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  1. Gender, culture, and mathematics performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hyde, Janet S.; Mertz, Janet E.

    2009-01-01

    Using contemporary data from the U.S. and other nations, we address 3 questions: Do gender differences in mathematics performance exist in the general population? Do gender differences exist among the mathematically talented? Do females exist who possess profound mathematical talent? In regard to the first question, contemporary data indicate that girls in the U.S. have reached parity with boys in mathematics performance, a pattern that is found in some other nations as well. Focusing on the ...

  2. Gender, culture, and mathematics performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet S; Mertz, Janet E

    2009-06-02

    Using contemporary data from the U.S. and other nations, we address 3 questions: Do gender differences in mathematics performance exist in the general population? Do gender differences exist among the mathematically talented? Do females exist who possess profound mathematical talent? In regard to the first question, contemporary data indicate that girls in the U.S. have reached parity with boys in mathematics performance, a pattern that is found in some other nations as well. Focusing on the second question, studies find more males than females scoring above the 95th or 99th percentile, but this gender gap has significantly narrowed over time in the U.S. and is not found among some ethnic groups and in some nations. Furthermore, data from several studies indicate that greater male variability with respect to mathematics is not ubiquitous. Rather, its presence correlates with several measures of gender inequality. Thus, it is largely an artifact of changeable sociocultural factors, not immutable, innate biological differences between the sexes. Responding to the third question, we document the existence of females who possess profound mathematical talent. Finally, we review mounting evidence that both the magnitude of mean math gender differences and the frequency of identification of gifted and profoundly gifted females significantly correlate with sociocultural factors, including measures of gender equality across nations.

  3. Mathematical Models of Elementary Mathematics Learning and Performance. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppes, Patrick

    This project was concerned with the development of mathematical models of elementary mathematics learning and performance. Probabilistic finite automata and register machines with a finite number of registers were developed as models and extensively tested with data arising from the elementary-mathematics strand curriculum developed by the…

  4. Linking Preservice Teachers' Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Mathematics Teaching Efficacy to Their Mathematical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Alan B.; Latham, Nancy; Kim, Jin-ah

    2011-01-01

    This study examined preservice teachers' mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics teaching efficacy and compared them to their mathematical performance. Participants included 89 early childhood preservice teachers at a Midwestern university. Instruments included the Mathematics Self-Efficacy Scale (MSES), Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs…

  5. Cognitive correlates of performance in advanced mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Yuan, Hongbo; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhou, Xinlin

    2012-03-01

    Much research has been devoted to understanding cognitive correlates of elementary mathematics performance, but little such research has been done for advanced mathematics (e.g., modern algebra, statistics, and mathematical logic). To promote mathematical knowledge among college students, it is necessary to understand what factors (including cognitive factors) are important for acquiring advanced mathematics. We recruited 80 undergraduates from four universities in Beijing. The current study investigated the associations between students' performance on a test of advanced mathematics and a battery of 17 cognitive tasks on basic numerical processing, complex numerical processing, spatial abilities, language abilities, and general cognitive processing. The results showed that spatial abilities were significantly correlated with performance in advanced mathematics after controlling for other factors. In addition, certain language abilities (i.e., comprehension of words and sentences) also made unique contributions. In contrast, basic numerical processing and computation were generally not correlated with performance in advanced mathematics. Results suggest that spatial abilities and language comprehension, but not basic numerical processing, may play an important role in advanced mathematics. These results are discussed in terms of their theoretical significance and practical implications. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Relationships of Mathematics Anxiety, Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Mathematics Performance of Adult Basic Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Beverly Kinsey

    2011-01-01

    Competent mathematical skills are needed in the workplace as well as in the college setting. Adults in Adult Basic Education classes and programs generally perform below high school level competency, but very few studies have been performed investigating the predictors of mathematical success for adults. The current study contributes to the…

  7. Visuospatial training improves elementary students' mathematics performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrie, Tom; Logan, Tracy; Ramful, Ajay

    2017-06-01

    Although spatial ability and mathematics performance are highly correlated, there is scant research on the extent to which spatial ability training can improve mathematics performance. This study evaluated the efficacy of a visuospatial intervention programme within classrooms to determine the effect on students' (1) spatial reasoning and (2) mathematics performance as a result of the intervention. The study involved grade six students (ages 10-12) in eight classes. There were five intervention classes (n = 120) and three non-intervention control classes (n = 66). A specifically designed 10-week spatial reasoning programme was developed collaboratively with the participating teachers, with the intervention replacing the standard mathematics curriculum. The five classroom teachers in the intervention programme presented 20 hr of activities aimed at enhancing students' spatial visualization, mental rotation, and spatial orientation skills. The spatial reasoning programme led to improvements in both spatial ability and mathematics performance relative to the control group who received standard mathematics instruction. Our study is the first to show that a classroom-based spatial reasoning intervention improves elementary school students' mathematics performance. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Correlation of Numerical Anxiety and Mathematics Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Howard D. Morada

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been observed that most students had negative view towards mathematics and as a result, they also performed poorly.As such, it is imperative for every math teacher to understand the reasons behind this negative view to improve their student’s performance. This observation led the researcher to conduct a study on Correlation of Mathematics Performance and Anxiety of third and fourth year students for school year 2012-2013 across the different programs.This study determined the numerical anxiety level and mathematics performance of the respondents along age, gender and programs. The study revealed that students, regardless of age had passing performance. However, female and male students had fair and passing mathematics performance, respectively. Students from College of Business Education, Teacher Education and Computer Studies had fair performance while those from Marine Transportation, Criminal Justice Education and Engineering had passing performance. The study also revealed that students across different variables had moderate numerical anxiety level. Furthermore, it was found out that mathematics performance is significantly related to numerical anxiety. However, the relationship was inverse and small.

  9. Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…

  10. Mathematics Anxiety in Young Children: Concurrent and Longitudinal Associations with Mathematical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Rose K.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Bailey, Sean P.; Harari, Rachel R.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored mathematics anxiety in a longitudinal sample of 113 children followed from second to third grade. We examined how mathematics anxiety related to different types of mathematical performance concurrently and longitudinally and whether the relations between mathematics anxiety and mathematical performance differed as a function of…

  11. A synthesis of mathematical and cognitive performances of students with mathematics learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mikyung; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize the findings from 23 articles that compared the mathematical and cognitive performances of students with mathematics learning disabilities (LD) to (a) students with LD in mathematics and reading, (b) age- or grade-matched students with no LD, and (c) mathematical-ability-matched younger students with no LD. Overall results revealed that students with mathematics LD exhibited higher word problem-solving abilities and no significant group differences on working memory, long-term memory, and metacognition measures compared to students with LD in mathematics and reading. Findings also revealed students with mathematics LD demonstrated significantly lower performance compared to age- or grade-matched students with no LD on both mathematical and cognitive measures. Comparison between students with mathematics LD and younger students with no LD revealed mixed outcomes on mathematical measures and generally no significant group differences on cognitive measures. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  12. Teacher classroom practices and Mathematics performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Mathematics teacher questionnaire, administered as part of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011, comprised questions pertaining to the classroom practices of Teacher Clarity, Classroom Discussion, Feedback, Formative Assessment, Problem Solving and Metacognitive Strategies, ...

  13. Increased environmental sensitivity in high mathematics performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwabe, I.; Boomsma, D. I.; van den Berg, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Results of international comparisons of students in studies such as PISA (Program for International Student Assessment) and TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) are often taken to indicate that mathematical education in Dutch schools is not appropriate for mathematically

  14. The Chicken or the Egg? The Direction of the Relationship Between Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Emma; Hill, Francesca; Devine, Amy; Szücs, Dénes

    2015-01-01

    This review considers the two possible causal directions between mathematics anxiety (MA) and poor mathematics performance. Either poor maths performance may elicit MA (referred to as the Deficit Theory), or MA may reduce future maths performance (referred to as the Debilitating Anxiety Model). The evidence is in conflict: the Deficit Theory is supported by longitudinal studies and studies of children with mathematical learning disabilities, but the Debilitating Anxiety Model is supported by research which manipulates anxiety levels and observes a change in mathematics performance. It is suggested that this mixture of evidence might indicate a bidirectional relationship between MA and mathematics performance (the Reciprocal Theory), in which MA and mathematics performance can influence one another in a vicious cycle.

  15. The chicken or the egg? The direction of the relationship between mathematics anxiety and mathematics performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eCarey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review considers the two possible causal directions between mathematics anxiety (MA and poor mathematics performance. Either poor maths performance may elicit MA (referred to as the Deficit Theory, or MA may reduce future maths performance (referred to as the Debilitating Anxiety Model. The evidence is in conflict: the Deficit Theory is supported by longitudinal studies and studies of children with mathematical learning disabilities, but the Debilitating Anxiety Model is supported by research which manipulates anxiety levels and observes a change in mathematics performance. It is suggested that this mixture of evidence might indicate a bidirectional relationship between MA and mathematics performance (the Reciprocal Theory, in which MA and mathematics performance can influence one another in a vicious cycle.

  16. The Chicken or the Egg? The Direction of the Relationship Between Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Emma; Hill, Francesca; Devine, Amy; Sz?cs, D?nes

    2016-01-01

    This review considers the two possible causal directions between mathematics anxiety (MA) and poor mathematics performance. Either poor maths performance may elicit MA (referred to as the Deficit Theory), or MA may reduce future maths performance (referred to as the Debilitating Anxiety Model). The evidence is in conflict: the Deficit Theory is supported by longitudinal studies and studies of children with mathematical learning disabilities, but the Debilitating Anxiety Model is supported by ...

  17. Gender differences in mathematics anxiety and the relation to mathematics performance while controlling for test anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devine Amy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematics anxiety (MA, a state of discomfort associated with performing mathematical tasks, is thought to affect a notable proportion of the school age population. Some research has indicated that MA negatively affects mathematics performance and that girls may report higher levels of MA than boys. On the other hand some research has indicated that boys’ mathematics performance is more negatively affected by MA than girls’ performance is. The aim of the current study was to measure girls’ and boys’ mathematics performance as well as their levels of MA while controlling for test anxiety (TA a construct related to MA but which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Methods Four-hundred and thirty three British secondary school children in school years 7, 8 and 10 completed customised mental mathematics tests and MA and TA questionnaires. Results No gender differences emerged for mathematics performance but levels of MA and TA were higher for girls than for boys. Girls and boys showed a positive correlation between MA and TA and a negative correlation between MA and mathematics performance. TA was also negatively correlated with mathematics performance, but this relationship was stronger for girls than for boys. When controlling for TA, the negative correlation between MA and performance remained for girls only. Regression analyses revealed that MA was a significant predictor of performance for girls but not for boys. Conclusions Our study has revealed that secondary school children experience MA. Importantly, we controlled for TA which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Girls showed higher levels of MA than boys and high levels of MA were related to poorer levels of mathematics performance. As well as potentially having a detrimental effect on ‘online’ mathematics performance, past research has shown that high levels of MA can have negative consequences for later mathematics education

  18. Gender differences in mathematics anxiety and the relation to mathematics performance while controlling for test anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Amy; Fawcett, Kayleigh; Szűcs, Dénes; Dowker, Ann

    2012-07-09

    Mathematics anxiety (MA), a state of discomfort associated with performing mathematical tasks, is thought to affect a notable proportion of the school age population. Some research has indicated that MA negatively affects mathematics performance and that girls may report higher levels of MA than boys. On the other hand some research has indicated that boys' mathematics performance is more negatively affected by MA than girls' performance is. The aim of the current study was to measure girls' and boys' mathematics performance as well as their levels of MA while controlling for test anxiety (TA) a construct related to MA but which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Four-hundred and thirty three British secondary school children in school years 7, 8 and 10 completed customised mental mathematics tests and MA and TA questionnaires. No gender differences emerged for mathematics performance but levels of MA and TA were higher for girls than for boys. Girls and boys showed a positive correlation between MA and TA and a negative correlation between MA and mathematics performance. TA was also negatively correlated with mathematics performance, but this relationship was stronger for girls than for boys. When controlling for TA, the negative correlation between MA and performance remained for girls only. Regression analyses revealed that MA was a significant predictor of performance for girls but not for boys. Our study has revealed that secondary school children experience MA. Importantly, we controlled for TA which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Girls showed higher levels of MA than boys and high levels of MA were related to poorer levels of mathematics performance. As well as potentially having a detrimental effect on 'online' mathematics performance, past research has shown that high levels of MA can have negative consequences for later mathematics education. Therefore MA warrants attention in the mathematics classroom, particularly because

  19. Gender differences in mathematics anxiety and the relation to mathematics performance while controlling for test anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Mathematics anxiety (MA), a state of discomfort associated with performing mathematical tasks, is thought to affect a notable proportion of the school age population. Some research has indicated that MA negatively affects mathematics performance and that girls may report higher levels of MA than boys. On the other hand some research has indicated that boys’ mathematics performance is more negatively affected by MA than girls’ performance is. The aim of the current study was to measure girls’ and boys’ mathematics performance as well as their levels of MA while controlling for test anxiety (TA) a construct related to MA but which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Methods Four-hundred and thirty three British secondary school children in school years 7, 8 and 10 completed customised mental mathematics tests and MA and TA questionnaires. Results No gender differences emerged for mathematics performance but levels of MA and TA were higher for girls than for boys. Girls and boys showed a positive correlation between MA and TA and a negative correlation between MA and mathematics performance. TA was also negatively correlated with mathematics performance, but this relationship was stronger for girls than for boys. When controlling for TA, the negative correlation between MA and performance remained for girls only. Regression analyses revealed that MA was a significant predictor of performance for girls but not for boys. Conclusions Our study has revealed that secondary school children experience MA. Importantly, we controlled for TA which is typically not controlled for in MA studies. Girls showed higher levels of MA than boys and high levels of MA were related to poorer levels of mathematics performance. As well as potentially having a detrimental effect on ‘online’ mathematics performance, past research has shown that high levels of MA can have negative consequences for later mathematics education. Therefore MA warrants attention in

  20. Mathematical Modeling of Circadian/Performance Countermeasures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We developed and refined our current mathematical model of circadian rhythms to incorporate melatonin as a marker rhythm. We used an existing physiologically based...

  1. Sex Differences in Mathematics Performance among Senior High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored sex differences in mathematics performance of students in the final year of high school and changes in these differences over a 3-year period in Ghana. A convenience sample of 182 students, 109 boys and 72 girls in three high schools in Ghana was used. Mathematics performance was assessed using ...

  2. Is There a Causal Relation between Mathematical Creativity and Mathematical Problem-Solving Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Tarun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between mathematical creativity (MC) and mathematical problem-solving performance (MP) has often been studied but the causal relation between these two constructs has yet to be clearly reported. The main purpose of this study was to define the causal relationship between MC and MP. Data from a representative sample of 480…

  3. Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-Efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melius, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze the relationships that exist between mathematics anxiety and nurse self-efficacy for mathematics, and the medication calculation performance of acute care nurses. This research used a quantitative correlational research design and involved a sample of 84 acute care nurses, LVNs and RNs, from a…

  4. Mathematical modeling of optical glazing performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijnatten, van P.A.; Wittwer, V.; Granqvist, C.G.; Lampert, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    Mathematical modelling can be a powerful tool in the design and optimalization of glazing. By calculation, the specifications of a glazing design and the optimal design parameters can be predicted without building costly prototypes first. Furthermore, properties which are difficult to measure, like

  5. Field Dependency and Performance in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwumere, Onyebuchi; Reid, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics is an important school subject but one which often poses problems for learners. It has been found that learners do not possess the cognitive capacity to handle understanding procedures, representations, concepts, and applications at the same time. while the extent of field dependency may hold the key to one way by which the working…

  6. Mathematical Performance: What's in It for Developmental Educators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Joe

    1985-01-01

    Points out that successful mathematical performance depends not only on declarative and procedural content knowledge, but also upon mathematical thinking skills such as problem-schema knowledge, decision-making skills, and metacognitive knowledge. Argues that the growing need for remediation should influence schools' traditional overemphasis on…

  7. Recognising "Good at Mathematics": Using a Performative Lens for Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darragh, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Many students do not recognise in themselves positive learner identities in mathematics and thus exclude themselves from further mathematics education, limiting their life opportunities. In this study, I use a performance metaphor for identity, drawing on G.H. Mead, Erving Goffman and Judith Butler to analyse interviews with students, taken at…

  8. Relationship of Mathematics Olympiad Performance of Gifted Students with IQ and Mathematics Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali İhsan BORAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate relationship of mathematics Olympiad (analysis-algebra and geometry scores of gifted students with IQ scores (verbal, performance and general and mathematics achievement scores of the gifted students. Study group of the study included 64 gifted students (27 girls and 37 boys who took courses from one Science and Art Center. Data of study involved scores of the participants on mathematics Olympiad exam, WISC-R test and school mathematics achievement. For analysis of the data Pearson correlation analysis, Spearman correlation analysis, independent groups’ t-test and Mann Whitney U test were utilized. The findings showed that there was no significant relationship between the Olympiad scores on analysis-algebra and geometry and IQ scores (general, performance and verbal. But the Olympiad scores on analysis-algebra and geometry factors were significantly related to school mathematics achievement. Comparing IQ scores of highest and lowest scorer groups on the Olympiad scores showed that there were no significant differences between IQ scores (general, performance and verbal of the groups. However school mathematics scores of the participants significantly differed in terms of groups determined based on analysis-algebra and geometry scores.

  9. Effects of Vigorous Intensity Physical Activity on Mathematics Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, David S.; Hannon, James C.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an acute bout of physical activity on academic performance in school-based settings is under researched. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between a single, vigorous (70-85%) bout of physical activity completed during physical education on standardized mathematics test performance among 72, eighth grade students…

  10. An Examination of Stereotype Threat Effects on Girls' Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Colleen M.; Mingle, Leigh A.; Ryan, Allison M.; Ryan, Katherine; Vasilyeva, Marina; Perry, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat has been proposed as 1 potential explanation for the gender difference in standardized mathematics test performance among high-performing students. At present, it is not entirely clear how susceptibility to stereotype threat develops, as empirical evidence for stereotype threat effects across the school years is inconsistent. In…

  11. Recognising `good at mathematics': using a performative lens for identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darragh, Lisa

    2015-03-01

    Many students do not recognise in themselves positive learner identities in mathematics and thus exclude themselves from further mathematics education, limiting their life opportunities. In this study, I use a performance metaphor for identity, drawing on G.H. Mead, Erving Goffman and Judith Butler to analyse interviews with students, taken at four time points as they make the transition from primary to secondary school. The question I focus on is `How do you recognise someone who is "good at mathematics"?' The students' responses reveal that there is a wide variety of scripts available when enacting the role of `good at mathematics', and these include getting high marks, knowing the answer quickly, helping others and demonstrating the confidence to put up their hand to answer questions. Despite the variety of ways in which to demonstrate `good at mathematics', most of the students did not recognise themselves in their own descriptions. This goes some way towards explaining why students may opt out of further study in mathematics, despite high achievement in this subject.

  12. Spatial transformation abilities and their relation to later mathematics performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Andrea

    2018-04-10

    Using a longitudinal approach, this study investigated the relational structure of different spatial transformation skills at kindergarten age, and how these spatial skills relate to children's later mathematics performance. Children were tested at three time points, in kindergarten, first grade, and second grade (N = 119). Exploratory factor analyses revealed two subcomponents of spatial transformation skills: one representing egocentric transformations (mental rotation and spatial scaling), and one representing allocentric transformations (e.g., cross-sectioning, perspective taking). Structural equation modeling suggested that egocentric transformation skills showed their strongest relation to the part of the mathematics test tapping arithmetic operations, whereas allocentric transformations were strongly related to Numeric-Logical and Spatial Functions as well as geometry. The present findings point to a tight connection between early mental transformation skills, particularly the ones requiring a high level of spatial flexibility and a strong sense for spatial magnitudes, and children's mathematics performance at the beginning of their school career.

  13. Changes in Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Understanding of Cognitive Demand: When Adapting, Creating, and Using Mathematical Performance Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Thad Spencer

    2015-01-01

    The use of mathematics performance tasks can provide a window into how a student is applying mathematics to various situations, how they are reasoning mathematically and how they are applying conceptual knowledge through problem solving and critical thinking. The purpose of this study was to investigate, according to the elementary mathematics…

  14. The Influence of Cognitive Abilities on Mathematical Problem Solving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Abdulkadir

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of students. The…

  15. Gender-Based Differential Item Performance in Mathematics Achievement Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Allen E.; Cleary, T. Anne

    1987-01-01

    Eight randomly equivalent samples of high school seniors were each given a unique form of the ACT Assessment Mathematics Usage Test (ACTM). Signed measures of differential item performance (DIP) were obtained for each item in the eight ACTM forms. DIP estimates were analyzed and a significant item category effect was found. (Author/LMO)

  16. Self-Assessment in Mathematics as Correlate of Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between students self assessment in Mathematics and academic performance in Senior Secondary School Physics. The research is descriptive and of the survey type as there was no treatment and manipulation of subjects. Instead it involves the use of questionnaire ...

  17. Performance Analysis of Parallel Mathematical Subroutine library PARCEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Susumu; Shimizu, Futoshi; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Kaburaki, Hideo; Kishida, Norio

    2000-01-01

    The parallel mathematical subroutine library PARCEL (Parallel Computing Elements) has been developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for easy use of typical parallelized mathematical codes in any application problems on distributed parallel computers. The PARCEL includes routines for linear equations, eigenvalue problems, pseudo-random number generation, and fast Fourier transforms. It is shown that the results of performance for linear equations routines exhibit good parallelization efficiency on vector, as well as scalar, parallel computers. A comparison of the efficiency results with the PETSc (Portable Extensible Tool kit for Scientific Computations) library has been reported. (author)

  18. Effects of reading picture books on kindergartners’ mathematics performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Elia, Iliada; Robitzsch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a field experiment with a pretest–posttest control group design which investigated the potential of reading picture books to children for supporting their mathematical understanding. The study involved 384 children from 18 kindergarten classes in 18 schools in the Netherlands. During three months, the children in the nine experimental classes were read picture books. Data analysis revealed that, when controlled for relevant covariates, the picture book reading programme had a positive effect (d = .13) on kindergartners’ mathematics performance as measured by a project test containing items on number, measurement and geometry. Compared to the increase from pretest to posttest in the control group, the increase in the experimental group was 22% larger. No significant differential intervention effects were found between subgroups based on kindergarten year, age, home language, socio-economic status and mathematics and language ability, but a significant intervention effect was found for girls and not for boys. PMID:26855457

  19. Mathematics-Related Emotions among Finnish Adolescents across Different Performance Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Marja Eliisa; Hannula, Markku Sakari; Björn, Piia Maria

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relation of mathematics performance and gender with seven mathematics-related emotions (enjoyment, pride, anger, anxiety, shame, hopelessness and boredom) among adolescents. Using strict and lenient mathematics performance cut-off scores, respective groups of adolescents with mathematics difficulties (MD, n = 136), low (LA,…

  20. Mathematics Anxiety, Working Memory, and Mathematics Performance in Secondary-School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passolunghi, Maria C; Caviola, Sara; De Agostini, Ruggero; Perin, Chiara; Mammarella, Irene C

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics anxiety (MA) has been defined as "a feeling of tension and anxiety that interferes with the manipulation of numbers and the solving of math problems in a wide variety of ordinary life and academic situations." Previous studies have suggested that a notable proportion of children in primary and secondary school suffer from MA, which is negatively correlated with calculation skills. The processing efficiency and attentional control theories suggest that working memory (WM) also plays an important part in such anxious feelings. The present study aimed to analyze the academic achievement and cognitive profiles of students with high math anxiety (HMA) and low math anxiety (LMA). Specifically, 32 students with HMA and 34 with LMA matched for age, gender, generalized anxiety, and vocabulary attending sixth to eighth grades were selected from a larger sample. The two groups were tested on reading decoding, reading comprehension, mathematics achievement, and on verbal short-term memory and WM. Our findings showed that HMA students were weak in several measures of mathematics achievement, but not in reading and writing skills, and that students with HMA reported lower scores on short-term memory and WM performances (with associated difficulties in inhibiting irrelevant information) than children with LMA. In addition, a logistic regression showed that weaknesses in inhibitory control and fact retrieval were the strongest variables for classifying children as having HMA or LMA.

  1. Mathematics Anxiety, Working Memory and Mathematics Performance in Secondary-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara ePassolunghi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics anxiety (MA has been defined as a feeling of tension and anxiety that interferes with the manipulation of numbers and the solving of math problems in a wide variety of ordinary life and academic situations. Previous studies have suggested that a notable proportion of children in primary and secondary school suffer from MA, which is negatively correlated with calculation skills. The processing efficiency and attentional control theories suggest that working memory (WM also plays an important part in such anxious feelings.The present study aimed to analyze the academic achievement and cognitive profiles of students with high math anxiety (HMA and low math anxiety (LMA. Specifically, 32 students with HMA and 34 with LMA matched for age, gender, generalized anxiety, and vocabulary attending sixth to eighth grades were selected from a larger sample. The two groups were tested on reading decoding, reading comprehension, mathematics achievement, and on verbal short-term memory and WM. Our findings showed that HMA students were weak in several measures of mathematics achievement, but not in reading and writing skills, and that students with HMA reported lower scores on short-term memory and WM performances (with associated difficulties in inhibiting irrelevant information than children with LMA. In addition, a logistic regression showed that weaknesses in inhibitory control and fact retrieval were the strongest variables for classifying children as having HMA or LMA.

  2. The influence of second language teaching on undergraduate mathematics performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Ans; Engelbrecht, Johann; Harding, Ansie; Rogan, John

    2005-10-01

    Understanding abstract concepts and ideas in mathematics, if instruction takes place in the first language of the student, is difficult. Yet worldwide students often have to master mathematics via a second or third language. The majority of students in South Africa — a country with eleven official languages — has to face this difficulty. In a quantitative study of first year calculus students, we investigated two groups of students. For one group tuition took place in their home language; for the second group, tuition was in English, a second or even a third language. Performance data on their secondary mathematics and first year tertiary calculus were analysed. The study showed that there was no significant difference between the adjusted means of the entire group of first language learners and the entire group of second language learners. Neither was there any statistically significant difference between the performances of the two groups of second language learners (based on the adjusted means). Yet, there did seem to be a significant difference between the achievement of Afrikaans students attending Afrikaans lectures and Afrikaans students attending English lectures.

  3. Math Self-Assessment, but Not Negative Feelings, Predicts Mathematics Performance of Elementary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Geraldi Haase

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics anxiety has been associated to performance in school mathematics. The association between math anxiety and psychosocial competencies as well as their specific contribution to explain school mathematics performance are still unclear. In the present study, the impact of sociodemographic factors, psychosocial competencies, and math anxiety on mathematics and spelling performance was examined in school children with and without mathematics difficulties. The specific contributions of psychosocial competencies (i.e., general anxiety and attentional deficits with hyperactivity and math anxiety (i.e., self-assessment in mathematics to school mathematics performance were found to be statistically independent from each other. Moreover, psychosocial competencies—but not math anxiety—were related also to spelling performance. These results suggest that psychosocial competencies are more related to general mechanisms of emotional regulation and emotional response towards academic performance, while mathematics anxiety is related to the specific cognitive aspect of self-assessment in mathematics.

  4. The Relationship between Students' Performance on Conventional Standardized Mathematics Assessments and Complex Mathematical Modeling Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Ozgul; Dunya, Beyza Aksu; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Zawojewski, Judith S.

    2016-01-01

    Critical to many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career paths is mathematical modeling--specifically, the creation and adaptation of mathematical models to solve problems in complex settings. Conventional standardized measures of mathematics achievement are not structured to directly assess this type of mathematical…

  5. What Math Matters? Types of Mathematics Knowledge and Relationships to Methods Course Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajander, Ann; Holm, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a departmental focus on enhanced mathematics knowledge for teaching on overall performance in upper elementary mathematics methods courses. The study examined the effect of performance on a new course in mathematics for teaching on performance at the methods course level. In addition, the effect of performance…

  6. Assessing Senior Secondary School Students' Mathematical Proficiency as Related to Gender and Performance in Mathematics in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awofala, Adeneye O. A.

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated mathematical proficiency as related to gender and performance in mathematics among 400 Nigerian senior secondary school students from 10 elitist senior secondary schools in Lagos State using the quantitative research method within the blueprint of descriptive survey design. Data collected were analysed using the descriptive…

  7. Assessing Preservice Teachers' Mathematics Cognitive Failures as Related to Mathematics Anxiety and Performance in Undergraduate Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awofala, Adeneye O. A.; Odogwu, Helen N.

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated mathematics cognitive failures as related to mathematics anxiety, gender and performance in calculus among 450 preservice teachers from four public universities in the South West geo-political zone of Nigeria using the quantitative research method within the blueprint of the descriptive survey design. Data collected were…

  8. A Mathematical Model to Improve the Performance of Logistics Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Izman Herdiansyah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of logistics nowadays is expanding from just providing transportation and warehousing to offering total integrated logistics. To remain competitive in the global market environment, business enterprises need to improve their logistics operations performance. The improvement will be achieved when we can provide a comprehensive analysis and optimize its network performances. In this paper, a mixed integer linier model for optimizing logistics network performance is developed. It provides a single-product multi-period multi-facilities model, as well as the multi-product concept. The problem is modeled in form of a network flow problem with the main objective to minimize total logistics cost. The problem can be solved using commercial linear programming package like CPLEX or LINDO. Even in small case, the solver in Excel may also be used to solve such model.Keywords: logistics network, integrated model, mathematical programming, network optimization

  9. How students process equations in solving quantitative synthesis problems? Role of mathematical complexity in students’ mathematical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashirah Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine students’ mathematical performance on quantitative “synthesis problems” with varying mathematical complexity. Synthesis problems are tasks comprising multiple concepts typically taught in different chapters. Mathematical performance refers to the formulation, combination, and simplification of equations. Generally speaking, formulation and combination of equations require conceptual reasoning; simplification of equations requires manipulation of equations as computational tools. Mathematical complexity is operationally defined by the number and the type of equations to be manipulated concurrently due to the number of unknowns in each equation. We use two types of synthesis problems, namely, sequential and simultaneous tasks. Sequential synthesis tasks require a chronological application of pertinent concepts, and simultaneous synthesis tasks require a concurrent application of the pertinent concepts. A total of 179 physics major students from a second year mechanics course participated in the study. Data were collected from written tasks and individual interviews. Results show that mathematical complexity negatively influences the students’ mathematical performance on both types of synthesis problems. However, for the sequential synthesis tasks, it interferes only with the students’ simplification of equations. For the simultaneous synthesis tasks, mathematical complexity additionally impedes the students’ formulation and combination of equations. Several reasons may explain this difference, including the students’ different approaches to the two types of synthesis problems, cognitive load, and the variation of mathematical complexity within each synthesis type.

  10. Effects of a Mathematics Fluency Program on Mathematics Performance of Students with Challenging Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Todd; Hirn, Regina G.; Lingo, Amy S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effects of a fluency-building mathematics program called Great Leaps Math on fluency of basic addition mathematics facts zero to nine and word problem solving using a multiple probe design across participants. Three elementary students with challenging behaviors and mathematics difficulty participated in the…

  11. Children's mathematical performance: five cognitive tasks across five grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alex M; Ashcraft, Mark H

    2015-07-01

    Children in elementary school, along with college adults, were tested on a battery of basic mathematical tasks, including digit naming, number comparison, dot enumeration, and simple addition or subtraction. Beyond cataloguing performance to these standard tasks in Grades 1 to 5, we also examined relationships among the tasks, including previously reported results on a number line estimation task. Accuracy and latency improved across grades for all tasks, and classic interaction patterns were found, for example, a speed-up of subitizing and counting, increasingly shallow slopes in number comparison, and progressive speeding of responses especially to larger addition and subtraction problems. Surprisingly, digit naming was faster than subitizing at all ages, arguing against a pre-attentive processing explanation for subitizing. Estimation accuracy and speed were strong predictors of children's addition and subtraction performance. Children who gave exponential responses on the number line estimation task were slower at counting in the dot enumeration task and had longer latencies on addition and subtraction problems. The results provided further support for the importance of estimation as an indicator of children's current and future mathematical expertise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Didactic strategies through authentic performances in the Mathematics teaching process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Diaz Chong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is gather a set of Mathematic didactic strategies by improving the academic performance and acquiring skills and abilities through authentic performances during the teaching process. The investigation is going to realize with students of the first semester E and with a teacher of Commercial Studies career, applying the “learn to learn” method described in the fundaments since the application of the teaching strategy until the evaluation. Through this method, they acquire basic competence of the mentioned subject and the knowledge in order to use them as future professionals in any life circumstance. It will verify the obtained results by having a better motivation of the students and the discipline comprehension. It is important to highlight that those strategies could be applied in any other subject.

  13. Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Mathematics Content Knowledge: A Predictor of Sixth Graders' Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvani, Hosin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the knowledge of mathematics content of elementary pre-service teachers at a sixth grade level. The researcher administered a mathematics test for sixth graders mandated by the Texas Education Agency to pre-service teachers; the same test was given to sixth graders in Texas. The study found that pre-service teachers performed…

  14. Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Eringen, A Cemal

    2013-01-01

    Continuum Physics: Volume 1 - Mathematics is a collection of papers that discusses certain selected mathematical methods used in the study of continuum physics. Papers in this collection deal with developments in mathematics in continuum physics and its applications such as, group theory functional analysis, theory of invariants, and stochastic processes. Part I explains tensor analysis, including the geometry of subspaces and the geometry of Finsler. Part II discusses group theory, which also covers lattices, morphisms, and crystallographic groups. Part III reviews the theory of invariants th

  15. Gender, Parental Beliefs and Children's Mathematics Performance: Insights from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Colin

    2014-01-01

    With reports of declining participation in mathematics related careers and low female participation rates, the issue of gender differences in mathematics remains relevant. This study seeks to examine the relationship between: children's sex, parents' beliefs regarding their children's education, and, the children's mathematics performance. Through…

  16. Assessing the Relation between Seventh-Grade Students' Engagement and Mathematical Problem Solving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lein, Amy E.; Jitendra, Asha K.; Starosta, Kristin M.; Dupuis, Danielle N.; Hughes-Reid, Cheyenne L.; Star, Jon R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the authors assessed the contribution of engagement (on-task behavior) to the mathematics problem-solving performance of seventh-grade students after accounting for prior mathematics achievement. A subsample of seventh-grade students in four mathematics classrooms (one high-, two average-, and one low-achieving) from a larger…

  17. The Relations among Mathematics Anxiety, Gender, and Standardized Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Yasmeen; Krause, Jeremy A.; Blum, Emily N.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics anxiety typically involves apprehension toward activities that require computation, which can lead to complications in every-day-life activities (Ashcraft, 2002). Mathematics anxiety also has become accepted as an issue associated with academic success for both children and adults (Ashcraft, 2002; Ashcraft & Moore, 2009; Beilock,…

  18. The Effects of a Tier 3 Intervention on the Mathematics Performance of Second Grade Students With Severe Mathematics Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Brian R; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Porterfield, Jennifer; Dennis, Minyi Shih; Falcomata, Terry; Valentine, Courtney; Brewer, Chelsea; Bell, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a systematic, explicit, intensive Tier 3 (tertiary) intervention on the mathematics performance of students in second grade with severe mathematics difficulties. A multiple-baseline design across groups of participants showed improved mathematics performance on number and operations concepts and procedures, which are the foundation for later mathematics success. In the previous year, 12 participants had experienced two doses (first and second semesters) of a Tier 2 intervention. In second grade, the participants continued to demonstrate low performance, falling below the 10th percentile on a researcher-designed universal screener and below the 16th percentile on a distal measure, thus qualifying for the intensive intervention. A project interventionist, who met with the students 5 days a week for 10 weeks (9 weeks for one group), conducted the intensive intervention. The intervention employed more intensive instructional design features than the previous Tier 2 secondary instruction, and also included weekly games to reinforce concepts and skills from the lessons. Spring results showed significantly improved mathematics performance (scoring at or above the 25th percentile) for most of the students, thus making them eligible to exit the Tier 3 intervention. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  19. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-06-10

    To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes--although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms.

  20. Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Sherman K

    2010-01-01

    Anyone can appreciate the beauty, depth, and vitality of mathematics with the help of this highly readable text, specially developed from a college course designed to appeal to students in a variety of fields. Readers with little mathematical background are exposed to a broad range of subjects chosen from number theory, topology, set theory, geometry, algebra, and analysis. Starting with a survey of questions on weight, the text discusses the primes, the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, rationals and irrationals, tiling, tiling and electricity, probability, infinite sets, and many other topi

  1. Mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demazure, M.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Mathematics center (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Center is composed of different research teams: analysis, Riemann geometry, group theory, formal calculus and algorithm geometry, dynamical systems, topology and singularity. For each team, the members, the research topics, the national and international cooperations, are given. The papers concerning the investigations carried out in 1988, are listed [fr

  2. Japanese Pupils’ Attribution of their Perceived Mathematics Performance and the Relationships Between their Attribution of Mathematics Performance and their Affective Attitudes Promoted by Different Teaching Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Saeki

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This research used a questionnaire survey to explore the relationship between pupils’ attribution of their perceived mathematics performance and their affective attitudes towards mathematics learning as promoted by the different teaching methods they were exposed to in their mathematics classes. Both 5th and 8th graders attributed their success in learning mathematics to effort, although support from the teacher and support at home were also perceived as important factors in their success. The 5th graders and 8th graders overall gave effort-based attributions in the case of failure, while for 5th graders, ability was regarded as being as important as effort, in attributing failure in mathematics learning. Pupils who attributed their success in mathematics learning to effort, support at school and home, preferred teacher explanation and reading a textbook as learning strategies, while those attributing it to their ability preferred Individual work. Where pupils attributed success to luck, this seemed to have a negative effect on their affective attitudes towards mathematics learning as promoted by different teaching methods, while attributing failure to luck seemed to have positive effect. Attributing failure to poor teaching seemed to have a negative effect on their perception of teacher explanation. The relationships between pupil effort or ability based attributions of failure and their preference for different teaching methods were not clear. Adopting various teaching methods in mathematics classes would seem to support pupils who have different attribution styles.

  3. Some Factors That Affecting the Performance of Mathematics Teachers in Junior High School in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manullang, Martua; Rajagukguk, Waminton

    2016-01-01

    Some Factor's That Affecting The Mathematic Teacher Performance For Junior High School In Medan. This research will examine the effect of direct and indirect of the Organizational Knowledge towards the achievement motivation, decision making, organizational commitment, the performance of mathematics teacher. The research method is a method of…

  4. The Study of the Relationship between Mother's Studies with Study Skills and Mathematics Performance of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnoush Taheri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Certainly teaching study skills of mathematics has special importance and plays important role in mathematics performance of students. As mothers spend more times with self-children then they can be effect on study and their mathematics performance. Present research implements to study of the relationship between mothers' studies with study skills and mathematics performance of their children. Population of this research is all girl students of first grade in high school at zone one of Tehran and sample is 97 people. For collecting data of this research through standard questionnaire of mathematics studies skills is used for measuring of study skill of mathematics and questions for studying information related to mothers' studies and a math exam for getting information of mathematics performance of students are used. The results indicated that there is not significant relationship between mothers' studies and study skill of mathematics among students. Also, it is indicated that there is positive significant relationship between mothers' studies and mathematic performance of students.

