, and we created a lab recruitment video depicting each. The work-focused video emphasized the traditional notions of a science lab, characterized by long work hours and a focus on individual achievement and conducting research above all else. In contrast, the work/life-interaction-focused video emphasized a more progressive view - lack of demarcation between work and non-work lives, flexible hours, and group achievement. In Study 1, 40 professors rated the videos, and the results confirmed that the two lab types reflected meaningful real-world differences in training approaches. In Study 2, we recruited 53 current and prospective graduate students in STEM fields who displayed high math-identification and a commitment to science careers. In a between-subjects design, they watched one of the two lab-recruitment videos, and then reported their anticipated sense of belonging to and desire to participate in the lab depicted in the video. Very large effects were observed on both primary measures: Participants who watched the work/life-interaction-focused video reported a greater sense of belonging to (d = 1.49) and desire to participate in (d = 1.33) the lab, relative to participants who watched the work-focused video. These results suggest Millennials possess a strong desire for work/life-interaction, which runs counter to the traditional lab-training model endorsed by many lab directors. We discuss implications of these findings for STEM
The "new" career, most notably the boundaryless career, is associated with high career mobility, which is in turn associated with employability and career success of individuals. The current study examined how frequency, form (organisational, horizontal or vertical) and impact (objective career success) of career transitions have changed…
Despite decades of efforts to increase the participation of women and people from underrepresented minority groups (URM) in science and math majors and careers, and despite the increasing diversification of the US population as a whole (Planty et al. in National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of…
Ungadi, Benard Akala
Contemporary research on women and the learning of science in higher educational institutions has persistently focused on equal representation and access. This study sets out to find out why women, after successfully completing their degrees in mathematics at undergraduate and/or masters, quit the field. This is despite the popular view that the…
Pollard, Vikki; Hains-Wesson, Rachael; Young, Karen
If Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines in higher education are to retain students, there needs to be a shift towards teaching in more enriching and interesting ways. Creative teaching needs to become more prominent in STEM. This article presents a study that defines creative teaching in the STEM context and…
Ortega, Robbie Ray
Minorities continue to be underrepresented in professional science careers. In order to make Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) careers more accessible for underrepresented minorities, informal science programs must be utilized to assist in developing interest in STEM for minority youth. In addition to developing interest in science, informal programs must help develop interpersonal skills and leadership skills of youth, which allow youth to develop discrete social behaviors while creating positive and supportive communities thus making science more practical in their lives. This study was based on the premise that introducing underrepresented youth to the agricultural and life sciences through an integrated precollege experience of leadership development with university faculty, scientist, and staff would help increase youths' interest in science, while also increasing their interest to pursue a STEM-related career. Utilizing a precollege life science experience for underrepresented minorities, known as the Ag Discovery Camp, 33 middle school aged youth were brought to the Purdue University campus to participate in an experience that integrated a leadership development program with an informal science education program in the context of agriculture. The week-long program introduced youth to fields of agriculture in engineering, plant sciences, food sciences, and entomology. The purpose of the study was to describe short-term and intermediate student outcomes in regards to participants' interests in career activities, science self-efficacy, and career intentions. Youth were not interested in agricultural activities immediately following the precollege experience. However, one year after the precollege experience, youth expressed they were more aware of agriculture and would consider agricultural careers if their first career choice did not work out for them. Results also showed that the youth who participated in the precollege experience were
Mitts, Charles R.
The International Technology and Engineering Educators Association (ITEEA) defines STEM as a new transdisciplinary subject in schools that integrates the disciplines of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics into a single course of study. There are three major problems with this definition: There is no consensus in support of the ITEEA…
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Köse, Emek; Johnson, Angela C.
In this article, we present a case study of a course called Women in Mathematics. Students in the course studied the lives and the mathematical contributions of women mathematicians throughout history, as well as current gender equity issues in the study of mathematics and in mathematical careers. They also mentored 20 middle school girls…
Xie, Yu; Fang, Michael; Shauman, Kimberlee
Improving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, especially for traditionally disadvantaged groups, is widely recognized as pivotal to the U.S.'s long-term economic growth and security. In this article, we review and discuss current research on STEM education in the U.S., drawing on recent research in sociology and related fields. The reviewed literature shows that different social factors affect the two major components of STEM education attainment: (1) attainment of education in general, and (2) attainment of STEM education relative to non-STEM education conditional on educational attainment. Cognitive and social psychological characteristics matter for both major components, as do structural influences at the neighborhood, school, and broader cultural levels. However, while commonly used measures of socioeconomic status (SES) predict the attainment of general education, social psychological factors are more important influences on participation and achievement in STEM versus non-STEM education. Domestically, disparities by family SES, race, and gender persist in STEM education. Internationally, American students lag behind those in some countries with less economic resources. Explanations for group disparities within the U.S. and the mediocre international ranking of US student performance require more research, a task that is best accomplished through interdisciplinary approaches.
Tyler-Wood, Tandra; Ellison, Amber; Lim, Okyoung; Periathiruvadi, Sita
Bringing Up Girls in Science (BUGS) was an afterschool program for 4th and 5th grade girls that provided authentic learning experiences in environmental science as well as valuable female mentoring opportunities in an effort to increase participants' academic achievement in science. BUGS participants demonstrated significantly greater amounts of gain in science knowledge as measured by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills in Science (ITBS-S). The original BUGS participants and contrasts have now completed high school and entered college, allowing researchers to assess the long-term impact of the BUGS program. Fourteen former BUGS participants completed two instruments to assess their perceptions of science and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers. Their results were compared to four contrast groups composed entirely of females: 12 former BUGS contrasts, 10 college science majors, 10 non-science majors, and 9 current STEM professionals. Results indicate that BUGS participants have higher perceptions of science careers than BUGS contrasts. There were no significant differences between BUGS participants, Science Majors, and STEM professionals in their perceptions of science and STEM careers, whereas the BUGS contrast group was significantly lower than BUGS participants, Science Majors, and STEM Professionals. Additional results and implications are discussed within.
Diekman, Amanda B; Steinberg, Mia; Brown, Elizabeth R; Belanger, Aimee L; Clark, Emily K
The goal congruity perspective provides a theoretical framework to understand how motivational processes influence and are influenced by social roles. In particular, we invoke this framework to understand communal goal processes as proximal motivators of decisions to engage in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). STEM fields are not perceived as affording communal opportunities to work with or help others, and understanding these perceived goal affordances can inform knowledge about differences between (a) STEM and other career pathways and (b) women's and men's choices. We review the patterning of gender disparities in STEM that leads to a focus on communal goal congruity (Part I), provide evidence for the foundational logic of the perspective (Part II), and explore the implications for research and policy (Part III). Understanding and transmitting the opportunities for communal goal pursuit within STEM can reap widespread benefits for broadening and deepening participation.
Xiao Han T Zeng
Full Text Available Collaboration plays an increasingly important role in promoting research productivity and impact. What remains unclear is whether female and male researchers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM disciplines differ in their collaboration propensity. Here, we report on an empirical analysis of the complete publication records of 3,980 faculty members in six STEM disciplines at select U.S. research universities. We find that female faculty have significantly fewer distinct co-authors over their careers than males, but that this difference can be fully accounted for by females' lower publication rate and shorter career lengths. Next, we find that female scientists have a lower probability of repeating previous co-authors than males, an intriguing result because prior research shows that teams involving new collaborations produce work with higher impact. Finally, we find evidence for gender segregation in some sub-disciplines in molecular biology, in particular in genomics where we find female faculty to be clearly under-represented.
Shaw, Niamh; Sorkhabi, Elburz; Gasquez, Oriol; Yajima, Saho
STEAMakers is a global initiative founded by Niamh Shaw, Elburz Sorkhabi, Oriol Gasquez & Saho Yajima, four alumni of The International Space University's Space Studies Programme 2015 who each shared a vision to inspire the next generation to embrace science, technology, engineering & maths (STEM) in new ways, by embedding the Arts within STEM, putting the 'A' in STEAM. STEAMakers invited STEM professionals around the world to join their community, providing training and a suite of STEAM events, specially designed to encourage students to perceive science, technology, engineering & maths as a set of tools with which to create, design, troubleshoot, innovate, and imagine. The ultimate goal of STEAMakers is to grow this community and create a global culture of non-linear learning among the next generation, to nurture within them a new multidisciplinary mindset and incubate new forms of innovation and thought leadership required for the future through the power of inspiration and creativity.
Full Text Available Teaching in a Teacher centric manner has been the mainframe teaching style in engineering education, however students feel it as a single sided approach and feel they are only passive listeners thus this style has now paved way to a Learner centric style of teaching-learning which is ACTIVE LEARNING, wherein every student is actively involved in one or the other form of learning and thus gets a chance to develop the key aspects of the course either on their own or by being a member of an active-learning group. They thus not only learn and practice the course contents but also learn managerial and team skills which are of much importance in present scenario in regard to Industries and companies where these students will be ultimately hired as employees. Professional education is making one’s students ready for the profession which includes team work, management and technical skills, thus Active learning has emerged as a mainframe tool for cherishing this aim of professional education, especially Science, Technology, Engineering and Management (STEM education. This paper aims to focus on a few facets of this active learning process and give an overview to the teaching faculty as well as students on what their individual roles must be like in this process for getting the most out of this process.
Case, Bettye Anne
This grant was proposed to be supplemental funding for a conference which would be documented by publication of conference information in the AWM Newsletter, and then inclusion of the Proceedings and other information generated in a book. The conference was held and documented in the AWM Newsletter (Vol. 29, No. 6; Vol. 30, No. 1 (attached)). Work is in progress on the extensive and complicated related publication which involves 50 authors beyond those from the conference. The Celebration was held at the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute in Berkeley, Calif. It was attended by over 100 women and men mathematicians. Plenary talks, panels, and poster sessions were held.
Grier, Jeanne M.; Johnston, Carol C.
In this qualitative study, we identify the complexity of the transitioning identities of four STEM career changers to better inform teacher education programs on how to be more mindful of the needs of this population as they return to the life of a student again on their path toward a new career in teaching. Findings suggest the career changers…
White, Loren; Frid, Sandra
Results of a study into secondary school students' and teachers' conceptions of what mathematics is and the purposes of school mathematics are outlined. A total of about 220 first year engineering students and 600 high school students in Australia were involved in the surveys while 40 students, 19 teachers, 2 career counselors, and 2…
Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Khine, Myint Swe; Melkonian, Michael; Welch, Anita G; Al Nuaimi, Samira Ahmed; Rashad, Fatimah F
Drawing on data from the 2012 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and employing multilevel modeling as an analytic strategy, this study examined the relations of adolescent children's perceptions of their parents' attitudes towards mathematics to their own attitudes towards mathematics and mathematics achievement among a sample of 5116 adolescents from 384 schools in the United Arab Emirates. The results of this cross-sectional study revealed that adolescents who perceived that their parents liked mathematics and considered mathematics was important for their children not only to study but also for their career tended to report higher levels of intrinsic and instrumental motivation to learn mathematics, mathematics self-concept and self-efficacy, and mathematics work ethic. Moreover, adolescents who perceived that their parents liked mathematics and considered mathematics was important for their children's career tended to report positive intentions and behaviors toward mathematics. However, adolescents who perceived that their parents considered mathematics was important for their children's career tended to report higher levels of mathematics anxiety. Finally, adolescents who perceived that their parents considered mathematics was important for their children to study performed significantly better on the mathematics assessment than did their peers whose parents disregarded the importance of learning mathematics. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fitzallen, Noleine; Brown, Natalie Ruth
University science outreach programmes are used to encourage more school students to select science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) subjects in further education and pursue science-related careers. The benefits of science outreach programmes are often espoused from the perspective of programme participants. Little attention, however, is given to what university students delivering the programmes gain from the experience. This paper seeks to illustrate the benefits of engineering students delivering STEM outreach programmes in schools. It reports on a qualitative case study of the experiences of two STEM Education and Outreach team members from a regional university in Australia. Content analysis of interview data highlighted not only the participants' motivations and perceived benefits of being involved in the STEM programme but also revealed the skills and attributes honed throughout the experience. Involvement in the STEM outreach programme resulted in the development of social and personal responsibility generic graduate attribute skills, evidenced through their motivations to be involved, the demonstration of understanding of teaching and learning, and application of science communication skills. This study demonstrates that designing and delivering STEM outreach programmes assists in the development of skills that will be beneficial when pursuing careers in engineering in the future.
Rebekah St Clair
Full Text Available Doctoral recipients in the biomedical sciences and STEM fields are showing increased interest in career opportunities beyond academic positions. While recent research has addressed the interests and preferences of doctoral trainees for non-academic careers, the strategies and resources that trainees use to prepare for a broad job market (non-academic are poorly understood. The recent adaptation of the Social Cognitive Career Theory to explicitly highlight the interplay of contextual support mechanisms, individual career search efficacy, and self-adaptation of job search processes underscores the value of attention to this explicit career phase. Our research addresses the factors that affect the career search confidence and job search strategies of doctoral trainees with non-academic career interests and is based on nearly 900 respondents from an NIH-funded survey of doctoral students and postdoctoral fellows in the biomedical sciences at two U.S. universities. Using structural equation modeling, we find that trainees pursuing non-academic careers, and/or with low perceived program support for career goals, have lower career development and search process efficacy (CDSE, and receive different levels of support from their advisors/supervisors. We also find evidence of trainee adaptation driven by their career search efficacy, and not by career interests.
Full Text Available This study employed social cognitive theory and social cognitive career theory (SCCT as foundations to explore the influence of high school students' beliefs about female gender roles and female engineer role models on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM self-efficacy and professional commitment to engineering. A total of 88 students from a national girls' high school participated in STEM project-based learning. A survey questionnaire named The STEM Self-efficacy and Professional Commitment to Engineering Questionnaire, developed by the researchers, was administered to collect data, and a structured equation model was employed to confirm the multi-theoretical model developed in this study. The results of this study show that enhancing the gender role beliefs and engineer role models of female students may increase their STEM self-efficacy and professional commitment to engineering. In other words, the female high school students' professional commitment to engineering model can explain students' intentions for future engineering careers. Thus, this study suggests integrating STEM project-based learning into the curricula of various schools and integrating female engineer role models into STEM project-based learning activities for female students, which can enhance female high school students' STEM self-efficacy and professional commitment to engineering.
Sax, Linda J.; Kanny, M. Allison; Riggers-Piehl, Tiffani A.; Whang, Hannah; Paulson, Laura N.
Math self-concept (MSC) is considered an important predictor of the pursuit of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields. Women's underrepresentation in the STEM fields is often attributed to their consistently lower ratings on MSC relative to men. Research in this area typically considers STEM in the aggregate and does not account…
William Edward Roberts
Full Text Available In our project, 3D immersive virtual worlds have been implemented in middle schools for instruction in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM. The learning and playing, as a curricular tool, has enormous potential for engaging children of all ages in deep learning (Lim, Nonis, & Hedberg 2006. STEM and ICT Instructional Worlds: The 3D Experience (STEM-ICT 3D is funded by the National Science Foundation Innovative Technology Experiences for Students and Teachers (ITEST program. The project is intended to inspire middle school students to pursue studies and careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics – particularly information and communication technology (ICT fields - as well as prepare students with the skills necessary to succeed in STEM education and careers. The project, based on research suggesting student gains in engagement, efficacy, and achievement (Barab, et al, 2005; Educause, 2006; Ketelhut, et al, 2006 proposes to translate the success of an earlier pilot toward a model that can be replicated in other middle schools over time.
