Sample records for mathematics content standards

  1. Preservice Secondary Teachers Perceptions of College-Level Mathematics Content Connections with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (United States)

    Olson, Travis A.


    Preservice Secondary Mathematics Teachers (PSMTs) were surveyed to identify if they could connect early-secondary mathematics content (Grades 7-9) in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) with mathematics content studied in content courses for certification in secondary teacher preparation programs. Respondents were asked to…

  2. The Compatibility of Developed Mathematics Textbooks' Content in Saudi Arabia (Grades 6-8) with NCTM Standards (United States)

    Alshehri, Mohammed Ali; Ali, Hassan Shawki


    This study aimed to investigate the compatibility of developed mathematics textbooks' content (grades 6-8) in Saudi Arabia with NCTM standards in the areas of: number and operations, algebra, geometry, measurement, data analysis and probability. To achieve that goal, a list of (NCTM) standards for grades (6-8) were translated to Arabic language,…

  3. The Politics of Developing and Maintaining Mathematics and Science Curriculum Content Standards. Research Monograph. (United States)

    Kirst, Michael W.; Bird, Robin L.

    The movement toward math and science curriculum standards is inextricably linked with high-stakes politics. There are two major types of politics discussed in this paper: the allocation of curriculum content, and the political issues involved in systemic change. Political strategies for gaining assent to national, state, and local content…

  4. Cognitive Language and Content Standards: Language Inventory of the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics and the Next Generation Science Standards (United States)

    Winn, Kathleen M.; Mi Choi, Kyong; Hand, Brian


    STEM education is a current focus of many educators and policymakers and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) with the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics (CCSSM) are foundational documents driving curricular and instructional decision making for teachers and students in K-8 classrooms across the United States. Thus, practitioners…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kushnir


    Full Text Available The tasks of integrative content requires the use of knowledge and skills on various themes both one discipline and different disciplines. Mostly in the classroom (or in homework the tasks on the properties absorption of different concepts using different theories are considered. Thus knowledge within only one discipline is formed, knowledge of the narrow sense (one subject. Such knowledge is "prescriptional", we call it idealized. After all, it is far from models of the real professional problems and problems of life in general, in order to solve them it is necessary to apply knowledge and skills acquired in different themes of the same objects,life experience. Practical formation of integrative knowledge requires statement of the educational problems before the subjects of studying, the problems within the "narrow objectivity" can not be resolved at all, or such kind of solving is too difficult to solve, for example, the nature and the context of solving problems (scientific approaches to solving problems, creating mathematical models, methods for solving such models, means of solving, application of methods, analysis of the models solution and the right choice, the inspection of solutions, etc. will sink in the conglomeration of technical operations. The problems with integrative content are usually more complicated than the problems of "narrow objectivity." In our problems the index of such difficulty is the essence of educational content, which is disclosed in the previous paragraph. The problems solution proposed in this article requires knowledge of the structural geometry (circle construction, touching two or three laps: with analytic geometry (method of coordinates on the plane; the distance between two points on the coordinate plane; algebra (system drawing irrational equations, method for solving such system, the solution of the system, analysis of the results and the right choose of the desired solution for found criterion, testing

  6. Content Area Literacy in the Mathematics Classroom (United States)

    Armstrong, Abbigail; Ming, Kavin; Helf, Shawnna


    Content area literacy has an important role in helping students understand content in specific disciplines, such as mathematics. Although the strategies are not unique to each individual content area, they are often adapted for use in a specific discipline. For example, mathematicians use mathematical language to make sense of new ideas and…

  7. Mathematical Communication in State Standards before the Common Core (United States)

    Kosko, Karl Wesley; Gao, Yang


    Mathematical communication has been an important feature of standards documents since National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' (NCTM) (1989) "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards." Such an emphasis has influenced content standards of states from then to present. This study examined how effective the prevalence of various forms of…

  8. Data content standards in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K


    Full Text Available Data content standards tend to be more accessible. Easier to understand. Used directly by many end users. Immediately applicable to Africa. More susceptible to culture and language – Hence, more important to have local standards...

  9. Foundational aspects of non standard mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Ballard, David


    This work proposes a major new extension of "non"standard mathematics. Addressed to a general mathematical audience, the book is intended to be philosophically provocative. The model theory on which "non"standard mathematics has been based is first reformulated within point set topology, which facilitates proofs and adds perspective. These topological techniques are then used to give new, uniform conservativity proofs for the various versions of "non"standard mathematics proposed by Nelson, Hrbáček, and Kawai. The proofs allow for sharp comparison. Addressing broader issues, Ballard then argues that what is novel in these forms of "non"standard mathematics is the introduction, however tentative, of relativity in one's mathematical environment. This hints at the possibility of a mathematical environment which is radically relativistic. The work's major and final feature is to present and prove conservative a version of "non"standard mathematics which, for the first time, illustrates this full radical relativ...

  10. Praxis II mathematics content knowledge test (0061)

    CERN Document Server

    McCune, Ennis Donice


    Your guide to a higher score on the Praxis II?: Mathematics Content Knowledge Test (0061) Why CliffsTestPrep Guides? Go with the name you know and trust Get the information you need--fast! Written by test-prep specialists About the contents: Introduction * Overview of the exam * How to use this book * Proven study strategies and test-taking tips Part I: Subject Review * Focused review of all exam topics: arithmetic and basic algebra, geometry, trigonometry, analytic geometry, functions and their graphs, calculus, probability and statistics, discrete mathematics, linear algebra, compute

  11. The common core mathematics standards transforming practice through team leadership

    CERN Document Server

    Hull, Ted H; Balka, Don S


    Transform math instruction with effective CCSS leadership The Common Core State Standards for mathematics describe the "habits of mind" that teachers should develop in their students without which the content standards cannot be successfully implemented. This professional development resource helps principals and math leaders grapple with the changes that must be addressed so that teachers can implement the practices required by the CCSS. Included are: A clear explanation of the CCSS for Mathematical Practice  Techniques to help leadership teams collaboratively implement and maintain the new standards A proficiency matrix with examples of instructional strategies for helping students reach competency in each standard.

  12. Statistical Content in Middle Grades Mathematics Textbooks (United States)

    Pickle, Maria Consuelo Capiral


    This study analyzed the treatment and scope of statistical concepts in four, widely-used, contemporary, middle grades mathematics textbook series: "Glencoe Math Connects," "Prentice Hall Mathematics," "Connected Mathematics Project," and "University of Chicago School Mathematics Project." There were three…

  13. The ANS mathematics and computation software standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smetana, A. O. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Washington Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)


    The Mathematics and Computations Div. of the American Nuclear Society sponsors the ANS-10 Standards Subcommittee. This subcommittee, which is part of the ANS Standards Committee, currently maintains three ANSI/ANS software standards. These standards are: Portability of Scientific and Engineering Software, ANS-10.2; Guidelines for the Verification and Validation of Scientific and Engineering Computer Programs for the Nuclear Industry, ANS-10.4; and Accommodating User Needs in Scientific and Engineering Computer Software Development, ANS-10.5. A fourth Standard, Documentation of Computer Software, ANS-10.3, is available as a historical Standard. (authors)

  14. The ANS mathematics and computation software standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetana, A. O.


    The Mathematics and Computations Div. of the American Nuclear Society sponsors the ANS-10 Standards Subcommittee. This subcommittee, which is part of the ANS Standards Committee, currently maintains three ANSI/ANS software standards. These standards are: Portability of Scientific and Engineering Software, ANS-10.2; Guidelines for the Verification and Validation of Scientific and Engineering Computer Programs for the Nuclear Industry, ANS-10.4; and Accommodating User Needs in Scientific and Engineering Computer Software Development, ANS-10.5. A fourth Standard, Documentation of Computer Software, ANS-10.3, is available as a historical Standard. (authors)

  15. Mathematics teachers' knowledge of the subject content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the need of the mathematics teacher to be equipped adequately in the content areas in mathematics, vis-a-vis the recent concerns about the poor performance of students in the pre-tertiary schools, and the competence of mathematics teachers in the field. The low performance in mathematics at the ...

  16. Josai Mathematical Monographs Vol.7 Contents




    Mathematics and Computer Science : Proceedings of Annual Workshop on Mathematics and Computer Science, held at Josai University on March 25 in 2014 / edited by Masatoshi IIDA, Manabu INUMA, Kiyoko NISHIZAWA

  17. Effects of an Additional Mathematics Content Course on Elementary Teachers' Mathematical Beliefs and Knowledge for Teaching (United States)

    Smith, Marvin E.; Swars, Susan L.; Smith, Stephanie Z.; Hart, Lynn C.; Haardorfer, Regine


    This longitudinal study examines the effects of changes in an elementary teacher preparation program on mathematics beliefs and content knowledge for teaching of two groups of prospective teachers (N = 276): (1) those who completed a program with three mathematics content courses and two mathematics methods courses and (2) those who completed a…

  18. Mathematics University Teachers' Perception of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) (United States)

    Khakbaz, Azimehsadat


    Teaching mathematics in university levels is one of the most important fields of research in the area of mathematics education. Nevertheless, there is little information about teaching knowledge of mathematics university teachers. Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) provides a suitable framework to study knowledge of teachers. The purpose of this…

  19. How to Make Mathematical eContent Travel Well


    Caprotti, Olga; Pauna, Matti; Seppälä, Mika


    Electronic content produced for education travels well when it can be reused across national borders and in different curricular frameworks. In this article, we discuss what features of mathematical e-content contribute to making it travel well.

  20. Mathematical Content of Curricula and Beginning Salaries of Graduating Students (United States)

    Lee, B. Brian; Lee, Jungsun


    The authors examined an association between mathematical content in college-level curricula and beginning salaries of graduating students on the basis of data collected from a public university in the southern region of the United States. The authors classified the mathematical content requirements of the curricula into the following 5 groups…

  1. Preservice Elementary Teachers' Mathematics Content Knowledge and Teacher Efficacy (United States)

    Newton, Kristie Jones; Leonard, Jacqueline; Evans, Brian R.; Eastburn, Julie A.


    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between mathematics content knowledge and teacher efficacy during an elementary mathematics methods course. A positive moderate relationship between content knowledge and personal teaching efficacy was found, and this relationship was stable during the course. No relationship was found…

  2. Infusing Mathematics Content into a Methods Course: Impacting Content Knowledge for Teaching (United States)

    Burton, Megan; Daane, C. J.; Giesen, Judy


    This study compared content knowledge for teaching mathematics differences between elementary pre-service teachers in a traditional versus an experimental mathematics methods course. The experimental course replaced 20 minutes of traditional methods, each class, with an intervention of elementary mathematics content. The difference between groups…

  3. Spatial data content standards for Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K


    Full Text Available , they selected 14 standards containing data dictionaries or feature catalogues, and compared their feature types. They have also provided some advice and recommendations on data content standards (particularly for data dictionaries and feature catalogues...

  4. The relationships within the mathematical content of teachers’ lesson sequences (United States)

    Shahrill, M.; Prahmana, R. C. I.; Roslan, R.


    This study explored how mathematics content is carried through by means of the problems presented during lessons. Following the definitions and the coding criteria from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study, a total of 163 mathematics problems were identified in the video- recorded lesson sequences of four Bruneian mathematics teachers teaching at the Year 8 level. These problems were classified according to the four basic kinds of relationships: mathematically related, thematically related, repetition and unrelated. Drawing on the mathematical content of the teachers’ lesson sequences, the findings revealed variations among the mathematical problems coded as repetition and thematically related, between the four Brunei classes. The aggregated results obtained from the four classes highlighted several points of discussion, such as the relatively higher proportion of repetition problems (52%) from one teacher in particular; the percentage similarities of thematically related problems for all four classes (ranging from 26% to 33%); and the incredibly varied results for mathematically related problems across the four Brunei classes.

  5. Pre-Service Teachers' Mathematics Content Knowledge: Implications for How Mathematics Is Taught in Higher Education (United States)

    Lowrie, Tom; Jorgensen, Robyn


    This investigation explored pre-service teachers' mathematics content knowledge (MCK) and beliefs associated with mathematics education practices. An Exploratory Factor Analysis, conducted on a beliefs and attitudes questionnaire, produced three common attitude factors associated with (1) inquiry-based teaching; (2) how mathematics knowledge is…

  6. Construct Validation of Content Standards for Teaching (United States)

    van der Schaaf, Marieke F.; Stokking, Karel M.


    Current international demands to strengthen the teaching profession have led to an increased development and use of professional content standards. The study aims to provide insight in the construct validity of content standards by researching experts' underlying assumptions and preferences when participating in a delphi method. In three rounds 21…

  7. Separating Cognitive and Content Domains in Mathematical Competence (United States)

    Harks, Birgit; Klieme, Eckhard; Hartig, Johannes; Leiss, Dominik


    The present study investigates the empirical separability of mathematical (a) content domains, (b) cognitive domains, and (c) content-specific cognitive domains. There were 122 items representing two content domains (linear equations vs. theorem of Pythagoras) combined with two cognitive domains (modeling competence vs. technical competence)…

  8. Mathematical Modelling Research in Turkey: A Content Analysis Study (United States)

    Çelik, H. Coskun


    The aim of the present study was to examine the mathematical modelling studies done between 2004 and 2015 in Turkey and to reveal their tendencies. Forty-nine studies were selected using purposeful sampling based on the term, "mathematical modelling" with Higher Education Academic Search Engine. They were analyzed with content analysis.…

  9. The Relationship between Students' Performance on Conventional Standardized Mathematics Assessments and Complex Mathematical Modeling Problems (United States)

    Kartal, Ozgul; Dunya, Beyza Aksu; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Zawojewski, Judith S.


    Critical to many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career paths is mathematical modeling--specifically, the creation and adaptation of mathematical models to solve problems in complex settings. Conventional standardized measures of mathematics achievement are not structured to directly assess this type of mathematical…

  10. International Comparisons of Foundation Phase Number Domain Mathematics Knowledge and Practice Standards (United States)

    Human, Anja; van der Walt, Marthie; Posthuma, Barbara


    Poor mathematics performance in schools is both a national and an international concern. Teachers ought to be equipped with relevant subject matter knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge as one way to address this problem. However, no mathematics knowledge and practice standards have as yet been defined for the preparation of Foundation Phase…

  11. Socio-functional dynamics of the mathematical contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Alonso-Berenguer


    Full Text Available The article presents a model of the socio-functional dynamics of the mathematical contents that offers a novel theoretical-methodological basement for the development of the process of teaching-learning of the mathematical one. The investigation, of theoretical character, used the methods of analysis-synthesis, inductive-deductive and historical-logical to elaborate the one mentioned model that leaves of considering that the future professors have appropriated previously of the mathematical contents, foreseen in the curriculum, and they are, therefore, under conditions of understanding the potentialities of the same ones to facilitate the formation of socio-functional values.   

  12. Aligning Mathematical Tasks to the Common Core Standards for Mathematical Practice


    Johnson, Raymond


    How do algebra teachers align mathematical tasks to the CCSSM Standards of Mathematical Practice? Using methods of design-based implementation research, we identified difficulties of alignment to practices and developed strategies identifying high-quality tasks.

  13. Adapting Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Framework to Teach Mathematics (United States)

    Getenet, Seyum Tekeher


    The technological pedagogical content knowledge framework is increasingly in use by educational technology researcher as a generic description of the knowledge requirements for teachers using technology in all subjects. This study describes the development of a mathematics specific variety of the technological pedagogical content knowledge…

  14. Examination of Mathematics Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Probability (United States)

    Danisman, Sahin; Tanisli, Dilek


    The aim of this study is to explore the probability-related pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of secondary school mathematics teachers in terms of content knowledge, curriculum knowledge, student knowledge, and knowledge of teaching methods and strategies. Case study design, a qualitative research model, was used in the study, and the…

  15. NCTM Principles and Standards for Mathematically Talented Students (United States)

    Deal, Linda J.; Wismer, Michael G.


    The "Principles and Standards for School Mathematics" published in 2000 by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) created a vision of mathematical concepts and processes to establish core educational guidelines for instruction from grades K to 12. The overall plan does emphasize higher level thinking, problem solving, and…

  16. Standards for Reporting Mathematics Professional Development in Research Studies (United States)

    Sztajn, Paola


    This Research Commentary addresses the need for standards for describing mathematics professional development in mathematics education research reports. Considering that mathematics professional development is an emerging research field, it is timely to set expectations for what constitutes high-quality reporting in this field. (Contains 2 tables.)

  17. Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Mathematics Content Knowledge: A Predictor of Sixth Graders' Mathematics Performance (United States)

    Shirvani, Hosin


    This study examined the knowledge of mathematics content of elementary pre-service teachers at a sixth grade level. The researcher administered a mathematics test for sixth graders mandated by the Texas Education Agency to pre-service teachers; the same test was given to sixth graders in Texas. The study found that pre-service teachers performed…

  18. Design based Investigation on Construction of Mathematical Modelling Problems: Example of Financial Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the construction of mathematical modelling problems process in the content of financial literacy. It is also aimed to create design proposals for construction of mathematical modelling problems. A design based research method was used in this study. The participants were three seventh grade students, six finance experts and nine mathematics education experts. Data collection tools were transcription of video and tapes group discussions, presentations and worksheets during mathematical modelling activities, and participant experts’ feedback form about mathematical modelling problems. There were three stages in this study. First stage was application of preliminary study. This stage gave information about convenience of problems to grade level, students’ timing for solution of problems, clarity of problems and students’ background about content. In second stage, finance experts commented on convenience of mathematical modelling problems to financial literacy standards. In third stage, mathematics education experts commented on convenience of problems to students’ grade level, mathematical modelling principles and seventh grade mathematics lesson objectives. They also gave suggestion on progress. The frequency value of theme in feedback forms was calculated and experts’ expressions were given as citation. It was given suggestion about stages and application of the design guide

  19. A Study of the Relationship between the ACT College Mathematics Readiness Standard and College Mathematics Achievement (United States)

    Harwell, Michael; Moreno, Mario; Post, Thomas


    This study examined the relationship between the American College Testing (ACT) college mathematics readiness standard and college mathematics achievement using a sample of students who met or exceeded the minimum 3 years high school mathematics coursework recommended by ACT. According to ACT, a student who scores 22 or higher on the ACT…

  20. Helping Children Learn Mathematics through Multiple Intelligences and Standards for School Mathematics. (United States)

    Adams, Thomasenia Lott


    Focuses on the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics 2000 process-oriented standards of problem solving, reasoning and proof, communication, connections, and representation as providing a framework for using the multiple intelligences that children bring to mathematics learning. Presents ideas for mathematics lessons and activities to…

  1. Slope across the Curriculum: Principles and Standards for School Mathematics and Common Core State Standards (United States)

    Nagle, Courtney; Moore-Russo, Deborah


    This article provides an initial comparison of the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics and the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics by examining the fundamental notion of slope. Each set of standards is analyzed using eleven previously identified conceptualizations of slope. Both sets of standards emphasize Functional Property,…

  2. Mathematical Modeling, Sense Making, and the Common Core State Standards (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.


    On October 14, 2013 the Mathematics Education Department at Teachers College hosted a full-day conference focused on the Common Core Standards Mathematical Modeling requirements to be implemented in September 2014 and in honor of Professor Henry Pollak's 25 years of service to the school. This article is adapted from my talk at this conference…

  3. Fifty Years of A-Level Mathematics: Have Standards Changed? (United States)

    Jones, Ian; Wheadon, Chris; Humphries, Sara; Inglis, Matthew


    Advanced-level (A-level) mathematics is a high-profile qualification taken by many school leavers in England, Wales, Northern Ireland and around the world as preparation for university study. Concern has been expressed in these countries that standards in A-level mathematics have declined over time, and that school leavers enter university or the…

  4. Assisting Pupils in Mathematics Achievement (The Common Core Standards) (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow


    Mathematics teachers must expect reasonably high standards of achievement from pupils. Too frequently, pupils attain at a substandard level and more optimal achievement is necessary. Thus, pupils should have self esteem needs met in the school and classroom setting. Thus, learners feel that mathematics is worthwhile and effort must be put forth to…

  5. Standards-based Content Resources: A Prerequisite for Content Integration and Content Interoperability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Galinski


    Full Text Available Objective: to show how standards-based approaches for content standardization, content management, content related services and tools as well as the respective certification systems not only guarantee reliable content integration and content interoperability, but also are of particular benefit to people with special needs in eAccessibility/eInclusion. Method: document MoU/MG/05 N0221 ''Semantic Interoperability and the need for a coherent policy for a framework of distributed, possibly federated repositories for all kinds of content items on a world-wide scale''2, which was adopted in 2005, was a first step towards the formulation of global interoperability requirements for structured content. These requirements -based on advanced terminological principles- were taken up in EU-projects such as IN-SAFETY (INfrastructure and SAFETY and OASIS (Open architecture for Accessible Services Integration and Standardization. Results: Content integration and content interoperability are key concepts in connection with the emergence of state-of-the-art distributed and federated databases/repositories of structured content. Given the fact that linguistic content items are increasingly combined with or embedded in non-linguistic content items (and vice versa, a systemic and generic approach to data modelling and content management has become the order of the day. Fulfilling the requirements of capability for multilinguality and multimodality, based on open standards makes software and database design fit for eAccessibility/eInclusion from the outset. It also makes structured content capable for global content integration and content interoperability, because it enhances its potential for being re-used and re-purposed in totally different eApplications. Such content as well as the methods, tools and services applied can be subject to new kinds of certification schemes which also should be based on standards. Conclusions: Content must be totally reliable in some

  6. Adaptation of mathematical educational content in e-learning resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya V. Vainshtein


    Full Text Available Modern trends in the world electronic educational system development determine the necessity of adaptive learning intellectual environments and resources’ development and implementation. An upcoming trend in improvement the quality of studying mathematical disciplines is the development and application of adaptive electronic educational resources. However, the development and application experience of adaptive technologies in higher education is currently extremely limited and does not imply the usage flexibility. Adaptive educational resources in the electronic environment are electronic educational resources that provide the student with a personal educational space, filled with educational content that “adapts” to the individual characteristics of the students and provides them with the necessary information.This article focuses on the mathematical educational content adaptation algorithms development and their implementation in the e-learning system. The peculiarity of the proposed algorithms is the possibility of their application and distribution for adaptive e-learning resources construction. The novelty of the proposed approach is the three-step content organization of the adaptive algorithms for the educational content: “introductory adaptation of content”, “the current adaptation of content”, “estimative and a corrective adaptation”. For each stage of the proposed system, mathematical algorithms for educational content adaptation in adaptive e-learning resources are presented.Due to the high level of abstraction and complexity perception of mathematical disciplines, educational content is represented in the various editions of presentation that correspond to the levels of assimilation of the course material. Adaptation consists in the selection of the optimal edition of the material that best matches the individual characteristics of the student. The introduction of a three-step content organization of the adaptive

  7. A Comparison of Higher-Order Thinking between the Common Core State Standards and the 2009 New Jersey Content Standards in High School (United States)

    Sforza, Dario; Tienken, Christopher H.; Kim, Eunyoung


    The creators and supporters of the Common Core State Standards claim that the Standards require greater emphasis on higher-order thinking than previous state standards in mathematics and English language arts. We used a qualitative case study design with content analysis methods to test the claim. We compared the levels of thinking required by the…

  8. Symmetry and the Standard Model mathematics and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Matthew


    While elementary particle physics is an extraordinarily fascinating field, the huge amount of knowledge necessary to perform cutting-edge research poses a formidable challenge for students. The leap from the material contained in the standard graduate course sequence to the frontiers of M-theory, for example, is tremendous. To make substantial contributions to the field, students must first confront a long reading list of texts on quantum field theory, general relativity, gauge theory, particle interactions, conformal field theory, and string theory. Moreover, waves of new mathematics are required at each stage, spanning a broad set of topics including algebra, geometry, topology, and analysis. Symmetry and the Standard Model: Mathematics and Particle Physics, by Matthew Robinson, is the first volume of a series intended to teach math in a way that is catered to physicists. Following a brief review of classical physics at the undergraduate level and a preview of particle physics from an experimentalist's per...

  9. The transformation of science and mathematics content knowledge into teaching content by university faculty (United States)

    Flynn, Natalie P.

    This study developed a survey from the existing literature in an attempt to illuminate the processes, tools, insights, and events that allow university science and mathematics content experts (Ph.D.'s) unpack their expertise in order to teach develop and teach undergraduate students. A pilot study was conducted at an urban university in order to refine the survey. The study consisted of 72 science or mathematics Ph.D. faculty members that teach at a research-based urban university. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 21 volunteer faculty to further explore their methods and tools for developing and implementing teaching within their discipline. Statistical analysis of the data revealed: faculty that taught while obtaining their Ph.D. were less confident in their ability to teach successful and faculty that received training in teaching believed that students have difficult to change misconceptions and do not commit enough time to their course. Student centered textbooks ranked the highest among tools used to gain teaching strategies followed by grading of exams and assignments for gaining insights into student knowledge and difficulties. Science and mathematics education literature and university provided education session ranked the lowest in rating scale for providing strategies for teaching. The open-ended survey questions were sub-divided and analyzed by the number of years of experience to identify the development of teaching knowledge over time and revealed that teaching became more interactive, less lecture based, and more engaging. As faculty matured and gained experience they became more aware of student misconceptions and difficulties often changing their teaching to eliminate such issues. As confidence levels increase their teaching included more technology-based tools, became more interactive, incorporated problem based activities, and became more flexible. This change occurred when and if faculty members altered their thinking about their

  10. Refreshing the "Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics" (United States)

    MacDonald, Richard A.; Siegfried, John J.


    The second edition of the "Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics" was published by the Council for Economic Education in 2010. The authors examine the process for revising these precollege content standards and highlight several changes that appear in the new document. They also review the impact the standards have had on precollege…

  11. Public Conceptions of Algorithms and Representations in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (United States)

    Nanna, Robert J.


    Algorithms and representations have been an important aspect of the work of mathematics, especially for understanding concepts and communicating ideas about concepts and mathematical relationships. They have played a key role in various mathematics standards documents, including the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. However, there have…

  12. Quantitative Literacy and the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard L. Madison


    Full Text Available How supportive of quantitative literacy (QL are the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics (CCSSM? The answer is tentative and conditional. There are some QL-supportive features including a strong probability and statistics strand in grade 6 through high school; a measurements and data strand in K-5; ratio and proportional reasoning standards in grades 6 and 7; and a comprehensive and coherent approach to algebraic reasoning and logical argument. However, the standards are weak in supporting reasoning and interpretation, and there are indications that the applications in CCSSM – mostly unspecified – will not include many QL contextual situations. Early indicators of assessment items follow a similar path. Except for statistics, most of the high school standards are aimed at development of algebra and precalculus topics, and there will likely be little room for more sophisticated applications of the QL-friendly mathematics of grades 6-8. The experience with CCSSM is limited at this point, leaving several crucial results uncertain, including assessments, emphases on statistics, and kinds of modeling and other applications.

  13. Technological pedagogical content knowledge of junior high school mathematics teachers in teaching linear equation (United States)

    Wati, S.; Fitriana, L.; Mardiyana


    Linear equation is one of the topics in mathematics that are considered difficult. Student difficulties of understanding linear equation can be caused by lack of understanding this concept and the way of teachers teach. TPACK is a way to understand the complex relationships between teaching and content taught through the use of specific teaching approaches and supported by the right technology tools. This study aims to identify TPACK of junior high school mathematics teachers in teaching linear equation. The method used in the study was descriptive. In the first phase, a survey using a questionnaire was carried out on 45 junior high school mathematics teachers in teaching linear equation. While in the second phase, the interview involved three teachers. The analysis of data used were quantitative and qualitative technique. The result PCK revealed teachers emphasized developing procedural and conceptual knowledge through reliance on traditional in teaching linear equation. The result of TPK revealed teachers’ lower capacity to deal with the general information and communications technologies goals across the curriculum in teaching linear equation. The result indicated that PowerPoint constitutes TCK modal technological capability in teaching linear equation. The result of TPACK seems to suggest a low standard in teachers’ technological skills across a variety of mathematics education goals in teaching linear equation. This means that the ability of teachers’ TPACK in teaching linear equation still needs to be improved.

  14. Informing Estimates of Program Effects for Studies of Mathematics Professional Development Using Teacher Content Knowledge Outcomes. (United States)

    Phelps, Geoffrey; Kelcey, Benjamin; Jones, Nathan; Liu, Shuangshuang


    Mathematics professional development is widely offered, typically with the goal of improving teachers' content knowledge, the quality of teaching, and ultimately students' achievement. Recently, new assessments focused on mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) have been developed to assist in the evaluation and improvement of mathematics professional development. This study presents empirical estimates of average program change in MKT and its variation with the goal of supporting the design of experimental trials that are adequately powered to detect a specified program effect. The study drew on a large database representing five different assessments of MKT and collectively 326 professional development programs and 9,365 teachers. Results from cross-classified hierarchical growth models found that standardized average change estimates across the five assessments ranged from a low of 0.16 standard deviations (SDs) to a high of 0.26 SDs. Power analyses using the estimated pre- and posttest change estimates indicated that hundreds of teachers are needed to detect changes in knowledge at the lower end of the distribution. Even studies powered to detect effects at the higher end of the distribution will require substantial resources to conduct rigorous experimental trials. Empirical benchmarks that describe average program change and its variation provide a useful preliminary resource for interpreting the relative magnitude of effect sizes associated with professional development programs and for designing adequately powered trials. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. 5e$^{x+y}$: Searching over Mathematical Content in Digital Libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Oviedo, Arthur; Aberer, Karl


    This paper presents 5 e x + y , a system that is able to extract, index and query mathematical content expressed as math- ematical expressions, complementing the CERN Document Server (CDS)[5]. We present the most important aspects of its design, our approach to model the relevant features of the mathematical content, and provide a demonstration of its searching capabilities.