  5. The Study of the Relationship between Mothers' Anxiety with the Mathematical Performance and Students' Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Moradpour

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Today mathematics stress have considered under interesting of many psychologists of mathematics education and cognitive psychologists too so that recognize emotion and mental stimulations of students in mathematics and to find scientific strategies for removing and controlling them. Anxiety is one of important and effective issues of 21th century. This study is done with aim of the study of relationship between mothers' anxiety with mathematics performance and anxiety of their children at first grade of high school at zone one of Tehran. Among population, 97 students and their mothers are chosen. Data of this research are collected by Cattell standard questionnaire for studying mothers' anxiety and standard questionnaire of mathematics anxiety for studying mathematics anxiety and a math exam for studying of students' performance. Research findings indicate that there is significant relationship between mothers' anxiety with mathematics anxiety and performance of students. Also it indicated that there is significant difference between students with high and low mathematics anxiety in term of mathematics performance.

  6. Effects of Reading Picture Books on Kindergartners' Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Elia, Iliada; Robitzsch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a field experiment with a pretest-posttest control group design which investigated the potential of reading picture books to children for supporting their mathematical understanding. The study involved 384 children from 18 kindergarten classes in 18 schools in the Netherlands. During three months, the children in the nine…

  7. Effects of reading picture books on kindergartners’ mathematics performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M.; Elia, I.; Robitzsch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a field experiment with a pretest–posttest control group design which investigated the potential of reading picture books to children for supporting their mathematical understanding. The study involved 384 children from 18 kindergarten classes in 18 schools in the Netherlands.

  8. Contributions of Motivation, Early Numeracy Skills, and Executive Functioning to Mathematical Performance. A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercader, Jessica; Miranda, Ana; Presentación, M Jesús; Siegenthaler, Rebeca; Rosel, Jesús F

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of this longitudinal study is to examine the power of different variables and its dynamic interactions in predicting mathematical performance. The model proposed in this study includes indicators of motivational constructs (learning motivation and attributions), executive functioning (inhibition and working memory), and early numeracy skills (logical operations, counting, and magnitude comparison abilities), assessed during kindergarten, and mathematical performance in the second year of Primary Education. The sample consisted of 180 subjects assessed in two moments (5-6 and 7-8 years old). The results showed an indirect effect of initial motivation on later mathematical performance. Executive functioning and early numeracy skills mediated the effect of motivation on later mathematic achievement. Practical implications of these findings for mathematics education are discussed.

  9. Contributions of Motivation, Early Numeracy Skills, and Executive Functioning to Mathematical Performance. A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Mercader

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this longitudinal study is to examine the power of different variables and its dynamic interactions in predicting mathematical performance. The model proposed in this study includes indicators of motivational constructs (learning motivation and attributions, executive functioning (inhibition and working memory, and early numeracy skills (logical operations, counting, and magnitude comparison abilities, assessed during kindergarten, and mathematical performance in the second year of Primary Education. The sample consisted of 180 subjects assessed in two moments (5–6 and 7–8 years old. The results showed an indirect effect of initial motivation on later mathematical performance. Executive functioning and early numeracy skills mediated the effect of motivation on later mathematic achievement. Practical implications of these findings for mathematics education are discussed.

  10. Effects of flipped instruction on the performance and attitude of high school students in mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remalyn Q. Casem

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of flipped instruction on the performance and attitude of high school students in Mathematics. The study made use of the true experimental design, specifically the pretest-posttest control group design. There were two instruments used to gather data, the pretest-posttest which was subjected to validity and reliability tests and the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudes Scale. It was found out that the experimental and control groups were comparable in the pretest and posttest. Comparison on their gain scores revealed significant difference with performance of the experimental group higher than the control group. There was no significant difference on the level of attitude of the participants in the experimental group before and after the study in terms of confidence in learning mathematics, attitude toward success in mathematics, mathematics anxiety and perception of teacher's attitudes. A very weak positive relationship existed between performance and attitudes toward mathematics.

  11. School Context and Gender Differences in Mathematical Performance among School Graduates in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessudnov, Alexey; Makarov, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in mathematical performance have received considerable scrutiny in the fields of sociology, economics and psychology. We analyse a large data-set of high school graduates who took a standardised mathematical test in Russia in 2011 (n = 738,456) and find no substantial difference in mean test scores across boys and girls.…

  12. The influence of gender on performance in mathematics in in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of gender on performance in mathematics in in the foundation phase: the perceptions of selected teachers in a specific school. ... Again, the study has suggested strategies to encourage girls to do mathematics so as to improve their chances of following career options in engineering, accounting, medicine, ...

  13. The Relationship between Studying Music and Mathematics Performance on the New Jersey High School Proficiency Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Kristie L.

    2011-01-01

    On assessments such as Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) (Stigler & Hiebert, 1999) and Program for International Assessment (PISA) ("PISA 2006 Science Competencies for Tomorrow's World", 2007) students in the United States have not been performing as well in mathematics as students in other countries. In…

  14. A Cross-National Comparison of Reported Effort and Mathematics Performance in TIMSS Advanced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklöf, Hanna; Pavešic, Barbara Japelj; Grønmo, Liv Sissel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to measure students' reported test-taking effort and the relationship between reported effort and performance on the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Advanced mathematics test. This was done in three countries participating in TIMSS Advanced 2008 (Sweden, Norway, and Slovenia), and the…

  15. Teacher Classroom Practices and Mathematics Performance in South African Schools: A Reflection on TIMSS 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, Fabian; Winnaar, Lolita; Mosimege, Mogege

    2017-01-01

    Teachers play an important role in the provision of quality education. The variety of classroom practices they use in interacting with learners play a critical role in the understanding of mathematical concepts and overall performance in Mathematics. Following the work done by Hattie (2009, 2012) in relation to classroom practices this study…

  16. Creating a Critical Mass Eliminates the Effects of Stereotype Threat on Women's Mathematical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Charlotte R.; Heim, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women in mathematical domains may become attuned to situational cues that signal a discredited social identity, contributing to their lower achievement and underrepresentation. Aim: This study examined whether heightened in-group representation alleviates the effects of stereotype threat on women's mathematical performance. It further…

  17. An investigation into the mathematics performance of Grade 6 learners in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary S. Kotzé

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate mathematics performance of intermediate phase learners. The quality of learners’ scholastic achievement in mathematics are analysed based on the empirical evidence obtained from an international survey. The method of inquiry is based on an analysis of existing statistic-al data concerning present-oriented problems. The effects of particular variables on mathematics learn-ing are explored, such as male and female learners and those from less advantaged social backgrounds. Overall performance and competence levels are analysed. Although there are no outstanding contributing factors that influence mathematics achievement of  grade 6 learners in South Africa conclusions are drawn that may influence school system organisation and also the quality of mathematics teaching.

  18. PISA mathematics and reading performance differences of mainstream European and Turkish immigrant students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arikan, Serkan; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Yagmur, Kutlay

    Lower reading and mathematics performance of Turkish immigrant students as compared to mainstream European students could reflect differential learning outcomes, differential socioeconomic backgrounds of the groups, differential mainstream language proficiency, and/or test bias. Using PISA reading

  19. Mathematical Modeling of Physical and Cognitive Performance Decrement from Mechanical and Inhalation Insults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stuhmiller, James H; Bykanova, Lucy; Chan, Philemon; Dang, Xinglai; Fournier, Adam; Long, Diane W; Lu, Zi; Masiello, Paul; Ng, Laurel; Niu, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes the first year of a 5-year program to develop physiologically and biomechanically based mathematical models that will allow the estimation of physical and cognitive performance...

  20. Ability Of Mathematical Reasoning in SMK 10th Grade with LAPS- Heuristic using Performance Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Aulia Nur Arivina; Masrukan Masrukan; Ardhi Prabowo

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of this research are: (1) Test the learning with LAPS-Heuristic model using performance assessment on 10th grade of Trigonometry material is complete, (2) to test the difference of students' mathematical reasoning ability on 10th grade of Trigonometry material between the learning model of LAPS-Heuristic using performance assessment, LAPS-Heuristic learning model with Expository learning model, (3) test the ability of mathematical reasoning with learning model of LAPS-Heuristik o...

  1. The Role of Mathematical Homework and Prior Knowledge on the Relationship between Students' Mathematical Performance, Cognitive Style and Working Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Shima; Radmehr, Farzad; Alamolhodaei, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The main objective of this study is (a) to investigate whether cognitive styles and working memory capacity could predict mathematical performance and which variable is relatively most important in predicting mathematical performance and b) to explore whether cognitive styles and working memory capacity could predict mathematical…

  2. Home and school resources as predictors of mathematics performance in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariette Visser

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The creation of an environment conducive to learning is vitally important in the academic achievement of learners. Such an environment extends beyond the classroom and school to include the home. It is from these environments that learners draw resources, both tangible and intangible, that impact on their educational experience. While current bodies of literature focus on either school or home resources, this paper looks at both. Multiple regression analyses were conducted on the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS data to determine the resources factors that influence South African learners' performance in mathematics. The findings reveal that both school and home environments play significant roles in learners' mathematics performance. This paper therefore suggests that it is not only the socio-economic factors of schools that impact learners' mathematics performance, but also that higher levels of parental education have a significant positive influence.

  3. Motor-Enriched Learning Activities Can Improve Mathematical Performance in Preadolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Mikkel M.; Lind, Rune R.; Geertsen, Svend S.; Ritz, Christian; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Wienecke, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Objective: An emerging field of research indicates that physical activity can benefit cognitive functions and academic achievements in children. However, less is known about how academic achievements can benefit from specific types of motor activities (e.g., fine and gross) integrated into learning activities. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether fine or gross motor activity integrated into math lessons (i.e., motor-enrichment) could improve children's mathematical performance. Methods: A 6-week within school cluster-randomized intervention study investigated the effects of motor-enriched mathematical teaching in Danish preadolescent children (n = 165, age = 7.5 ± 0.02 years). Three groups were included: a control group (CON), which received non-motor enriched conventional mathematical teaching, a fine motor math group (FMM) and a gross motor math group (GMM), which received mathematical teaching enriched with fine and gross motor activity, respectively. The children were tested before (T0), immediately after (T1) and 8 weeks after the intervention (T2). A standardized mathematical test (50 tasks) was used to evaluate mathematical performance. Furthermore, it was investigated whether motor-enriched math was accompanied by different effects in low and normal math performers. Additionally, the study investigated the potential contribution of cognitive functions and motor skills on mathematical performance. Results: All groups improved their mathematical performance from T0 to T1. However, from T0 to T1, the improvement was significantly greater in GMM compared to FMM (1.87 ± 0.71 correct answers) (p = 0.02). At T2 no significant differences in mathematical performance were observed. A subgroup analysis revealed that normal math-performers benefitted from GMM compared to both CON 1.78 ± 0.73 correct answers (p = 0.04) and FMM 2.14 ± 0.72 correct answers (p = 0.008). These effects were not observed in low math-performers. The effects were partly

  4. Relation Between Mathematical Performance, Math Anxiety, and Affective Priming in Children With and Without Developmental Dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucian, Karin; Zuber, Isabelle; Kohn, Juliane; Poltz, Nadine; Wyschkon, Anne; Esser, Günter; von Aster, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Many children show negative emotions related to mathematics and some even develop mathematics anxiety. The present study focused on the relation between negative emotions and arithmetical performance in children with and without developmental dyscalculia (DD) using an affective priming task. Previous findings suggested that arithmetic performance is influenced if an affective prime precedes the presentation of an arithmetic problem. In children with DD specifically, responses to arithmetic operations are supposed to be facilitated by both negative and mathematics-related primes (= negative math priming effect ).We investigated mathematical performance, math anxiety, and the domain-general abilities of 172 primary school children (76 with DD and 96 controls). All participants also underwent an affective priming task which consisted of the decision whether a simple arithmetic operation (addition or subtraction) that was preceded by a prime (positive/negative/neutral or mathematics-related) was true or false. Our findings did not reveal a negative math priming effect in children with DD. Furthermore, when considering accuracy levels, gender, or math anxiety, the negative math priming effect could not be replicated. However, children with DD showed more math anxiety when explicitly assessed by a specific math anxiety interview and showed lower mathematical performance compared to controls. Moreover, math anxiety was equally present in boys and girls, even in the earliest stages of schooling, and interfered negatively with performance. In conclusion, mathematics is often associated with negative emotions that can be manifested in specific math anxiety, particularly in children with DD. Importantly, present findings suggest that in the assessed age group, it is more reliable to judge math anxiety and investigate its effects on mathematical performance explicitly by adequate questionnaires than by an affective math priming task.

  5. Relation Between Mathematical Performance, Math Anxiety, and Affective Priming in Children With and Without Developmental Dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kucian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many children show negative emotions related to mathematics and some even develop mathematics anxiety. The present study focused on the relation between negative emotions and arithmetical performance in children with and without developmental dyscalculia (DD using an affective priming task. Previous findings suggested that arithmetic performance is influenced if an affective prime precedes the presentation of an arithmetic problem. In children with DD specifically, responses to arithmetic operations are supposed to be facilitated by both negative and mathematics-related primes (=negative math priming effect.We investigated mathematical performance, math anxiety, and the domain-general abilities of 172 primary school children (76 with DD and 96 controls. All participants also underwent an affective priming task which consisted of the decision whether a simple arithmetic operation (addition or subtraction that was preceded by a prime (positive/negative/neutral or mathematics-related was true or false. Our findings did not reveal a negative math priming effect in children with DD. Furthermore, when considering accuracy levels, gender, or math anxiety, the negative math priming effect could not be replicated. However, children with DD showed more math anxiety when explicitly assessed by a specific math anxiety interview and showed lower mathematical performance compared to controls. Moreover, math anxiety was equally present in boys and girls, even in the earliest stages of schooling, and interfered negatively with performance. In conclusion, mathematics is often associated with negative emotions that can be manifested in specific math anxiety, particularly in children with DD. Importantly, present findings suggest that in the assessed age group, it is more reliable to judge math anxiety and investigate its effects on mathematical performance explicitly by adequate questionnaires than by an affective math priming task.

  6. Relation Between Mathematical Performance, Math Anxiety, and Affective Priming in Children With and Without Developmental Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucian, Karin; Zuber, Isabelle; Kohn, Juliane; Poltz, Nadine; Wyschkon, Anne; Esser, Günter; von Aster, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Many children show negative emotions related to mathematics and some even develop mathematics anxiety. The present study focused on the relation between negative emotions and arithmetical performance in children with and without developmental dyscalculia (DD) using an affective priming task. Previous findings suggested that arithmetic performance is influenced if an affective prime precedes the presentation of an arithmetic problem. In children with DD specifically, responses to arithmetic operations are supposed to be facilitated by both negative and mathematics-related primes (=negative math priming effect).We investigated mathematical performance, math anxiety, and the domain-general abilities of 172 primary school children (76 with DD and 96 controls). All participants also underwent an affective priming task which consisted of the decision whether a simple arithmetic operation (addition or subtraction) that was preceded by a prime (positive/negative/neutral or mathematics-related) was true or false. Our findings did not reveal a negative math priming effect in children with DD. Furthermore, when considering accuracy levels, gender, or math anxiety, the negative math priming effect could not be replicated. However, children with DD showed more math anxiety when explicitly assessed by a specific math anxiety interview and showed lower mathematical performance compared to controls. Moreover, math anxiety was equally present in boys and girls, even in the earliest stages of schooling, and interfered negatively with performance. In conclusion, mathematics is often associated with negative emotions that can be manifested in specific math anxiety, particularly in children with DD. Importantly, present findings suggest that in the assessed age group, it is more reliable to judge math anxiety and investigate its effects on mathematical performance explicitly by adequate questionnaires than by an affective math priming task.

  7. Performance of engineering undergraduate students in mathematics: A case study in UniMAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Syafawati Ab.; Azziz, Nor Hizamiyani Abdul; Zakaria, Siti Aisyah; Yazid, Nornadia Mohd

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the trend performance of the first year engineering students at a public university in Mathematics course: Engineering Mathematics I. We analyze how ethnicity factor influenced students' performance in mathematics course over three years period. The performance of the undergraduate students in this study is measured by their cumulative grade point average (CGPA) in the first semester. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) will be used to test the significance difference between three variables (Malay, Chinese and Indian). Method of simple linear regression (SLR) is used to test the relationship between the performances and to predict the future performance for this course. The findings of the study show that Chinese students perform better than Malay and Indian students.

  8. An Evaluation of the Mathematics Foundation Course in Sultan Qaboos University: Does High School Performance Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mazharul Islam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the mathematics foundation program was introduced in Sultan Qaboos University (SQU half a decade ago, there has been no evaluation or assessment of the program. The aim of this study was to evaluate the students’ performance in the Mathematics foundation course in SQU and to examine the predictive value of  a student’s high school performance for success in the math foundation course. The study considered a sample of 551 students who took the math course (MATH2107 during 2014 Spring semester. More than 95% of the students were admitted to SQU with a high school score of 80 and above.  The analysis revealed that, in general, female students were admitted to SQU with a significantly higher average high school score than the male students. The findings indicate a very unsatisfactory performance of the students in the mathematics foundation course as the mean GPA was 1.66 and more than half (59% of the students obtained a GPA less than 2 (i.e. below grade C, of which 14% failed and 35% obtained grade D. Female students outperformed male students in the mathematics course. High school mathematics performance, gender and cohort of students were identified as significant predictors of success in the mathematics foundation course.  To increase the success rate of the mathematics course, the high school curriculum needs to be aligned with the University standards and the admission authority should continue to give more attention to high school mathematics scores along with overall high school performance while making admission decisions for the College of Science in SQU.

  9. The lifecontingencies Package: Performing Financial and Actuarial Mathematics Calculations in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Alfredo Spedicato

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to model life contingency insurances with the lifecontingencies R package, which is capable of performing financial and actuarial mathematics calculations. Its functions permit one to determine both the expected value and the stochastic distribution of insured benefits. Therefore, life insurance coverage can be priced and portfolios risk-based capital requirements can be assessed. This paper briefly summarizes the theory regarding life contingencies that is based on financial mathematics and demographic con- cepts. Then, with the aid of applied examples, it shows how the lifecontingencies package can be a useful tool for executing routine, deterministic, or stochastic calculations for life-contingencies actuarial mathematics.

  10. Mathematics Anxiety and the Affective Drop in Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcraft, Mark H.; Moore, Alex M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors provide a brief review of the history and assessment of math anxiety, its relationship to personal and educational consequences, and its important impact on measures of performance. Overall, math anxiety causes an "affective drop," a decline in performance when math is performed under timed, high-stakes conditions, both in laboratory…

  11. International note: Prediction of mathematics work ethic and performance from behavioral, normative, and control beliefs among Qatari adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Abdelfattah, Faisal; Mahasneh, Randa Ali; Khine, Myint Swe; Welch, Anita G; Melkonian, Michael; Al Nuaimi, Samira Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Over half-a-million adolescents take part in each cycle of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Yet often, researchers and policy makers across the globe tend to focus their attention primarily on the academic trajectories of adolescents hailing from highly successful education systems. Hence, a vast majority of the adolescent population who regionally and globally constitute the 'long tail of underachievement' often remain unnoticed and underrepresented in the growing literature on adolescents' academic trajectories. The present study, therefore, explored the relations of dispositions toward mathematics, subjective norms in mathematics, and perceived control of success in mathematics to mathematics work ethic as well as mathematics performance; and the mediational role of mathematics work ethic in the association between dispositional, normative, and control beliefs and mathematics performance among adolescents in one of the lowest performing education systems, Qatar. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses revealed that Qatari adolescents' dispositional, normative, and control beliefs about mathematics were significantly associated with their mathematics work ethic and mathematics performance, and mathematics work ethic significantly mediated the relationship between dispositional, normative, and control beliefs about mathematics and mathematics performance. However, multi-group SEM analyses indicated that these relationships were not invariant across the gender and the SES groups. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Identifying Affective Domains That Correlate and Predict Mathematics Performance in High-Performing Students in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Siew Yee; Chapman, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Past studies have shown that distinct yet highly correlated sub-constructs of three broad mathematics affective variables: (a) motivation, (b) attitudes and (c) anxiety, have varying degree of correlation with mathematics achievement. The sub-constructs of these three affective constructs are as follows: (a) (i) amotivation, (ii) external…

  13. Mathematical adventures in performance analysis from storage systems, through airplane boarding, to express line queues

    CERN Document Server

    Bachmat, Eitan

    2014-01-01

    This monograph describes problems in the field of performance analysis, primarily the study of storage systems and the diverse mathematical techniques that are required for solving such problems. Topics covered include best practices for scheduling I/O requests to a disk drive, how this problem is related to airplane boarding, and how both problems can be modeled using space-time geometry. The author also explains how Riemann's proof of the analytic continuation and functional equation of the Riemann zeta function can be used to analyze express-line queues in a minimarket. Overall, the book reveals the surprising applicability of abstract mathematical ideas that are not usually associated with applied topics. Advanced undergraduate students or graduate students with an interest in the applications of mathematics will find this book a useful resource. It will also be of interest to professional mathematicians who want exposure to the surprising ways that theoretical mathematics may be applied to engineering pr...

  14. Modeling Students' Problem Solving Performance in the Computer-Based Mathematics Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a quantitative model of problem solving performance of students in the computer-based mathematics learning environment. Design/methodology/approach: Regularized logistic regression was used to create a quantitative model of problem solving performance of students that predicts whether students can…

  15. A Bayesian Performance Prediction Model for Mathematics Education: A Prototypical Approach for Effective Group Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, Rahel; McPherson, Maggie

    2011-01-01

    This research work presents a Bayesian Performance Prediction Model that was created in order to determine the strength of personality traits in predicting the level of mathematics performance of high school students in Addis Ababa. It is an automated tool that can be used to collect information from students for the purpose of effective group…

  16. Factors involved in making post-performance judgments in mathematics problem-solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Fernández, Trinidad; Kroesbergen, Evelyn; Rodríguez Pérez, Celestino; González-Castro, Paloma; González-Pienda, Julio A

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of executive functions, affective-motivational variables related to mathematics, mathematics achievement and task characteristics on fifth and sixth graders’ calibration accuracy after completing two mathematical problems. A sample of 188 students took part in the study. They were divided into two groups as function of their judgment accuracy after completing the two tasks (accurate= 79, inaccurate= 109). Differences between these groups were examined. The discriminative value of these variables to predict group membership was analyzed, as well as the effect of age, gender, and grade level. The results indicated that accurate students showed better levels of executive functioning, and more positive feelings, beliefs, and motivation related to mathematics. They also spent more time on the tasks. Mathematics achievement, perceived usefulness of mathematics, and time spent on Task 1 significantly predicted group membership, classifying 71.3% of the sample correctly. These results support the relationship between academic achievement and calibration accuracy, suggesting the need to consider a wide range of factors when explaining performance judgments.

  17. Ability Of Mathematical Reasoning in SMK 10th Grade with LAPS- Heuristic using Performance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Nur Arivina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research are: (1 Test the learning with LAPS-Heuristic model using performance assessment on 10th grade of Trigonometry material is complete, (2 to test the difference of students' mathematical reasoning ability on 10th grade of Trigonometry material between the learning model of LAPS-Heuristic using performance assessment, LAPS-Heuristic learning model with Expository learning model, (3 test the ability of mathematical reasoning with learning model of LAPS-Heuristik on Trigonometry material of SMK on 10th grade using performance assessment is increase. This is a quantitative research. The population is students of 10th grade of SMK 10 Semarang academic year 2016/2017 and the subject of research is selected by clustering random sampling. The results show that (1 Learning by model LAPS-Heuristic using performance assessment on 10th grade of Trigonometry material is complete (2 there are differences in students' mathematical reasoning ability on 10th grade of Trigonometry materials between LAPS-Heuristic learning model using performance assessment, LAPS-Heuristic learning model, and Expository learning model, (3 The ability of mathematical reasoning with learning model of LAPS-Heuristic on Trigonometry material of SMK class X using performance assessment increased.

  18. Performance of various mathematical methods for calculation of radioimmunoassay results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandel, P.; Vogt, W.

    1977-01-01

    Interpolation and regression methods are available for computer aided determination of radioimmunological end results. We compared the performance of eight algorithms (weighted and unweighted linear logit-log regression, quadratic logit-log regression, Rodbards logistic model in the weighted and unweighted form, smoothing spline interpolation with a large and small smoothing factor and polygonal interpolation) on the basis of three radioimmunoassays with different reference curve characteristics (digoxin, estriol, human chorionic somatomammotropin = HCS). Great store was set by the accuracy of the approximation at the intermediate points on the curve, ie. those points that lie midway between two standard concentrations. These concentrations were obtained by weighing and inserted as unknown samples. In the case of digoxin and estriol the polygonal interpolation provided the best results while the weighted logit-log regression proved superior in the case of HCS. (orig.) [de

  19. Mathematical analysis of running performance and world running records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péronnet, F; Thibault, G

    1989-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an empirical model relating human running performance to some characteristics of metabolic energy-yielding processes using A, the capacity of anaerobic metabolism (J/kg); MAP, the maximal aerobic power (W/kg); and E, the reduction in peak aerobic power with the natural logarithm of race duration T, when T greater than TMAP = 420 s. Accordingly, the model developed describes the average power output PT (W/kg) sustained over any T as PT = [S/T(1 - e-T/k2)] + 1/T integral of T O [BMR + B(1 - e-t/k1)]dt where S = A and B = MAP - BMR (basal metabolic rate) when T less than TMAP; and S = A + [Af ln(T/TMAP)] and B = (MAP - BMR) + [E ln(T/TMAP)] when T greater than TMAP; k1 = 30 s and k2 = 20 s are time constants describing the kinetics of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, respectively, at the beginning of exercise; f is a constant describing the reduction in the amount of energy provided from anaerobic metabolism with increasing T; and t is the time from the onset of the race. This model accurately estimates actual power outputs sustained over a wide range of events, e.g., average absolute error between actual and estimated T for men's 1987 world records from 60 m to the marathon = 0.73%. In addition, satisfactory estimations of the metabolic characteristics of world-class male runners were made as follows: A = 1,658 J/kg; MAP = 83.5 ml O2.kg-1.min-1; 83.5% MAP sustained over the marathon distance. Application of the model to analysis of the evolution of A, MAP, and E, and of the progression of men's and women's world records over the years, is presented.

  20. Relationship between mathematical abstraction in learning parallel coordinates concept and performance in learning analytic geometry of pre-service mathematics teachers: an investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhasanah, F.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Sabandar, J.; Suryadi, D.

    2018-05-01

    As one of the non-conventional mathematics concepts, Parallel Coordinates is potential to be learned by pre-service mathematics teachers in order to give them experiences in constructing richer schemes and doing abstraction process. Unfortunately, the study related to this issue is still limited. This study wants to answer a research question “to what extent the abstraction process of pre-service mathematics teachers in learning concept of Parallel Coordinates could indicate their performance in learning Analytic Geometry”. This is a case study that part of a larger study in examining mathematical abstraction of pre-service mathematics teachers in learning non-conventional mathematics concept. Descriptive statistics method is used in this study to analyze the scores from three different tests: Cartesian Coordinate, Parallel Coordinates, and Analytic Geometry. The participants in this study consist of 45 pre-service mathematics teachers. The result shows that there is a linear association between the score on Cartesian Coordinate and Parallel Coordinates. There also found that the higher levels of the abstraction process in learning Parallel Coordinates are linearly associated with higher student achievement in Analytic Geometry. The result of this study shows that the concept of Parallel Coordinates has a significant role for pre-service mathematics teachers in learning Analytic Geometry.

  1. Ego Depletion Effects on Mathematics Performance in Primary School Students: Why Take the Hard Road?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Deborah Ann; Yates, Gregory C. R.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction in performance level following on from brief periods of self-control is referred to as ego depletion. This study aimed to investigate if a brief ego depletion experience would impact upon primary school students working through an online mathematics exercise involving 40 computational trials. Seventy-two students participated in the…

  2. The Effect of Contextual and Conceptual Rewording on Mathematical Problem-Solving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghverdi, Majid; Wiest, Lynda R.

    2016-01-01

    This study shows how separate and combined contextual and conceptual problem rewording can positively influence student performance in solving mathematical word problems. Participants included 80 seventh-grade Iranian students randomly assigned in groups of 20 to three experimental groups involving three types of rewording and a control group. All…

  3. Enhancing Learners' Problem Solving Performance in Mathematics: A Cognitive Load Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhlamini, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot study that investigated the effect of implementing a context-based problem solving instruction (CBPSI) to enhance the problem solving performance of high school mathematics learners. Primarily, the pilot study aimed: (1) to evaluate the efficiency of data collection instruments; and, (2) to test the efficacy of CBPSI…

  4. Accounting for the Gender Gaps in Student Performance in Reading and Mathematics: Evidence from 31 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Gary N.

    2008-01-01

    In most countries, girls perform better than boys in reading but worse in mathematics. However, there is much variation between countries. Explanations for the gender gaps include the organisation of the school system, students' expectations and macro-societal factors. The purpose of this paper is to account for gender differences in both reading…

  5. Semiotic Structure and Meaning Making: The Performance of English Language Learners on Mathematics Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Barnett-Clarke, Carne; Kachchaf, Rachel R.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the performance of English language learners (ELLs) and non-ELLs on Grade 4 and Grade 5 mathematics content knowledge (CK) and academic language (AL) tests. CK and AL items had different semiotic loads (numbers of different types of semiotic features) and different semiotic structures (relative frequencies of different semiotic…

  6. Effects of Mathematics Innovation and Technology on Students Performance in Open and Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Oginni 'Niyi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of mathematics innovation and technology on students' academic performance in open and distance learning. Quasi -- experimental research design was adopted for the study. The population for the study consisted of all the 200 level primary education students at the National Open University of Nigeria (Ekiti and…

  7. The Impact of Individual, Competitive, and Collaborative Mathematics Game Play on Learning, Performance, and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plass, Jan L.; O'Keefe, Paul A.; Homer, Bruce D.; Case, Jennifer; Hayward, Elizabeth O.; Stein, Murphy; Perlin, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The present research examined how mode of play in an educational mathematics video game impacts learning, performance, and motivation. The game was designed for the practice and automation of arithmetic skills to increase fluency and was adapted to allow for individual, competitive, or collaborative game play. Participants (N = 58) from urban…

  8. The Relationship among Self-Concept, Self-Efficacy, and Performance in Mathematics during Secondary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, James; Walker, Richard; Chapman, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relationship among self-concept, self-efficacy, and performance in mathematics among 416 high school students. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the existence of two self-concept components--a competency component and an affective component. Self-efficacy items and the competency items of self-concept also loaded on a single…

  9. Rationale and Resources for Teaching the Mathematical Modeling of Athletic Training and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David C.; Skiba, Philip F.

    2013-01-01

    A number of professions rely on exercise prescription to improve health or athletic performance, including coaching, fitness/personal training, rehabilitation, and exercise physiology. It is therefore advisable that the professionals involved learn the various tools available for designing effective training programs. Mathematical modeling of…

  10. Mathematics Motivation, Anxiety, and Performance in Female Deaf/Hard-of-Hearing and Hearing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariapooran, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Hearing loss can be a major detriment to academic achievement among students. The present comparative study examines the differences in mathematics motivation, anxiety, and performance in female students with hearing loss and their hearing peers. A total of 63 female students with hearing loss (deaf and hard-of-hearing) and 63 hearing female…

  11. Exploring Statistics Anxiety: Contrasting Mathematical, Academic Performance and Trait Psychological Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Victoria J.

    2018-01-01

    Statistics anxiety is experienced by a large number of psychology students, and previous research has examined a range of potential correlates, including academic performance, mathematical ability and psychological predictors. These varying predictors are often considered separately, although there may be shared variance between them. In the…

  12. On the Ability To Infer Deficiency in Mathematics From Performance in Physics Using Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riban, David M.

    1971-01-01

    Presents the procedures, results, and conclusions of a study designed to see if mathematical deficiencies can be inferred from PSSC students' performance by using a hierarchical model of requisite skills. Assuming inferences were possible, remediation was given. No effect due to remediation was observed but analysis indicated incidental learning…

  13. Developmental dynamics between mathematical performance, task motivation, and teachers' goals during the transition to primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunola, Kaisa; Leskinen, Esko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2006-03-01

    It has been suggested that children's learning motivation and interest in a particular subject play an important role in their school performance, particularly in mathematics. However, few cross-lagged longitudinal studies have been carried out to investigate the prospective relationships between academic achievement and task motivation. Moreover, the role that the classroom context plays in this development is largely unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the developmental dynamics of maths-related motivation and mathematical performance during children's transition to primary school. The role of teachers' pedagogical goals and classroom characteristics on this development was also investigated. A total of 196 Finnish children were examined four times: (0) in October during their preschool year; (1) in October and (2) April during their first grade of primary school; and (3) in October during their second grade. Children's mathematical performance was tested at each measurement point. Task motivation was examined at measurement points 2, 3, and 4 using the Task-value scale for children. First-grade teachers were interviewed in November about their pedagogical goals and classroom characteristics. The results showed that children's mathematical performance and related task motivation formed a cumulative developmental cycle: a high level of maths performance at the beginning of the first grade increased subsequent task motivation towards mathematics, which further predicted a high level of maths performance at the beginning of the second grade. The level of maths-related task motivation increased in those classrooms where the teachers emphasized motivation or self-concept development as their most important pedagogical goal.

  14. The irradiance and temperature dependent mathematical model for estimation of photovoltaic panel performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barukčić, M.; Ćorluka, V.; Miklošević, K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The temperature and irradiance dependent model for the I–V curve estimation is presented. • The purely mathematical model based on the analysis of the I–V curve shape is presented. • The model includes the Gompertz function with temperature and irradiance dependent parameters. • The input data are extracted from the data sheet I–V curves. - Abstract: The temperature and irradiance dependent mathematical model for photovoltaic panel performances estimation is proposed in the paper. The base of the model is the mathematical function of the photovoltaic panel current–voltage curve. The model of the current–voltage curve is based on the sigmoid function with temperature and irradiance dependent parameters. The temperature and irradiance dependencies of the parameters are proposed in the form of analytic functions. The constant parameters are involved in the analytical functions. The constant parameters need to be estimated to get the temperature and irradiance dependent current–voltage curve. The mathematical model contains 12 constant parameters and they are estimated by using the evolutionary algorithm. The optimization problem is defined for this purpose. The optimization problem objective function is based on estimated and extracted (measured) current and voltage values. The current and voltage values are extracted from current–voltage curves given in datasheet of the photovoltaic panels. The new procedure for estimation of open circuit voltage value at any temperature and irradiance is proposed in the model. The performance of the proposed mathematical model is presented for three different photovoltaic panel technologies. The simulation results indicate that the proposed mathematical model is acceptable for estimation of temperature and irradiance dependent current–voltage curve and photovoltaic panel performances within temperature and irradiance ranges

  15. Motor-enriched learning activities can improve mathematical performance in preadolescent children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Mikkel Malling; Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    2016-01-01

    Objective: An emerging field of research indicates that physical activity can benefit cognitive functions and academic achievements in children. However, less is known about how academic achievements can benefit from specific types of motor activities (e.g., fine and gross) integrated into learning......-enriched mathematical teaching in Danish preadolescent children (n = 165, age = 7.5 ± 0.02 years). Three groups were included: a control group (CON), which received non-motor enriched conventional mathematical teaching, a fine motor math group (FMM) and a gross motor math group (GMM), which received mathematical.......73 correct answers (p = 0.04) and FMM 2.14 ± 0.72 correct answers (p = 0.008). These effects were not observed in low math-performers. The effects were partly accounted for by visuo-spatial short-term memory and gross motor skills. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that motor enriched learning activities...

  16. Performance analysis on free-piston Stirling cryocooler based on an idealized mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y. X.; Chao, Y. J.; Gan, Z. H.; Li, S. Z.; Wang, B.

    2017-12-01

    Free-piston Stirling cryocoolers have extensive applications for its simplicity in structure and decrease in mass. However, the elimination of the motor and the crankshaft has made its thermodynamic characteristic different from that of Stirling cryocoolers with displacer driving mechanism. Therefore, an idealized mathematical model has been established, and with this model, an attempt has been made to analyse the thermodynamic characteristic and the performance of free-piston Stirling cryocooler. To certify this mathematical model, a comparison has been made between the model and a numerical model. This study reveals that due to the displacer damping force necessary for the production of cooling capacity, the free-piston Stirling cryocooler is inherently less efficient than Stirling cryocooler with displacer driving mechanism. Viscous flow resistance and incomplete heat transfer in the regenerator are the two major causes of the discrepancy between the results of the idealized mathematical model and the numerical model.

  17. Preschoolers' precision of the approximate number system predicts later school mathematics performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2011-01-01

    The Approximate Number System (ANS) is a primitive mental system of nonverbal representations that supports an intuitive sense of number in human adults, children, infants, and other animal species. The numerical approximations produced by the ANS are characteristically imprecise and, in humans, this precision gradually improves from infancy to adulthood. Throughout development, wide ranging individual differences in ANS precision are evident within age groups. These individual differences have been linked to formal mathematics outcomes, based on concurrent, retrospective, or short-term longitudinal correlations observed during the school age years. However, it remains unknown whether this approximate number sense actually serves as a foundation for these school mathematics abilities. Here we show that ANS precision measured at preschool, prior to formal instruction in mathematics, selectively predicts performance on school mathematics at 6 years of age. In contrast, ANS precision does not predict non-numerical cognitive abilities. To our knowledge, these results provide the first evidence for early ANS precision, measured before the onset of formal education, predicting later mathematical abilities.

  18. Is There Gender Difference between Learning Disabled Students' Performances in Mathematical Activities? (Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Karimi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show that mathematics disorder is a learning disorder. Children with this disorder have math skills is much lower than mean for their age, intelligence, and education. The disorder affects the child's success at school. It is thought that up to 7% of children have this disorder. It affects boys and girls equally. It is also caused dyscalculia. The cause of this disorder is not known. Like other learning disorders, it occurs more in some families. Mathematics disorder may also be the result of damage in certain parts of the brain. It also has led to a weak understanding of mathematical concepts and increased realization of mathematics. In this study, it is tried that studied gender difference between learning disabled students' performances in mathematical activities. Findings indicated that there is not meaningful difference between genders. Since this research was case study, it seems that this difference will be indicated in vast studies. Then it suggests that have to do more study in this field for its causes.

  19. Performance-based classrooms: A case study of two elementary teachers of mathematics and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth W.

    This case study depicts how two elementary teachers develop classrooms devoted to performance-based instruction in mathematics and science. The purpose is to develop empirical evidence of classroom practices that leads to a conceptual framework about the nature of performance-based instruction. Performance-based assessment and instruction are defined from the literature to entail involving students in tasks that are complex and engaging, requiring them to apply knowledge and skills in authentic contexts. In elementary mathematics and science, such an approach emphasizes problem solving, exploration, inquiry, and reasoning. The body of the work examines teacher beliefs, curricular orientations, instructional strategies, assessment approaches, management and organizational skills, and interpersonal relationships. The focus throughout is on those aspects that foster student performance in elementary mathematics and science. The resulting framework describes five characteristics that contribute to performance-based classrooms: a caring classroom community, a connectionist learning theory, a thinking and doing curriculum, diverse opportunities for learning, and ongoing assessment, feedback, and adjustment. The conclusion analyzes factors external to the classroom that support or constrain the development of performance-based classrooms and discusses the implications for educational policy and further research.

  20. Do screencasts help to revise prerequisite mathematics? An investigation of student performance and perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Birgit; Jordan, Camilla R.; Lowe, Tim W.; Mestel, Ben D.