Peterson, K.; Jesse, J.; Migus, L. H.
Diversity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and careers occupies center stage in national discussions on U.S. competitiveness in the 21st century. Women constitute roughly half the total workforce in the U.S., but they hold just 25% of mathematical and science jobs and 11% of engineering jobs. Women earn nearly 60% of all bachelors and masters degrees, except in physics, computer science, and engineering, where the percentages are 20-25%. This disparity is even more pronounced at the doctoral level, where women earn fewer than 20% of awarded Ph.D.'s in physics or engineering. However, at the high school level, there is far less gender disparity: both female and male students take comparable advanced physical science and math courses. What, then, accounts for the lack of gender diversity in STEM advanced education and career paths? In fact, there is no consensus even among experts. So, what information and strategies do the EPO community need to know and include as part of designing and implementing programs to encourage more girls and women to engage in STEM for the long term? The panelists will discuss foundational and current research on pressing questions on why these trends exist and what can be done to change them. They will highlight research and evaluation results from programs that are successfully engaging girls in STEM.
Shahali, Edy Hafizan Mohd; Halim, Lilia; Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Osman, Kamisah; Zulkifeli, Mohd Afendi
The purpose of this study was to identify students' changes of (i) interest toward STEM subjects and (ii) interest to pursuing STEM career after participating in non-formal integrated STEM education programme. The programme exposed students with integrated STEM education through project based learning involving the application of five phases…
Chowdhury, Mohammad Mahfuz; Fujii, Teruo; Sakai, Yasuyuki
In our previous studies, we observed that cell-secreted BMP4 had a prominent influence on mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) behaviors in a membrane-based two-chambered microbioreactor (MB), but not in a macro-scale culture (6-well plate/6WP). In this study, we investigated how the physical aspects of these cultures regulated BMP4 signaling by developing mathematical models of the cultures. The models estimated signaling activity in the cultures by considering size of the undifferentiated mESC colonies and their growth, diffusion of BMP4, and BMP4 trafficking process in the colonies. The models successfully depicted measured profile of BMP4 concentration in the culture medium which was two times higher in the MB than that in the 6WP during 5-day culture. The models estimated that, owing to the small volume and the membrane, cells were exposed to a higher BMP4 concentration in the top chamber of the MB than that in the 6WP culture. The higher concentration of BMP4 induced a higher concentration of BMP4-bound receptor in the colony in the MB than in the 6WP, thereby leading to the higher activation of BMP4 signaling in the MB. The models also predicted that the size of the MB, but not that of the 6WP, was suitable for maximizing BMP4 accumulation and upregulating its signaling. This study will be helpful in analyzing culture systems, designing microfluidic devices for controlling ESC or other cell behavior. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
When I look back at how my career started, I think to myself, what if I had undertaken the BA in Business Studies which I had been accepted for, instead of the BSc in Nursing for which I was still waiting to hear the results of my interview? Well, probably I would have spent four years studying business, followed by 40 years sitting in an office somewhere; Tesco, Sainsbury's or Marks and Spencer probably. I was lucky though, my father phoned up every couple of weeks (I was only 17 and didn't really have a clue what I wanted to do) and eventually they said 'yes' and I started my nursing career. Perhaps this is the first bit of advice for anybody thinking of a career in health:
Roberts, Julia Link
How do schools with a focus on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fit in with state goals to increase innovation and to boost the economy? This article briefly discusses how educators can encourage creativity and innovation.
Harte, T.; Taylor, J.
Empowering Effective STEM Role Models, a three-hour training developed and successfully implemented by NASA Langley Research Center's Science Directorate, is an effort to encourage STEM professionals to serve as role models within their community. The training is designed to help participants reflect on their identity as a role model and provide research-based strategies to effectively engage youth, particularly girls, in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics). Research shows that even though girls and boys do not demonstrate a significant difference in their ability to be successful in mathematics and science, there is a significant difference in their confidence level when participating in STEM subject matter and pursuing STEM careers. The Langley training model prepares professionals to disrupt this pattern and take on the habits and skills of effective role models. The training model is based on other successful models and resources for role modeling in STEM including SciGirls; the National Girls Collaborative; and publications by the American Association of University Women and the National Academies. It includes a significant reflection component, and participants walk through situation-based scenarios to practice a focused suite of research-based strategies. These strategies can be implemented in a variety of situations and adapted to the needs of groups that are underrepresented in STEM fields. Underpinning the training and the discussions is the fostering of a growth mindset and promoting perseverance. "The Power of Yet" becomes a means whereby role models encourage students to believe in themselves, working toward reaching their goals and dreams in the area of STEM. To provide additional support, NASA Langley role model trainers are available to work with a champion at other organizations to facilitate the training. This champion helps recruit participants, seeks leadership buy-in, and helps provide valuable insights for needs and
A lack of social capital can be a critical factor impeding underrepresented minority (URM) students from obtaining the mathematical and scientific background required to achieve educational and career success in STEM fields. In this study, the effects of generating and utilizing social capital within an informal STEM outreach summer camp are examined as resources in strengthening the academic pipeline for Hispanic students towards careers in STEM. Empirical studies have shown that economically disadvantaged and minority students experience larger learning losses during "unschooled" periods of time than their middle-class and White counterparts. The "faucet theory" explains how the achievement gap widens during unschooled periods of time when the resource faucet is turned off and families of students from disadvantaged backgrounds are unable to make up for these resources. Consequently, minority and students of disadvantaged backgrounds are quickly shortcircuited in taking advantage of opportunities to pursue careers in STEM fields. To address the research questions, this study employed a qualitative research design, specifically an instrumental case study design using mixed methods within a bounded program. The methods included multiple measures to collect and analyze data from focus group interviews, electronic documents, observations, and survey administrations. The sample population included forty-nine Hispanic 7th and 8th grade students from middle schools in San Diego County. Results of the study demonstrated that the informal STEM outreach summer camp positively impacted Hispanic students and increased interest and attitudes toward STEM choices. STEM programs offered during out-of-school time need to be relationship based to support young students' social and emotional development (Goldstein, Lee, & Chung, 2010). The resource faucet continued to flow during the summer for iQUEST science camp participants because they were able to tap into social capital in
While a main goal for corporate trainers traditionally has been to train employees to reach organizational goals, many trainers may find their roles expanding. With companies cutting back on staffing and consolidating multiple job roles into single positions, career development has taken on a much larger significance. At forward-thinking…
Watters, James J.; Diezmann, Carmel M.
Recruitment of highly qualified science and mathematics graduates has become a widespread strategy to enhance the quality of education in the field of STEM. However, attrition rates are very high suggesting preservice education programs are not preparing them well for the career change. We analyse the experiences of professionals who are scientists and have decided to change careers to become teachers. The study followed a group of professionals who undertook a 1-year preservice teacher education course and were employed by secondary schools on graduation. We examined these teachers' experiences through the lens of self-determination theory, which posits autonomy, confidence and relatedness are important in achieving job satisfaction. The findings indicated that the successful teachers were able to achieve a sense of autonomy and confidence and, in particular, had established strong relationships with colleagues. However, the unique challenges facing career-change professionals were often overlooked by administrators and colleagues. Opportunities to build a sense of relatedness in their new profession were often absent. The failure to establish supportive relationships was decisive in some teachers leaving the profession. The findings have implications for both preservice and professional in-service programs and the role that administrators play in supporting career-change teachers.
Full Text Available Women’s participation in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM courses and careers lags behind that of men. Multiple factors contribute to the underrepresentation of women and girls in STEM. Academic research suggests three areas, which account for the under representation of girls in STEM: social and environmental factors, the school climate and the influence of bias. In order to engage and to retain girls in STEM, educators need to: eliminate bias in the classroom, change school culture, introduce female role models, help girls assess their abilities accurately and develop talent in areas related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Educators should encourage young girls to ask questions about the world, to problem solve, and to develop creativity through play and experimentation. Women have made impressive gains in science and engineering but remain a distinct minority in many science and engineering fields. Creating environments that support girls’ and women’s achievements and interests in science and engineering will encourage more girls and women to pursue careers in these vital fields.
Morse, W A
The varied career opportunities open to clinical engineers are described in this paper. Many of these opportunities are within the medical device industry in research, development, manufacturing design, regulatory activities, production, operations, sales, marketing, service, and management. Additional opportunities are available in hospitals, with the Veterans Administration, or working as an entrepreneur or a consultant. Each of these careers requires specific training and skills, and they all require a fundamental scientific knowledge of physical principles and mathematics. Research and management, however, require different educational preparation. The research emphasis should be on theoretical principles and creativity; the management emphasis should be on financial and labor problems. In all clinical engineering careers, the individual is a problem solver.
Cuff, K. E.; Diaz, J. L.; Marks-Block, T. A.
Current and possible future shortages of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) professionals in the US are again becoming hot topics of discussion amongst policy makers and educators alike. In an innovative approach to addressing these concerns, Tai et al. (2006) analyzed a large set of longitudinal study data to gain a deeper understanding of the impact of early STEM experiences on career choices. The results of their work indicate a statistically significant relationship between early expressed interest in STEM and inclination to enter STEM-related career paths. While this relationship is one that has resided at the core of most STEM educators' work for many years, the quantitative evidence provided by Tai et al. underscores the need to pay closer attention to students' STEM interest levels, particularly during periods when such interest is in jeopardy of becoming eroded. Recent work at UC Berkeley's Lawrence Hall of Science related to the development of STEM education models tailored to specifically meet the needs of students in disadvantaged Bay Area communities has resulted in the creation of the East Bay Academy for Young Scientists (EBAYS). EBAYS has been designed to stimulate and sustain interest in STEM by engaging participants in a combination of community-based environmental science research and hands-on content learning activities presented in after school and summer program settings. Given that its programming occurs in an environment where time and academic content constraints are not critical factors, EBAYS is able to provide opportunities for participants to experience STEM in a highly interactive, in-depth manner that differs significantly from the more depersonalized approaches commonly associated with more traditional educational settings. Founded on the research-based premise that when young people are engaged in learning activities that they perceive as relevant, they are more likely to take more initiative, remain attentive
Wilson, Kimi Leemar
National data continues to show an underrepresentation of African American males pursuing science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) majors, careers and professions in the United States. Whites and Asian Americans are continuously positioned as the face of STEM education and participation. And while research has provided ways to support mathematics and science learning for African American males, there still remains a gap in understanding how their formed mathematics-science identities in K-12 public schooling influences STEM participation. The research undertaken in this study explores this gap, and uses an integrative identity framework to understand mathematics-science identity development which goes beyond personal identity, and explores the relational, collective and material components of identity. Specifically, this research seeks to answer the following research questions: What are the shared lived experiences that exist between a group of African American male students developing a mathematics-science identity, and how these shared lived experiences shape their mathematics-science identity development? Therefore, by analyzing African American males lived experiences employing an integrative identity framework fosters a greater understanding of how mathematics-science identity is formed in K-12 public schools, which impacts STEM education and participation. The high school aged youth featured in this study consist of four African American males, who live in a moderate size city in California. Data for this study consists of observations, phenomenological interviews, and policy document analysis that took place over six months. Data has been analyzed to describe and interpret the young men's mathematics and science experiences, as revealed in their K-12 public school education. This inquiry sought to make meaning of how African American males experience mathematics and science teaching and learning within K-12 public schooling and how these
Hardin, Erin E; Longhurst, Melanie O
Despite robust support for the basic theoretical model of social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) and predictions that, for example, increases (or declines) in self-efficacy would lead to subsequent increases (or declines) in interest, there has been surprisingly little longitudinal research that has directly examined the extent to which members of different groups (e.g., women and men) actually do experience changes in critical social-cognitive variables over time early in their curricula in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Knowing the extent to which such changes occur in typical introductory undergraduate courses is important for targeting interventions to increase persistence of underrepresented groups in STEM. We measured social-cognitive-career-theory-relevant variables near the middle and at the end of the 1st semester of a gateway introductory chemistry course and found that women had lower STEM self-efficacy, coping self-efficacy, and STEM interest than did men, even after controlling for actual course performance. Although there were no detrimental changes across the semester for women or men, men experienced a small but significant increase in their perceived support for pursuing a STEM degree, whereas women did not. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Sáinz, Milagros; Müller, Jörg
Drawing on expectancy-value theory, this study examines gender and family influences on students' career aspirations and attached values. 796 secondary Spanish students (M age = 16 years old, S.D. = 0.81) participated. 53% were boys. The results show that boys and students with mothers who have completed intermediate level education were more interested in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) architecture and technology. Girls and students with highly educated mothers born in Spain were more likely to aspire to STEM health and experimental studies. Furthermore, boys and students planning to pursue STEM-technology studies attached higher extrinsic values to these studies. On the contrary, girls and participants with interest in experimental and health studies attached less extrinsic values to these studies. Moreover, students with highly educated mothers and interested in STEM architecture and technology reported higher extrinsic values. Understanding the interaction of gender and family factors shaping adolescents' career aspirations in STEM fields seems to be crucial to designing significant and effective school and family grounded interventions.
Colakoglu, Sidika N.
Based on the theoretical frameworks of the career enactment and the stress perspectives, this study develops and tests a model in which career boundarylessness affects subjective career success through its effect on three career competencies--knowing-why, knowing-how, and knowing-whom--and career autonomy and career insecurity. The results…
This study will explore how science self-efficacy among college students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields in Nigeria predicts their innovation. Several reports on African development argue that science, technology and innovation underpin targets for dramatically reducing poverty in its many dimensions---income poverty, hunger, disease, exclusion, lack of infrastructure and shelter---while promoting gender equality, education, health, and environmental sustainability (UN Millennium Project, 2005). If African countries in general, including Nigeria, are to move from the exploitation of natural resources to technological innovation as the foundation for development, stakeholders in these countries must encourage development of individual ability to innovate products, services and work processes in crucial organizations (DeJong & DenHartog, 2010). The common denominator in the scientific and technological development of any country or organization is the individuals that make up these entities. An individual's engagement is the foundation for group motivation, innovation and improvement. These ideas inform the purpose of this study: to investigate how science self-efficacy among college students in various engineering fields in Nigeria predicts self-reported innovative behavior (IB), also referred to as Innovative Work Behavior (IWB). IB involves initiating new and useful ideas, processes, products or procedures, as well as the process of implementing these ideas (Farr & Ford, 1990; Scott & Bruce, 1994). The general findings of this study align with the dictates of social cognitive theory. Specifically, research indicates self-efficacy has the most predictive power for performance when it is measured at a level specific to the expected task (Bandura, 1997; Pajares, 1996). The findings from the hierarchical multiple regressions confirm that individuals' perceived science efficacy plays an important role in their perceived self
Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin
Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students—including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences—if any exist—between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non–STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non–STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non–STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non–STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non–STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse—with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills—than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. PMID:28798210
Welch, C.; Osborne, B.