  16. Developing Mathematical Content Knowledge for Teaching: One Preservice Teacher and Her Planning (United States)

    Wilson, Susanna


    This paper describes how a new pre-service teacher engaged with mathematical content in order to learn it for teaching, during practicum. The results show that the PST learned mathematical content by initiating and carrying out a preparation phase prior to planning. This phase involved searching through internet sites and making notes that were…

  17. Informal Content and Student Note-Taking in Advanced Mathematics Classes (United States)

    Fukawa-Connelly, Timothy; Weber, Keith; Mejía-Ramos, Juan Pablo


    This study investigates 3 hypotheses about proof-based mathematics instruction: (a) that lectures include informal content (ways of thinking and reasoning about advanced mathematics that are not captured by formal symbolic statements), (b) that informal content is usually presented orally but not written on the board, and (c) that students do not…

  18. Exploring Turkish Mathematics Teachers' Content Knowledge of Quadrilaterals (United States)

    Butuner, Suphi Onder; Filiz, Mehmet


    The aim of this research was to examine mathematics teachers' performances in defining special types of quadrilaterals, identifying their family and hierarchically classifying them. In this vein, 33 of 58 primary school mathematics teachers working in the province of Yozgat, Turkey were voluntarily recruited for this survey, and they were asked to…

  19. Assessing the Genetics Content in the Next Generation Science Standards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine S Lontok

    Full Text Available Science standards have a long history in the United States and currently form the backbone of efforts to improve primary and secondary education in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM. Although there has been much political controversy over the influence of standards on teacher autonomy and student performance, little light has been shed on how well standards cover science content. We assessed the coverage of genetics content in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS using a consensus list of American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG core concepts. We also compared the NGSS against state science standards. Our goals were to assess the potential of the new standards to support genetic literacy and to determine if they improve the coverage of genetics concepts relative to state standards. We found that expert reviewers cannot identify ASHG core concepts within the new standards with high reliability, suggesting that the scope of content addressed by the standards may be inconsistently interpreted. Given results that indicate that the disciplinary core ideas (DCIs included in the NGSS documents produced by Achieve, Inc. clarify the content covered by the standards statements themselves, we recommend that the NGSS standards statements always be viewed alongside their supporting disciplinary core ideas. In addition, gaps exist in the coverage of essential genetics concepts, most worryingly concepts dealing with patterns of inheritance, both Mendelian and complex. Finally, state standards vary widely in their coverage of genetics concepts when compared with the NGSS. On average, however, the NGSS support genetic literacy better than extant state standards.

  20. Assessing the Genetics Content in the Next Generation Science Standards. (United States)

    Lontok, Katherine S; Zhang, Hubert; Dougherty, Michael J


    Science standards have a long history in the United States and currently form the backbone of efforts to improve primary and secondary education in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Although there has been much political controversy over the influence of standards on teacher autonomy and student performance, little light has been shed on how well standards cover science content. We assessed the coverage of genetics content in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) using a consensus list of American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) core concepts. We also compared the NGSS against state science standards. Our goals were to assess the potential of the new standards to support genetic literacy and to determine if they improve the coverage of genetics concepts relative to state standards. We found that expert reviewers cannot identify ASHG core concepts within the new standards with high reliability, suggesting that the scope of content addressed by the standards may be inconsistently interpreted. Given results that indicate that the disciplinary core ideas (DCIs) included in the NGSS documents produced by Achieve, Inc. clarify the content covered by the standards statements themselves, we recommend that the NGSS standards statements always be viewed alongside their supporting disciplinary core ideas. In addition, gaps exist in the coverage of essential genetics concepts, most worryingly concepts dealing with patterns of inheritance, both Mendelian and complex. Finally, state standards vary widely in their coverage of genetics concepts when compared with the NGSS. On average, however, the NGSS support genetic literacy better than extant state standards.

  1. Felix Klein and the NCTM's Standards: A Mathematician Considers Mathematics Education. (United States)

    McComas, Kim Krusen


    Discusses the parallels between Klein's position at the forefront of a movement to reform mathematics education and that of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' (NCTM) Standards. Draws a picture of Klein as an important historical figure who saw equal importance in studying pure mathematics, applying mathematics, and teaching…

  2. Development of an Openmath Content Dictionary for Mathematical Knowledge of Materials Science and Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Ashino


    Full Text Available Many relationships between parameters and physical properties in materials science and engineering are represented as mathematical expressions, such as empirical equations and regression expressions. Some materials databases handle such information with indirect methods: as a table of sets of parameters, as a list of statements of programming languages, and other ways. There is no standardized way to represent mathematical relationships, and that makes it difficult to exchange, process, and display such information. The AIST (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology in Japan thermophysical property database manages sets of parameter values for expressions and Fortran statements that represent relationships between physical parameters, e.g., temperature, pressure, etc. and thermophysical properties. However, in this method, it is not easy to add new parameters, to process expressions, and exchange information with other software tools. In this paper, we describe the current implementation of representing mathematical knowledge in the AIST thermophysical property database, and we also discuss its problems, sample implementations, and definitions of the OpenMath content dictionary for materials science and engineering.

  3. Interpreting the ASTM 'content standard for digital geospatial metadata' (United States)

    Nebert, Douglas D.


    ASTM and the Federal Geographic Data Committee have developed a content standard for spatial metadata to facilitate documentation, discovery, and retrieval of digital spatial data using vendor-independent terminology. Spatial metadata elements are identifiable quality and content characteristics of a data set that can be tied to a geographic location or area. Several Office of Management and Budget Circulars and initiatives have been issued that specify improved cataloguing of and accessibility to federal data holdings. An Executive Order further requires the use of the metadata content standard to document digital spatial data sets. Collection and reporting of spatial metadata for field investigations performed for the federal government is an anticipated requirement. This paper provides an overview of the draft spatial metadata content standard and a description of how the standard could be applied to investigations collecting spatially-referenced field data.

  4. Vocational High School Effectiveness Standard ISO 9001: 2008 for Achievement Content Standards, Standard Process and Competency Standards Graduates

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    Yeni Ratih Pratiwi


    Full Text Available Efektivitas Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Berstandar ISO 9001:2008 terhadap Pencapaian Standar Isi, Standar Proses dan Standar Kompetensi Lulusan Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine differences in the effectiveness of the achievement of the content standards, process standards, and competency standards in vocational already standard ISO 9001: 2008 with CMS that has not been standardized ISO 9001: 2008 both in public schools and private schools. Data collection using the questionnaire enclosed Likert scale models. Analysis of data using one-way ANOVA using SPSS. The results showed: (1 there is no difference in effectiveness between public SMK ISO standard ISO standards with private SMK (P = 0.001; (2 there are differences in the effectiveness of public SMK SMK ISO standards with ISO standards have not (P = 0.000; (3 there are differences in the effectiveness of public SMK ISO standards with private vocational yet ISO standards (P = 0.000; (4 there are differences in the effectiveness of the private vocational school with vocational standard ISO standard ISO country has not (P = 0.015; (5 there are differences in the effectiveness of the private vocational bertandar ISO with private vocational yet standardized ISO (P = 0.000; (6 there was no difference in the effectiveness of public SMK has not been standardized by the ISO standard ISO private SMK yet. Key Words: vocational high school standards ISO 9001: 2008, the standard content, process standards, competency standards Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui perbedaan efektivitas pencapaian standar isi, standar proses, dan standar kompetensi lulusan pada SMK yang sudah berstandar ISO 9001:2008 dengan SMK yang belum berstandar ISO 9001:2008 baik pada sekolah negeri maupun sekolah swasta. Pengumpulan data menggunakan kuisioner tertutup model skala likert. Analisis data menggunakan ANOVA one way menggunakan program SPSS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: (1 ada perbedaan

  5. Mathematics Pedagogical Standards: A Suggested Model of Instruction in Enhancing the Mathematics Teacher’s Quality of Instruction (United States)

    Saad, N. S.; Jemali, M.; Zakaria, Z. Hj; Yusof, Q.


    The paper aims at identifying the standards for teaching and learning of mathematics based on National Council of Teacher of Mathematics (NCTM, 2000), The Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers (AAMT, 2006) and Training and Development Agency for School (TDA, 2007). These known standards were used as a guide in identifying the constructs of the mathematics teacher’s instruction in the classroom. The survey method used in which a questionnaire instrument encompassed on the four identified constructs on the standards for teaching and learning of mathematics, namely professional practices, professional attributes, professional knowledge, and professional instructional processes. The instrument was tested during a pilot study and a Cronbach’s Alpha reliability index of greater than 0.85 was obtained. The actual research was carried out in Peninsular Malaysia involving 224 secondary schools with 1.120 mathematics teachers and 108 primary schools with 540 mathematics teachers. From the selected schools, only 820 secondary mathematics teachers (73.2%) and 361 primary teachers (66.9%) gave a response to the mailed questionnaires. The findings of the study revealed that the secondary and primary mathematics teachers strongly agreed on three constructs; professional practices, professional attributes and professional instructional processes.

  6. Teachers' Understanding of Mathematical Cognition in Childhood: Towards a Shift in Pedagogical Content Knowledge? (United States)

    Henning, Elizabeth


    This article about the discourse of pedagogy as related to child cognition in mathematics addresses the issue of what constitutes the main disciplinary content and the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of foundation-phase teachers. I argue that, unless child cognition itself is the primary disciplinary content of foundation-phase teacher's…

  7. Developing a model of pedagogical content knowledge for secondary and post-secondary mathematics instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shandy Hauk


    Full Text Available The accepted framing of mathematics pedagogical content knowledge (PCK as part of mathematical knowledge for teaching has centered on the question: What mathematical reasoning, insight, understanding, and skills are required for a person to teach elementary mathematics? Many have worked to address this question in K-8 teaching. Yet, there remains a call for examples and theory in the context of teachers with greater mathematical preparation and older students with varied and complex experiences in learning mathematics. In this theory development report we offer background and examples for an extended model of PCK – as the interplay among conceptually-rich mathematical understandings, experience in and of teaching, and multiple culturally-mediated classroom interactions.

  8. Enhancing mathematics teachers' pedagogical content knowledge and skills in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kitta, S.


    The study has revealed that the use of a comprehensive, school-based programme, emphasising peer collaboration, can be a promising scenario for professional development of mathematics teachers in Tanzania. Such a comprehensive approach has the potential of supporting teachers with diverse levels of

  9. Environmental Print Activities for Teaching Mathematics and Content Areas. (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C., Ed.; McIntyre, Sandra, Ed.; Ranous, Meg, Ed.

    Twenty-three mathematics activities that use environmental print materials are presented, along with two activities that focus on music education, one that highlights history concepts, and five science activities. The environmental print materials are words and images cut from food or other product packaging and mounted on mat board cards.…

  10. Historical behavior of the teaching process learning of the basic mathematical contents in the initial formation of the Mathematics teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamila Medina-Sánchez


    Full Text Available The pedagogical universities in their different denominations, whether as Pedagogical Higher Institutes, Pedagogical Sciences Universities or Eastern University, have had in their center, the training of the teacher in their different specialties. The Mathematics teacher has been the result of training models and curricula in correspondence with the historical moment to which they have responded, all with the purpose of preparing them to impart the mathematical content in the educations that constitute action scenarios. The objective of this paper is to analyze the historical behavior of the learning process of the basic mathematical contents in the training process, because it is understood as the fundamental basis for achieving the objectives. For its development were taken into account the logical historical method, the interview, the survey and the documentary analysis.

  11. Strengthening the Conceptualization of Mathematics Pedagogical Content Knowledge for International Studies: A Taiwanese Perspective (United States)

    Hsieh, Feng-Jui


    This paper discusses different conceptual frameworks for measuring mathematics pedagogical content knowledge (MPCK) in international comparison studies. Two large-scale international comparative studies, "Mathematics Teaching in the Twenty-First Century" (MT21; Schmidt et al., 2011) and the "Teacher Education and Development Study…

  12. Characterizing the Development of Specialized Mathematical Content Knowledge for Teaching in Algebraic Reasoning and Number Theory (United States)

    Bair, Sherry L.; Rich, Beverly S.


    This article characterizes the development of a deep and connected body of mathematical knowledge categorized by Ball and Bass' (2003b) model of Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT), as Specialized Content Knowledge for Teaching (SCK) in algebraic reasoning and number sense. The research employed multiple cases across three years from two…

  13. The Relationship Between Teachers' Mathematical Content and Pedagogical Knowledge, Teachers' Perceptions, and Student Achievement (United States)

    Campbell, Patricia F.; Nishio, Masako; Smith, Toni M.; Clark, Lawrence M.; Conant, Darcy L.; Rust, Amber H.; DePiper, Jill Neumayer; Frank, Toya Jones; Griffin, Matthew J.; Choi, Youyoung


    This study of early-career teachers identified a significant relationship between upper-elementary teachers' mathematical content knowledge and their students' mathematics achievement, after controlling for student- and teacher-level characteristics. Findings provide evidence of the relevance of teacher knowledge and perceptions for teacher…

  14. Analyzing Similarity in Mathematical Content To Enhance the Detection of Academic Plagiarism


    Isele, Maurice-Roman


    Despite the effort put into the detection of academic plagiarism, it continues to be a ubiquitous problem spanning all disciplines. Various tools have been developed to assist human inspectors by automatically identifying suspicious documents. However, to our knowledge currently none of these tools use mathematical content for their analysis. This is problematic, because mathematical content potentially represents a significant amount of the scientific contribution in academic documents. Henc...

  15. Utah's New Mathematics Core (United States)

    Utah State Office of Education, 2011


    Utah has adopted more rigorous mathematics standards known as the Utah Mathematics Core Standards. They are the foundation of the mathematics curriculum for the State of Utah. The standards include the skills and understanding students need to succeed in college and careers. They include rigorous content and application of knowledge and reflect…

  16. One Usage of Geogebra in Enhancing Pre-service Mathematics Teachers’ Content Knowledge

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    Karmelita Pjanic


    Full Text Available A wide range of mathematical ideas could be used to develop and justify a formula for calculating the area of trapezoid. Those ideas lead to different strategies for finding out area of trapezoid that we classify in three groups: decomposing, enclosing and transforming strategies. Those strategies should be part of mathematics content knowledge for teaching. In this study we trace a change in structure of mathematics content knowledge of nine pre-service mathematics teachers as a result of using GeoGebra applets that visualize different approaches in finding out the area of trapezoid. We argue that engaging pre-service mathematics teachers to develop and justify formula for calculating the area of trapezoid using GeoGebra applets is a worth task that enhances pre-service mathematics teachers’ content knowledge for teaching. Our experiment confirmed that the use of Geogebra encourage pre-service mathematics teachers to uncover new ideas that lead them towards clearer justifications and easier way of proving formula for area of trapezoid. Keywords: Area of trapezoid, GeoGebra, content knowledge for teaching

  17. Incorporating the Common Core's Problem Solving Standard for Mathematical Practice into an Early Elementary Inclusive Classroom (United States)

    Fletcher, Nicole


    Mathematics curriculum designers and policy decision makers are beginning to recognize the importance of problem solving, even at the earliest stages of mathematics learning. The Common Core includes sense making and perseverance in solving problems in its standards for mathematical practice for students at all grade levels. Incorporating problem…

  18. Development of Extended Content Standards for Biodiversity Data (United States)

    Hugo, Wim; Schmidt, Jochen; Saarenmaa, Hannu


    Interoperability in the field of Biodiversity observation has been strongly driven by the development of a number of global initiatives (GEO, GBIF, OGC, TDWG, GenBank, …) and its supporting standards (OGC-WxS, OGC-SOS, Darwin Core (DwC), NetCDF, …). To a large extent, these initiatives have focused on discoverability and standardization of syntactic and schematic interoperability. Semantic interoperability is more complex, requiring development of domain-dependent conceptual data models, and extension of these models with appropriate ontologies (typically manifested as controlled vocabularies). Biodiversity content has been standardized partly, for example through Darwin Core for occurrence data and associated taxonomy, and through Genbank for genetic data, but other contexts of biodiversity observation have lagged behind - making it difficult to achieve semantic interoperability between distributed data sources. With this in mind, WG8 of GEO BON (charged with data and systems interoperability) has started a work programme to address a number of concerns, one of which is the gap in content standards required to make Biodiversity data truly interoperable. The paper reports on the framework developed by WG8 for the classification of Biodiversity observation data into 'families' of use cases and its supporting data schema, where gaps, if any, in the availability if content standards have been identified, and how these are to be addressed by way of an abstract data model and the development of associated content standards. It is proposed that a minimum set of standards (1) will be required to address the scope of Biodiversity content, aligned with levels and dimensions of observation, and based on the 'Essential Biodiversity Variables' (2) being developed by GEO BON . The content standards are envisaged as loosely separated from the syntactic and schematic standards used for the base data exchange: typically, services would offer an existing data standard (DwC, WFS

  19. Does an Observer's Content Knowledge Influence the Feedback Offered about Mathematics Lessons? (United States)

    Peck, Duane C.


    The purpose of this study was two-fold. First, feedback from 3 different groups of observers: math content specialists, content specialists in areas other than mathematics, and building principals, was analyzed using an inductive approach to identify themes within the feedback. Second, differences in the feedback offered by participants of the 3…

  20. The Relations among Mathematics Anxiety, Gender, and Standardized Test Performance (United States)

    Anis, Yasmeen; Krause, Jeremy A.; Blum, Emily N.


    Mathematics anxiety typically involves apprehension toward activities that require computation, which can lead to complications in every-day-life activities (Ashcraft, 2002). Mathematics anxiety also has become accepted as an issue associated with academic success for both children and adults (Ashcraft, 2002; Ashcraft & Moore, 2009; Beilock,…

  1. Do the Standards Go Far Enough? Power, Policy, and Practice in Mathematics Education. (United States)

    Apple, Michael W.


    Discusses the ideological and social grounding and effects of the NCTM's "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics" and "Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics." Includes issues regarding the financial crisis in education, inequality in schools, the possibilities and limitations of a mathematics…

  2. New Standards Require Teaching More Statistics: Are Preservice Secondary Mathematics Teachers Ready? (United States)

    Lovett, Jennifer N.; Lee, Hollylynne S.


    Mathematics teacher education programs often need to respond to changing expectations and standards for K-12 curriculum and accreditation. New standards for high school mathematics in the United States include a strong emphasis in statistics. This article reports results from a mixed methods cross-institutional study examining the preparedness of…

  3. Wikis: Developing pre-service teachers’ leadership skills and knowledge of content standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelia Reid-Griffin


    Full Text Available In this initial phase of our multi-year research study we set out to explore the development of leadership skills in our pre-service secondary teachers after using an online wiki, Wikispaces. This paper presents our methods for preparing a group of 13 mathematics and 3 science secondary pre-service teachers to demonstrate the essential knowledge, skills and dispositions of beginning teacher leaders. Our findings indicate the pre-service teachers' overall satisfaction with demonstrating leadership through collaborative practices. They were successful in these new roles as teacher/collaborator within the context of communication about content standards. Though the candidates participated in other collaborative tasks, this effort was noted for bringing together technology, content standards and leadership qualities that are critical for beginning teachers. Implications for addressing the preservice teachers' development of leadership skills, as they become professional teachers will be shared.

  4. Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching, Standards-Based Mathematics Teaching Practices, and Student Achievement in the Context of the "Responsive Classroom Approach" (United States)

    Ottmar, Erin R.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Larsen, Ross A.; Berry, Robert Q.


    This study investigates the effectiveness of the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach, a social and emotional learning intervention, on changing the relations between mathematics teacher and classroom inputs (mathematical knowledge for teaching [MKT] and standards-based mathematics teaching practices) and student mathematics achievement. Work was…

  5. Did Dewey Presage the 1989 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Standards?


    Finken, Teresa M.


    The general theme of change in philosophy over time is due to traditional customs and beliefs failing to regulate society. This theme drove both John Dewey's Progressive Movement and the creation of the Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics (1989) by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). The remarkable similarity in thought between Dewey's writings and the Standards is the basis for this paper. The point of view is from the Standards looking back to find...

  6. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Prospective Mathematics Teacher in Three Dimensional Material Based on Sex Differences (United States)

    Aqib, M. A.; Budiarto, M. T.; Wijayanti, P.


    The effectiveness of learning in this era can be seen from 3 factors such as: technology, content, and pedagogy that covered in Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK). This research was a qualitative research which aimed to describe each domain from TPCK include Content Knowledge, Pedagogical Knowledge, Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Technological Knowledge, Technological Content Knowledge, Technological Pedagogical Knowledge and Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge. The subjects of this research were male and female mathematics college students at least 5th semester who has almost the same ability for some course like innovative learning, innovative learning II, school mathematics I, school mathematics II, computer applications and instructional media. Research began by spreading the questionnaire of subject then continued with the assignment and interview. The obtained data was validated by time triangulation.This research has result that male and female prospective teacher was relatively same for Content Knowledge and Pedagogical Knowledge domain. While it was difference in the Technological Knowledge domain. The difference in this domain certainly has an impact on other domains that has technology components on it. Although it can be minimized by familiarizing the technology.

  7. Exploring Connections between Content Knowledge, Pedagogical Content Knowledge, and the Opportunities to Learn Mathematics: Findings from the TEDS-M Dataset (United States)

    Murray, Eileen; Durkin, Kelley; Chao, Theodore; Star, Jon R.; Vig, Rozy


    Past work on mathematics teachers' content knowledge (CK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has resulted in mixed findings about the strength of the relationship between and development of these constructs. The current study uses data from the Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M) to examine the relationship between…

  8. Implementation of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of Mathematics Teachers in Teaching Practice: A Case Study (United States)

    Maryono; Sutawidjaja, Akbar; Subanji; Irawati, Santi


    This study aims to describe the implementation of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of mathematics teachers in the teaching practice of the material system of linear equations of two variables (SLETV). The approach used is a qualitative case study. The main instrument is the researchers themselves and the supporting instruments is a vignette…

  9. RDA: a content standard to ensure the quality of data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Bianchini


    Full Text Available RDA Resource Description and Access are guidelines for description and access to resources designed for digital environment and released, in its first version, in 2010. RDA is based on FRBR and its derived models, that focus on users’ needs and on resources of any kind of content, medium and carrier.  The paper discusses relevance of main features of RDA for the future role of libraries in the context of semantic web and metadata creation and exchange. The paper aims to highlight many consequences deriving from RDA being a content standard, and in particular the change from record management to data management, differences among the two functions realized by RDA (to identify and to relate entities and functions realized by other standard such as MARC21 (to archive data and ISB (to visualize data and show how, as all these functions are necessary for the catalog, RDA needs to be integrated by other rules and standard and that these tools allow the fulfilment of the variation principle defined by S.R. Ranganathan.

  10. Complementing Mathematics Teachers’ Horizon Content Knowledge with an Elementary-on-Advanced Aspect

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    Yi-An Cho


    Full Text Available Although Ball and her colleagues provided empirical evidence to support the existence of the six sub-domains in mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT and further explained or defined the majority of these sub-domains, there were few explanations of what horizon content knowledge (HCK embedded in MKT meant and they merely provided ideas about HCK. Many researchers attempted to provide some teaching incidents and exemplification to interpret the construct of HCK. Moreover, they thought teachers’ studies of tertiary mathematics are useful for classroom teaching practice. Their discourse and instantiation of HCK was correspondent with a higher perspective on elementary mathematics mentioned by Felix Klein (1924, but was not entirely coincide with a kind of elementary perspective on advanced knowledge introduced by Ball and Bass (2009. This study lasted 1 years, and data collection included in-depth interviews, classroom observation and video analysis. We provide a shared classroom teaching incidence and illustrations to explain and to describe the construct of HCK. HCK not only is a kind of elementary perspective on advanced mathematical knowledge, but also complements to a higher perspective on elementary mathematics. Furthermore, HCK could be seen as a reciprocal pathway between the elementary and advanced mathematical knowledge.

  11. Technological pedagogical content knowledge in South African mathematics classrooms: A secondary analysis of SITES 2006 data

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    Verona Leendertz


    Full Text Available This article reports on a secondary data analysis conducted on the South African mathematics teachers’ dataset of the Second Information Technology in Education Study (SITES 2006. The sample consisted of a stratified sample of 640 mathematics teachers from 504 randomly selected computer-using and non–computer-using schools that completed the SITES 2006 teachers’ questionnaire, which investigated their pedagogical use of Information Communication Technology (ICT. The purpose of the current investigation was to investigate the level of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK of mathematics teachers, and how TPACK attributes contribute towards more effective Grade 8 mathematics teaching in South African schools, using the TPACK conceptual framework. The findings are presented according to the three clusters identified through the association between the main variables of the TPACK model and other variables on the SITES 2006 teachers’ questionnaire: (1 impact of ICT use, (2 teacher practices and (3 barriers. A Cramér V of between 0.3 and 0.4 was considered to signal a medium effect that tended towards practically significant association, and a Cramér V of 0.4 or larger was considered to signal a large effect with practically significant association. The results indicate that the TPACK of mathematics teachers contributes towards more effective Grade 8 mathematics teaching in South African schools.

  12. Does Knowing More Advanced Mathematics Ensure Effectiveness of Working towards Demonstrating Specialised Mathematical Content Knowledge of Second-Year Pre-Service Teachers? (United States)

    Livy, Sharyn


    The theoretical understanding that underpins a teacher's foundation knowledge draws on their common content knowledge (CCK) and influences their mathematics' teaching (Rowland, Turner, Thwaites, & Huckstep, 2009). Teachers who have specialised content knowledge (SCK) demonstrate a unique kind of content knowledge which is more than knowing the…

  13. ASK Standards: Assessment, Skills, and Knowledge Content Standards for Student Affairs Practitioners and Scholars (United States)

    ACPA College Student Educators International, 2011


    The Assessment Skills and Knowledge (ASK) standards seek to articulate the areas of content knowledge, skill and dispositions that student affairs professionals need in order to perform as practitioner-scholars to assess the degree to which students are mastering the learning and development outcomes the professionals intend. Consistent with…

  14. Technological pedagogical content knowledge and teaching practice of mathematics trainee teachers (United States)

    Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd.; Kadir, Noor Zarinawaty Abd.


    This study aims to identify the level of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) of mathematics trainee teachers at Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) and explore their teaching practices during practical training at school. The study was conducted in two phases using a mix-method research. In the first phase, a survey method using a questionnaire was carried out on 156 trainee teachers of Bachelor of Mathematics Education (AT14) and Bachelor of Science (Mathematics) with Education (AT48). The instrument used was a questionnaire that measures the level of content knowledge, pedagogy, technology and TPCK of mathematics. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, namely the mean. While in the second phase, the interview method involved four trainee teachers were performed. The instrument used was the semi-structured interview protocol to assess the trainee teacher's TPCK integration in their teaching practice. Data were analyzed using the content analysis. The findings showed that the level of knowledge of TPCK among trainee teachers was moderate with overall mean score of 3.60. This level did not show significant differences between the two programs with mean scores of 3.601 for the AT14 group and 3.603 for the AT48 group. However, there was a difference for gender classification such that the female trainees had mean score of 3.58 and male trainees with mean score of 3.72. Although students' TPCK level was moderate, the level of content knowledge (CK), technological knowledge (TK) and pedagogical knowledge (PK), showed a higher level with overall mean scores of 3.75, 3.87 and 3.84 respectively. The findings also showed that in terms of content knowledge, trainee teacher's learning mathematics background was good, but the knowledge of mathematics was limited in the curriculum, philosophy and application aspect. In terms of pedagogical content knowledge, all respondents tend to use lecture and discussion methods in teaching Trigonometry topic


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chieh Chang


    Full Text Available Research collected and reviewed a number of empirical studies in the field of educational research regarding the analysis of mathematics textbooks to provide summary and overview the information there in. The questions were identified via Google Scholar and collected from different data sources. A total of 44 papers published from 1953 to 2015 were selected based specific criteria, with 24 articles include in the SSCI database. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate and interpret the results. A perspective on the learning analysis methods was used to collect studies and showed the mathematics textbooks analyzed were investigated under four themes: The analysis of standards, distributive property, language in mathematics, and others. School’s level which is investigated textbooks: Kindergarten, elementary, junior school, and senior school. Subjects covered in the mathematics textbooks included algebra and arithmetic, geometry, measurement, data analysis and probability, number and operations, among others. Research found the most frequently discussed in perspective on learning was the analysis of the standards and the distributive property (15 studies, the most common subject was number and operations (16 studies, and the highest number in school’s level was elementary school (18 studies. Nevertheless, fewer studies have been found to analyzing mathematics textbooks. Future research can pay attention for the relevant theoretical issues and collaborate studies in more perspective learning analysis.

  16. Relationship between mathematics teacher subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge and professional development needs (United States)

    Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd; Chinnappan, Mohan; Saad, Noor Shah


    Two key variables emerged from the literature review is that Specific Matter Knowledge [SMK] and Pedagogical Content Knowledge [PCK] can influence the mathematics teachers' Professional Development [PD] needs. However, the key variables of SMK and PCK that were being investigated were not defined clearly. Empirical evidence that support relationship between SMK and PD and PCK and PD were not verified. In addition, how does PCK mediate SMK and PD is not clear and somewhat lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between primary mathematics teacher's SMK, PCK and PD needs. Results of path analysis with SmartPLS indicated that the direct effect of SMK on PD was mediated via PCK. This data provide support for the claim that PD programs for future teachers of primary mathematics should be driven by a more nuanced understanding of the link between SMK and PCK.

  17. The effects of CLIL on mathematical content learning: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Surmont


    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that content and language integrated learning (CLIL, an educational approach that offers content courses through more than one educational language, increases metalinguistic awareness. This improved insight into language structures is supposed to extend beyond the linguistic domain. In the present study, the question whether pupils who learn in a CLIL environment outperform their traditionally schooled peers in mathematics is investigated. In total, 107 pupils entered the study. All participants were in the first year of secondary education at a school in Ostend, in Flanders, the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium. Thirty-five pupils followed CLIL education in a foreign language (French and 72 followed traditional education that was given in the native language (Dutch. All participants were tested using a mathematical test at the beginning of the year, after three months, and after ten months. The first measurement of the mathematical scores showed that the two groups did not differ. In accordance with our hypothesis, the CLIL group scored higher than the non-CLIL group after ten months. Surprisingly, an effect was also found after three months. To conclude, CLIL appears to have a positive impact on the mathematical performance of pupils even after a short period of time.