    2014-02-01

    Basic calculus skills that are prerequisites for advanced mathematical studies continue to be a problem for a significant proportion of higher education students. While there are many types of revision material that could be offered to students, in this paper we investigate whether short, narrated video recordings of mathematical explanations (screencasts) are a useful tool to enhance student learning when revisiting prerequisite topics. We report on the outcomes of a study that was designed to both measure change in student performance before and after watching screencasts, and to capture students' perception of the usefulness of screencasts in their learning. Volunteers were recruited from students enrolled on an entry module for the Mathematics Master of Science programme at the Open University to watch two screencasts sandwiched between two online calculus quizzes. A statistical analysis of student responses to the quizzes shows that screencasts can have a positive effect on student performance. Further analysis of student feedback shows that student confidence was increased by watching the screencasts. Student views on the value of screencasts for their learning indicated that they appreciated being able to watch a problem being solved and explained by an experienced mathematician; hear the motivation for a particular problem-solving approach; engage more readily with the material being presented, thereby retaining it more easily. The positive student views and impact on student scores indicate that short screencasts could play a useful role in revising prerequisite mathematics.

  1. Tenth-Grade High School Students' Mathematical Self-Efficacy, Mathematics Anxiety, Attitudes toward Mathematics, and Performance on the New York State Integrated Algebra Regents Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Strong mathematical abilities are important for the continuation of a successful society. Mathematics is required and involved in all aspects of daily life: banking, communications, business, education, and travel are just a few examples. More specifically the areas of finance, engineering, architecture, and technology require individuals with…

  2. The effects of computer-assisted instruction on the mathematics performance and classroom behavior of children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautone, Jennifer A; DuPaul, George J; Jitendra, Asha K

    2005-08-01

    The present study examines the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on the mathematics performance and classroom behavior of three second-through fourth-grade students with ADHD. A controlled case study is used to evaluate the effects of the computer software on participants' mathematics performance and on-task behavior. Participants' mathematics achievement improve and their on-task behavior increase during the CAI sessions relative to independent seatwork conditions. In addition, students and teachers consider CAI to be an acceptable intervention for some students with ADHD who are having difficulty with mathematics. Implications of these results for practice and research are discussed.

  3. Using Mathematical Modeling Methods for Estimating Entrance Flow Heterogeneity Impact on Aviation GTE Parameters and Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Ezrokhi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers methodological approaches to the mathematical models (MM of various levels, dedicated to estimate an impact of the entrance flow heterogeneity on the main parameters and performances of the aviation GTE and it units. By an example of calculation of a twin-shaft turbofan engine in cruiser mode, demonstrates engineering mathematical model capabilities to define the impact of the total pressure field distortion on engine trust and air flow parameters, and also gas dynamic stability margin of the both compressors.It is shown that the presented first level mathematical model allows us to estimate sufficiently the impact of entrance total pressure heterogeneity on the engine parameters. Here reliability of calculations is proved to be true by their comparison with the results, obtained owing to well fulfilled 2D & 3D mathematical models of the engine, which have been repeatedly identified by the results of experiments.It is shown that received results including those on decreasing values of stability margin of both compressors can be used for tentative estimates when choosing a desirable stability margin, providing steady operation of compressors and engine in an entire range of its operating modes. Carrying out a definitive testing calculation using the specialized engine MM of a higher level will not only confirm the results obtained, but also reduce their expected error with regard to the real values reached as a result of tests.

  4. Enhancing students’ mathematical problem posing skill through writing in performance tasks strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir; Adelina, R.; Fatma, M.

    2018-01-01

    Many researchers have studied the Writing in Performance Task (WiPT) strategy in learning, but only a few paid attention on its relation to the problem-posing skill in mathematics. The problem-posing skill in mathematics covers problem reformulation, reconstruction, and imitation. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of WiPT strategy on students’ mathematical problem-posing skill. The research was conducted at a Public Junior Secondary School in Tangerang Selatan. It used a quasi-experimental method with randomized control group post-test. The samples were 64 students consists of 32 students of the experiment group and 32 students of the control. A cluster random sampling technique was used for sampling. The research data were obtained by testing. The research shows that the problem-posing skill of students taught by WiPT strategy is higher than students taught by a conventional strategy. The research concludes that the WiPT strategy is more effective in enhancing the students’ mathematical problem-posing skill compared to the conventional strategy.

  5. New trends in gender and mathematics performance: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Sara M; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Petersen, Jennifer L; Linn, Marcia C

    2010-11-01

    In this article, we use meta-analysis to analyze gender differences in recent studies of mathematics performance. First, we meta-analyzed data from 242 studies published between 1990 and 2007, representing the testing of 1,286,350 people. Overall, d = 0.05, indicating no gender difference, and variance ratio = 1.08, indicating nearly equal male and female variances. Second, we analyzed data from large data sets based on probability sampling of U.S. adolescents over the past 20 years: the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth, the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, the Longitudinal Study of American Youth, and the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Effect sizes for the gender difference ranged between -0.15 and +0.22. Variance ratios ranged from 0.88 to 1.34. Taken together, these findings support the view that males and females perform similarly in mathematics.

  6. International Conference on Modern Mathematical Methods and High Performance Computing in Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, HM; Venturino, Ezio; Resch, Michael; Gupta, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    The book discusses important results in modern mathematical models and high performance computing, such as applied operations research, simulation of operations, statistical modeling and applications, invisibility regions and regular meta-materials, unmanned vehicles, modern radar techniques/SAR imaging, satellite remote sensing, coding, and robotic systems. Furthermore, it is valuable as a reference work and as a basis for further study and research. All contributing authors are respected academicians, scientists and researchers from around the globe. All the papers were presented at the international conference on Modern Mathematical Methods and High Performance Computing in Science & Technology (M3HPCST 2015), held at Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Ghaziabad, India, from 27–29 December 2015, and peer-reviewed by international experts. The conference provided an exceptional platform for leading researchers, academicians, developers, engineers and technocrats from a broad range of disciplines ...

  7. Latent Cluster Analysis of Instructional Practices Reported by High- and Low-performing Mathematics Teachers in Four Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Qiang; Hsu, Hsien-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Using Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011 eighth-grade international dataset, this study explored the profiles of instructional practices reported by high- and low-performing mathematics teachers across the US, Finland, Korea, and Russia. Concepts of conceptual teaching and procedural teaching were used to frame the design of the current study. Latent cluster analysis was applied in the investigation of the profiles of mathematics teachers’ instructional practic...

  8. Relationships of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies to mathematics achievement in four high-performing East Asian education systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Caleon, Imelda S

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships of cognitive (i.e., memorization and elaboration) and metacognitive learning strategies (i.e., control strategies) to mathematics achievement among 15-year-old students in 4 high-performing East Asian education systems: Shanghai-China, Hong Kong-China, Korea, and Singapore. In all 4 East Asian education systems, memorization strategies were negatively associated with mathematics achievement, whereas control strategies were positively associated with mathematics achievement. However, the association between elaboration strategies and mathematics achievement was a mixed bag. In Shanghai-China and Korea, elaboration strategies were not associated with mathematics achievement. In Hong Kong-China and Singapore, on the other hand, elaboration strategies were negatively associated with mathematics achievement. Implications of these findings are briefly discussed.

  9. Latent Cluster Analysis of Instructional Practices Reported by High- and Low-Performing Mathematics Teachers in Four Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiang; Hsu, Hsien-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Using Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011 eighth-grade international dataset, this study explored the profiles of instructional practices reported by high- and low-performing mathematics teachers across the US, Finland, Korea, and Russia. Concepts of conceptual teaching and procedural teaching were used to frame the…

  10. The Role of Affordances in Children's Learning Performance and Efficiency When Using Virtual Manipulative Mathematics Touch-Screen Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.; Bullock, Emma K.; Shumway, Jessica F.; Tucker, Stephen I.; Watts, Christina M.; Westenskow, Arla; Anderson-Pence, Katie L.; Maahs-Fladung, Cathy; Boyer-Thurgood, Jennifer; Gulkilik, Hilal; Jordan, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on understanding the role that affordances played in children's learning performance and efficiency during clinical interviews of their interactions with mathematics apps on touch-screen devices. One hundred children, ages 3 to 8, each used six different virtual manipulative mathematics apps during 30-40-min interviews. The…

  11. Can Instructional Reform in Urban Middle Schools Help Students Narrow the Mathematics Performance Gap? Some Evidence from the QUASAR Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Edward A.; Lane, Suzanne

    1995-01-01

    Compared mathematical performance of middle school students in low-income communities involved in the QUASAR project to those of a demographically similar school and of a nationally representative sample. QUASAR mathematics instruction emphasizes reasoning, problem-solving, and understanding. Quasar students outperformed NAEP's disadvantaged urban…

  12. Additive and Multiplicative Effects of Working Memory and Test Anxiety on Mathematics Performance in Grade 3 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Johan; Nyroos, Mikaela; Jonsson, Bert; Eklöf, Hanna

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interplay between test anxiety and working memory (WM) on mathematics performance in younger children. A sample of 624 grade 3 students completed a test battery consisting of a test anxiety scale, WM tasks and the Swedish national examination in mathematics for grade 3. The main effects of test anxiety…

  13. Applying mathematical models to predict resident physician performance and alertness on traditional and novel work schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerman, Elizabeth B; Beckett, Scott A; Landrigan, Christopher P

    2016-09-13

    In 2011 the U.S. Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education began limiting first year resident physicians (interns) to shifts of ≤16 consecutive hours. Controversy persists regarding the effectiveness of this policy for reducing errors and accidents while promoting education and patient care. Using a mathematical model of the effects of circadian rhythms and length of time awake on objective performance and subjective alertness, we quantitatively compared predictions for traditional intern schedules to those that limit work to ≤ 16 consecutive hours. We simulated two traditional schedules and three novel schedules using the mathematical model. The traditional schedules had extended duration work shifts (≥24 h) with overnight work shifts every second shift (including every third night, Q3) or every third shift (including every fourth night, Q4) night; the novel schedules had two different cross-cover (XC) night team schedules (XC-V1 and XC-V2) and a Rapid Cycle Rotation (RCR) schedule. Predicted objective performance and subjective alertness for each work shift were computed for each individual's schedule within a team and then combined for the team as a whole. Our primary outcome was the amount of time within a work shift during which a team's model-predicted objective performance and subjective alertness were lower than that expected after 16 or 24 h of continuous wake in an otherwise rested individual. The model predicted fewer hours with poor performance and alertness, especially during night-time work hours, for all three novel schedules than for either the traditional Q3 or Q4 schedules. Three proposed schedules that eliminate extended shifts may improve performance and alertness compared with traditional Q3 or Q4 schedules. Predicted times of worse performance and alertness were at night, which is also a time when supervision of trainees is lower. Mathematical modeling provides a quantitative comparison approach with potential to aid

  14. Video-games do not negatively impact adolescent academic performance in science, mathematics or reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Aaron; Sauer, James D

    2014-01-01

    Video-gaming is a common pastime among adolescents, particularly adolescent males in industrialized nations. Despite widespread suggestions that video-gaming negatively affects academic achievement, the evidence is inconclusive. We reanalyzed data from over 192,000 students in 22 countries involved in the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) to estimate the true effect size of frequency of videogame use on adolescent academic achievement in science, mathematics and reading. Contrary to claims that increased video-gaming can impair academic performance, differences in academic performance were negligible across the relative frequencies of videogame use. Videogame use had little impact on adolescent academic achievement.

  15. Video-games do not negatively impact adolescent academic performance in science, mathematics or reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Drummond

    Full Text Available Video-gaming is a common pastime among adolescents, particularly adolescent males in industrialized nations. Despite widespread suggestions that video-gaming negatively affects academic achievement, the evidence is inconclusive. We reanalyzed data from over 192,000 students in 22 countries involved in the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA to estimate the true effect size of frequency of videogame use on adolescent academic achievement in science, mathematics and reading. Contrary to claims that increased video-gaming can impair academic performance, differences in academic performance were negligible across the relative frequencies of videogame use. Videogame use had little impact on adolescent academic achievement.

  16. Video-Games Do Not Negatively Impact Adolescent Academic Performance in Science, Mathematics or Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Aaron; Sauer, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Video-gaming is a common pastime among adolescents, particularly adolescent males in industrialized nations. Despite widespread suggestions that video-gaming negatively affects academic achievement, the evidence is inconclusive. We reanalyzed data from over 192,000 students in 22 countries involved in the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) to estimate the true effect size of frequency of videogame use on adolescent academic achievement in science, mathematics and reading. Contrary to claims that increased video-gaming can impair academic performance, differences in academic performance were negligible across the relative frequencies of videogame use. Videogame use had little impact on adolescent academic achievement. PMID:24699536

  17. Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, D Diego

    2015-03-01

    Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. LATENT CLUSTER ANALYSIS OF INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES REPORTED BY HIGH- AND LOW-PERFORMING MATHEMATICS TEACHERS IN FOUR COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Cheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Using Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS 2011 eighth-grade international dataset, this study explored the profiles of instructional practices reported by high- and low-performing mathematics teachers across the US, Finland, Korea, and Russia. Concepts of conceptual teaching and procedural teaching were used to frame the design of the current study. Latent cluster analysis was applied in the investigation of the profiles of mathematics teachers’ instructional practices across the four education systems. It was found that all mathematics teachers in the high- and low-performing groups used procedurally as well as conceptually oriented practices in their teaching. However, one group of high-performing mathematics teachers from the U.S. sample and all the high-performing teachers from Finland, Korea, and Russia showed more frequent use of conceptually oriented practices than their corresponding low-performing teachers. Another group of U.S. high-performing mathematics teachers showed a distinctive procedurally oriented pattern, which presented a rather different picture. Such results provide useful suggestions for practitioners and policy makers in their effort to improve mathematics teaching and learning in the US and in other countries as well.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.8.2.4066.115-132

  19. Identifying Domain-General and Domain-Specific Predictors of Low Mathematics Performance: A Classification and Regression Tree Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Purpura

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many children struggle to successfully acquire early mathematics skills. Theoretical and empirical evidence has pointed to deficits in domain-specific skills (e.g., non-symbolic mathematics skills or domain-general skills (e.g., executive functioning and language as underlying low mathematical performance. In the current study, we assessed a sample of 113 three- to five-year old preschool children on a battery of domain-specific and domain-general factors in the fall and spring of their preschool year to identify Time 1 (fall factors associated with low performance in mathematics knowledge at Time 2 (spring. We used the exploratory approach of classification and regression tree analyses, a strategy that uses step-wise partitioning to create subgroups from a larger sample using multiple predictors, to identify the factors that were the strongest classifiers of low performance for younger and older preschool children. Results indicated that the most consistent classifier of low mathematics performance at Time 2 was children’s Time 1 mathematical language skills. Further, other distinct classifiers of low performance emerged for younger and older children. These findings suggest that risk classification for low mathematics performance may differ depending on children’s age.

  20. Have Basic Mathematical Skills Grown Obsolete in the Computer Age: Assessing Basic Mathematical Skills and Forecasting Performance in a Business Statistics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noser, Thomas C.; Tanner, John R.; Shah, Situl

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the comprehension of basic mathematical skills of students enrolled in statistics classes at a large regional university, and to determine if the scores earned on a basic math skills test are useful in forecasting student performance in these statistics classes, and to determine if students' basic math…

  1. An Examination of the Performance Gains of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students on a Mathematics Performance Assessment within the QUASAR Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Suzanne; And Others

    The performance of students from different racial or ethnic subgroups and of students receiving bilingual (Spanish and English) or monolingual (English only) instruction in mathematics was studied using students from schools in the QUASAR (Qualitative Understanding Amplifying Student Achievement and Reasoning) project, a mathematics education…

  2. Longitudinal development of number line estimation and mathematics performance in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friso-van den Bos, Ilona; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Van Luit, Johannes E H; Xenidou-Dervou, Iro; Jonkman, Lisa M; Van der Schoot, Menno; Van Lieshout, Ernest C D M

    2015-06-01

    Children's ability to relate number to a continuous quantity abstraction visualized as a number line is widely accepted to be predictive of mathematics achievement. However, a debate has emerged with respect to how children's placements are distributed on this number line across development. In the current study, different models were applied to children's longitudinal number placement data to get more insight into the development of number line representations in kindergarten and early primary school years. In addition, longitudinal developmental relations between number line placements and mathematical achievement, measured with a national test of mathematics, were investigated using cross-lagged panel modeling. A group of 442 children participated in a 3-year longitudinal study (ages 5-8 years) in which they completed a number-to-position task every 6 months. Individual number line placements were fitted to various models, of which a one-anchor power model provided the best fit for many of the placements at a younger age (5 or 6 years) and a two-anchor power model provided better fit for many of the children at an older age (7 or 8 years). The number of children who made linear placements also grew with age. Cross-lagged panel analyses indicated that the best fit was provided with a model in which number line acuity and mathematics performance were mutually predictive of each other rather than models in which one ability predicted the other in a non-reciprocal way. This indicates that number line acuity should not be seen as a predictor of math but that both skills influence each other during the developmental process. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The impact of maths support tutorials on mathematics confidence and academic performance in a cohort of HE Animal Science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veggel, Nieky; Amory, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Students embarking on a bioscience degree course, such as Animal Science, often do not have sufficient experience in mathematics. However, mathematics forms an essential and integral part of any bioscience degree and is essential to enhance employability. This paper presents the findings of a project looking at the effect of mathematics tutorials on a cohort of first year animal science and management students. The results of a questionnaire, focus group discussions and academic performance analysis indicate that small group tutorials enhance students' confidence in maths and improve students' academic performance. Furthermore, student feedback on the tutorial programme provides a deeper insight into student experiences and the value students assign to the tutorials.

  4. Effects of Video Games and Online Chat on Mathematics Performance in High School: An Approach of Multivariate Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Wu; Wenyi Lu; Ye Li

    2016-01-01

    Regarding heavy video game players for boys and super online chat lovers for girls as a symbolic phrase in the current adolescent culture, this project of data analysis verifies the displacement effect on deteriorating mathematics performance. To evaluate correlation or regression coefficients between a factor of playing video games or chatting online and mathematics performance compared with other factors, we use multivariate analysis technique and take gender difference into account. We fin...

  5. Mathematics Anxiety and Statistics Anxiety. Shared but Also Unshared Components and Antagonistic Contributions to Performance in Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paechter, Manuela; Macher, Daniel; Martskvishvili, Khatuna; Wimmer, Sigrid; Papousek, Ilona

    2017-01-01

    In many social science majors, e.g., psychology, students report high levels of statistics anxiety. However, these majors are often chosen by students who are less prone to mathematics and who might have experienced difficulties and unpleasant feelings in their mathematics courses at school. The present study investigates whether statistics anxiety is a genuine form of anxiety that impairs students' achievements or whether learners mainly transfer previous experiences in mathematics and their anxiety in mathematics to statistics. The relationship between mathematics anxiety and statistics anxiety, their relationship to learning behaviors and to performance in a statistics examination were investigated in a sample of 225 undergraduate psychology students (164 women, 61 men). Data were recorded at three points in time: At the beginning of term students' mathematics anxiety, general proneness to anxiety, school grades, and demographic data were assessed; 2 weeks before the end of term, they completed questionnaires on statistics anxiety and their learning behaviors. At the end of term, examination scores were recorded. Mathematics anxiety and statistics anxiety correlated highly but the comparison of different structural equation models showed that they had genuine and even antagonistic contributions to learning behaviors and performance in the examination. Surprisingly, mathematics anxiety was positively related to performance. It might be that students realized over the course of their first term that knowledge and skills in higher secondary education mathematics are not sufficient to be successful in statistics. Part of mathematics anxiety may then have strengthened positive extrinsic effort motivation by the intention to avoid failure and may have led to higher effort for the exam preparation. However, via statistics anxiety mathematics anxiety also had a negative contribution to performance. Statistics anxiety led to higher procrastination in the structural

  6. Mathematics Anxiety and Statistics Anxiety. Shared but Also Unshared Components and Antagonistic Contributions to Performance in Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paechter, Manuela; Macher, Daniel; Martskvishvili, Khatuna; Wimmer, Sigrid; Papousek, Ilona

    2017-01-01

    In many social science majors, e.g., psychology, students report high levels of statistics anxiety. However, these majors are often chosen by students who are less prone to mathematics and who might have experienced difficulties and unpleasant feelings in their mathematics courses at school. The present study investigates whether statistics anxiety is a genuine form of anxiety that impairs students' achievements or whether learners mainly transfer previous experiences in mathematics and their anxiety in mathematics to statistics. The relationship between mathematics anxiety and statistics anxiety, their relationship to learning behaviors and to performance in a statistics examination were investigated in a sample of 225 undergraduate psychology students (164 women, 61 men). Data were recorded at three points in time: At the beginning of term students' mathematics anxiety, general proneness to anxiety, school grades, and demographic data were assessed; 2 weeks before the end of term, they completed questionnaires on statistics anxiety and their learning behaviors. At the end of term, examination scores were recorded. Mathematics anxiety and statistics anxiety correlated highly but the comparison of different structural equation models showed that they had genuine and even antagonistic contributions to learning behaviors and performance in the examination. Surprisingly, mathematics anxiety was positively related to performance. It might be that students realized over the course of their first term that knowledge and skills in higher secondary education mathematics are not sufficient to be successful in statistics. Part of mathematics anxiety may then have strengthened positive extrinsic effort motivation by the intention to avoid failure and may have led to higher effort for the exam preparation. However, via statistics anxiety mathematics anxiety also had a negative contribution to performance. Statistics anxiety led to higher procrastination in the structural

  7. Mathematics Anxiety and Statistics Anxiety. Shared but Also Unshared Components and Antagonistic Contributions to Performance in Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Paechter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In many social science majors, e.g., psychology, students report high levels of statistics anxiety. However, these majors are often chosen by students who are less prone to mathematics and who might have experienced difficulties and unpleasant feelings in their mathematics courses at school. The present study investigates whether statistics anxiety is a genuine form of anxiety that impairs students' achievements or whether learners mainly transfer previous experiences in mathematics and their anxiety in mathematics to statistics. The relationship between mathematics anxiety and statistics anxiety, their relationship to learning behaviors and to performance in a statistics examination were investigated in a sample of 225 undergraduate psychology students (164 women, 61 men. Data were recorded at three points in time: At the beginning of term students' mathematics anxiety, general proneness to anxiety, school grades, and demographic data were assessed; 2 weeks before the end of term, they completed questionnaires on statistics anxiety and their learning behaviors. At the end of term, examination scores were recorded. Mathematics anxiety and statistics anxiety correlated highly but the comparison of different structural equation models showed that they had genuine and even antagonistic contributions to learning behaviors and performance in the examination. Surprisingly, mathematics anxiety was positively related to performance. It might be that students realized over the course of their first term that knowledge and skills in higher secondary education mathematics are not sufficient to be successful in statistics. Part of mathematics anxiety may then have strengthened positive extrinsic effort motivation by the intention to avoid failure and may have led to higher effort for the exam preparation. However, via statistics anxiety mathematics anxiety also had a negative contribution to performance. Statistics anxiety led to higher procrastination in

  8. Diagnosing and alleviating the impact of performance pressure on mathematical problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCaro, Marci S; Rotar, Kristin E; Kendra, Matthew S; Beilock, Sian L

    2010-08-01

    High-pressure academic testing situations can lead people to perform below their actual ability levels by co-opting working memory (WM) resources needed for the task at hand (Beilock, 2008). In the current work we examine how performance pressure impacts WM and design an intervention to alleviate pressure's negative impact. Specifically, we explore the hypothesis that high-pressure situations trigger distracting thoughts and worries that rely heavily on verbal WM. Individuals performed verbally based and spatially based mathematics problems in a low-pressure or high-pressure testing situation. Results demonstrated that performance on problems that rely heavily on verbal WM resources was less accurate under high-pressure than under low-pressure tests. Performance on spatially based problems that do not rely heavily on verbal WM was not affected by pressure. Moreover, the more people reported worrying during test performance, the worse they performed on the verbally based (but not spatially based) maths problems. Asking some individuals to focus on the problem steps by talking aloud helped to keep pressure-induced worries at bay and eliminated pressure's negative impact on performance.

  9. Working Memory Updating Training Improves Mathematics Performance in Middle School Students With Learning Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongxia; Chang, Lei; Chen, Xiaoying; Ma, Liang; Zhou, Renlai

    2018-01-01

    Working memory (WM) deficit is considered the key cause of learning difficulties (LDs). Studies have shown that WM is plastic and thus can be improved through training. This positive effect is transferable to fluid intelligence and academic performance. This study investigated whether WM updating ability and academic performance in children with LDs could be improved through WM updating training and explored the effects of this training on the children's brain activity. We used a running memory task lasting approximately 40 min per day for 28 days to train a group of 23 children with LDs (TLDs group). We also selected two control groups of 22 children with LDs (CLDs group) and 20 children without LDs (normal control [NC] group). The behavioral results of a pretest indicated that WM updating ability and academic performance in the TLDs and CLDs groups were significantly lower than those in the NC group before training. Compared with the CLDs group, the TLDs group exhibited significant performance improvement in a 2-back WM task, as well as in mathematical ability. Event-related potentials (ERPs) results suggested that the amplitudes of N160 (representative of visual recognition) and P300 (representative of updating processing, which is a valid index for updating WM) in the TLDs and CLDs groups were markedly lower than those in the NC group before training. In the TLDs group, these two components increased considerably after training, approaching levels similar to those in the NC group. The results of this study suggest that WM updating training can improve WM updating ability in children with LDs and the training effect can transfer to mathematical performance in such children. Furthermore, the participants' brain activity levels can exhibit positive changes. This article provides experimental evidence that WM updating training could mitigate the symptoms of LDs to a certain degree.

  10. “How many sums can I do”? : Performative strategies and diffractive thinking as methodological tools for rethinking mathematical subjectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to illustrate how the understanding of mathematical subjectivity changes when transiting theoretically and methodologically from a discursive and performative thinking, as suggested by Judith Butler (1990, 1993, 1997), to an agential realist and diffractive thinking, inspired by Karen Barad’s theories (2007, 2008). To show this I have examined narrative memory stories about mathematics written by students participating in Teacher Education maths courses. I pro...

  11. The Impact of Hands-On-Approach on Student Academic Performance in Basic Science and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwueme, Cecilia O.; Ekon, Esther E.; Ezenwa-Nebife, Dorothy C.

    2015-01-01

    Children can learn mathematics and sciences effectively even before being exposed to formal school curriculum if basic Mathematics and Sciences concepts are communicated to them early using activity oriented (Hands-on) method of teaching. Mathematics and Science are practical and activity oriented and can best be learnt through inquiry (Okebukola…

  12. Mathematical Literacy in Plant Physiology Undergraduates: Results of Interventions Aimed at Improving Students' Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Francisca; Sanz, Amparo

    2013-01-01

    The importance of mathematical literacy in any scientific career is widely recognized. However, various studies report lack of numeracy and mathematical literacy in students from various countries. In the present work, we present a detailed study of the mathematical literacy of Spanish undergraduate students of Biology enrolled in a Plant…

  13. Dynamic Effects of Performance-Avoidance Goal Orientation on Student Achievement in Language and Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Gonida, Sofia-Eleftheria N

    2018-07-01

    The present study used achievement goal theory (AGT) as a theoretical framework and examined the role of mastery and performance goals, both performance-approach and performance-avoidance, on school achieve-ment within the nonlinear dynamical systems (NDS) perspective. A series of cusp catastrophe models were applied on students' achievement in a number of school subjects, such as mathematics and language for elementary school and algebra, geometry, ancient and modern Greek language for high school, using achievement goal orientations as control variables. The participants (N=224) were students attending fifth and eighth grade (aged 11 and 14, respectively) in public schools located in northern Greece. Cusp analysis based on the probability density function was carried out by two procedures, the maximum likelihood and the least squares. The results showed that performance-approach goals had no linear effect on achievement, while the cusp models implementing mastery goals as the asymmetry factor and performance-avoidance as the bifurcation, proved superior to their linear alternatives. The results of the study based on NDS support the multiple goal perspective within AGT. Theoretical issues, educational implications and future directions are discussed.

  14. Department of Energy Mathematical, Information, and Computational Sciences Division: High Performance Computing and Communications Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This document is intended to serve two purposes. Its first purpose is that of a program status report of the considerable progress that the Department of Energy (DOE) has made since 1993, the time of the last such report (DOE/ER-0536, The DOE Program in HPCC), toward achieving the goals of the High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program. The second purpose is that of a summary report of the many research programs administered by the Mathematical, Information, and Computational Sciences (MICS) Division of the Office of Energy Research under the auspices of the HPCC Program and to provide, wherever relevant, easy access to pertinent information about MICS-Division activities via universal resource locators (URLs) on the World Wide Web (WWW).

  15. Department of Energy: MICS (Mathematical Information, and Computational Sciences Division). High performance computing and communications program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This document is intended to serve two purposes. Its first purpose is that of a program status report of the considerable progress that the Department of Energy (DOE) has made since 1993, the time of the last such report (DOE/ER-0536, {open_quotes}The DOE Program in HPCC{close_quotes}), toward achieving the goals of the High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program. The second purpose is that of a summary report of the many research programs administered by the Mathematical, Information, and Computational Sciences (MICS) Division of the Office of Energy Research under the auspices of the HPCC Program and to provide, wherever relevant, easy access to pertinent information about MICS-Division activities via universal resource locators (URLs) on the World Wide Web (WWW). The information pointed to by the URL is updated frequently, and the interested reader is urged to access the WWW for the latest information.

  16. A Diagnostic Comparison of Turkish and Korean Students’ Mathematics Performances on the TIMSS 2011 Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Şen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to analyze an international large-scale data set using a cognitive assessment approach. Although some researchers question the usefulness of international large-scale assessments (e.g., TIMSS, participating countries have continued to use the results from these large-scale assessments to improve their curricula and teaching methods. Despite the common reporting practice—single-score—in these large scale assessments gives useful insights about students’ overall performances, they still lack diagnostic information. Cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs were developed to provide more feedback on students’ cognitive strengths and weaknesses. This study retrofitted the TIMSS 2011 eighth grade mathematics assessment by applying a specific CDM called the DINA (the deterministic, inputs, noisy, “and” gate model to data from South Korea and Turkey. Results of the DINA model were used to make a detailed comparison between students of these two countries.

  17. Impact of Instructional Resources on Mathematics Performance of Learners with Dyscalculia in Integrated Primary Schools, Arusha City, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusta, Nyudule; Karugu, Geoffrey; Muthee, Jessica; Tekle, Tesfu

    2016-01-01

    Learners with dyscalculia in the integrated primary schools in Arusha have been performing poorly in the Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE). Thus, the journal sought to investigate the impact of instructional resources on mathematics performance of learners with dyscalculia in integrated primary schools found in Arusha city, Tanzania. The…

  18. Academic Well-Being, Mathematics Performance, and Educational Aspirations in Lower Secondary Education: Changes Within a School Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widlund, Anna; Tuominen, Heta; Korhonen, Johan

    2018-01-01

    It has been suggested that both performance and academic well-being play a role in adolescent students' educational attainment and school dropout. In this study, we therefore examined, first, what kinds of academic well-being (i.e., school burnout, schoolwork engagement, and mathematics self-concept) and mathematics performance profiles can be identified among lower secondary school students ( N grade 7 = 583, N grade 9 = 497); second, how stable these profiles are across one school year during the seventh and ninth grades; and, third, how students with different academic well-being and mathematics performance profiles differ with respect to their educational aspirations. By means of latent profile analyses, three groups of students in seventh grade: thriving (34%), average (51%), and negative academic well-being (15%) and four groups of students in ninth grade: thriving (25%), average (50%), negative academic well-being (18%), and low-performing (7%) with distinct well-being and mathematics performance profiles were identified. Configural frequency analyses revealed that the profiles were relatively stable across one school year; 60% of the students displayed identical profiles over time. The thriving students reported the highest educational aspirations compared to the other groups. In addition, the low-performing students in the ninth grade had the lowest educational aspirations just before the transition to upper secondary school. Practical implications as well as directions for future research are discussed.

  19. Academic Well-Being, Mathematics Performance, and Educational Aspirations in Lower Secondary Education: Changes Within a School Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Widlund

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that both performance and academic well-being play a role in adolescent students’ educational attainment and school dropout. In this study, we therefore examined, first, what kinds of academic well-being (i.e., school burnout, schoolwork engagement, and mathematics self-concept and mathematics performance profiles can be identified among lower secondary school students (Ngrade 7 = 583, Ngrade 9 = 497; second, how stable these profiles are across one school year during the seventh and ninth grades; and, third, how students with different academic well-being and mathematics performance profiles differ with respect to their educational aspirations. By means of latent profile analyses, three groups of students in seventh grade: thriving (34%, average (51%, and negative academic well-being (15% and four groups of students in ninth grade: thriving (25%, average (50%, negative academic well-being (18%, and low-performing (7% with distinct well-being and mathematics performance profiles were identified. Configural frequency analyses revealed that the profiles were relatively stable across one school year; 60% of the students displayed identical profiles over time. The thriving students reported the highest educational aspirations compared to the other groups. In addition, the low-performing students in the ninth grade had the lowest educational aspirations just before the transition to upper secondary school. Practical implications as well as directions for future research are discussed.

  20. Academic Well-Being, Mathematics Performance, and Educational Aspirations in Lower Secondary Education: Changes Within a School Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widlund, Anna; Tuominen, Heta; Korhonen, Johan

    2018-01-01

    It has been suggested that both performance and academic well-being play a role in adolescent students’ educational attainment and school dropout. In this study, we therefore examined, first, what kinds of academic well-being (i.e., school burnout, schoolwork engagement, and mathematics self-concept) and mathematics performance profiles can be identified among lower secondary school students (Ngrade 7 = 583, Ngrade 9 = 497); second, how stable these profiles are across one school year during the seventh and ninth grades; and, third, how students with different academic well-being and mathematics performance profiles differ with respect to their educational aspirations. By means of latent profile analyses, three groups of students in seventh grade: thriving (34%), average (51%), and negative academic well-being (15%) and four groups of students in ninth grade: thriving (25%), average (50%), negative academic well-being (18%), and low-performing (7%) with distinct well-being and mathematics performance profiles were identified. Configural frequency analyses revealed that the profiles were relatively stable across one school year; 60% of the students displayed identical profiles over time. The thriving students reported the highest educational aspirations compared to the other groups. In addition, the low-performing students in the ninth grade had the lowest educational aspirations just before the transition to upper secondary school. Practical implications as well as directions for future research are discussed. PMID:29593603

  1. The Math Gap: a description of the mathematics performance of preschool-aged deaf/hard-of-hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaro, Claudia M; Kritzer, Karen L

    2013-04-01

    Over decades and across grade levels, deaf/hard-of-hearing (d/hh) student performance in mathematics has shown a gap in achievement. It is unclear, however, exactly when this gap begins to emerge and in what areas. This study describes preschool d/hh children's knowledge of early mathematics concepts. Both standardized and nonstandardized measures were used to assess understanding in number, geometry, measurement, problem solving, and patterns, reasoning and algebra. Results present strong evidence that d/hh students' difficulty in mathematics may begin prior to the start of formal schooling. Findings also show areas of strength (geometry) and weakness (problem solving and measurement) for these children. Evidence of poor foundational performance may relate to later academic achievement.

  2. Perprof-py: A Python Package for Performance Profile of Mathematical Optimization Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Soares Siqueira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A very important area of research in the field of Mathematical Optimization is the benchmarking of optimization packages to compare solvers. During benchmarking, one usually collects a large amount of information like CPU time, number of functions evaluations, number of iterations, and much more. This information, if presented as tables, can be difficult to analyze and compare due to large amount of data. Therefore tools to better process and understand optimization benchmark data have been developed. One of the most widespread tools is the Performance Profile graphics proposed by Dolan and Moré [2]. In this context, this paper describes perprof-py, a free/open source software that creates 'Performance Profile' graphics. This software produces graphics in PDF using LaTeX with PGF/TikZ [22] and PGFPLOTS [4] packages, in PNG using matplotlib [9], and in HTML using Bokeh [1]. Perprof-py can also be easily extended to be used with other plot libraries. It is implemented in Python 3 with support for internationalization, and is under the General Public License Version 3 (GPLv3.

  3. SUMO, System performance assessment for a high-level nuclear waste repository: Mathematical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslinger, P.W.; Miley, T.B.; Engel, D.W.; Chamberlain, P.J. II.

    1992-09-01

    Following completion of the preliminary risk assessment of the potential Yucca Mountain Site by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in 1988, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) requested the Performance Assessment Scientific Support (PASS) Program at PNL to develop an integrated system model and computer code that provides performance and risk assessment analysis capabilities for a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. The system model that has been developed addresses the cumulative radionuclide release criteria established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and estimates population risks in terms of dose to humans. The system model embodied in the SUMO (System Unsaturated Model) code will also allow benchmarking of other models being developed for the Yucca Mountain Project. The system model has three natural divisions: (1) source term, (2) far-field transport, and (3) dose to humans. This document gives a detailed description of the mathematics of each of these three divisions. Each of the governing equations employed is based on modeling assumptions that are widely accepted within the scientific community

  4. Underprepared Students' Performance on Algebra in a Double-Period High School Mathematics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Mara V.; Bragelman, John; Stoelinga, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of the Intensified Algebra I (IA) program is to enable mathematically underprepared students to successfully complete Algebra I in 9th grade and stay on track to meet increasingly rigorous high school mathematics graduation requirements. The program was designed to bring a range of both cognitive and non-cognitive supports to bear…

  5. Impact of Chess Training on Mathematics Performance and Concentration Ability of Children with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Markus; Niesch, Harald; Steffen, Olaf; Ernst, Baerbel; Loeffler, Markus; Witruk, Evelin; Schwarz, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the benefit of chess in mathematics lessons for children with learning disabilities based on lower intelligence (IQ 70-85). School classes of four German schools for children with learning disabilities were randomly assigned to receive one hour of chess lesson instead of one hour of regular mathematics lessons…

  6. Intra-Mathematical Connections Made by High School Students in Performing Calculus Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Javier; Dolores-Flores, Crisólogo

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we report the results of research that explores the intra-mathematical connections that high school students make when they solve Calculus tasks, in particular those involving the derivative and the integral. We consider mathematical connections as a cognitive process through which a person relates or associates two or more ideas,…

  7. Student Performance in Mathematics: Should We Be Concerned? Evidence from a Retail Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderson, Mary C.; Mann, Manveer

    2018-01-01

    This article describes how for many college students the transition to college-level mathematics courses presents new challenges beyond those that were part of the high school experience. In this interdisciplinary study forty-four non-mathematics and non-science majors, enrolled in a retail-buying course, were studied to examine student confidence…

  8. Learners' Performance in Mathematics: A Case Study of Public High Schools, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapaire, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics is fundamental to national prosperity in providing tools for understanding science, technology, engineering and economics. It is essential in public decision-making and for participation in the knowledge economy. Mathematics equips pupils with uniquely powerful ways to describe, analyse and change the world. It can stimulate moments of…

  9. Utilizing Marzano's Summarizing and Note Taking Strategies on Seventh Grade Students' Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanmarie-Gardner, Charmaine

    2013-01-01

    A quasi-experimental research study was conducted that investigated the academic impact of utilizing Marzano's summarizing and note taking strategies on mathematic achievement. A sample of seventh graders from a middle school located on Long Island's North Shore was tested to determine whether significant differences existed in mathematic test…

  10. Intra-mathematical connections made by high school students in performing Calculus tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Javier; Dolores-Flores, Crisólogo

    2018-02-01

    In this article, we report the results of research that explores the intra-mathematical connections that high school students make when they solve Calculus tasks, in particular those involving the derivative and the integral. We consider mathematical connections as a cognitive process through which a person relates or associates two or more ideas, concepts, definitions, theorems, procedures, representations and meanings among themselves, with other disciplines or with real life. Task-based interviews were used to collect data and thematic analysis was used to analyze them. Through the analysis of the productions of the 25 participants, we identified 223 intra-mathematical connections. The data allowed us to establish a mathematical connections system which contributes to the understanding of higher concepts, in our case, the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. We found mathematical connections of the types: different representations, procedural, features, reversibility and meaning as a connection.