The UK national STEM Ambassadors programme provides inspiring role models for school students in science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) subjects. STEMNET, the national body responsible for STEM Ambassa- dors aims to provide more than 27,000 STEM Ambassadors nationwide by the end of 2011. This paper reports on a project at Kingston University to embed STEM Ambassador training and activity in Year 2 of the undergraduate Aerospace Engineering, Astronautics and Space Technology degree. The project, known as KUSPACE (Kingston University Students Providing Amazing Classroom Experiences), was conceived to develop students' communication, planning and presentation skills and build links between different cohort years, while providing a valuable contribution to local primary schools' STEM programmes and simultaneously raising the public engagement profile of the university. This paper describes the pedagogical conception of the KUSPACE, its implementation in the curriculum, the delivery of it in the university and schools and its effect on the undergraduate students, as well as identifying good practice and drawing attention to lessons learned.STEMNET (www.stemnet.org) is the UK's Science, Technol- ogy, Engineering and Mathematics Network. Working with a broad range of UK partners and funded by the UK govern- ment's Department for Business Innovation and Skills, STEMNET plays a significant role in ensuring that five to nineteen year olds and their teachers can experience a wide range of activities and schemes which enhance and enrich the school curriculum . Covering all aspects of Science, Tech- nology, Engineering and Maths (STEM), these activities and schemes are designed both to increase STEM awareness and literacy in the young people and also to encourage more of them to undertake post-16 STEM qualifications and associated careers . STEMNET operates through forty-five local con- tract holders around the UK which help the network deliver its
Dussault, Mary E.; Wright, Erika A.; Sadler, Philip; Sonnert, Gerhard; ITEAMS II Team
Encouraging students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is a high priority for national K-12 education improvement initiatives in the United States. Many educators have claimed that a promising strategy for nurturing early student interest in STEM is to engage them in authentic inquiry experiences. “Authentic” refers to investigations in which the questions are of genuine interest and importance to students, and the inquiry more closely resembles the way real science is done. Science education researchers and practitioners at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics have put this theory into action with the development of YouthAstroNet, a nationwide online learning community of middle-school aged students, educators, and STEM professionals that features the MicroObservatory Robotic Telescope Network, professional image analysis software, and complementary curricula for use in a variety of learning settings. This preliminary study examines factors that influence YouthAstroNet participants' Science Affinity, STEM Identity, and STEM Career Interest, using the matched pre/post survey results of 261 participants as the data source. The pre/post surveys included some 40 items measuring affinity, identity, knowledge, and career interest. In addition, the post intervention instrument included a number of items in which students reported the instructional strategies they experienced as part of the program. A simple analysis of pre-post changes in affinity and interest revealed very little significant change, and for those items where a small pre-post effect was observed, the average change was most often negative. However, after accounting for students' different program treatment experiences and for their prior attitudes and interests, a predictor of significant student gains in Affinity, STEM Identity, Computer/Math Identity, and STEM Career Interest could be identified. This was the degree to which students reported
Stoehr, Kathleen Jablon
Mathematics educators agree elementary teachers should possess confidence and competence in teaching mathematics. Many prospective elementary teachers (particularly women) pursue careers in elementary teaching despite personal repeated experiences of mathematics anxiety. Previous studies of mathematics anxiety have tended to focus on physical…
The question "What am I doing?" haunts many creative people, researchers, and teachers. Mathematics, poetry, and philosophy can look from the outside sometimes as ballet en pointe, and at other times as the flight of the bumblebee. Reuben Hersh looks at mathematics from the inside; he collects his papers written over several decades, their edited versions, and new chapters in his book Experiencing Mathematics, which is practical, philosophical, and in some places as intensely personal as Swann's madeleine. -Yuri Manin, Max Planck Institute, Bonn, Germany What happens when mid-career a mathemat
Technical career opportunities in high-level radioactive waste management are briefly described in the areas of: Hydrology; geology; biological sciences; mathematics; engineering; heavy equipment operation; and skilled labor and crafts
Covering both the history of mathematics and of philosophy, Descartes's Mathematical Thought reconstructs the intellectual career of Descartes most comprehensively and originally in a global perspective including the history of early modern China and Japan. Especially, it shows what the concept of "mathesis universalis" meant before and during the period of Descartes and how it influenced the young Descartes. In fact, it was the most fundamental mathematical discipline during the seventeenth century, and for Descartes a key notion which may have led to his novel mathematics of algebraic analysis.
This paper explores the current Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education research base through an analysis of articles from eight journals focused on the STEM disciplines. Analyzed are both practitioner and research publications to determine the current scope of STEM education research, where current STEM education…
Frantz, Kyle J; Demetrikopoulos, Melissa K; Britner, Shari L; Carruth, Laura L; Williams, Brian A; Pecore, John L; DeHaan, Robert L; Goode, Christopher T
Undergraduate research experiences confer benefits on students bound for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers, but the low number of research professionals available to serve as mentors often limits access to research. Within the context of our summer research program (BRAIN), we tested the hypothesis that a team-based collaborative learning model (CLM) produces student outcomes at least as positive as a traditional apprenticeship model (AM). Through stratified, random assignment to conditions, CLM students were designated to work together in a teaching laboratory to conduct research according to a defined curriculum led by several instructors, whereas AM students were paired with mentors in active research groups. We used pre-, mid-, and postprogram surveys to measure internal dispositions reported to predict progress toward STEM careers, such as scientific research self-efficacy, science identity, science anxiety, and commitment to a science career. We are also tracking long-term retention in science-related career paths. For both short- and longer-term outcomes, the two program formats produced similar benefits, supporting our hypothesis that the CLM provides positive outcomes while conserving resources, such as faculty mentors. We discuss this method in comparison with course-based undergraduate research and recommend its expansion to institutional settings in which mentor resources are scarce. © 2017 K. J. Frantz et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Shin, Sein; Lee, Jun-Ki; Ha, Minsu
Motivation to learn is an essential element in science learning. In this study, the role of career motivation in science learning was examined. In particular, first, a science motivation model that focused on career motivation was tested. Second, the role of career motivation as a predictor of STEM track choice was examined. Third, the effect of…
Ray, Tiffany Monique
The purpose of this study was to investigate the significant factors influencing STEM major selection by African American females. A quantitative research design with a qualitative component was employed. Ex post facto survey research was conducted utilizing an online questionnaire to collect data from participants. African American undergraduate females that had declared a major in STEM comprised the target population for the study. As a basis for comparison, a second data collection ensued. All non-African American undergraduate females majoring in STEM also received the survey instrument to determine if there was a significant difference between factors that influence STEM major selection between the two groups. The Social Cognitive Career Choice Model comprised the conceptual framework for this study. Frequencies and percentages illustrated the demographic characteristics of the sample, as well as the average influence levels of each of the items without regard for level of significance. The researcher conducted an independent samples t-test to compare the mean scores for undergraduate African American females majoring in STEM and non-African American females majoring in STEM on each influential factor on the survey instrument. The researcher coded responses to open-ended questions to generate themes and descriptions. The data showed that African American female respondents were very influenced by the following items: specific interest in the subject, type of work, availability of career opportunities after graduation, parent/guardian, precollege coursework in science, and introductory college courses. In addition, the majority of respondents were very influenced by each of the confidence factors. African American females were overwhelmingly not influenced by aptitude tests. African American females were more influenced than their non-African American female counterparts for the following factors: reputation of the university, college or department, high level
Sanders, Mark E.
“My work with integrative STEM education began in 1990 with the NSF-funded Technology, Science, Mathematics Integration Project… By 2008, I was convinced “STEM Education” was (and always would be) a hopelessly ambiguous phrase, and therefore felt we absolutely needed to rename our “STEM Education” graduate program and develop a tight operational definition of the central idea underlying our program, in hopes of preventing the sort of hopeless ambiguity that ruined the term “STEM education” fr...
Ely, Jane Alice
The study investigates why men and women differ in their interest in mathematics and science and in the pursuit of careers in mathematics and science. The most persistent gender differential in educational standard testing is the scores in mathematics achievement. The mean Scholastic Aptitude Test (Mathematics) scores for women are consistently below that of men by about 40 points. One result of this gender differential in mathematics is that few women entertain a career requiring a robust knowledge of higher mathematics (i.e. engineering, computing, or the physical sciences). A large body of literature has been written attempting to explain why this is happening. Biological, cultural, structural and psychological explanations have been suggested and empirically examined. Controlling for mathematical ability is one method of sorting out these explanations. Eliminating mathematical ability as a factor, this dissertation reports the results of a study of men and women college students who all had high mathematics ability. Thus, any differences we found among them would have to be a result of other variables. Using a Mathematics Placement Exam and the SAT-M, forty-two students (12 males and 30 females) with high scores in both were interviewed. Student were asked about their experiences in high school and college mathematics, their career choices, and their attitudes toward mathematics. The findings, that there were no gender differences in the course selection, attitudes towards mathematics, and career choice, differed from my initial expectations. This negative finding suggests that women with high ability in mathematics are just as likely as men to pursue interests in mathematics and related courses in college and in selecting careers.
Physics education research is moving beyond classroom learning to study the application of physics education within STEM jobs and PhD-level research. Workforce-related PER is vital to supporting physics departments as they educate students for a diverse range of careers. Results from an on-going study involving interviews with entry-level employees, academic researchers, and supervisors in STEM jobs describe the ways that mathematics, physics, and communication are needed for workplace success. Math and physics are often used for solving ill-structured problems that involve data analysis, computational modeling, or hands-on work. Communication and collaboration are utilized in leadership, sales, and as way to transfer information capital throughout the organization through documentation, emails, memos, and face-to-face discussions. While managers and advisors think a physics degree typically establishes technical competency, communication skills are vetted through interviews and developed on the job. Significant learning continues after graduation, showing the importance of cultivating self-directed learning habits and the critical role of employers as educators of specialized technical abilities through on-the-job training. Supported by NSF DGE-1432578.
Katherine A. Johnson
Full Text Available The Science Career Continuum at the Chicago Botanic Garden is a model program for successfully encouraging youth from diverse backgrounds into STEM careers. This program has shown that when students are given an opportunity to participate in real scientific research under the mentorship of a caring professional over multiple years, they are more likely to go to college and pursue STEM careers than their peers.
Kuijpers, Marinka; Scheerens, Jaap
Career development gains new meaning in the context of employability demands in a knowledge economy. In this context, increased mobility, a dynamic work environment, and an increased level of career support from employers are seen as characteristics of a modern career. All of these characteristics
This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airlines. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the airline industry, including salaries, working conditions, job requirements, and projected job opportunities. In the main part of the booklet, the following 22 job…
Leker, Lindsey Beth
Stereotype threat is a widely researched phenomenon shown to impact performance in testing and evaluation situations (Katz, Roberts, & Robinson, 1965; Steele & Aronson, 1995). When related to gender, stereotype threat can lead women to score lower than men on standardized math exams (Spencer, Steele, & Quinn, 1999). Stereotype threat may be one reason women have lower enrollment in most science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors, hold a smaller number of STEM careers than men, and have a higher attrition rate in STEM professions (Hill, Corbet, & Rose, 2010; Picho & Brown 2011; Sorby & Baartmans, 2000). Most research has investigated stereotype threat using experiments yielding mixed results (Stoet & Geary, 2012). Thus, there is a need to explore stereotype threat using quantitative surveys and qualitative methods to examine other contextual factors that contribute to gender difference in STEM fields. This dissertation outlined a mixed methods study designed to, first, qualitatively explore stereotype threat and contextual factors related to high achieving women in STEM fields, as well as women who have failed and/or avoided STEM fields. Then, the quantitative portion of the study used the themes from the qualitative phase to create a survey that measured stereotype threat and other contextual variables related to STEM success and failure/avoidance. Fifteen participants were interviewed for the qualitative phase of the study and six themes emerged. The quantitative survey was completed 242 undergraduate participants. T-tests, correlations, regressions, and mediation analyses were used to analyze the data. There were significant relationships between stereotype threat and STEM confidence, STEM anxiety, giving up in STEM, and STEM achievement. Overall, this mixed methods study advanced qualitative research on stereotype threat, developed a much-needed scale for the measurement of stereotype threat, and tested the developed scale.
This document contains four symposium papers on career issues in human resource development (HRD). "Are Careers What They Used To Be: A Factor Analysis of Schein's Career Orientations Inventory" (Gerri Mukri, Sharon Confessore) is a statistical analysis of Schein's Career Orientations Inventory that finds the inventory to be a…
Recent technological applications have made the life of people too much dependent on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) and its applications. Understanding basic level science is a must in order to use and contribute to this technological revolution. Science education in middle and high school levels however depends heavily on visual representations such as models, diagrams, figures, animations and presentations etc. This leaves visually impaired students with very few options to learn science and secure a career in STEM related areas. Recent experiments have shown that small aural clues called Audemes are helpful in understanding and memorization of science concepts among visually impaired students. Audemes are non-verbal sound translations of a science concept. In order to facilitate science concepts as Audemes, for visually impaired students, this thesis presents an automatic system for audeme generation from STEM textbooks. This thesis describes the systematic application of multiple Natural Language Processing tools and techniques, such as dependency parser, POS tagger, Information Retrieval algorithm, Semantic mapping of aural words, machine learning etc., to transform the science concept into a combination of atomic-sounds, thus forming an audeme. We present a rule based classification method for all STEM related concepts. This work also presents a novel way of mapping and extracting most related sounds for the words being used in textbook. Additionally, machine learning methods are used in the system to guarantee the customization of output according to a user's perception. The system being presented is robust, scalable, fully automatic and dynamically adaptable for audeme generation.
Mulligan, Joanne; Woolcott, Geoffrey; Mitchelmore, Michael; Davis, Brent
Spatial reasoning, an emerging transdisciplinary area of interest to mathematics education research, is proving integral to all human learning. It is particularly critical to science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. This project will create an innovative knowledge framework based on spatial reasoning that identifies new pathways for mathematics learning, pedagogy and curriculum. Novel analytical tools will map the unknown complex systems linking spatial and mathematical concepts. It will involve the design, implementation and evaluation of a Spatial Reasoning Mathematics Program (SRMP) in Grades 3 to 5. Benefits will be seen through development of critical spatial skills for students, increased teacher capability and informed policy and curriculum across STEM education.
Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. ... the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...
Sturm; Gritzmann, Peter; Sturmfels, Bernd
This volume, published jointly with the Association for Computing Machinery, comprises a collection of research articles celebrating the occasion of Victor Klee's sixty-fifth birthday in September 1990. During his long career, Klee has made contributions to a wide variety of areas, such as discrete and computational geometry, convexity, combinatorics, graph theory, functional analysis, mathematical programming and optimization, and theoretical computer science. In addition, Klee made important contributions to mathematics education, mathematical methods in economics and the decision sciences, applications of discrete mathematics in the biological and social sciences, and the transfer of knowledge from applied mathematics to industry. In honor of Klee's achievements, this volume presents more than forty papers on topics related to Klee's research. While the majority of the papers are research articles, a number of survey articles are also included. Mirroring the breadth of Klee's mathematical contributions, th...
This study combines theories related to collective learning and theories related to mathematical creativity to investigate the notion of collective mathematical creativity in elementary school classrooms. Collective learning takes place when mathematical ideas and actions, initially stemming from an individual, are built upon and reworked,…
Linh, Nguyen Quang; Suong, Huynh Thi Hong; Khoa, Cao Tien
STEM education; the encompassment of the four fields including science, technology, engineering, and mathematics; is introduced to provide students with chances to confront and solve real world problems and situations. Literature has evidence that this approach has positive impacts on students' learning motivation, learning engagement, learning achievements, and participation in STEM subjects and careers. This further lead to assurance of enough qualified STEM staffs for cross economic and mixed cultural working environment of the 21st century world. Our paper explores STEM factors underneath what is considered as traditional ways of teaching in a specific subject in pre-service teacher curriculum at Physics Faculty, Thai Nguyen University of Education, Vietnam. Data of the research were collected from a variety of sources including field notes, observation notes, analyzing of the course syllabus and students' final products. Data were analyzed based on the STS approach and SWOT analysis. The research reveals different kinds of STEM factors and manifestations that has been organized and introduced to the students. The research implications propose further research and directions to take the available advantages to benefit and ease the integration of STEM programs into specific educational context in Vietnam.