  18. International Longitudinal Paediatric Reference Standards for Bone Mineral Content (United States)

    Baxter-Jones, Adam DG; McKay, Heather; Burrows, Melonie; Bachrach, Laura K; Lloyd, Tom; Petit, Moira; Macdonald, Heather; Mirwald, Robert L; Bailey, Don


    To render a diagnosis pediatricians rely upon reference standards for bone mineral density or bone mineral content, which are based on cross-sectional data from a relatively small sample of children. These standards are unable to adequately represent growth in a diverse pediatric population. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop sex and site specific standards for BMC using longitudinal data collected from four international sites in Canada and the United States. Data from four studies were combined; Saskatchewan Paediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (n=251), UBC Healthy Bones Study (n=382); Penn State Young Women’s Health Study (n=112) and Stanford’s Bone Mineral Accretion study (n=423). Males and females (8 to 25 years) were measured for whole body (WB), total proximal femur (PF), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) BMC (g). Data were analyzed using random effects models. Bland-Altman was used to investigate agreement in predicted and actual data. Age, height, weight and ethnicity independently predicted BMC accrual across sites (P accrual; Hispanic 75.4 (28.2) g less BMC accrual; Blacks 82.8 (26.3) g more BMC accrual with confounders of age, height and weight controlled. Similar findings were found for PF and FN. Female models for all sites were similar with age, height and weight all independent significant predictors of BMC accrual (P accounting for age, size, sex and ethnicity. In conclusion, when interpreting BMC in paediatrics we recommend standards that are sex, age, size and ethnic specific. PMID:19854308

  19. International longitudinal pediatric reference standards for bone mineral content. (United States)

    Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Burrows, Melonie; Bachrach, Laura K; Lloyd, Tom; Petit, Moira; Macdonald, Heather; Mirwald, Robert L; Bailey, Don; McKay, Heather


    To render a diagnosis pediatricians rely upon reference standards for bone mineral density or bone mineral content, which are based on cross-sectional data from a relatively small sample of children. These standards are unable to adequately represent growth in a diverse pediatric population. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop sex and site-specific standards for BMC using longitudinal data collected from four international sites in Canada and the United States. Data from four studies were combined; Saskatchewan Paediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (n=251), UBC Healthy Bones Study (n=382); Penn State Young Women's Health Study (n=112) and Stanford's Bone Mineral Accretion study (n=423). Males and females (8 to 25 years) were measured for whole body (WB), total proximal femur (PF), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) BMC (g). Data were analyzed using random effects models. Bland-Altman was used to investigate agreement between predicted and actual data. Age, height, weight and ethnicity independently predicted BMC accrual across sites (Paccrual; Hispanic 75.4 (28.2) g less BMC accrual; Blacks 82.8 (26.3) g more BMC accrual with confounders of age, height and weight controlled. We report similar findings for the PF and FN. Models for females for all sites were similar with age, height and weight as independent significant predictors of BMC accrual (Paccounting for age, size, sex and ethnicity. In conclusion, when interpreting BMC in pediatrics we recommend standards that are sex, age, size and ethnic specific. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mathematical gauge theory with applications to the standard model of particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Mark J D


    The Standard Model is the foundation of modern particle and high energy physics. This book explains the mathematical background behind the Standard Model, translating ideas from physics into a mathematical language and vice versa. The first part of the book covers the mathematical theory of Lie groups and Lie algebras, fibre bundles, connections, curvature and spinors. The second part then gives a detailed exposition of how these concepts are applied in physics, concerning topics such as the Lagrangians of gauge and matter fields, spontaneous symmetry breaking, the Higgs boson and mass generation of gauge bosons and fermions. The book also contains a chapter on advanced and modern topics in particle physics, such as neutrino masses, CP violation and Grand Unification. This carefully written textbook is aimed at graduate students of mathematics and physics. It contains numerous examples and more than 150 exercises, making it suitable for self-study and use alongside lecture courses. Only a basic knowledge of d...

  1. Implementing the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Standards: A slow process


    Joseph M. Furner


    The purpose of this study was to look at inservice teachers’ pedagogical beliefs about the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Standards (1989 & 2000).  The Standards’ Belief Instrument (Zollman and Mason, 1992) was administered on teachers.  An ANOVA was used to look for a significant difference between teachers with five years or less experience of teaching mathematics, and those with more than five years teaching experience. One expectation was  that teachers who are recent graduat...

  2. Technological pedagogical content knowledge of prospective mathematics teachers regarding evaluation and assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Atasoy


    Full Text Available The ‘technology integrated assessment process’ is an innovative method to capture and determine students’ understanding of mathematics. This assessment process is claimed to provide a singular dynamism for teaching and learning activities and it is also claimed to be of the most important elements of instruction in the educational system. In this sense, this study aims to investigate technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK of prospective mathematics teachers regarding the ‘evaluation’ and ‘assessment’ process. To achieve this aim, the method of qualitative research was conducted with 20 teachers. Video records and lesson plans were collected and a Mathematics Teacher TPACK Development Model was utilized to reveal themes and key features of the data. The findings revealed that, although the majority of teachers stated that they would like to use technology-integrated tools in the assessment and evaluation processes, they strongly preferred to use traditional assessment and evaluation techniques, such as pen and paper activities, multiple-choice questions in virtual environments, etc. Hence, the evidence suggests that teachers would be unable to use appropriately the technological assessment process in order to reveal students’ understanding of mathematics. As seen from the teachers’ lectures, they perceived that technology would be suitable for evaluation and assessment but in a limited way.

  3. An Evaluation of the Intended and Implemented Curricula’s Adherence to the NCTM Standards on the Mathematics Achievement of Third Grade Students: A Case Study


    Griffin, Cynthia C.; Xin, Yan Ping; Jitendra, Asha


    This article describes the results of a case study evaluating the influence of the intended (textbook) and implemented curricula’s (teachers’ instructional practice) adherence to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics’ (NCTM) Standards on student outcomes in mathematics. We collected data on 72 third-grade students from four classrooms in one elementary school. Textbook and teacher adherence to the standards were evaluated using content analysis and direct observation procedures, res...

  4. 76 FR 65544 - Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facilities (United States)


    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2009-0323] Standard Format and Content of License Applications... revision to regulatory guide (RG) 3.39, ``Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facilities.'' This guide endorses the standard format and content for license...

  5. Measuring and factors influencing mathematics teachers' technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) in three southernmost provinces, Thailand (United States)

    Adulyasas, Lilla


    Technology becomes an important role in teaching and learning mathematics nowadays. Integrating technology in the classroom helps students have better understanding in many of mathematics concepts. One of the major framework for assessing the knowledge of integrating technology with the pedagogy and content in the classroom is Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework. This study aimed to measure mathematics teachers' TPACK in three southernmost provinces, Thailand and to study on factors influencing their TPACK. A quantitative study was carried out with 210 secondary level mathematics teachers in the three southernmost provinces, Thailand which were random by two stage sampling technique. Data were collected by using a questionnaire to identify the level of mathematics teachers' TPACK and the factors influencing their TPACK. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlation and multiple regression analysis were used for analysing data. Findings reveal that the mean score of mathematics teachers' TPACK is 3.33 which is in the medium level and the three factors which have positive correlation at .05 level of significant with the level of TPACK are teaching experience factor, individual specialization factor and personal & organization factor. However, there are only two factors influencing mathematics teachers' TPACK. The two factors are individual specialization factor and personal & organization factors. These give better understanding on mathematics teachers' knowledge in integrating technology with the pedagogy and content which will be the important information for improving mathematics teachers' TPACK.

  6. Integrating pedagogical content knowledge and pedagogical/psychological knowledge in mathematics (United States)

    Harr, Nora; Eichler, Andreas; Renkl, Alexander


    In teacher education at universities, general pedagogical and psychological principles are often treated separately from subject matter knowledge and therefore run the risk of not being applied in the teaching subject. In an experimental study (N = 60 mathematics student teachers) we investigated the effects of providing aspects of general pedagogical/psychological knowledge (PPK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in an integrated or separated way. In both conditions (“integrated” vs. “separated”), participants individually worked on computer-based learning environments addressing the same topic: use and handling of multiple external representations, a central issue in mathematics. We experimentally varied whether PPK aspects and PCK aspects were treated integrated or apart from one another. As expected, the integrated condition led to greater application of pedagogical/psychological aspects and an increase in applying both knowledge types simultaneously compared to the separated condition. Overall, our findings indicate beneficial effects of an integrated design in teacher education. PMID:25191300

  7. Is Content or Interest and Enthusiasm of Mathematics Teachers more important? (United States)

    Stojanovski, E.


    Due to the different type of student being taught today both in the classrooms of secondary schools and at tertiary institutions, it has been proposed that teaching pedagogies for the teaching of mathematics and statistics should also be adjusted to more effectively teach the new age student. Students of today, compared to students from two decades ago, for example, are much more technology savvy, are more likely to own mobile phones and more likely to engage with social media. It seems reasonable then that teaching strategies adapt to the changing student. Secondary data of secondary students are presented to assess the performance of students in mathematics for different aspects of teaching; in particular, to compare whether the interest of teachers appears more important when compared to aspects of teaching that focus only on the delivery of relevant content.

  8. Educational standardization and gender differences in mathematics achievement: A comparative study. (United States)

    Ayalon, Hanna; Livneh, Idit


    We argue that between-country variations in the gender gap in mathematics are related to the level of educational system standardization. In countries with standardized educational systems both genders are exposed to similar knowledge and are motivated to invest in studying mathematics, which leads to similar achievements. We hypothesize that national examinations and between-teacher uniformity in covering major mathematics topics are associated with a smaller gender gap in a country. Based on Trends of International Mathematical and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003, we use multilevel regression models to compare the link of these two factors to the gender gap in 32 countries, controlling for various country characteristics. The use of national examinations and less between-teacher instructional variation prove major factors in reducing the advantage of boys over girls in mathematics scores and in the odds of excelling. Factors representing gender stratification, often analyzed in comparative gender-gap research in mathematics, are at most marginal in respect of the gap. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Identifying and Using Picture Books with Quality Mathematical Content: Moving beyond "Counting on Frank" and "The Very Hungry Caterpillar" (United States)

    Marston, Jennie


    This article by Jennie Marston provides a framework to assist you in selecting appropriate picture books to present mathematical content. Jennie demonstrates the framework by applying three specific examples of picture books to the framework along with examples of activities.

  10. Developing Distinct Mathematical and Scientific Pedagogical Content Knowledge in an Early Childhood Dual-Content Methods Course: An Alternative to Integration (United States)

    Kalchman, Mindy; Kozoll, Richard H.


    Methods for teaching early childhood mathematics and science are often addressed in a single, dual-content course. Approaches to teaching this type of course include integrating the content and the pedagogy of both subjects, or keeping the subject areas distinct. In this article, the authors discuss and illustrate their approach to such a combined…

  11. 45 CFR 170.205 - Content exchange standards and implementation specifications for exchanging electronic health... (United States)


    .... The Healthcare Information Technology Standards Panel (HITSP) Summary Documents Using HL7 CCD... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS... TECHNOLOGY Standards and Implementation Specifications for Health Information Technology § 170.205 Content...

  12. Orientations toward Mathematical Processes of Prospective Secondary Mathematics Teachers as Related to Work with Tasks (United States)

    Cannon, Tenille


    Mathematics can be conceptualized in different ways. Policy documents such as the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) (2000) and the Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI) (2010), classify mathematics in terms of mathematical content (e.g., quadratic functions, Pythagorean theorem) and mathematical activity in the form of…

  13. Preservice Secondary Teachers' Conceptions from a Mathematical Modeling Activity and Connections to the Common Core State Standards (United States)

    Stohlmann, Micah; Maiorca, Cathrine; Olson, Travis A.


    Mathematical modeling is an essential integrated piece of the Common Core State Standards. However, researchers have shown that mathematical modeling activities can be difficult for teachers to implement. Teachers are more likely to implement mathematical modeling activities if they have their own successful experiences with such activities. This…

  14. Overview of the ANS [American Nuclear Society] mathematics and computation software standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetana, A.O.


    The Mathematics and Computations Division of the American Nuclear Society sponsors the ANS-10 Standards Subcommittee. This subcommittee, which is part of the ANS Standards Committee, currently maintains four ANSI/ANS software standards. These standards are: Recommended Programming Practices to Facilitate the Portability of Scientific Computer Programs, ANS-10.2; Guidelines for the Documentation of Computer Software, ANS-10.3; Guidelines for the Verification and Validation of Scientific and Engineering Computer Programs for the Nuclear Industry, ANS-10.4; and Guidelines for Accommodating User Needs in Computer Program Development, ANS-10.5. 5 refs

  15. Comparing the Effects of Elementary Music and Visual Arts Lessons on Standardized Mathematics Test Scores (United States)

    King, Molly Elizabeth


    The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative study was to compare the effect elementary music and visual arts lessons had on third through sixth grade standardized mathematics test scores. Inferential statistics were used to compare the differences between test scores of students who took in-school, elementary, music instruction during the…

  16. Pedagogical content knowledge: Knowledge of pedagogy novice teachers in mathematics learning on limit algebraic function (United States)

    Ma'rufi, Budayasa, I. Ketut; Juniati, Dwi


    Teacher is one of the key aspects of student's achievement. Teachers should master content material taught, how to teach it, and can interpret the students' thinking so that students easily understand the subject matter. This research was a qualitative research that aimed at describing profile of PCK's teachers in mathematics on limit algebraic functions in terms of the differences of teaching experience. Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) and understanding of teachers is defined as involving the relationship between knowledge of teaching materials, how to transfer the subject matter, and the knowledge of students in mathematics on limit algebraic functions that the subject matter may be understood by students. The PCK components in this research were knowledge of subject matter, knowledge of pedagogy, and knowledge of students. Knowledge of pedagogy defines as knowledge and understanding of teachers about the planning and organization of the learning and teaching strategy of limit algebraic function. The subjects were two mathematics high school teachers who teach in class XI IPS. Data were collected through observation of learning during five meetings and interviews before and after the lesson continued with qualitative data analysis. Focus of this article was to describe novice teacher's knowledge of student in mathematics learning on limit algebraic function. Based on the results of the analysis of qualitative data the data concluded that novice teacher's knowledge of pedagogy in mathematics on limit algebraic function showed: 1) in teaching the definitions tend to identify prior knowledge of the student experience with the material to be studied, but not in the form of a problem, 2) in posing the questions tend to be monotonous non lead and dig, 3) in response to student questions preservice teachers do not take advantage of the characteristics or the potential of other students, 4) in addressing the problem of students, tend to use the drill approach and did

  17. The Influences of Middle School Mathematics Teachers' Practical Rationality on Instructional Decision Making Regarding the Common Core State Standards for Mathematical Practices (United States)

    Sobolewski-McMahon, Lauren M.


    The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of various facets of middle school mathematics teachers' practical rationality on their instructional decision making as they plan to enact the Common Core State Standards for Mathematical Practice, CCSS-MP1 (perseverance in problem solving) and CCSS-MP3 (communicating and critiquing). The…

  18. Content Validity and Acceptability of a Developed Worktext in Basic Mathematics 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mae Joy F. Tan-Espinar


    Full Text Available Teaching tertiary mathematics entails the use of instructional materials which lead to independent learning. The study evaluated the content validity and level of acceptability of a developed worktext in Basic Mathematics 2. It also found the significant difference between the respondents’ evaluation. Likewise, the study found the significant difference in the pretest and posttest performance between experimental and the control group and the difference between the posttest of the experimental and control groups. The study utilized the descriptive comparative method in determining the validity and acceptability of the developed worktext and the difference between the evaluation of experts/teachers and the student respondents. Quasi-experimental design was also used to find out if the worktext is effective in teaching the course employing t-test for correlated samples and t-test for independent samples. The result showed that the content validity and acceptability is very much valid and very much acceptable. The difference in the post-test between the experimental and the control groups was significant. It is concluded that the worktext is effective to be used in teaching the course.

  19. Alignment between South African mathematics assessment standards and the TIMSS assessment frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mdutshekelwa Ndlovu


    Full Text Available South Africa’s performance in international benchmark tests is a major cause for concern amongst educators and policymakers, raising questions about the effectiveness of the curriculum reform efforts of the democratic era. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to investigate the degree of alignment between the TIMSS 2003 Grade 8 Mathematics assessment frameworks and the Revised National Curriculum Statements (RNCS assessment standards for Grade 8 Mathematics, later revised to become the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements (CAPS. Such an investigation could help to partly shed light on why South African learners do not perform well and point out discrepancies that need to be attended to. The methodology of document analysis was adopted for the study, with the RNCS and the TIMSS 2003 Grade 8 Mathematics frameworks forming the principal documents. Porter’s moderately complex index of alignment was adopted for its simplicity. The computed index of 0.751 for the alignment between the RNCS assessment standards and the TIMSS assessment objectives was found to be significantly statistically low, at the alpha level of 0.05, according to Fulmer’s critical values for 20 cells and 90 or 120 standard points. The study suggests that inadequate attention has been paid to the alignment of the South African mathematics curriculum to the successive TIMSS assessment frameworks in terms of the cognitive level descriptions. The study recommends that participation in TIMSS should rigorously and critically inform ongoing curriculum reform efforts.

  20. 77 FR 75198 - Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report (United States)


    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0299] Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown... regulatory guide (DG), DG-1272, ``Standard Format and Content for Post-shutdown Decommissioning Activities... Content for Post-shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report,'' which was issued in July 2000. DG-1271...

  1. Differences in Mathematics Teachers' Perceived Preparedness to Demonstrate Competence in Secondary School Mathematics Content by Teacher Characteristics (United States)

    Ng'eno, J. K.; Chesimet, M. C.


    A sample of 300 mathematics teachers drawn from a population of 1500 participated in this study. The participants were selected using systematic random sampling and stratified random sampling (stratified by qualification and gender). The data was collected using self-report questionnaires for mathematics teachers. One tool was used to collect…

  2. Implementing the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Standards: A slow process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Furner


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to look at inservice teachers’ pedagogical beliefs about the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Standards (1989 & 2000.  The Standards’ Belief Instrument (Zollman and Mason, 1992 was administered on teachers.  An ANOVA was used to look for a significant difference between teachers with five years or less experience of teaching mathematics, and those with more than five years teaching experience. One expectation was  that teachers who are recent graduates of teacher education programmes may have more training  on the NCTM Standards. Although there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups, this study did support the expectation. Current training with in-service teachers shows that many of the teachers are familiar with neither the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics nor their Standards.  It seems then from this study that the implementation process of the NCTM Standards, and  perhaps any standards or best practices and new curriculum implementation, is very sluggish.

  3. The Relationship Between State and District Content Standards:Issues of Alignment, Influence and Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Dutro


    Full Text Available At the core of standards-based reform are content standards--statements about what students should know and be able to do. Although it is state standards that are the focus of much public attention and consume substantial resources, many local school districts have developed their own content standards in the major subject areas. However, we know very little about the role state standards have played in local standards efforts. In this article we report on a study of the relationship between state and local content standards in reading in four states and districts. Through interviews with key personnel in each state, and district and analyses of state and local content standards in reading, we explored the alignment between state and district content standards, the path of influence between the two, and the role of high-stakes tests in state and districts reform efforts. Our findings suggest that alignment had multiple meanings and that state standards had differential utility to districts, ranging from helpful to benign to nuisance. This wide variability was influenced by the nature of the standards themselves, the state vision of alignment and local control, districts’ own engagement and commitment to professional development, and student performance on high-stakes tests. We explore implications for the future of content standards as the cornerstone of standards-based reform and argue that states must promote district ownership and expand accountability if state content standards are to have any relevance for local efforts to reform teaching and learning.

  4. An Archaeological/Genealogical Historical Analysis of The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' Standards Documents (United States)

    Bullock, Erika Catherine


    Since the mid-20th century in the United States, there have been several reform movements within mathematics education; each movement has been subject to its own unique socio-cultural and -political forces. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' (NCTM) Standards documents--"Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School…

  5. Guidelines on Active Content and Mobile Code: Recommendations of the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jansen, Wayne


    .... One such category of technologies is active content. Broadly speaking, active content refers to electronic documents that, unlike past character documents based on the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII...

  6. Measuring fuel moisture content in Alaska: standard methods and procedures. (United States)

    Rodney A. Norum; Melanie. Miller


    Methods and procedures are given for collecting and processing living and dead plant materials for the purpose of determining their water content. Wild-land fuels in Alaska are emphasized, but the methodology is applicable elsewhere. Guides are given for determining the number of samples needed to attain a chosen precision. Detailed procedures are presented for...

  7. Standardizing consumer’s expectations in digital content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helberger, N.


    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to make suggestions of how to improve the legal standing of consumers of digital content products. Design/methodology/approach - The analysis in this paper is based on desk research and comparative legal research, among others in the context of research

  8. Design of capability measurement instruments pedagogic content knowledge (PCK) for prospective mathematics teachers (United States)

    Aminah, N.; Wahyuni, I.


    The purpose of this study is to find out how the process of designing a tool of measurement Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) capabilities, especially for prospective mathematics teachers are valid and practical. The design study of this measurement appliance uses modified Plomp development step, which consists of (1) initial assessment stage, (2) design stage at this stage, the researcher designs the measuring grille of PCK capability, (3) realization stage that is making measurement tool ability of PCK, (4) test phase, evaluation, and revision that is testing validation of measurement tools conducted by experts. Based on the results obtained that the design of PCK capability measurement tool is valid as indicated by the assessment of expert validator, and the design of PCK capability measurement tool, shown based on the assessment of teachers and lecturers as users of states strongly agree the design of PCK measurement tools can be used.

  9. The Preparation Experiences of Elementary Mathematics Specialists: Examining Influences on Beliefs, Content Knowledge, and Teaching Practices (United States)

    Swars, Susan L.; Smith, Stephanie Z.; Smith, Marvin E.; Carothers, Jody; Myers, Kayla


    Many in the field of mathematics education call for elementary schools to have elementary mathematics specialists (EMSs) who provide needed mathematical expertise and support for children and teachers. EMSs serve as a reasonable, immediate alternative to the challenges generated by elementary teachers needing improved mathematical knowledge for…

  10. Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Eringen, A Cemal


    Continuum Physics: Volume 1 - Mathematics is a collection of papers that discusses certain selected mathematical methods used in the study of continuum physics. Papers in this collection deal with developments in mathematics in continuum physics and its applications such as, group theory functional analysis, theory of invariants, and stochastic processes. Part I explains tensor analysis, including the geometry of subspaces and the geometry of Finsler. Part II discusses group theory, which also covers lattices, morphisms, and crystallographic groups. Part III reviews the theory of invariants th

  11. Standard Test Methods for Constituent Content of Composite Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 These test methods determine the constituent content of composite materials by one of two approaches. Method I physically removes the matrix by digestion or ignition by one of seven procedures, leaving the reinforcement essentially unaffected and thus allowing calculation of reinforcement or matrix content (by weight or volume) as well as percent void volume. Method II, applicable only to laminate materials of known fiber areal weight, calculates reinforcement or matrix content (by weight or volume), and the cured ply thickness, based on the measured thickness of the laminate. Method II is not applicable to the measurement of void volume. 1.1.1 These test methods are primarily intended for two-part composite material systems. However, special provisions can be made to extend these test methods to filled material systems with more than two constituents, though not all test results can be determined in every case. 1.1.2 The procedures contained within have been designed to be particularly effective for ce...

  12. National Standards for Financial Literacy: Rationale and Content (United States)

    Bosshardt, William; Walstad, William B.


    The "National Standards for Financial Literacy" describe the knowledge, understanding, and skills that are important for students to learn about personal finance. They are designed to guide teachers, school administrators, and other educators in developing curriculum and educational materials for teaching financial literacy. In this…

  13. Mathematics of quantitative kinetic PCR and the application of standard curves. (United States)

    Rutledge, R G; Côté, C


    Fluorescent monitoring of DNA amplification is the basis of real-time PCR, from which target DNA concentration can be determined from the fractional cycle at which a threshold amount of amplicon DNA is produced. Absolute quantification can be achieved using a standard curve constructed by amplifying known amounts of target DNA. In this study, the mathematics of quantitative PCR are examined in detail, from which several fundamental aspects of the threshold method and the application of standard curves are illustrated. The construction of five replicate standard curves for two pairs of nested primers was used to examine the reproducibility and degree of quantitative variation using SYBER Green I fluorescence. Based upon this analysis the application of a single, well- constructed standard curve could provide an estimated precision of +/-6-21%, depending on the number of cycles required to reach threshold. A simplified method for absolute quantification is also proposed, in which quantitative scale is determined by DNA mass at threshold.

  14. 78 FR 38739 - Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report (United States)


    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0299] Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory guide; issuance..., ``Standard Format and Content for Post-shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report.'' This guide describes a...

  15. 76 FR 59173 - Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Conventional Uranium Mills (United States)


    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2008-0302] Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Conventional Uranium Mills AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide..., ``Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Conventional Uranium Mills.'' DG- 3024 was a...

  16. Developing content standards for teaching research skills using a delphi method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, M.F. van der; Stokking, K.M.; Verloop, N.


    The increased attention for teacher assessment and current educational reforms ask for procedures to develop adequate content standards. For the development of content standards on teaching research skills, a Delphi method based on stakeholders’ judgments has been designed and tested. In three

  17. What counts in teaching mathematics adding value to self and content

    CERN Document Server

    Schuck, Sandy


    This synthesis of current practice and research in mathematics teacher education and mathematics education features contributions from recognised scholars. It examines the role of 'critical friends' in reflective practice and the emerging issues in the field.

  18. A mathematics content course and teaching efficacy beliefs of undergraduate majors in education. (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Haitham M; Abed, Adnan S


    This study was designed to assess the mathematics teaching efficacy beliefs of undergraduates in elementary education through a manipulative-based course in mathematics. Responses of 106 university undergraduates to the 21-item Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs administered as pre- and posttest without a control group showed a significant immediate postcourse change in their efficacy beliefs using dependent t test.

  19. A Content Analysis Study about the Usage of History of Mathematics in Textbooks in Turkey (United States)

    Eren, Mehmet; Bulut, Mehmet; Bulut, Neslihan


    The present study aimed to investigate how history of mathematics was integrated to some mathematics textbooks in Turkey. On this account, four different textbooks with different grade levels were chosen. In total, 42 cases were detected and studied by three researchers. Results indicated that the usage of history of mathematics was materialized…

  20. Exploring Mathematics Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge in the Context of Knowledge of Students (United States)

    Aksu, Zeki; Kul, Ümit


    Functions are one of the basic topics taught in mathematics curriculum at Secondary school level requiring knowledge from the students' past, and uniting mathematical topics. Mathematics teachers have both their own learning experience of functions, as well as their own teaching experience, leading to the question of what level of student…

  1. A Framework for Proofs and Refutations in School Mathematics: Increasing Content by Deductive Guessing (United States)

    Komatsu, Kotaro


    The process of proofs and refutations described by Lakatos is essential in school mathematics to provide students with an opportunity to experience how mathematical knowledge develops dynamically within the discipline of mathematics. In this paper, a framework for describing student processes of proofs and refutations is constructed using a set of…

  2. Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Sherman K


    Anyone can appreciate the beauty, depth, and vitality of mathematics with the help of this highly readable text, specially developed from a college course designed to appeal to students in a variety of fields. Readers with little mathematical background are exposed to a broad range of subjects chosen from number theory, topology, set theory, geometry, algebra, and analysis. Starting with a survey of questions on weight, the text discusses the primes, the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, rationals and irrationals, tiling, tiling and electricity, probability, infinite sets, and many other topi


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Smirnova


    Full Text Available The article substantiates the need to improve the logical preparation of students. The authors regard the logical-oriented tasks as a form of organization of the content of educational material in teaching Mathematics and discriminate the types of tasks aimed at the formation of logical methods and operations.

  4. Focusing on Interactions between Content and Cognition: A New Perspective on Gender Differences in Mathematical Sub-Competencies (United States)

    George, Ann Cathrice; Robitzsch, Alexander


    This article presents a new perspective on measuring gender differences in the large-scale assessment study Trends in International Science Study (TIMSS). The suggested empirical model is directly based on the theoretical competence model of the domain mathematics and thus includes the interaction between content and cognitive sub-competencies.…

  5. Developing Pre-Service Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics with the Geometer's Sketchpad through Lesson Study (United States)

    Meng, Chew Cheng; Sam, Lim Chap


    The purpose of this study was to develop pre-service secondary teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) for teaching mathematics with The Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP) through Lesson Study (LS). Specifically, a single-group pretest-posttest design was employed to examine whether there was a significant difference in the…

  6. The process of teaching learning of the basic mathematical contents in the context of the professor's formation of Mathematical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamila Medina-Sánchez


    Full Text Available Teacher training has been ongoing task for Cuban pedagogical universities. In this sense, the results of research carried out with the title based teaching problems in the context of School Mathematics in initial teacher training Mathematics are presented. An educational model that systematizes and enriches the theory of teaching Alan Schoenfeld, revealing and argue new components, specified for application in practice a strategy of the same nature is provided. For its development theoretical methods, such as dialectical hermeneutical, analysis and synthesis, structural systemic, modeling, deductive inductive and logical historical, and empirical level survey, interview, observation were used, the educational testing, consultation with specialists and pre experiment, which enabled the collection and analysis of results.

  7. Mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demazure, M.


    The 1988 progress report of the Mathematics center (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Center is composed of different research teams: analysis, Riemann geometry, group theory, formal calculus and algorithm geometry, dynamical systems, topology and singularity. For each team, the members, the research topics, the national and international cooperations, are given. The papers concerning the investigations carried out in 1988, are listed [fr

  8. Stereotactically Standard Areas: Applied Mathematics in the Service of Brain Targeting in Deep Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Mavridis


    Full Text Available The concept of stereotactically standard areas (SSAs within human brain nuclei belongs to the knowledge of the modern field of stereotactic brain microanatomy. These are areas resisting the individual variability of the nuclear location in stereotactic space. This paper summarizes the current knowledge regarding SSAs. A mathematical formula of SSAs was recently invented, allowing for their robust, reproducible, and accurate application to laboratory studies and clinical practice. Thus, SSAs open new doors for the application of stereotactic microanatomy to highly accurate brain targeting, which is mainly useful for minimally invasive neurosurgical procedures, such as deep brain stimulation.

  9. Stereotactically Standard Areas: Applied Mathematics in the Service of Brain Targeting in Deep Brain Stimulation. (United States)

    Mavridis, Ioannis N


    The concept of stereotactically standard areas (SSAs) within human brain nuclei belongs to the knowledge of the modern field of stereotactic brain microanatomy. These are areas resisting the individual variability of the nuclear location in stereotactic space. This paper summarizes the current knowledge regarding SSAs. A mathematical formula of SSAs was recently invented, allowing for their robust, reproducible, and accurate application to laboratory studies and clinical practice. Thus, SSAs open new doors for the application of stereotactic microanatomy to highly accurate brain targeting, which is mainly useful for minimally invasive neurosurgical procedures, such as deep brain stimulation.

  10. Implementing the Standards. Teaching Discrete Mathematics in Grades 7-12. (United States)

    Hart, Eric W.; And Others


    Discrete mathematics are defined briefly. A course in discrete mathematics for high school students and teaching discrete mathematics in grades 7 and 8 including finite differences, recursion, and graph theory are discussed. (CW)

  11. The Mathematics Syllabus and Adult Learners in Community Colleges: Integrating Technique with Content. (United States)

    Baker, Robert N.