  11. Gender Differences in Achievement Goals and Performances in English Language and Mathematics of Senior Secondary Schools Students in Borno State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Alice K. J.; Dauda, Bala; Umar, Mohammad A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper investigated gender difference in achievement goals and performance in English Language and Mathematics of senior secondary schools students in Borno State, Nigeria. The study specifically sought to determine gender differences in students' academic performances in English Language, Mathematics and overall academic performance as well as…

  12. Associations of Physical Activity, Sports Participation and Active Commuting on Mathematic Performance and Inhibitory Control in Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domazet, Sidsel L; Tarp, Jakob; Huang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine objectively measured physical activity level, organized sports participation and active commuting to school in relation to mathematic performance and inhibitory control in adolescents. METHODS: The design was cross-sectional. A convenient sample of 869 sixth and seventh gra...

  13. How Readability and Topic Incidence Relate to Performance on Mathematics Story Problems in Computer-Based Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkington, Candace; Clinton, Virginia; Ritter, Steven N.; Nathan, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    Solving mathematics story problems requires text comprehension skills. However, previous studies have found few connections between traditional measures of text readability and performance on story problems. We hypothesized that recently developed measures of readability and topic incidence measured by text-mining tools may illuminate associations…

  14. Correlation of Admission Metrics with Eventual Success in Mathematics Academic Performance of Freshmen in AMAIUB's Business Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calucag, Lina S.; Talisic, Geraldo C.; Caday, Aileen B.

    2016-01-01

    This is a correlational study research design, which aimed to determine the correlation of admission metrics with eventual success in mathematics academic performance of the admitted 177 first year students of Bachelor of Science in Business Informatics and 59 first year students of Bachelor of Science in International Studies. Using Pearson's…

  15. Object-Spatial Visualization and Verbal Cognitive Styles, and Their Relation to Cognitive Abilities and Mathematical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haciomeroglu, Erhan Selcuk

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the object-spatial visualization and verbal cognitive styles among high school students and related differences in spatial ability, verbal-logical reasoning ability, and mathematical performance of those students. Data were collected from 348 students enrolled in Advanced Placement calculus courses at six high…

  16. The role of affordances in children's learning performance and efficiency when using virtual manipulative mathematics touch-screen apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.; Bullock, Emma K.; Shumway, Jessica F.; Tucker, Stephen I.; Watts, Christina M.; Westenskow, Arla; Anderson-Pence, Katie L.; Maahs-Fladung, Cathy; Boyer-Thurgood, Jennifer; Gulkilik, Hilal; Jordan, Kerry

    2016-03-01

    This paper focuses on understanding the role that affordances played in children's learning performance and efficiency during clinical interviews of their interactions with mathematics apps on touch-screen devices. One hundred children, ages 3 to 8, each used six different virtual manipulative mathematics apps during 30-40-min interviews. The study used a convergent mixed methods design, in which quantitative and qualitative data were collected concurrently to answer the research questions (Creswell and Plano Clark 2011). Videos were used to capture each child's interactions with the virtual manipulative mathematics apps, document learning performance and efficiency, and record children's interactions with the affordances within the apps. Quantitized video data answered the research question on differences in children's learning performance and efficiency between pre- and post-assessments. A Wilcoxon matched pairs signed-rank test was used to explore these data. Qualitative video data was used to identify affordance access by children when using each app, identifying 95 potential helping and hindering affordances among the 18 apps. The results showed that there were changes in children's learning performance and efficiency when children accessed a helping or a hindering affordance. Helping affordances were more likely to be accessed by children who progressed between the pre- and post-assessments, and the same affordances had helping and hindering effects for different children. These results have important implications for the design of virtual manipulative mathematics learning apps.

  17. Differences in mathematics and science performance by economic status, gender, and ethnicity/race: A multiyear Texas statewide study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Pamela Bennett

    Purpose. The purpose of the first study was to ascertain the extent to which differences were present in the STAAR Mathematics and Science test scores by Grade 5 and Grade 8 student economic status. The purpose of the second study was to examine differences in Grade 5 STAAR Mathematics and Science test performance by gender and by ethnicity/race (i.e., Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White). Finally, with respect to the third study in this journal-ready dissertation, the purpose was to investigate the STAAR Mathematics and Science test scores of Grade 8 students by gender and by ethnicity/race (i.e., Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White). Method. For this journal-ready dissertation, a non-experimental, causal-comparative research design (Creswell, 2009) was used in all three studies. Grade 5 and Grade 8 STAAR Mathematics and Science test data were analyzed for the 2011-2012 through the 2014-2015 school years. The dependent variables were the STAAR Mathematics and Science test scores for Grade 5 and Grade 8. The independent variables analyzed in these studies were student economic status, gender, and ethnicity/race. Findings. Regarding the first study, statistically significant differences were present in Grade 5 and Grade 8 STAAR Mathematics and Science test scores by student economic status for each year. Moderate effect sizes (Cohen's d) were present for each year of the study for the Grade 5 STAAR Mathematics and Science exams, Grade 8 Science exams, and the 2014-2015 Grade 8 STAAR Mathematics exam. However, a small effect size was present for the 2011-2012 through 2013-2014 Grade 8 STAAR Mathematics exam. Regarding the second and third study, statistically significant differences were revealed for Grade 5 and Grade 8 STAAR Mathematics and Science test scores based on gender, with trivial effect sizes. Furthermore, statistically significant differences were present in these test scores by ethnicity/race, with moderate effects for each year of the study. With regard to

  18. To What Extent Is Mathematical Ability Predictive of Performance in a Methodology and Statistics Course? Can an Action Research Approach Be Used to Understand the Relevance of Mathematical Ability in Psychology Undergraduates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Victoria J.

    2014-01-01

    Research methods and statistical analysis is typically the least liked and most anxiety provoking aspect of a psychology undergraduate degree, in large part due to the mathematical component of the content. In this first cycle of a piece of action research, students' mathematical ability is examined in relation to their performance across…

  19. Associations of Physical Activity, Sports Participation and Active Commuting on Mathematic Performance and Inhibitory Control in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domazet, Sidsel L; Tarp, Jakob; Huang, Tao; Gejl, Anne Kær; Andersen, Lars Bo; Froberg, Karsten; Bugge, Anna

    2016-01-01

    To examine objectively measured physical activity level, organized sports participation and active commuting to school in relation to mathematic performance and inhibitory control in adolescents. The design was cross-sectional. A convenient sample of 869 sixth and seventh grade students (12-14 years) was invited to participate in the study. A total of 568 students fulfilled the inclusion criteria and comprised the final sample for this study. Mathematic performance was assessed by a customized test and inhibitory control was assessed by a modified Eriksen flanker task. Physical activity was assessed with GT3X and GT3X+ accelerometers presented in sex-specific quartiles of mean counts per minute and mean minutes per day in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Active commuting and sports participation was self-reported. Mixed model regression was applied. Total physical activity level was stratified by bicycling status in order to bypass measurement error subject to the accelerometer. Non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute displayed a higher mathematic score, so did cyclists in the 2nd and 3rd quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity relative to the least active quartile. Non-cyclists in the 3rd quartile of counts per minute had an improved reaction time and cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity displayed an improved accuracy, whereas non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute showed an inferior accuracy relative to the least active quartile. Bicycling to school and organized sports participation were positively associated with mathematic performance. Sports participation and bicycling were positively associated with mathematic performance. Results regarding objectively measured physical activity were mixed. Although, no linear nor dose-response relationship was observed there was no indication of a higher activity level impairing the scholastic or cognitive performance.

  20. Associations of Physical Activity, Sports Participation and Active Commuting on Mathematic Performance and Inhibitory Control in Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidsel L Domazet

    Full Text Available To examine objectively measured physical activity level, organized sports participation and active commuting to school in relation to mathematic performance and inhibitory control in adolescents.The design was cross-sectional. A convenient sample of 869 sixth and seventh grade students (12-14 years was invited to participate in the study. A total of 568 students fulfilled the inclusion criteria and comprised the final sample for this study. Mathematic performance was assessed by a customized test and inhibitory control was assessed by a modified Eriksen flanker task. Physical activity was assessed with GT3X and GT3X+ accelerometers presented in sex-specific quartiles of mean counts per minute and mean minutes per day in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Active commuting and sports participation was self-reported. Mixed model regression was applied. Total physical activity level was stratified by bicycling status in order to bypass measurement error subject to the accelerometer.Non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute displayed a higher mathematic score, so did cyclists in the 2nd and 3rd quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity relative to the least active quartile. Non-cyclists in the 3rd quartile of counts per minute had an improved reaction time and cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity displayed an improved accuracy, whereas non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute showed an inferior accuracy relative to the least active quartile. Bicycling to school and organized sports participation were positively associated with mathematic performance.Sports participation and bicycling were positively associated with mathematic performance. Results regarding objectively measured physical activity were mixed. Although, no linear nor dose-response relationship was observed there was no indication of a higher activity level impairing the scholastic or cognitive

  1. Associations of Physical Activity, Sports Participation and Active Commuting on Mathematic Performance and Inhibitory Control in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Gejl, Anne Kær; Froberg, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine objectively measured physical activity level, organized sports participation and active commuting to school in relation to mathematic performance and inhibitory control in adolescents. Methods The design was cross-sectional. A convenient sample of 869 sixth and seventh grade students (12–14 years) was invited to participate in the study. A total of 568 students fulfilled the inclusion criteria and comprised the final sample for this study. Mathematic performance was assessed by a customized test and inhibitory control was assessed by a modified Eriksen flanker task. Physical activity was assessed with GT3X and GT3X+ accelerometers presented in sex-specific quartiles of mean counts per minute and mean minutes per day in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Active commuting and sports participation was self-reported. Mixed model regression was applied. Total physical activity level was stratified by bicycling status in order to bypass measurement error subject to the accelerometer. Results Non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute displayed a higher mathematic score, so did cyclists in the 2nd and 3rd quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity relative to the least active quartile. Non-cyclists in the 3rd quartile of counts per minute had an improved reaction time and cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity displayed an improved accuracy, whereas non-cyclists in the 2nd quartile of counts per minute showed an inferior accuracy relative to the least active quartile. Bicycling to school and organized sports participation were positively associated with mathematic performance. Conclusions Sports participation and bicycling were positively associated with mathematic performance. Results regarding objectively measured physical activity were mixed. Although, no linear nor dose-response relationship was observed there was no indication of a higher activity level impairing the

  2. Science Curiosity as a Correlate of Academic Performance in Mathematics Education: Insights from Nigerian Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Abakpa , Benjamin ,; Abah , Joshua ,; Okoh Agbo-Egwu , Abel

    2018-01-01

    International audience; This study investigated the relationship between the science curiosity levels of undergraduate of mathematics education in a Nigerian higher educational institution and their academic grade point averages. The study employed a correlational survey research design on a random sample of 104 mathematics education students. The Science Curiosity Scale – Comparative Self Report was adapted to measure the students' distinctive appetite for consuming science-related media for...

  3. Effects of Reading Skills on Students’ Performance in Science and Mathematics in Public and Private Secondary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ombra A. Imam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Philippine education system, reading, mathematics, and science formed part of the core areas of basic education curriculum. For the last decade, the quality of Philippine education was put into a big question due to poor performance of students in mathematics and science tests both local and abroad. The initial result of current efforts of the government by adopting K-12 curriculum didn’t do much to change the status quo. The purpose of this study is to determine the reading predictors of students’ performance in Mathematics and Science and identify its effects to such performance. A total of 660 freshmen students from public and private high schools in Cotabato City, Philippines were taken as sample. A validated and reliable 150-item test in reading comprehension skills, mathematics and science was used to get primary data to perform correlation and regression analysis. Findings showed that only making inference and getting main idea were predictors of mathematics performance of students in public school and private schools, respectively.  Data analysis also revealed that two reading skills such as noting details and making inference had an influence on science performance of students in public school while skills in getting main idea and drawing conclusion influenced science performance of students in private schools.  However, there was only one skill such as vocabulary in context which was predictor of overall science performance of all students. Moreover, separate effects of making inference, identifying main idea explained only 1.8 percent and 1.3 percent of students’ math performance while their combined effects provided only .1 percent or nearly zero percent. Furthermore, the study found out that separate effects of noting details contributed 3.3 percent and its combined effects with making inference explained 4.2 percent of science performance of students in public schools. In terms of effects of reading to science

  4. Pilot study: EatFit impacts sixth graders' academic performance on achievement of mathematics and english education standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilts, Mical Kay; Lamp, Cathi; Horowitz, Marcel; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2009-01-01

    Investigate the impact of a nutrition education program on student academic performance as measured by achievement of education standards. Quasi-experimental crossover-controlled study. California Central Valley suburban elementary school (58% qualified for free or reduced-priced lunch). All sixth-grade students (n = 84) in the elementary school clustered in 3 classrooms. 9-lesson intervention with an emphasis on guided goal setting and driven by the Social Cognitive Theory. Multiple-choice survey assessing 5 education standards for sixth-grade mathematics and English at 3 time points: baseline (T1), 5 weeks (T2), and 10 weeks (T3). Repeated measures, paired t test, and analysis of covariance. Changes in total scores were statistically different (P academic performance measured by achievement of specific mathematics and English education standards. Nutrition educators can show school administrators and wellness committee members that this program can positively impact academic performance, concomitant to its primary objective of promoting healthful eating and physical activity.

  5. Study Habits and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Mathematic: A Case Study of Selected Secondary Schools in Uyo Local Education Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakirudeen, Abisola Oladeni; Sanni, Kudirat Bimbo

    2017-01-01

    The study examined study habits and academic performance of secondary school students in Mathematics. A case study of selected secondary schools in Uyo Local Education Council. The main purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between study habits and academic performance of secondary school students in Mathematics. To carry out…

  6. Propensity Score Matching Helps to Understand Sources of DIF and Mathematics Performance Differences of Indonesian, Turkish, Australian, and Dutch Students in PISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Serkan; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Yagmur, Kutlay

    2018-01-01

    We examined Differential Item Functioning (DIF) and the size of cross-cultural performance differences in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 mathematics data before and after application of propensity score matching. The mathematics performance of Indonesian, Turkish, Australian, and Dutch students on released items was…

  7. Performance in grade 12 mathematics and science predicts student nurses' performance in first year science modules at a university in the Western Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mthimunye, Katlego D T; Daniels, Felicity M

    2017-10-26

    The demand for highly qualified and skilled nurses is increasing in South Africa as well as around the world. Having a background in science can create a significant advantage for students wishing to enrol for an undergraduate nursing qualification because nursing as profession is grounded in scientific evidence. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive validity of grade 12 mathematics and science on the academic performance of first year student nurses in science modules. A quantitative research method using a cross-sectional predictive design was employed in this study. The participants included first year Bachelor of Nursing students enrolled at a university in the Western Cape, South Africa. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed to analyse the data by using the IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences versions 24. Descriptive analysis of all variables was performed as well as the Spearman's rank correlation test to describe the relationship among the study variables. Standard multiple linear regressions analysis was performed to determine the predictive validity of grade 12 mathematics and science on the academic performance of first year student nurses in science modules. The results of this study showed that grade 12 physical science is not a significant predictor (p > 0.062) of performance in first year science modules. The multiple linear regression revealed that grade 12 mathematics and life science grades explained 37.1% to 38.1% (R2 = 0.381 and adj R2 = 0.371) of the variation in the first year science grade distributions. Based on the results of the study it is evident that performance in grade 12 mathematics (β = 2.997) and life science (β = 3.175) subjects is a significant predictor (p < 0.001) of the performance in first year science modules for student nurses at the university identified for this study.

  8. Mathematical modelling of performance of safety rod and its drive mechanism in sodium cooled fast reactor during scram action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan Babu, V.; Thanigaiyarasu, G.; Chellapandi, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mathematical modelling of dynamic behaviour of safety rod during scram action in fast reactor. • Effects of hydraulics, structural interaction and geometry on drop time of safety rod are understood. • Using simplified model, drop time can be assessed replacing detailed CFD analysis. • Sensitivities of the related parameters on drop time are understood. • Experimental validation qualifies the modelling and computer software developed. - Abstract: Performance of safety rod and its drive mechanism which are parts of shutdown systems in sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) plays a major role in ensuring safe operation of the plant during all the design basis events. The safety rods are to be inserted into the core within a stipulated time during off-normal conditions of the reactor. Mathematical modelling of dynamic behaviour of a safety rod and its drive mechanism in a typical 500 MWe SFR during scram action is considered in the present study. A full-scale prototype system has undergone qualification tests in air, water and in sodium simulating the operating conditions in the reactor. In this paper, the salient features of the safety rod and its mechanism, details related to mathematical modelling and sensitivity of the parameters having influence on drop time are presented. The outcomes of the numerical analysis are compared with the experimental results. In this process, the mathematical model and the computer software developed are validated

  9. Benchmarking to the world's best in mathematics. Quality control in curriculum and instruction among the top performers in the TIMSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, R P

    2001-08-01

    This article describes the education quality control systems (for mathematics) used by those countries that performed best on the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Enforced quality control measures are defined as "decision points"--where adherence to the curriculum and instruction system can be reinforced. Most decision points involve stakes for the student, teacher, or school. They involve potential consequences for failure to adhere to the system and to follow the program at a reasonable pace. Generally, countries with more decision points perform better on the TIMSS. When the number of decision points and TIMSS test scores are adjusted for country wealth, the relationship between the degree of (enforced) quality control and student achievement appears to be positive and exponential. The more (enforced) quality control measures employed in an education system, the greater is students' academic achievement.

  10. Effects of Game-Based Learning in an Opensim-Supported Virtual Environment on Mathematical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heesung; Ke, Fengfeng

    2017-01-01

    This experimental study was intended to examine whether the integration of game characteristics in the OpenSimulator-supported virtual reality (VR) learning environment can improve mathematical achievement for elementary school students. In this pre- and posttest experimental comparison study, data were collected from 132 fourth graders through an…

  11. Longitudinal development of number line estimation and mathematics performance in primary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friso-van den Bos, I.; Kroesbergen, E.H.; van Luit, J.E.H.; Xenidou-Dervou, I.; Jonkman, L.M.; van der Schoot, M.; van Lieshout, E.C.D.M.

    2015-01-01

    Children's ability to relate number to a continuous quantity abstraction visualized as a number line is widely accepted to be predictive of mathematics achievement. However, a debate has emerged with respect to how children's placements are distributed on this number line across development. In the

  12. Longitudinal development of number line estimation and mathematics performance in primary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friso - van den Bos, Ilona; Kroesbergen, Evelyn; van Luit, Hans; Xenidou-Dervou, Iro; Jonkman, Lisa M.; Van der Schoot, Menno; Van Lieshout, Ernest C. D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Children’s ability to relate number to a continuous quantity abstraction visualized as a number line is widely accepted to be predictive of mathematics achievement. However, a debate has emerged with respect to how children’s placements are distributed on this number line across development. In the

  13. Performing below the Targeted Level: An Investigation into KS3 Pupils' Attitudes towards Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Anusha; Hussain, Nasreen

    2018-01-01

    This study sets out to investigate the attitude KS3 pupils have towards mathematics and the factors that influence this attitude. A case study approach was used as the pupils were a unit of the school under study and a survey method was chosen to provide scope to the study. Purposeful sampling was employed for the selection of 200 pupils from…

  14. Choking under Pressure: When an Additional Positive Stereotype Affects Performance for Domain Identified Male Mathematics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Harriet E. S.; Crisp, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    This research aimed to establish if the presentation of two positive stereotypes would result in choking under pressure for identified male mathematics students. Seventy-five 16 year old men, who had just commenced their AS-level study, were either made aware of their gender group membership (single positive stereotype), their school group…

  15. Teacher Gender and Student Performance in Mathematics. Evidence from Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escardíbul, Josep-Oriol; Mora, Toni

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of teacher gender towards students' test results in a blinded Math test administered to students in Catalonia (Spain). The data for this analysis are drawn from a sample of secondary school students who participated in an international blind-test known as the "Mathematical Kangaroo" in 2008. The estimation…

  16. The Relationship between Higher Order Thinking Skills and Academic Performance of Student in Mathematics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanujaya, Benidiktus; Mumu, Jeinne; Margono, Gaguk

    2017-01-01

    Higher order thinking skills (HOTS) is one of important aspects in education. Students with high level of higher order thinking skills tend to be more successful. However, do this phenomenon also happen in the learning of Mathematics? To answer this question, this research aims to study the relationship between HOTS and students' academic…

  17. Effect of external classroom noise on schoolchildren's reading and mathematics performance: correlation of noise levels and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, M; Skenteris, N; Piperakis, S M

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated the effect of low, medium, and high traffic road noise as well as irrelevant background speech noise on primary school children's reading and mathematical performance. A total of 676 participants (324 boys, 47.9% and 352 girls, 52.1%) of the 4th and 5th elementary classes participated in the project. The participants were enrolled in public primary schools from urban areas and had ages ranging from 9 to 10 years and from. Schools were selected on the basis of increasing levels of exposure to road traffic noise and then classified into three categories (Low noise: 55-66 dB, Medium noise: 67-77 dB, and High noise: 72-80 dB). We measured reading comprehension and mathematical skills in accordance with the national guidelines for elementary education, using a test designed specifically for the purpose of this study. On the one hand, children in low-level noise schools showed statistically significant differences from children in medium- and high-level noise schools in reading performance (plevel noise schools differed significantly from children in high-level noise schools but only in mathematics performance (p=0.001). Girls in general did better in reading score than boys, especially in schools with medium- and high-level noise. Finally the levels of noise and gender were found to be two independent factors.

  18. A mathematical model for the performance assessment of engineering barriers of a typical near surface radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Raphaela N.; Rotunno Filho, Otto C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Hidrologia e Estudos do Meio Ambiente]. E-mail: otto@hidro.ufrj.br; Ruperti Junior, Nerbe J.; Lavalle Filho, Paulo F. Heilbron [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: nruperti@cnen.gov.br

    2005-07-01

    This work proposes a mathematical model for the performance assessment of a typical radioactive waste disposal facility based on the consideration of a multiple barrier concept. The Generalized Integral Transform Technique is employed to solve the Advection-Dispersion mass transfer equation under the assumption of saturated one-dimensional flow, to obtain solute concentrations at given times and locations within the medium. A test-case is chosen in order to illustrate the performance assessment of several configurations of a multi barrier system adopted for the containment of sand contaminated with Ra-226 within a trench. (author)

  19. A mathematical model for the performance assessment of engineering barriers of a typical near surface radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, Raphaela N.; Rotunno Filho, Otto C.

    2005-01-01

    This work proposes a mathematical model for the performance assessment of a typical radioactive waste disposal facility based on the consideration of a multiple barrier concept. The Generalized Integral Transform Technique is employed to solve the Advection-Dispersion mass transfer equation under the assumption of saturated one-dimensional flow, to obtain solute concentrations at given times and locations within the medium. A test-case is chosen in order to illustrate the performance assessment of several configurations of a multi barrier system adopted for the containment of sand contaminated with Ra-226 within a trench. (author)

  20. Video-Games Do Not Negatively Impact Adolescent Academic Performance in Science, Mathematics or Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Drummond, Aaron; Sauer, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Video-gaming is a common pastime among adolescents, particularly adolescent males in industrialized nations. Despite widespread suggestions that video-gaming negatively affects academic achievement, the evidence is inconclusive. We reanalyzed data from over 192,000 students in 22 countries involved in the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) to estimate the true effect size of frequency of videogame use on adolescent academic achievement in science, mathematics and readi...

  1. Mathematical modelling and simulation of the thermal performance of a solar heated indoor swimming pool

    OpenAIRE

    Mančić Marko V.; Živković Dragoljub S.; Milosavljević Peđa M.; Todorović Milena N.

    2014-01-01

    Buildings with indoor swimming pools have a large energy footprint. The source of major energy loss is the swimming pool hall where air humidity is increased by evaporation from the pool water surface. This increases energy consumption for heating and ventilation of the pool hall, fresh water supply loss and heat demand for pool water heating. In this paper, a mathematical model of the swimming pool was made to assess energy demands of an indoor swimming po...

  2. The Effects of the Flipped Model of Instruction on Student Engagement and Performance in the Secondary Mathematics Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Clark

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In many of the secondary classrooms across the country, students are passively engaged in the mathematics content, and academic performance can be described, at best, as mediocre. This research study sought to bring about improvements in student engagement and performance in the secondary mathematics classroom through the implementation of the flipped model of instruction and compared student interaction in the flipped classroom with a traditional format. The flipped model of instruction is a relatively new teaching strategy attempting to improve student engagement and performance by moving the lecture outside the classroom via technology and moving homework and exercises with concepts inside the classroom via learning activities. Changes in the student participants’ perceptions and attitudes were evidenced and evaluated through the completion of a pre- and post-survey, a teacher-created unit test, random interviews, and a focus group session. In addition, the researcher documented observations, experiences, thoughts, and insights regarding the intervention in a journal on a daily basis. Quantitative results and qualitative findings revealed the student participants responded favorably to the flipped model of instruction and experienced an increase in their engagement and communication when compared to the traditional classroom experience. The student participants also recognized improvements in the quality of instruction and use of class of time with the flipped model of instruction. In terms of academic performance, no significant changes were demonstrated between the flipped model of instruction students and those taught in a traditional classroom environment.

  3. Academic performance in the high school mathematics standardized test at metropolitan and remote areas of Costa Rica schools in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Castillo-Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the academic performance of students from urban and distant areas in the national mathematics test corresponding to the completion of secondary education, considering the specific test and according to the different types of schools: daytime (daytime scientific, daytime humanistic, nighttime, technical or integrated centers for education of young people and adults (CINDEA, in its Spanish acronym.  The main objective is to describe the students academic performance in the national mathematics test issued to complete high-school level, for the year 2013 and according to the country educational areas.  For the analysis of such information, the main source used was the High-School Education National Report, issued by the Ministry of Public Education for 2013 standardized tests.  One of the conclusions from this study is the need to carry out a historical analysis of the performance of educational institutions which have recently obtained the highest and lowest average grades in the high-school diploma tests, in order to be able to delve into the causes of those performances.

  4. Application of Adjusted Canonical Correlation Analysis (ACCA) to study the association between mathematics in Level 1 and Level 2 and performance of engineering disciplines in Level 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, T. S. G.; Nanayakkara, K. A. D. S. A.

    2017-09-01

    Mathematics plays a key role in engineering sciences as it assists to develop the intellectual maturity and analytical thinking of engineering students and exploring the student academic performance has received great attention recently. The lack of control over covariates motivates the need for their adjustment when measuring the degree of association between two sets of variables in Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA). Thus to examine the individual effects of mathematics in Level 1 and Level 2 on engineering performance in Level 2, two adjusted analyses in CCA: Part CCA and Partial CCA were applied for the raw marks of engineering undergraduates for three different disciplines, at the Faculty of Engineering, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka. The joint influence of mathematics in Level 1 and Level 2 is significant on engineering performance in Level 2 irrespective of the engineering disciplines. The individual effect of mathematics in Level 2 is significantly higher compared to the individual effect of mathematics in Level 1 on engineering performance in Level 2. Furthermore, the individual effect of mathematics in Level 1 can be negligible. But, there would be a notable indirect effect of mathematics in Level 1 on engineering performance in Level 2. It can be concluded that the joint effect of mathematics in both Level 1 and Level 2 is immensely beneficial to improve the overall academic performance at the end of Level 2 of the engineering students. Furthermore, it was found that the impact mathematics varies among engineering disciplines. As partial CCA and partial CCA are not widely explored in applied work, it is recommended to use these techniques for various applications.

  5. Modern Versus Traditional Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of different secondary school mathematics syllabi on first-year performance in college-level mathematics was studied in an attempt to evaluate the syllabus change. Students with a modern mathematics background performed sigficantly better on most first-year units. A topic-by-topic analysis of results is included. (DT)

  6. Mathematical modelling and simulation of the thermal performance of a solar heated indoor swimming pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mančić Marko V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Buildings with indoor swimming pools have a large energy footprint. The source of major energy loss is the swimming pool hall where air humidity is increased by evaporation from the pool water surface. This increases energy consumption for heating and ventilation of the pool hall, fresh water supply loss and heat demand for pool water heating. In this paper, a mathematical model of the swimming pool was made to assess energy demands of an indoor swimming pool building. The mathematical model of the swimming pool is used with the created multi-zone building model in TRNSYS software to determine pool hall energy demand and pool losses. Energy loss for pool water and pool hall heating and ventilation are analyzed for different target pool water and air temperatures. The simulation showed that pool water heating accounts for around 22%, whereas heating and ventilation of the pool hall for around 60% of the total pool hall heat demand. With a change of preset controller air and water temperatures in simulations, evaporation loss was in the range 46-54% of the total pool losses. A solar thermal sanitary hot water system was modelled and simulated to analyze it's potential for energy savings of the presented demand side model. The simulation showed that up to 87% of water heating demands could be met by the solar thermal system, while avoiding stagnation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 42006: Research and development of energy and environmentally highly effective polygeneration systems based on using renewable energy sources

  7. 33rd International School of Mathematics "G Stampacchia ": High Performance Algorithms and Software for Nonlinear Optics "Ettore Majorana"

    CERN Document Server

    Murli, Almerico; High Performance Algorithms and Software for Nonlinear Optics

    2003-01-01

    This volume contains the edited texts of the lectures presented at the Workshop on High Performance Algorithms and Software for Nonlinear Optimization held in Erice, Sicily, at the "G. Stampacchia" School of Mathematics of the "E. Majorana" Centre for Scientific Culture, June 30 - July 8, 2001. In the first year of the new century, the aim of the Workshop was to assess the past and to discuss the future of Nonlinear Optimization, and to highlight recent achieve­ ments and promising research trends in this field. An emphasis was requested on algorithmic and high performance software developments and on new computational experiences, as well as on theoretical advances. We believe that such goal was basically achieved. The Workshop was attended by 71 people from 22 countries. Although not all topics were covered, the presentations gave indeed a wide overview of the field, from different and complementary stand­ points. Besides the lectures, several formal and informal discussions took place. We wish ...

  8. Elementary Students' Metacognitive Processes and Post-Performance Calibration on Mathematical Problem-Solving Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Trinidad; Rodríguez, Celestino; González-Castro, Paloma; González-Pienda, Julio Antonio; Torrance, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Calibration, or the correspondence between perceived performance and actual performance, is linked to students' metacognitive and self-regulatory skills. Making students more aware of the quality of their performance is important in elementary school settings, and more so when math problems are involved. However, many students seem to be poorly…

  9. Economic-mathematical substantiation of optimizing the use of technical means, to perform tasks in conditions of uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Kuksova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article a variant of the economic-mathematical substantiation of optimization approaches choice of tools for the survey of airfields, the mechanism of the use of multiple statistical criteria for optimality and usefulness of the decisions taken in this matter, when operating in conditions of uncertainty. Lately in the modern world in many socio-economic areas of human life quite often there are thematic challenges of managerial decision-making in a conflict environment and competition, when several in the General case, reasonable working actors perform collective decision-making, and the benefits of each depends not only on the chosen business strategies, but also from management decisions of other partners and the success of the experiments. Therefore, it is necessary to develop and substantiation of optimum variants of decision of choice of forces and means to perform tasks in conditions of uncertainty, that is also acceptable for military units. The actual problem currently is to optimize system control engineering-airfield security, the components of which perform their tasks under conditions of uncertainty. Analysis of opportunities of technical means (unmanned aerial vehicles shows that under the condition of equipping them with the appropriate equipment can be considered about the possibility of their use as part of a complex of technical means for inspection of airfields after the who enemy action in the runway. Therefore, the scientific goal in this article is to examine the possibilities of using technical means for inspection of airfield engineering and airfield services, and the aim of the study is using mathematical methods to justify the choice of the most effective means, from the point of view of economic cost of its introduction and use when performing tasks in conditions of uncertainty.

  10. Aircraft anti-ice system: Evaluation of system performance with a new time dependent mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilio, Claudio; Patricelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The anti-ice systems are critical for airplane safety, but are also strongly affecting the fuel consumption of the aircraft. A complete model of this system allows the designers to investigate all possible combination of external parameters and improve the design of current anti-ice systems. The dynamic model of an anti-ice system is presented and the results of the model are validated thanks to a series of experimental tests. The model has been used to analyze the behavior of an anti-ice system at extreme high bleed air temperature which are typical of new generation aircraft engines. An innovative architecture for anti-ice system is studied and the benefits on aircraft fuel consumption for a standard day mission are shown. -- Highlights: • A detailed mathematical model of an anti-ice valves has been created. • Experimental results confirm the goodness of the developed model. • Instability of the valves has been studied. • A new architecture for the anti-ice systems is proposed and the impacts on the aircraft fuel consumption are analyzed

  11. Academic performance: A case study of mathematics and science educators from rural Washington high schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Tira K.

    A qualitative descriptive case study explored courses of action for educators and leaders of math and science educators to implement to help students achieve state assessment standard and postsecondary success. The problem focused on two demographically similar rural high schools in Southwest Washington that demonstrated inadequate rates of student achievement in mathematics and science. The research question investigated courses of action that may assist educators and leaders of secondary math and science educators to help students achieve WASL standards and postsecondary success in compliance with the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. Senge's learning organization theory (1990, 2006) and Fullan's (2001) contributions to leading and learning in times of change provided the theoretical framework for the study. Twenty study participant responses analyzed with qualitative analysis software QSR NVivo 7 revealed six themes. Triangulation of responses with secondary data from WASL assessment scores and case study school assessment data identified 14 courses of action and three recommendations for educators and leaders of math and science educators to help students meet state standards and postsecondary success. Critical factors identified in the study as needed to assist educators to help students succeed included professional development, collaboration, teaching practices, funding, student accountability, and parental involvement.

  12. Mathematical models of hydrocyclone performance in various copper ores preparation circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niedoba Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper ores located in the Lubin-Glogow Copper Basin contain three main lithological fractions: sandstone, carbonate and shale. This fact is the basic problem of organization and conducting ore preparation to flotation. The existing circuit of feed preparation contains (in ZG Rudna five classification nodes of hydrocyclones which fit for various purposes. The elaboration of concept of monitoring work of these nodes should be based on appropriate mathematical models of process. It was decided that either regressive or non-dimensional models that is classification according to Svarovsky, and particularly Plitt’s, will be suitable, in the aspects of d50 and partition sharpness. Errors resulting from determination of the features being part of the equations were also important. In this paper the errors were divided into technical and technological. The issue of experiments organization (mineralogical investigation connected with each classification node was also addressed. It is obvious that each classification node must obtain its characteristics because of various comminution products directed to classification.

  13. Mathematical model and computer code for coated particles performance at normal operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, I.; Kadarmetov, I.; Makarov, V.

    2002-01-01

    Computer modeling of thermo-mechanical behavior of coated particles during operating both at normal and off-normal conditions has a very significant role particularly on a stage of new reactors development. In Russia a big experience has been accumulated on fabrication and reactor tests of CP and fuel elements with UO 2 kernels. However, this experience cannot be using in full volume for development of a new reactor installation GT-MHR. This is due to very deep burn-up of the fuel based on plutonium oxide (up to 70% fima). Therefore the mathematical modeling of CP thermal-mechanical behavior and failure prediction becomes particularly important. The authors have a clean understanding that serviceability of fuel with high burn-ups are defined not only by thermo-mechanics, but also by structured changes in coating materials, thermodynamics of chemical processes, 'amoeba-effect', formation CO etc. In the report the first steps of development of integrate code for numerical modeling of coated particles behavior and some calculating results concerning the influence of various design parameters on fuel coated particles endurance for GT-MHR normal operating conditions are submitted. A failure model is developed to predict the fraction of TRISO-coated particles. In this model it is assumed that the failure of CP depends not only on probability of SiC-layer fracture but also on the PyC-layers damage. The coated particle is considered as a uniform design. (author)

  14. How Readability Factors Are Differentially Associated with Performance for Students of Different Backgrounds When Solving Mathematics Word Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkington, Candace; Clinton, Virginia; Shivraj, Pooja

    2018-01-01

    The link between reading and mathematics achievement is well known, and an important question is whether readability factors in mathematics problems are differentially impacting student groups. Using 20 years of data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, we examine how…

  15. The Effects of Game-Based Learning on Mathematical Confidence and Performance: High Ability vs. Low Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Oskar; Chen, Sherry Y.; Wu, Denise H.; Lao, Andrew C. C.; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2014-01-01

    Many students possess low confidence toward learning mathematics, which, in turn, may lead them to give up pursuing more mathematics knowledge. Recently, game-based learning (GBL) is regarded as a potential means in improving students' confidence. Thus, this study tried to promote students' confidence toward mathematics by using GBL. In addition,…

  16. Poor Performance in Mathematics: Is There a Basis for a Self-Worth Explanation for Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ted; Dinnel, Dale L.

    2007-01-01

    The self-worth theory of achievement motivation holds that in situations in which poor performance is likely to reveal low ability, certain students (known as self-worth protective students) intentionally withdraw effort in order to avoid the negative implications of poor performance in terms of damage to self-worth. In this study, evidence of…

  17. Mindfulness, anxiety, and high-stakes mathematics performance in the laboratory and classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, David B; DeCaro, Marci S; Ralston, Patricia A S

    2015-12-01

    Mindfulness enhances emotion regulation and cognitive performance. A mindful approach may be especially beneficial in high-stakes academic testing environments, in which anxious thoughts disrupt cognitive control. The current studies examined whether mindfulness improves the emotional response to anxiety-producing testing situations, freeing working memory resources, and improving performance. In Study 1, we examined performance in a high-pressure laboratory setting. Mindfulness indirectly benefited math performance by reducing the experience of state anxiety. This benefit occurred selectively for problems that required greater working memory resources. Study 2 extended these findings to a calculus course taken by undergraduate engineering majors. Mindfulness indirectly benefited students' performance on high-stakes quizzes and exams by reducing their cognitive test anxiety. Mindfulness did not impact performance on lower-stakes homework assignments. These findings reveal an important mechanism by which mindfulness benefits academic performance, and suggest that mindfulness may help attenuate the negative effects of test anxiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mathematical Modeling of Physical and Cognitive Performance Decrement from Mechanical and Inhalation Insults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    12  2.1.5  The effect of hypoxia and carboxyhemoglobin concentration on exercise performance in goats...B.L., Ng, L., and Stuhmiller, J.H. “The effects of hypoxia and carboxyhemoglobin concentration on a ‘phenomenological’ model’s recovery parameter...State. 2.1.5 The effect of hypoxia and carboxyhemoglobin concentration on exercise performance in goats The purpose of this study was to quantify if

  19. Mathematical Modeling – The Impact of Cooling Water Temperature Upsurge on Combined Cycle Power Plant Performance and Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indra Siswantara, Ahmad; Pujowidodo, Hariyotejo; Darius, Asyari; Ramdlan Gunadi, Gun Gun

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the mathematical modeling analysis on cooling system in a combined cycle power plant. The objective of this study is to get the impact of cooling water upsurge on plant performance and operation, using Engineering Equation Solver (EES™) tools. Power plant installed with total power capacity of block#1 is 505.95 MWe and block#2 is 720.8 MWe, where sea water consumed as cooling media at two unit condensers. Basic principle of analysis is heat balance calculation from steam turbine and condenser, concern to vacuum condition and heat rate values. Based on the result shown graphically, there were impact the upsurge of cooling water to increase plant heat rate and vacuum pressure in condenser so ensued decreasing plant efficiency and causing possibility steam turbine trip as back pressure raised from condenser.