Henderson, G. R.; Durkin, S.; Moran, A.
In recent years the U.S. federal government has called for an increased focus on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in the educational system to ensure that there will be sufficient technical expertise to meet the needs of business and industry. As a direct result of this STEM emphasis, the number of outreach activities aimed at actively engaging these students in STEM learning has surged. Such activities, frequently in the form of summer camps led by university faculty, have targeted primary and secondary school students with the goal of growing student interest in STEM majors and STEM careers. This study assesses short-term content learning using a climate module that highlights rapidly changing Arctic climate conditions to illustrate concepts of radiative energy balance and climate feedback. Hands-on measurement of short and longwave radiation using simple instrumentation is used to demonstrate concepts that are then related back to the "big picture" Arctic issue. Pre and post module questionnaires were used to assess content learning, as this learning type has been identified as the basis for STEM literacy and the vehicle by which 21st century learning skills are usually developed. In this instance, students applied subject knowledge they gained by taking radiation measurements to better understand the real-world problem of climate change.
The main objective of this diploma thesis is to outline various theories of work motivation, career growth and their practical application in sales team management within a sales organization. In the theoretical part the paper deals with the definition of essential terms including but not limited to motivation, work motivation, career and work career. Moreover, it focuses on selected motivational theories, basic criteria and current principles of managing the work career, career growth and de...
Miller, Jennifer Renea
This study investigated a Makerspace professional development program, the Makers' Guild, provided to teachers within north Texas over the course of a semester. The research employed a constructionist approach delivered via 2D and 3D technologies during STEM instructional activities within a creative space. Participants reported statistically…
Full Text Available This study investigated how eighth-grade students perceived images of women in STEM and non-STEM careers. Thirty-six images were posted on-line; we measured five characteristics of each image. Forty students participated in the study. We found that there were significant differences in attractiveness, creativity, and intelligence between STEM and non-STEM images. There were no significant differences for good at her job and organization. In addition, there were no significant differences among STEM and non-STEM images of women of the same race.
Kelly, Ryan P.
The 21st century has seen a pervasive theme in STEM continue from the 20th century: women do not pursue and persist in STEM careers at anywhere near the rate of men. Furthermore, STEM education has fallen short in preparing its students to enter the workforce as entrepreneurial knowledge workers prepared to innovate. As STEM and entrepreneurship receive unprecedented attention in scholarly circles, the first purpose of this mixed methods study at an independent day school was to examine the impact of a predominately female STEEM (i.e., science, technology, engineering, entrepreneurship and mathematics) teaching staff on girls' perceptions of STEEM. The second purpose of this study was to examine the impact of adding entrepreneurship to a STEM curriculum. The ultimate goals of this study were to inform local policy and practice. Through teacher interviews, student focus groups, and a student survey, this study investigated the impact of female teachers and a recently established entrepreneurship-infused curriculum. The theory of action guiding this school is that female STEEM teachers and the inclusion of entrepreneurship skills and projects can improve girls' perceptions of the STEM classroom, helping them to view STEM as less gender-oriented (i.e., male-oriented), and thereby make these classes feel more welcoming to girls. This is aimed at increasing their adoption of STEM majors in college and STEM careers after they graduate. This study has four major findings. First, the predominantly female STEEM faculty appeared to build girls' confidence in their STEEM classes. Second, the STEEM teachers use active learning and critical thinking to engage the girls in their classes. Third, the introduction of entrepreneurship appears to have helped increase girls' interest in STEM. Last, even while discussing their efforts to increase girls' engagement with STEM, many teachers celebrate gender blindness. These findings raised a number issues that should be important
L. J. Van Vuuren
Full Text Available Previously the authors reported on a study in which an attempt was made at defining and measuring the construct career resilience (Fourie & Van Vuuren, 1998. The present article continues this investigation by reporting on the relationship between career resilience and career anchors, as defined in Scheins (1975; 1978; 1990; 1992 career anchor model. The aim of the study was to determine whether career anchor patterning could potentially inhibit or facilitate individuals' levels of career resilience. The "Career Resilience Questionnaire" (CRQ (Fourie & Van Vuuren, 1998 together with Scheins (1990 "Career Orientations Inventory" (COI were administered to 352 skilled employees. The findings regarding the statistical relationship between the two constructs are discussed. Opsomming Loopbaanankers en loopbaangehardheid: supplementere konstrukte? In n vorige publikasie van Fourie en Van Vuuren (1998 is die bevindinge aangaande die afbakening en meting van die konstruk, loopbaangehardheid, gerapporteer. In die huidige artikel word die ondersoek voortgesit met 'n beskrywing van die verwantskap tussen loopbaangehardheid en loopbaanankers, soos gedefinieer in die loopbaanankermodel van Schein (1975; 1978; 1990; 1992. Die doel met die studie was om te bepaal of die mate van loopbaanankerontplooiing individuele vlakke van loopbaangehardheid potensieel fasiliteer ofinhibeer. Die "Career Resilience Questionnaire" (CRQ (Fourie & Van Vuuren, 1998 is tesame met die "Career Orientation Inventory" (COI (Schein, 1990 op 352 geskoolde werknemers geadministreer. Die bevindinge betreffende die statistiese verwantskap tussen die twee konstrukte word bespreek.
Stein, David; Ostrander, Peter; Lee, G. Maie
The Magnet Program at Montgomery Blair High School is an application-based magnet program utilizing a curriculum focused on science, mathematics, and computer science catering to interested, talented, and eager to learn students in Montgomery County, Maryland. This article identifies and discusses some of the unique aspects of the Magnet Program…
Science and engineering students depend heavily on concepts of mathematical modeling. In an age where almost everything is done on a computer, author Clive Dym believes that students need to understand and "own" the underlying mathematics that computers are doing on their behalf. His goal for Principles of Mathematical Modeling, Second Edition, is to engage the student reader in developing a foundational understanding of the subject that will serve them well into their careers. The first half of the book begins with a clearly defined set of modeling principles, and then introduces a set of foundational tools including dimensional analysis, scaling techniques, and approximation and validation techniques. The second half demonstrates the latest applications for these tools to a broad variety of subjects, including exponential growth and decay in fields ranging from biology to economics, traffic flow, free and forced vibration of mechanical and other systems, and optimization problems in biology, structures, an...
Full Text Available Students' attitudes towards Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM has been a topic of enduring interest in the field of STEM education over the past decade – but why? After all, there is no sense in which people are concerned about students' attitudes towards the learning of English or history. So what drives the interest in these topics? Previous research has suggested a relationship between teachers' and students' attitudes towards a subject area. In order to increase student representation in STEM, we need teachers who have positive attitudes and can serve as role models to encourage their students to pursue STEM careers. In this paper we argue that in order to engage students' interest in the technical career paths, we must start with inspiring and training teachers to instill such interest in their students at early age. We present our experiences and outcomes from a teacher training program. Through the training, we were able to help teachers explore ways to incorporate programming into their curriculum, gain STEM career awareness and develop an understanding of importance of soft skills in STEM. The results show that teachers were able to gain confidence in incorporating their subject matter into Scratch-based classroom activities and teaching this material in a classroom setting and gain a better understanding of careers in STEM.
Luther, Kenneth H.
Mathematical modeling of groundwater flow is a topic at the intersection of mathematics and geohydrology and is rarely encountered in undergraduate mathematics. However, this subject is full of interesting and meaningful examples of truly "applied" mathematics accessible to undergraduates, from the pre-calculus to advanced mathematics levels. This…
Popa, Roxana-Alexandra; Ciascai, Liliana
STEM is the acronym of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics fields. STEM education refers both to teaching and learning in the above-mentioned disciplines, but especially to teaching and learning a new discipline based on the integration of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. The present survey aims to investigate the…
Pontrjagin, Lev Semenovič
Lev Semenovic Pontrjagin (1908) is one of the outstanding figures in 20th century mathematics. In a long career he has made fundamental con tributions to many branches of mathematics, both pure and applied. He has received every honor that a grateful government can bestow. Though in no way constrained to do so, he has through the years taught mathematics courses at Moscow State University. In the year 1975 he set himself the task of writing a series of books on secondary school and beginning university mathematics. In his own words, "I wished to set forth the foundations of higher mathematics in a form that would have been accessible to myself as a lad, but making use of all my experience as a scientist and a teacher, ac cumulated over many years. " The present volume is a translation of the first two out of four moderately sized volumes on this theme planned by Pro fessor Pontrjagin. The book begins at the beginning of modern mathematics, analytic ge ometry in the plane and 3-dimensional space. Refin...
We are in the STEM generation whose comprehensive purpose is to resolve (1) societal needs for new technological and scientific advances; (2) economic needs for national security; and (3) personal needs to become a fulfilled, productive, knowledgeable citizen. STEM specifically refers to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, but now…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the changes found to occur pre- to post intervention in students' cognitive structures continued to persist two years later. Major findings were: 1 higher-order STEM-related constructs established during the treatment year tended to persist two years later, even as component dispositions varied, and 2 gender differences in level of persistence emerged in only one of the four higher-order constructs identified. For the participants taken as a whole, perceptions of science and STEM as a career became more aligned with interest in being a scientist, from pretest to posttest time during the treatment year and continued to be aligned two years later. Perception of engineering moved from alignment with science and STEM as a career at time 1, to alignment with perception of technology and creative tendencies after the treatment year, at time 2, and remained aligned with technology two years later, at time 3. Perception of mathematics was separated from the other constructs during the pre-post treatment year and remained largely separated two years later. One subscale of the career interest survey focusing on working with others to make the world a better place through science, separated from other career interest subscales and became its own higher-order construct at time 2, and still remained on its own at time 3. Data mining techniques as well as higher-order factor analysis were used to identify changes in relationships among these and other constructs over time.
MATHEMATICS CONNECTION aims at providing a forum topromote the development of Mathematics Education in Ghana. Articles that seekto enhance the teaching and/or learning of mathematics at all levels of theeducational system are welcome.
Men and women have reached relative parity in most sectors of the United States workforce. Yet women remain underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields (AAUW, 2010). Underrepresentation persists despite several decades of research, legislation, and intervention focused on gender equality in STEM fields (Clewell, 2002). The underrepresentation or shortage of women in STEM fields is identifiable primarily in degree attainment, in workforce demographics, and in a gender wage gap. Situated in constructivist grounded theory, this study asks how do women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, particularly those in established career positions, persist when encountering personal and institutional barriers, resistance, and hostility? I use an interpretive-constructivist lens to conduct a grounded theory study exploring the experiences of women who persist in STEM fields, their relation to extant literature on this topic, and the connections to K-12 education practices, specifically curriculum. To understand the connections to curriculum I employ Pinar's (2012) method of currere. Pinar (2012) contends currere "provides a strategy for students of curriculum to study the relations between academic knowledge and life history in the interests of self-understanding and social reconstruction" (p.44). This qualitative study explored nine female STEM workers stories of persistence as each respondent works in STEM fields were gender parity has yet to be established. This study presents a substantive theory: As women persist in STEM fields they reframe themselves to be situated in the overlapping intersection of the social processes that correspond to "engagement" and "persistence." This reframing is possible by interpreting one's present day circumstances by independently removing oneself from current circumstances to understand the cumulative effect of both past and present. The findings highlight the importance
Brahmia, Suzanne M.
Mathematization is central to STEM disciplines as a cornerstone of the quantitative reasoning that characterizes these fields. Introductory physics is required for most STEM majors in part so that students develop expert-like mathematization. This dissertation describes coordinated research and curriculum development for strengthening mathematization in introductory physics; it blends scholarship in physics and mathematics education in the form of three papers. The first paper explores mathematization in the context of physics, and makes an original contribution to the measurement of physics students' struggle to mathematize. Instructors naturally assume students have a conceptual mastery of algebra before embarking on a college physics course because these students are enrolled in math courses beyond algebra. This paper provides evidence that refutes the validity of this assumption and categorizes some of the barriers students commonly encounter with quantification and representing ideas symbolically. The second paper develops a model of instruction that can help students progress from their starting points to their instructor's desired endpoints. Instructors recognize that the introductory physics course introduces new ideas at an astonishing rate. More than most physicists realize, however, the way that mathematics is used in the course is foreign to a large portion of class. This paper puts forth an instructional model that can move all students toward better quantitative and physical reasoning, despite the substantial variability of those students' initial states. The third paper describes the design and testing of curricular materials that foster mathematical creativity to prepare students to better understand physics reasoning. Few students enter introductory physics with experience generating equations in response to specific challenges involving unfamiliar quantities and units, yet this generative use of mathematics is typical of the thinking involved in
Bybee, Rodger W.
STEM (an acronym for science, technology, engineering and mathematics) had its origins in the 1990s at the National Science Foundation (NSF) and has been used as a generic label for any event, policy, program, or practice that involves one or several of the STEM disciplines. However, a recent survey on the "perception of STEM" found that most…
Hill, Kimberley M.
Psychology is a valuable Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) discipline, but one which could do far more at communicating its value to the wider public. This paper discusses how popular initiatives, such as "The University of Northampton's STEM Champions" programme, enhance psychology's STEM membership, while…
Success in today's economy means throwing out the old career rules. The "noncareer" career is driven by passion for the work and has the fluidity and flexibility needed in the contemporary workplace. (JOW)
... in Dentistry e-mail Print Share Careers in Dentistry A dental education opens up a world of ... accredited training programs in your area . Careers in Dentistry Be a Dentist General Dentistry Dental Specialties Dental ...
Describes career changes and retirement choices made by outgoing "career" superintendents. Choices ranged from teaching and consulting to administering philanthropic organizations and launching a charter-boat business. (MLH)
US Agency for International Development — CareerConnector is USAID's premiere recruiting tool. It is powered by Monster and integrated with www.usajobs.gov. CareerConnector tracks the progression of a...
Diving Deep: A Comparative Study of Educator Undergraduate and Graduate Backgrounds and Their Effect on Student Understanding of Engineering and Engineering Careers, Utilizing an Underwater Robotics Program
Scribner, J. Adam
Numerous studies have demonstrated that educators having degrees in their subjects significantly enhances student achievement, particularly in secondary mathematics and science (Chaney, 1995; Goe, 2007; Rowan, Chiang, & Miller, 1997; Wenglinsky, 2000). Yet, science teachers in states that adopt the Next Generation Science Standards will be facilitating classroom engineering activities despite the fact that few have backgrounds in engineering. This quantitative study analyzed ex-post facto WaterBotics (an innovative underwater robotics curriculum for middle and high school students) data to determine if educators having backgrounds in engineering (i.e., undergraduate and graduate degrees in engineering) positively affected student learning on two engineering outcomes: 1) the engineering design process, and 2) understanding of careers in engineering (who engineers are and what engineers do). The results indicated that educators having backgrounds in engineering did not significantly affect student understanding of the engineering design process or careers in engineering when compared to educators having backgrounds in science, mathematics, technology education, or other disciplines. There were, however, statistically significant differences between the groups of educators. Students of educators with backgrounds in technology education had the highest mean score on assessments pertaining to the engineering design process while students of educators with disciplines outside of STEM had the highest mean scores on instruments that assess for student understanding of careers in engineering. This might be due to the fact that educators who lack degrees in engineering but who teach engineering do a better job of "sticking to the script" of engineering curricula.