    Presents a brief discussion of the challenges presented to mathematics education by changes in social dependence on mathematics, in professional response to the needs of students, in institutional expectations of students and teachers, and in student demographics and expectations. Provides an extended outline for a syllabus used to clearly…

  12. Secondary School Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers' Content Knowledge of Algebraic Word Problem in Nigeria (United States)

    Usman, Ahmed Ibrahim


    Knowledge and understanding of mathematical operations serves as a pre-reequisite for the successful translation of algebraic word problems. This study explored pre-service teachers' ability to recognize mathematical operations as well as use of those capabilities in constructing algebraic expressions, equations, and their solutions. The outcome…

  13. Examining the Interactions between Mathematical Content and Pedagogical Form: Notes on the Structure of the Lesson (United States)

    Karp, Alexander


    Research conducted during the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and later (Stigler et al. 1999; Stigler and Hiebert 1999) undertook a thorough analysis of lessons in the United States, Japan, and Germany. This article focuses on certain aspects of mathematics lessons in Russia. Specifically, the attempt is made to…

  14. Relationship between Pedagogical Strategies and Teachers' Content Knowledge of Mathematics (United States)

    Kanyongo, Gibbs Y.; Brown, Launcelot I.


    This study employed regression analysis to investigate the relationship between primary school teachers' pedagogical practices and their knowledge of mathematics. The sample composed of 606 Grade 6 mathematics teachers in Namibia, i.e. 304 (50.2%) males and 302 (49.8%) females. The study utilized existing questionnaire data collected by the…

  15. Recommendation of standardized health learning contents using archetypes and semantic web technologies. (United States)

    Legaz-García, María del Carmen; Martínez-Costa, Catalina; Menárguez-Tortosa, Marcos; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás


    Linking Electronic Healthcare Records (EHR) content to educational materials has been considered a key international recommendation to enable clinical engagement and to promote patient safety. This would suggest citizens to access reliable information available on the web and to guide them properly. In this paper, we describe an approach in that direction, based on the use of dual model EHR standards and standardized educational contents. The recommendation method will be based on the semantic coverage of the learning content repository for a particular archetype, which will be calculated by applying semantic web technologies like ontologies and semantic annotations.

  16. Standardization from a benchtop to a handheld NIR spectrometer using mathematically mixed NIR spectra to determine fuel quality parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Neirivaldo Cavalcante; Cavalcanti, Claudia Jessica; Honorato, Fernanda Araujo


    spectral responses of fuel samples (gasoline and biodiesel blends) from a high-resolution benchtop Frontier FT-NIR (PerkinElmer) spectrometer and a handheld MicroNIR™1700 (JDSU). These virtual standards can be created by mathematically mixing spectra from the pure solvents present in gasoline or diesel...... to the handheld MicroNIR using virtual standards as transfer samples...

  17. Methodological Choices in the Content Analysis of Textbooks for Measuring Alignment with Standards (United States)

    Polikoff, Morgan S.; Zhou, Nan; Campbell, Shauna E.


    With the recent adoption of the Common Core standards in many states, there is a need for quality information about textbook alignment to standards. While there are many existing content analysis procedures, these generally have little, if any, validity or reliability evidence. One exception is the Surveys of Enacted Curriculum (SEC), which has…

  18. An Analysis of Geography Content in Relation to Geography for Life Standards in Oman (United States)

    Al-Nofli, Mohammed Abdullah


    Since the publication of "Geography for Life: National Geography Standards" in the United States (Geography Education Standards Project, 1994), it has been widely used to develop quality curriculum materials for what students should know and able to do in geography. This study compared geography content taught in Omani public schools…

  19. Pre-Calculus California Content Standards: Standards Deconstruction Project. Version 1.0 (United States)

    Arnold, Bruce; Cliffe, Karen; Cubillo, Judy; Kracht, Brenda; Leaf, Abi; Legner, Mary; McGinity, Michelle; Orr, Michael; Rocha, Mario; Ross, Judy; Teegarden, Terrie; Thomson, Sarah; Villero, Geri


    This project was coordinated and funded by the California Partnership for Achieving Student Success (Cal-PASS). Cal-PASS is a data sharing system linking all segments of education. Its purpose is to improve student transition and success from one educational segment to the next. Cal-PASS' standards deconstruction project was initiated by the…

  20. Energy content estimation by collegians for portion standardized foods frequently consumed in Korea. (United States)

    Kim, Jin; Lee, Hee Jung; Lee, Hyun Jung; Lee, Sun Ha; Yun, Jee-Young; Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun


    The purpose of this study is to estimate Korean collegians' knowledge of energy content in the standard portion size of foods frequently consumed in Korea and to investigate the differences in knowledge between gender groups. A total of 600 collegians participated in this study. Participants' knowledge was assessed based on their estimation on the energy content of 30 selected food items with their actual-size photo images. Standard portion size of food was based on 2010 Korean Dietary Reference Intakes, and the percentage of participants who accurately estimated (that is, within 20% of the true value) the energy content of the standard portion size was calculated for each food item. The food for which the most participants provided the accurate estimation was ramyun (instant noodles) (67.7%), followed by cooked rice (57.8%). The proportion of students who overestimated the energy content was highest for vegetables (68.8%) and beverages (68.1%). The proportion of students who underestimated the energy content was highest for grains and starches (42.0%) and fruits (37.1%). Female students were more likely to check energy content of foods that they consumed than male students. From these results, it was concluded that the knowledge on food energy content was poor among collegians, with some gender difference. Therefore, in the future, nutrition education programs should give greater attention to improving knowledge on calorie content and to helping them apply this knowledge in order to develop effective dietary plans.

  1. The impact of assumed knowledge entry standards on undergraduate mathematics teaching in Australia (United States)

    King, Deborah; Cattlin, Joann


    Over the last two decades, many Australian universities have relaxed their selection requirements for mathematics-dependent degrees, shifting from hard prerequisites to assumed knowledge standards which provide students with an indication of the prior learning that is expected. This has been regarded by some as a positive move, since students who may be returning to study, or who are changing career paths but do not have particular prerequisite study, now have more flexible pathways. However, there is mounting evidence to indicate that there are also significant negative impacts associated with assumed knowledge approaches, with large numbers of students enrolling in degrees without the stated assumed knowledge. For students, there are negative impacts on pass rates and retention rates and limitations to pathways within particular degrees. For institutions, the necessity to offer additional mathematics subjects at a lower level than normal and more support services for under-prepared students impacts on workloads and resources. In this paper, we discuss early research from the First Year in Maths project, which begins to shed light on the realities of a system that may in fact be too flexible.

  2. The Optimal Design Method and Standardized Mathematical Model of Tooth Profile Modification of Spur Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Mei


    Full Text Available The paper reports a tooth profile modification method of spur gear. After establishing a standardized mathematical model for optimized tooth profile and simulating meshing process with ANSYS finite element analysis, we obtained 625 groups of gear models with different modification parameters. The group with minimum transmission errors owns the optimal parameters. Genetic algorithm was adopted in the entire process for the purpose of reducing the variation of transmission errors in meshing process. The arc and parabolic modification were doing the same processing. After comparing the transmission errors fluctuation produced by the meshing process of gear of nonmodification with arc modification and parabolic modification, we found that the best modification effects of arc modification and parabolic modification were both reduced by 90%. The modification method makes the gear drive process more stable and efficient, and it is also promising in general application for gear drive.

  3. Seismic Performance Comparison of a High-Content SDA Frame and Standard RC Frame


    van de Lindt, John W.; Rechan, R. Karthik


    This study presents the method and results of an experiment to study the seismic behavior of a concrete portal frame with fifty percent of its cement content replaced with a spray dryer ash (SDA). Based on multiple-shake-table tests, the high content SDA frame was found to perform as well as the standard concrete frame for two earthquakes exceeding design-level intensity earthquakes. Hence, from a purely seismic/structural standpoint, it may be possible to replace approximately fifty percen...

  4. Usability of American Sign Language Videos for Presenting Mathematics Assessment Content. (United States)

    Hansen, Eric G; Loew, Ruth C; Laitusis, Cara C; Kushalnagar, Poorna; Pagliaro, Claudia M; Kurz, Christopher


    There is considerable interest in determining whether high-quality American Sign Language videos can be used as an accommodation in tests of mathematics at both K-12 and postsecondary levels; and in learning more about the usability (e.g., comprehensibility) of ASL videos with two different types of signers - avatar (animated figure) and human. The researchers describe the results of administering each of nine pre-college mathematics items in both avatar and human versions to each of 31 Deaf participants with high school and post-high school backgrounds. This study differed from earlier studies by obliging the participants to rely on the ASL videos to answer the items. While participants preferred the human version over the avatar version (apparently due largely to the better expressiveness and fluency of the human), there was no discernible relationship between mathematics performance and signed version.

  5. A Study on Gendered Portrayals in Children's Picture Books with Mathematical Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia R. Ladd


    Full Text Available This study analyzes sexism in children's picture books that incorporate mathematical problems and problem-solving into the plot to determine if children's earliest reading material is affecting the achievement gap between males and females in this subject area. The study focused not just on overall totals of male and female characters, but also analyzed which genders most often portrayed gender stereotyped behaviors and personality traits and which characters were most often shown with mathematical skills. The findings of the study show that there were twice as many male as female characters, and the math problem-solving was generally done by males in the majority of titles.

  6. MGIMO Educational Standards: Goal and Contents of Professional Language Training of IR Economics Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla A. Kizima


    Full Text Available The article gives a methodological analysis of MGIMO-University own education standards and programmes. The relevance of the article is explained by the necessity to define the goals and contents of professional language training of IR economics students at MGIMO-University after a transfer to own education standards. The researcher used competence-based and cultural studies approaches with reference to the didactic principles of accessibility, systematic, consistency, necessity and sufficiency. The author used a set of methods including the method of theoretical analysis, the method of synthesis and systematization, summative method. The article addresses the difference in the training of IR economists and economists in other spheres of economics, underlines the importance of professional language training of IR economics students, analyses the specifics of professional language training of IR economists from the standpoint of competence-based approach by comparing the competences presented in the Federal State Education Standards of Higher Education and MGIMO own education standards. The author gives a definition of goal and contents of professional language training of IR economics students as well as didactic principles of contents choice that define the effectiveness of training. In conclusion the author points out that the contents of professional language training of IR economics students based on MGIMO own education standards are approached as the system of professional knowledge, skills and competence leading to successful intercultural communication.

  7. r dr r: Engaging Students with Significant Mathematical Content from The Simpsons (United States)

    Greenwald, Sarah J.; Nestler, Andrew


    "The Simpsons" is an ideal source of fun ways to introduce important mathematical concepts, motivate students, and reduce math anxiety. We discuss examples from "The Simpsons" related to calculus, geometry, and number theory that we have incorporated into the classroom. We explore student reactions and educational benefits and difficulties…

  8. Pupils' Visual Representations in Standard and Problematic Problem Solving in Mathematics: Their Role in the Breach of the Didactical Contract (United States)

    Deliyianni, Eleni; Monoyiou, Annita; Elia, Iliada; Georgiou, Chryso; Zannettou, Eleni


    This study investigated the modes of representations generated by kindergarteners and first graders while solving standard and problematic problems in mathematics. Furthermore, it examined the influence of pupils' visual representations on the breach of the didactical contract rules in problem solving. The sample of the study consisted of 38…

  9. Evolution of standardized procedures for adjusting lumber properties for change in moisture content (United States)

    David W. Green; James W. Evans


    This paper documents the development of procedures in American Society for Testing and Materials standards for adjusting the allowable properties of lumber for changes in moisture content. The paper discusses the historical context of efforts to establish allowable properties on a consensus basis, beginning in the 19th century. Where possible, the reasons for proposed...

  10. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  11. Epistemological Obstacles Experienced by Indonesian Students in Answering Mathematics PISA Test on the Content Uncertainty and Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Rahman


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is trying to identify epistemological obstacles which were experienced by Indonesian students in answering PISA test for mathematics literacy content uncertainty and data. Epistemological obstacles was identified by giving a test to the respondent, students of grade 7th and 8th who have studied data representation in the class. Respondents’ work analysed by qualitative method. The result showed that respondents have epistemological obstacles in reading the data, reading between the data, and reading beyond the data. To gain further understanding, some respondents chose to be interviewed.

  12. Teacher leadership in mathematics and science: Subject content knowledge and the improvement of instruction (United States)

    Manno, Christopher M.

    This study explores the role of teacher leader subject content knowledge in the promotion of professional development and instructional reform. Consistent with a distributed leadership perspective, many have asserted that the promotion of school effectiveness can be enhanced through the application of teacher leadership (Frost & Durrant, 2003; Harris, 2002a; Sherrill, 1999; Silva, Gimbert, & Nolan, 2000; York-Barr & Duke, 2004). There has been much discussion in the research about the significance of teachers' subject content knowledge in teaching and learning which has generally asserted a positive relationship with instructional practice and student achievement (Darling-Hammond, 2000; Newton & Newton, 2001; Parker & Heywood, 2000). The role of content knowledge in teacher leader work has been less researched. This study focused on deepening understanding of perceptions regarding teacher leaders' roles in improving instructional practice. Based on a framework of common teacher leader tasks, qualitative methods were used to investigate the relationship between teacher leader subject content knowledge and perceptions of effectiveness in promoting professional development and instructional reform. The study indicates that content experts behave differently than their non-expert counterparts. Content experts recognize deficiencies in colleagues' content knowledge as a primary problem in the implementation of math or science reform. Content experts view their work as advocacy for improved curriculum and instruction for all children, and work within a small set of task categories to promote discussions about teaching, learning, and content. Content experts develop trust and rapport with colleagues by demonstrating expertise, and are respected for their deep knowledge and efforts to help teachers learn the content. They also differ from non-content experts in the professional growth experiences in which they engage. The consideration of content expertise as an influence

  13. 78 FR 73566 - Standard Format and Content for a License Application for an Independent Spent Fuel Storage... (United States)


    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0264] Standard Format and Content for a License...), DG-3042, ``Standard Format and Content for a License Application for an Independent Spent Fuel..., Form, and Contents,'' specifies the information that must be in an application for a license to store...

  14. Supporting Mathematics Instruction through Community (United States)

    Amidon, Joel C.; Trevathan, Morgan L.


    Raising expectations is nothing new. Every iteration of standards elevates the expectations for what students should know and be able to do. The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) is no exception, with standards for content and practice that move beyond memorization of traditional algorithms to "make sense of problems and…

  15. Beyond Mathematics, a Standard Elementary Particle, and the Unified Field of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sourial, A.S.


    Teaching methods are presented based on a theoretical logical thesis of: A Standard Elementary Particle, i nstead of the current 200 odd different subatomic particles, and their plausible derivation from such a standard particle, similar to the derivation of our body cells from a multi potential S tem Cell, T he thesis reintroduces the theory of A Material Ether a s a necessary medium for the transmission of the Electro-Magnetic-Gravitational Waves. It solves and demystifies the following riddles: 1. The A ether Vacuum, by offering a plausible composition of A n elastic solid medium, t hat meets the specific physical requirements needed for the transmission of the electro magnetic gravitational waves, Explains the vast amount of Potential Energy that such an A ether can carry, That there is No Action at a Distance, 2. It explains Q uantum Mechanics, o n simple Newtonian principles, It nullifies the H eisenberg Uncertainty Principle, s howing that there is no uncertainty whatsoever, for individual particle interactions, and the existence of F unctional Barriers f or the disc like aggregates of contiguous particles representing I ntra-atomic Electrons, a nd A full P hysical e xplanation of the their quantum numbers, their electronic shells, as well as: The Pauli Exclusion Principle. 3. The possible explanation of Hubbell's Law without an expansion of the Universe, that the C osmic Red Shift g ives the illusion of an expanding Universe similar to that of the B ent Stick i n the water due to refraction. 4. That the Big Bang I nflation Theory, f or the origin of the Universe is: a Figment of Imagination similar to Aladdin's D jinni out of the bottle. a nd a Fantasy of Mathematics with complete lack of touch with reality. The thesis suggests a plausible explanation - Modus Operandi - for, and composition of: i) Gravity, II) The structure of nucleons, III) The nature of the strong force, IV) The structure of the string of The String Theory

  16. Metaphors We Do Math By: A Comparative Case Study of Public and Catholic School Teachers’ Understanding of the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics


    Branch, Jennifer Danielle


    The United States has undergone multiple mathematics reforms since the 1980s with each reform setting out to increase national test scores and improve mathematics education in the nation’s schools. The current reform, the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM), seeks to create mathematically proficient students through a more active and rigorous curriculum. The goal of this yearlong study was to examine the understanding that intermediate and middle school math teachers make of t...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kuzina


    Full Text Available The objective conditions of Ukraine’s integration into the global business environment the need to strengthen the accounting and financial re-porting. At the stage of attracting investment in the country there is a need in the preparation of financial statements generally accepted basic prin-ciples of which are based on common international financial reporting standards (IFRS . Relevant is the assessment of convergence of national standards and International Financial Reporting Standards. However, before you conduct content analysis necessary to determine compliance with standards of methodological approaches to the selection of key indicators for the assessment of convergence. The article is to define the methodo-logical approaches to the selection and development of indicators IFRSs list of key elements for further evaluation convergence of national and international standards. To assess the convergence was allocated 187 basic key elements measuring the level of convergence to IFRS. Sampling was carried out based on the professional judgment of the author, the key indicators of the standard, based on the evaluation of the usefulness of accounting information. These figures make it possible to calculate the specific level of convergence of international and national standards and determine how statements prepared by domestic standards corresponding to IFRS. In other words, can with some certainty assert that Ukraine has made (“good practices in IFRS implementation” or not? This calculation will assess the regulatory efforts of government agencies (Ministry of Finance on the approximation of Ukrainian standards and IFRS.

  18. Preliminary Study on the Standard of Selenium Content in Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-yuan; YOU Yong; GUO Qing-quan; WANG Yong-hong; DENG Shi-lin


    With the improvement of living standards, people pay more attention to the agricultural products with health protection function, and the selenium-rich agricultural products attract more and more consumers. The main biological role of selenium is to resist oxidation and inflammatory response, mainly focusing on resisting aging, preventing cardiovascular disease, protecting eyesight, counteracting or destroying the toxic properties, preventing cancer and thyroid disease. In most areas of China, there is a widespread shortage of selenium, thus producing selenium-rich agricultural products to provide natural selenium-rich health food to the areas in need of selenium, has gradually become a new hot spot of China’s health food industry, but high content of selenium in food is detrimental to human body, even leads to selenium intoxication, and artificially adding inorganic selenium is difficult to guarantee that the selenium content of agricultural products is not exceeded. According to human body’s daily demand for selenium in dietetics and the content of selenium in agricultural products in the Chinese food composition table, we put forward the recommendations on the standard of selenium in agricultural products, in order to provide the basis for China to formulate the health standard of selenium content in selenium-rich agricultural products.

  19. Pilot study: EatFit impacts sixth graders' academic performance on achievement of mathematics and english education standards. (United States)

    Shilts, Mical Kay; Lamp, Cathi; Horowitz, Marcel; Townsend, Marilyn S


    Investigate the impact of a nutrition education program on student academic performance as measured by achievement of education standards. Quasi-experimental crossover-controlled study. California Central Valley suburban elementary school (58% qualified for free or reduced-priced lunch). All sixth-grade students (n = 84) in the elementary school clustered in 3 classrooms. 9-lesson intervention with an emphasis on guided goal setting and driven by the Social Cognitive Theory. Multiple-choice survey assessing 5 education standards for sixth-grade mathematics and English at 3 time points: baseline (T1), 5 weeks (T2), and 10 weeks (T3). Repeated measures, paired t test, and analysis of covariance. Changes in total scores were statistically different (P academic performance measured by achievement of specific mathematics and English education standards. Nutrition educators can show school administrators and wellness committee members that this program can positively impact academic performance, concomitant to its primary objective of promoting healthful eating and physical activity.

  20. Systematized water content calculation in cartilage using T1-mapping MR estimations: design and validation of a mathematical model. (United States)

    Shiguetomi-Medina, J M; Ramirez-Gl, J L; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, H; Møller-Madsen, B


    Up to 80 % of cartilage is water; the rest is collagen fibers and proteoglycans. Magnetic resonance (MR) T1-weighted measurements can be employed to calculate the water content of a tissue using T1 mapping. In this study, a method that translates T1 values into water content data was tested statistically. To develop a predictive equation, T1 values were obtained for tissue-mimicking gelatin samples. 1.5 T MRI was performed using inverse angle phase and an inverse sequence at 37 (±0.5) °C. Regions of interest were manually delineated and the mean T1 value was estimated in arbitrary units. Data were collected and modeled using linear regression. To validate the method, articular cartilage from six healthy pigs was used. The experiment was conducted in accordance with the Danish Animal Experiment Committee. Double measurements were performed for each animal. Ex vivo, all water in the tissue was extracted by lyophilization, thus allowing the volume of water to be measured. This was then compared with the predicted water content via Lin's concordance correlation coefficient at the 95 % confidence level. The mathematical model was highly significant when compared to a null model (p < 0.0001). 97.3 % of the variation in water content can be explained by absolute T1 values. Percentage water content could be predicted as 0.476 + (T1 value) × 0.000193 × 100 %. We found that there was 98 % concordance between the actual and predicted water contents. The results of this study demonstrate that MR data can be used to predict percentage water contents of cartilage samples. 3 (case-control study).

  1. Development of format and contents of safety analysis report for the KNGR standard design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. H.; Kim, H. S.; Yun, Y. K. and others


    Referring to the USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.70 which has been used in the preparation of the SAR for conventional nuclear power plants, the draft guide for format and contents of the SAR for the KNGR standard design was developed based on new regulatory information related to advanced reactors. The draft guide will enable the regulator to make an effective and consistent review on the safety of the KNGR, when this draft guide is used, since the draft guide requires more specific and additional safety information for the standardized NPPs than RG 1.70. In addition, it is expected that the guide for the format and contents of the COL's SAR will be more easily developed using the draft guide suggested in this report. Also, the draft guide can serve as the Korean national guide, with the exception to some industry codes and standards. The experts' review will be performed during the next stage of the project to ensure the objectivity and consistency of the draft guide developed in this study. After reflecting the experts' comments in the guide and revising the contents, it will be utilized in the licensing activities for the KNGR standard design

  2. Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Teacher’s Knowledge of Students in Learning Mathematics on Limit of Function Subject (United States)

    Ma'rufi; Ketut Budayasa, I.; Juniati, Dwi


    This research aims at describing the profile of high school teacher’s Pedagogical Content Knowledge in learning mathematics from the perspective of teaching experience. Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) covers teacher’s knowledge of subject matter, knowledge of pedagogy, and knowledge of students. The subject of this research was two high school mathematics teachers who have different teaching experience. The data were obtained through interview and observation then analyzed qualitatively. The focus of this research is the novice teacher’s PCK deals with knowledge of students. Knowledge of Student is defined as teacher’s knowledge about the students’ conception and misconception on limit of function material and teacher’s ability to cope with students’ difficulty, mistake, and misconception. The result of this research shows that novice teacher’s ability in analyzing the cause of students’ difficulty, mistake, and misconception was limited. Novice teacher tended to overcome the students’ difficulty, mistake, and misconception by re-explaining the procedure of question completion which is not understood by the students.

  3. Listening to Early Career Teachers: How Can Elementary Mathematics Methods Courses Better Prepare Them to Utilize Standards-Based Practices in Their Classrooms? (United States)

    Coester, Lee Anne


    This study was designed to gather input from early career elementary teachers with the goal of finding ways to improve elementary mathematics methods courses. Multiple areas were explored including the degree to which respondents' elementary mathematics methods course focused on the NCTM Process Standards, the teachers' current standards-based…

  4. ICT use in science and mathematics teacher education in Tanzan: Developing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kafyulilo, A.; Fisser, P.; Pieters, J.; Voogt, J.


    Currently, teacher education colleges in Tanzania are being equipped with computers to prepare teachers who can integrate technology in teaching. Despite these efforts, teachers are not embracing the use of technology in their teaching. This study adopted Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

  5. Developing technological pedagogical content knowledge in pre-service mathematics teachers through collaborative design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyei, D.D.; Voogt, Joke


    Although many studies have shown the need to pay attention to teachers' preparation for the integration of technology in classroom practice, most teachers in Ghana have not had any preparation that develops their technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK).This paper presents a case study of

  6. ICT Use in Science and Mathematics Teacher Education in Tanzania: Developing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kafyulilo, Ayoub; Fisser, Petra; Pieters, Julius Marie; Voogt, Joke


    Currently, teacher education colleges in Tanzania are being equipped with computers to prepare teachers who can integrate technology in teaching. Despite these efforts, teachers are not embracing the use of technology in their teaching. This study adopted Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

  7. 21 CFR 130.10 - Requirements for foods named by use of a nutrient content claim and a standardized term. (United States)


    ... standardized term. (a) Description. The foods prescribed by this general definition and standard of identity... of identity but that do not comply with the standard of identity because of a deviation that is.... Deviations from noningredient provisions of the standard of identity (e.g., moisture content, food solids...

  8. Regulating web content: the nexus of legislation and performance standards in the United Kingdom and Norway. (United States)

    Giannoumis, G Anthony


    Despite different historical traditions, previous research demonstrates a convergence between regulatory approaches in the United Kingdom and Norway. To understand this convergence, this article examines how different policy traditions influence the legal obligations of performance standards regulating web content for use by persons with disabilities. While convergence has led to similar policy approaches, I argue that national policy traditions have an impact on how governments establish legal obligations for standards compliance. The analysis reveals that national policy traditions influenced antidiscrimination legislation and the capacity and authority of regulatory agencies, which impacted the diverging legal obligations of standards in the United Kingdom and Norway. The analysis further suggests that policy actors mediate the reciprocal influence between national policy traditions and regulatory convergence mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. An Evaluation of Integrated Curriculum as It Exists in Mathematics and Science SSS as Well as the Subsequent Supportive Presentation of Those Standards in Eighth Grade Mathematics and Science Textbooks (United States)

    Gill, Clara Joanne Schneberger


    This study attempted to verify points of intersection (POIs) between mathematics and science in the eighth grade Sunshine State Standards (SSS), and to develop a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate these POIs as they were presented in the respective mathematics and science textbooks approved for use in Florida public schools. Shannon and…

  10. How to Build a Course in Mathematical-Biological Modeling: Content and Processes for Knowledge and Skill (United States)

    Hoskinson, Anne-Marie


    Biological problems in the twenty-first century are complex and require mathematical insight, often resulting in mathematical models of biological systems. Building mathematical-biological models requires cooperation among biologists and mathematicians, and mastery of building models. A new course in mathematical modeling presented the opportunity…

  11. Developing brief fatigue short forms calibrated to a common mathematical metric: is content-balancing important?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karon F Cook


    Full Text Available Karon F Cook1, Seung W Choi2, Kurt L Johnson1, Dagmar Amtmann11Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; 2Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: There are clinical and research settings in which concerns about respondent burden make the use of longer self-report measures impractical. Though computer adaptive testing provides an efficient strategy for measuring patient reported outcomes, the requirement of a computer interface makes it impractical for some settings. This study evaluated how well brief short forms, constructed from a longer measure of patient reported fatigue, reproduced scores on the full measure. When the items of an item bank are calibrated using an item response theory model, it is assumed that the items are fungible units. Theoretically, there should be no advantage to balancing the content coverage of the items. We compared short forms developed using a random item selection process to short forms developed with consideration of the items relation to subdomains of fatigue (ie, physical and cognitive fatigue. Scores on short forms developed using content balancing more successfully predicted full item bank scores than did scores on short forms developed by random selection of items.Keywords: psychometrics, outcomes, quality of life, measurement, fatigue

  12. Seismic Performance Comparison of a High-Content SDA Frame and Standard RC Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. van de Lindt


    Full Text Available This study presents the method and results of an experiment to study the seismic behavior of a concrete portal frame with fifty percent of its cement content replaced with a spray dryer ash (SDA. Based on multiple-shake-table tests, the high content SDA frame was found to perform as well as the standard concrete frame for two earthquakes exceeding design-level intensity earthquakes. Hence, from a purely seismic/structural standpoint, it may be possible to replace approximately fifty percent of cement in a concrete mix with SDA for the construction of structural members in high seismic zones. This would help significantly redirect spray dryer ash away from landfills, thus, providing a sustainable greener alternative to concrete that uses only Portland cement, or only a small percentage of SDA or fly ash.

  13. "Guide on the Side": An Instructional Approach to Meet Mathematics Standards (United States)

    White-Clark, Renee; DiCarlo, Maria; Gilchriest, Nancy, Sister


    The ultimate goal of high school mathematics teachers is to create a meaningful learning environment that is conducive to teaching students the necessary concepts for academic achievement. Unfortunately, evidence suggests that many secondary educators still teach in a rote lecture style that focuses on the teacher providing information to passive,…

  14. Mathematics Teachers' Response to the Reform Agenda: Results of the 1993 National Survey of Science and Mathematics Education. (United States)

    Weiss, Iris R.

    The NCTM Standards call for the introduction of challenging mathematics content for all students beginning in the early grades. If teachers are to guide students in their exploration of mathematics concepts, they must themselves have a firm grasp of powerful mathematics concepts. This paper uses data from the 1993 National Survey of Science and…

  15. Managing Mathematics: How Does Classroom Management Affect the Maintenance of High Cognitive Demand Tasks during Lessons with Standards-Based Instructional Materials? (United States)

    Barriteau Phaire, Candace


    The teaching and learning of mathematics has been the subject of debate for over 30 years and the most recent reform efforts are in response to concerns regarding the mathematical competence of students in the United States (Ball, Hill, & Bass, 2005; Battista, 1994; Cavanagh, 2008). Standards-based Instructional Materials (SBIM) allows…

  16. Does the Responsive Classroom Approach Affect the Use of Standards-Based Mathematics Teaching Practices?: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial (United States)

    Ottmar, Erin R.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Berry, Robert Q.; Larsen, Ross A.


    This study highlights the connections between two facets of teachers' skills--those supporting teachers' mathematical instructional interactions and those underlying social interactions within the classroom. The impact of the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach and use of RC practices on the use of standards-based mathematics teaching practices was…

  17. Learner-Directed Nutrition Content for Medical Schools to Meet LCME Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Hark


    Full Text Available Deficiencies in medical school nutrition education have been noted since the 1960s. Nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, including heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, and obesity, are now the most common, costly, and preventable health problems in the US. Training medical students to assess diet and nutritional status and advise patients about a healthy diet, exercise, body weight, smoking, and alcohol consumption are critical to reducing chronic disease risk. Barriers to improving medical school nutrition content include lack of faculty preparation, limited curricular time, and the absence of funding. Several new LCME standards provide important impetus for incorporating nutrition into existing medical school curriculum as self-directed material. Fortunately, with advances in technology, electronic learning platforms, and web-based modules, nutrition can be integrated and assessed across all four years of medical school at minimal costs to medical schools. Medical educators have access to a self-study nutrition textbook, Medical Nutrition and Disease, Nutrition in Medicine© online modules, and the NHLBI Nutrition Curriculum Guide for Training Physicians. This paper outlines how learner-directed nutrition content can be used to meet several US and Canadian LCME accreditation standards. The health of the nation depends upon future physicians’ ability to help their patients make diet and lifestyle changes.