  20. The Impact of Computer and Mathematics Software Usage on Performance of School Leavers in the Western Cape Province of South Africa: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Garth Spencer; Hardman, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    In this study the impact of computer immersion on performance of school leavers Senior Certificate mathematics scores was investigated across 31 schools in the EMDC East education district of Cape Town, South Africa by comparing performance between two groups: a control and an experimental group. The experimental group (14 high schools) had access…

  1. Self-Efficacy and Performance in Mathematics: Reciprocal Determinism in 33 Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trevor; Williams, Kitty

    2010-01-01

    Reciprocal determinism is a central premise of Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory. Studies of the relationship between self-beliefs and performance tend to draw on this or related theories and usually endorse the notion of reciprocal determinism at a substantive-theoretical level. However, attempts to model this postulated mutual influence…

  2. An Exploration of Metacognition and Its Effect on Mathematical Performance in Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mary Jarratt

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that students in certain contexts who are "metacognitively aware learners" demonstrate better academic performance (Shraw & Dennison, 1994; Md. Yunus & Ali, 2008). In this research, the metacognitive levels for two classes of differential equations students were studied. Students completed a survey adapted from…

  3. Some Factors Underlying Mathematical Performance: The Role of Visuospatial Working Memory and Non-Verbal Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyttala, Minna; Lehto, Juhani E.

    2008-01-01

    Passive and active visuospatial working memory (VSWM) were investigated in relation to maths performance. The mental rotation task was employed as a measure of active VSWM whereas passive VSWM was investigated using a modified Corsi Blocks task and a matrix pattern task. The Raven Progressive Matrices Test measured fluid intelligence. A total of…

  4. Australian Indigenous Students' Performance on the PIPS-BLA Reading and Mathematics Scales: 2011-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, Irene; Wildy, Helen; Pepper, Vivienne; Faulkner, Joanne; Berman, Ye'Elah

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of literacy and numeracy skills of students as they enter school for the first time is not yet established nation-wide in Australia. However, a large proportion of primary schools have chosen to assess their starting students on the Performance Indicators in Primary Schools-Baseline Assessment (PIPS-BLA). This series of three…

  5. Using Performance Tasks to Improve Quantitative Reasoning in an Introductory Mathematics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Gerald; Drews, David

    2013-01-01

    A full-cycle assessment of our efforts to improve quantitative reasoning in an introductory math course is described. Our initial iteration substituted more open-ended performance tasks for the active learning projects than had been used. Using a quasi-experimental design, we compared multiple sections of the same course and found non-significant…

  6. Association Between Prenatal Valproate Exposure and Performance on Standardized Language and Mathematics Tests in School-aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkjær, Lars Skou; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Sun, Yuelian; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Christensen, Jakob

    2018-02-19

    Valproate sodium is used for the treatment of epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders in women of childbearing potential. However, there are concerns about impaired cognitive development in children who have been exposed to valproate during pregnancy. To estimate the association between long-term school performance and prenatal exposure to valproate and a number of other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In a prospective, population-based cohort study conducted from August 1, 2015, to May 31, 2017, data used in the study were provided by Statistics Denmark on April 15, 2016. All children born alive in Denmark between 1997 and 2006 (n = 656 496) were identified. From this cohort, children who did not participate in the national tests, with presumed coding errors in gestational age and children missing information on their mother's educational level or household income were excluded (n = 177 469) leaving 479 027 children for the analyses. Children were identified and linked across national registers that had information on exposure, covariates, and outcome. The primary outcome was performance in national tests, an academic test taken by students in Danish primary and lower secondary state schools. We assessed performance in Danish and mathematics at different grades among valproate-exposed children and compared their performance with that of unexposed children and children exposed to another AED (lamotrigine). Test scores were standardized to z scores and adjusted for risk factors. Difference in standardized z scores in Danish and mathematics tests among valproate-exposed children compared with unexposed and lamotrigine-exposed children. Of the 656 496 children identified, 479 027 children who participated in the national tests were evaluated, including children exposed to the following AEDs in monotherapy: valproate, 253; phenobarbital, 86; oxcarbazepine, 236; lamotrigine, 396; clonazepam, 188; and carbamazepine, 294. The mean (SD) age of the 244 095

  7. Utilizing Lesson Study in Improving Year 12 Students' Learning and Performance in Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Siew Yin Chong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the use of Lesson Study to improve Year 12 students' performance in conditional probability through Inquiry-Based Learning (IBL lessons. In total, 66 students comprised of three Year 12 classes of similar abilities, and their three respective teachers from a government junior college participated in the study. The instruments used to collect the relevant data in this study were teachers' reflective journals and students' achievement tests. The collected data were then analyzed and interpreted quantitatively using the SPSS. The analysis of the students' pre- and post-tests concluded that as the lesson plans were gradually refined and enhanced, their performance in solving conditional probability questions steadily improved.

  8. Effects of Reducing the Cognitive Load of Mathematics Test Items on Student Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C. Gillmor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores a new item-writing framework for improving the validity of math assessment items. The authors transfer insights from Cognitive Load Theory (CLT, traditionally used in instructional design, to educational measurement. Fifteen, multiple-choice math assessment items were modified using research-based strategies for reducing extraneous cognitive load. An experimental design with 222 middle-school students tested the effects of the reduced cognitive load items on student performance and anxiety. Significant findings confirm the main research hypothesis that reducing the cognitive load of math assessment items improves student performance. Three load-reducing item modifications are identified as particularly effective for reducing item difficulty: signalling important information, aesthetic item organization, and removing extraneous content. Load reduction was not shown to impact student anxiety. Implications for classroom assessment and future research are discussed.

  9. Mathematic Modeling and Performance Analysis of an Adaptive Congestion Control in Intelligent Transportation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Naja, Rola; Université de Versailles

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a preventive congestion control mechanism applied at highway entrances and devised for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). The proposed mechanism provides a vehicular admission control, regulates input traffic and performs vehicular traffic shaping. Our congestion control mechanism includes two classes of vehicles and is based on a specific priority ticket pool scheme with queue-length threshold scheduling policy, tailored to vehicular networks. In an attempt t...

  10. Sustainability appraisal. Quantitative methods and mathematical techniques for environmental performance evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erechtchoukova, Marina G.; Khaiter, Peter A. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). School of Information Technology; Golinska, Paulina (eds.) [Poznan Univ. of Technology (Poland)

    2013-06-01

    The book will present original research papers on the quantitative methods and techniques for the evaluation of the sustainability of business operations and organizations' overall environmental performance. The book contributions will describe modern methods and approaches applicable to the multi-faceted problem of sustainability appraisal and will help to fulfil generic frameworks presented in the literature with the specific quantitative techniques so needed in practice. The scope of the book is interdisciplinary in nature, making it of interest to environmental researchers, business managers and process analysts, information management professionals and environmental decision makers, who will find valuable sources of information for their work-related activities. Each chapter will provide sufficient background information, a description of problems, and results, making the book useful for a wider audience. Additional software support is not required. One of the most important issues in developing sustainable management strategies and incorporating ecodesigns in production, manufacturing and operations management is the assessment of the sustainability of business operations and organizations' overall environmental performance. The book presents the results of recent studies on sustainability assessment. It provides a solid reference for researchers in academia and industrial practitioners on the state-of-the-art in sustainability appraisal including the development and application of sustainability indices, quantitative methods, models and frameworks for the evaluation of current and future welfare outcomes, recommendations on data collection and processing for the evaluation of organizations' environmental performance, and eco-efficiency approaches leading to business process re-engineering.

  11. Improvement of Self-regulated Learning in Mathematics through a Hypermedia Application: Differences based on Academic Performance and Previous Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueli, Marisol; Rodríguez, Celestino; Areces, Débora; García, Trinidad; González-Castro, Paloma

    2017-12-04

    Self-regulation on behalf of the student is crucial in learning Mathematics through hypermedia applications and is an even greater challenge in these IT environments. Two aims are formulated. First, to analyze the effectiveness of a hypermedia tool in improving perceived knowledge of self-regulatory strategies and the perceived usage of the planning, executing and assessment strategy on behalf of students with low, medium and high levels of academic performance. Second, to analyze the effectiveness of the hypermedia tool in improving perceived usage of the strategy for planning, monitoring and evaluating on behalf of students with a perceived knowledge (low, medium and high). Participants were 624 students (aged 10-13), classified into a treatment group (TG; 391) and a comparative group (CG; 233). They completed a questionnaire on perceived knowledge (Perceived Knowledge of Self-Regulatory Strategies) and another one on perceived usage of the strategy for planning, performing and evaluating (Inventory of Self-regulatory Learning Processes). Univariate covariance analyses (ANCOVAs) and Student-t tests were used. ANCOVA results were not statistically significant. However, the linear contrast indicated a significant improvement in perceived knowledge of strategies among the TG with low, medium and high academic performance (p ≤ .001). Results are discussed in the light of past and future research.

  12. Mathematics Underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of groundwater flow is a topic at the intersection of mathematics and geohydrology and is rarely encountered in undergraduate mathematics. However, this subject is full of interesting and meaningful examples of truly "applied" mathematics accessible to undergraduates, from the pre-calculus to advanced mathematics levels. This…

  13. Performance of various mathematical methods for computer-aided processing of radioimmunoassay results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, W.; Sandel, P.; Langfelder, Ch.; Knedel, M.

    1978-01-01

    The performance of 6 algorithms were compared for computer aided determination of radioimmunological end results. These were weighted and unweighted linear logit log regression; quadratic logit log regression, smoothing spline interpolation with a large and small smoothing factor, respectively, and polygonal interpolation and the manual curve fitting on the basis of three radioimmunoassays with different reference curve characteristics (digoxin, estriol, human chorionic somatomammotrophin (HCS)). Great store was set by the accuracy of the approximation at the intermediate points on the curve, i.e. those points that lie midway between two standard concentrations. These concentrations were obtained by weighing and inserted as unknown samples. In the case of digoxin and estriol the polygonal interpolation provided the best results, while the weighted logit log regression proved superior in the case of HCS. (Auth.)

  14. Thermal Performance of the LHC External Auxiliary Bus-Bar Tube Mathematical Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalczyk, P; Sacré, P; Skoczen, Blazej

    1998-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) externally routed auxiliary bus-bar tube (EAB) will house the electrical feeders of the LHC short straight section (SSS) correcting magnets. The superconducting wires w ill be contained in a stainless steel tube and immersed in a quasi-static helium bath. The EAB thermal performance during the cooling of the magnets down to the operating temperature of 1.9 K is studi ed. A 3-d finite element thermal model of the EAB during a cooling process from 293 K to 4.5 K is described. The semi-analytical model of the EAB cool-down from 4.5 K to 1.9 K is also presented.

  15. Mathematical Modeling in the People's Republic of China--Indicators of Participation and Performance on COMAP's Modeling Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaoxi

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Mainland Chinese teams have been the dominant participants in the two COMAP-sponsored mathematical modeling competitions: the Mathematical Contest in Modeling (MCM) and the Interdisciplinary Contest in Modeling (ICM). This study examines five factors that lead to the Chinese teams' dramatic increase in participation rate and…

  16. The Interactional Accomplishment of Not Knowing in Elementary School Science and Mathematics: Implications for Classroom Performance Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Giuliano; Barwell, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The day-to-day business of being a science or mathematics teacher involves the continuous assessment of students. This, in turn, is an inherently discursive process. The aim of the present study is to examine some of the specific discursive practices through which science and mathematics knowing is jointly produced through classroom interaction.…

  17. Self-Contained versus Departmentalized Settings in Urban Elementary Schools: An Analysis of Fifth-Grade Student Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Diamond Marie

    2014-01-01

    Student achievement in mathematics, particularly in urban areas, is a consistent concern in the United States. Research suggests that teachers either are under qualified or have a negative perception of themselves as mathematics teachers. Departmentalization on the elementary level is an organizational structure that may benefit urban students and…

  18. A Pilot Study in the Application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process to Predict Student Performance in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Jon

    2007-01-01

    The decline in the development of mathematical skills in students prior to university entrance has been a matter of concern to UK higher education staff for a number of years. This article describes a pilot study that uses the Analytic Hierarchy Process to quantify the mathematical experiences of computing students prior to the start of a first…

  19. MATHEMATICS EDUCATION FOR LOGISTICS ENGINEERING

    OpenAIRE

    BÉLA ILLÉS; GABRIELLA BOGNÁR

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics is a crucial language in all engineering courses and researches where mathematical modeling, simulation and manipulation are commonly used. Engineering Mathematics courses are considered difficult courses in engineering curricula. This is reflected in engineering students’ performance at the end of each semester for these courses. Our goal is to overview a few questions on mathematics as a core subject of engineering.

  20. Mathematics Connection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MATHEMATICS CONNECTION aims at providing a forum topromote the development of Mathematics Education in Ghana. Articles that seekto enhance the teaching and/or learning of mathematics at all levels of theeducational system are welcome.

  1. Exploring Young Children's Self-Efficacy Beliefs Related to Mathematical and Nonmathematical Tasks Performed in Kindergarten: Abused and Neglected Children and Their Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Dina; Tsamir, Pessia; Levenson, Esther; Tabach, Michal; Barkai, Ruthi

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on young children's self-efficacy beliefs and their corresponding performance of mathematical and nonmathematical tasks typically encountered in kindergarten. Participants included 132 kindergarten children aged 5-6 years old. Among the participants, 69 children were identified by the social welfare department as being abused…

  2. The Relationship between Neuropsychological and Ecological Measurements of Executive Functioning in Childhood and the Prediction of Mathematics Performance. A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla-Silvestre, Lorena; Presentación-Herrero, María Jesús; Gil-Gómez, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study explored the variables of executive functioning (EF) that permitted the evaluation of EF both at home and at school. The objective was to compare the results of the evaluations of these functions in children aged 5 to 6 years, and see to what extent these variables predicted mathematics performance best. Method: Sixty-six…

  3. Achievement Gaps: How Hispanic and White Students in Public Schools Perform in Mathematics and Reading on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Highlights. NCES 2011-485

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides a detailed portrait of Hispanic and White academic achievement gaps and how students' performance has changed over time at both the national and state levels. The report presents achievement gaps using reading and mathematics assessment data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) for the 4th- and 8th-grade…

  4. Effects of Online Visual and Interactive Technological Tool (OVITT) on Early Adolescent Students' Mathematics Performance, Math Anxiety and Attitudes toward Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orabuchi, Nkechi

    2013-01-01

    This study reported the results of a 3-month quasi-experimental study that determined the effectiveness of an online visual and interactive technological tool on sixth grade students' mathematics performance, math anxiety and attitudes towards math. There were 155 sixth grade students from a middle school in the North Texas area who participated…

  5. Modeling Student Performance in Mathematics Using Binary Logistic Regression at Selected Secondary Schools a Case Study of Mtwara Municipality and Ilemela District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabula, Salyungu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of secondary school students in Mathematics at the Selected Secondary Schools in Mtwara Municipality and Ilemela District by Absenteeism, Conduct, Type of School and Gender as explanatory Factors. The data used in the study was collected from documented records of 250 form three students with 1:1 gender…

  6. Presentation and verification of a simple mathematical model foridentification of the areas behind noise barrierwith the highest performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Monazzam

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Traffic noise barriers are the most important measure to control the environmental noise pollution. Diffraction from top edge of noise barriers is the most important path of indirect sound wave moves towards receiver.Therefore, most studies are focused on  improvement of this kind.   Methods   T-shape profile barriers are one of the most successful barrier among many different profiles. In this investigation the theory of destructive effect of diffracted waves from real edge of barrier and the wave diffracted from image of the barrier with phase difference of radians is used. Firstly a simple mathematical representation of the zones behind rigid and absorbent T- shape barriers with the highest insertion loss using the destructive effect of indirect path via barrier  image is introduced and then two different profile reflective and absorption barrier is used for  verification of the introduced model   Results   The results are then compared with the results of a verified two dimensional boundary element method at 1/3 octave band frequencies and in a wide field behind those barriers. Avery good agreement between the results has been achieved. In this method effective height is used for any different profile barriers.   Conclusion   The introduced model is very simple, flexible and fast and could be used for choosing the best location of profile rigid and absorptive barriers to achieve the highest  performance.  

  7. Are WISC IQ scores in children with mathematical learning disabilities underestimated? The influence of a specialized intervention on test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Katharina; Spinath, Birgit

    2018-01-01

    Intelligence measures play a pivotal role in the diagnosis of mathematical learning disabilities (MLD). Probably as a result of math-related material in IQ tests, children with MLD often display reduced IQ scores. However, it remains unclear whether the effects of math remediation extend to IQ scores. The present study investigated the impact of a special remediation program compared to a control group receiving private tutoring (PT) on the WISC IQ scores of children with MLD. We included N=45 MLD children (7-12 years) in a study with a pre- and post-test control group design. Children received remediation for two years on average. The analyses revealed significantly greater improvements in the experimental group on the Full-Scale IQ, and the Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, and Working Memory indices, but not Processing Speed, compared to the PT group. Children in the experimental group showed an average WISC IQ gain of more than ten points. Results indicate that the WISC IQ scores of MLD children might be underestimated and that an effective math intervention can improve WISC IQ test performance. Taking limitations into account, we discuss the use of IQ measures more generally for defining MLD in research and practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mathematical modelling of the performance of hydrodynamic couplings using hybrid models; Mathematische Modellierung des Betriebsverhaltens hydrodynamischer Kupplungen mit hybriden Modellansaetzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaschke, P.

    2000-02-01

    Mathematical models of the dynamic performance of hydrodynamic couplings are developed using hybrid modelling, i.e. a combination of analytical physical modelling and black box identification. The models developed were verified by measurements on a model powertrain. [German] In dieser Arbeit werden mit Hilfe der hybriden Modellierung mathematische Modelle zur Beschreibung des dynamischen Betriebsverhaltens hydrodynamischer Kupplungen ermittelt. Die Hybride Modellierung stellt eine Kombination der analytisch physikalischen Modellierung und der Black-Box-Identifikation dar. Diese Modellierungsart ist ausgewaehlt worden, um die Vorteile der analytisch physikalischen Modellierung und der Black-Box-Identifikation hydrodynamischer Kupplungen zu verbinden und deren Nachteile gering zu halten. Auf dieser Basis ist eine Vorgehensweise vorgestellt worden, die die Ermittlung der Modelle mit wenig Aufwand ermoeglicht. Mit Hilfe der Modelltheorie wird gezeigt, wie die ermittelten mathematischen Modelle zur Simulation des dynamischen Betriebsverhaltens geometrisch aehnlicher Kupplungen unterschiedlicher Baugroessen verwendet werden koennen. Darueber hinaus wird dargelegt, wie die ermittelten Modelle mit Modellen anderer Antriebsstrangelemente gekoppelt werden koennen, um Antriebsstrangsimulationen zu ermoeglichen. Verifikationsmessungen an einem Modellantriebsstrang verdeutlichen die Guete und Verwendbarkeit der mathematischen Modelle. (orig.)

  9. Mathematical Footprints Discovering Mathematics Everywhere

    CERN Document Server

    Pappas, Theoni

    1999-01-01

    MATHEMATICAL FOOTPRINTS takes a creative look at the role mathematics has played since prehistoric times, and will play in the future, and uncovers mathematics where you least expect to find it from its many uses in medicine, the sciences, and its appearance in art to its patterns in nature and its central role in the development of computers. Pappas presents mathematical ideas in a readable non-threatening manner. MATHEMATICAL FOOTPRINTS is another gem by the creator of THE MATHEMATICS CALENDAR and author of THE JOY OF MATHEMATICS. "Pappas's books have been gold mines of mathematical ent

  10. Development process of in-service training intended for teachers to perform teaching of mathematics with computer algebra systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardıç, Mehmet Alper; Işleyen, Tevfik

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we deal with the development process of in-service training activities designed in order for mathematics teachers of secondary education to realize teaching of mathematics, utilizing computer algebra systems. In addition, the results obtained from the researches carried out during and after the in-service training were summarized. Last section focuses on suggestions any teacher can use to carry out activities aimed at using computer algebra systems in teaching environments.

  11. Performing mathematics activities with non-standard units of measurement using robots controlled via speech-generating devices: three case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kim D; Cook, Albert M

    2017-07-01

    Purpose To examine how using a Lego robot controlled via a speech-generating device (SGD) can contribute to how students with physical and communication impairments perform hands-on and communicative mathematics measurement activities. This study was a follow-up to a previous study. Method Three students with cerebral palsy used the robot to measure objects using non-standard units, such as straws, and then compared and ordered the objects using the resulting measurement. Their performance was assessed, and the manipulation and communication events were observed. Teachers and education assistants were interviewed regarding robot use. Results Similar benefits to the previous study were found in this study. Gaps in student procedural knowledge were identified such as knowing to place measurement units tip-to-tip, and students' reporting revealed gaps in conceptual understanding. However, performance improved with repeated practice. Stakeholders identified that some robot tasks took too long or were too difficult to perform. Conclusions Having access to both their SGD and a robot gave the students multiple ways to show their understanding of the measurement concepts. Though they could participate actively in the new mathematics activities, robot use is most appropriate in short tasks requiring reasonable operational skill. Implications for Rehabilitation Lego robots controlled via speech-generating devices (SGDs) can help students to engage in the mathematics pedagogy of performing hands-on activities while communicating about concepts. Students can "show what they know" using the Lego robots, and report and reflect on concepts using the SGD. Level 1 and Level 2 mathematics measurement activities have been adapted to be accomplished by the Lego robot. Other activities can likely be accomplished with similar robot adaptations (e.g., gripper, pen). It is not recommended to use the robot to measure items that are long, or perform measurements that require high

  12. Mathematical bridges

    CERN Document Server

    Andreescu, Titu; Tetiva, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Building bridges between classical results and contemporary nonstandard problems, Mathematical Bridges embraces important topics in analysis and algebra from a problem-solving perspective. Blending old and new techniques, tactics and strategies used in solving challenging mathematical problems, readers will discover numerous genuine mathematical gems throughout that will heighten their appreciation of the inherent beauty of mathematics. Most of the problems are original to the authors and are intertwined in a well-motivated exposition driven by representative examples. The book is structured to assist the reader in formulating and proving conjectures, as well as devising solutions to important mathematical problems by making connections between various concepts and ideas from different areas of mathematics. Instructors and educators teaching problem-solving courses or organizing mathematics clubs, as well as motivated mathematics students from high school juniors to college seniors, will find Mathematical Bri...

  13. Block Model Approach in Problem Solving: Effects on Problem Solving Performance of the Grade V Pupils in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Niño Jose P.; Belecina, Rene R.

    2012-01-01

    The teaching of mathematics involves problem solving skills which prove to be difficult on the part of the pupils due to misrepresentation of the word problems. Oftentimes, pupils tend to represent the phrase "more than" as addition and the word difference as "- ". This paper aims to address the problem solving skills of grade…

  14. Collaborative Workshops and Student Academic Performance in Introductory College Mathematics Courses: A Study of a Treisman Model Math Excel Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Hollis; Dick, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Treisman model which involves supplemental workshops in which college students solve problems in collaborative learning groups. Reports on the effectiveness of Math Excel, an implementation of the Treisman model for introductory mathematics courses at Oregon State University over five academic terms. Reveals a significant effect on…

  15. Schema-Based Strategy Instruction and the Mathematical Problem-Solving Performance of Two Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Corey; Vannest, Kimberly J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of schema instruction on the mathematical problem solving of students with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD). The participants were two fourth-grade students identified with EBD. The intervention package consisted of schema instruction, strategy instruction on problem-solving heuristics…

  16. Make a Drawing. Effects of Strategic Knowledge, Drawing Accuracy, and Type of Drawing on Students' Mathematical Modelling Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rellensmann, Johanna; Schukajlow, Stanislaw; Leopold, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Drawing strategies are widely used as a powerful tool for promoting students' learning and problem solving. In this article, we report the results of an inferential mediation analysis that was applied to investigate the roles that strategic knowledge about drawing and the accuracy of different types of drawings play in mathematical modelling…

  17. The Influence of Instructional Minutes on Grade 11 Language Arts and Mathematics High School Proficiency Assessment Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcome, Simone E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose for this cross-sectional, non-experimental explanatory quantitative research study was to explain the amount of variance in the High School Proficiency Assessment-11 Language Arts and Mathematics scores accounted for by the amount of instructional minutes at high schools in New Jersey. A proportional, stratified random sample which…

  18. Mathematics disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001534.htm Mathematics disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's ...

  19. Mathematical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Trinajstić, Nenad; Gutman, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    A brief description is given of the historical development of mathematics and chemistry. A path leading to the meeting of these two sciences is described. An attempt is made to define mathematical chemistry, and journals containing the term mathematical chemistry in their titles are noted. In conclusion, the statement is made that although chemistry is an experimental science aimed at preparing new compounds and materials, mathematics is very useful in chemistry, among other things, to produc...

  20. Rainforest Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the contested way that ethnomathematics has sometimes been received by mathematicians and others and what that disagreement might suggest about issues in mathematics education; namely, (a) the relation of ethnomathematics to academic mathematics; (b) recent efforts to reform secondary school mathematics so that it prepares…

  1. Dynamic performances of wet turbine and steam-separator-superheater and their mathematical simulation as objects of temperature control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovach, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    A mathematical model of a turbine and steam-separator-superheater (SSS) as applied to solution of the tasks of steam temperature regulaton after SSS has been developed. SSS as objects of steam temperature control are considerably less inertial, than intermediate superheaters (IS) of power units in thermal power plants, since for typical SSS and IS considered the duration of transition process according to steam temperature after SSS is 5-10 times loweA than for IS

  2. Impact of Organizational Inertia and Dynamic Capabilities on Educational Performance of the Charitable Societies and Its Impact on Mathematical Performance of Elementary At-Risk Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiripour, Parvaneh; Dossey, John A.; Shahvarani, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    This study is an adjunct to a research effort focused on a mathematical curricular innovation in four non-governmental schools in Tehran, Iran. This study queried balanced, random sample of 100 educational personnel from the schools concerning dynamic capabilities associated with change (sensing opportunities, seizing opportunities, and…

  3. Mathematical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomhøj, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Developing competences for setting up, analysing and criticising mathematical models are normally seen as relevant only from and above upper secondary level. The general belief among teachers is that modelling activities presuppose conceptual understanding of the mathematics involved. Mathematical...... roots for the construction of important mathematical concepts. In addition competences for setting up, analysing and criticising modelling processes and the possible use of models is a formative aim in this own right for mathematics teaching in general education. The paper presents a theoretical...... modelling, however, can be seen as a practice of teaching that place the relation between real life and mathematics into the centre of teaching and learning mathematics, and this is relevant at all levels. Modelling activities may motivate the learning process and help the learner to establish cognitive...

  4. Discrete Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of Discrete Mathematics (IDISM2) are: The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including the application within programming languages for computer systems. Having passed the IDISM2 course, the student will be able...... to accomplish the following: -Understand and apply formal representations in discrete mathematics. -Understand and apply formal representations in problems within discrete mathematics. -Understand methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics. -Apply methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics......; construct a finite state machine for a given application. Apply these concepts to new problems. The teaching in Discrete Mathematics is a combination of sessions with lectures and students solving problems, either manually or by using Matlab. Furthermore a selection of projects must be solved and handed...

  5. Mathematical Modeling and Pure Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usiskin, Zalman

    2015-01-01

    Common situations, like planning air travel, can become grist for mathematical modeling and can promote the mathematical ideas of variables, formulas, algebraic expressions, functions, and statistics. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how the mathematical modeling that is present in everyday situations can be naturally embedded in…

  6. Mathematical modeling of a new satellite thermal architecture system connecting the east and west radiator panels and flight performance prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Alejandro; Mishkinis, Donatas; Kaya, Tarik

    2014-01-01

    An entirely novel satellite thermal architecture, connecting the east and west radiators of a geostationary telecommunications satellite via loop heat pipes (LHPs), is proposed. The LHP operating temperature is regulated by using pressure regulating valves (PRVs). A transient numerical model is developed to simulate the thermal dynamic behavior of the proposed system. The details of the proposed architecture and mathematical model are presented. The model is used to analyze a set of critical design cases to identify potential failure modes prior to the qualification and in-orbit tests. The mathematical model results for critical cases are presented and discussed. The model results demonstrated the robustness and versatility of the proposed architecture under the predicted worst-case conditions. - Highlights: •We developed a mathematical model of a novel satellite thermal architecture. •We provided the dimensioning cases to design the thermal architecture. •We provided the failure mode cases to verify the thermal architecture. •We provided the results of the corresponding dimensioning and failure cases

  7. Theoretical Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöltzner, Michael

    Answering to the double-faced influence of string theory on mathematical practice and rigour, the mathematical physicists Arthur Jaffe and Frank Quinn have contemplated the idea that there exists a `theoretical' mathematics (alongside `theoretical' physics) whose basic structures and results still require independent corroboration by mathematical proof. In this paper, I shall take the Jaffe-Quinn debate mainly as a problem of mathematical ontology and analyse it against the backdrop of two philosophical views that are appreciative towards informal mathematical development and conjectural results: Lakatos's methodology of proofs and refutations and John von Neumann's opportunistic reading of Hilbert's axiomatic method. The comparison of both approaches shows that mitigating Lakatos's falsificationism makes his insights about mathematical quasi-ontology more relevant to 20th century mathematics in which new structures are introduced by axiomatisation and not necessarily motivated by informal ancestors. The final section discusses the consequences of string theorists' claim to finality for the theory's mathematical make-up. I argue that ontological reductionism as advocated by particle physicists and the quest for mathematically deeper axioms do not necessarily lead to identical results.

  8. MATHEMATICAL MODEL MANIPULATOR ROBOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Krakhmalev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model to describe the dynamics of manipulator robots. Mathematical model are the implementation of the method based on the Lagrange equation and using the transformation matrices of elastic coordinates. Mathematical model make it possible to determine the elastic deviations of manipulator robots from programmed motion trajectories caused by elastic deformations in hinges, which are taken into account in directions of change of the corresponding generalized coordinates. Mathematical model is approximated and makes it possible to determine small elastic quasi-static deviations and elastic vibrations. The results of modeling the dynamics by model are compared to the example of a two-link manipulator system. The considered model can be used when performing investigations of the mathematical accuracy of the manipulator robots.

  9. Mathematical Thinking and Creativity through Mathematical Problem Posing and Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F. Ayllón

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the relationship between the development of mathematical thinking and creativity with mathematical problem posing and solving. Creativity and mathematics are disciplines that do not usually appear together. Both concepts constitute complex processes sharing elements, such as fluency (number of ideas, flexibility (range of ideas, novelty (unique idea and elaboration (idea development. These factors contribute, among others, to the fact that schoolchildren are competent in mathematics. The problem solving and posing are a very powerful evaluation tool that shows the mathematical reasoning and creative level of a person. Creativity is part of the mathematics education and is a necessary ingredient to perform mathematical assignments. This contribution presents some important research works about problem posing and solving related to the development of mathematical knowledge and creativity. To that end, it is based on various beliefs reflected in the literature with respect to notions of creativity, problem solving and posing.

  10. The influence of floc size and hydraulic detention time on the performance of a dissolved air flotation (DAF) pilot unit in the light of a mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moruzzi, R B; Reali, M A P

    2014-12-01

    The influence of floc size and hydraulic detention time on the performance of a dissolved air flotation (DAF) pilot unit was investigated in the light of a known mathematical model. The following design and operational parameters were considered: the hydraulic detention time (tdcz) and hydraulic loading rate in the contact zone, the down-flow loading rate in the clarification zone, the particle size distribution (d F), and the recirculation rate (p). As a reference for DAF performance analysis, the proposed β.td parameter from the above mentioned mathematical model was employed. The results indicated that tdcz is an important factor in DAF performance and that d F and floc size are also determinants of DAF efficiency. Further, β.td was sensitive to both design and operational parameters, which were varied in the DAF pilot plant. The performance of the DAF unit decreases with increasing β.td values because a higher td (considering a fixed β) or a higher β (e.g., higher hydrophobicity of the flocs for a fixed td) would be necessary in the reaction zone to reach desired flotation efficiency.

  11. Mathematics everywhere

    CERN Document Server

    Aigner, Martin; Spain, Philip G

    2010-01-01

    Mathematics is all around us. Often we do not realize it, though. Mathematics Everywhere is a collection of presentations on the role of mathematics in everyday life, through science, technology, and culture. The common theme is the unique position of mathematics as the art of pure thought and at the same time as a universally applicable science. The authors are renowned mathematicians; their presentations cover a wide range of topics. From compact discs to the stock exchange, from computer tomography to traffic routing, from electronic money to climate change, they make the "math inside" unde

  12. Financial mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Jothi, A Lenin

    2009-01-01

    Financial services, particularly banking and insurance services is the prominent sector for the development of a nation. After the liberalisation of financial sector in India, the scope of getting career opportunities has been widened. It is heartening to note that various universities in India have introduced professional courses on banking and insurance. A new field of applied mathematics has come into prominence under the name of Financial Mathematics. Financial mathematics has attained much importance in the recent years because of the role played by mathematical concepts in decision - m

  13. Mathematical scandals

    CERN Document Server

    Pappas, Theoni

    1997-01-01

    In this highly readable volume of vignettes of mathematical scandals and gossip, Theoni Pappas assembles 29 fascinating stories of intrigue and the bizarre ? in short, the human background of the history of mathematics. Might a haberdasher have changed Einstein's life? Why was the first woman mathematician murdered? How come there's no Nobel Prize in mathematics?Mathematics is principally about numbers, equations, and solutions, all of them precise and timeless. But, behind this arcane matter lies the sometimes sordid world of real people, whose rivalries and deceptions

  14. Engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Stroud, K A

    2013-01-01

    A groundbreaking and comprehensive reference that's been a bestseller since it first debuted in 1970, the new seventh edition of Engineering Mathematics has been thoroughly revised and expanded. Providing a broad mathematical survey, this innovative volume covers a full range of topics from the very basic to the advanced. Whether you're an engineer looking for a useful on-the-job reference or want to improve your mathematical skills, or you are a student who needs an in-depth self-study guide, Engineering Mathematics is sure to come in handy time and time again.

  15. Exploring mathematics anxiety and attitude: Mathematics students' experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahri, Nurul Ashikin; Kamaruzaman, Wan Nur Farahdalila Wan; Jamil, Jastini Mohd.; Shaharanee, Izwan Nizal Mohd.

    2017-11-01

    A quantitative and correlational, survey methods were used to investigate the relationships among mathematical anxiety and attitude toward student's mathematics performance. Participants were 100 students volunteer to enroll in undergraduate Industrial Statistics, Decision Sciences and Business Mathematics at one of northern university in Malaysia. Survey data consisted of demographic items and Likert scale items. The collected data was analyzed by using the idea of correlation and regression analysis. The results indicated that there was a significant positive relationship between students' attitude and mathematics anxiety. Results also indicated that a substantial positive effect of students' attitude and mathematics anxiety in students' achievement. Further study can be conducted on how mathematical anxiety and attitude toward mathematics affects can be used to predict the students' performance in the class.

  16. Using high-performance mathematical modelling tools to predict erosion and sediment fluxes in peri-urban catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, André; Conde, Daniel; Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Walsh, Rory; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2017-04-01

    Deforestation and urbanization generally lead to increased soil erosion andthrough the indirect effect of increased overland flow and peak flood discharges. Mathematical modelling tools can be helpful for predicting the spatial distribution of erosion and the morphological changes on the channel network. This is especially useful to predict the impacts of land-use changes in parts of the watershed, namely due to urbanization. However, given the size of the computational domain (normally the watershed itself), the need for high spatial resolution data to model accurately sediment transport processes and possible need to model transcritical flows, the computational cost is high and requires high-performance computing techniques. The aim of this work is to present the latest developments of the hydrodynamic and morphological model STAV2D and its applicability to predict runoff and erosion at watershed scale. STAV2D was developed at CEris - Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa - as a tool particularly appropriated to model strong transient flows in complex and dynamic geometries. It is based on an explicit, first-order 2DH finite-volume discretization scheme for unstructured triangular meshes, in which a flux-splitting technique is paired with a reviewed Roe-Riemann solver, yielding a model applicable to discontinuous flows over time-evolving geometries. STAV2D features solid transport in both Euleran and Lagrangian forms, with the aim of describing the transport of fine natural sediments and then the large individual debris. The model has been validated with theoretical solutions and laboratory experiments (Canelas et al., 2013 & Conde et al., 2015). STAV-2D now supports fully distributed and heterogeneous simulations where multiple different hardware devices can be used to accelerate computation time within a unified Object-Oriented approach: the source code for CPU and GPU has the same compilation units and requires no device specific branches, like

  17. Mathematical logic

    CERN Document Server

    Kleene, Stephen Cole

    1967-01-01

    Undergraduate students with no prior instruction in mathematical logic will benefit from this multi-part text. Part I offers an elementary but thorough overview of mathematical logic of 1st order. Part II introduces some of the newer ideas and the more profound results of logical research in the 20th century. 1967 edition.

  18. Making Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckstep, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Contends teachers must resist the temptation to suggest that, while children can create stories and melodies, they cannot create mathematics. Quotes mathematician G. H. Hardy: "A mathematician, like a painter or poet, is a 'maker' of patterns." Considers mathematics should be able to stand up for itself. (BT)

  19. Mathematical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, William H

    2010-09-01

    Mathematical psychology is a sub-field of psychology that started in the 1950s and has continued to grow as an important contributor to formal psychological theory, especially in the cognitive areas of psychology such as learning, memory, classification, choice response time, decision making, attention, and problem solving. In addition, there are several scientific sub-areas that were originated by mathematical psychologists such as the foundations of measurement, stochastic memory models, and psychologically motivated reformulations of expected utility theory. Mathematical psychology does not include all uses of mathematics and statistics in psychology, and indeed there is a long history of such uses especially in the areas of perception and psychometrics. What is most unique about mathematical psychology is its approach to theory construction. While accepting the behaviorist dictum that the data in psychology must be observable and replicable, mathematical models are specified in terms of unobservable formal constructs that can predict detailed aspects of data across multiple experimental and natural settings. By now almost all the substantive areas of cognitive and experimental psychology have formal mathematical models and theories, and many of these are due to researchers that identify with mathematical psychology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Mathematics 2

    CERN Document Server

    Kodaira, Kunihiko

    1996-01-01

    This is the translation from the Japanese textbook for the grade 11 course, "General Mathematics". It is part of the easier of the three elective courses in mathematics offered at this level and is taken by about 40% of students. The book covers basic notions of probability and statistics, vectors, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions, and an introduction to differentiation and integration.

  1. Discrete Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2011-01-01

    ; construct a finite state machine for a given application. Apply these concepts to new problems. The teaching in Discrete Mathematics is a combination of sessions with lectures and students solving problems, either manually or by using Matlab. Furthermore a selection of projects must be solved and handed...... to accomplish the following: -Understand and apply formal representations in discrete mathematics. -Understand and apply formal representations in problems within discrete mathematics. -Understand methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics. -Apply methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics...... to new problems. Relations and functions: Define a product set; define and apply equivalence relations; construct and apply functions. Apply these concepts to new problems. Natural numbers and induction: Define the natural numbers; apply the principle of induction to verify a selection of properties...