MATHEMATICAL FOOTPRINTS takes a creative look at the role mathematics has played since prehistoric times, and will play in the future, and uncovers mathematics where you least expect to find it from its many uses in medicine, the sciences, and its appearance in art to its patterns in nature and its central role in the development of computers. Pappas presents mathematical ideas in a readable non-threatening manner. MATHEMATICAL FOOTPRINTS is another gem by the creator of THE MATHEMATICS CALENDAR and author of THE JOY OF MATHEMATICS. "Pappas's books have been gold mines of mathematical ent
Lewis, J. C.; Cooper, S. K.; Hovan, S. A.; Leckie, R. M.; White, L. D.
The U.S. is facing challenges in attracting, retaining and diversifying the workforce in the geosciences. A likely contributing factor is the homogeneity of the pool of mentors/role models available both within the workforce and in the U.S. professoriate. Another probable factor is "exposure gaps" among U.S. student populations; i.e., differing access to engaging facets of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). In response, we organized an 18-day School of Rock workshop onboard the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) drilling vessel JOIDES Resolution during a July 2017 transit in the western Pacific. Our objectives were diversity driven, focusing on measures to broaden participation at all levels (i.e., K-12, undergraduate and beyond) in innovative ways (e.g., from place-base curriculum to longitudinal peer mentoring through extracurricular STEM communities). To accomplish this, we designed a recruiting scheme to attract pairs of participants, specifically a teacher from a diverse community and a nearby early-career scientist with an interest in IODP science. By partnering in this way we sought to foster connections that might not naturally emerge, and therein to establish new mechanisms for increased engagement, broader recruitment, enhanced support, and improved retention of students from underrepresented communities in STEM education. We report on initial workshop outcomes that include new curriculum proposals, nascent funding proposals, and innovative connections among secondary educators and early-career scientists. Survey results of our participants gauge the expected impacts of the workshop on perceptions and on plans for future actions aimed at broadening participation.
Barnatt, Joan; Gahlsdorf Terrell, Dianna; D'Souza, Lisa Andries; Jong, Cindy; Cochran-Smith, Marilyn; Viesca, Kara Mitchell; Gleeson, Ann Marie; McQuillan, Patrick; Shakman, Karen
Career decisions of four teachers are explored through the concept of figured worlds in this qualitative, longitudinal case study. Participants were purposefully chosen for similarity at entry, with a range of career trajectories over time. Teacher career paths included remaining in one school, repeated changes in schools, attrition after…
Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.
This resource is designed to provide Ohio labor market information for use with advisory committees to stimulate and inform dialogue about the current evaluation and future planning of programs. It provides reports for 23 career fields in 6 career clusters. Each report highlights careers and occupations in the field and answers these questions:…
Gardner, Diane L.
A longitudinal, repeated-measures descriptive survey used to measure career commitment and its relationship to turnover and work performance in 320 newly employed registered nurses at one hospital found that career commitment is not a stable phenomenon. The direct association between career commitment and turnover and with job performance is weak.…
Richardson, M. J.; Gardner, W. D.
Over the last seven years we have led the creation and implementation of the Oceanography and Geoscience Scholars programs at Texas A&M University. Through these programs we have been able to provide scholarship support for 92 undergraduates in Geosciences and 29 graduate students in Oceanography. Fifty-seven undergraduate scholars have graduated in Geosciences: 30 undergraduate students in Meteorology, 7 in Geology, and 20 in Environmental Geosciences. Two students have graduated in other STEM disciplines. Twenty-four students are in the process of completing their undergraduate degrees in STEM disciplines. Twenty-three students have graduated with MS or PhD degrees in Oceanography and five PhD students are completing their dissertations. As specified in the program solicitation all of the scholars are academically talented students with demonstrated financial need as defined by the FAFSA (Free Application for Federal Student Aid). We have endeavored to recruit students from underrepresented groups. One-third of the undergraduate scholars were from underrepresented groups; 28% of the graduate students. We will present the challenges and successes of these programs.
Henry, Kesha Atasha
This study explored the preparation of students for higher education and careers in agriculturally-related fields at an urban charter high school. The data were collected through interviews, observations, and field notes. The data were analyzed by qualitative methodology with phenomenology as the theoretical framework. Findings indicated that administrators thought it was important to incorporate agricultural science courses into urban school curricula. They stated that agricultural science courses gave urban students a different way of looking at science and helped to enhance the science and technology focus of the school. Further, agricultural science courses helped to break urban students' stereotypes about agriculture and helped to bring in more state funding for educational programs. However they thought that it was more challenging to teach agricultural science in urban versus rural schools and they focused more on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related careers. The students had mixed views about higher education and careers in agriculture. This was based on their limited knowledge and stereotypes about agricultural majors and career options. The students highlighted several key reasons why they chose to enroll in agricultural science courses. This included the benefits of dual science credits and the ability to earn an associate degree upon successful completion of their program. Students also loved science and appreciated the science intensive nature of the agricultural courses. Additionally, they thought that the agricultural science courses were better than the other optional courses. The results also showed that electronic media such as radio and TV had a negative impact on students' perceptions about higher education and careers in agriculturally-related fields. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.
In 2008, the Centre for Science Education at Sheffield Hallam University teamed up with VT Enterprise (now Babcock International) in their submission of a successful bid to deliver the national STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths) Subject Choice and Careers Project. An integral part of the bid was the promotion of equality and…
Chachashvili-Bolotin, Svetlana; Milner-Bolotin, Marina; Lissitsa, Sabina
Based on the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), the study aims to investigate factors that predict students' interest in pursuing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields in tertiary education both in general and in relation to their gender and socio-economic background. The results of the analysis of survey responses of 2458 secondary public school students in the fifth-largest Israeli city indicate that STEM learning experience positively associates with students' interest in pursuing STEM fields in tertiary education as opposed to non-STEM fields. Moreover, studying advanced science courses at the secondary school level decreases (but does not eliminate) the gender gap and eliminates the effect of family background on students' interest in pursuing STEM fields in the future. Findings regarding outcome expectations and self-efficacy beliefs only partially support the SCCT model. Outcome expectations and self-efficacy beliefs positively correlate with students' entering tertiary education but did not differentiate between their interests in the fields of study.
Ganimedov, V. L.; Papaeva, E. O.; Maslov, N. A.; Larionov, P. M.
Development of cell-mediated scaffold technologies for the treatment of critical bone defects is very important for the purpose of reparative bone regeneration. Today the properties of the bioreactor for cell-seeded scaffold cultivation are the subject of intensive research. We used the mathematical modeling of rotational reactor and construct computational algorithm with the help of ANSYS software package to develop this new procedure. The solution obtained with the help of the constructed computational algorithm is in good agreement with the analytical solution of Couette for the task of two coaxial cylinders. The series of flow computations for different rotation frequencies (1, 0.75, 0.5, 0.33, 1.125 Hz) was performed for the laminar flow regime approximation with the help of computational algorithm. It was found that Taylor vortices appear in the annular gap between the cylinders in a simulated bioreactor. It was obtained that shear stress in the range of interest (0.002-0.1 Pa) arise on outer surface of inner cylinder when it rotates with the frequency not exceeding 0.8 Hz. So the constructed mathematical model and the created computational algorithm for calculating the flow parameters allow predicting the shear stress and pressure values depending on the rotation frequency and geometric parameters, as well as optimizing the operating mode of the bioreactor.
El perfeccionamiento de la educación superior y su repercusión en la enseñanza de las matemáticas en las carreras técnicas. // The superior education improvement and its repercussion in teaching of mathematics in technical careers.
G. de los A. Torres Rodríguez
Full Text Available El objetivo fundamental del presente trabajo es exponer los alcances del perfeccionamiento de la Educación Superior enCuba y sus particularidades en la Disciplina Matemática Superior de las carreras técnicas, así como reflexionar sobre lainfluencia de las tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones en el cambio educativo que promueve la tercerarevolución educacional en Cuba.Palabras claves: Perfeccionamiento, tecnologías de la información, matemática._________________________________________________________________________________Abstract.The main objective of the present paper is to expose the achievement of Superior Education in Cuba, particularly atMathematics’ Discipline in Technical careers, and discuss the influence of computer science technology andcommunication in the education changes that promote the third educational revolution in Cuba.Key words: Improvement, computer science technology, mathematics.
Hashim Ali, Siti Aishah
As adults, we have always learned throughout our life, but this learning is informal. Now, more career-switchers and career-upgraders who are joining universities for further training are becoming the major group of adult learners. This current situation requires formal education in courses with controlled output. Hence, lifelong learning is seen as a necessity and an opportunity for these adult learners. One characteristic of adult education is that the learners tend to bring with them life experience from their past, especially when learning mathematics. Most of them associate mathematics with the school subjects and unable to recognize the mathematics in their daily practice as mathematics. They normally place a high value on learning mathematics because of its prominent role in their prospective careers, but their learning often requires overcoming personal experience and motivating themselves to learn mathematics again. This paper reports on the study conducted on a group of adult learners currently pursuing their study. The aim of this study is to explore (i) the motivation of the adult learners continuing their study; and (ii) the perception and motivation of these learners in learning mathematics. This paper will take this into account when we discuss learners' perception and motivation to learning mathematics, as interrelated phenomena. Finding from this study will provide helpful insights in understanding the learning process and adaption of adult learners to formal education.
This study is conducted with 56 recently retired full-time sports coaches to examine the importance of career awareness, postsport career planning, and career transition needs. Results indicate that the individuals do not have a high level of career awareness, have done relatively little postsport career planning during their coaching careers, and…
The expansion of STEM education and career opportunities among underrepresented populations is a national priority. Therefore, more research is needed that examines the institutional, instructional and individual factors related to African American students' success in these fields. This dissertation study was drawn from a larger mixed-methods longitudinal study (Freeman and Winston, 2007). It utilized a concurrent embedded design of mixed methods (Creswell, 2009), to investigate faculty relationships as a source of motivation for STEM undergraduates at a HBCU. Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory was the theoretical basis for this study. The following research questions were examined: (a) What is the nature of student-faculty relationships among STEM undergraduates attending an HBCU; (b) How does the nature of faculty student relationships vary by gender and STEM major; (c) How do student-faculty relationships influence students' persistence in STEM, self-concept of ability in mathematics and in science and grade point average; and (d) Does the influence of student-faculty relationships on self-concept of ability in mathematics and in science and grade point average vary by gender and STEM major? Freshman college students (N=167) who had a declared major in STEM fall 2009 were participants in this study. Students were predominately Black/African American (82%) and predominately female (71%). The Student-Professor Interaction Scale (SPIS) was used to measure various dimensions of student-faculty interactions (Cokley, Komarraju, Rosales, et al., 2006). The Experiences with Faculty Scale (Pace & Kuh, 1998) was used to measure the frequency of student's experiences with faculty. Self-Concept of Ability Scales in Mathematics and in Science (Marsh, 1999) was used to measure students' global perception of their abilities. An open-ended question was designed to expand and provide breadth to the quantitative results. Findings indicated that student
Prescott, Julie; Wilson, Sarah Ellen; Wan, Kai-Wai
To determine the level of importance pharmacy students placed on science and mathematics subjects for pursuing a career in pharmacy. Two hundred fifty-four students completed a survey instrument developed to investigate students' perceptions of the relevance of science and mathematics subjects to a career in pharmacy. Pharmacy students in all 4 years of a master of pharmacy (MPharm) degree program were invited to complete the survey instrument. Students viewed chemistry-based and biology-based subjects as relevant to a pharmacy career, whereas mathematics subjects such as physics, logarithms, statistics, and algebra were not viewed important to a career in pharmacy. Students' experience in pharmacy and year of study influenced their perceptions of subjects relevant to a pharmacy career. Pharmacy educators need to consider how they can help students recognize the importance of scientific knowledge earlier in the pharmacy curriculum.
Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education in the United States lags behind that of other industrialized nations. Despite national efforts to enhance the quality of STEM education for students, progress remains elusive. Underperformance is evident in measures of outcomes, participation, and retention. In particular, inequity persists in the attraction and retention of women to STEM fields. Mentoring is heavily cited as a means to improve our national efforts to fortify STEM education. This research explores mentoring styles, gender preferences, and differential impact on outcomes. The results challenge conventional wisdom that women prefer and benefit from a style of mentoring that is different from the preferred style of men. This study found that male and female proteges do not desire different types of mentoring. In fact, male and female proteges desire task-oriented mentoring when compared to relationship-oriented mentoring styles. However, female proteges prefer to be mentored by female mentors and male proteges prefer to be mentored by male mentors. In addition, with respect to gender, mentors do not differ in the type of mentoring they employ. Additionally, results of the study indicate that task-oriented mentoring style may bring incremental explanatory power with regard to intention to pursue STEM careers. This research implicates STEM program design in university settings. Gender-focused STEM programs are advised to focus on preferences and mentoring type, but not in the conventional way. This research indicates that women in STEM disciplines are not expressing a preference for relationship-oriented mentoring type and do benefit from task-oriented mentoring styles.
Andreescu, Titu; Tetiva, Marian
Building bridges between classical results and contemporary nonstandard problems, Mathematical Bridges embraces important topics in analysis and algebra from a problem-solving perspective. Blending old and new techniques, tactics and strategies used in solving challenging mathematical problems, readers will discover numerous genuine mathematical gems throughout that will heighten their appreciation of the inherent beauty of mathematics. Most of the problems are original to the authors and are intertwined in a well-motivated exposition driven by representative examples. The book is structured to assist the reader in formulating and proving conjectures, as well as devising solutions to important mathematical problems by making connections between various concepts and ideas from different areas of mathematics. Instructors and educators teaching problem-solving courses or organizing mathematics clubs, as well as motivated mathematics students from high school juniors to college seniors, will find Mathematical Bri...
Swetz, Frank J.
The conception, objectives, contents, and limitations of a degree program in the mathematical sciences at Pennsylvania State University, Capitol Campus, are discussed. Career goals that may be pursued include: managerial, science, education, actuarial, and computer. (MP)
Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin
Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students-including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences-if any exist-between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non-STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non-STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non-STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non-STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse-with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills-than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. © 2017 S. Cotner et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Ball, Christopher; Huang, Kuo-Ting; Cotten, Shelia R.; Rikard, R. V.
Over the past decade, there has been a strong national push to increase minority students' positive attitudes towards STEM-related careers. However, despite this focus, minority students have remained underrepresented in these fields. Some researchers have directed their attention towards improving the STEM pipeline which carries students through…
Gibson, B. A.; Bruno, B. C.
There have been several studies that show how undergraduate research experiences (REU) have a positive impact on a student’s academic studies and career path, including being a positive influence toward improving the student's lab skills and ability to work independently. Moreover, minority students appear to relate to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) concepts better when they are linked with (1) a service learning component, and (2) STEM courses that include a cultural and social aspect that engages the student in a way that does not distract from the student’s technical learning. It is also known that a “place-based” approach that incorporates traditional (indigenous) knowledge can help engage underrepresented minority groups in STEM disciplines and increase science literacy. Based on the methods and best practices used by other minority serving programs and described in the literature, the Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education (C-MORE) has successfully developed an academic-year REU to engage and train the next generation of scientists. The C-MORE Scholars Program provides undergraduate students majoring in an ocean or earth science-related field, especially underrepresented students such as Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders, the opportunity to participate in unique and cutting edge hands-on research experiences. The program appoints awardees at one of three levels based on previous research and academic experience, and students can progress through the various tiers as their skills and STEM content knowledge develop. All awardees receive guidance on a research project from a mentor who is a scientist at the university and/or industry. A key component of the program is the inclusion of professional development activities to help the student continue towards post graduation education or prepare for career opportunities after they receive their undergraduate STEM degree.