  18. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    secondary levels. In subject matter didactics, the question of content is more developed, but it is still mostly confined to teaching on lower levels. As for higher education didactics, discussions on selection of content are almost non-existent on the programmatic level. Nevertheless, teachers are forced...... curriculum, in higher education, and to generate analytical categories and criteria for selection of content, which can be used for systematic didactical reflection. The larger project also concerns reflection on and clarification of the concept of content, including the relation between content at the level......Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...

  19. ESIP's Emerging Provenance and Context Content Standard Use Cases: Developing Examples and Models for Data Stewardship (United States)

    Ramdeen, S.; Hills, D. J.


    Earth science data collections range from individual researchers' private collections to large-scale data warehouses, from computer-generated data to field or lab based observations. These collections require stewardship. Fundamentally, stewardship ensures long term preservation and the provision of access to the user community. In particular, stewardship includes capturing appropriate metadata and documentation--and thus the context of the data's creation and any changes they underwent over time --to enable data reuse. But scientists and science data managers must translate these ideas into practice. How does one balance the needs of current and (projected) future stakeholders? In 2011, the Data Stewardship Committee (DSC) of the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) began developing the Provenance and Context Content Standard (PCCS). As an emerging standard, PCCS provides a framework for 'what' must be captured or preserved as opposed to describing only 'how' it should be done. Originally based on the experiences of NASA and NOAA researchers within ESIP, the standard currently provides data managers with content items aligned to eight key categories. While the categories and content items are based on data life cycles of remote sensing missions, they can be generalized to cover a broader set of activities, for example, preservation of physical objects. These categories will include the information needed to ensure the long-term understandability and usability of earth science data products. In addition to the PCCS, the DSC is developing a series of use cases based on the perspectives of the data archiver, data user, and the data consumer that will connect theory and practice. These cases will act as specifications for developing PCCS-based systems. They will also provide for examination of the categories and content items covered in the PCCS to determine if any additions are needed to cover the various use cases, and also provide rationale and

  20. From a Content Delivery Portal to a Knowledge Management System for Standardized Cancer Documentation. (United States)

    Schlue, Danijela; Mate, Sebastian; Haier, Jörg; Kadioglu, Dennis; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Breil, Bernhard


    Heterogeneous tumor documentation and its challenges of interpretation of medical terms lead to problems in analyses of data from clinical and epidemiological cancer registries. The objective of this project was to design, implement and improve a national content delivery portal for oncological terms. Data elements of existing handbooks and documentation sources were analyzed, combined and summarized by medical experts of different comprehensive cancer centers. Informatics experts created a generic data model based on an existing metadata repository. In order to establish a national knowledge management system for standardized cancer documentation, a prototypical tumor wiki was designed and implemented. Requirements engineering techniques were applied to optimize this platform. It is targeted to user groups such as documentation officers, physicians and patients. The linkage to other information sources like PubMed and MeSH was realized.

  1. A Simple Mathematical Model for Standard Model of Elementary Particles and Extension Thereof (United States)

    Sinha, Ashok


    An algebraically (and geometrically) simple model representing the masses of the elementary particles in terms of the interaction (strong, weak, electromagnetic) constants is developed, including the Higgs bosons. The predicted Higgs boson mass is identical to that discovered by LHC experimental programs; while possibility of additional Higgs bosons (and their masses) is indicated. The model can be analyzed to explain and resolve many puzzles of particle physics and cosmology including the neutrino masses and mixing; origin of the proton mass and the mass-difference between the proton and the neutron; the big bang and cosmological Inflation; the Hubble expansion; etc. A novel interpretation of the model in terms of quaternion and rotation in the six-dimensional space of the elementary particle interaction-space - or, equivalently, in six-dimensional spacetime - is presented. Interrelations among particle masses are derived theoretically. A new approach for defining the interaction parameters leading to an elegant and symmetrical diagram is delineated. Generalization of the model to include supersymmetry is illustrated without recourse to complex mathematical formulation and free from any ambiguity. This Abstract represents some results of the Author's Independent Theoretical Research in Particle Physics, with possible connection to the Superstring Theory. However, only very elementary mathematics and physics is used in my presentation.

  2. Comparison of Nutrient Content and Cost of Home-Packed Lunches to Reimbursable School Lunch Nutrient Standards and Prices (United States)

    Johnson, Cara M.; Bednar, Carolyn; Kwon, Junehee; Gustof, Alissa


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare nutrient content and cost of home-packed lunches to nutrient standards and prices for reimbursable school lunches. Methods: Researchers observed food and beverage contents of 333 home packed lunches at four north Texas elementary schools. Nutritionist Pro was used to analyze lunches for calories,…

  3. 40 CFR 80.524 - What sulfur content standard applies to motor vehicle diesel fuel downstream of the refinery or... (United States)


    ... to motor vehicle diesel fuel downstream of the refinery or importer? 80.524 Section 80.524 Protection... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.524 What sulfur content standard...

  4. Adding Bite to the Bark: Using LibGuides2 Migration as Impetus to Introduce Strong Content Standards (United States)

    Fritch, Melia; Pitts, Joelle E.


    The authors discuss the long-term accumulation of unstandardized and inaccessible content within the Libguides system and the decision-making process to create and implement a set of standards using the migration to the LibGuides2 platform as a vehicle for change. Included in the discussion are strategies for the creation of standards and…

  5. Benefits of standard format and content for approval of packaging for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pstrak, D.; Osgood, N.


    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) uses Regulatory Guide 7.9, ''Standard Format and Content of Part 71 Applications for Approval of Packaging for Radioactive Material'' to provide recommendations on the preparation of applications for approval of Type B and fissile material packages. The purpose of this Regulatory Guide is to assist the applicant in preparing an application that demonstrates the adequacy of a package in meeting the 10 CFR Part 71 packaging requirements. NRC recently revised Regulatory Guide 7.9 to reflect current changes to the regulations in Part 71 as a result of a recent rulemaking that included changes to the structural, containment, and criticality requirements for packages. Overall, the NRC issues Regulatory Guides to describe methods that are acceptable to the NRC staff for implementing specific parts of the NRC's regulations, to explain techniques used by the NRC staff in evaluating specific problems, and to provide guidance to applicants. It is important to note the specific purpose of this Regulatory Guide. As the name indicates, this Guide sets forth a standard format for application submission that is acceptable to the NRC staff that, when used by the applicant, will accomplish several objectives. First, use of the guide provides a consistent and repeatable approach that indicates the information to be provided by the applicant. Second, the organization of the information in the application will assist the reviewer(s) in locating information. Ultimately, accomplishing these objectives will help to ensure the completeness of the information in the application as well as decrease the review time. From an international perspective, use of a standard format approach could enhance the efficiency with which Competent Authorities certify and validate packages for use in the packaging and transportation of radioactive material worldwide. This streamlined approach of preparing package applications could ultimately lead to uniform

  6. Implementation and outcomes of inquiry-based learning in mathematics content courses for pre-service teachers (United States)

    Laursen, Sandra L.; Hassi, Marja-Liisa; Hough, Sarah


    This mixed-methods study describes classroom characteristics and student outcomes from university mathematics courses that are based in mathematics departments, targeted to future pre-tertiary teachers, and taught with inquiry-based learning (IBL) approaches. The study focused on three two-term sequences taught at two research universities, separately targeting elementary and secondary pre-service teachers. Classroom observation established that the courses were taught with student-centred methods that were comparable to those used in IBL courses for students in mathematics-intensive fields at the same institutions. To measure pre-service teachers' gains in mathematical knowledge for teaching, we administered the Learning Mathematics for Teaching (LMT) instrument developed by Hill, Ball and Schilling for in-service teacher professional development. Results from the LMT show that pre-service teachers made significant score gains from beginning to end of their course, while data from interviews and from surveys of learning gains show that pre-service teachers viewed their gains as relevant to their future teaching work. Measured changes on pre-/post-surveys of attitudes and beliefs were generally supportive of learning mathematics but modest in magnitude. The study is distinctive in applying the LMT to document pre-service teachers' growth in mathematical knowledge for teaching. The study also suggests IBL is an approach well suited to mathematics departments seeking to strengthen their pre-service teacher preparation offerings in ways consistent with research-based recommendations.

  7. Teachers' Understanding of and Concerns about Mathematical Modeling in the Common Core Standards (United States)

    Wolf, Nancy Butler


    Educational reform is most likely to be successful when teachers are knowledgeable about the intended reform, and when their concerns about the reform are understood and addressed. The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) is an effort to establish a set of nationwide expectations for students and teachers. This study examined teacher understanding…

  8. Common Core State Standards for Mathematics: How Well Do the Textbook and Instructional Methods Align? (United States)

    Rawding, Denise M.


    The Common Core Math Standards were written to address concerns that the math curriculum in the United States was not focused and coherent. Based on national and international assessments, the United States math scores have remained stagnant, while other countries have seen significant growth in their scores. This study, designed as an action…

  9. Academic performance in the high school mathematics standardized test at metropolitan and remote areas of Costa Rica schools in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Castillo-Sánchez


    Full Text Available This article describes the academic performance of students from urban and distant areas in the national mathematics test corresponding to the completion of secondary education, considering the specific test and according to the different types of schools: daytime (daytime scientific, daytime humanistic, nighttime, technical or integrated centers for education of young people and adults (CINDEA, in its Spanish acronym.  The main objective is to describe the students academic performance in the national mathematics test issued to complete high-school level, for the year 2013 and according to the country educational areas.  For the analysis of such information, the main source used was the High-School Education National Report, issued by the Ministry of Public Education for 2013 standardized tests.  One of the conclusions from this study is the need to carry out a historical analysis of the performance of educational institutions which have recently obtained the highest and lowest average grades in the high-school diploma tests, in order to be able to delve into the causes of those performances.

  10. Teaching mathematics using excel


    Bonello, Mary Rose; Camilleri, Silvana


    'Technology is essential in teaching and learning mathematics; it influences the mathematics that is taught and enhances students' learning.' (Principles and Standards for School Mathematics-NCTM April 2000)

  11. Status of sennosides content in various Indian herbal formulations: Method standardization by HPTLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Wasim Aktar


    Full Text Available Several poly-herbal formulations containing senna (Cassia angustifolia leaves are available in the Indian market for the treatment of constipation. The purgative effect of senna is due to the presence of two unique hydroxy anthracene glycosides sennosides A and B. A HPTLC method for the quantitative analysis of sennosides A and B present in the formulation has been developed. Methanol extract of the formulations was analyzed on a silica gel 60 GF254 HPTLC plates with spot visualization under UV and scanning at 350 nm in absorption/ reflection mode. Calibration curves were found to be linear in the range 200-1000 ηg. The correlation coefficients were found to be 0.991 for sennoside A and 0.997 for sennoside B. The average recovery rate was 95% for sennoside A and 97% for sennoside B showing the reliability and reproducibility of the method. Limit of detection and quantification were determined as 0.05 and 0.25 μg/g respectively. The validity of the method with respect to analysis was confirmed by comparing the UV spectra of the herbal formulations with that of the standard within the same Rf window. The analysis revealed a significant variation in sennosides content.

  12. Status of sennosides content in various Indian herbal formulations: Method standardization by HPTLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Wasim Aktar


    Full Text Available Several poly-herbal formulations containing senna (Cassia angustifolia leaves are available in the Indian market for the treatment of constipation. The purgative effect of senna is due to the presence of two unique hydroxy anthracene glycosides sennosides A and B. A HPTLC method for the quantitative analysis of sennosides A and B present in the formulation has been developed. Methanol extract of the formulations was analyzed on a silica gel 60 GF254 HPTLCplates with spot visualization under UV and scanning at 350 nm in absorption/ reflection mode. Calibration curves were found to be linear in the range 200-1000 ηg. The correlation coefficients were found to be 0.991 for sennoside A and 0.997 for sennoside B. The average recovery rate was 95% for sennoside A and 97% for sennoside B showing the reliability and reproducibility of the method. Limit of detection and quantification were determined as 0.05 and 0.25 μg/g respectively. The validity of the method with respect to analysis was confirmed by comparing the UV spectra of the herbal formulations with that of the standard within the same Rf window. The analysis revealed a significant variation in sennosides content.

  13. Superstrings, entropy and the elementary particles content of the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Naschie, M.S.


    A number of interconnected issues involving superstring theory, entropy and the particle content of the standard model of high energy physics are discussed in the present work. It is found that within a non-transfinite approximation, the number of elementary particles is given by DimSU(8) in full agreement with the prediction gained from dividing the total number of the massless level of Heterotic string theory (256)(16)=8064 by the spin representation 2 7 =128 which gives DimSU(8)=(8) 2 -1=(8064)/(128)=63 particles. For the exact transfinite case however, one finds our previously established E-infinity result:N=(336+16k)(3/2+k)(16+k)/(128+8k)=α-bar o /2,where k=φ 3 (1-φ 3 ), φ=(5-1)/2 and α-bar o /2=68.54101965. Setting k=0 one finds that n=63 exactly as in the non-transfinite case

  14. Human milk fortifier with high versus standard protein content for promoting growth of preterm infants: A meta-analysis. (United States)

    Liu, Tian-Tian; Dang, Dan; Lv, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Teng-Fei; Du, Jin-Feng; Wu, Hui


    To compare the growth of preterm infants fed standard protein-fortified human milk with that containing human milk fortifier (HMF) with a higher-than-standard protein content. Published articles reporting randomized controlled trials and prospective observational intervention studies listed on the PubMed®, Embase®, CINAHL and Cochrane Library databases were searched using the keywords 'fortifier', 'human milk', 'breastfeeding', 'breast milk' and 'human milk fortifier'. The mean difference with 95% confidence intervals was used to compare the effect of HMF with a higher-than-standard protein content on infant growth characteristics. Five studies with 352 infants with birth weight ≤ 1750 g and a gestational age ≤ 34 weeks who were fed human milk were included in this meta-analysis. Infants in the experimental groups given human milk with higher-than-standard protein fortifier achieved significantly greater weight and length at the end of the study, and greater weight gain, length gain, and head circumference gain, compared with control groups fed human milk with the standard HMF. HMF with a higher-than-standard protein content can improve preterm infant growth compared with standard HMF. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:

  15. LOGO programming contents for supporting mathematical concept development : promotion of the verbalization and imaging of figure concepts


    杉野, 裕子


    I have been studying to show the importance of adopting a programming in the mathematical education and developed the LOGO teaching materials which is made good use of in the field of Euclidean geometry, in order to improve understanding and learning figure concepts. The present article offers a theoretical framework with consistency about my study and also new programming materials in which I embody my theory. I consider logically the system of mathematical expression with computers and espe...

  16. Wikis: Developing Pre-Service Teachers' Leadership Skills and Knowledge of Content Standards (United States)

    Reid-Griffin, Angelia; Slaten, Kelli M.


    In this initial phase of our multi-year research study we set out to explore the development of leadership skills in our pre-service secondary teachers after using an online wiki, Wikispaces. This paper presents our methods for preparing a group of 13 mathematics and 3 science secondary pre-service teachers to demonstrate the essential knowledge,…

  17. Inhibition of colon carcinogenesis by a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol. (United States)

    Romano, Barbara; Borrelli, Francesca; Pagano, Ester; Cascio, Maria Grazia; Pertwee, Roger G; Izzo, Angelo A


    Colon cancer is a major public health problem. Cannabis-based medicines are useful adjunctive treatments in cancer patients. Here, we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol (CBD), here named CBD BDS, i.e. CBD botanical drug substance, on colorectal cancer cell proliferation and in experimental models of colon cancer in vivo. Proliferation was evaluated in colorectal carcinoma (DLD-1 and HCT116) as well as in healthy colonic cells using the MTT assay. CBD BDS binding was evaluated by its ability to displace [(3)H]CP55940 from human cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. In vivo, the effect of CBD BDS was examined on the preneoplastic lesions (aberrant crypt foci), polyps and tumours induced by the carcinogenic agent azoxymethane (AOM) as well as in a xenograft model of colon cancer in mice. CBD BDS and CBD reduced cell proliferation in tumoral, but not in healthy, cells. The effect of CBD BDS was counteracted by selective CB1 and CB2 receptor antagonists. Pure CBD reduced cell proliferation in a CB1-sensitive antagonist manner only. In binding assays, CBD BDS showed greater affinity than pure CBD for both CB1 and CB2 receptors, with pure CBD having very little affinity. In vivo, CBD BDS reduced AOM-induced preneoplastic lesions and polyps as well as tumour growth in the xenograft model of colon cancer. CBD BDS attenuates colon carcinogenesis and inhibits colorectal cancer cell proliferation via CB1 and CB2 receptor activation. The results may have some clinical relevance for the use of Cannabis-based medicines in cancer patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Model for Physical Education Content Standards at Early Stages of Primary Education in the Republic of Macedonia


    Klincarov, Ilija; Popeska, Biljana


    The aim of this article is to propose a model for designing national physical education content standards in early stages of primary education in the Republic of Macedonia. Proposed model is based on the findings about motor structure of children at the early stage of primary education obtained in researches realized in 5 primary schools in Skopje, the Republic of Macedonia, in relation with Macedonian PE curriculum, and overarching standards for children at this age in California, USA,chosen...

  19. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED


    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  20. Phenomenological, symmetrical, field-theoretical aspects and mathematical considerations of the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodjaev, L.Sh.


    Full text: We review the conceptual foundation of Yang-Mills gauge field theories. On these gauge theories the Standard Model (SM) are constructed. The fundamental postulates and their immediate consequence of the SM are formulated. The SM is a Yang-Mills type gauge field theory basically dictated by the Generalized Gauge Principle (GGP). According to this principle all fundamental forces of nature such as strong, electroweak, gravitational are mediated by an exchange of the Yang-Mills gauge fields corresponding gauge group. The SM is constructed by extension of the global non-Abelian SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) symmetry to the local SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) symmetry under which the Lagrangian of the SM invariant. This full symmetry has to be broken by Higgs mechanism down to the Electroweak gauge symmetry. The concept of fundamental particles does not exist. To Look for not Fundamental Particles but Fundamental symmetries. By searching of more general theory it is natural to search first of all Global symmetries and then to learn consequences connected with the localization of the global symmetries like wise of SM. The SM is renormalizable and therefor potentially consist at all energy scales. The SM in principle can describe the properties of the Universe beginning at 10 -43 sec. after BIG BANG. A SM of the BIG BANG Particle physics provides one of the few windows of the high energy world beyond SM which is consistent with SM and Cosmology. All the fundamental particles of the SM such as quarks, leptons and weak intermediate vector-gauge Bosons except one Higgs boson H 0 have been discovered and there masses and spins have been determined. The SM is stunning. Until now, no cracks have been found. There is no experiment that contradicts the SM. Moreover there is nothing observed beyond the SM. The SM works better and better. We proposed to construct colour singular nuclear forces theory based on Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). As well Theological aspects of the BIG BANG

  1. Standards-Based Reform in the United States: History, Research, and Future Directions (United States)


    conducted by professional organizations such as the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics . Although notions of what constitutes effective SBR have...some states and by various professional organizations, such as the curriculum standards developed by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics ... NCTM ). The mathematics content frameworks developed in California in the 1980s and the 1989 NCTMCurriculum and Evaluation Standards for School

  2. Exploring the Reasons for Using Electric Books and Technologic Pedagogical and Content Knowledge of Taiwanese Elementary Mathematics and Science Teachers (United States)

    Chen, Ho-Yuan; Jang, Syh-Jong


    This study highlights trends and features of E-books and their versatility of this tool in elementary educational settings. There has been little quantitative research employed to examine teachers' reasons for using or not using E-books. The purpose of this study was to examine elementary school mathematics and science teachers' reasons for using…

  3. Content, Interaction, or Both? Synthesizing Two German Traditions in a Video Study on Learning to Explain in Mathematics Classroom Microcultures (United States)

    Prediger, Susanne; Erath, Kirstin


    How do students learn to explain? We take this exemplary research question for presenting two antagonist traditions in German mathematics education research and their synthesis in an ongoing video study. These two traditions are (1) the German Didaktik approach that can be characterized by its epistemologically sensitive analyses and…

  4. Association Between Prenatal Valproate Exposure and Performance on Standardized Language and Mathematics Tests in School-aged Children. (United States)

    Elkjær, Lars Skou; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Sun, Yuelian; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Christensen, Jakob


    Valproate sodium is used for the treatment of epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders in women of childbearing potential. However, there are concerns about impaired cognitive development in children who have been exposed to valproate during pregnancy. To estimate the association between long-term school performance and prenatal exposure to valproate and a number of other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In a prospective, population-based cohort study conducted from August 1, 2015, to May 31, 2017, data used in the study were provided by Statistics Denmark on April 15, 2016. All children born alive in Denmark between 1997 and 2006 (n = 656 496) were identified. From this cohort, children who did not participate in the national tests, with presumed coding errors in gestational age and children missing information on their mother's educational level or household income were excluded (n = 177 469) leaving 479 027 children for the analyses. Children were identified and linked across national registers that had information on exposure, covariates, and outcome. The primary outcome was performance in national tests, an academic test taken by students in Danish primary and lower secondary state schools. We assessed performance in Danish and mathematics at different grades among valproate-exposed children and compared their performance with that of unexposed children and children exposed to another AED (lamotrigine). Test scores were standardized to z scores and adjusted for risk factors. Difference in standardized z scores in Danish and mathematics tests among valproate-exposed children compared with unexposed and lamotrigine-exposed children. Of the 656 496 children identified, 479 027 children who participated in the national tests were evaluated, including children exposed to the following AEDs in monotherapy: valproate, 253; phenobarbital, 86; oxcarbazepine, 236; lamotrigine, 396; clonazepam, 188; and carbamazepine, 294. The mean (SD) age of the 244 095

  5. Discourse Surrounding the International Education Standards for Professional Accountants (IES): A Content Analysis Approach (United States)

    Sugahara, Satoshi; Wilson, Rachel


    The development and implementation of the International Education Standards (IES) for professional accountants is currently an important issue in accounting education and for educators interested in a shift toward international education standards more broadly. The purpose of this study is to investigate professional and research discourse…

  6. Reducing Content Variance and Improving Student Learning Outcomes: The Value of Standardization in a Multisection Course (United States)

    Meuter, Matthew L.; Chapman, Kenneth J.; Toy, Daniel; Wright, Lauren K.; McGowan, William


    This article describes a standardization process for an introductory marketing course with multiple sections. The authors first outline the process used to develop a standardized set of marketing concepts to be used in all introductory marketing classes. They then discuss the benefits to both students and faculty that occur as a result of…

  7. Data Analysis and Statistics in Middle Grades: An Analysis of Content Standards (United States)

    Sorto, M. Alejandra


    The purpose of the study reported herein was to identify the important aspects of statistical knowledge that students in the middle school grades in United States are expected to learn as well as what the teachers are expected to teach. A systematic study of 49 states standards and one set of national standards was used to identify these important…

  8. Mathematical Strengths and Weaknesses of Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers (United States)

    Stripling, Christopher T.; Roberts, T. Grady; Stephens, Carrie A.


    The purpose of this study was to describe the mathematics ability of preservice agricultural education teachers related to each of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) content/process areas and their corresponding sub-standards that are cross-referenced with the National Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources Career Cluster…

  9. The Role of the Mathematics Supervisor in K-12 Education (United States)

    Greenes, Carole


    The implementation of "the Common Core Standards for Mathematics" and the assessments of those concepts, skills, reasoning methods, and mathematical practices that are in development necessitate the updating of teachers' knowledge of content, pedagogical techniques to enhance engagement and persistence, and strategies for responding to…

  10. Introducing philosophy of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Friend, Michele


    What is mathematics about? Does the subject-matter of mathematics exist independently of the mind or are they mental constructions? How do we know mathematics? Is mathematical knowledge logical knowledge? And how is mathematics applied to the material world? In this introduction to the philosophy of mathematics, Michele Friend examines these and other ontological and epistemological problems raised by the content and practice of mathematics. Aimed at a readership with limited proficiency in mathematics but with some experience of formal logic it seeks to strike a balance between conceptual acc

  11. [Establishment of the mathematic model of total quantum statistical moment standard similarity for application to medical theoretical research]. (United States)

    He, Fu-yuan; Deng, Kai-wen; Huang, Sheng; Liu, Wen-long; Shi, Ji-lian


    The paper aims to elucidate and establish a new mathematic model: the total quantum statistical moment standard similarity (TQSMSS) on the base of the original total quantum statistical moment model and to illustrate the application of the model to medical theoretical research. The model was established combined with the statistical moment principle and the normal distribution probability density function properties, then validated and illustrated by the pharmacokinetics of three ingredients in Buyanghuanwu decoction and of three data analytical method for them, and by analysis of chromatographic fingerprint for various extracts with different solubility parameter solvents dissolving the Buyanghanwu-decoction extract. The established model consists of four mainly parameters: (1) total quantum statistical moment similarity as ST, an overlapped area by two normal distribution probability density curves in conversion of the two TQSM parameters; (2) total variability as DT, a confidence limit of standard normal accumulation probability which is equal to the absolute difference value between the two normal accumulation probabilities within integration of their curve nodical; (3) total variable probability as 1-Ss, standard normal distribution probability within interval of D(T); (4) total variable probability (1-beta)alpha and (5) stable confident probability beta(1-alpha): the correct probability to make positive and negative conclusions under confident coefficient alpha. With the model, we had analyzed the TQSMS similarities of pharmacokinetics of three ingredients in Buyanghuanwu decoction and of three data analytical methods for them were at range of 0.3852-0.9875 that illuminated different pharmacokinetic behaviors of each other; and the TQSMS similarities (ST) of chromatographic fingerprint for various extracts with different solubility parameter solvents dissolving Buyanghuanwu-decoction-extract were at range of 0.6842-0.999 2 that showed different constituents

  12. Moisture content of cereals at harvesting time by comparing microclimate values and standard weather data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atzema, A.J.


    The moisture content of wheat and barley together with the weather elements were measured at 3 different experimental sites in the Netherlands in 1990-91. The difference in the dew point temperature in the screen[house] and in the field was small. However, the differences between air temperature in

  13. 12 CFR 621.13 - Content and standards-general rules. (United States)


    ... Section 621.13 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ACCOUNTING AND REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Report of Condition and Performance § 621.13 Content and standards—general rules. Each institution, including the Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation, shall prepare reports of condition and performance...

  14. Discrete Mathematics and the Secondary Mathematics Curriculum. (United States)

    Dossey, John

    Discrete mathematics, the mathematics of decision making for finite settings, is a topic of great interest in mathematics education at all levels. Attention is being focused on resolving the diversity of opinion concerning the exact nature of the subject, what content the curriculum should contain, who should study that material, and how that…

  15. Making Sense of Mathematics (United States)

    Umphrey, Jan


    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) is a voice and advocate for mathematics educators, working to ensure that all students receive equitable mathematics learning of the highest quality. To help teachers and school leaders understand the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) and to point out how the CCSSM can be…

  16. Applying transpose matrix on advanced encryption standard (AES) for database content (United States)

    Manurung, E. B. P.; Sitompul, O. S.; Suherman


    Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a specification for the encryption of electronic data established by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and has been adopted by the U.S. government and is now used worldwide. This paper reports the impact of transpose matrix integration to AES. Transpose matrix implementation on AES is aimed at first stage of chypertext modifications for text based database security so that the confidentiality improves. The matrix is also able to increase the avalanche effect of the cryptography algorithm 4% in average.

  17. Teaching Mathematics to Secondary Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Challenges and Practical Suggestions for Teachers (United States)

    Mulcahy, Candace A.; Krezmien, Michael; Maccini, Paula


    While the Common Core State Standards and state learning standards guide teachers in what mathematical content knowledge should be addressed as well as the processes and proficiencies necessary for developing mathematical competence, several student- and teacher-related factors may hinder student access to the general education curriculum for…

  18. Standard format and content for radiological contingency plans for fuel cycle and materials facilities. Regulatory report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report is issued as guidance to those fuel cycle and major materials licensees who are required by the NRC to prepare and submit a radiological contingency plan. This Standard Format has been prepared to help assure uniformity and completeness in the preparation of those plans

  19. The fermion content of the Standard Model from a simple world-line theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, Paul, E-mail:


    We describe a simple model that automatically generates the sum over gauge group representations and chiralities of a single generation of fermions in the Standard Model, augmented by a sterile neutrino. The model is a modification of the world-line approach to chiral fermions.

  20. Standard format and content of license applications for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The standard format suggested for use in applications for licenses to possess and use special nuclear materials in Pu processing and fuel fabrication plants is presented. It covers general description of the plant, summary safety assessment, site characteristics, principal design criteria, plant design, process systems, waste confinement and management, radiation protection, accident safety analysis, conduct of operations, operating controls and limits, and quality assurance

  1. Common Core Standards, Professional Texts, and Diverse Learners: A Qualitative Content Analysis (United States)

    Yanoff, Elizabeth; LaDuke, Aja; Lindner, Mary


    This research study questioned the degree to which six professional texts guiding implementation of the Common Core Standards in reading address the needs of diverse learners. For the purposes of this research, diverse learners were specifically defined as above grade level readers, below grade level readers, and English learners. The researchers…

  2. Art as Resistance: Creating and Collecting Content for a Public Lesson on Standardization (United States)

    Smith, Becky L. Noël; Shaw, Michael L.


    The negative emotional affects of standardized teaching and learning abound in public schools and work to create a melancholic, shared reality for teachers and students. The authors argue that teachers and students must acknowledge this melancholy and pursue shared inquiry around those emotions in order to help bring about understanding and the…

  3. 78 FR 23289 - Public Review of Draft National Shoreline Data Content Standard (United States)


    ..., efficient and applicable to a broad base of government and private sector uses. Current practices have led... organizations from State, local and tribal governments, the academic community, and the private sector. The... definition of data models, schemas, entities, relationships, definitions, and crosswalks to related standards...