  2. Mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, James D

    1993-01-01

    The book is a textbook (with many exercises) giving an in-depth account of the practical use of mathematical modelling in the biomedical sciences. The mathematical level required is generally not high and the emphasis is on what is required to solve the real biological problem. The subject matter is drawn, e.g. from population biology, reaction kinetics, biological oscillators and switches, Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, reaction-diffusion theory, biological wave phenomena, central pattern generators, neural models, spread of epidemics, mechanochemical theory of biological pattern formation and importance in evolution. Most of the models are based on real biological problems and the predictions and explanations offered as a direct result of mathematical analysis of the models are important aspects of the book. The aim is to provide a thorough training in practical mathematical biology and to show how exciting and novel mathematical challenges arise from a genuine interdisciplinary involvement with the biosci...

  3. Mathematics unbound

    CERN Document Server

    Parshall, Karen Hunger

    2002-01-01

    Although today's mathematical research community takes its international character very much for granted, this "global nature" is relatively recent, having evolved over a period of roughly 150 years-from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the middle of the twentieth century. During this time, the practice of mathematics changed from being centered on a collection of disparate national communities to being characterized by an international group of scholars for whom the goal of mathematical research and cooperation transcended national boundaries. Yet, the development of an international community was far from smooth and involved obstacles such as war, political upheaval, and national rivalries. Until now, this evolution has been largely overlooked by historians and mathematicians alike. This book addresses the issue by bringing together essays by twenty experts in the history of mathematics who have investigated the genesis of today's international mathematical community. This includes not only develo...

  4. VEDIC MATHEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sead Rešić

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is very difficult to motivate students when it comes to a school subject like Mathematics. Teachers spend a lot of time trying to find something that will arouse interest in students. It is particularly difficult to find materials that are motivating enough for students that they eagerly wait for the next lesson. One of the solutions may be found in Vedic Mathematics. Traditional methods of teaching Mathematics create fear of this otherwise interesting subject in the majority of students. Fear increases failure. Often the traditional, conventional mathematical methods consist of very long lessons which are difficult to understand. Vedic Mathematics is an ancient system that is very flexible and encourages the development of intuition and innovation. It is a mental calculating tool that does not require a calculator because the calculator is embedded in each of us. Starting from the above problems of fear and failure in Mathematics, the goal of this paper is to do research with the control and the experimental group and to compare the test results. Two tests should be done for each of the groups. The control group would do the tests in the conventional way. The experimental group would do the first test in a conventional manner and then be subjected to different treatment, that is to say, be taught on the basis of Vedic Mathematics. After that, the second group would do the second test according to the principles of Vedic Mathematics. Expectations are that after short lectures on Vedic mathematics results of the experimental group would improve and that students will show greater interest in Mathematics.

  5. Impact of Maple(TM) on the design, instruction and performance in an undergraduate physics mathematical methods course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Alan Paul

    1997-10-01

    A traditional undergraduate physics course on mathematical methods has been redesigned to incorporate the use of Maplesp{sc {TM}}, a computer algebra program, during all aspects of the course. Topics covered were: complex number theory; series approximations; matrix theory; partial differentiation; vector algebra; and vector calculus. Five undergraduate students were enrolled, from sophomore to senior in academic class standing. A qualitative case study methodology was used to describe the changes in the course design resulting from the incorporation of Maplesp{sc {TM}} and their impact on the instruction of the course, and to determine the effects on the students' learning and development of problem solving skills in physics using Maplesp{sc {TM}} as a problem solving tool. The impact of using Maplesp{sc {TM}} on the number and types of interactions is presented. The entire semester long course was included in this study. Each class session is described in detail. Examples of the Maplesp{sc {TM}} materials used are given. The use of the Maplesp{sc {TM}} program was allowed on all homework and exams with each student having their own computer during class. Constraints were made so that the assessment emphasis remained on the mathematics and the conceptual understanding of the problem solving methods. All of the students demonstrated some level of proficiency in using Maplesp{TM} to solve the assigned problems. Strategies for effectively using Maplesp{TM} were presented and were individualized by the students. The students reported positive and negative impacts of using Maplesp{sc {TM}}. All of the students satisfactorily completed the course requirements, receiving final course grades from B to A+. All of them continued to voluntarily use Maplesp{sc {TM}} during the following semester. Instructional methods used included various lecture techniques without Maplesp{sc {TM}} assistance, lectures and demonstrations using only Maplesp{sc {TM}}, and student tasks

  6. Evaluación de las actitudes hacia las matemáticas y el rendimiento académico (Evaluation of Attitudes Towards Mathematics and Academic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dorinda Mato

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo presentamos los resultados de un estudio realizado con 1.220 alumnos peruanos de educación secundaria obligatoria para evaluar sus actitudes hacia las matemáticas y el rendimiento académico. Los alumnos pertenecen a colegios públicos, privados y concertados. Los resultados indican que las actitudes y el rendimiento académico están correlacionados. In this article we present the results of a study developed with 1,220 Peruvian secondary education students to evaluate their attitudes towards mathematics and their academic performance. The students go to state and private schools. The results indicate that attitudes and academic performance are correlated.

  7. An Experimental Study of the Effects of Stereotype Threat and Stereotype Lift on Men and Women's Performance in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heather J.; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Saxon, Terrill F.; Johnson, Megan K.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the authors examined the differential effects of stereotype threat and lift between genders on math test performance. They asked 3 questions: (a) What is the effect of gender on math test performance?, (b) What is the effect of stereotyping condition (threat, lift, or neither) on math test performance?, and (c) What is the effect of…

  8. Engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    A practical introduction to the core mathematics required for engineering study and practiceNow in its seventh edition, Engineering Mathematics is an established textbook that has helped thousands of students to succeed in their exams.John Bird's approach is based on worked examples and interactive problems. This makes it ideal for students from a wide range of academic backgrounds as the student can work through the material at their own pace. Mathematical theories are explained in a straightforward manner, being supported by practical engineering examples and applications in order to ensure

  9. Mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Geroch, Robert

    1985-01-01

    Mathematical Physics is an introduction to such basic mathematical structures as groups, vector spaces, topological spaces, measure spaces, and Hilbert space. Geroch uses category theory to emphasize both the interrelationships among different structures and the unity of mathematics. Perhaps the most valuable feature of the book is the illuminating intuitive discussion of the ""whys"" of proofs and of axioms and definitions. This book, based on Geroch's University of Chicago course, will be especially helpful to those working in theoretical physics, including such areas as relativity, particle

  10. Applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition"Future mathematicians, scientists, and engineers should find the book to be an excellent introductory text for coursework or self-study as well as worth its shelf space for reference." -MAA Reviews Applied Mathematics, Fourth Edition is a thoroughly updated and revised edition on the applications of modeling and analyzing natural, social, and technological processes. The book covers a wide range of key topics in mathematical methods and modeling and highlights the connections between mathematics and the applied and nat

  11. Speed mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Handley, Bill

    2012-01-01

    This new, revised edition of the bestselling Speed Mathematics features new chapters on memorising numbers and general information, calculating statistics and compound interest, square roots, logarithms and easy trig calculations. Written so anyone can understand, this book teaches simple strategies that will enable readers to make lightning-quick calculations. People who excel at mathematics use better strategies than the rest of us; they are not necessarily more intelligent. With Speed Mathematics you'll discover methods to make maths easy and fun. This book is perfect for stud

  12. Mathematical Model for Localised and Surface Heat Flux of the Human Body Obtained from Measurements Performed with a Calorimetry Minisensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, Fabiola; Rodríguez de Rivera, Pedro Jesús; Rodríguez de Rivera, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    The accuracy of the direct and local measurements of the heat power dissipated by the surface of the human body, using a calorimetry minisensor, is directly related to the calibration rigor of the sensor and the correct interpretation of the experimental results. For this, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the body’s local heat dissipation. When the sensor is placed on the surface of the human body, the body reacts until a steady state is reached. We propose a mathematical model that represents the rate of heat flow at a given location on the surface of a human body by the sum of a series of exponentials: W(t) = A0 + ∑Aiexp(−t/τi). In this way, transient and steady states of heat dissipation can be interpreted. This hypothesis has been tested by simulating the operation of the sensor. At the steady state, the power detected in the measurement area (4 cm2) varies depending on the sensor’s thermostat temperature, as well as the physical state of the subject. For instance, for a thermostat temperature of 24 °C, this power can vary between 100–250 mW in a healthy adult. In the transient state, two exponentials are sufficient to represent this dissipation, with 3 and 70 s being the mean values of its time constants. PMID:29182567

  13. Mathematical Model for Localised and Surface Heat Flux of the Human Body Obtained from Measurements Performed with a Calorimetry Minisensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, Fabiola; Rodríguez de Rivera, Pedro Jesús; Rodríguez de Rivera, Miriam; Rodríguez de Rivera, Manuel

    2017-11-28

    The accuracy of the direct and local measurements of the heat power dissipated by the surface of the human body, using a calorimetry minisensor, is directly related to the calibration rigor of the sensor and the correct interpretation of the experimental results. For this, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the body's local heat dissipation. When the sensor is placed on the surface of the human body, the body reacts until a steady state is reached. We propose a mathematical model that represents the rate of heat flow at a given location on the surface of a human body by the sum of a series of exponentials: W ( t ) = A ₀ + ∑A i exp( -t / τ i ). In this way, transient and steady states of heat dissipation can be interpreted. This hypothesis has been tested by simulating the operation of the sensor. At the steady state, the power detected in the measurement area (4 cm²) varies depending on the sensor's thermostat temperature, as well as the physical state of the subject. For instance, for a thermostat temperature of 24 °C, this power can vary between 100-250 mW in a healthy adult. In the transient state, two exponentials are sufficient to represent this dissipation, with 3 and 70 s being the mean values of its time constants.

  14. Summary of researches being performed in the Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science on computer science and information technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artiom Alhazov

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of the informatization notion (which assumes automation of majority of human activities applying computers, computer networks, information technologies towards the notion of {\\it Global Information Society} (GIS challenges the determination of new paradigms of society: automation and intellectualization of production, new level of education and teaching, formation of new styles of work, active participation in decision making, etc. To assure transition to GIS for any society, including that from Republic of Moldova, requires both special training and broad application of progressive technologies and information systems. Methodological aspects concerning impact of GIS creation over the citizen, economic unit, national economy in the aggregate demands a profound study. Without systematic approach to these aspects the GIS creation would have confront great difficulties. Collective of researchers from the Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science (IMCS of Academy of Sciences of Moldova, which work in the field of computer science, constitutes the center of advanced researches and activates in those directions of researches of computer science which facilitate technologies and applications without of which the development of GIS cannot be assured.

  15. Construction mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Virdi, Surinder; Virdi, Narinder Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Construction Mathematics is an introductory level mathematics text, written specifically for students of construction and related disciplines. Learn by tackling exercises based on real-life construction maths. Examples include: costing calculations, labour costs, cost of materials and setting out of building components. Suitable for beginners and easy to follow throughout. Learn the essential basic theory along with the practical necessities. The second edition of this popular textbook is fully updated to match new curricula, and expanded to include even more learning exercises. End of chapter exercises cover a range of theoretical as well as practical problems commonly found in construction practice, and three detailed assignments based on practical tasks give students the opportunity to apply all the knowledge they have gained. Construction Mathematics addresses all the mathematical requirements of Level 2 construction NVQs from City & Guilds/CITB and Edexcel courses, including the BTEC First Diploma in...

  16. Mathematical modelling

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a thorough introduction to the challenge of applying mathematics in real-world scenarios. Modelling tasks rarely involve well-defined categories, and they often require multidisciplinary input from mathematics, physics, computer sciences, or engineering. In keeping with this spirit of modelling, the book includes a wealth of cross-references between the chapters and frequently points to the real-world context. The book combines classical approaches to modelling with novel areas such as soft computing methods, inverse problems, and model uncertainty. Attention is also paid to the interaction between models, data and the use of mathematical software. The reader will find a broad selection of theoretical tools for practicing industrial mathematics, including the analysis of continuum models, probabilistic and discrete phenomena, and asymptotic and sensitivity analysis.

  17. Algorithmic mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hougardy, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Algorithms play an increasingly important role in nearly all fields of mathematics. This book allows readers to develop basic mathematical abilities, in particular those concerning the design and analysis of algorithms as well as their implementation. It presents not only fundamental algorithms like the sieve of Eratosthenes, the Euclidean algorithm, sorting algorithms, algorithms on graphs, and Gaussian elimination, but also discusses elementary data structures, basic graph theory, and numerical questions. In addition, it provides an introduction to programming and demonstrates in detail how to implement algorithms in C++. This textbook is suitable for students who are new to the subject and covers a basic mathematical lecture course, complementing traditional courses on analysis and linear algebra. Both authors have given this "Algorithmic Mathematics" course at the University of Bonn several times in recent years.

  18. Mathematical physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Sneyd, James

    2009-01-01

    There has been a long history of interaction between mathematics and physiology. This book looks in detail at a wide selection of mathematical models in physiology, showing how physiological problems can be formulated and studied mathematically, and how such models give rise to interesting and challenging mathematical questions. With its coverage of many recent models it gives an overview of the field, while many older models are also discussed, to put the modern work in context. In this second edition the coverage of basic principles has been expanded to include such topics as stochastic differential equations, Markov models and Gibbs free energy, and the selection of models has also been expanded to include some of the basic models of fluid transport, respiration/perfusion, blood diseases, molecular motors, smooth muscle, neuroendrocine cells, the baroreceptor loop, turboglomerular oscillations, blood clotting and the retina. Owing to this extensive coverage, the second edition is published in two volumes. ...

  19. Mathematical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Eck, Christof; Knabner, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical models are the decisive tool to explain and predict phenomena in the natural and engineering sciences. With this book readers will learn to derive mathematical models which help to understand real world phenomena. At the same time a wealth of important examples for the abstract concepts treated in the curriculum of mathematics degrees are given. An essential feature of this book is that mathematical structures are used as an ordering principle and not the fields of application. Methods from linear algebra, analysis and the theory of ordinary and partial differential equations are thoroughly introduced and applied in the modeling process. Examples of applications in the fields electrical networks, chemical reaction dynamics, population dynamics, fluid dynamics, elasticity theory and crystal growth are treated comprehensively.

  20. Mathematical statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Pestman, Wiebe R

    2009-01-01

    This textbook provides a broad and solid introduction to mathematical statistics, including the classical subjects hypothesis testing, normal regression analysis, and normal analysis of variance. In addition, non-parametric statistics and vectorial statistics are considered, as well as applications of stochastic analysis in modern statistics, e.g., Kolmogorov-Smirnov testing, smoothing techniques, robustness and density estimation. For students with some elementary mathematical background. With many exercises. Prerequisites from measure theory and linear algebra are presented.

  1. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  2. Discrete Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Spring 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 18......The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Spring 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 18...

  3. Discrete Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Autumn 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 15......The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Autumn 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 15...

  4. The impact of high-stakes, state-mandated student performance assessment on 10th grade English, mathematics, and science teachers' instructional practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Kenneth E.

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the public release of student results on high-stakes, state-mandated performance assessments influence instructional practices, and if so in what manner. The research focused on changes in teachers' instructional practices and factors that may have influenced such changes since the public release of high-stakes, state-mandated student performance assessment scores. The data for this study were obtained from a 54-question survey instrument given to a stratified random sample of teachers teaching at least one section of 10th grade English, mathematics, or science in an academic public high school within Massachusetts. Two hundred and fifty-seven (257) teachers, or 62% of the total sample, completed the survey instrument. An analysis of the data found that teachers are making changes in their instructional practices. The data show notable increases in the use of open-response questions, creative/critical thinking questions, problem-solving activities, use of rubrics or scoring guides, writing assignments, and inquiry/investigation. Teachers also have decreased the use of multiple-choice and true-false questions, textbook-based assignments, and lecturing. Also, the data show that teachers felt that changes made in their instructional practices were most influenced by an "interest in helping my students attain MCAS assessment scores that will allow them to graduate high school" and by an "interest in helping my school improve student (MCAS) assessment scores," Finally, mathematics teachers and teachers with 13--19 years of experience report making significantly more changes than did others. It may be interpreted from the data that the use of state-mandated student performance assessments and the high-stakes attached to this type of testing program contributed to changes in teachers' instructional practices. The changes in teachers' instructional practices have included increases in the use of instructional practices deemed

  5. Factors Influencing Candidates' Performance in English Language and Mathematics at West African Senior School Certificate Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alade, O. M.; Kuku, O. O.; Osoba, A.

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated influence of some factors on the performance of selected West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) candidates. It also examined the relationship between these factors and candidates' performance. Factors investigated include socio-economic background of the candidates (SEB), study hours (SH), attitude…

  6. Interaction between Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Factors: The Influences of Academic Goal Orientation and Working Memory on Mathematical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kerry; Ning, Flora; Goh, Hui Chin

    2014-01-01

    Although the effects of achievement goals and working memory on academic performance are well established, it is not clear whether they jointly affect academic performance. Children from Primary 4 and 6 (N = 608) were administered (a) measures of working memory and updating from the automated working memory battery and a running span task, (b)…

  7. Towards unified performance measures for evaluating nuclear safeguard systems: mathematical foundations and formal comparison of existing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corynen, G.C.

    1979-01-01

    An important step in the analysis of large-scale systems is the development of economical and meaningful measures of system performance. In the literature on analysis of nuclear safeguard systems, many performance measures have been advanced, but their interrelationships and their relevance to overall system objectives have not received attention commensurate with the effort spent in developing detailed safeguard models. The work reported here is an attempt to improve the development and evaluation of performance measures for nuclear safeguard systems. This work falls into three main areas. First, we develop a new framework which provides an initial basis for defining and structuring performance measures. To demonstrate that this framework allows a clear understanding of the purposes of nuclear safeguard systems, we employ it to state various safeguard questions clearly and concisely. The framework reflects the rough subsystem structure of safeguard systems - the detection and response subsystems - and formally accommodates various safeguard models. We especially emphasize two of these models which are under development at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, the structured assessment approach (SAA) and the systems vulnerability assessment method (SVAM). Second, we examine some performance measures presently used in the nuclear safeguards area and in reliability theory in general. Some of these we accept and modify to obtain system performance measures that are an additive combination of subsystem performance measures, a very convenient form indeed. Others we reject as impractical and meaningless. Finally, we determine some common features between the SAA and SVAM models by formally comparing these models in our framework

  8. Mathematical Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glimm, J.

    2009-10-14

    Progress for the past decade or so has been extraordinary. The solution of Fermat's Last Theorem [11] and of the Poincare Conjecture [1] have resolved two of the most outstanding challenges to mathematics. For both cases, deep and advanced theories and whole subfields of mathematics came into play and were developed further as part of the solutions. And still the future is wide open. Six of the original seven problems from the Clay Foundation challenge remain open, the 23 DARPA challenge problems are open. Entire new branches of mathematics have been developed, including financial mathematics and the connection between geometry and string theory, proposed to solve the problems of quantized gravity. New solutions of the Einstein equations, inspired by shock wave theory, suggest a cosmology model which fits accelerating expansion of the universe possibly eliminating assumptions of 'dark matter'. Intellectual challenges and opportunities for mathematics are greater than ever. The role of mathematics in society continues to grow; with this growth comes new opportunities and some growing pains; each will be analyzed here. We see a broadening of the intellectual and professional opportunities and responsibilities for mathematicians. These trends are also occuring across all of science. The response can be at the level of the professional societies, which can work to deepen their interactions, not only within the mathematical sciences, but also with other scientific societies. At a deeper level, the choices to be made will come from individual mathematicians. Here, of course, the individual choices will be varied, and we argue for respect and support for this diversity of responses. In such a manner, we hope to preserve the best of the present while welcoming the best of the new.

  9. Computer mathematics for programmers

    CERN Document Server

    Abney, Darrell H; Sibrel, Donald W

    1985-01-01

    Computer Mathematics for Programmers presents the Mathematics that is essential to the computer programmer.The book is comprised of 10 chapters. The first chapter introduces several computer number systems. Chapter 2 shows how to perform arithmetic operations using the number systems introduced in Chapter 1. The third chapter covers the way numbers are stored in computers, how the computer performs arithmetic on real numbers and integers, and how round-off errors are generated in computer programs. Chapter 4 details the use of algorithms and flowcharting as problem-solving tools for computer p

  10. Effects of Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematical Metacognition on Word Problem Solving in Children with and without Mathematical Learning Difficulties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghui Lai

    Full Text Available Mathematics is one of the most objective, logical, and practical academic disciplines. Yet, in addition to cognitive skills, mathematical problem solving also involves affective factors. In the current study, we first investigated effects of mathematics anxiety (MA and mathematical metacognition on word problem solving (WPS. We tested 224 children (116 boys, M = 10.15 years old, SD = 0.56 with the Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Children, the Chinese Revised-edition Questionnaire of Pupil's Metacognitive Ability in Mathematics, and WPS tasks. The results indicated that mathematical metacognition mediated the effect of MA on WPS after controlling for IQ. Second, we divided the children into four mathematics achievement groups including high achieving (HA, typical achieving (TA, low achieving (LA, and mathematical learning difficulty (MLD. Because mathematical metacognition and MA predicted mathematics achievement, we compared group differences in metacognition and MA with IQ partialled out. The results showed that children with MLD scored lower in self-image and higher in learning mathematics anxiety (LMA than the TA and HA children, but not in mathematical evaluation anxiety (MEA. MLD children's LMA was also higher than that of their LA counterparts. These results provide insight into factors that may mediate poor WPS performance which emerges under pressure in mathematics. These results also suggest that the anxiety during learning mathematics should be taken into account in mathematical learning difficulty interventions.

  11. Effects of Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematical Metacognition on Word Problem Solving in Children with and without Mathematical Learning Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yinghui; Zhu, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yinghe; Li, Yanjun

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is one of the most objective, logical, and practical academic disciplines. Yet, in addition to cognitive skills, mathematical problem solving also involves affective factors. In the current study, we first investigated effects of mathematics anxiety (MA) and mathematical metacognition on word problem solving (WPS). We tested 224 children (116 boys, M = 10.15 years old, SD = 0.56) with the Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Children, the Chinese Revised-edition Questionnaire of Pupil's Metacognitive Ability in Mathematics, and WPS tasks. The results indicated that mathematical metacognition mediated the effect of MA on WPS after controlling for IQ. Second, we divided the children into four mathematics achievement groups including high achieving (HA), typical achieving (TA), low achieving (LA), and mathematical learning difficulty (MLD). Because mathematical metacognition and MA predicted mathematics achievement, we compared group differences in metacognition and MA with IQ partialled out. The results showed that children with MLD scored lower in self-image and higher in learning mathematics anxiety (LMA) than the TA and HA children, but not in mathematical evaluation anxiety (MEA). MLD children's LMA was also higher than that of their LA counterparts. These results provide insight into factors that may mediate poor WPS performance which emerges under pressure in mathematics. These results also suggest that the anxiety during learning mathematics should be taken into account in mathematical learning difficulty interventions.

  12. Effects of Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematical Metacognition on Word Problem Solving in Children with and without Mathematical Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yinghui; Zhu, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yinghe; Li, Yanjun

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is one of the most objective, logical, and practical academic disciplines. Yet, in addition to cognitive skills, mathematical problem solving also involves affective factors. In the current study, we first investigated effects of mathematics anxiety (MA) and mathematical metacognition on word problem solving (WPS). We tested 224 children (116 boys, M = 10.15 years old, SD = 0.56) with the Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Children, the Chinese Revised-edition Questionnaire of Pupil’s Metacognitive Ability in Mathematics, and WPS tasks. The results indicated that mathematical metacognition mediated the effect of MA on WPS after controlling for IQ. Second, we divided the children into four mathematics achievement groups including high achieving (HA), typical achieving (TA), low achieving (LA), and mathematical learning difficulty (MLD). Because mathematical metacognition and MA predicted mathematics achievement, we compared group differences in metacognition and MA with IQ partialled out. The results showed that children with MLD scored lower in self-image and higher in learning mathematics anxiety (LMA) than the TA and HA children, but not in mathematical evaluation anxiety (MEA). MLD children’s LMA was also higher than that of their LA counterparts. These results provide insight into factors that may mediate poor WPS performance which emerges under pressure in mathematics. These results also suggest that the anxiety during learning mathematics should be taken into account in mathematical learning difficulty interventions. PMID:26090806

  13. International note: Are Emirati parents' attitudes toward mathematics linked to their adolescent children's attitudes toward mathematics and mathematics achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Khine, Myint Swe; Melkonian, Michael; Welch, Anita G; Al Nuaimi, Samira Ahmed; Rashad, Fatimah F

    2015-10-01

    Drawing on data from the 2012 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and employing multilevel modeling as an analytic strategy, this study examined the relations of adolescent children's perceptions of their parents' attitudes towards mathematics to their own attitudes towards mathematics and mathematics achievement among a sample of 5116 adolescents from 384 schools in the United Arab Emirates. The results of this cross-sectional study revealed that adolescents who perceived that their parents liked mathematics and considered mathematics was important for their children not only to study but also for their career tended to report higher levels of intrinsic and instrumental motivation to learn mathematics, mathematics self-concept and self-efficacy, and mathematics work ethic. Moreover, adolescents who perceived that their parents liked mathematics and considered mathematics was important for their children's career tended to report positive intentions and behaviors toward mathematics. However, adolescents who perceived that their parents considered mathematics was important for their children's career tended to report higher levels of mathematics anxiety. Finally, adolescents who perceived that their parents considered mathematics was important for their children to study performed significantly better on the mathematics assessment than did their peers whose parents disregarded the importance of learning mathematics. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance assessment and optimisation of a large information system by combined customer relationship management and resilience engineering: a mathematical programming approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadeh, A.; Foroozan, H.; Ashjari, B.; Motevali Haghighi, S.; Yazdanparast, R.; Saberi, M.; Torki Nejad, M.

    2017-10-01

    ISs and ITs play a critical role in large complex gas corporations. Many factors such as human, organisational and environmental factors affect IS in an organisation. Therefore, investigating ISs success is considered to be a complex problem. Also, because of the competitive business environment and the high amount of information flow in organisations, new issues like resilient ISs and successful customer relationship management (CRM) have emerged. A resilient IS will provide sustainable delivery of information to internal and external customers. This paper presents an integrated approach to enhance and optimise the performance of each component of a large IS based on CRM and resilience engineering (RE) in a gas company. The enhancement of the performance can help ISs to perform business tasks efficiently. The data are collected from standard questionnaires. It is then analysed by data envelopment analysis by selecting the optimal mathematical programming approach. The selected model is validated and verified by principle component analysis method. Finally, CRM and RE factors are identified as influential factors through sensitivity analysis for this particular case study. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study for performance assessment and optimisation of large IS by combined RE and CRM.

  15. A mathematical modeling framework to evaluate the performance of single diode and double diode based SPV systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangram Bana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict the performance of a PV system, a reliable and accurate simulation design of PV systems before being installed is a necessity. The present study concerns the development of single and double diode model of solar PV system and ensures the best suited model under specific environmental condition for accurate performance prediction. The information provided in the manufacturers’ data sheet is not sufficient for developing a Simulink based single and double diode models of PV module. These parameters are crucial to predict accurate performance of a PV module. These parameters of the proposed solar PV models have been calculated using an efficient iterative technique. This paper compares the simulation results of both the models with manufacturer’s data sheet to investigate the accuracy and validity. A MATLAB/Simulink based comparative performance analysis of these models under inconsistent atmospheric conditions and the effect of variations in model parameters has been carried out. Despite the simplicity, these models are highly sensitive and respond to a slight variation in temperature and insolation. It is observed that double diode PV model is more accurate under low intensity insolation or shading condition. The performance evaluation of the models under present study will be helpful to understand the I-V curves, which will enable us in predicting the solar PV system power production under variable input conditions.

  16. Mathematical concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The main intention of this book is to describe and develop the conceptual, structural and abstract thinking of mathematics. Specific mathematical structures are used to illustrate the conceptual approach; providing a deeper insight into mutual relationships and abstract common features. These ideas are carefully motivated, explained and illustrated by examples so that many of the more technical proofs can be omitted. The book can therefore be used: ·         simply as an overview of the panorama of mathematical structures and the relations between them, to be supplemented by more detailed texts whenever you want to acquire a working knowledge of some structure ·         by itself as a first introduction to abstract mathematics ·         together with existing textbooks, to put their results into a more general perspective ·         to gain a new and hopefully deeper perspective after having studied such textbooks Mathematical Concepts has a broader scope and is less detaile...

  17. Relationship between teachers' coverage of mathematics curriculum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kofi.mereku

    African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences Vol. ... materials (MCM) and their schools' performance in mathematics ... should be created for mathematics teachers in high performing junior high schools to share their ... in syllabuses which are also spread out in text books, teachers' hand out, etc.

  18. Self-beliefs mediate mathematical performance between primary and lower secondary school: A large scale longitudinal cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reed, Helen; Kirschner, Paul A.; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    It is often argued that enhancement of self-beliefs should be one of the key goals ofeducation. However, very little is known about the relation between self-beliefs and performance when students move from primary to secondary school in highly differentiated educational systems with early tracking.

  19. The Effect of LEGO Training on Pupils' School Performance in Mathematics, Problem Solving Ability and Attitude: Swedish Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shakir; Lindh, Jorgen; Shukur, Ghazi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of one year of regular "LEGO" training on pupils' performances in schools. The underlying pedagogical perspective is the constructivist theory, where the main idea is that knowledge is constructed in the mind of the pupil by active learning. The investigation has been made in two…

  20. Mathematical biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This book presents concise descriptions and analysis of the classical and modern models used in mathematical biophysics. The authors ask the question "what new information can be provided by the models that cannot be obtained directly from experimental data?" Actively developing fields such as regulatory mechanisms in cells and subcellular systems and electron transport and energy transport in membranes are addressed together with more classical topics such as metabolic processes, nerve conduction and heart activity, chemical kinetics, population dynamics, and photosynthesis. The main approach is to describe biological processes using different mathematical approaches necessary to reveal characteristic features and properties of simulated systems. With the emergence of powerful mathematics software packages such as MAPLE, Mathematica, Mathcad, and MatLab, these methodologies are now accessible to a wide audience. Provides succinct but authoritative coverage of a broad array of biophysical topics and models Wr...

  1. Mathematical tapas

    CERN Document Server

    Hiriart-Urruty, Jean-Baptiste

    This book contains a collection of exercises (called “tapas”) at undergraduate level, mainly from the fields of real analysis, calculus, matrices, convexity, and optimization. Most of the problems presented here are non-standard and some require broad knowledge of different mathematical subjects in order to be solved. The author provides some hints and (partial) answers and also puts these carefully chosen exercises into context, presents information on their origins, and comments on possible extensions. With stars marking the levels of difficulty, these tapas show or prove something interesting, challenge the reader to solve and learn, and may have surprising results. This first volume of Mathematical Tapas will appeal to mathematicians, motivated undergraduate students from science-based areas, and those generally interested in mathematics.

  2. Mathematical writing

    CERN Document Server

    Vivaldi, Franco

    2014-01-01

    This book teaches the art of writing mathematics, an essential -and difficult- skill for any mathematics student.   The book begins with an informal introduction on basic writing principles and a review of the essential dictionary for mathematics. Writing techniques are developed gradually, from the small to the large: words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, to end with short compositions. These may represent the introduction of a concept, the abstract of a presentation or the proof of a theorem. Along the way the student will learn how to establish a coherent notation, mix words and symbols effectively, write neat formulae, and structure a definition.   Some elements of logic and all common methods of proofs are featured, including various versions of induction and existence proofs. The book concludes with advice on specific aspects of thesis writing (choosing of a title, composing an abstract, compiling a bibliography) illustrated by large number of real-life examples. Many exercises are included; over 150...

  3. Physical mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Cahill, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Unique in its clarity, examples and range, Physical Mathematics explains as simply as possible the mathematics that graduate students and professional physicists need in their courses and research. The author illustrates the mathematics with numerous physical examples drawn from contemporary research. In addition to basic subjects such as linear algebra, Fourier analysis, complex variables, differential equations and Bessel functions, this textbook covers topics such as the singular-value decomposition, Lie algebras, the tensors and forms of general relativity, the central limit theorem and Kolmogorov test of statistics, the Monte Carlo methods of experimental and theoretical physics, the renormalization group of condensed-matter physics and the functional derivatives and Feynman path integrals of quantum field theory.

  4. Mathematical Lives

    CERN Document Server

    Bartocci, Claudio; Guerraggio, Angelo; Lucchetti, Roberto; Williams, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Steps forward in mathematics often reverberate in other scientific disciplines, and give rise to innovative conceptual developments or find surprising technological applications. This volume brings to the forefront some of the proponents of the mathematics of the twentieth century, who have put at our disposal new and powerful instruments for investigating the reality around us. The portraits present people who have impressive charisma and wide-ranging cultural interests, who are passionate about defending the importance of their own research, are sensitive to beauty, and attentive to the soci

  5. “Its Influence Taints All”: Urban Math-ematics Teachers Resisting Performativity through Engagement with the Past

    OpenAIRE

    Povey, Hilary; Adams, Gill; Everley, Rosie

    2017-01-01

    In England, globalisation and neoliberal political agendas have created an en-vironment in which teachers are constantly measured and ranked and subjected to a discourse of marketisation, managerialism, and performativity. This is par-ticularly strongly felt in urban schools, where a discourse that recognised the sys-tematic disadvantages that many urban children experience has been replaced by a discourse of “failing” students, teachers and schools. The effect is to erode teachers’ sense of ...

  6. Quotable Quotes in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Bruce W. N.

    1983-01-01

    As a way to dispel negative feelings toward mathematics, a variety of quotations are given. They are categorized by: what mathematics is, mathematicians, mathematics and other disciplines, different areas of mathematics, mathematics and humor, applications of mathematics, and pure versus applied mathematics. (MNS)

  7. The Influence of Symbols and Equations on Understanding Mathematical Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sarah R.

    2015-01-01

    Students with mathematics difficulty demonstrate lower mathematics performance than typical-performing peers. One contributing factor to lower mathematics performance may be misunderstanding of mathematics symbols. In several studies related to the equal sign (=), students who received explicit instruction on the relational definition (i.e.,…

  8. Structural Equation Model to Validate: Mathematics-Computer Interaction, Computer Confidence, Mathematics Commitment, Mathematics Motivation and Mathematics Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Santillán, Arturo; Moreno-Garcia, Elena; Escalera-Chávez, Milka E.; Rojas-Kramer, Carlos A.; Pozos-Texon, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Most mathematics students show a definite tendency toward an attitudinal deficiency, which can be primarily understood as intolerance to the matter, affecting their scholar performance adversely. In addition, information and communication technologies have been gradually included within the process of teaching mathematics. Such adoption of…

  9. Understanding Mathematics: Some Key Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asma Amanat; Reid, Norman

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics is well known as a subject area where there can be problems in terms of understanding as well as retaining positive attitudes. In a large study involving 813 school students (ages approximately 10-12) drawn from two different school systems in Pakistan, the effect of limited working memory capacity on performance in mathematics was…

  10. Mathematical cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainwright, J.

    1990-01-01

    The workshop on mathematical cosmology was devoted to four topics of current interest. This report contains a brief discussion of the historical background of each topic and a concise summary of the content of each talk. The topics were; the observational cosmology program, the cosmological perturbation program, isotropic singularities, and the evolution of Bianchi cosmologies. (author)

  11. Mathematical quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Weaver, Nik

    2001-01-01

    With a unique approach and presenting an array of new and intriguing topics, Mathematical Quantization offers a survey of operator algebras and related structures from the point of view that these objects are quantizations of classical mathematical structures. This approach makes possible, with minimal mathematical detail, a unified treatment of a variety of topics.Detailed here for the first time, the fundamental idea of mathematical quantization is that sets are replaced by Hilbert spaces. Building on this idea, and most importantly on the fact that scalar-valued functions on a set correspond to operators on a Hilbert space, one can determine quantum analogs of a variety of classical structures. In particular, because topologies and measure classes on a set can be treated in terms of scalar-valued functions, we can transfer these constructions to the quantum realm, giving rise to C*- and von Neumann algebras.In the first half of the book, the author quickly builds the operator algebra setting. He uses this ...

  12. Mathematical stereochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Shinsaku

    2015-01-01

    Chirality and stereogenicity are closely related concepts and their differentiation and description is still a challenge in chemoinformatics. A new stereoisogram approach, developed by the author, is introduced in this book, providing a theoretical framework for mathematical aspects of modern stereochemistry. The discussion covers point-groups and permutation symmetry and exemplifies the concepts using organic molecules and inorganic complexes.

  13. Mathematical Analysis of EDCA's Performance on the Control Channel of an IEEE 802.11p WAVE Vehicular Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein T. Mouftah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless networks for vehicular environments are gaining increasing importance due to their ability to provide a means for stations on the roadside and radio units on board of vehicles to communicate and share safety-related information, thus reducing the probability of accidents and increasing the efficiency of the transportation system. With this goal in mind, the IEEE is currently developing the Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE IEEE 802.11p standard. WAVE devices use the IEEE 802.11's Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA MAC protocol to compete for the transmission medium. This work proposes an analytical tool to evaluate the performance of EDCA under the specific conditions of the so-called control channel (CCH of a WAVE environment, including the particular EDCA parameter values and the fact that all safety-critical data frames are broadcasted. The protocol is modeled using Markov chains and results related to throughput, frame-error rate, buffer occupancy and delay are obtained under different traffic-load conditions. The main analysis is performed assuming that the CCH works continuously, and then an explanation is given as to the considerations that are needed to account for the fact that activity on the CCH is intermittent.

  14. Exploring predictors of scientific performance with decision tree analysis: The case of research excellence in early career mathematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindahl, J.

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to introduce the exploratory method of decision tree analysis as a complementary alternative to current confirmatory methods used in scientometric prediction studies of research performance; and (2) as an illustrative case, to explore predictors of future research excellence at the individual level among 493 early career mathematicians in the sub-field of number theory between 1999 and 2010. A conceptual introduction to decision tree analysis is provided including an overview of the main steps of the tree-building algorithm and the statistical method of cross-validation used to evaluate the performance of decision tree models. A decision tree analysis of 493 mathematicians was conducted to find useful predictors and important relationships between variables in the context of predicting research excellence. The results suggest that the number of prestige journal publications and a topically diverse output are important predictors of future research excellence. Researchers with no prestige journal publications are very unlikely to produce excellent research. Limitations of decision three analysis are discussed. (Author)

  15. Association Between Prenatal Valproate Exposure and Performance on Standardized Language and Mathematics Tests in School-aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Lars Skou; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Sun, Yuelian

    2018-01-01

    by Statistics Denmark on April 15, 2016. All children born alive in Denmark between 1997 and 2006 (n = 656 496) were identified. From this cohort, children who did not participate in the national tests, with presumed coding errors in gestational age and children missing information on their mother's educational......Importance: Valproate sodium is used for the treatment of epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders in women of childbearing potential. However, there are concerns about impaired cognitive development in children who have been exposed to valproate during pregnancy. Objective: To estimate...... the association between long-term school performance and prenatal exposure to valproate and a number of other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Design, Setting, and Participants: In a prospective, population-based cohort study conducted from August 1, 2015, to May 31, 2017, data used in the study were provided...