Shin, Jiyun Elizabeth L.
Increasing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) graduates has become an important part of the education agenda in the U.S. in recent years. Stereotypes about STEM (i.e., belief that STEM abilities are innate, and that European American men are best suited for STEM) have been identified as one of the critical factors that may…
Holmes, M.; Advance-Nebraska Evaluation Team
At the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), 20% of short list candidates for faculty openings in science, engineering and mathematics (STEM) brought an academic partner into the hiring picture between 2008 and 2010, with a peak of 38% in 2010. Having a process in place to address dual career opportunities is a key component in an overall strategy to increase the number of women STEM faculty: 83% of academic scientist women's partners are also academics in STEM, according to a 2009 Stanford report, and 54% of academic scientist men's are. Offering two positions to qualified couples benefits the institution by increasing the chances of recruitment and retention of both candidates. UNL's ADVANCE program, ADVANCE-Nebraska, developed a process to take advantage of dual career opportunities. Nine dual career couples have been hired in the last three years; we expected to hire eight during the five-year life of the grant. We increased the proportion of women in the Engineering College by twenty percent (from n=10 to n=12). The success of the program arises from four key components: early notification to short-list candidates of the dual career program, a point person to coordinate dual career requests across the campus, flexible faculty appointments that provide a variety of opportunities for the partner, and a funding stream to support the partner hire. The point person, the ADVANCE Program Director, was created by the provost through the ADVANCE program. The Director communicates with every short list candidate for each open faculty position and with department and search committee chairs across STEM colleges as soon as the candidate is selected. When there is an eligible partner of the candidate who receives the job offer, if there is approval from the Office of Academic Affairs, the Dean of the target college, and the chair and faculty of the partner's target department, the partner is brought to UNL to interview, and the faculty of the partner's target department
Thompson, Rahmelle C; Monroe-White, Thema; Xavier, Jeffrey; Howell, Courtney; Moore, Myisha Roberson; Haynes, J K
Equal representation within higher education science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields and the STEM workforce in the United States across demographically diverse populations is a long-standing challenge. This study uses two-to-one nearest-neighbor matched-comparison group design to examine academic achievement, pursuit of graduate science degree, and classification of graduate institution attended by students participating in the Hopps Scholars Program (Hopps) at Morehouse College. Hopps is a highly structured enrichment program aimed at increasing participation of black males in STEM fields. Morehouse institutional records, Hopps Program records, and National Student Clearinghouse data were used to examine differences between Hopps and non-Hopps STEM graduates of Morehouse. Two-way sample t tests and chi-square tests revealed significant differences in academic achievement, likelihood of STEM degree pursuit, and the classification of graduate institutions attended by Hopps versus non-Hopps students. Hopps Scholars were significantly more likely than non-Hopps STEM graduates both to pursue STEM doctoral degrees and to attend doctoral-granting institutions with higher research activity. The Hopps Program's approach to training black male students for scientific careers is a model of success for other programs committed to increasing the number of black males pursuing advanced degrees in STEM. © 2016 R. C. Thompson et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Collins, Kristina Henry
What is Black student's science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) identity? The author addresses this question through a synthesis of the literature that includes studies that explore Black student identity. Background information regarding STEM achievement and persistence followed by empirical studies that explore STEM attitudes…
The situation surrounding the Olympiads is paradoxical. On the one hand, considerable resources are spent on the Olympiads. On the other hand, there are widespread arguments about the harm of the Olympiads, often very strange ones. For example, there is a perception that success in the Olympiads has little to do with a scientific career. Sometimes it comes to curious assertions, such as that "there are no Olympiad winners among the eminent mathematical researchers," even though in truth the p...
Trinajstić, Nenad; Gutman, Ivan
A brief description is given of the historical development of mathematics and chemistry. A path leading to the meeting of these two sciences is described. An attempt is made to define mathematical chemistry, and journals containing the term mathematical chemistry in their titles are noted. In conclusion, the statement is made that although chemistry is an experimental science aimed at preparing new compounds and materials, mathematics is very useful in chemistry, among other things, to produc...
for the development of a critically reflexive career guidance practice. The considerations are organised around seven elements. 1. Creating opportunity, structure and access 2. Entering a community and increasing visibility 3. Providing guidance in communities 4. Exploring potentials in guidance situations 5...... in career guidance practices as well as in the lives of the people in the communities. This paper falls into two parts: The first part considers the collective as the starting point for the development of meaningful career guidance activities. Based on previous research on career guidance in communities......The aim of this paper is to inspire practitioners and professionals to leave their offices to bring career guidance into communities that might not identify with career guidance in the first instance. By making the effort to engage with communities, practitioners may bring about a critical change...
This paper addresses the contested way that ethnomathematics has sometimes been received by mathematicians and others and what that disagreement might suggest about issues in mathematics education; namely, (a) the relation of ethnomathematics to academic mathematics; (b) recent efforts to reform secondary school mathematics so that it prepares…
Hamilton, Asia Fuller; Malin, Joel; Hackmann, Donald
This study analyzed high school Career and Technical Education (CTE) enrollments in Illinois, with comparisons to national data when possible, by career cluster and pathway and with respect to gender and racial/ethnic makeup of students. Enrollment patterns in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) CTE programming were emphasized.…
Perez-Felkner, Lara; McDonald, Sarah-Kathryn; Schneider, Barbara; Grogan, Erin
Although important strides toward gender parity have been made in several scientific fields, women remain underrepresented in the physical sciences, engineering, mathematics, and computer sciences (PEMCs). This study examines the effects of adolescents' subjective orientations, course taking, and academic performance on the likelihood of majoring in PEMC in college. Results indicate that racial-ethnic and gender underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are interrelated and should be examined with attention to the intersecting factors influencing female and racial-ethnic minority adolescents' pathways toward careers in these fields. Among those who major in PEMC fields, women closely resemble men with respect to their subjective orientations. The effects of subjective orientations on women's chances of majoring in PEMC vary by their secondary school mathematics course completion levels. Women who take more mathematics courses are more likely to major in PEMC; however, course taking alone does not attenuate gender disparities in declaring these majors. High mathematics ability (as measured by standardized test scores in the 10th grade) appears to be positively associated with women's selection of social, behavioral, clinical, and health science majors. This association is less robust (and slightly negative) for women in PEMC. While advanced course taking appears to assist women in selecting PEMC majors, women who enter these fields may not be as strong as those who select other, less male-dominated scientific fields.
Mulligan, Joanne; Woolcott, Geoffrey; Mitchelmore, Michael; Davis, Brent
Spatial reasoning, an emerging transdisciplinary area of interest to mathematics education research, is proving integral to all human learning. It is particularly critical to science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. This project will create an innovative knowledge framework based on spatial reasoning that identifies new…
Today's technology driven global economy has put pressure on the American education system to produce more students who are prepared for careers in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM). Adding to this pressure is the demand for a more diverse workforce that can stimulate the development of new ideas and innovation. This in turn requires more female and under represented minority groups to pursue future careers in STEM. Though STEM careers include many of the highest paid professionals, school systems are dealing with exceptionally high numbers of students, especially female and under represented minorities, who begin but do not persist to STEM degree completion. Using the Expectancy-Value Theory (EVT) framework that attributes student motivation to a combination of intrinsic, utility, and attainment values, this study analyzed readily available survey data to gauge students' career related values. These values were indirectly investigated through a longitudinal approach, spanning five years, on the predictive nature of 8 th grade survey-derived recommendations for students to pursue a future in a particular career cluster. Using logistic regression analysis, it was determined that this 8 th grade data, particularly in STEM, provides significantly high probabilities of a 12th grader's average grade, SAT-Math score, the math and science elective courses they take, and most importantly, interest in the same career cluster.
Bryant, B; Rabbitts, D; Shover, J; Torres, M; VanDerHeyden, B; Violand-Jones, S
Motivation, quality improvement, productivity enhancement. These are just some of the benefits of an effective career ladder program. The key term here is effective. It is easy for laboratory personnel to stagnate professionally if they do not have a career ladder program, but it is even easier for them to become frustrated--even cynical--over a program that fails to live up to its expectations to encourage, support, and reward professional advancement. If you have been looking form some ideas to get your own career ladder program off the ground, the following responses from your colleagues may help as CLMR asks: What makes your career ladder program effective?
Full Text Available The current transformations conceive among others, to form in the race of Mathematics-Physics a professor who imparts indistinctly the subjects of Mathematics and Physics in the upper secondary education from the third year of this race which requires putting more emphasis in the orientation of those Subjects to achieve greater professionalism. The present paper approaches from the theoretical aspects the essential aspects in the educational process of the learning of mathematics for the Mathematics-Physics career of the university of pedagogical sciences such as mathematical communicative competences and the use of educational software, all in function of achieving A greater development of student's mathematical logical thinking.
Developing competences for setting up, analysing and criticising mathematical models are normally seen as relevant only from and above upper secondary level. The general belief among teachers is that modelling activities presuppose conceptual understanding of the mathematics involved. Mathematical...... roots for the construction of important mathematical concepts. In addition competences for setting up, analysing and criticising modelling processes and the possible use of models is a formative aim in this own right for mathematics teaching in general education. The paper presents a theoretical...... modelling, however, can be seen as a practice of teaching that place the relation between real life and mathematics into the centre of teaching and learning mathematics, and this is relevant at all levels. Modelling activities may motivate the learning process and help the learner to establish cognitive...
Sørensen, John Aasted
The objectives of Discrete Mathematics (IDISM2) are: The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including the application within programming languages for computer systems. Having passed the IDISM2 course, the student will be able...... to accomplish the following: -Understand and apply formal representations in discrete mathematics. -Understand and apply formal representations in problems within discrete mathematics. -Understand methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics. -Apply methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics......; construct a finite state machine for a given application. Apply these concepts to new problems. The teaching in Discrete Mathematics is a combination of sessions with lectures and students solving problems, either manually or by using Matlab. Furthermore a selection of projects must be solved and handed...
Common situations, like planning air travel, can become grist for mathematical modeling and can promote the mathematical ideas of variables, formulas, algebraic expressions, functions, and statistics. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how the mathematical modeling that is present in everyday situations can be naturally embedded in…
The scientific focus of my NSF CAREER Award is the impact of patterns, topographical and surface chemical in design, on the adhesion of soft polymer interfaces. Although this topic has provided a strong foundation for the mentoring and training of graduate students, the primary broader impacts of my award have focused on the development of ``soft'' skills in graduate and post-doctoral researchers in STEM disciplines. I have developed a course on ``Scientific and Engineering Management,'' which provides an open forum for students to explore the skills that, in many ways, define successful careers for many scientists. Topics include: leadership, proposal writing, group management, communication in diverse environments, and ethics. In this presentation, I highlight the primary phases of this program, how it meshes with scientific goals, and general statements about the mission of education outreach within STEM disciplines.
The objective of this book is to expose junior and senior high school students to the science and technology fields. It also will convey the importance of getting a general education in science and mathematics while still in high school and of continuing such studies in college. This is intended to encourge students, particularly underrepresented minorities and women, to consider and prepare for careers in science and technology. This book attempts to point out the increasing importance of such knowledge in daily life regardless of occupational choice. This book is intended to be used by junior and senior high school students, as a classroom reference by teachers, and by scientist and engineers participating in outreach activities.
Tati, T.; Firman, H.; Riandi, R.
STEM Learning focusses on development of STEM-literate society, the research about implementation of STEM learning to develope students’ STEM literacy is still limited. This study is aimed to examine the effect of implementation STEM learning through the project of designing boat model on students STEM literacy in energy topic. The method of this study was a quasi-experiment with non-randomized pretest-posttest control group design. There were two classes involved, the experiment class used Project Based Learning with STEM approach and control class used Project-Based Learning without STEM approach. A STEM Literacy test instrument was developed to measure students STEM literacy which consists of science literacy, mathematics literacy, and technology-engineering literacy. The analysis showed that there were significant differences on improvement science literacy, mathematics technology-engineering between experiment class and control class with effect size more than 0.8 (large effect). The difference of improvement of STEM literacy between experiment class and control class is caused by the existence of design engineering activity which required students to apply the knowledge from every field of STEM. The challenge that was faced in STEM learning through design engineering activity was how to give the students practice to integrate STEM field in solving the problems. In additional, most of the students gave positive response toward implementation of STEM learning through design boat model project.
Full Text Available The article analyzes different approaches to study of models of constructing the employment career in current environment. The changes having taken place in interrelationsbetween employees and organizations over recent 15 years led to changes in their mutual expectations including the ones concerning the career development. Boundaryless career based on career mobility and protean career based on subjective understanding of career success are regarded as alternatives to traditional careers. The main attributes of “new careers” are: an increased independence in employee-organization dyads, low level of mutual obligations, freedom of choice, self-actualization, priority of career loyalty and self-management in contrast to organization loyalty. Changes in career conceptualizing inevitably led to revision of career competences. Traditional professional competences give way to career meta-competences like adaptiveness, capacity for education, self-management, taking responsibility. At the same time empirical studies displaya prematurity of statements about the expressed loss of interest to traditional careers.
This essay argues that the diversity of the history of mathematics community in the United Kingdom has influenced the development of the subject and is a significant factor behind the different concerns often evident in work on the history of mathematics when compared with that of historians of science. The heterogeneous nature of the community, which includes many who are not specialist historians, and the limited opportunities for academic\\ud careers open to practitioners have had a profoun...
Eurico WongoGungula; Raquel Diéguez Batista; Eglys Pérez Ugartemendía
This article aims to approach the application of mathematical problems results, using criteria issued by teachers, pre-university and university students surrounding this proc ess. The problems identified in pre-university and Higher Pedagogical institutes in Angola, are related to the lack of motivation among students in mathematical careers, due to insufficient contextualization achieved by the programmed contents, as well as the insistent use of scientific and methodological approaches tha...
Reuben, Ernesto; Sapienza, Paola; Zingales, Luigi
Does discrimination contribute to the low percentage of women in mathematics and science careers? We designed an experiment to isolate discrimination’s potential effect. Without provision of information about candidates other than their appearance, men are twice more likely to be hired for a mathematical task than women. If ability is self-reported, women still are discriminated against, because employers do not fully account for men’s tendency to boast about performance. Providing full infor...
Answering to the double-faced influence of string theory on mathematical practice and rigour, the mathematical physicists Arthur Jaffe and Frank Quinn have contemplated the idea that there exists a `theoretical' mathematics (alongside `theoretical' physics) whose basic structures and results still require independent corroboration by mathematical proof. In this paper, I shall take the Jaffe-Quinn debate mainly as a problem of mathematical ontology and analyse it against the backdrop of two philosophical views that are appreciative towards informal mathematical development and conjectural results: Lakatos's methodology of proofs and refutations and John von Neumann's opportunistic reading of Hilbert's axiomatic method. The comparison of both approaches shows that mitigating Lakatos's falsificationism makes his insights about mathematical quasi-ontology more relevant to 20th century mathematics in which new structures are introduced by axiomatisation and not necessarily motivated by informal ancestors. The final section discusses the consequences of string theorists' claim to finality for the theory's mathematical make-up. I argue that ontological reductionism as advocated by particle physicists and the quest for mathematically deeper axioms do not necessarily lead to identical results.
Robertson, Peter J.