  4. Standard format and content of financial assurance mechanisms required for decommissioning under 10 CFR parts 30, 40, 70, and 72

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The purpose of this regulatory guide, ''Standard Format and Content of Financial Assurance Mechanisms Required for Decommissioning Under 10 CFR Parts 30, 40, 70, and 72,'' is to provide guidance acceptable to the NRC staff on the information to be provided for establishing financial assurance for decommissioning and to establish a standard format for presenting the information. Use of the standard format will help ensure that the financial instruments contain the information required by 10 CFR Parts 30, 40, 70, and 72; aid the applicant and NRC staff in ensuring that the information is complete; and help persons reading the financial instruments to locate information. This guide address financial assurance for decommissioning of facilities under materials licenses granted under Parts 30, 40, 70, and 72. These parts include licensees in the following categories: Part 30, Byproduct Material; Part 40, Source Material; Part 70, Special Nuclear Material; and Part 72, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installations

  5. Using Mathematics Literature with Prospective Secondary Mathematics Teachers (United States)

    Jett, Christopher C.


    Literature in mathematics has been found to foster positive improvements in mathematics learning. This manuscript reports on a mathematics teacher educator's use of literature via literature circles with 11 prospective secondary mathematics teachers in a mathematics content course. Using survey and reflection data, the author found that…

  6. Finite Mathematics and Discrete Mathematics: Is There a Difference? (United States)

    Johnson, Marvin L.

    Discrete mathematics and finite mathematics differ in a number of ways. First, finite mathematics has a longer history and is therefore more stable in terms of course content. Finite mathematics courses emphasize certain particular mathematical tools which are useful in solving the problems of business and the social sciences. Discrete mathematics…

  7. National Sexuality Education Standards: Core Content and Skills, K-12. A Special Publication of the Journal of School Health. Special Report (United States)

    American School Health Association (NJ1), 2012


    The goal of this paper, "National Sexuality Education Standards: Core Content and Skills, K-12," is to provide clear, consistent and straightforward guidance on the "essential minimum, core content" for sexuality education that is developmentally and age-appropriate for students in grades K-12. The development of these standards is a result of an…

  8. Effects on the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Early Childhood Teacher Candidates Using Digital Storytelling to Teach Mathematics (United States)

    Kildan, Abdullah Oguzhan; Incikabi, Lutfi


    This study aimed to present early childhood teacher candidates' experiences preparing digital stories and to reveal the resulting changes, if any, in self-reported technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). This study was quasi-experimental and indicated that teacher candidates' evaluations of digital storytelling were affected by their…

  9. Content accessibility of Web documents: Overview of concepts and needed standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alapetite, A.


    The concept of Web accessibility refers to a combined set of measures, namely, how easily and how efficiently different types of users may make use of a given service. While some recommendations for accessibility are focusing on people with variousspecific disabilities, this document seeks...... to broaden the scope to any type of user and any type of use case. The document provides an introduction to some required concepts and technical standards for designing accessible Web sites. A brief review of thelegal requirements in a few countries for Web accessibility complements the recommendations...

  10. Mathematical cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainwright, J.


    The workshop on mathematical cosmology was devoted to four topics of current interest. This report contains a brief discussion of the historical background of each topic and a concise summary of the content of each talk. The topics were; the observational cosmology program, the cosmological perturbation program, isotropic singularities, and the evolution of Bianchi cosmologies. (author)

  11. Mathematical knowledge in teaching

    CERN Document Server

    Rowland, Tim


    This book examines issues of considerable significance in addressing global aspirations to raise standards of teaching and learning in mathematics by developing approaches to characterizing, assessing and developing mathematical knowledge for teaching.

  12. Standard format and content for emergency plans for fuel cycle and materials facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This regulatory guides is being developed to provide guidance acceptable to the NRC staff on the information to be included in emergency plans and to establish a format for presenting the information. Use of a standard format will help ensure uniformity and completeness in the preparation of emergency plans. An acceptable emergency plan should describe the licensed activities conducted at the facility and the types of accidents that might occur. It should provide information on classifying postulated accidents and the licensee's procedures for notifying and coordinating with offsite authorities. The plan should provide information on emergency response measures that might be necessary, the equipment and facilities available to respond to an emergency, and how the licensee will maintain emergency preparedness capability. It should describe the records and reports that will be maintained. There should also be a section on recovery after an accident and plans for restoring the facility to a safe condition. 4 refs

  13. Standards for the contents of heavy metals in soils of some states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.N. Vodyanitskii


    Full Text Available In line with the present-day ecological and toxicological data obtained by Dutch ecologists, heavy metals/metalloids form the following succession according to their hazard degree in soils: Se > Tl > Sb > Cd > V > Hg > Ni > Cu > Cr > As > Ba. This sequence substantially differs from the succession of heavy elements presented in the general toxicological Russian GOST (State Norms and Standards, which considers As, Cd, Hg, Se, Pb, and Zn to be strongly hazardous elements, whereas Co, Ni, Mo, Sb, and Cr to be moderately hazardous. As compared to the Dutch general toxicological approach, the hazard of lead, zinc, and cobalt is lower in soils, and that of vanadium, antimony, and barium is higher in Russia. MPC must been adopted for strongly hazardous thallium, selenium, and vanadium in Russia.

  14. ENDF/B-5 Standards Data Library (including modifications made in 1986). Summary of contents and documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DayDay, N.; Lemmel, H.D.


    This document summarizes the contents and documentation of the ENDF/B-5 Standards Data Library (EN5-ST) released in September 1979. The library contains complete evaluations for all significant neutron reactions in the energy range 10 -5 eV to 20 MeV for H-1, He-3, Li-6, B-10, C-12, Au-197 and U-235 isotopes. In 1986 the files for C-12, Au-197 and U-235 were slightly modified. The entire library or selective retrievals from it can be obtained free of charge from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  15. ENDF/B-5 Standards Data Library (including modifications made in 1986). Summary of contents and documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DayDay, N; Lemmel, H D


    This document summarizes the contents and documentation of the ENDF/B-5 Standards Data Library (EN5-ST) released in September 1979. The library contains complete evaluations for all significant neutron reactions in the energy range 10{sup -5}eV to 20 MeV for H-1, He-3, Li-6, B-10, C-12, Au-197 and U-235 isotopes. In 1986 the files for C-12, Au-197 and U-235 were slightly modified. The entire library or selective retrievals from it can be obtained free of charge from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author) Refs, figs, tabs

  16. Standard Guide for Selection and Use of Mathematical Methods for Calculating Absorbed Dose in Radiation Processing Applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This guide describes different mathematical methods that may be used to calculate absorbed dose and criteria for their selection. Absorbed-dose calculations can determine the effectiveness of the radiation process, estimate the absorbed-dose distribution in product, or supplement or complement, or both, the measurement of absorbed dose. 1.2 Radiation processing is an evolving field and annotated examples are provided in Annex A6 to illustrate the applications where mathematical methods have been successfully applied. While not limited by the applications cited in these examples, applications specific to neutron transport, radiation therapy and shielding design are not addressed in this document. 1.3 This guide covers the calculation of radiation transport of electrons and photons with energies up to 25 MeV. 1.4 The mathematical methods described include Monte Carlo, point kernel, discrete ordinate, semi-empirical and empirical methods. 1.5 General purpose software packages are available for the calcul...

  17. Mathematical Evaluation of the Amino Acid and Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Activities of Fruits from Different Apricot Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek


    Full Text Available Functional foods are of interest because of their significant effects on human health, which can be connected with the presence of some biologically important compounds. In this study, we carried out complex analysis of 239 apricot cultivars (Prunus armeniaca L. cultivated in Lednice (climatic area T4, South Moravia, Czech Republic. Almost all previously published studies have focused only on analysis of certain parameters. However, we focused on detection both primary and secondary metabolites in a selection of apricot cultivars with respect to their biological activity. The contents of thirteen biogenic alpha-L-amino acids (arginine, asparagine, isoleucine, lysine, serine, threonine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, proline and alanine were determined using ion exchange chromatography with UV-Vis spectrometry detection. Profile of polyphenols, measured as content of ten polyphenols with significant antioxidant properties (gallic acid, procatechinic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, rutin, ferrulic acid and quercetrin, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrometric/electrochemical detection. Moreover, content of total phenolics was determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was determined using five independent spectrophotometric methods: DPPH assay, DMPD method, ABTS method, FRAP and Free Radicals methods. Considering the complexity of the obtained data, they were processed and correlated using bioinformatics techniques (cluster analysis, principal component analysis. The studied apricot cultivars were clustered according to their common biochemical properties, which has not been done before. The observed similarities and differences were discussed.

  18. An Examination of the Implementation of Mathematics Lessons in a Chinese Kindergarten Classroom in the Setting of Standards Reform (United States)

    Hu, Bi Ying; Quebec Fuentes, Sarah; Ma, Jingjing; Ye, Feiwei; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth


    In China, the "2001 Kindergarten Education Guidelines (Trial)", or "New Outline", delineates what constitutes high-quality, developmentally appropriate practices in all early childhood education curriculum domains, including mathematics. The "New Outline" is known for advocating a child-centered, play-based approach…

  19. The Authoritarian Personality in Emerging Adulthood: Longitudinal Analysis Using Standardized Scales, Observer Ratings, and Content Coding of the Life Story. (United States)

    Peterson, Bill E; Pratt, Michael W; Olsen, Janelle R; Alisat, Susan


    Three different methods (a standardized scale, an observer-based Q-sort, and content coding of narratives) were used to study the continuity of authoritarianism longitudinally in emerging and young adults. Authoritarianism was assessed in a Canadian sample (N = 92) of men and women at ages 19 and 32 with Altemeyer's (1996) Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) Scale. In addition, components of the authoritarian personality were assessed at age 26 through Q-sort observer methods (Block, 2008) and at age 32 through content coding of life stories. Age 19 authoritarianism predicted the Q-sort and life story measures of authoritarianism. Two hierarchical regression analyses showed that the Q-sort and life story measures of authoritarianism also predicted the RWA scale at age 32 beyond educational level and parental status, and even after the inclusion of age 19 RWA. Differences and similarities in the pattern of correlates for the Q-sort and life story measures are discussed, including the overall lack of results for authoritarian aggression. Content in narratives may be the result of emerging adult authoritarianism and may serve to maintain levels of authoritarianism in young adulthood. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Standardized Procedure Content And Data Structure Based On Human Factors Requirements For Computer-Based Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bly, Aaron; Oxstrand, Johanna; Le Blanc, Katya L


    Most activities that involve human interaction with systems in a nuclear power plant are guided by procedures. Traditionally, the use of procedures has been a paper-based process that supports safe operation of the nuclear power industry. However, the nuclear industry is constantly trying to find ways to decrease the human error rate, especially the human errors associated with procedure use. Advances in digital technology make computer-based procedures (CBPs) a valid option that provides further enhancement of safety by improving human performance related to procedure use. The transition from paper-based procedures (PBPs) to CBPs creates a need for a computer-based procedure system (CBPS). A CBPS needs to have the ability to perform logical operations in order to adjust to the inputs received from either users or real time data from plant status databases. Without the ability for logical operations the procedure is just an electronic copy of the paper-based procedure. In order to provide the CBPS with the information it needs to display the procedure steps to the user, special care is needed in the format used to deliver all data and instructions to create the steps. The procedure should be broken down into basic elements and formatted in a standard method for the CBPS. One way to build the underlying data architecture is to use an Extensible Markup Language (XML) schema, which utilizes basic elements to build each step in the smart procedure. The attributes of each step will determine the type of functionality that the system will generate for that step. The CBPS will provide the context for the step to deliver referential information, request a decision, or accept input from the user. The XML schema needs to provide all data necessary for the system to accurately perform each step without the need for the procedure writer to reprogram the CBPS. The research team at the Idaho National Laboratory has developed a prototype CBPS for field workers as well as the

  1. Standardized Procedure Content And Data Structure Based On Human Factors Requirements For Computer-Based Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bly, Aaron; Oxstrand, Johanna; Le Blanc, Katya L


    Most activities that involve human interaction with systems in a nuclear power plant are guided by procedures. Traditionally, the use of procedures has been a paper-based process that supports safe operation of the nuclear power industry. However, the nuclear industry is constantly trying to find ways to decrease the human error rate, especially the human errors associated with procedure use. Advances in digital technology make computer-based procedures (CBPs) a valid option that provides further enhancement of safety by improving human performance related to procedure use. The transition from paper-based procedures (PBPs) to CBPs creates a need for a computer-based procedure system (CBPS). A CBPS needs to have the ability to perform logical operations in order to adjust to the inputs received from either users or real time data from plant status databases. Without the ability for logical operations the procedure is just an electronic copy of the paper-based procedure. In order to provide the CBPS with the information it needs to display the procedure steps to the user, special care is needed in the format used to deliver all data and instructions to create the steps. The procedure should be broken down into basic elements and formatted in a standard method for the CBPS. One way to build the underlying data architecture is to use an Extensible Markup Language (XML) schema, which utilizes basic elements to build each step in the smart procedure. The attributes of each step will determine the type of functionality that the system will generate for that step. The CBPS will provide the context for the step to deliver referential information, request a decision, or accept input from the user. The XML schema needs to provide all data necessary for the system to accurately perform each step without the need for the procedure writer to reprogram the CBPS. The research team at the Idaho National Laboratory has developed a prototype CBPS for field workers as well as the

  2. Mathematical Modeling: A Structured Process (United States)

    Anhalt, Cynthia Oropesa; Cortez, Ricardo


    Mathematical modeling, in which students use mathematics to explain or interpret physical, social, or scientific phenomena, is an essential component of the high school curriculum. The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) classify modeling as a K-12 standard for mathematical practice and as a conceptual category for high school…

  3. Rapid whole brain myelin water content mapping without an external water standard at 1.5T. (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh D; Spincemaille, Pascal; Gauthier, Susan A; Wang, Yi


    The objective of this study is to develop rapid whole brain mapping of myelin water content (MWC) at 1.5T. The Fast Acquisition with Spiral Trajectory and T2prep (FAST-T2) pulse sequence originally developed for myelin water fraction (MWF) mapping was modified to obtain fast mapping of T1 and receiver coil sensitivity needed for MWC computation. The accuracy of the proposed T1 mapping was evaluated by comparing with the standard IR-FSE method. Numerical simulations were performed to assess the accuracy and reliability of the proposed MWC mapping. We also compared MWC values obtained with either cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or an external water tube attached to the subject's head as the water reference. Our results from healthy volunteers show that whole brain MWC mapping is feasible in 7min and provides accurate brain T1 values. Regional brain WC and MWC measurements obtained with the internal CSF-based water standard showed excellent correlation (R>0.99) and negligible bias within narrow limits of agreement compared to those obtained with an external water standard. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Standard format and content of financial assurance mechanisms required for decommissioning under 10 CFR parts 30, 40, 70, and 72

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has established technical and financial regulations for decommissioning licensed nuclear facilities (53 FR 24018, June 27, 1988). The regulations address decommissioning planning needs, timing, funding methods, and environmental review requirements for public and private facilities holding licenses under 10 CFR Parts 30, 40, 50, 70, and 72, with the exception of uranium mills. The intent of the regulations is to ensure that the decommissioning of all licensed facilities will be accomplished in a safe and timely manner and that licensees will provide adequate funds to cover all costs associated with decommissioning. The purpose of this regulatory guide, ''Standard Format and Content of Financial Assurance Mechanisms Required for Decommissioning Under 10 CFR Parts 30, 40, 70, and 72,'' is to provide guidance acceptable to the NRC staff on the information to be provided for establishing financial assurance for decommissioning and to establish a standard format for presenting the information. Use of the standard format will (1) help ensure that the financial instruments contain the information required by 10 CFR Parts 30, 40, 70, and 72, (2) aid the applicant and NRC staff in ensuring that the information is complete, and (3) help persons reading the financial instruments to locate information. 5 refs., 13 figs

  5. Evaluation of the Standard Setting on the 2005 Grade 12 National Assessment of Educational Progress Mathematics Test (United States)

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Hauger, Jeffrey B.; Wells, Craig S.; Shea, Christine; Zenisky, April L.


    The National Assessment Governing Board used a new method to set achievement level standards on the 2005 Grade 12 NAEP Math test. In this article, we summarize our independent evaluation of the process used to set these standards. The evaluation data included observations of the standard-setting meeting, observations of advisory committee meetings…

  6. Standard format and content guide for financial assurance mechanisms required for decommissioning under 10 CFR parts 30, 40, 70, and 72

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Standard Format and Content Guide for Financial Assurance Mechanisms Required for Decommissioning under 10 CFR Parts 30, 40, 70, and 72, discusses the information to be provided in a license application and established a uniform format for presenting the information required to meet the decommissioning licensing requirements. The use of the Standard Format and Content Guide will (1) help ensure that the license application contains the information required by the regulations, (2) aid the applicant in ensuring that the information is complete, (3) help persons reading the Standard Format and Content Guide to locate information, and (4) contribute to shortening the time required for the review process. The Standard Format and Content Guide ensures that the information required to perform the review is provided, and in a useable format

  7. Standard format and content of a licensee physical protection plan for strategic special nuclear material in transit - April 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    A predetermined plan to respond to safeguards contingency events is required to be prepared, based on personnel and other physical protection resources described in the Physical Protection Plan for strategic special nuclear material (SSNM) in transit. Specific requirements for the contingency plan are provided in Appendix C. Licensee Safeguards Contingency Plans, to 10 CFR Part 73. Regulatory Guide 5.56, Standard Format and Content of Safeguards Contingency Plans for Transportation, provides guidance for the preparation of transportation contingency plans. Licensee is reminded that all three submissions - the Physical Protection Plan, the Physical Protection Arrangements for Specific Shipments, and the Safeguards Contingency Plan - together describe the system for physical protection of each particular shipment. They should be developed and maintained to be completely consistent with each other for each shipment

  8. Using Mathematics in Science: Working with Your Mathematics Department (United States)

    Lyon, Steve


    Changes to the mathematics and science curriculums are designed to increase rigour in mathematics, and place greater emphasis on mathematical content in science subjects at key stages 3, 4 and 5 (ages 11-18). One way to meet the growing challenge of providing increased emphasis on mathematics in the science curriculum is greater collaboration…

  9. Mathematics Teaching Today (United States)

    Martin, Tami S.; Speer, William R.


    This article describes features, consistent messages, and new components of "Mathematics Teaching Today: Improving Practice, Improving Student Learning" (NCTM 2007), an updated edition of "Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics" (NCTM 1991). The new book describes aspects of high-quality mathematics teaching; offers a model for observing,…

  10. Empowering Mathematical Practices (United States)

    Coomes, Jacqueline; Lee, Hyung Sook


    Mathematics teachers want to empower students as mathematical thinkers and doers (NCTM 2000). Specific ways of thinking and doing mathematics were described in the Process Standards (NCTM 2000); they were further characterized as habits of mind (Mark, Goldenberg, and Sword 2010); and more recently, they were detailed in the Common Core's Standards…

  11. Content and Alignment of State Writing Standards and Assessments as Predictors of Student Writing Achievement: An Analysis of 2007 National Assessment of Educational Progress Data (United States)

    Troia, Gary A.; Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Zhang, Mingcai; Wilson, Joshua; Stewart, Kelly A.; Mo, Ya; Hawkins, Lisa


    We examined the degree to which content of states' writing standards and assessments (using measures of content range, frequency, balance, and cognitive complexity) and their alignment were related to student writing achievement on the 2007 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), while controlling for student, school, and state…

  12. Performing mathematics activities with non-standard units of measurement using robots controlled via speech-generating devices: three case studies. (United States)

    Adams, Kim D; Cook, Albert M


    Purpose To examine how using a Lego robot controlled via a speech-generating device (SGD) can contribute to how students with physical and communication impairments perform hands-on and communicative mathematics measurement activities. This study was a follow-up to a previous study. Method Three students with cerebral palsy used the robot to measure objects using non-standard units, such as straws, and then compared and ordered the objects using the resulting measurement. Their performance was assessed, and the manipulation and communication events were observed. Teachers and education assistants were interviewed regarding robot use. Results Similar benefits to the previous study were found in this study. Gaps in student procedural knowledge were identified such as knowing to place measurement units tip-to-tip, and students' reporting revealed gaps in conceptual understanding. However, performance improved with repeated practice. Stakeholders identified that some robot tasks took too long or were too difficult to perform. Conclusions Having access to both their SGD and a robot gave the students multiple ways to show their understanding of the measurement concepts. Though they could participate actively in the new mathematics activities, robot use is most appropriate in short tasks requiring reasonable operational skill. Implications for Rehabilitation Lego robots controlled via speech-generating devices (SGDs) can help students to engage in the mathematics pedagogy of performing hands-on activities while communicating about concepts. Students can "show what they know" using the Lego robots, and report and reflect on concepts using the SGD. Level 1 and Level 2 mathematics measurement activities have been adapted to be accomplished by the Lego robot. Other activities can likely be accomplished with similar robot adaptations (e.g., gripper, pen). It is not recommended to use the robot to measure items that are long, or perform measurements that require high

  13. Self-Contained versus Departmentalized School Organization and the Impact on Fourth and Fifth Grade Student Achievement in Reading and Mathematics as Determined by the Kentucky Core Content Test (United States)

    Kent, Kimberly Penn


    The primary purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference between self-contained and departmentalized classroom organization on the Kentucky Core Content Test (KCCT) in reading and mathematics for students in fourth and fifth grade. A secondary purpose of this study was to consider how these organizational structures affect the…

  14. A Case Study on Specialised Content Knowledge Development with Dynamic Geometry Software: The Analysis of Influential Factors and Technology Beliefs of Three Pre-Service Middle Grades Mathematics Teachers (United States)

    Zambak, Vecihi S.; Tyminski, Andrew M.


    This study characterises the development of Specialised Content Knowledge (SCK) with dynamic geometry software (DGS) throughout a semester. The research employed a single-case study with the embedded units of three pre-service middle grades mathematics teachers. Qualitative data were collected, and factors affecting these three teachers' SCK…

  15. Mathematical tapas

    CERN Document Server

    Hiriart-Urruty, Jean-Baptiste

    This book contains a collection of exercises (called “tapas”) at undergraduate level, mainly from the fields of real analysis, calculus, matrices, convexity, and optimization. Most of the problems presented here are non-standard and some require broad knowledge of different mathematical subjects in order to be solved. The author provides some hints and (partial) answers and also puts these carefully chosen exercises into context, presents information on their origins, and comments on possible extensions. With stars marking the levels of difficulty, these tapas show or prove something interesting, challenge the reader to solve and learn, and may have surprising results. This first volume of Mathematical Tapas will appeal to mathematicians, motivated undergraduate students from science-based areas, and those generally interested in mathematics.

  16. A Content Analysis of Immigration in Traditional, New, and Non-Gateway State Standards for U.S. History and Civics (United States)

    Hilburn, Jeremy; Journell, Wayne; Buchanan, Lisa Brown


    In this content analysis of state U.S. History and Civics standards, we compared the treatment of immigration across three types of states with differing immigration demographics. Analyzing standards from 18 states from a critical race methodology perspective, our findings indicated three sets of tensions: a unified American story versus local…

  17. Teaching secondary mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Rock, David


    Solidly grounded in up-to-date research, theory and technology,?Teaching Secondary Mathematics?is a practical, student-friendly, and popular text for secondary mathematics methods courses. It provides clear and useful approaches for mathematics teachers, and shows how concepts typically found in a secondary mathematics curriculum can be taught in a positive and encouraging way. The thoroughly revised fourth edition combines this pragmatic approach with truly innovative and integrated technology content throughout. Synthesized content between the book and comprehensive companion websi

  18. Using Covariation Reasoning to Support Mathematical Modeling (United States)

    Jacobson, Erik


    For many students, making connections between mathematical ideas and the real world is one of the most intriguing and rewarding aspects of the study of mathematics. In the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010), mathematical modeling is highlighted as a mathematical practice standard for all grades. To engage in mathematical…

  19. Uncovering Hidden Mathematics of the Multiplication Table Using Spreadsheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Abramovich


    Full Text Available This paper reveals a number of learning activities emerging from a spreadsheetgenerated multiplication table. These activities are made possible by using such features of the software as conditional formatting, circular referencing, calculation through iteration, scroll bars, and graphing. The paper is a reflection on a mathematics content course designed for prospective elementary teachers using the hidden mathematics curriculum framework. It is written in support of standards for teaching and recommendations for teachers in North America.

  20. Analysis of chemistry textbook content and national science education standards in terms of air quality-related learning goals (United States)

    Naughton, Wendy

    In this study's Phase One, representatives of nine municipal agencies involved in air quality education were interviewed and interview transcripts were analyzed for themes related to what citizens need to know or be able to do regarding air quality concerns. Based on these themes, eight air quality Learning Goal Sets were generated and validated via peer and member checks. In Phase Two, six college-level, liberal-arts chemistry textbooks and the National Science Education Standards (NSES) were analyzed for congruence with Phase One learning goals. Major categories of desired citizen understandings highlighted in agency interviews concerned air pollution sources, impact, detection, and transport. Identified cognitive skills focused on information-gathering and -evaluating skills, enabling informed decision-making. A content match was found between textbooks and air quality learning goals, but most textbooks fail to address learning goals that remediate citizen misconceptions and inabilities---particularly those with a "personal experience" focus. A partial match between NSES and air quality learning goals was attributed to differing foci: Researcher-derived learning goals deal specifically with air quality, while NSES focus is on "fundamental science concepts," not "many science topics." Analysis of findings within a situated cognition framework suggests implications for instruction and NSES revision.

  1. Standard Test Method for Oxygen Content Using a 14-MeV Neutron Activation and Direct-Counting Technique

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of oxygen concentration in almost any matrix by using a 14-MeV neutron activation and direct-counting technique. Essentially, the same system may be used to determine oxygen concentrations ranging from over 50 % to about 10 g/g, or less, depending on the sample size and available 14-MeV neutron fluence rates. Note 1 - The range of analysis may be extended by using higher neutron fluence rates, larger samples, and higher counting efficiency detectors. 1.2 This test method may be used on either solid or liquid samples, provided that they can be made to conform in size, shape, and macroscopic density during irradiation and counting to a standard sample of known oxygen content. Several variants of this method have been described in the technical literature. A monograph is available which provides a comprehensive description of the principles of activation analysis using a neutron generator (1). 1.3 The values stated in either SI or inch-pound units are to be regarded...

  2. Specialized food composition dataset for vitamin D content in foods based on European standards: Application to dietary intake assessment. (United States)

    Milešević, Jelena; Samaniego, Lourdes; Kiely, Mairead; Glibetić, Maria; Roe, Mark; Finglas, Paul


    A review of national nutrition surveys from 2000 to date, demonstrated high prevalence of vitamin D intakes below the EFSA Adequate Intake (AI) (d vitamin D) in adults across Europe. Dietary assessment and modelling are required to monitor efficacy and safety of ongoing strategic vitamin D fortification. To support these studies, a specialized vitamin D food composition dataset, based on EuroFIR standards, was compiled. The FoodEXplorer™ tool was used to retrieve well documented analytical data for vitamin D and arrange the data into two datasets - European (8 European countries, 981 data values) and US (1836 data values). Data were classified, using the LanguaL™, FoodEX2 and ODIN classification systems and ranked according to quality criteria. Significant differences in the content, quality of data values, missing data on vitamin D 2 and 25(OH)D 3 and documentation of analytical methods were observed. The dataset is available through the EuroFIR platform. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Utilizing the National Research Council's (NRC) Conceptual Framework for the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS): A Self-Study in My Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Classroom (United States)

    Corvo, Arthur Francis

    Given the reality that active and competitive participation in the 21 st century requires American students to deepen their scientific and mathematical knowledge base, the National Research Council (NRC) proposed a new conceptual framework for K--12 science education. The framework consists of an integration of what the NRC report refers to as the three dimensions: scientific and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas in four disciplinary areas (physical, life and earth/spaces sciences, and engineering/technology). The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS ), which are derived from this new framework, were released in April 2013 and have implications on teacher learning and development in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). Given the NGSS's recent introduction, there is little research on how teachers can prepare for its release. To meet this research need, I implemented a self-study aimed at examining my teaching practices and classroom outcomes through the lens of the NRC's conceptual framework and the NGSS. The self-study employed design-based research (DBR) methods to investigate what happened in my secondary classroom when I designed, enacted, and reflected on units of study for my science, engineering, and mathematics classes. I utilized various best practices including Learning for Use (LfU) and Understanding by Design (UbD) models for instructional design, talk moves as a tool for promoting discourse, and modeling instruction for these designed units of study. The DBR strategy was chosen to promote reflective cycles, which are consistent with and in support of the self-study framework. A multiple case, mixed-methods approach was used for data collection and analysis. The findings in the study are reported by study phase in terms of unit planning, unit enactment, and unit reflection. The findings have implications for science teaching, teacher professional development, and teacher education.

  4. American Mathematical Association of Two Year Colleges Reform Policies in Practice: Implementing Standards in Classroom Instruction for Basic Skills Mathematics at One Four-Year College in New Jersey (United States)

    Garruto, Patricia J.


    High school graduates continue to enter post-secondary education lacking in basic mathematical skills and thus not academically prepared to enroll in college-level mathematics courses (ACT, 2010). Although it can be argued that those mathematical concepts should have been mastered in grades K-12, educating those students in basic skills…

  5. A Study of the Benefits of Math Manipulatives versus Standard Curriculum in the Comprehension of Mathematical Concepts. (United States)

    Rust, Amanda L.

    This study attempted to determine which teaching method, mainly manipulatives or the standard curriculum, best allowed the students to learn first grade math concepts. The manipulatives consisted of objects such as unifix cubes, personal chalkboards, work mats, and various other articles, which allowed the students to see the math that they were…

  6. Modeling freedom from progression for standard-risk medulloblastoma: a mathematical tumor control model with multiple modes of failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, Nils Patrik; Vogelius, Ivan R.; Bjørk-Eriksson, Thomas


    As pediatric medulloblastoma (MB) is a relatively rare disease, it is important to extract the maximum information from trials and cohort studies. Here, a framework was developed for modeling tumor control with multiple modes of failure and time-to-progression for standard-risk MB, using published...

  7. Mathematical modeling of the process of determining the standards for process losses in the transfer of thermal energy of the coolant (United States)

    Akhmetova, I. G.; Chichirova, N. D.