  16. Magical mathematics the mathematical ideas that animate great magic tricks

    CERN Document Server

    Diaconis, Persi

    2012-01-01

    Magical Mathematics reveals the secrets of amazing, fun-to-perform card tricks--and the profound mathematical ideas behind them--that will astound even the most accomplished magician. Persi Diaconis and Ron Graham provide easy, step-by-step instructions for each trick, explaining how to set up the effect and offering tips on what to say and do while performing it. Each card trick introduces a new mathematical idea, and varying the tricks in turn takes readers to the very threshold of today's mathematical knowledge. For example, the Gilbreath Principle--a fantastic effect where the cards remain in control despite being shuffled--is found to share an intimate connection with the Mandelbrot set. Other card tricks link to the mathematical secrets of combinatorics, graph theory, number theory, topology, the Riemann hypothesis, and even Fermat's last theorem.

  17. The language of mathematics telling mathematical tales

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Everyday mathematical ideas are expressed differently in different languages. This book probes those differences and explores their implications for mathematics education, arguing for alternatives to how we teach and learn mathematics.

  18. Investigating the Patterns of Attention Performance in Children With Mathematical Learning Disorder, With Using “Test of Everyday Attention for Children”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Kasirian

    2018-04-01

    Conclusion The results demonstrate that children with mathematical learning disorders were significantly worse than their normal peers in all three domains. Findings indicated that “Test of Everyday Attention for Children” has the potential to evaluate the attention deficits in mathematical learning disorder as compared with normal peers. Therefore, it can be an appropriate tool for the evaluation in this group.

  19. Improvements in Thermal Performance of Mango Hot-water Treatment Equipments: Data Analysis, Mathematical Modelling and Numerical-computational Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder M. Mendoza Orbegoso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mango is one of the most popular and best paid tropical fruits in worldwide markets, its exportation is regulated within a phytosanitary quality control for killing the “fruit fly”. Thus, mangoes must be subject to hot-water treatment process that involves their immersion in hot water over a period of time. In this work, field measurements, analytical and simulation studies are developed on available hot-water treatment equipment called “Original” that only complies with United States phytosanitary protocols. These approaches are made to characterize the fluid-dynamic and thermal behaviours that occur during the mangoes’ hot-water treatment process. Then, analytical model and Computational fluid dynamics simulations are developed for designing new hot-water treatment equipment called “Hybrid” that simultaneously meets with both United States and Japan phytosanitary certifications. Comparisons of analytical results with data field measurements demonstrate that “Hybrid” equipment offers a better fluid-dynamic and thermal performance than “Original” ones.

  20. Performance limits of coated particle fuel. Part I. The significance of empirical performance diagrams and mathematical models in fuel development and power reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, L. W.; Hick, H.

    1973-06-15

    This report introduces a general survey of our present knowledge and understanding of coated particle fuel performance. It defines first the reference power reactor conditions and the reference coated particle design on which the survey is centred. It describes then the typical strategy which has been followed in coated particle fuel development by the Dragon Project R & D Branch. Finally it shows the priorities which have governed the time scale and scope of fuel development and of the present review.

  1. Improving the performances of gas turbines operated on natural gas in combined cycle power plants with application of mathematical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimkovski, Sasho

    2014-01-01

    The greater energy demand by today society sets a number of new challenges in the energy sector. The climate extremes impose new modes of operation of the power plants, with high flexibility in production. Combined cycle co generative power plants are the latest trend in the energy sector. Their high prevalence is due to the great efficiency and the good environmental characteristics. The main work horse in these cogeneration plants is the gas turbine, which power production and efficiency strongly depends on the external climate conditions. In warmer periods when there is increased demand for electricity, the power production from the gas turbines significantly declines. Because of the high electricity demand from the grid and reduced power production from the gas turbines at the same time, the need for application of appropriate technology for preserving the performances and power of the gas turbines arises. This master thesis explores different methods to improve the power in gas turbines by cooling the air on the compressor inlet, analyzing their applicability and effectiveness in order to choose the optimal method for power augmentation for the climatic conditions in the city Skopje. The master thesis gives detailed analysis of the weather in Skopje and the time frame in which the chosen method is applicable. At the end in the master thesis, the economic feasibility of the given method for power augmentation is clearly calculated, using a model of a power plant and calculating the resulting amount of gained energy, the amount of the initial investment, the cost for maintenance and operation of the equipment. By these calculations the period for initial return of investment is obtained. As an added benefit the positive environmental impacts of the applied technology for inlet air cooling is analyzed. (author)

  2. Understanding in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sierpinska, Anna

    1994-01-01

    The concept of understanding in mathematics with regard to mathematics education is considered in this volume, the main problem for mathematics teachers being how to facilitate their students'' understanding of the mathematics being taught.

  3. Mathematical epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Driessche, Pauline; Wu, Jianhong

    2008-01-01

    Based on lecture notes of two summer schools with a mixed audience from mathematical sciences, epidemiology and public health, this volume offers a comprehensive introduction to basic ideas and techniques in modeling infectious diseases, for the comparison of strategies to plan for an anticipated epidemic or pandemic, and to deal with a disease outbreak in real time. It covers detailed case studies for diseases including pandemic influenza, West Nile virus, and childhood diseases. Models for other diseases including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, fox rabies, and sexually transmitted infections are included as applications. Its chapters are coherent and complementary independent units. In order to accustom students to look at the current literature and to experience different perspectives, no attempt has been made to achieve united writing style or unified notation. Notes on some mathematical background (calculus, matrix algebra, differential equations, and probability) have been prepared and may be downlo...

  4. Applied mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedelec, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Applied Mathematics center (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research fields of the Center are the scientific calculus, the probabilities and statistics and the video image synthesis. The research topics developed are: the analysis of numerical methods, the mathematical analysis of the physics and mechanics fundamental models, the numerical solution of complex models related to the industrial problems, the stochastic calculus and the brownian movement, the stochastic partial differential equations, the identification of the adaptive filtering parameters, the discrete element systems, statistics, the stochastic control and the development, the image synthesis techniques for education and research programs. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed [fr

  5. Dilemma in Teaching Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md Kamaruddin, Nafisah Kamariah; Md Amin, Zulkarnain

    2012-01-01

    The challenge in mathematics education is finding the best way to teach mathematics. When students learn the reasoning and proving in mathematics, they will be proficient in mathematics. Students must know mathematics before they can apply it. Symbolism and logic is the key to both the learning of mathematics and its effective application to…

  6. Mathematics teachers' knowledge of the subject content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the need of the mathematics teacher to be equipped adequately in the content areas in mathematics, vis-a-vis the recent concerns about the poor performance of students in the pre-tertiary schools, and the competence of mathematics teachers in the field. The low performance in mathematics at the ...

  7. Mathematical Verification for Transmission Performance of Centralized Lightwave WDM-RoF-PON with Quintuple Services Integrated in Each Wavelength Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wavelength-division-multiplexing passive-optical-network (WDM-PON has been recognized as a promising solution of the “last mile” access as well as multibroadband data services access for end users, and WDM-RoF-PON, which employs radio-over-fiber (RoF technique in WDM-PON, is even a more attractive approach for future broadband fiber and wireless access for its strong availability of centralized multiservices transmission operation and its transparency for bandwidth and signal modulation formats. As for multiservices development in WDM-RoF-PON, various system designs have been reported and verified via simulation or experiment till now, and the scheme with multiservices transmitted in each single wavelength channel is believed as the one that has the highest bandwidth efficiency; however, the corresponding mathematical verification is still hard to be found in state-of-the-art literature. In this paper, system design and data transmission performance of a quintuple services integrated WDM-RoF-PON which jointly employs carrier multiplexing and orthogonal modulation techniques, have been theoretically analyzed and verified in detail; moreover, the system design has been duplicated and verified experimentally and the theory system of such WDM-RoF-PON scheme has thus been formed.

  8. An ecological vegetation-activated sludge process (V-ASP) for decentralized wastewater treatment: system development, treatment performance, and mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiajia; Dong, Wenyi; Sun, Feiyun; Li, Pu; Zhao, Ke

    2016-05-01

    An environment-friendly decentralized wastewater treatment process that is comprised of activated sludge process (ASP) and wetland vegetation, named as vegetation-activated sludge process (V-ASP), was developed for decentralized wastewater treatment. The long-term experimental results evidenced that the vegetation sequencing batch reactor (V-SBR) process had consistently stable higher removal efficiencies of organic substances and nutrients from domestic wastewater compared with traditional sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The vegetation allocated into V-SBR system could not only remove nutrients through its vegetation transpiration ratio but also provide great surface area for microorganism activity enhancement. This high vegetation transpiration ratio enhanced nutrients removal effectiveness from wastewater mainly by flux enhancement, oxygen and substrate transportation acceleration, and vegetation respiration stimulation. A mathematical model based on ASM2d was successfully established by involving the specific function of vegetation to simulate system performance. The simulation results on the influence of operational parameters on V-ASP treatment effectiveness demonstrated that V-SBR had a high resistance to seasonal temperature fluctuations and influent loading shocking.

  9. Use of a virtual human performance laboratory to improve integration of mathematics and biology in sports science curricula in Sweden and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, D; Besier, T; Johnston, T; Rolston, B; Schorsch, A; Matheson, G; Annerstedt, C; Lindh, J; Rydmark, M

    2007-01-01

    New fields such as bioengineering are exploring the role of the physical sciences in traditional biological approaches to problems, with exciting results in device innovation, medicine, and research biology. The integration of mathematics, biomechanics, and material sciences into the undergraduate biology curriculum will better prepare students for these opportunities and enhance cooperation among faculty and students at the university level. We propose the study of sports science as the basis for introduction of this interdisciplinary program. This novel integrated approach will require a virtual human performance laboratory dual-hosted in Sweden and the United States. We have designed a course model that involves cooperative learning between students at Göteborg University and Stanford University, utilizes new technologies, encourages development of original research and will rely on frequent self-assessment and reflective learning. We will compare outcomes between this course and a more traditional didactic format as well as assess the effectiveness of multiple web-hosted virtual environments. We anticipate the grant will result in a network of original faculty and student research in exercise science and pedagogy as well as provide the opportunity for implementation of the model in more advance training levels and K-12 programs.

  10. Mathematics and engineering in real life through mathematical competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, M.

    2018-02-01

    We bring out an experience of organizing mathematical competitions that can be used as a medium to motivate the student and teacher minds in new directions of thinking. This can contribute to fostering research, innovation and provide a hands-on experience of mathematical concepts with the real world. Mathematical competitions can be used to build curiosity and give an understanding of mathematical applications in real life. Participation in the competition has been classified under four broad categories. Student can showcase their findings in various forms of expression like model, poster, soft presentation, animation, live performance, art and poetry. The basic focus of the competition is on using open source computation tools and modern technology, to emphasize the relationship of mathematical concepts with engineering applications in real life.

  11. Teaching Mathematical Modeling in Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Ritu; Shrivastava, Keerty; Bhardwaj, Ramakant

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics is not only a subject but it is also a language consisting of many different symbols and relations. Taught as a compulsory subject up the 10th class, students are then able to choose whether or not to study mathematics as a main subject. The present paper discusses mathematical modeling in mathematics education. The article provides…

  12. Doing Mathematics with Purpose: Mathematical Text Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, Hannah M.; Robinson, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Mathematical literacy includes learning to read and write different types of mathematical texts as part of purposeful mathematical meaning making. Thus in this article, we describe how learning to read and write mathematical texts (proof text, algorithmic text, algebraic/symbolic text, and visual text) supports the development of students'…

  13. Teachers' Mathematics as Mathematics-at-Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Nadine; Proulx, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Through recognising mathematics teachers as professionals who use mathematics in their workplace, this article traces a parallel between the mathematics enacted by teachers in their practice and the mathematics used in workplaces found in studies of professionals (e.g. nurses, engineers, bankers). This parallel is developed through the five…

  14. Mathematics and Computation in Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The 5th Biennial International Conference for Mathematics and Computation in Music (MCM 2015) took place June 22–25, 2015, at Queen Mary University of London, UK, co-hosted by the School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science (Centre for Digital Music) and the School of Mathematical...... Sciences. As the flagship conference of the Society for Mathematics and Computation in Music (SMCM), MCM 2015 provided a dedicated platform for the communication and exchange of ideas among researchers in mathematics, informatics, music theory, composition, musicology, and related disciplines. It brought...... together researchers from around the world who combine mathematics or computation with music theory, music analysis, composition, and performance. This year’s program – full details at http://mcm2015.qmul.ac.uk – featured a number of distinguished keynote speakers, including Andrée Ehresmann (who spoke...

  15. Mathematical intuitionism

    CERN Document Server

    Dragalin, A G

    1988-01-01

    This monograph is intended to present the most important methods of proof theory in intuitionistic logic, assuming the reader to have mastered an introductory course in mathematical logic. The book starts with purely syntactical methods based on Gentzen's cut-elimination theorem, followed by intuitionistic arithmetic where Kleene's realizability method plays a central role. The author then studies algebraic models and completeness theorems for them. After giving a survey on the principles of intuitionistic analysis, the last part of the book presents the cut-elimination theorem in intuitionistic simple theory of types with an extensionality rule.

  16. Meeting in mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Arne; Georgiev, Vladimir; Ulovec, Andreas

    To encourage many more young people to appreciate the real nature and spirit of mathematics and possibly to be enrolled in mathematics study it is important to involve them in doing mathematics (not just learning about mathematics). This goal could be achieved if mathematics teachers are prepared...... to identify and work with mathematically gifted students (without loosing the rest). The book offers chapters on gifted students, mathematical competences and other issues....

  17. Proof Auditing Formalised Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Miles Adams

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first three formalisations of major mathematical proofs have heralded a new age in formalised mathematics, establishing that informal proofs at the limits of what can be understood by humans can be checked by machine. However, formalisation itself can be subject to error, and yet there is currently no accepted process in checking, or even much concern that such checks have not been performed. In this paper, we motivate why we should be concerned about correctness, and argue the need for proof auditing, to rigorously and independently check a formalisation. We discuss the issues involved in performing an audit, and propose an effective and efficient auditing process. Throughout we use the Flyspeck Project, that formalises the Kepler Conjecture proof, to illustrate our point.

  18. Mathematics, the Computer, and the Impact on Mathematics Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooke, D. James

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the connection between mathematics and the computer; mathematics curriculum; mathematics instruction, including teachers learning to use computers; and the impact of the computer on learning mathematics. (LRW)

  19. Applied Mathematical Problems in Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Llopis-Albert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a close relationship between engineering and mathematics, which has led to the development of new techniques in recent years. Likewise the developments in technology and computers have led to new ways of teaching mathematics for engineering students and the use of modern techniques and methods.  This research aims to provide insight on how to deal with mathematical problems for engineering students. This is performed by means of a fuzzy set/Qualitative Comparative Analysis applied to conflict resolution of Public Participation Projects in support to the EU Water Framework Directive.

  20. Authenticity of Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dung; Dougherty, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Some students leave high school never quite sure of the relevancy of the mathematics they have learned. They fail to see links between school mathematics and the mathematics of everyday life that requires thoughtful decision making and often complex problem solving. Is it possible to bridge the gap between school mathematics and the mathematics in…

  1. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Mathematics, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Mathematics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of mathematics and its application to facility operation. The handbook includes a review of introductory mathematics and the concepts and functional use of algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and calculus. Word problems, equations, calculations, and practical exercises that require the use of each of the mathematical concepts are also presented. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding and performing basic mathematical calculations that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations

  2. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Mathematics, Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Mathematics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of mathematics and its application to facility operation. The handbook includes a review of introductory mathematics and the concepts and functional use of algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and calculus. Word problems, equations, calculations, and practical exercises that require the use of each of the mathematical concepts are also presented. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding and performing basic mathematical calculations that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations

  3. Mathematical Modeling of Diverse Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Tensor calculus is applied to the formulation of mathematical models of diverse phenomena. Aeronautics, fluid dynamics, and cosmology are among the areas of application. The feasibility of combining tensor methods and computer capability to formulate problems is demonstrated. The techniques described are an attempt to simplify the formulation of mathematical models by reducing the modeling process to a series of routine operations, which can be performed either manually or by computer.

  4. The Key to Enhancing Students' Mathematical Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccomini, Paul J.; Sanders, Sharon; Jones, Julie

    2008-01-01

    The importance of learning mathematical vocabulary is vital for the development of proficiency in mathematics. In an effort to improve students' mathematical performance, educators must use research-validated instructional methods to teach important mathematical vocabulary. Mnemonic instruction is a set of evidenced-based strategies used to…

  5. Teaching mathematics using excel

    OpenAIRE

    Bonello, Mary Rose; Camilleri, Silvana

    2004-01-01

    'Technology is essential in teaching and learning mathematics; it influences the mathematics that is taught and enhances students' learning.' (Principles and Standards for School Mathematics-NCTM April 2000)

  6. Effects of Gender, Mathematics Anxiety and Achievement Motivation on College Students’ Achievement in Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajogbeje Oke James

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The urge to excel or perform maximally in mathematics varies from individual to individual because achievement motivation is often developed or learnt during socialization and learning experiences. The study examined the relationship between College of Education students’ achievement motivation and mathematics achievement, correlation coefficient between mathematics anxiety and college students’ achievement motivation as well as mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. The sample, 268 College of Education students offering mathematics as one of their subject combination, was selected using purposive sampling techniques. Three research instruments namely: Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS, Achievement Motivation Scale (AMS and Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT were used to collect data for the study. Data collected for the study were analyzed using correlational analysis and ANOVA. The results showed that a significantly low negative correlation coefficient existed between mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. There is a negative and significant correlation coefficient between mathematics anxiety and achievement motivation. Similarly, a positive and significant correlation coefficient also exists between achievement motivation and mathematics achievement. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that mathematics teachers should adopt activity based strategies and conducive learning environment in order to reduce college students’ anxieties in mathematics learning.

  7. Figures of thought mathematics and mathematical texts

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, David

    2003-01-01

    Examines the ways in which mathematical works can be read as texts, examines their textual strategiesand demonstrates that such readings provide a rich source of philosophical debate regarding mathematics.

  8. A Study to Determine the Basic Science and Mathematics Topics Most Needed by Engineering Technology Graduates of Wake Technical Institute in Performing Job Duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Timothy I.; Roberson, Clarence E., Jr.

    A survey of 470 graduates of the six engineering technology programs at Wake Technical Institute--Architectural, Chemical, Civil Engineering, Computer, Electronic Engineering, and Industrial Engineering Technologies--and 227 of their employers was conducted in October, 1979, to determine the science and mathematics topics most needed by…

  9. Effects of Peer Tutoring and Academic Self-Monitoring on the Mathematics Vocabulary Performance of Secondary Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hott, Brittany L.; Evmenova, Anya; Brigham, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of reciprocal peer tutoring coupled with academic self-monitoring on the mathematics vocabulary acquisition of students with emotional or behavioral disabilities (EBD). Six middle school students from diverse backgrounds with EBD attending a public, urban middle school participated in the study. A rigorous multiple…

  10. The Impact of the GE Foundation "Developing Futures"™ in Education Program on Mathematics Performance Trends in Four Districts. Research Report # RR-74

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirinides, Philip; Supovitz, Jonathan; Tognatta, Namrata; May, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in 2005, the GE Foundation initiated a commitment of expertise and financial resources to a set of urban school districts to improve public education and enhance student achievement in mathematics and science. This report analyzes the impacts of the GE Foundation commitment to the partner districts by examining trends in student…

  11. A Cognition Analysis of QUASAR's Mathematics Performance Assessment Tasks and Their Sensitivity to Measuring Changes in Middle School Students' Thinking and Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jinfa, And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents a conceptual framework for analyzing students' mathematical understanding, reasoning, problem solving, and communication. Analyses of student responses indicated that the tasks appear to measure the complex thinking and reasoning processes that they were designed to assess. Concludes that the QUASAR assessment tasks can capture changes in…

  12. A Descriptive Qualitative Study Exploring Teacher and Parental Perceptions of African-American Middle School Male Students Related to Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Crystal Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive case study explored the perceptions of parents and teachers of the academic achievement gap in mathematics between African-American middle school males and their White counterparts. Ten parents, both African-American and White, with students attending middle school in the Cherokee County School District and 5 teachers…

  13. Mathematical Modelling Approach in Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseven, Ayla

    2015-01-01

    The topic of models and modeling has come to be important for science and mathematics education in recent years. The topic of "Modeling" topic is especially important for examinations such as PISA which is conducted at an international level and measures a student's success in mathematics. Mathematical modeling can be defined as using…

  14. Discrete Mathematics and the Secondary Mathematics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossey, John

    Discrete mathematics, the mathematics of decision making for finite settings, is a topic of great interest in mathematics education at all levels. Attention is being focused on resolving the diversity of opinion concerning the exact nature of the subject, what content the curriculum should contain, who should study that material, and how that…

  15. Introducing philosophy of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Friend, Michele

    2014-01-01

    What is mathematics about? Does the subject-matter of mathematics exist independently of the mind or are they mental constructions? How do we know mathematics? Is mathematical knowledge logical knowledge? And how is mathematics applied to the material world? In this introduction to the philosophy of mathematics, Michele Friend examines these and other ontological and epistemological problems raised by the content and practice of mathematics. Aimed at a readership with limited proficiency in mathematics but with some experience of formal logic it seeks to strike a balance between conceptual acc

  16. Mathematics related anxiety: Mathematics bogeyman or not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Videnović Marina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Data of the PISA 2003 survey indicate high levels of mathematics anxiety of students in Serbia. More than half of our students worry whether they will have difficulties in mathematics class or whether they will earn poor marks. Aims of this study therefore are: examining relationship between math anxiety and achievement at mathematics literacy scale; establishing possible predictors of math anxiety and identification of students' groups in relations to their relationship towards mathematics as a subject. Mathematics anxiety is statistically negatively correlated with school achievement and achievement at mathematics literacy scale. Socio-demographic factors, motivational and cognitive aspects related to learning mathematics, perception of school and classroom climate explain 40% variance of mathematics anxiety. Based on students' relationship towards mathematics they cam be divided into three groups; while dimensions that apart them are uninterested-interested in mathematics and presence-absence of anxiety. The group displaying anxiety scores lowest among the three. Applying qualitative analysis students' and teachers' attitudes on specific issues related to teaching and learning mathematics was examined.

  17. Enhancing learners’ problem solving performance in mathematics: A cognitive load perspective - See more at: http://www.lectitopublishing.nl/Article/List/88/11/15#sthash.gmkglGIQ.dpuf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J. Dhlamini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a pilot study that investigated the effect of implementing a context-based problem solving instruction (CBPSI to enhance the problem solving performance of high school mathematics learners. Primarily, the pilot study aimed: (1 to evaluate the efficiency of data collection instruments; and, (2 to test the efficacy of CBPSI in relation to learners’ problem solving performance. In this paper CBPSI refers to a teaching approach in which everyday problem solving knowledge and practices are uncovered when learners are exposed to tasks that give meaning to their everyday experiences. Given that the design of a pilot study lacked the inclusion of a control group, it is reasonable to conclude that the current design embraced elements of a pre-experimental research approach in which a one-group pre-test post-test design was followed. Participants consisted of a convenient sample of 57 Grade 10 learners who performed poorly in mathematics problem solving. The results of the study informed various conceptual and methodological revisions to strengthen the design of the main study, however, this paper reports only the effect of CBPSI on participants’ problem solving performance. The post-intervention achievement test suggested that CBPSI was effective in substantially accelerating learners’ problem solving performance (p<0.05. Using a cognitive load theory, it is possible to explain aspects of growth in learners’ problem solving performance in relation to the conceptual notion of human cognitive architecture.

  18. Making Sense of Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umphrey, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) is a voice and advocate for mathematics educators, working to ensure that all students receive equitable mathematics learning of the highest quality. To help teachers and school leaders understand the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) and to point out how the CCSSM can be…

  19. Mathematics through Millenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2005-01-01

    A brief tour through the history of mathematics from the very beginnings to modern times, with an emphasis on the main contributions and important periods of mathematics in various civilizations.......A brief tour through the history of mathematics from the very beginnings to modern times, with an emphasis on the main contributions and important periods of mathematics in various civilizations....

  20. Mathematics through millenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    A brief tour through the history of mathematics from the very beginnings to modern times, with an emphasis on the main contributions and important periods of mathematics in various civilizations.......A brief tour through the history of mathematics from the very beginnings to modern times, with an emphasis on the main contributions and important periods of mathematics in various civilizations....

  1. Using Mathematics, Mathematical Applications, Mathematical Modelling, and Mathematical Literacy: A Theoretical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumcu, Hayal Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this theoretical study is to explore the relationships between the concepts of using mathematics in the daily life, mathematical applications, mathematical modelling, and mathematical literacy. As these concepts are generally taken as independent concepts in the related literature, they are confused with each other and it becomes…

  2. Mathematical Rigor in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandyke, Michael; Bassichis, William

    2011-10-01

    Calculus-based introductory physics courses intended for future engineers and physicists are often designed and taught in the same fashion as those intended for students of other disciplines. A more mathematically rigorous curriculum should be more appropriate and, ultimately, more beneficial for the student in his or her future coursework. This work investigates the effects of mathematical rigor on student understanding of introductory mechanics. Using a series of diagnostic tools in conjunction with individual student course performance, a statistical analysis will be performed to examine student learning of introductory mechanics and its relation to student understanding of the underlying calculus.

  3. The 1989 progress report: Applied Mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedelec, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 progress report of the laboratory of Applied Mathematics of the Polytechnic School (France) is presented. The investigations reported were performed in the following fields: mathematical and numerical aspects of wave propagation, nonlinear hyperbolic fluid mechanics, numerical simulations and mathematical aspects of semiconductors and electron beams, mechanics of solids, plasticity, viscoelasticity, stochastic, automatic and statistic calculations, synthesis and image processing. The published papers, the conferences and the Laboratory staff are listed [fr

  4. Mathematics without boundaries surveys in pure mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Pardalos, Panos

    2014-01-01

    The contributions in this volume have been written by eminent scientists from the international mathematical community and present significant advances in several theories, methods and problems of Mathematical Analysis, Discrete Mathematics, Geometry and their Applications. The chapters focus on both old and recent developments in Functional Analysis, Harmonic Analysis, Complex Analysis, Operator Theory, Combinatorics, Functional Equations, Differential Equations as well as a variety of Applications. The book also contains some review works, which could prove particularly useful for a broader audience of readers in Mathematical Sciences, and especially to graduate students looking for the  latest information.

  5. The effects of presenting multidigit mathematics problems in a realistic context on sixth graders' problem solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hickendorff, M.

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics education and assessments increasingly involve arithmetic problems presented in context: a realistic situation that requires mathematical modeling. This study assessed the effects of such typical school mathematics contexts on two aspects of problem solving: performance and strategy use.

  6. Mathematics education, democracy and development: Exploring connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Vithal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics education and its links to democracy and development are explored in this article, with specific reference to the case of South Africa. This is done by engaging four key questions. Firstly, the question of whether mathematics education can be a preparation for democracy and include a concern for development, is discussed by drawing on conceptual tools of critical mathematics education and allied areas in a development context. Secondly, the question of how mathematics education is distributed in society and participates in shaping educational possibilities in addressing its development needs and goals is used to examine the issues emerging from mathematics performance in international studies and the national Grade 12 examination; the latter is explored specifically in respect of the South African mathematics curriculum reforms and teacher education challenges. Thirdly, the question of whether a mathematics classroom can be a space for democratic living and learning that equally recognises the importance of issues of development in contexts like South Africa, as a post-conflict society still healing from its apartheid wounds, continuing inequality and poverty, is explored through pedagogies of conflict, dialogue and forgiveness. Finally the question of whether democracy and development can have anything to do with mathematics content matters, is discussed by appropriating, as a metaphor, South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s framework of multiple ‘truths’, to seek links within and across the various forms and movements in mathematics and mathematics education that have emerged in the past few decades.

  7. An Invitation to Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Schleicher, Dierk

    2011-01-01

    This "Invitation to Mathematics" consists of 14 contributions, many from the world's leading mathematicians, which introduce the readers to exciting aspects of current mathematical research. The contributions are as varied as the personalities of active mathematicians, but together they show mathematics as a rich and lively field of research. The contributions are written for interested students at the age of transition between high school and university who know high school mathematics and perhaps competition mathematics and who want to find out what current research mathematics is

  8. Keystone Method: A Learning Paradigm in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siadat, M. Vali; Musial, Paul M.; Sagher, Yoram

    2008-01-01

    This study reports the effects of an integrated instructional program (the Keystone Method) on the students' performance in mathematics and reading, and tracks students' persistence and retention. The subject of the study was a large group of students in remedial mathematics classes at the college, willing to learn but lacking basic educational…

  9. Chinese Number Words, Culture, and Mathematics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Sharon Sui Ngan; Rao, Nirmala

    2010-01-01

    This review evaluates the role of language--specifically, the Chinese-based system of number words and the simplicity of Chinese mathematical terms--in explaining the relatively superior performance of Chinese and other East Asian students in cross-national studies of mathematics achievement. Relevant research is critically reviewed focusing on…

  10. Teaching Mathematics That Addresses Learners' Multiple Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouws, E.; Dicker, A-M.

    2011-01-01

    To meet the demands of our highly technological and globally competitive society, it is becoming increasingly important for all learners in South Africa to obtain skills and knowledge in mathematics. However, South Africa performed the worst of all the countries who participated in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS).…

  11. Delaying Developmental Mathematics: The Characteristics and Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marianne; Kuennen, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates which students delay taking a required developmental mathematics course and the impact of delay on student performance in introductory microeconomics. Analysis of a sample of 1462 students at a large Midwestern university revealed that, although developmental-level mathematics students did not reach the same level of…

  12. Note-Taking in a Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoong, Leong Yew; Guan, Tay Eng; Seng, Quek Khiok; Fwe, Yap Sook; Luen, Tong Cherng; Toh, Wei Yeng Karen; Chia, Alexander; Teck, Ong Yao

    2014-01-01

    The authors are a team of teachers and teacher educators who are deeply interested in helping mathematically-challenged students improve in their learning of mathematics. In Singapore, depending on their performance at the end of a nationwide Year 6 examination, students are channelled into three ability streams for Years 7 to 10: Express (60%),…

  13. Mathematical modelling of fracture hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, A.W.; Hodgkinson, D.P.; Lever, D.A.; Robinson, P.C.; Rae, J.

    1985-06-01

    This report summarises the work performed between January 1983 and December 1984 for the CEC/DOE contract 'Mathematical Modelling of Fracture Hydrology', under the following headings: 1) Statistical fracture network modelling, 2) Continuum models of flow and transport, 3) Simplified models, 4) Analysis of laboratory experiments and 5) Analysis of field experiments. (author)

  14. Brain correlates of mathematical competence in processing mathematical representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland H. Grabner

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability to extract numerical information from different representation formats (e.g., equations, tables, or diagrams is a key component of mathematical competence but little is known about its neural correlate. Previous studies comparing mathematically less and more competent adults have focused on mental arithmetic and reported differences in left angular gyrus activity which were interpreted to reflect differential reliance on arithmetic fact retrieval during problem solving. The aim of the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study was to investigate the brain correlates of mathematical competence in a task requiring the processing of typical mathematical representations. Twenty-eight adults of lower and higher mathematical competence worked on a representation matching task in which they had to evaluate whether the numerical information of a symbolic equation matches that of a bar chart. Two task conditions without and one condition with arithmetic demands were administered. Both competence groups performed equally well in the non-arithmetic conditions and only differed in accuracy in the condition requiring calculation. Activation contrasts between the groups revealed consistently stronger left angular gyrus activation in the more competent individuals across all three task conditions. The finding of competence-related activation differences independently of arithmetic demands suggests that more and less competent individuals differ in a cognitive process other than arithmetic fact retrieval. Specifically, it is argued that the stronger left angular gyrus activity in the more competent adults may reflect their higher proficiency in processing mathematical symbols. Moreover, the study demonstrates competence-related parietal activation differences that were not accompanied by differential experimental performance.

  15. The argument of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Aberdein, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive investigation into the relationship between argumentation theory and the philosophy of mathematical practice. It offers large array of examples ranging from the history of mathematics to formal proof verification.

  16. Mathematical knowledge in teaching

    CERN Document Server

    Rowland, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This book examines issues of considerable significance in addressing global aspirations to raise standards of teaching and learning in mathematics by developing approaches to characterizing, assessing and developing mathematical knowledge for teaching.

  17. Developing My Mathematics Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Assuming the role of storyteller, the author uses her experiences as a graduate student and beginning teacher to reflect critically on issues related to mathematics, mathematics education, gender, and diversity.

  18. Journal of applied mathematics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    "[The] Journal of Applied Mathematics is a refereed journal devoted to the publication of original research papers and review articles in all areas of applied, computational, and industrial mathematics...

  19. Semiotic Scaffolding in Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mikkel Willum; Misfeldt, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the notion of semiotic scaffolding in relation to mathematics by considering its influence on mathematical activities, and on the evolution of mathematics as a research field. We will do this by analyzing the role different representational forms play in mathematical...... cognition, and more broadly on mathematical activities. In the main part of the paper, we will present and analyze three different cases. For the first case, we investigate the semiotic scaffolding involved in pencil and paper multiplication. For the second case, we investigate how the development of new...... in both mathematical cognition and in the development of mathematics itself, but mathematical cognition cannot itself be reduced to the use of semiotic scaffolding....

  20. Mathematics for the nonmathematician

    CERN Document Server

    Kline, Morris

    1967-01-01

    Erudite and entertaining overview follows development of mathematics from ancient Greeks to present. Topics include logic and mathematics, the fundamental concept, differential calculus, probability theory, much more. Exercises and problems.

  1. Mathematical Modeling Using MATLAB

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, Donovan

    1998-01-01

    .... Mathematical Modeling Using MA MATLAB acts as a companion resource to A First Course in Mathematical Modeling with the goal of guiding the reader to a fuller understanding of the modeling process...

  2. Performance evaluation of functioning of natural-industrial system of mining-processing complex with help of analytical and mathematical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosikov, I. I.; Klyuev, R. V.; Revazov, V. Ch; Pilieva, D. E.

    2018-03-01

    The article describes research and analysis of hazardous processes occurring in the natural-industrial system and effectiveness assessment of its functioning using mathematical models. Studies of the functioning regularities of the natural and industrial system are becoming increasingly relevant in connection with the formulation of the task of modernizing production and the economy of Russia as a whole. In connection with a significant amount of poorly structured data, it is complicated by regulations for the effective functioning of production processes, social and natural complexes, under which a sustainable development of the natural-industrial system of the mining and processing complex would be ensured. Therefore, the scientific and applied problems, the solution of which allows one to formalize the hidden structural functioning patterns of the natural-industrial system and to make managerial decisions of organizational and technological nature to improve the efficiency of the system, are very relevant.

  3. Modern mathematics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Modern Mathematics: Made Simple presents topics in modern mathematics, from elementary mathematical logic and switching circuits to multibase arithmetic and finite systems. Sets and relations, vectors and matrices, tesselations, and linear programming are also discussed.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to sets and basic operations on sets, as well as solving problems with Venn diagrams. The discussion then turns to elementary mathematical logic, with emphasis on inductive and deductive reasoning; conjunctions and disjunctions; compound statements and conditional

  4. Contrasts in Mathematical Challenges in A-Level Mathematics and Further Mathematics, and Undergraduate Mathematics Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Ellie

    2014-01-01

    This article describes part of a study which investigated the role of questions in students' approaches to learning mathematics at the secondary-tertiary interface, focussing on the enculturation of students at the University of Oxford. Use of the Mathematical Assessment Task Hierarchy taxonomy revealed A-level Mathematics and Further Mathematics…

  5. Mathematics and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santander, M.

    2000-01-01

    Several episodes in the relation between Mathematics and Quantum Mechanics are discussed; and the emphasis is put in the existence of multiple and sometimes unexpected connections between ideas originating in Mathematics and in Quantum Physics. The question of the unresasonable effectiveness of Mathematics in Physics is also presented in the same light. (Author) 3 refs

  6. Mathematics Teaching as Praxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootenboer, Peter; Edwards-Groves, Christine

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we argue that mathematics teaching can be conceptualised as a form of praxis. Viewing mathematics teaching as praxis foregrounds the moral nature of teaching and the educational practices that are developed in response to the educational needs in particular sites. The case for praxis in mathematics education is then made by drawing…

  7. Mathematics Teaching Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tami S.; Speer, William R.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes features, consistent messages, and new components of "Mathematics Teaching Today: Improving Practice, Improving Student Learning" (NCTM 2007), an updated edition of "Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics" (NCTM 1991). The new book describes aspects of high-quality mathematics teaching; offers a model for observing,…

  8. Empowering Mathematical Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomes, Jacqueline; Lee, Hyung Sook

    2017-01-01

    Mathematics teachers want to empower students as mathematical thinkers and doers (NCTM 2000). Specific ways of thinking and doing mathematics were described in the Process Standards (NCTM 2000); they were further characterized as habits of mind (Mark, Goldenberg, and Sword 2010); and more recently, they were detailed in the Common Core's Standards…

  9. Learning Environments in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Vanshelle E.

    2017-01-01

    Learning mathematics is problematic for most primary school age children because mathematics is rote and the memorization of steps rather than an approach to seeing relationships that builds inquiry and understanding. Therefore, the traditional "algorithmic" way of teaching mathematics has not fully prepared students to be critical…

  10. Mathematics a minimal introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Buium, Alexandru

    2013-01-01

    Pre-Mathematical Logic Languages Metalanguage Syntax Semantics Tautologies Witnesses Theories Proofs Argot Strategies Examples Mathematics ZFC Sets Maps Relations Operations Integers Induction Rationals Combinatorics Sequences Reals Topology Imaginaries Residues p-adics Groups Orders Vectors Matrices Determinants Polynomials Congruences Lines Conics Cubics Limits Series Trigonometry Integrality Reciprocity Calculus Metamodels Categories Functors Objectives Mathematical Logic Models Incompleteness Bibliography Index

  11. Masculinities in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Mendick, Heather

    2006-01-01

    The study of mathematics, with other ''gendered'' subjects such as science and engineering, usually attracts more male than female pupils. This book explores this phenomenon, addressing the important question of why more boys than girls choose to study mathematics. It illuminates what studying mathematics means for both students and teachers.

  12. Mathematics Connection: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. MATHEMATICS CONNECTION aims at providing a forum to promote the development of Mathematics Education in Ghana. Articles that seek to enhance the teaching and/or learning of mathematics at all levels of the educational system are welcome ...

  13. Mathematics Connection: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr. Kofi Mereku Executive Editor Department of Mathematics Education, UCE Mathematical Association of Ghana, C/o Department of Mathematics Education University College of Education of Winneba P. O. Box 25, Winneba, Ghana Phone: +233244961318. Email: dkmereku@uew.edu.gh ...