Structural explanations of career choice and development are well established. Socioeconomic inequality represents a powerful factor shaping career trajectories and economic outcomes achieved by individuals. However, a robust and growing body of evidence demonstrates a strong link between socioeconomic inequality and health outcomes. Work is a key…
Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.
This handbook is the result of the Treasury Department's efforts to increase professionalism among its procurement employees nationwide through its Procurement Career Management Program. First, the scope and objectives of the Procurement Career Management Program are discussed. The remaining sections of the handbook deal with the following program…
Gorman, Anna M., Ed.; Vetter, Louise, Ed.
The five major papers whose full texts are included address themselves to various topics that can influence the lives of women in their career choices and advancement. Federal Legislation: Impact on Women's Careers, Mary Allen Jolley, discusses sex discrimination, legal gains made over the past 10 years, sex role stereotyping, and vocational…
State Univ. of New York, Oswego. Coll. at Oswego. Dept. of Industrial Arts and Technology.
The guide is designed primarily for industrial arts teachers at the middle school level who wish to integrate career education into their curricula. The lessons and activities attempt to establish a balance among career information, technical information, and hands-on experience. The guide contains six lesson plans which cover the topics: the…
Walker, Stephen W
The third edition of Security Careers is the authoritative reference for current job descriptions and pay practices of security, compliance, ethics, environmental, health and safety occupations. The job descriptions and compensation ranges in this report are drawn from research from the Foushée Group, which has been conducting this research since 1980. Security Careers includes more than 75 job descriptions for security-related positions, which range from the entry-level security guard to the top global corporate executive. It also provides four years of compensation trend data to give a th
Ball, Christopher; Huang, Kuo-Ting; Cotten, Shelia R.; Rikard, R. V.
Over the past decade, there has been a strong national push to increase minority students' positive attitudes towards STEM-related careers. However, despite this focus, minority students have remained underrepresented in these fields. Some researchers have directed their attention towards improving the STEM pipeline which carries students through our educational system and into STEM careers. Previous research has shown that expectancy-value theory (EVT) is useful for examining the short-term as well as long-term academic motivations and intentions of elementary age minority students. These findings provide insights into ways we may be able to potentially "patch" particular STEM pipeline leaks. In the current study, we advance this research by using EVT as a framework to examine the STEM attitudes of young students directly. We hypothesize that students' academic-related expectancies for success and subjective task values will be associated with an increase in STEM attitudes. Data for this study was gathered over the course of a large-scale computing intervention which sought to increase students' STEM interest. This computing intervention took place in an urban elementary school district located within the southeastern USA. Results from this study indicate that both intrinsic values and utility values predict students' STEM attitudes but they influence attitudes related to the various dimensions of STEM differently. These findings demonstrate that EVT provides a useful framework, which can be integrated into future computing interventions, to help encourage positive STEM attitudes in young children, thus increasing the internal pressure (or flow) within the STEM pipeline.
Almost a third of women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in Australia are considering leaving their job within the next five years, according to a survey by the employee association Professionals Australia.
Bamzai, A.; Mcpherson, R. A.; DeLong, K. L.; Rivera-Monroy, V. H.; Zak, J.; Earl, J.; Owens, K.; Wilson, D.
The U.S. Department of the Interior's South Central Climate Science Center (SCCSC) hosts an annual 3-week summer internship opportunity for undergraduate students of underrepresented minorities interested in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. Internship participants travel across the south-central U.S. to visit university campuses and field locations. The students interact with faculty conducting cutting edge research and with resource managers facing decision-making under uncertainty. This internship format allows the participants to see the direct impacts of climate variability and change on the Texas Hill Country, prairie and forest ecosystems and tribal cultures in Oklahoma, and the bayous, delta and coastline of Louisiana. Immersive experiences are key for exposing students to academic research and providing them with the skills and experiences needed to continue on in their professional careers. The SCCSC's program introduces students to how research is conducted, gives them a broad perspective on how collaborations form, and starts each student on the path to building a large and diverse professional network. By providing participants with a "buffet" of options, our internship serves as a launching pad from which each student can move forward towards experiences such as participating in a Research Experiences for Undergraduates program, gaining employment in a STEM-related career path, and being accepted into a graduate degree program. This presentation will describe the components of the SCCSC's internship program and provide a summary of post-internship student successes.
D. Litt. et Phil. Factor analytic techniques were used to investigate the psychometric properties of three measuring instruments, namely the Adult Career Concerns Inventory (Super, Thompson & Lindeman, 1988), the Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory (Holland & Gottfredson, 1994), and the Career Resilience Questionnaire (Fourie & Van Vuuren, 1998). The analyses served the purpose of elucidating the conceptual meanings of the constructs of career concerns, career status and career resil...
The low levels of student engagement with mathematics has been of significant concern in Australia for some time (Attard, 2013). This is a particularly important issue in mathematics education given the current attention to science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education to ensure "the continued prosperity of Australia on…
This volume is based on the lecture notes of the minicourses given in the frame of the school on Mathematical Control Theory held at the Abdus Salam ICTP from 3 to 28 September 2001. Mathematical Control Theory is a rapidly growing field which provides strict theoretical and computational tools for dealing with problems arising in electrical and aerospace engineering, automatics, robotics, applied chemistry, and biology etc. Control methods are also involved in questions pertaining to the development of countries in the South, such as wastewater treatment, agronomy, epidemiology, population dynamics, control of industrial and natural bio-reactors. Since most of these natural processes are highly nonlinear, the tools of nonlinear control are essential for the modelling and control of such processes. At present regular courses in Mathematical Control Theory are rarely included in the curricula of universities, and very few researchers receive enough background in the field. Therefore it is important to organize specific activities in the form of schools to provide the necessary background for those embarking on research in this field. The school at the Abdus Salam ICTP consisted of several minicourses intended to provide an introduction to various topics of Mathematical Control Theory, including Linear Control Theory (finite and infinite-dimensional), Nonlinear Control, and Optimal Control. The last week of the school was concentrated on applications of Mathematical Control Theory, in particular, those which are important for the development of non-industrialized countries. The school was intended primarily for mathematicians and mathematically oriented engineers at the beginning of their career. The typical participant was expected to be a graduate student or young post-doctoral researcher interested in Mathematical Control Theory. It was assumed that participants have sufficient background in Ordinary Differential Equations and Advanced Calculus. The volume
Agrachev, A A [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); SISSA, Trieste [Italy; ed.
This volume is based on the lecture notes of the minicourses given in the frame of the school on Mathematical Control Theory held at the Abdus Salam ICTP from 3 to 28 September 2001. Mathematical Control Theory is a rapidly growing field which provides strict theoretical and computational tools for dealing with problems arising in electrical and aerospace engineering, automatics, tics, applied chemistry, and biology etc. Control methods are also involved in questions pertaining to the development of countries in the South, such as wastewater treatment, agronomy, epidemiology, population dynamics, control of industrial and natural bio-reactors. Since most of these natural processes are highly nonlinear, the tools of nonlinear control are essential for the modelling and control of such processes. At present regular courses in Mathematical Control Theory are rarely included in the curricula of universities, and very few researchers receive enough background in the field. Therefore it is important to organize specific activities in the form of schools to provide the necessary background for those embarking on research in this field. The school at the Abdus Salam ICTP consisted of several minicourses intended to provide an introduction to various topics of Mathematical Control Theory, including Linear Control Theory (finite and infinite-dimensional), Nonlinear Control, and Optimal Control. The last week of the school was concentrated on applications of Mathematical Control Theory, in particular, those which are important for the development of non-industrialized countries. The school was intended primarily for mathematicians and mathematically oriented engineers at the beginning of their career. The typical participant was expected to be a graduate student or young post-doctoral researcher interested in Mathematical Control Theory. It was assumed that participants have sufficient background in Ordinary Differential Equations and Advanced Calculus. The volume contains
Gallon, Dennis P., Ed.
In order to remain competitive in the world economy, the United States must develop and improve mathematics and science education. Given that the future workforce in this country will be comprised largely of women and minorities, groups traditionally not entering mathematics and science careers, special recruitment and retention efforts must be…
Stripling, Christopher T.; Roberts, T. Grady; Stephens, Carrie A.
The purpose of this study was to describe the mathematics ability of preservice agricultural education teachers related to each of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) content/process areas and their corresponding sub-standards that are cross-referenced with the National Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources Career Cluster…
Erbay, Hatice Nur; Yavuz, Gunes
Mathematics is seen by many people as the best way to get a good life and a good career. It is also thought as an assistant to understand life and the world and to produce ideas about them. Therefore, new reform studies are being held to construct a new system that assists students to learn mathematics in a comprehensive way (Dursun & Dede,…
Full Text Available Mathematics, as no other school subject, evokes conflicting emotions and contradictory attitudes – from “the gate to a career” and “the queen of science” to the widespread acceptance of mathematical ignorance in society. The process of studying mathematics requires systematic work and patience, as mathematical knowledge has a cumulative nature. In the case of mathematics education, some students abandon mathematics at quite early levels of education and begin to consider themselves “humanists”, which results in serious consequences for future educational and career choices. In this paper, I propose a description of the process of escaping from mathematics in the context of students’ perceptions of this subject, using the results of two studies – one qualitative and the other quantitative.
Aigner, Martin; Spain, Philip G
Mathematics is all around us. Often we do not realize it, though. Mathematics Everywhere is a collection of presentations on the role of mathematics in everyday life, through science, technology, and culture. The common theme is the unique position of mathematics as the art of pure thought and at the same time as a universally applicable science. The authors are renowned mathematicians; their presentations cover a wide range of topics. From compact discs to the stock exchange, from computer tomography to traffic routing, from electronic money to climate change, they make the "math inside" unde
In this highly readable volume of vignettes of mathematical scandals and gossip, Theoni Pappas assembles 29 fascinating stories of intrigue and the bizarre ? in short, the human background of the history of mathematics. Might a haberdasher have changed Einstein's life? Why was the first woman mathematician murdered? How come there's no Nobel Prize in mathematics?Mathematics is principally about numbers, equations, and solutions, all of them precise and timeless. But, behind this arcane matter lies the sometimes sordid world of real people, whose rivalries and deceptions
Stroud, K A
A groundbreaking and comprehensive reference that's been a bestseller since it first debuted in 1970, the new seventh edition of Engineering Mathematics has been thoroughly revised and expanded. Providing a broad mathematical survey, this innovative volume covers a full range of topics from the very basic to the advanced. Whether you're an engineer looking for a useful on-the-job reference or want to improve your mathematical skills, or you are a student who needs an in-depth self-study guide, Engineering Mathematics is sure to come in handy time and time again.
LaCourse, William R; Sutphin, Kathy Lee; Ott, Laura E; Maton, Kenneth I; McDermott, Patrice; Bieberich, Charles; Farabaugh, Philip; Rous, Philip
UMBC, a diverse public research university, "builds" upon its reputation in producing highly capable undergraduate scholars to create a comprehensive new model, STEM BUILD at UMBC. This program is designed to help more students develop the skills, experience and motivation to excel in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). This article provides an in-depth description of STEM BUILD at UMBC and provides the context of this initiative within UMBC's vision and mission. The STEM BUILD model targets promising STEM students who enter as freshmen or transfer students and do not qualify for significant university or other scholarship support. Of primary importance to this initiative are capacity, scalability, and institutional sustainability, as we distill the advantages and opportunities of UMBC's successful scholars programs and expand their application to more students. The general approach is to infuse the mentoring and training process into the fabric of the undergraduate experience while fostering community, scientific identity, and resilience. At the heart of STEM BUILD at UMBC is the development of BUILD Group Research (BGR), a sequence of experiences designed to overcome the challenges that undergraduates without programmatic support often encounter (e.g., limited internship opportunities, mentorships, and research positions for which top STEM students are favored). BUILD Training Program (BTP) Trainees serve as pioneers in this initiative, which is potentially a national model for universities as they address the call to retain and graduate more students in STEM disciplines - especially those from underrepresented groups. As such, BTP is a research study using random assignment trial methodology that focuses on the scalability and eventual incorporation of successful measures into the traditional format of the academy. Critical measures to transform institutional culture include establishing an extensive STEM Living and Learning Community to
Full Text Available In this manuscript we focus on how to develop STEM learning environments, and how STEM can be implemented in K-12 schools. We focus on the following question: “How can we support students in building a deep, integrated knowledge of STEM so that they have the practical knowledge and problem solving skills necessary to live in and improve the world?” We also discuss criteria for evaluating STEM learning environments and the challenges teachers face in implementing STEM. We define STEM as the integration of science, engineering, technology, and mathematics to focus on solving pressing individual and societal problems. Engaging students in STEM also means engaging learners in the design process. Design is integral to student thinking in the STEM world. The design process is very non-linear and iterative in its nature but requires clearly articulating and identifying the design problem, researching what is known about the problem, generating potential solutions, developing prototype designs (artifacts that demonstrate solutions, and sharing and receiving feedback. With the integration of design, STEM education has the potential to support students in learning big ideas in science and engineering, as well as important scientific and engineering practices, and support students in developing important motivational outcomes such as ownership, agency and efficacy. Moreover, students who engage in STEM learning environments will also develop 21st century capabilities such as problem solving, communication, and collaboration skills.
In this Forum article, Curry focuses on a few ways math and numeracy instructors can assure their students are ready for college and/or a career. For example, when considering the math levels of so many adult learners, teachers might focus on teaching their students how to reason mathematically, and ensure that they have a solid conceptual…
Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011
South Dakota is in the process of transitioning to new English language arts and mathematics standards that will better prepare students to be successful in college and their careers. Time, effort, and resources must be dedicated to effective implementation in order to realize the promise of these new common core state standards. This paper…
May 3, 2018 ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open ... or mathematics; and employed at an academic or scientific research ... research groups that will attract international visitors; and to develop links with ... opportunity to support Canadian-African research teams studying Ebola.
Sickinger, Pamela H.
Within the framework of social cognitive career theory, social cognitive career variables, demographic variables, and the contextual variable, parent support, were examined to determine their predictive value for eighth-grade students' career exploration behavior. Results suggest that the social cognitive career variable, intentions/goals,…
It is the case that some activities claiming to reside under the STEM umbrella do not, in fact, give participants the opportunity to engage in anything other than routine mathematics. With this in mind, we explore here the potential for developing and then delivering STEM activities based on the discipline of mathematical epidemiology. We argue…
Jaeger, Audrey J.; Mitchall, Allison; O'Meara, KerryAnn; Grantham, Ashley; Zhang, Jingjing; Eliason, Jennifer; Cowdery, Kelly
This study examined and enriched our understanding of the career choice process for doctoral students of color in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. In addition, it explored the challenges facing all doctoral students in STEM in understanding and making meaning of diversity as it relates to individual perspectives and…
Xue, Yi; Larson, Richard C
The last decade has seen considerable concern regarding a shortage of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workers to meet the demands of the labor market. At the same time, many experts have presented evidence of a STEM worker surplus. A comprehensive literature review, in conjunction with employment statistics, newspaper articles, and our own interviews with company recruiters, reveals a significant heterogeneity in the STEM labor market: the academic sector is generally oversupplied, while the government sector and private industry have shortages in specific areas.
di Rienzi, Joseph
Notre Dame of Maryland University (NDMU) has an NSF S-STEM grant, Pathways to Excellence, that gives 10 scholarships annually to academically talented women undergraduates with demonstrated financial need who are pursuing degrees in mathematics, physics, computer information systems, or engineering. NDMU has been cited (Whitten, et al. (2007)) as providing a female friendly environment for the study of physics. In this program we are using a tri-part mentoring system involving a faculty member in the student's discipline, a peer mentor from the program and an external alumnae mentor. The program also has a thematic seminar course for the scholars. Each student in the program is tasked to construct a career development plan in assistance with her faculty mentor and set measured annual goals. In addition, all scholarship students are requested to have an experiential experience. As a result, NDMU aims to strengthen its role in increasing the numbers of well-educated and skilled women employees from diverse backgrounds, including mostly first-generation college students, in technical and scientific areas. Early assessment of the success of the program will be presented as well as modifications that resulted from the formative evaluation. This program is funded by a National Science Foundation S-STEM grant which is not responsible for its content.