    Currently the actual problem is a precise definition of the normative and actual heat loss. Existing methods - experimental, on metering devices, on the basis of mathematical modeling methods are not without drawbacks. Heat losses establishing during the heat carrier transport has an impact on the tariff structure of heat supply organizations. This quantity determination also promotes proper choice of main and auxiliary equipment power, temperature chart of heat supply networks, as well as the heating system structure choice with the decentralization. Calculation of actual heat loss and their comparison with standard values justifies the performance of works on improvement of the heat networks with the replacement of piping or its insulation. To determine the cause of discrepancies between normative and actual heat losses thermal tests on the magnitude of the actual heat losses in the 124 sections of heat networks in Kazan. As were carried out the result mathematical model of the regulatory definition of heat losses is developed and tested. This model differ from differs the existing according the piping insulation type. The application of this factor will bring the value of calculative normative losses heat energy to their actual value. It is of great importance for enterprises operating distribution networks and because of the conditions of their configuration and extensions do not have the technical ability to produce thermal testing.

  8. The Relationships among Mathematics Teaching Efficacy, Mathematics Self-Efficacy, and Mathematical Beliefs for Elementary Pre-Service Teachers (United States)

    Briley, Jason S.


    Ninety-five elementary pre-service teachers enrolled in a mathematics content course for elementary school teachers completed 3 surveys to measure mathematics teaching efficacy, mathematics self-efficacy, and mathematical beliefs. The pre-service teachers who reported stronger beliefs in their capabilities to teach mathematics effectively were…

  9. STEM Gives Meaning to Mathematics (United States)

    Hefty, Lukas J.


    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' (NCTM's) "Principles and Standards for School Mathematics" (2000) outlines fi ve Process Standards that are essential for developing deep understanding of mathematics: (1) Problem Solving; (2) Reasoning and Proof; (3) Communication; (4) Connections; and (5) Representation. The Common Core…

  10. Establishment of an authenticated physical standard for gamma spectrometric determination of the U-235 content of MTR fuel and evaluation of measurement procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleck, C.M.


    Measurements of U-235 content in a standard MTR fuel element were carried out, using scintillation and semi-conductor spectrometers. Three different types of measurement were carried out: a) Comparison of different primary standards among one another and with single fuel plates. b) Calibration of the MTR fuel element as an authenticated physical standard. c) Evaluation of over all errors in assay measurements on MTR fuel elements. The error of the whole assay measurement will be approximately 0.9%. The Uranium distribution in the single fuel plates is the original source of error. In the case of equal Uranium contents in all fuel plates of one fuel assembly, the error of assay measurements would be about 0.3% relative to the primary standards

  11. Modeling Freedom From Progression for Standard-Risk Medulloblastoma: A Mathematical Tumor Control Model With Multiple Modes of Failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodin, N. Patrik; Vogelius, Ivan R.; Björk-Eriksson, Thomas; Munck af Rosenschöld, Per; Bentzen, Søren M.


    Purpose: As pediatric medulloblastoma (MB) is a relatively rare disease, it is important to extract the maximum information from trials and cohort studies. Here, a framework was developed for modeling tumor control with multiple modes of failure and time-to-progression for standard-risk MB, using published pattern of failure data. Methods and Materials: Outcome data for standard-risk MB published after 1990 with pattern of relapse information were used to fit a tumor control dose-response model addressing failures in both the high-dose boost volume and the elective craniospinal volume. Estimates of 5-year event-free survival from 2 large randomized MB trials were used to model the time-to-progression distribution. Uncertainty in freedom from progression (FFP) was estimated by Monte Carlo sampling over the statistical uncertainty in input data. Results: The estimated 5-year FFP (95% confidence intervals [CI]) for craniospinal doses of 15, 18, 24, and 36 Gy while maintaining 54 Gy to the posterior fossa was 77% (95% CI, 70%-81%), 78% (95% CI, 73%-81%), 79% (95% CI, 76%-82%), and 80% (95% CI, 77%-84%) respectively. The uncertainty in FFP was considerably larger for craniospinal doses below 18 Gy, reflecting the lack of data in the lower dose range. Conclusions: Estimates of tumor control and time-to-progression for standard-risk MB provides a data-driven setting for hypothesis generation or power calculations for prospective trials, taking the uncertainties into account. The presented methods can also be applied to incorporate further risk-stratification for example based on molecular biomarkers, when the necessary data become available

  12. Measurement of the fluorine content of three NBS standard reference materials by use of the /sup 19/F(p, p'. gamma. )/sup 19/F reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, A L; Kraner, H W; Shroy, R E; Jones, K W [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)


    The fluorine contents of National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Standard Reference Materials (SRM) 91, opal glass; 120b, phosphate rock; and 2671a, freeze-dried urine; have been measured using the /sup 19/F(p,p'..gamma..)/sup 19/F reaction at a proton energy of 3.1 MeV. The results are in good agreement with the values certified by the NBS.

  13. Mathematical Education for Geographers (United States)

    Wilson, Alan


    Outlines mathematical topics of use to college geography students identifies teaching methods for mathematical techniques in geography at the University of Leeds; and discusses problem of providing students with a framework for synthesizing all content of geography education. For journal availability, see SO 506 593. (Author/AV)

  14. Common Core State Standards in the Middle Grades: What's New in the Geometry Domain and How Can Teachers Support Student Learning? (United States)

    Teuscher, Dawn; Tran, Dung; Reys, Barbara J.


    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) is a primary focus of attention for many stakeholders' (e.g., teachers, district mathematics leaders, and curriculum developers) intent on improving mathematics education. This article reports on specific content shifts related to the geometry domain in the middle grades (6-8)…

  15. Mathematical problems for chemistry students

    CERN Document Server

    Pota, Gyorgy


    Mathematical Problems for Chemistry Students has been compiled and written (a) to help chemistrystudents in their mathematical studies by providing them with mathematical problems really occurring in chemistry (b) to help practising chemists to activate their applied mathematical skills and (c) to introduce students and specialistsof the chemistry-related fields (physicists, mathematicians, biologists, etc.) intothe world of the chemical applications.Some problems of the collection are mathematical reformulations of those in the standard textbooks of chemistry, others we

  16. What's New in Children's Literature for the Children of Louisiana? A Selected Annotated Bibliography with Readability Levels (Selected) and Associated Louisiana Content Standards (United States)

    Webre, Elizabeth C.


    An annotated list of children's books published within the last 15 years and related to Louisiana culture, environment, and economics are linked to the Louisiana Content Standards. Readability levels of selected books are included, providing guidance as to whether a book is appropriate for independent student use. The thirty-three books listed are…

  17. E-Learning Content Design Standards Based on Interactive Digital Concepts Maps in the Light of Meaningful and Constructivist Learning Theory (United States)

    Afify, Mohammed Kamal


    The present study aims to identify standards of interactive digital concepts maps design and their measurement indicators as a tool to develop, organize and administer e-learning content in the light of Meaningful Learning Theory and Constructivist Learning Theory. To achieve the objective of the research, the author prepared a list of E-learning…

  18. Opportunity to learn English and mathematics in Ghanaian primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Opportunity to learn English and mathematics in Ghanaian primary schools: implications for teacher education programmes. ... teachers' instructional practices and management of instructional time, and • teachers' preparedness to implement the content standards. These inefficiencies could be attributed to the fact that the ...

  19. Mathematics Underground (United States)

    Luther, Kenneth H.


    Mathematical modeling of groundwater flow is a topic at the intersection of mathematics and geohydrology and is rarely encountered in undergraduate mathematics. However, this subject is full of interesting and meaningful examples of truly "applied" mathematics accessible to undergraduates, from the pre-calculus to advanced mathematics levels. This…

  20. 21st Century Mathematics (United States)

    Seeley, Cathy


    This article addresses some important issues in mathematics instruction at the middle and secondary levels, including the structuring of a district's mathematics program; the choice of textbooks and use of calculators in the classroom; the need for more rigorous lesson planning practices; and the dangers of teaching to standardized tests rather…

  1. Mathematical Sciences Institute Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Philip


    A so-called "effective" algorithm may require arbitrarily large finite amounts of time and space resources, and hence may not be practical in the real world. A "feasible" algorithm is one which only requires a limited amount of space and/or time for execution; the general idea is that a feasible algorithm is one which may be practical on today's or at least tomorrow's computers. There is no definitive analogue of Church's thesis giving a mathematical definition of feasibility; however, the most widely studied mathematical model of feasible computability is polynomial-time computability. Feasible Mathematics includes both the study of feasible computation from a mathematical and logical point of view and the reworking of traditional mathematics from the point of view of feasible computation. The diversity of Feasible Mathematics is illustrated by the. contents of this volume which includes papers on weak fragments of arithmetic, on higher type functionals, on bounded linear logic, on sub recursive definitions ...

  2. Implementation of an Evidence-Based and Content Validated Standardized Ostomy Algorithm Tool in Home Care: A Quality Improvement Project. (United States)

    Bare, Kimberly; Drain, Jerri; Timko-Progar, Monica; Stallings, Bobbie; Smith, Kimberly; Ward, Naomi; Wright, Sandra

    Many nurses have limited experience with ostomy management. We sought to provide a standardized approach to ostomy education and management to support nurses in early identification of stomal and peristomal complications, pouching problems, and provide standardized solutions for managing ostomy care in general while improving utilization of formulary products. This article describes development and testing of an ostomy algorithm tool.

  3. Exploring Yellowstone National Park with Mathematical Modeling (United States)

    Wickstrom, Megan H.; Carr, Ruth; Lackey, Dacia


    Mathematical modeling, a practice standard in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) (CCSSI 2010), is a process by which students develop and use mathematics as a tool to make sense of the world around them. Students investigate a real-world situation by asking mathematical questions; along the way, they need to decide how to use…

  4. Driven by History: Mathematics Education Reform (United States)

    Permuth, Steve; Dalzell, Nicole


    The advancement of modern societies is fueled by mathematics, and mathematics education provides the foundation upon which future scientists and engineers will build. Society dictates how mathematics will be taught through the development and implementation of mathematics standards. When examining the progression of these standards, it is…

  5. Influences on Mathematical Preparation of Secondary School Teachers of Mathematics. (United States)

    Johnson, Carl S.; Byars, Jackson A.

    The results of a survey related to the impact of various recommendations on preservice content programs for teachers of mathematics are reported. The content of current programs is compared to the recommendations of the Committee on Undergraduate Programs in Mathematics (CUPM). The acceptance of CUPM and the Cambridge Conference on School…

  6. Middle-School Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs in NCTM's Vision (United States)

    Perrin, John Robert


    This study examined the extent to which seventh- and eighth-grade mathematics teachers are aware of National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standards documents, Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics and Principles and Standards for School Mathematics and agree with NCTM's vision of school mathematics as expressed in…

  7. Mathematics Connection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MATHEMATICS CONNECTION aims at providing a forum topromote the development of Mathematics Education in Ghana. Articles that seekto enhance the teaching and/or learning of mathematics at all levels of theeducational system are welcome.

  8. A preliminary comparative study on the content of cesium, thorium and uranium in IAEA standard reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jing; Liu Husheng; Wang Xiaoyan; Wang Naifen


    This paper presents the detection of Cs, Th and U in 6 standard reference materials provided by IAEA, using the ICP-MS method. The bismuth (Bi) was selected as internal standard element for the range compensation of matrix inhibitory effect and flow of the sensibility. The detection limit of the 3 elements was limited in the range of 0.0006∼2ng/ml, 0.4∼0.5g sample was taken and digested by acid, and detected directly by ICP-MS. The recovery of standard addition was 82.1∼100.1%

  9. Mapping Mathematics in Classroom Discourse (United States)

    Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth A.; Otten, Samuel


    This article offers a particular analytic method from systemic functional linguistics, "thematic analysis," which reveals the mathematical meaning potentials construed in discourse. Addressing concerns that discourse analysis is too often content-free, thematic analysis provides a way to represent semantic structures of mathematical content,…

  10. 3D mathematical modeling of glioblastoma suggests that transdifferentiated vascular endothelial cells mediate resistance to current standard-of-care therapy (United States)

    Yan, Huaming; Romero-López, Mónica; Benitez, Lesly I.; Di, Kaijun; Frieboes, Hermann B.; Hughes, Christopher C. W.; Bota, Daniela A.; Lowengrub, John S.


    Glioblastoma (GBM), the most aggressive brain tumor in human patients, is decidedly heterogeneous and highly vascularized. Glioma stem/initiating cells (GSC) are found to play a crucial role by increasing cancer aggressiveness and promoting resistance to therapy. Recently, crosstalk between GSC and vascular endothelial cells has been shown to significantly promote GSC self-renewal and tumor progression. Further, GSC also transdifferentiate into bona-fide vascular endothelial cells (GEC), which inherit mutations present in GSC and are resistant to traditional anti-angiogenic therapies. Here we use 3D mathematical modeling to investigate GBM progression and response to therapy. The model predicted that GSC drive invasive fingering and that GEC spontaneously form a network within the hypoxic core, consistent with published experimental findings. Standard-of-care treatments using DNA-targeted therapy (radiation/chemo) together with anti-angiogenic therapies, reduced GBM tumor size but increased invasiveness. Anti-GEC treatments blocked the GEC support of GSC and reduced tumor size but led to increased invasiveness. Anti-GSC therapies that promote differentiation or disturb the stem cell niche effectively reduced tumor invasiveness and size, but were ultimately limited in reducing tumor size because GEC maintain GSC. Our study suggests that a combinatorial regimen targeting the vasculature, GSC, and GEC, using drugs already approved by the FDA, can reduce both tumor size and invasiveness and could lead to tumor eradication. PMID:28536277

  11. Calculator-Controlled Robots: Hands-On Mathematics and Science Discovery (United States)

    Tuchscherer, Tyson


    The Calculator Controlled Robots activities are designed to engage students in hands-on inquiry-based missions. These activities address National science and technology standards, as well as specifically focusing on mathematics content and process standards. There are ten missions and three exploration extensions that provide activities for up to…

  12. Mathematical Cultures : the London Meetings 2012-2014

    CERN Document Server


    This collection presents significant contributions from an international network project on mathematical cultures, including essays from leading scholars in the history and philosophy of mathematics and mathematics education. Mathematics has universal standards of validity. Nevertheless, there are local styles in mathematical research and teaching, and great variation in the place of mathematics in the larger cultures that mathematical practitioners belong to. The reflections on mathematical cultures collected in this book are of interest to mathematicians, philosophers, historians, sociologists, cognitive scientists and mathematics educators.

  13. Effect of standardizing the lactose content of cheesemilk on the properties of low-moisture, part-skim Mozzarella cheese. (United States)

    Moynihan, A C; Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Molitor, M; Jaeggi, J J; Johnson, M E; McSweeney, P L H; Lucey, J A


    The texture, functionality, and quality of Mozzarella cheese are affected by critical parameters such as pH and the rate of acidification. Acidification is typically controlled by the selection of starter culture and temperature used during cheesemaking, as well as techniques such as curd washing or whey dilution, to reduce the residual curd lactose content and decrease the potential for developed acidity. In this study, we explored an alternative approach: adjusting the initial lactose concentration in the milk before cheesemaking. We adjusted the concentration of substrate available to form lactic acid. We added water to decrease the lactose content of the milk, but this also decreased the protein content, so we used ultrafiltration to help maintain a constant protein concentration. We used 3 milks with different lactose-to-casein ratios: one at a high level, 1.8 (HLC, the normal level in milk); one at a medium level, 1.3 (MLC); and one at a low level, 1.0 (LLC). All milks had similar total casein (2.5%) and fat (2.5%) content. We investigated the composition, texture, and functional and sensory properties of low-moisture, part-skim Mozzarella manufactured from these milks when the cheeses were ripened at 4°C for 84d. All cheeses had similar pH values at draining and salting, resulting in cheeses with similar total calcium contents. Cheeses made with LLC milk had higher pH values than the other cheeses throughout ripening. Cheeses had similar moisture contents. The LLC and MLC cheeses had lower levels of lactose, galactose, lactic acid, and insoluble calcium compared with HLC cheese. The lactose-to-casein ratio had no effect on the levels of proteolysis. The LLC and MLC cheeses were harder than the HLC cheese during ripening. Maximum loss tangent (LT), an index of cheese meltability, was lower for the LLC cheese until 28d of ripening, but after 28d, all treatments exhibited similar maximum LT values. The temperature where LT=1 (crossover temperature), an index

  14. The Education of Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Darda


    Full Text Available The objective of mathematics education is not only preparingmathematicians but making well-informed citizens. This is a broad generalterms for objective of the teaching of mathematics. And, this might beimplemented as “accurate thorough knowledge” or “original logicalthinking”. So, teaching mathematics is not the conversation andtransmission of mathematical knowledge, but on the aim of preparing wellinformedcitizens trained in independent, critical thinking.By the mathematics, sciences become simple, clearer, and easier to bedeveloped. The mathematics is often applied for solving any problem ofother field of sciences, either in the physics such as astronomy, chemistry,technique; or social sciences such as economy, demography, and assurance.Those all need an analysis reading ability.Mathematical skill, therefore, relates strongly with the analysisreading ability in the human intellectual structure. This study is about therelationship between them. And, result of the study shows us as below:Both Mathematical skill and analysis reading ability possess the “high type”of thinking operation. Both also involve the same content of the abstractintelligent, i.e. symbolic and semantic contents. Last but not least, both alsouse the same product of thinking, i.e. units, classes, relations, and systems.Both can be transformed and have an implication.

  15. A Primer for Mathematical Modeling (United States)

    Sole, Marla


    With the implementation of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics recommendations and the adoption of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics, modeling has moved to the forefront of K-12 education. Modeling activities not only reinforce purposeful problem-solving skills, they also connect the mathematics students learn in school…

  16. Mathematical Footprints Discovering Mathematics Everywhere

    CERN Document Server

    Pappas, Theoni


    MATHEMATICAL FOOTPRINTS takes a creative look at the role mathematics has played since prehistoric times, and will play in the future, and uncovers mathematics where you least expect to find it from its many uses in medicine, the sciences, and its appearance in art to its patterns in nature and its central role in the development of computers. Pappas presents mathematical ideas in a readable non-threatening manner. MATHEMATICAL FOOTPRINTS is another gem by the creator of THE MATHEMATICS CALENDAR and author of THE JOY OF MATHEMATICS. "Pappas's books have been gold mines of mathematical ent

  17. Diabetes prevention information in Japanese magazines with the largest print runs. Content analysis using clinical guidelines as a standard. (United States)

    Noda, Emi; Mifune, Taka; Nakayama, Takeo


    To characterize information on diabetes prevention appearing in Japanese general health magazines and to examine the agreement of the content with that in clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of diabetes in Japan. We used the Japanese magazines' databases provided by the Media Research Center and selected magazines with large print runs published in 2006. Two medical professionals independently conducted content analysis based on items in the diabetes prevention guidelines. The number of pages for each item and agreement with the information in the guidelines were determined. We found 63 issues of magazines amounting to 8,982 pages; 484 pages included diabetes prevention related content. For 23 items included in the diabetes prevention guidelines, overall agreement of information printed in the magazines with that in the guidelines was 64.5% (471 out of 730). The number of times these items were referred to in the magazines varied widely, from 247 times for food items to 0 times for items on screening for pregnancy-induced diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Among the 20 items that were referred to at least once, 18 items showed more than 90% agreement with the guidelines. However, there was poor agreement for information on vegetable oil (2/14, 14%) and for specific foods (5/247, 2%). For the fatty acids category, "fat" was not mentioned in the guidelines; however, the term frequently appeared in magazines. "Uncertainty" was never mentioned in magazines for specific food items. The diabetes prevention related content in the health magazines differed from that defined in clinical practice guidelines. Most information in the magazines agreed with the guidelines, however some items were referred to inappropriately. To disseminate correct information to the public on diabetes prevention, health professionals and the media must collaborate.

  18. Use of Bayesian Methods to Analyze and Visualize Content Uniformity Capability Versus United States Pharmacopeia and ASTM Standards. (United States)

    Hofer, Jeffrey D; Rauk, Adam P


    The purpose of this work was to develop a straightforward and robust approach to analyze and summarize the ability of content uniformity data to meet different criteria. A robust Bayesian statistical analysis methodology is presented which provides a concise and easily interpretable visual summary of the content uniformity analysis results. The visualization displays individual batch analysis results and shows whether there is high confidence that different content uniformity criteria could be met a high percentage of the time in the future. The 3 tests assessed are as follows: (a) United States Pharmacopeia Uniformity of Dosage Units , (b) a specific ASTM E2810 Sampling Plan 1 criterion to potentially be used for routine release testing, and (c) another specific ASTM E2810 Sampling Plan 2 criterion to potentially be used for process validation. The approach shown here could readily be used to create similar result summaries for other potential criteria. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Standard format and content for emergency plans for fuel-cycle and materials facilities: Draft report for comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report is issued as guidance to those fuel-cycle and major materials licensees who are required by the NRC to prepare and submit an emergency plan. This Standard Format has been prepared to help ensure uniformity and completeness in the preparation of those plans

  20. 78 FR 951 - Accessible Medical Device Labeling in a Standard Content and Format Public Workshop; Request for... (United States)


    ... format so that patients, caregivers, and healthcare providers may access and utilize device labeling as... labeling, and what they would want in a standard version of device labeling. Key findings from the survey... survey with the National Family Caregivers Association (NFCA) on medical device labeling to elicit home...

  1. 48 CFR 311.7001 - Section 508 accessibility standards for HHS Web site content and communications materials. (United States)


    ..., documents, charts, posters, presentations (such as Microsoft PowerPoint), or video material that is specifically intended for publication on, or delivery via, an HHS-owned or -funded Web site, the Project... standards, and resolve any related issues. (c) Based on those discussions, the Project Officer shall provide...

  2. An investigation of mathematics and science instruction in English and Spanish for English language learners (United States)

    Rodriguez-Esquivel, Marina

    The contextual demands of language in content area are difficult for ELLS. Content in the native language furthers students' academic development and native language skills, while they are learning English. Content in English integrates pedagogical strategies for English acquisition with subject area instruction. The following models of curriculum content are provided in most Miami Dade County Public Schools: (a) mathematics instruction in the native language with science instruction in English or (b) science instruction in the native language with mathematics instruction in English. The purpose of this study was to investigate which model of instruction is more contextually supportive for mathematics and science achievement. A pretest and posttest, nonequivalent group design was used with 94 fifth grade ELLs who received instruction in curriculum model (a) or (b). This allowed for statistical analysis that detected a difference in the means of .5 standard deviations with a power of .80 at the .05 level of significance. Pretreatment and post-treatment assessments of mathematics, reading, and science achievement were obtained through the administration of Aprenda-Segunda Edicion and the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test. The results indicated that students receiving mathematics in English and Science in Spanish scored higher on achievement tests in both Mathematics and Science than the students who received Mathematics in Spanish and Science in English. In addition, the mean score of students on the FCAT mathematics examination was higher than their mean score on the FCAT science examination regardless of the language of instruction.

  3. Mathematics education practice in Nigeria: Its impact in a post-colonial era (United States)

    Enime, Noble O. J.

    This qualitative research method of study examined the impacts of the Nigerian pre-independence era Mathematics Education Practice on the Post-Colonial era Mathematics Education Practice. The study was designed to gather qualitative information related to Pre-independence and Postcolonial era data related to Mathematics Education Practice in Nigeria (Western, Eastern and the Middle Belt) using interview questions. Data was collected through face to face interviews. Over ten themes emerged from these qualitative interview questions when data was analyzed. Some of the themes emerging from the sub questions were as follows. "Mentally mature to understand the mathematics" and "Not mentally mature to understand the mathematics", "mentally mature to understand the mathematics, with the help of others" and "Not Sure". Others were "Contented with Age of Enrollment" and "Not contented with Age of Enrollment". From the questions of type of school attended and liking of mathematics the following themes emerged: "Attended UPE (Universal Primary Education) and understood Mathematics", and "Attended Standard Education System and did not like Mathematics". Connections between the liking of mathematics and the respondents' eventual careers were seen through the following themes that emerged. "Biological Sciences based career and enjoyed High School Mathematics Experience", "Economics and Business Education based career and enjoyed High School Mathematics Experience" and five more themes. The themes, "Very helpful" and "Unhelpful" emerged from the question concerning parents and students' homework. Some of the themes emerging from the interviews were as follows: "Awesome because of method of Instruction of Mathematics", "Awesome because Mathematics was easy", "Awesome because I had a Good Teacher or Teachers" and four other themes, "Like and dislike of Mathematics", "Heavy work load", "Subject matter content" and "Rigor of instruction". More emerging themes are presented in this

  4. Characterization of primary standards for use in the HPLC analysis of the procyanidin content of cocoa and chocolate containing products. (United States)

    Hurst, William J; Stanley, Bruce; Glinski, Jan A; Davey, Matthew; Payne, Mark J; Stuart, David A


    This report describes the characterization of a series of commercially available procyanidin standards ranging from dimers DP = 2 to decamers DP = 10 for the determination of procyanidins from cocoa and chocolate. Using a combination of HPLC with fluorescence detection and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, the purity of each standard was determined and these data were used to determine relative response factors. These response factors were compared with other response factors obtained from published methods. Data comparing the procyanidin analysis of a commercially available US dark chocolate calculated using each of the calibration methods indicates divergent results and demonstrate that previous methods may significantly underreport the procyanidins in cocoa-containing products. These results have far reaching implications because the previous calibration methods have been used to develop data for a variety of scientific reports, including food databases and clinical studies.

  5. Melinda - A custom search engine that provides access to locally-developed content using the HL7 Infobutton standard. (United States)

    Wan, Yik-Ki J; Staes, Catherine J


    Healthcare organizations use care pathways to standardize care, but once developed, adoption rates often remain low. One challenge for usage concerns clinicians' difficulty in accessing guidance when it is most needed. Although the HL7 'Infobutton Standard' allows clinicians easier access to external references, access to locally-developed resources often requires clinicians to deviate from their normal electronic health record (EHR) workflow to use another application. To address this gap between internal and external resources, we reviewed the literature and existing practices at the University of Utah Health Care. We identify the requirements to meet the needs of a healthcare enterprise and clinicians, describe the design and development of a prototype to aggregate both internal and external resources from within or outside the EHR, and evaluated strengths and limitations of the prototype. The system is functional but not implemented in a live EHR environment. We suggest next steps and enhancements.

  6. Standard format and content for a license application to store spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Subpart B, ''License Application, Form, and Contents,'' of 10 CFR Part 72, ''Licensing Requirements for the Independent Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste,'' specifies the information to be covered in an application for a license to store spent fuel in an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) or to store spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a monitored retrievable storage facility (MRS). However, Part 72 does not specify the format to be followed in the license application. This regulatory guide suggests a format acceptable to the NRC staff for submitting the information specified in Part 72 for license application to store spent fuel in an ISFSI or to store spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in an MRS

  7. Mathematical bridges

    CERN Document Server

    Andreescu, Titu; Tetiva, Marian


    Building bridges between classical results and contemporary nonstandard problems, Mathematical Bridges embraces important topics in analysis and algebra from a problem-solving perspective. Blending old and new techniques, tactics and strategies used in solving challenging mathematical problems, readers will discover numerous genuine mathematical gems throughout that will heighten their appreciation of the inherent beauty of mathematics. Most of the problems are original to the authors and are intertwined in a well-motivated exposition driven by representative examples. The book is structured to assist the reader in formulating and proving conjectures, as well as devising solutions to important mathematical problems by making connections between various concepts and ideas from different areas of mathematics. Instructors and educators teaching problem-solving courses or organizing mathematics clubs, as well as motivated mathematics students from high school juniors to college seniors, will find Mathematical Bri...

  8. Mathematical logic foundations for information science

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wei


    This book presents the basic principles and formal calculus of mathematical logic. It covers core contents, extensions and developments of classical mathematical logic, and it offers formal proofs and concrete examples for all theoretical results.

  9. A Mathematical Model of Neutral Lipid Content in terms of Initial Nitrogen Concentration and Validation in Coelastrum sp. HA-1 and Application in Chlorella sorokiniana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Yang


    Full Text Available Microalgae are considered to be a potential major biomass feedstock for biofuel due to their high lipid content. However, no correlation equations as a function of initial nitrogen concentration for lipid accumulation have been developed for simplicity to predict lipid production and optimize the lipid production process. In this study, a lipid accumulation model was developed with simple parameters based on the assumption protein synthesis shift to lipid synthesis by a linear function of nitrogen quota. The model predictions fitted well for the growth, lipid content, and nitrogen consumption of Coelastrum sp. HA-1 under various initial nitrogen concentrations. Then the model was applied successfully in Chlorella sorokiniana to predict the lipid content with different light intensities. The quantitative relationship between initial nitrogen concentrations and the final lipid content with sensitivity analysis of the model were also discussed. Based on the model results, the conversion efficiency from protein synthesis to lipid synthesis is higher and higher in microalgae metabolism process as nitrogen decreases; however, the carbohydrate composition content remains basically unchanged neither in HA-1 nor in C. sorokiniana.

  10. A Mathematical Model of Neutral Lipid Content in terms of Initial Nitrogen Concentration and Validation in Coelastrum sp. HA-1 and Application in Chlorella sorokiniana (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Chenfeng; Hu, Zhipeng


    Microalgae are considered to be a potential major biomass feedstock for biofuel due to their high lipid content. However, no correlation equations as a function of initial nitrogen concentration for lipid accumulation have been developed for simplicity to predict lipid production and optimize the lipid production process. In this study, a lipid accumulation model was developed with simple parameters based on the assumption protein synthesis shift to lipid synthesis by a linear function of nitrogen quota. The model predictions fitted well for the growth, lipid content, and nitrogen consumption of Coelastrum sp. HA-1 under various initial nitrogen concentrations. Then the model was applied successfully in Chlorella sorokiniana to predict the lipid content with different light intensities. The quantitative relationship between initial nitrogen concentrations and the final lipid content with sensitivity analysis of the model were also discussed. Based on the model results, the conversion efficiency from protein synthesis to lipid synthesis is higher and higher in microalgae metabolism process as nitrogen decreases; however, the carbohydrate composition content remains basically unchanged neither in HA-1 nor in C. sorokiniana. PMID:28194424

  11. Teachers' Conceptions of Mathematical Modeling (United States)

    Gould, Heather


    The release of the "Common Core State Standards for Mathematics" in 2010 resulted in a new focus on mathematical modeling in United States curricula. Mathematical modeling represents a way of doing and understanding mathematics new to most teachers. The purpose of this study was to determine the conceptions and misconceptions held by…

  12. Mathematics disorder (United States)

    ... this page: // Mathematics disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's ...

  13. Mathematical Chemistry


    Trinajstić, Nenad; Gutman, Ivan


    A brief description is given of the historical development of mathematics and chemistry. A path leading to the meeting of these two sciences is described. An attempt is made to define mathematical chemistry, and journals containing the term mathematical chemistry in their titles are noted. In conclusion, the statement is made that although chemistry is an experimental science aimed at preparing new compounds and materials, mathematics is very useful in chemistry, among other things, to produc...