  14. Mathematical Discovery: Hadamard Resurected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljedahl, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In 1943 Jacques Hadamard gave a series of lectures on mathematical invention at the Ecole Libre des Hautes Etudes in New York City. These talks were subsequently published as The Psychology of Mathematical Invention in the Mathematical Field (Hadamard, 1945). In this article I present a study that mirrors the work of Hadamard. Results both…

  15. Utah's New Mathematics Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah State Office of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Utah has adopted more rigorous mathematics standards known as the Utah Mathematics Core Standards. They are the foundation of the mathematics curriculum for the State of Utah. The standards include the skills and understanding students need to succeed in college and careers. They include rigorous content and application of knowledge and reflect…

  16. Mathematical Sciences in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jan; Muchatuta, Michelle; Wood, Leigh

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates enrolment trends in mathematical sciences in Australian universities. Data has been difficult to extract and the coding for mathematical disciplines has made investigation challenging. We show that the number of mathematics major undergraduates in Australia is steadily declining though the number studying…

  17. Who Can Know Mathematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshaw, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores contemporary thinking about learning mathematics, and within that, social justice within mathematics education. The discussion first looks at mechanisms offered by conventional explanations on the emancipatory project and then moves towards more recent insights developed within mathematics education. Synergies are drawn between…

  18. Variation and Mathematics Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Allen

    2012-01-01

    This discussion paper put forwards variation as a theme to structure mathematical experience and mathematics pedagogy. Patterns of variation from Marton's Theory of Variation are understood and developed as types of variation interaction that enhance mathematical understanding. An idea of a discernment unit comprising mutually supporting variation…

  19. Teaching Mathematics as Agape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Joel C.

    2011-01-01

    What happens when the problem of inequitable access to mathematics is addressed by agape (pronounced agapa) or attending to the relationships students develop with mathematics? To respond to this question, this paper offers a description of the journey towards teaching mathematics as agape. First, I organized examples of equity pedagogy around the…

  20. Mathematics of Risk Taking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. K B Athreya1 2 M G Nadkarni3. Department of Mathematics Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa; I M I, Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012, India. Department of Mathematics, University of Mumbai Kalina, Mumbai, 400098, India.

  1. An Investigation on the impact of using problem-based trainings in the in-service courses on the teachers' performance and capabilities, by relying on the elementary sixth grade mathematics book (case study: the city of Ahvaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pari Cheraq

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the administrative structure of the education system and the need to coordinate with the world of science and technology and hence, the need to update the general and technical information and knowledge, have doubled the importance and necessity of holding the new and efficient in-service trainings for the teachers. In this study, the attempt was taken to examine and analyze the impact of using problem-based trainings during the in-service courses on the teachers' performance and capabilities, by relying on the mathematics book of the sixth grade elementary level (case study: the city of Ahvaz. To do so, using a quasi-experimental study, 37 teachers of the sixth grade were selected from the elementary schools of Ahvaz city. For the in-service training courses on the teaching of mathematics, the problem-based learning method was used. After conducting the problem-based teaching method and the traditional method of teaching, through using the test and the standard questionnaire, the data about the teaching practice and the capabilities of the teachers were collected. Using t-test for the paired and independent samples, it was demonstrated that the problem-based in-service trainings, enhance the teachers' capabilities and performance regarding the problem-solving skills.

  2. Why do early mathematics skills predict later reading? The role of mathematical language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpura, David J; Logan, Jessica A R; Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Napoli, Amy R

    2017-09-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that the development of mathematics and literacy skills is highly related. The importance of literacy skills-specifically language-for mathematics development has been well rationalized. However, despite several prominent studies indicating that mathematics skills are highly predictive of literacy development, the reason for this relation is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to identify how and why early mathematics is predictive of early literacy development. Participants included 125 preschool children 3-5 years old (M = 4 years 3 months). Participants were assessed on mathematics, literacy, and cognitive measures in both the fall and spring of their preschool year. Mediation analyses indicated that the relation between early mathematics and literacy skills is mediated by children's mathematical language skills. These findings suggest that, in prior research identifying mathematical performance as a significant predictor of later literacy skills, mathematical performance may have acted only as a proxy measure for more complex language skills such as those assessed on a mathematical language measure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Applying an alternative mathematics pedagogy for students with weak mathematics: meta-analysis of alternative pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Warren; Wallin, Margie; Woolcott, Geoff; Boyd, Wendy; Foster, Alan; Markopoulos, Christos; Boyd, William

    2017-02-01

    Student mathematics performance and the need for work-ready graduates to be mathematics-competent is a core issue for many universities. While both student and teacher are responsible for learning outcomes, there is a need to explicitly acknowledge the weak mathematics foundation of many university students. A systematic literature review was undertaken of identified innovations and/or interventions that may lead to improvement in student outcomes for university mathematics-based units of study. The review revealed the importance of understanding the foundations of student performance in higher education mathematics learning, especially in first year. Pre-university mathematics skills were identified as significant in student retention and mathematics success at university, and a specific focus on student pre-university mathematics skill level was found to be more effective in providing help, rather than simply focusing on a particular at-risk group. Diagnostics tools were found to be important in identifying (1) student background and (2) appropriate intervention. The studies highlighted the importance of appropriate and validated interventions in mathematics teaching and learning, and the need to improve the learning model for mathematics-based subjects, communication and technology innovations.

  4. [Difficulties in learning mathematics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo, M A; Rodríguez, A L

    2006-02-13

    To discuss our concern for some aspects of mathematics learning disorders related to the nomenclature employed and their diagnosis; these aspects refer to the term 'dyscalculia' and to its diagnosis (especially syndromatic diagnosis). We also intend to propose a classification that could help to define the terminology. Lastly we are going to consider the different aspects of diagnosis and to determine which of them are indispensable in the diagnosis of primary and secondary disorders. As far as the nomenclature is concerned, we refer to the term 'dyscalculia'. The origins of the term are analysed along with the reasons why it should not be used in children with difficulties in learning mathematics. We propose a classification and denominations for the different types that should undoubtedly be discussed. With respect to the diagnosis, several problems related to the syndromatic diagnosis are considered, since in our country there are no standardised tests with which to study performance in arithmetic and geometry. This means that criterion reference tests are conducted to try to establish current and potential performance. At this stage of the diagnosis pedagogical and psychological studies must be conducted. The important factors with regard to the topographical and aetiological diagnoses are prior knowledge, results from the studies that have been carried out and findings from imaging studies. The importance of a genetic study must be defined in the aetiological diagnosis. We propose a nomenclature to replace the term 'dyscalculia'. Standardised tests are needed for the diagnosis. The need to establish current and potential performance is hierarchized. With regard to the topographical diagnosis, we highlight the need for more information about geometry, and in aetiological studies the analyses must be conducted with greater numbers of children.

  5. What is mathematical logic?

    CERN Document Server

    Crossley, J N; Brickhill, CJ; Stillwell, JC

    2010-01-01

    Although mathematical logic can be a formidably abstruse topic, even for mathematicians, this concise book presents the subject in a lively and approachable fashion. It deals with the very important ideas in modern mathematical logic without the detailed mathematical work required of those with a professional interest in logic.The book begins with a historical survey of the development of mathematical logic from two parallel streams: formal deduction, which originated with Aristotle, Euclid, and others; and mathematical analysis, which dates back to Archimedes in the same era. The streams beg

  6. Introductory discrete mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Balakrishnan, V K

    2010-01-01

    This concise text offers an introduction to discrete mathematics for undergraduate students in computer science and mathematics. Mathematics educators consider it vital that their students be exposed to a course in discrete methods that introduces them to combinatorial mathematics and to algebraic and logical structures focusing on the interplay between computer science and mathematics. The present volume emphasizes combinatorics, graph theory with applications to some stand network optimization problems, and algorithms to solve these problems.Chapters 0-3 cover fundamental operations involv

  7. Mathematics for physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mortimer, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics for Physical Chemistry is the ideal supplementary text for practicing chemists and students who want to sharpen their mathematics skills while enrolled in general through physical chemistry courses. This book specifically emphasizes the use of mathematics in the context of physical chemistry, as opposed to being simply a mathematics text. This 4e includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The early chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, wit

  8. Fundamental concepts of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodstein, R L

    Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics, 2nd Edition provides an account of some basic concepts in modern mathematics. The book is primarily intended for mathematics teachers and lay people who wants to improve their skills in mathematics. Among the concepts and problems presented in the book include the determination of which integral polynomials have integral solutions; sentence logic and informal set theory; and why four colors is enough to color a map. Unlike in the first edition, the second edition provides detailed solutions to exercises contained in the text. Mathematics teachers and people

  9. Mathematics for the imagination

    CERN Document Server

    Higgins, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Mathematics for the Imagination provides an accessible and entertaining investigation into mathematical problems in the world around us. From world navigation, family trees, and calendars to patterns, tessellations, and number tricks, this informative and fun new book helps you to understand the maths behind real-life questions and rediscover your arithmetical mind.This is a follow-up to the popular Mathematics for the Curious, Peter Higgins's first investigation into real-life mathematical problems.A highly involving book which encourages the reader to enter into the spirit of mathematical ex

  10. Philosophy of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, Dov M; Woods, John

    2009-01-01

    One of the most striking features of mathematics is the fact that we are much more certain about the mathematical knowledge we have than about what mathematical knowledge is knowledge of. Are numbers, sets, functions and groups physical entities of some kind? Are they objectively existing objects in some non-physical, mathematical realm? Are they ideas that are present only in the mind? Or do mathematical truths not involve referents of any kind? It is these kinds of questions that have encouraged philosophers and mathematicians alike to focus their attention on issues in the philosophy of mat

  11. The nature of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Jourdain, Philip E B

    2007-01-01

    Anyone with an interest in mathematics will welcome the republication of this little volume by a remarkable mathematician who was also a logician, a philosopher, and an occasional writer of fiction and poetry. Originally published in 1913, and later included in the acclaimed anthology The World of Mathematics, Jourdain's survey shows how and why the methods of mathematics were developed, traces the development of mathematical science from the earliest to modern times, and chronicles the application of mathematics to natural science.Starting with the ancient Egyptians and Greeks, the author p

  12. The development of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Eric Temple

    1945-01-01

    ""This important book . . . presents a broad account of the part played by mathematics in the evolution of civilization, describing clearly the main principles, methods, and theories of mathematics that have survived from about 4000 BC to 1940.""― BooklistIn this time-honored study, one of the 20th century's foremost scholars and interpreters of the history and meaning of mathematics masterfully outlines the development of its leading ideas, and clearly explains the mathematics involved in each. According to the author, a professor of mathematics at the California Institute of Technology from

  13. Mathematics in ancient Greece

    CERN Document Server

    Dantzig, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    More than a history of mathematics, this lively book traces mathematical ideas and processes to their sources, stressing the methods used by the masters of the ancient world. Author Tobias Dantzig portrays the human story behind mathematics, showing how flashes of insight in the minds of certain gifted individuals helped mathematics take enormous forward strides. Dantzig demonstrates how the Greeks organized their precursors' melange of geometric maxims into an elegantly abstract deductive system. He also explains the ways in which some of the famous mathematical brainteasers of antiquity led

  14. Mathematics for physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, B R

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics for Physicists is a relatively short volume covering all the essential mathematics needed for a typical first degree in physics, from a starting point that is compatible with modern school mathematics syllabuses. Early chapters deliberately overlap with senior school mathematics, to a degree that will depend on the background of the individual reader, who may quickly skip over those topics with which he or she is already familiar. The rest of the book covers the mathematics that is usually compulsory for all students in their first two years of a typical university physics degree, plus a little more. There are worked examples throughout the text, and chapter-end problem sets. Mathematics for Physicists features: * Interfaces with modern school mathematics syllabuses * All topics usually taught in the first two years of a physics degree * Worked examples throughout * Problems in every chapter, with answers to selected questions at the end of the book and full solutions on a website This text will ...

  15. Meaning in mathematics education

    CERN Document Server

    Valero, Paola; Hoyles, Celia; Skovsmose, Ole

    2005-01-01

    What does it mean to know mathematics? How does meaning in mathematics education connect to common sense or to the meaning of mathematics itself? How are meanings constructed and communicated and what are the dilemmas related to these processes? There are many answers to these questions, some of which might appear to be contradictory. Thus understanding the complexity of meaning in mathematics education is a matter of huge importance. There are twin directions in which discussions have developed - theoretical and practical - and this book seeks to move the debate forward along both dimensions while seeking to relate them where appropriate. A discussion of meaning can start from a theoretical examination of mathematics and how mathematicians over time have made sense of their work. However, from a more practical perspective, anybody involved in teaching mathematics is faced with the need to orchestrate the myriad of meanings derived from multiple sources that students develop of mathematical knowledge.

  16. The Threshold Hypothesis Applied to Spatial Skill and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed the relation between spatial skills and mathematics in 854 participants across kindergarten, third grade, and sixth grade. Specifically, the study probed for a threshold for spatial skills when performing mathematics, above which spatial scores and mathematics scores would be significantly less related. This…

  17. Innovative trends in mathematics education: Implications for global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acquisition of Mathematical knowledge and skills requires effective teaching and learning. The traditional method of teaching that is usually adopted by Mathematics Teachers has been identified as one of the causes of students' poor performance Mathematics. However, adoptions of innovative strategies have been ...

  18. The History of Mathematics and Mathematical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattan-Guinness, I.

    1977-01-01

    Answers to questions which were asked after the author's various lectures in Australia are gathered here. Topics touched upon include "new" mathematics, unknown constants and free variables, propositional functions, linear algebra, arithmetic and geometry, and student assessment. (MN)

  19. Are Disadvantaged Students Given Equal Opportunities to Learn Mathematics? PISA in Focus. No. 63

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged students are not equally exposed to mathematics problems and concepts at school. Exposure to mathematics at school has an impact on performance, and disadvantaged students' relative lack of familiarity with mathematics partly explains their lower performance. Widening access to mathematics content…

  20. Number sense how the mind creates mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Dehaene, Stanislas

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of how the human brain performs mathematical calculations is far from complete, but in recent years there have been many exciting breakthroughs by scientists all over the world. Now, in The Number Sense, Stanislas Dehaene offers a fascinating look at this recent research, in an enlightening exploration of the mathematical mind. Dehaene begins with the eye-opening discovery that animals--including rats, pigeons, raccoons, and chimpanzees--can perform simple mathematical calculations, and that human infants also have a rudimentary number sense. Dehaene suggests that this rudime

  1. Developmental Gains in Visuospatial Memory Predict Gains in Mathematics Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yaoran; Geary, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial competencies are related to performance in mathematical domains in adulthood, but are not consistently related to mathematics achievement in children. We confirmed the latter for first graders and demonstrated that children who show above average first-to-fifth grade gains in visuospatial memory have an advantage over other children in mathematics. The study involved the assessment of the mathematics and reading achievement of 177 children in kindergarten to fifth grade, inclusiv...

  2. The Opinions of Middle School Mathematics Teachers on the Integration of Mathematics Course and Social Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buket Turhan Turkkan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the opinions of middle school mathematics teachers on the integration of mathematics course and social issues. For this purpose, qualitative research method was used in this study. As for determining the participants of the research, criterion sampling among purposeful sampling methods was used. Being a middle school mathematics teacher as an occupation was considered as a criterion for determining the participants. The participants of the research consist of 13 middle school mathematics teachers in Turkey. So as to collect the research data, the semi-structured interview form created by the researchers was used. The data analysis was performed according to the content analysis, and Nvivo 10 program was used for the analysis. As a result of this study, the themes of the situation and methods of the integration of mathematics course and social issues, the attainment of democratic values in mathematics course and the ways of its attainment, gaining awareness of social justice and equality in mathematics course and the ways of its gaining, the activities performed by teachers for social issues in mathematics course and the teachers’ suggestions for the integration of mathematics course and social issues were reached and the results were discussed within this frame.

  3. Mathematical Sciences Institute Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Philip

    1990-01-01

    A so-called "effective" algorithm may require arbitrarily large finite amounts of time and space resources, and hence may not be practical in the real world. A "feasible" algorithm is one which only requires a limited amount of space and/or time for execution; the general idea is that a feasible algorithm is one which may be practical on today's or at least tomorrow's computers. There is no definitive analogue of Church's thesis giving a mathematical definition of feasibility; however, the most widely studied mathematical model of feasible computability is polynomial-time computability. Feasible Mathematics includes both the study of feasible computation from a mathematical and logical point of view and the reworking of traditional mathematics from the point of view of feasible computation. The diversity of Feasible Mathematics is illustrated by the. contents of this volume which includes papers on weak fragments of arithmetic, on higher type functionals, on bounded linear logic, on sub recursive definitions ...

  4. Open problems in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Nash, Jr, John Forbes

    2016-01-01

    The goal in putting together this unique compilation was to present the current status of the solutions to some of the most essential open problems in pure and applied mathematics. Emphasis is also given to problems in interdisciplinary research for which mathematics plays a key role. This volume comprises highly selected contributions by some of the most eminent mathematicians in the international mathematical community on longstanding problems in very active domains of mathematical research. A joint preface by the two volume editors is followed by a personal farewell to John F. Nash, Jr. written by Michael Th. Rassias. An introduction by Mikhail Gromov highlights some of Nash’s legendary mathematical achievements. The treatment in this book includes open problems in the following fields: algebraic geometry, number theory, analysis, discrete mathematics, PDEs, differential geometry, topology, K-theory, game theory, fluid mechanics, dynamical systems and ergodic theory, cryptography, theoretical computer sc...

  5. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Maruyama, Toru

    2015-01-01

    The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who are seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking effective mathematical tools for their research. A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories.

  6. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Maruyama, Toru

    2014-01-01

    A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories. The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who are seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking effective mathematical tools for their research.

  7. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, Akira

    2006-01-01

    A lot of economic problems can formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories. The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who were seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking for effective mathematical tools for their researchers.

  8. Ideation in mathematical writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers idea generation during the mathematical writing process. Two contrasting explanations of the creative potential in connection to writing is presented; writing as a process of setting and obtaining rhetorical goals and writing as a process of discovery. These views...... are then related to two empirically found categories of functions that writing serves researchers in the field of mathematics, concluding that both views contributes to understanding the creative potential in relation to mathematical writing....

  9. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, Akira

    2006-01-01

    A lot of economic problems can formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions.Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories. The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who were seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking for effective mathematical tools for their researchers.

  10. Interactive Mathematics Textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinclair, Robert

    1999-01-01

    We claim that important considerations have been overlooked in designinginteractive mathematics educational software in the past.In particular,most previous work has concentrated on how to make use ofpre-existing software in mathematics education, rather than firstasking the more...... fundamentalquestion of which requirements mathematics education puts on software, and thendesigning software to fulfil these requirements.We present a working prototype system which takes a script defining an interactivemathematicaldocument and then provides a reader with an interactive realization of thatdocument....

  11. Learning Mathematics through Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten; Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we explore the potentials for learning mathematics through programming by a combination of theoretically derived potentials and cases of practical pedagogical work. We propose a model with three interdependent learning potentials as programming which can: (1) help reframe the students...... to mathematics is paramount. Analyzing two cases, we suggest a number of ways in which didactical attention to epistemic mediation can support learning mathematics....

  12. Educating mathematics teacher educators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Tomas; Jankvist, Uffe Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The paper argues for a three-dimensional course design structure for future mathematics teacher educators. More precisely we describe the design and implementation of a course basing itself on: the two mathematical competencies of modelling and problem tackling, this being the first dimension......; the two mathematical topics of differential equations and stochastics, this being the second dimension; and finally a third dimension the purpose of which is to deepen the two others by means of a didactical perspective....

  13. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Maruyama, Toru

    2017-01-01

    The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who are seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking effective mathematical tools for their research. A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories.

  14. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Maruyama, Toru

    2016-01-01

    The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who are seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking effective mathematical tools for their research. A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories.

  15. International Mathematical Internet Olympiad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Domoshnitsky

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern Internet technologies open new possibilities in wide spectrum of traditional methods used in mathematical education. One of the areas, where these technologies can be efficiently used, is an organization of mathematical competitions. Contestants can stay at their schools or universities and try to solve as many mathematical problems as possible and then submit their solutions through Internet. Simple Internet technologies supply audio and video connection between participants and organizers.

  16. Mathematical Ties That Bind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Peggy A.

    1994-01-01

    Describes some mathematical investigations of the necktie which includes applications of geometry, statistics, data analysis, sampling, probability, symmetry, proportion, problem solving, and business. (MKR)

  17. Mathematical fallacies and paradoxes

    CERN Document Server

    Bunch, Bryan

    1982-01-01

    Stimulating, thought-provoking analysis of the most interesting intellectual inconsistencies in mathematics, physics, and language, including being led astray by algebra (De Morgan's paradox). 1982 edition.

  18. Sixth form pure mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Plumpton, C

    1968-01-01

    Sixth Form Pure Mathematics, Volume 1, Second Edition, is the first of a series of volumes on Pure Mathematics and Theoretical Mechanics for Sixth Form students whose aim is entrance into British and Commonwealth Universities or Technical Colleges. A knowledge of Pure Mathematics up to G.C.E. O-level is assumed and the subject is developed by a concentric treatment in which each new topic is used to illustrate ideas already treated. The major topics of Algebra, Calculus, Coordinate Geometry, and Trigonometry are developed together. This volume covers most of the Pure Mathematics required for t

  19. Berkeley's Philosophy of Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Jesseph, Douglas M

    1993-01-01

    In this first modern, critical assessment of the place of mathematics in Berkeley's philosophy and Berkeley's place in the history of mathematics, Douglas M. Jesseph provides a bold reinterpretation of Berkeley's work. Jesseph challenges the prevailing view that Berkeley's mathematical writings are peripheral to his philosophy and argues that mathematics is in fact central to his thought, developing out of his critique of abstraction. Jesseph's argument situates Berkeley's ideas within the larger historical and intellectual context of the Scientific Revolution. Jesseph begins with Berkeley's r

  20. Teaching secondary mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Rock, David

    2013-01-01

    Solidly grounded in up-to-date research, theory and technology,?Teaching Secondary Mathematics?is a practical, student-friendly, and popular text for secondary mathematics methods courses. It provides clear and useful approaches for mathematics teachers, and shows how concepts typically found in a secondary mathematics curriculum can be taught in a positive and encouraging way. The thoroughly revised fourth edition combines this pragmatic approach with truly innovative and integrated technology content throughout. Synthesized content between the book and comprehensive companion websi

  1. Mathematics in civilization

    CERN Document Server

    Resnikoff, Howard L

    2015-01-01

    Space flight, computers, lasers, and information technology ― these are but a few examples of the spectacular growth, development, and far-reaching applications of mathematics. But what of the field's past? Upon which intellectual milestones were the foundations of modern mathematics constructed? How has our comprehension of the physical universe, language, and the nature of thought itself been influenced and informed by the developments of mathematics through the ages?This lucid presentation examines how mathematics shaped and was shaped by the course of human events. In a format suited to co

  2. Meaning in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Is mathematics a highly sophisticated intellectual game in which the adepts display their skill by tackling invented problems, or are mathematicians engaged in acts of discovery as they explore an independent realm of mathematical reality? Why does this seemingly abstract discipline provide the key to unlocking the deep secrets of the physical universe? How one answers these questions will significantly influence metaphysical thinking about reality. This book is intended to fill a gap between popular 'wonders of mathematics' books and the technical writings of the philosophers of mathematics.

  3. Mathematics at University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winsløw, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is studied in universities by a large number of students. At the same time it is a field of research for a (smaller) number of university teachers. What relations, if any, exist between university research and teaching of mathematics? Can research “support” teaching? What research...... and what teaching? In this presentation we propose a theoretical framework to study these questions more precisely, based on the anthropological theory of didactics. As a main application, the links between the practices of mathematical research and university mathematics teaching are examined...

  4. Mathematics in India

    CERN Document Server

    Plofker, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Based on extensive research in Sanskrit sources, Mathematics in India chronicles the development of mathematical techniques and texts in South Asia from antiquity to the early modern period. Kim Plofker reexamines the few facts about Indian mathematics that have become common knowledge--such as the Indian origin of Arabic numerals--and she sets them in a larger textual and cultural framework. The book details aspects of the subject that have been largely passed over in the past, including the relationships between Indian mathematics and astronomy, and their cross-fertilizations with Islamic sc

  5. Handbook of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Kuipers, L

    1969-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Volume 99: Handbook of Mathematics provides the fundamental mathematical knowledge needed for scientific and technological research. The book starts with the history of mathematics and the number systems. The text then progresses to discussions of linear algebra and analytical geometry including polar theories of conic sections and quadratic surfaces. The book then explains differential and integral calculus, covering topics, such as algebra of limits, the concept of continuity, the theorem of continuous functions (with examp

  6. Philosophy and mathematics: interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Roshdi

    From Plato to the beginnings of the last century, mathematics provided philosophers with methods of exposition, procedures of demonstration, and instruments of analysis. The unprecedented development of mathematics on the one hand, and the mathematicians' appropriation of Logic from the philosophers on the other hand, have given rise to two problems with which the philosophers have to contend: (1) Is there still a place for the philosophy of mathematics? and (2) To what extent is a philosophy of mathematics still possible? This article offers some reflections on these questions, which have preoccupied a good many philosophers and continue to do so.

  7. Mathematical mind-benders

    CERN Document Server

    Winkler, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Peter Winkler is at it again. Following the enthusiastic reaction to Mathematical Puzzles: A Connoisseur's Collection, Peter has compiled a new collection of elegant mathematical puzzles to challenge and entertain the reader. The original puzzle connoisseur shares these puzzles, old and new, so that you can add them to your own anthology. This book is for lovers of mathematics, lovers of puzzles, lovers of a challenge. Most of all, it is for those who think that the world of mathematics is orderly, logical, and intuitive-and are ready to learn otherwise! A pdf with errata is updated by the aut

  8. Computational experiment approach to advanced secondary mathematics curriculum

    CERN Document Server

    Abramovich, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    This book promotes the experimental mathematics approach in the context of secondary mathematics curriculum by exploring mathematical models depending on parameters that were typically considered advanced in the pre-digital education era. This approach, by drawing on the power of computers to perform numerical computations and graphical constructions, stimulates formal learning of mathematics through making sense of a computational experiment. It allows one (in the spirit of Freudenthal) to bridge serious mathematical content and contemporary teaching practice. In other words, the notion of teaching experiment can be extended to include a true mathematical experiment. When used appropriately, the approach creates conditions for collateral learning (in the spirit of Dewey) to occur including the development of skills important for engineering applications of mathematics. In the context of a mathematics teacher education program, this book addresses a call for the preparation of teachers capable of utilizing mo...

  9. Mathematics Anxiety: What Have We Learned in 60 Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowker, Ann; Sarkar, Amar; Looi, Chung Yen

    2016-01-01

    The construct of mathematics anxiety has been an important topic of study at least since the concept of “number anxiety” was introduced by Dreger and Aiken (1957), and has received increasing attention in recent years. This paper focuses on what research has revealed about mathematics anxiety in the last 60 years, and what still remains to be learned. We discuss what mathematics anxiety is; how distinct it is from other forms of anxiety; and how it relates to attitudes to mathematics. We discuss the relationships between mathematics anxiety and mathematics performance. We describe ways in which mathematics anxiety is measured, both by questionnaires, and by physiological measures. We discuss some possible factors in mathematics anxiety, including genetics, gender, age, and culture. Finally, we describe some research on treatment. We conclude with a brief discussion of what still needs to be learned. PMID:27199789

  10. Mathematics anxiety: what have we learned in 60 years?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann eDowker

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The construct of mathematics anxiety has been an important topic of study at least since the concept of 'number anxiety' was introduced by Dreger & Aiken (1957, and has received increasing attention in recent years. This paper focuses on what research has revealed about mathematics anxiety in the last 60 years, and what still remains to be learned. We discuss what mathematics anxiety is; how distinct it is from other forms of anxiety; and how it relates to attitudes to mathematics. We discuss the relationships between mathematics anxiety and mathematics performance. We describe ways in which mathematics anxiety is measured, both by questionnaires, and by physiological measures. We discuss some possible factors in mathematics anxiety, including genetics, gender, age and culture. Finally, we describe some research on treatment. We conclude with a brief discussion of what still needs to be learned.

  11. Progress, Wealth, and Mathematics Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valero, Paola

    2013-01-01

    I am interested in discussing the historical conditions that make it possible to formulate the idea that the mathematical qualifications of citizens in modern states is connected to the progress and economic development of nations. I interconnect apparently unrelated areas in an attempt to shed l......, H. (1899). Préface. L' Enseignement Mathématique, 1(1), 1-5. Popkewitz, T. S. (2008). Cosmopolitanism and the age of school reform: Science, education, and making society by making the child. New York: Routledge....... to the end of the 19th century. During the second half of the 19th century, mathematics teachers in different countries struggled to make mathematics part of the classic school curricula. During the second industrialization, the justification for the need for mathematics education was formulated in the first...... as a result, among others, of the growing series of comparative information on educational achievement and development. Such reports can be seen as performances of the comparative logic of Modernity that operates differential positioning, not only among individuals but also among nations, with respect to what...

  12. Exploring Differential Effects of Mathematics Courses on Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; McIntyre, Laureen J.

    2005-01-01

    Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Mathematics Participation (N = 1,518 students from 34 schools), we investigated the effects of pure and applied mathematics courses on mathematics achievement, controlling for prior mathematics achievement. Results of multilevel modelling showed that the effects of pure mathematics were significant after…

  13. Hands-On Mathematics: Two Cases from Ancient Chinese Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youjun

    2009-01-01

    In modern mathematical teaching, it has become increasingly emphasized that mathematical knowledge should be taught by problem-solving, hands-on activities, and interactive learning experiences. Comparing the ideas of modern mathematical education with the development of ancient Chinese mathematics, we find that the history of mathematics in…

  14. A Capstone Mathematics Course for Prospective Secondary Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artzt, Alice F.; Sultan, Alan; Curcio, Frances R.; Gurl, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    This article describes an innovative capstone mathematics course that links college mathematics with school mathematics and pedagogy. It describes how college juniors in a secondary mathematics teacher preparation program engage in leadership experiences that enable them to learn mathematics for teaching while developing student-centered…

  15. On Mathematical Understanding: Perspectives of Experienced Chinese Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jinfa; Ding, Meixia

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have long debated the meaning of mathematical understanding and ways to achieve mathematical understanding. This study investigated experienced Chinese mathematics teachers' views about mathematical understanding. It was found that these mathematics teachers embrace the view that understanding is a web of connections, which is a result…

  16. Using Mathematics Literature with Prospective Secondary Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Literature in mathematics has been found to foster positive improvements in mathematics learning. This manuscript reports on a mathematics teacher educator's use of literature via literature circles with 11 prospective secondary mathematics teachers in a mathematics content course. Using survey and reflection data, the author found that…

  17. Finite Mathematics and Discrete Mathematics: Is There a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marvin L.

    Discrete mathematics and finite mathematics differ in a number of ways. First, finite mathematics has a longer history and is therefore more stable in terms of course content. Finite mathematics courses emphasize certain particular mathematical tools which are useful in solving the problems of business and the social sciences. Discrete mathematics…

  18. Effects of SKF-83566 and haloperidol on performance on progressive ratio schedules maintained by sucrose and corn oil reinforcement: quantitative analysis using a new model derived from the Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement (MPR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olarte-Sánchez, C M; Valencia-Torres, L; Cassaday, H J; Bradshaw, C M; Szabadi, E

    2013-12-01

    Mathematical models can assist the interpretation of the effects of interventions on schedule-controlled behaviour and help to differentiate between processes that may be confounded in traditional performance measures such as response rate and the breakpoint in progressive ratio (PR) schedules. The effects of a D1-like dopamine receptor antagonist, 8-bromo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepin-7-ol hydrobromide (SKF-83566), and a D2-like receptor antagonist, haloperidol, on rats' performance on PR schedules maintained by sucrose and corn oil reinforcers were assessed using a new model derived from Killeen's (Behav Brain Sci 17:105-172, 1994) Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement. Separate groups of rats were trained under a PR schedule using sucrose or corn oil reinforcers. SKF-83566 (0.015 and 0.03 mg kg(-1)) and haloperidol (0.05 and 0.1 mg kg(-1)) were administered intraperitoneally (five administrations of each treatment). Running and overall response rates in successive ratios were analysed using the new model, and estimates of the model's parameters were compared between treatments. Haloperidol reduced a (the parameter expressing incentive value) in the case of both reinforcers, but did not affect the parameters related to response time and post-reinforcement pausing. SKF-83566 reduced a and k (the parameter expressing sensitivity of post-reinforcement pausing to the prior inter-reinforcement interval) in the case of sucrose, but did not affect any of the parameters in the case of corn oil. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that blockade of both D1-like and D2-like receptors reduces the incentive value of sucrose, whereas the incentive value of corn oil is more sensitive to blockade of D2-like than D1-like receptors.

  19. The 1989 progress report: Mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demazure, M.

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 progress report of the laboratory of Mathematics of the Polytechnic School (France) is presented. The investigations reported were performed in the following fields: analysis of nonlinear partial differential equations, quantum mechanics, scattering, fluid dynamics and homogenization, equations, varieties with negative curvature, elliptical problems on surfaces, Dirac operator, geometry of algorithms and formal calculus, singularities, Lie groups, dynamics systems. The published papers, the conferences and the Laboratory staff are listed [fr

  20. The "Mozart Effect" and the Mathematical Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Judy M.; Rowe, Beverly J.

    2012-01-01

    Educators are always looking for ways to enhance the performance of students on outcome assessments. There is a growing body of research showing the benefits of music on educational performance. The purpose of this study was to determine if a "Mozart Effect" improves student performance on outcome assessments in mathematics. In this study, during…

  1. Equity in the Turkish Education System: A Multilevel Analysis of Social Background Influences on the Mathematics Performance of 15-Year-Old Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Caner

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to discover the level of equity in the Turkish education system using maths outcomes of 15-year-old students in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) exam. In order to do that, associations between various social background variables and student performance are analysed via multilevel models. Female pupils,…

  2. Why Do Children Worry about Their Academic Achievement? An Expectancy-Value Perspective on Elementary Students' Worries about Their Mathematics and Reading Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauermann, Fani; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    Children's worrying about their academic performance has profound implications for their learning and wellbeing in school. Understanding the contextual and psychological antecedents of students' worry thus represents an important area of research. Drawing on Eccles and colleagues' expectancy-value theory and Pekrun's control-value theory and using…

  3. Proof and knowledge in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Detlefsen, Michael

    2005-01-01

    These questions arise from any attempt to discover an epistemology for mathematics. This collection of essays considers various questions concerning the nature of justification in mathematics and possible sources of that justification. Among these are the question of whether mathematical justification is a priori or a posteriori in character, whether logical and mathematical differ, and if formalization plays a significant role in mathematical justification,

  4. Predicting Relationships between Mathematics Anxiety, Mathematics Teaching Anxiety, Self-efficacy Beliefs towards Mathematics and Mathematics Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Unlu, Melihan; Ertekin, Erhan; Dilmac, Bulent

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to investigate the relationships betweenself-efficacy beliefs toward mathematics, mathematics anxiety and self-efficacybeliefs toward mathematics teaching, mathematics teaching anxiety variables andtesting the relationships between these variables with structural equationmodel. The sample of the research, which was conducted in accordance withrelational survey model, consists of 380 university students, who studied atthe department of Elementary Mathematics Educ...

  5. Computer Aided Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinclair, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Course notes of a PhD course held in 1998. The central idea is to introduce students to computational mathematics using object oriented programming in C++.......Course notes of a PhD course held in 1998. The central idea is to introduce students to computational mathematics using object oriented programming in C++....

  6. History of Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard; Gray, Jeremy

    Volume 1 in Theme on "History of Mathematics", in "Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), developed under the auspices of the UNESCO.......Volume 1 in Theme on "History of Mathematics", in "Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), developed under the auspices of the UNESCO....

  7. The Education of Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Darda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of mathematics education is not only preparingmathematicians but making well-informed citizens. This is a broad generalterms for objective of the teaching of mathematics. And, this might beimplemented as “accurate thorough knowledge” or “original logicalthinking”. So, teaching mathematics is not the conversation andtransmission of mathematical knowledge, but on the aim of preparing wellinformedcitizens trained in independent, critical thinking.By the mathematics, sciences become simple, clearer, and easier to bedeveloped. The mathematics is often applied for solving any problem ofother field of sciences, either in the physics such as astronomy, chemistry,technique; or social sciences such as economy, demography, and assurance.Those all need an analysis reading ability.Mathematical skill, therefore, relates strongly with the analysisreading ability in the human intellectual structure. This study is about therelationship between them. And, result of the study shows us as below:Both Mathematical skill and analysis reading ability possess the “high type”of thinking operation. Both also involve the same content of the abstractintelligent, i.e. symbolic and semantic contents. Last but not least, both alsouse the same product of thinking, i.e. units, classes, relations, and systems.Both can be transformed and have an implication.

  8. Mathematics for computer graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Vince, John

    2006-01-01

    Helps you understand the mathematical ideas used in computer animation, virtual reality, CAD, and other areas of computer graphics. This work also helps you to rediscover the mathematical techniques required to solve problems and design computer programs for computer graphic applications

  9. What is mathematics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The paper discusses the question “What is mathematics?” from a point of view inspired by anthropology. In this perspective, the character of mathematical thinking and argument is strongly affected - almost essentially determined, indeed - by the dynamics of the specific social, mostly professional...

  10. Mathematical Graphic Organizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    As part of a math-science partnership, a university mathematics educator and ten elementary school teachers developed a novel approach to mathematical problem solving derived from research on reading and writing pedagogy. Specifically, research indicates that students who use graphic organizers to arrange their ideas improve their comprehension…

  11. Mathematical thinking and origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Arsalan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the mathematics that emanates from the construction of an origami box. We first construct a simple origami box from a rectangular sheet and then discuss some of the mathematical questions that arise in the context of geometry and calculus.

  12. Modularizing Remedial Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    As remedial mathematics education has become an increasingly important topic of conversation in higher education. Mathematics departments have been put under increased pressure to change their programs to increase the student success rate. A number of models have been introduced over the last decade that represent a wide range of new ideas and…

  13. Elementary Mathematics Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Francis; Kobett, Beth McCord; Wray, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Elementary school mathematics leaders often come to the realization that their position, however titled and determined, although dedicated to addressing needs in math teaching and learning, also entails and directly involves leadership. Elementary school math specialists/instructional leaders (referenced here as elementary mathematics leaders, or…

  14. Archives: Mathematics Connection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 9 of 9 ... Archives: Mathematics Connection. Journal Home > Archives: Mathematics Connection. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 9 of 9 Items. 2011 ...

  15. Mathematics Teaching and Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 3rd Nordic Research Conference on Special Needs Education in Mathematics, which took place in Rebild organised by Aalborg University in November 23-25, 2005. The theme of the conference was Mathematics Education and Inclusion. The conference theme...

  16. Mathematics and Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田琳

    2016-01-01

    In both China and the West, mathematics is closely connected with literature. The maths thought implied in Chinese and western literature is worth our study, and the maths thought in the field of literature is also appear in aesthetics and philoso-phy, so literature, mathematics, aesthetics and philosophy become a network of interconnected.

  17. Dyslexia, Dyspraxia and Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Dorian

    This book explores how primary school children with dyslexia or dyspraxia and difficulty in math can learn math and provides practical support and detailed teaching suggestions. It considers cognitive features that underlie difficulty with mathematics generally or with specific aspects of mathematics. It outlines the ways in which children usually…

  18. Mathematics. [SITE 2002 Section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Michael L., Ed.; Lowery, Norene Vail, Ed.; Harnisch, Delwyn L., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on mathematics from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2002 conference: (1) "Teachers' Learning of Mathematics in the Presence of Technology: Participatory Cognitive Apprenticeship" (Mara Alagic); (2) "A Fractal Is a Pattern in Your Neighborhood" (Craig N. Bach); (3)…

  19. 21st Century Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Cathy

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses some important issues in mathematics instruction at the middle and secondary levels, including the structuring of a district's mathematics program; the choice of textbooks and use of calculators in the classroom; the need for more rigorous lesson planning practices; and the dangers of teaching to standardized tests rather…

  20. Mathematical Education for Geographers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alan

    1978-01-01

    Outlines mathematical topics of use to college geography students identifies teaching methods for mathematical techniques in geography at the University of Leeds; and discusses problem of providing students with a framework for synthesizing all content of geography education. For journal availability, see SO 506 593. (Author/AV)