Smith, C.; Golding, J.
Fewer girls than boys in England participate in post-compulsory mathematics and the recent increase in popularity of Mathematics and Further Mathematics (FM) at age 16 has not changed the gender balance. Previous studies have shown the significance to girls of their mathematics lessons and teachers, of discursive co-constructions of masculinity and mathematics, of the range of careers associated with mathematics and science, and family ‘science capital’. This study identifie...
Kleene, Stephen Cole
Undergraduate students with no prior instruction in mathematical logic will benefit from this multi-part text. Part I offers an elementary but thorough overview of mathematical logic of 1st order. Part II introduces some of the newer ideas and the more profound results of logical research in the 20th century. 1967 edition.
Contends teachers must resist the temptation to suggest that, while children can create stories and melodies, they cannot create mathematics. Quotes mathematician G. H. Hardy: "A mathematician, like a painter or poet, is a 'maker' of patterns." Considers mathematics should be able to stand up for itself. (BT)
Batchelder, William H
Mathematical psychology is a sub-field of psychology that started in the 1950s and has continued to grow as an important contributor to formal psychological theory, especially in the cognitive areas of psychology such as learning, memory, classification, choice response time, decision making, attention, and problem solving. In addition, there are several scientific sub-areas that were originated by mathematical psychologists such as the foundations of measurement, stochastic memory models, and psychologically motivated reformulations of expected utility theory. Mathematical psychology does not include all uses of mathematics and statistics in psychology, and indeed there is a long history of such uses especially in the areas of perception and psychometrics. What is most unique about mathematical psychology is its approach to theory construction. While accepting the behaviorist dictum that the data in psychology must be observable and replicable, mathematical models are specified in terms of unobservable formal constructs that can predict detailed aspects of data across multiple experimental and natural settings. By now almost all the substantive areas of cognitive and experimental psychology have formal mathematical models and theories, and many of these are due to researchers that identify with mathematical psychology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
This is the translation from the Japanese textbook for the grade 11 course, "General Mathematics". It is part of the easier of the three elective courses in mathematics offered at this level and is taken by about 40% of students. The book covers basic notions of probability and statistics, vectors, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions, and an introduction to differentiation and integration.
Fouad, Nadya A.; Ghosh, Arpita; Chang, Wen-hsin; Figueiredo, Catia; Bachhuber, Thomas
College is a significant time for undergraduates to declare majors and choose career paths. For many undergraduates, choosing both a major and a career path is challenging. Research shows that many universities deliver career interventions through dedicated career decision-making courses (Mead & Korschgen, 1994). However, there has been…
Marshall, Sandra J.; Wijting, Jan P.
Factor analysis of data from two samples identified nine indices of women's career orientation. Two factors accounted for significant variance common to the indices: career centeredness, which reflects the importance attached to a career relative to other life activities, and career commitment, which implies a commitment to lifetime employment.…
Fouad, Nadya A.; Kantamneni, Neeta; Chen, Yung-Lung; Novakovic, Alexandra; Guillen, Amy; Priester, Paul E.; Henry, Caroline; Terry, Sarah
Many vocational psychologists advocate addressing career as well as personal concerns in career counseling. However, some clients may have inappropriate expectations toward career counseling and may not be prepared or want to discuss personal issues. This study examined whether perceptions of the career counseling process could be modified with…
James A. Ejiwale
Full Text Available The implementation of STEM education in schools across the globe is to prepare the future workforce with strong scientific and mathematical backgrounds to enhance skills development across STEM disciplines. However, for STEM education to achieve its goals and objectives, addressing the barriers to STEM education should start by fixing the problems at the elementary, junior and senior high school levels; the grassroots and potential feeders to colleges and universities. Since many nations including the United States of America is in dire need of the workforce with adequate preparation in science and mathematics to help address the nation’s economy that is in shambles, the barriers to its successful implementation should be identified and addressed. In this paper, (a the definition of STEM education and (b some barriers to successful implementation of STEM education are discussed and elaborated.
Sørensen, John Aasted
; construct a finite state machine for a given application. Apply these concepts to new problems. The teaching in Discrete Mathematics is a combination of sessions with lectures and students solving problems, either manually or by using Matlab. Furthermore a selection of projects must be solved and handed...... to accomplish the following: -Understand and apply formal representations in discrete mathematics. -Understand and apply formal representations in problems within discrete mathematics. -Understand methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics. -Apply methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics...... to new problems. Relations and functions: Define a product set; define and apply equivalence relations; construct and apply functions. Apply these concepts to new problems. Natural numbers and induction: Define the natural numbers; apply the principle of induction to verify a selection of properties...
Murray, James D
The book is a textbook (with many exercises) giving an in-depth account of the practical use of mathematical modelling in the biomedical sciences. The mathematical level required is generally not high and the emphasis is on what is required to solve the real biological problem. The subject matter is drawn, e.g. from population biology, reaction kinetics, biological oscillators and switches, Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, reaction-diffusion theory, biological wave phenomena, central pattern generators, neural models, spread of epidemics, mechanochemical theory of biological pattern formation and importance in evolution. Most of the models are based on real biological problems and the predictions and explanations offered as a direct result of mathematical analysis of the models are important aspects of the book. The aim is to provide a thorough training in practical mathematical biology and to show how exciting and novel mathematical challenges arise from a genuine interdisciplinary involvement with the biosci...
Parshall, Karen Hunger
Although today's mathematical research community takes its international character very much for granted, this "global nature" is relatively recent, having evolved over a period of roughly 150 years-from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the middle of the twentieth century. During this time, the practice of mathematics changed from being centered on a collection of disparate national communities to being characterized by an international group of scholars for whom the goal of mathematical research and cooperation transcended national boundaries. Yet, the development of an international community was far from smooth and involved obstacles such as war, political upheaval, and national rivalries. Until now, this evolution has been largely overlooked by historians and mathematicians alike. This book addresses the issue by bringing together essays by twenty experts in the history of mathematics who have investigated the genesis of today's international mathematical community. This includes not only develo...
Eilam, Efrat; Bigger, Stephen W.; Sadler, Kirsten; Barry, Fiachra; Bielik, Tom
This paper addresses the positioning of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) outreach programmes within universities' operations. Though universities in many respects form a rather homogenous international community, there is wide diversity in regard to the provision of STEM outreach by different institutions. To explain this…
Havice, Bill; Marshall, Jerry
This article describes a symposium which promotes technological literacy through science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The three-day symposium titled, "The Anderson, Oconee, Pickens Symposium on Teaching and Learning STEM Standards for the 21st Century," was held August 4-6, 2008 at the Tri-County Technical College…
This article features the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Leadership Qualification programme, developed by the Centre for Science Education (CSE) at Sheffield Hallam University in collaboration with Edexcel, which sets out to develop leadership skills and capabilities through contexts in STEM. With six units to complete…
Across Canada many initiatives have been initiated to generate more interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education; however, no single or comprehensive overview has been conducted that takes into account the impact of these STEM initiatives on teaching/learning outcomes in K-12 education. This knowledge synthesis of…
McCulloch, Allison W.; Ernst, Jeremy V.
STEM-based understandings and experiences that prepare learners beyond the classroom are of imminent need, as today's STEM education students are tomorrow's leaders in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and education (Prabhu, 2009). Integrative STEM education signifies the intentional integration of science and mathematics with the…
... Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Types of Stem Cells Stem cells are the foundation from which all ... Learn About Stem Cells > Types of Stem Cells Stem cells Stem cells are the foundation for every organ ...
Full Text Available It is very difficult to motivate students when it comes to a school subject like Mathematics. Teachers spend a lot of time trying to find something that will arouse interest in students. It is particularly difficult to find materials that are motivating enough for students that they eagerly wait for the next lesson. One of the solutions may be found in Vedic Mathematics. Traditional methods of teaching Mathematics create fear of this otherwise interesting subject in the majority of students. Fear increases failure. Often the traditional, conventional mathematical methods consist of very long lessons which are difficult to understand. Vedic Mathematics is an ancient system that is very flexible and encourages the development of intuition and innovation. It is a mental calculating tool that does not require a calculator because the calculator is embedded in each of us. Starting from the above problems of fear and failure in Mathematics, the goal of this paper is to do research with the control and the experimental group and to compare the test results. Two tests should be done for each of the groups. The control group would do the tests in the conventional way. The experimental group would do the first test in a conventional manner and then be subjected to different treatment, that is to say, be taught on the basis of Vedic Mathematics. After that, the second group would do the second test according to the principles of Vedic Mathematics. Expectations are that after short lectures on Vedic mathematics results of the experimental group would improve and that students will show greater interest in Mathematics.
Morgenroth, Eberhard Friedrich; Arvin, Erik; Vanrolleghem, P.
Mathematical modeling of wastewater treatment processes has become increasingly popular in recent years. To prepare students for their future careers, environmental engineering education should provide students with sufficient background and experiences to understand and apply mathematical models...... efficiently and responsibly. Approaches for introducing mathematical modeling into courses on wastewater treatment engineering are discussed depending on the learning objectives, level of the course and the time available....
This project explores the career paths to date of seven graduates of the University of Waterloo's Mechanical Engineering program, and examines the influences that led them to choose their university program. I particularly considered the participants' status as members of underrepresented or overrepresented groups, using the contexts of the history of the profession of Mechanical Engineering and prior research on underrepresentation in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics fields. I used semi-structured interviews and an intersectionality framework to investigate aspects of identity, interests, and career influences. I found three key themes among the participants: human influences, including information sources, role models, and mentors; influences of educational and outreach activities; and personal interests and aptitudes. I use the uncovered themes to recommend a combination of future studies and outreach programs.
Hübner, Nicolas; Wille, Eike; Cambria, Jenna; Oschatz, Kerstin; Nagengast, Benjamin; Trautwein, Ulrich
Math achievement, math self-concept, and vocational interests are critical predictors of STEM careers and are closely linked to high school coursework. Young women are less likely to choose advanced math courses in high school, and encouraging young women to enroll in advanced math courses may therefore bring more women into STEM careers. We…
Andam, Aba Bentil; Dawson, Silvina Ponce; Horton, K. Renee; Sandow, Barbara
In essentially all countries, responsibilities for child care, cooking, cleaning, and other homemaking tasks fall predominantly on the wife and mother. In addition, the childbearing years come during the period when a physicist must study hard, work long hours on research, and take temporary positions, often abroad. Thus, balancing family and career has long been one of the major barriers to women's participation in science and engineering fields, including physics. While many young women believe that they must choose between having children and having a science career, the fact is that the majority of women physicists in both developing and developed countries have successfully done both. This paper summarizes some ideas and recommendations raised in discussions, especially focused on easing the challenges of having children while in temporary jobs, returning to physics after a career break, the need for "family-friendly" working conditions, and the dual-career problem facing couples where both are scientists.
Ryba, Tatiana; Stambulova, Natalia
This symposium will introduce a project developed under the auspices of the International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP) in an effort to inspire and support the development of culturally sensitive theoretical frameworks and research methodologies in career studies and career assistance services...... around the world. The cultural approach to the theory and practice of sport psychological research has been recently articulated in two edited books, Cultural Sport Psychology (Schinke & Hanrahan, 2009) and The Cultural Turn in Sport Psychology (Ryba, Schinke, & Tenenbaum, 2010). The presenters...... in this symposium continue the initiated dialogue of the relevance of culture and cultural issues in their analyses of how social and cultural discourses shape career development and career transitions of athletes in different countries. Opening the foundations of sport psychological knowledge to culturally diverse...
Schwartz, Elliott; And Others
With the inspiration, the originality, the skill and craftsmanship, the business acumen, the patience, and the luck, it's possible to become a classical composer, pop/rock/country composer, jingle composer, or educational composer. Describes these careers. (Editor/RK)
"There's more diversity in physics careers than you might think. Stephen Battersby talks to three very different phsicists, all doing their bit to help us learn more about the world we live in." (2 pages)
Jensen, Jamie L.; Neeley, Shannon; Hatch, Jordan B.; Piorczynski, Ted
The United States produces too few Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) graduates to meet demand. We investigated scientific reasoning ability as a possible factor in STEM retention. To do this, we classified students in introductory biology courses at a large private university as either declared STEM or non-STEM majors and…
With reports of declining participation in mathematics related careers and low female participation rates, the issue of gender differences in mathematics remains relevant. This study seeks to examine the relationship between: children's sex, parents' beliefs regarding their children's education, and, the children's mathematics performance. Through…
Vila, Francisca; Sanz, Amparo
The importance of mathematical literacy in any scientific career is widely recognized. However, various studies report lack of numeracy and mathematical literacy in students from various countries. In the present work, we present a detailed study of the mathematical literacy of Spanish undergraduate students of Biology enrolled in a Plant…
Narayan, Nilesh Anish
The main purpose of this study is to assess the construct validity of Australian eighth grade mathematics teachers' perceptions towards their career satisfaction, their teaching practice and the everyday challenges encountered in schools. The data were utilised from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study where a total of 802…
van der Vink, G. E.; van der Vink, G. E.
A new generation of Geoscientists are abandoning the traditional pathways of oil exploration and academic research to pursue careers in public policy, international affairs, business, education and diplomacy. They are using their backgrounds in Geoscience to address challenging, multi-disciplinary problems of societal concern. To prepare for such careers, students are developing a broad understanding of science and a basic literacy in economics, international affairs, and policy-making.
Thackeray, Susan L.
It is important to train more females to support the needs of a national and global economy workforce. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the proposition of the effect subtle messaging has on a Utah young woman's future career choice. The literature review will approach the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) subjects with historical, psychological, and cultural vantage points. An examination of three interconnected topics of research will include a history of women in the workforce and identified barriers to STEM education and careers to identify what types of messages are delivered to women as it relates to STEM and how it influences their career interest decisions. While there are historical barriers towards women in training for and entering STEM careers, no strong evidence is identified for sustained improvement. The changing concepts of social cognitive career theory can potentially provide a framework for constructivist assumptions regarding the topic of what can focus Utah young women learners to influence their own career development and surroundings to persist into STEM careers. Interpretative Phenomenology Analysis (IPA) provides increased understanding of the experiences of how Utah young women come to their decision and what role their environment contributes to that experience. Preliminary research outcomes demonstrate that the participants describe feelings of self-efficacy along with cultural expectations that do not align with their personal goals to enter into STEM education and careers.
Whitfield, M D
In recent years, more women have pursued careers in business and the traditionally male professions. Those that have succeeded live with a high degree of environmental stress. Since some of them are now consulting psychiatrists it is important that the psychiatrist be able to differentiate difficulties which have a cultural basis from those stemming from individual psychodynamics. Cultural stresses have been reviewed under three headings: inaccurate stereotypes; inadequate cultural supports; and role overload. It has been suggested that contact with her peer group is extremely important for this type of woman patient. The peer group provides both support and a frame of reference within which individual problems may be understood.