  14. First aid in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sulley, Robert


    Achieve the best possible standard with this bestselling book of traditional practice and guidance - now in colour!. First Aid in Mathematics provides all the help and support needed for learning and practising Mathematics. It offers comprehensive coverage of core mathematical topics in clear and accessible language. It is suitable for both native English speakers and students of English as a second language and can be used in class, or as a reference and revision book. - Develops a strong basis of understanding with core topics covered in clear and accessible language. - Improves student's ab

  15. Rainforest Mathematics (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Jeremy


    This paper addresses the contested way that ethnomathematics has sometimes been received by mathematicians and others and what that disagreement might suggest about issues in mathematics education; namely, (a) the relation of ethnomathematics to academic mathematics; (b) recent efforts to reform secondary school mathematics so that it prepares…

  16. Optimized determination method for trans-10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid content in royal jelly by high-performance liquid chromatography with an internal standard. (United States)

    Zhou, Jinhui; Xue, Xiaofeng; Li, Yi; Zhang, Jinzhen; Zhao, Jing


    An optimized reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to detect the trans-10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) content in royal jelly cream and lyophilized powder. The sample was extracted using absolute ethanol. Chromatographic separation of 10-HDA and methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate as the internal standard was performed on a Nova-pak C18 column. The average recoveries were 95.0-99.2% (n = 5) with relative standard deviation (RSD) values of 1.3-2.1% for royal jelly cream and 98.0-100.0% (n = 5) with RSD values of 1.6-3.0% for lyophilized powder, respectively. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.5 and 1.5 mg/kg, respectively, for both royal jelly cream and lyophilized powder. The method was validated for the determination of practical royal jelly products. The concentration of 10-HDA ranged from 1.26 to 2.21% for pure royal jelly cream samples and 3.01 to 6.19% for royal jelly lyophilized powder samples. For 30 royal jelly products, the 10-HDA content varied from not detectable to 0.98%.

  17. The Language of Mathematics: The Importance of Teaching and Learning Mathematical Vocabulary (United States)

    Riccomini, Paul J.; Smith, Gregory W.; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Fries, Karen M.


    Vocabulary understanding is a major contributor to overall comprehension in many content areas, including mathematics. Effective methods for teaching vocabulary in all content areas are diverse and long standing. Teaching and learning the language of mathematics is vital for the development of mathematical proficiency. Students' mathematical…

  18. Recent applications of nuclear analytical methods to the certification of elemental content in NIST standard reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, R.R.; Zeisler, R.; Mackey, E.A.


    Well-characterized, certified reference materials (CRMs) play an essential role in assuring the quality of analytical measurements. NIST has been producing CRMs, currently called NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), to validate analytical measurements for nearly one hundred years. The predominant mode of certifying inorganic constituents in complex-matrix SRMs is through the use of two critically evaluated, independent analytical techniques at NIST. These techniques should have no significant sources of error in common. The use of nuclear analytical methods in combination with one of the chemically based analytical method at NIST eliminates the possibility of any significant, common error source. The inherent characteristics of the various forms of nuclear analytical methods make them extremely valuable for SRM certification. Instrumental NAA is nondestructive, which eliminates the possibility of any dissolution problems, and often provides homogeneity information. Radiochemical NAA typically provides nearly blank-free determinations of some highly important, but difficult elements at very low levels. Prompt-gamma NAA complements INAA, and provides independent determinations of some key elements. In addition, all significant uncertainty components can be evaluated for these techniques, and we believe these methods can meet all the requirements of a primary method of measurement as defined by ISO and the CCQM. NIST has certified several SRMs using INAA and RNAA as primary methods. In addition, NIST has compared measurements by INAA and PGAA with other primary methods as part of the CCQM intercomparisons of national metrology institutes. Some significant SRMs recently certified for inorganic constituents with contributions from the nuclear analytical methods include: Toxic Substances in Urine (SRM 2670a), Lake Superior Fish Tissue (SRM 1946), Air Particulate on Filter Media (SRM 2783), Inorganics in Marine Sediment (SRM 2702), Sediment for Solid Sampling (Small

  19. Missing the Promise of Mathematical Modeling (United States)

    Meyer, Dan


    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) have exerted enormous pressure on every participant in a child's education. Students are struggling to meet new standards for mathematics learning, and parents are struggling to understand how to help them. Teachers are growing in their capacity to develop new mathematical competencies, and…

  20. Mathematical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomhøj, Morten


    Developing competences for setting up, analysing and criticising mathematical models are normally seen as relevant only from and above upper secondary level. The general belief among teachers is that modelling activities presuppose conceptual understanding of the mathematics involved. Mathematical...... roots for the construction of important mathematical concepts. In addition competences for setting up, analysing and criticising modelling processes and the possible use of models is a formative aim in this own right for mathematics teaching in general education. The paper presents a theoretical...... modelling, however, can be seen as a practice of teaching that place the relation between real life and mathematics into the centre of teaching and learning mathematics, and this is relevant at all levels. Modelling activities may motivate the learning process and help the learner to establish cognitive...

  1. Discrete Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted


    The objectives of Discrete Mathematics (IDISM2) are: The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including the application within programming languages for computer systems. Having passed the IDISM2 course, the student will be able...... to accomplish the following: -Understand and apply formal representations in discrete mathematics. -Understand and apply formal representations in problems within discrete mathematics. -Understand methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics. -Apply methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics......; construct a finite state machine for a given application. Apply these concepts to new problems. The teaching in Discrete Mathematics is a combination of sessions with lectures and students solving problems, either manually or by using Matlab. Furthermore a selection of projects must be solved and handed...

  2. Mathematical methods for physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Arfken, George B


    This best-selling title provides in one handy volume the essential mathematical tools and techniques used to solve problems in physics. It is a vital addition to the bookshelf of any serious student of physics or research professional in the field. The authors have put considerable effort into revamping this new edition.* Updates the leading graduate-level text in mathematical physics* Provides comprehensive coverage of the mathematics necessary for advanced study in physics and engineering* Focuses on problem-solving skills and offers a vast array of exercises * Clearly illustrates and proves mathematical relationsNew in the Sixth Edition:* Updated content throughout, based on users'' feedback * More advanced sections, including differential forms and the elegant forms of Maxwell''s equations* A new chapter on probability and statistics* More elementary sections have been deleted

  3. Mathematical analysis II

    CERN Document Server

    Canuto, Claudio


    The purpose of the volume is to provide a support textbook for a second lecture course on Mathematical Analysis. The contents are organised to suit, in particular, students of Engineering, Computer Science and Physics, all areas in which mathematical tools play a crucial role. The basic notions and methods concerning integral and differential calculus for multivariable functions, series of functions and ordinary differential equations are presented in a manner that elicits critical reading and prompts a hands-on approach to concrete applications. The pedagogical layout echoes the one used in the companion text Mathematical Analysis I. The book’s structure has a specifically-designed modular nature, which allows for great flexibility in the preparation of a lecture course on Mathematical Analysis. The style privileges clarity in the exposition and a linear progression through the theory. The material is organised on two levels. The first, reflected in this book, allows students to grasp the essential ideas, ...

  4. Mathematical Modeling and Pure Mathematics (United States)

    Usiskin, Zalman


    Common situations, like planning air travel, can become grist for mathematical modeling and can promote the mathematical ideas of variables, formulas, algebraic expressions, functions, and statistics. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how the mathematical modeling that is present in everyday situations can be naturally embedded in…

  5. Content validation of a standardized algorithm for ostomy care. (United States)

    Beitz, Janice; Gerlach, Mary; Ginsburg, Pat; Ho, Marianne; McCann, Eileen; Schafer, Vickie; Scott, Vera; Stallings, Bobbie; Turnbull, Gwen


    The number of ostomy care clinician experts is limited and the majority of ostomy care is provided by non-specialized clinicians or unskilled caregivers and family. The purpose of this study was to obtain content validation data for a new standardized algorithm for ostomy care developed by expert wound ostomy continence nurse (WOCN) clinicians. After face validity was established using overall review and suggestions from WOCN experts, 166 WOCNs self-identified as having expertise in ostomy care were surveyed online for 6 weeks in 2009. Using a cross-sectional, mixed methods study design and a 30-item instrument with a 4-point Likert-type scale, the participants were asked to quantify the degree of validity of the Ostomy Algorithm's decisions and components. Participants' open-ended comments also were thematically analyzed. Using a scale of 1 to 4, the mean score of the entire algorithm was 3.8 (4 = relevant/very relevant). The algorithm's content validity index (CVI) was 0.95 (out of 1.0). Individual component mean scores ranged from 3.59 to 3.91. Individual CVIs ranged from 0.90 to 0.98. Qualitative data analysis revealed themes of difficulty associated with algorithm formatting, especially orientation and use of the Studio Alterazioni Cutanee Stomali (Study on Peristomal Skin Lesions [SACS™ Instrument]) and the inability of algorithms to capture all individual patient attributes affecting ostomy care. Positive themes included content thoroughness and the helpful clinical photos. Suggestions were offered for algorithm improvement. Study results support the strong content validity of the algorithm and research to ascertain its construct validity and effect on care outcomes is warranted.

  6. Using GAISE and NCTM Standards as Frameworks for Teaching Probability and Statistics to Pre-Service Elementary and Middle School Mathematics Teachers (United States)

    Metz, Mary Louise


    Statistics education has become an increasingly important component of the mathematics education of today's citizens. In part to address the call for a more statistically literate citizenship, The "Guidelines for Assessment and Instruction in Statistics Education (GAISE)" were developed in 2005 by the American Statistical Association. These…

  7. Theoretical Mathematics (United States)

    Stöltzner, Michael

    Answering to the double-faced influence of string theory on mathematical practice and rigour, the mathematical physicists Arthur Jaffe and Frank Quinn have contemplated the idea that there exists a `theoretical' mathematics (alongside `theoretical' physics) whose basic structures and results still require independent corroboration by mathematical proof. In this paper, I shall take the Jaffe-Quinn debate mainly as a problem of mathematical ontology and analyse it against the backdrop of two philosophical views that are appreciative towards informal mathematical development and conjectural results: Lakatos's methodology of proofs and refutations and John von Neumann's opportunistic reading of Hilbert's axiomatic method. The comparison of both approaches shows that mitigating Lakatos's falsificationism makes his insights about mathematical quasi-ontology more relevant to 20th century mathematics in which new structures are introduced by axiomatisation and not necessarily motivated by informal ancestors. The final section discusses the consequences of string theorists' claim to finality for the theory's mathematical make-up. I argue that ontological reductionism as advocated by particle physicists and the quest for mathematically deeper axioms do not necessarily lead to identical results.

  8. Continuum mechanics the birthplace of mathematical models

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Myron B


    Continuum mechanics is a standard course in many graduate programs in engineering and applied mathematics as it provides the foundations for the various differential equations and mathematical models that are encountered in fluid mechanics, solid mechanics, and heat transfer.  This book successfully makes the topic more accessible to advanced undergraduate mathematics majors by aligning the mathematical notation and language with related courses in multivariable calculus, linear algebra, and differential equations; making connections with other areas of applied mathematics where parial differe

  9. Salivary Fluoride level in preschool children after toothbrushing with standard and low fluoride content dentifrice, using the transversal dentifrice application technique: pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Jandre Melo


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the salivary fluoride concentration in pre-school children after toothbrushing with dentifrice containing standard (1100ppmF/NaF and low (500ppmF/NaF fluoride concentration, using the transversal technique of placing the product on the toothbrush. Methods: Eight children of both sexes, ranging from 4 to 9 years, and 5 years and 6 months of age, participated in the study. The experiment was divided into two phases with a weekly interval. In the first stage, the children used the standard concentration dentifrice for one week, and in the second, the low concentration product. Samples were collected at the end of each experimental stage, at the following times: Before brushing, immediately afterwards, and after 15, 30 and 45 minutes. The fluoride contents were analyzed by the microdiffusion technique. Statistical analysis was done by the analysis of variance ANOVA and Student’s-t test (p<0.05. Results: The salivary fluoride concentration was significantly higher at all times, when the standard concentration product was used. The comparison between the Halogen concentration found before bushing and immediately afterwards, showed that there was a 6.8 times increase in the standard dentifrice (0.19 x 1.29μgF/ml and in the low concentration product, an increase of 20.5 times (0.02 x 0.41μgF/ml. Conclusion: Toothbrushing with both products promoted relevant increases in the salivary fluoride concentration; however, longitudinal studies are necessary to verify the clinical result of this measurement.

  10. Standard specification for uranium oxides with a 235U content of less than 5 % for dissolution prior to conversion to nuclear-grade uranium dioxide

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This specification covers uranium oxides, including processed byproducts or scrap material (powder, pellets, or pieces), that are intended for dissolution into uranyl nitrate solution meeting the requirements of Specification C788 prior to conversion into nuclear grade UO2 powder with a 235U content of less than 5 %. This specification defines the impurity and uranium isotope limits for such urania powders that are to be dissolved prior to processing to nuclear grade UO2 as defined in Specification C753. 1.2 This specification provides the nuclear industry with a general standard for such uranium oxide powders. It recognizes the diversity of conversion processes and the processes to which such powders are subsequently to be subjected (for instance, by solvent extraction). It is therefore anticipated that it may be necessary to include supplementary specification limits by agreement between the buyer and seller. 1.3 The scope of this specification does not comprehensively cover all provisions for prevent...

  11. Mathematics for multimedia

    CERN Document Server

    Wickerhauser, Mladen Victor


    Mathematics and Multimedia focuses on the mathematics behind multimedia applications. This timely and thoroughly modern text is a rigorous survey of selected results from algebra and analysis, requiring only undergraduate math skills.The topics are `gems' chosen for their usefulness in understanding and creating application software for multimedia signal processing and communication.The book is aimed at a wide audience, including computer science and mathematics majors and those interested in employing mathematics in multimedia design and implementation. For the instructor, the material is divided into six chapters that may be presented in six lecture hours each. Thus, the entire text may be covered in one semester, with time left for examinations and student projects. For the student,there are more than 100 exercises with complete solutions, and numerous example programs in Standard C. Each chapter ends with suggestions for further reading. A companion website provides more insight for both instructors and s...

  12. An Investigation of Mathematical Modeling with Pre-Service Secondary Mathematics Teachers (United States)

    Thrasher, Emily Plunkett


    The goal of this thesis was to investigate and enhance our understanding of what occurs while pre-service mathematics teachers engage in a mathematical modeling unit that is broadly based upon mathematical modeling as defined by the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (National Governors Association Center for Best Practices & Council…

  13. Normalization of test and evaluation of biothreat detection systems: overcoming microbial air content fluctuations by using a standardized reagent bacterial mixture. (United States)

    Berchebru, Laurent; Rameil, Pascal; Gaudin, Jean-Christophe; Gausson, Sabrina; Larigauderie, Guilhem; Pujol, Céline; Morel, Yannick; Ramisse, Vincent


    Test and evaluation of engineered biothreat agent detection systems ("biodetectors") are a challenging task for government agencies and industries involved in biosecurity and biodefense programs. In addition to user friendly features, biodetectors need to perform both highly sensitive and specific detection, and must not produce excessive false alerts. In fact, the atmosphere displays a number of variables such as airborne bacterial content that can interfere with the detection process, thus impeding comparative tests when carried out at different times or places. To overcome these bacterial air content fluctuations, a standardized reagent bacterial mixture (SRBM), consisting in a collection of selected cultivable environmental species that are prevalent in temperate climate bioaerosols, was designed to generate a stable, reproducible, and easy to use surrogate of bioaerosol sample. The rationale, design, and production process are reported. The results showed that 8.59; CI 95%: 8.46-8.72 log cfu distributed into vials underwent a 0.95; CI 95%: 0.65-1.26 log viability decay after dehydration and subsequent reconstitution, thus advantageously mimicking a natural bioaerosol sample which is typically composed of cultivable and uncultivable particles. Dehydrated SRBM was stable for more than 12months at 4°C and allowed the reconstitution of a dead/live cells aqueous suspension that is stable for 96h at +4°C, according to plate counts. Specific detection of a simulating biothreat agent (e.g. Bacillus atrophaeus) by immuno-magnetic or PCR assays did not display any significant loss of sensitivity, false negative or positive results in the presence of SRBM. This work provides guidance on testing and evaluating detection devices, and may contribute to the establishment of suitable standards and normalized procedures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mathematics everywhere

    CERN Document Server

    Aigner, Martin; Spain, Philip G


    Mathematics is all around us. Often we do not realize it, though. Mathematics Everywhere is a collection of presentations on the role of mathematics in everyday life, through science, technology, and culture. The common theme is the unique position of mathematics as the art of pure thought and at the same time as a universally applicable science. The authors are renowned mathematicians; their presentations cover a wide range of topics. From compact discs to the stock exchange, from computer tomography to traffic routing, from electronic money to climate change, they make the "math inside" unde

  15. Financial mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Jothi, A Lenin


    Financial services, particularly banking and insurance services is the prominent sector for the development of a nation. After the liberalisation of financial sector in India, the scope of getting career opportunities has been widened. It is heartening to note that various universities in India have introduced professional courses on banking and insurance. A new field of applied mathematics has come into prominence under the name of Financial Mathematics. Financial mathematics has attained much importance in the recent years because of the role played by mathematical concepts in decision - m

  16. Mathematical scandals

    CERN Document Server

    Pappas, Theoni


    In this highly readable volume of vignettes of mathematical scandals and gossip, Theoni Pappas assembles 29 fascinating stories of intrigue and the bizarre ? in short, the human background of the history of mathematics. Might a haberdasher have changed Einstein's life? Why was the first woman mathematician murdered? How come there's no Nobel Prize in mathematics?Mathematics is principally about numbers, equations, and solutions, all of them precise and timeless. But, behind this arcane matter lies the sometimes sordid world of real people, whose rivalries and deceptions

  17. Engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Stroud, K A


    A groundbreaking and comprehensive reference that's been a bestseller since it first debuted in 1970, the new seventh edition of Engineering Mathematics has been thoroughly revised and expanded. Providing a broad mathematical survey, this innovative volume covers a full range of topics from the very basic to the advanced. Whether you're an engineer looking for a useful on-the-job reference or want to improve your mathematical skills, or you are a student who needs an in-depth self-study guide, Engineering Mathematics is sure to come in handy time and time again.

  18. Mathematics for the Student Scientist (United States)

    Lauten, A. Darien; Lauten, Gary N.


    The Earth Day:Forest Watch Program, introduces elementary, middle, and secondary students to field laboratory, and satellite-data analysis methods for assessing the health of Eastern White Pine ( Pinus strobus). In this Student-Scientist Partnership program, mathematics, as envisioned in the NCTM Standards, arises naturally and provides opportunities for science-mathematics interdisciplinary student learning. School mathematics becomes the vehicle for students to quantify, represent, analyze, and interpret meaningful, real data.

  19. Conocimiento del contenido sobre polígonos de estudiantes para profesor de matemáticas (Mathematical Content Knowledge on Polygons of Peruvian Prospective Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Carreño


    Full Text Available En este trabajo analizamos el conocimiento geométrico sobre polígonos de estudiantes para profesor peruano. Este conocimiento se describe en función de las capacidades que evidencian. Hemos determinado dichas capacidades con base en el modelo de razonamiento de Van Hiele y en consideraciones sobre el aprendizaje geométrico. Mostramos los resultados generales del grupo de alumnos, así como el estudio de dos casos. In this paper we analyze the geometrical content knowledge related to polygons of a group of Peruvian prospective teachers. This knowledge is described in terms of capacities that theses teachers demonstrate. We had access to these capacities considering the Van Hiele model of reasoning together with other considerations on geometric learning. The general results of the group of students are presented as well as the analysis of two cases.

  20. Early Predictors of High School Mathematics Achievement (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.; Duncan, Greg J.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.; Duckworth, Kathryn; Claessens, Amy; Engel, Mimi; Susperreguy, Maria Ines; Meichu, Chen


    Identifying the types of mathematics content knowledge that are most predictive of students' long-term learning is essential for improving both theories of mathematical development and mathematics education. To identify these types of knowledge, we examined long-term predictors of high school students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics…

  1. Giving Reason to Prospective Mathematics Teachers (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, Beatriz; Kastberg, Signe


    This article describes the development of the authors' understanding of the contradictions in their mathematics teacher education practice. This understanding emerged from contrasting analyses of the impact of the authors' practices in mathematics content courses versus mathematics methods courses. Examples of the authors' work with two students,…

  2. Acceptable standard format and content for the fundamental nuclear material control (FNMC) plan required for low-enriched uranium facilities. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.R.


    This report documents a standard format suggested by the NRC for use in preparing fundamental nuclear material control (FNMC) plans as required by the Low Enriched Uranium Reform Amendments (10CFR 74.31). This report also describes the necessary contents of a comprehensive plan and provides example acceptance criteria which are intended to communicate acceptable means of achieving the performance capabilities of the Reform Amendments. By using the suggested format, the licensee or applicant will minimize administrative problems associated with the submittal, review and approval of the FNMC plan. Preparation of the plan in accordance with this format Will assist the NRC in evaluating the plan and in standardizing the review and licensing process. However, conformance with this guidance is not required by the NRC. A license applicant who employs a format that provides a equal level of completeness and detail may use their own format. This document is also intended for providing guidance to licensees when making revisions to their FNMC plan

  3. Hydroponics: Content and Rationale (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Busby, Joe R.


    Technology education has the means of becoming the catalyst for integrated content and curricula, especially in core academic areas, such as science and mathematics, where it has been found difficult to incorporate other subject matter. Technology is diverse enough in nature that it can be addressed by a variety of content areas, serving as a true…

  4. Insights into teaching mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, Anthony


    Providing essential guidance and background information about teaching mathematics, this book is intended particularly for teachers who do not regard themselves as specialists in mathematics. It deals with issues of learning and teaching, including the delivery of content and the place of problems and investigations. Difficulties which pupils encounter in connection with language and symbols form important sections of the overall discussion of how to enhance learning. The curriculum is considered in brief under the headings of number, algebra, shape and space, and data handling, and special at


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Setyaningrum


    Full Text Available The rapid increase and availability of mathematics software, either for classroom or individual learning activities, presents a challenge for teachers. It has been argued that many products are limited in quality. Some of the more commonly used software products have been criticized for poor content, activities which fail to address some learning issues, poor graphics presentation, inadequate documentation, and other technical problems. The challenge for schools is to ensure that the educational software used in classrooms is appropriate and effective in supporting intended outcomes and goals. This paper aimed to develop instrument for evaluating mathematics educational software in order to help teachers in selecting the appropriate software. The instrument considers the notion of educational including content, teaching and learning skill, interaction, and feedback and error correction; and technical aspects of educational software including design, clarity, assessment and documentation, cost and hardware and software interdependence. The instrument use a checklist approach, the easier and effective methods in assessing the quality of educational software, thus the user needs to put tick in each criteria. The criteria in this instrument are adapted and extended from standard evaluation instrument in several references.   Keywords: mathematics educational software, educational aspect, technical aspect.

  6. Prediction of digestible and metabolizable energy content and standardized ileal amino Acid digestibility in wheat shorts and red dog for growing pigs. (United States)

    Huang, Q; Piao, X S; Ren, P; Li, D F


    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of chemical composition of wheat shorts and red dog on energy and amino acid digestibility in growing pigs and to establish prediction models to estimate their digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy content and as well as their standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acid content. For Exp. 1, sixteen diets were fed to thirty-two growing pigs according to a completely randomized design during three successive periods. The basal diet was based on corn and soybean meal while the other fifteen diets contained 28.8% wheat shorts (N = 7) or red dog (N = 8), added at the expense of corn and soybean meal. Over the three periods, each diet was fed to six pigs with each diet being fed to two pigs during each period. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy in wheat shorts and red dog averaged 75.1 and 87.9%. The DE values of wheat shorts and red dog averaged 13.8 MJ/kg (range 13.1 to 15.0 MJ/kg) and 15.1 MJ/kg (range 13.3 to 16.6 MJ/kg) of dry matter, respectively. For Exp. 2, twelve growing pigs were allotted to two 6×6 Latin Square Designs with six periods. Ten of the diets were formulated based on 60% wheat shorts or red dog and the remaining two diets were nitrogen-free diets based on cornstarch and sucrose. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an indigestible marker in all diets. There were no differences (p>0.05) in SID values for the amino acids in wheat shorts and red dog except for lysine and methionine. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and SID values for lysine in different sources of wheat shorts or red dog, which averaged 78.1 and 87.8%, showed more variation than either methionine or tryptophan. A stepwise regression was performed to establish DE, ME and amino acid digestibility prediction models. Data indicated that fiber content and amino acid concentrations were good indicators to predict energy values and amino acid digestibility, respectively. The present study confirms the large

  7. Humanizing the Teaching of Mathematics. (United States)

    Guting, R.


    The author shows how the teaching of mathematics may be adapted so that it is "humanized." It is asserted that the standard mathematics program "...appeals to the intellect, but attaches no value to other human qualities such as emotions and ethical character." (MP)

  8. Lectures on constructive mathematical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kushner, B A


    The basis of this book was a special course given by the author at the Mechanics-Mathematics Faculty of Moscow University. The material presumes almost no previous knowledge and is completely understandable to a reader who is in command of a standard course of mathematical analysis. There are an extensive bibliography and indexes which will be helpful to students.

  9. A Pathway for Mathematical Practices (United States)

    Wenrick, Melanie; Behrend, Jean L.; Mohs, Laura C.


    How can teachers engage students in learning essential mathematics? The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics recommends using "contexts that promote problem solving, reasoning, communication, making connections, and designing and analyzing representations" (NCTM 2006, p. 11). Understanding the Process Standards (NCTM 2000) enables teachers…

  10. Mathematical logic

    CERN Document Server

    Kleene, Stephen Cole


    Undergraduate students with no prior instruction in mathematical logic will benefit from this multi-part text. Part I offers an elementary but thorough overview of mathematical logic of 1st order. Part II introduces some of the newer ideas and the more profound results of logical research in the 20th century. 1967 edition.

  11. Making Mathematics. (United States)

    Huckstep, Peter


    Contends teachers must resist the temptation to suggest that, while children can create stories and melodies, they cannot create mathematics. Quotes mathematician G. H. Hardy: "A mathematician, like a painter or poet, is a 'maker' of patterns." Considers mathematics should be able to stand up for itself. (BT)

  12. Mathematical psychology. (United States)

    Batchelder, William H


    Mathematical psychology is a sub-field of psychology that started in the 1950s and has continued to grow as an important contributor to formal psychological theory, especially in the cognitive areas of psychology such as learning, memory, classification, choice response time, decision making, attention, and problem solving. In addition, there are several scientific sub-areas that were originated by mathematical psychologists such as the foundations of measurement, stochastic memory models, and psychologically motivated reformulations of expected utility theory. Mathematical psychology does not include all uses of mathematics and statistics in psychology, and indeed there is a long history of such uses especially in the areas of perception and psychometrics. What is most unique about mathematical psychology is its approach to theory construction. While accepting the behaviorist dictum that the data in psychology must be observable and replicable, mathematical models are specified in terms of unobservable formal constructs that can predict detailed aspects of data across multiple experimental and natural settings. By now almost all the substantive areas of cognitive and experimental psychology have formal mathematical models and theories, and many of these are due to researchers that identify with mathematical psychology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Mathematics 2

    CERN Document Server

    Kodaira, Kunihiko


    This is the translation from the Japanese textbook for the grade 11 course, "General Mathematics". It is part of the easier of the three elective courses in mathematics offered at this level and is taken by about 40% of students. The book covers basic notions of probability and statistics, vectors, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions, and an introduction to differentiation and integration.

  14. Discrete Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted


    ; construct a finite state machine for a given application. Apply these concepts to new problems. The teaching in Discrete Mathematics is a combination of sessions with lectures and students solving problems, either manually or by using Matlab. Furthermore a selection of projects must be solved and handed...... to accomplish the following: -Understand and apply formal representations in discrete mathematics. -Understand and apply formal representations in problems within discrete mathematics. -Understand methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics. -Apply methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics...... to new problems. Relations and functions: Define a product set; define and apply equivalence relations; construct and apply functions. Apply these concepts to new problems. Natural numbers and induction: Define the natural numbers; apply the principle of induction to verify a selection of properties...

  15. Mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, James D


    The book is a textbook (with many exercises) giving an in-depth account of the practical use of mathematical modelling in the biomedical sciences. The mathematical level required is generally not high and the emphasis is on what is required to solve the real biological problem. The subject matter is drawn, e.g. from population biology, reaction kinetics, biological oscillators and switches, Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, reaction-diffusion theory, biological wave phenomena, central pattern generators, neural models, spread of epidemics, mechanochemical theory of biological pattern formation and importance in evolution. Most of the models are based on real biological problems and the predictions and explanations offered as a direct result of mathematical analysis of the models are important aspects of the book. The aim is to provide a thorough training in practical mathematical biology and to show how exciting and novel mathematical challenges arise from a genuine interdisciplinary involvement with the biosci...

  16. Mathematics unbound

    CERN Document Server

    Parshall, Karen Hunger


    Although today's mathematical research community takes its international character very much for granted, this "global nature" is relatively recent, having evolved over a period of roughly 150 years-from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the middle of the twentieth century. During this time, the practice of mathematics changed from being centered on a collection of disparate national communities to being characterized by an international group of scholars for whom the goal of mathematical research and cooperation transcended national boundaries. Yet, the development of an international community was far from smooth and involved obstacles such as war, political upheaval, and national rivalries. Until now, this evolution has been largely overlooked by historians and mathematicians alike. This book addresses the issue by bringing together essays by twenty experts in the history of mathematics who have investigated the genesis of today's international mathematical community. This includes not only develo...

  17. Flipping Freshman Mathematics (United States)

    Zack, Laurie; Fuselier, Jenny; Graham-Squire, Adam; Lamb, Ron; O'Hara, Karen


    Our study compared a flipped class with a standard lecture class in four introductory courses: finite mathematics, precalculus, business calculus, and calculus 1. The flipped sections watched video lectures outside of class and spent time in class actively working on problems. The traditional sections had lectures in class and did homework outside…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sead Rešić


    Full Text Available It is very difficult to motivate students when it comes to a school subject like Mathematics. Teachers spend a lot of time trying to find something that will arouse interest in students. It is particularly difficult to find materials that are motivating enough for students that they eagerly wait for the next lesson. One of the solutions may be found in Vedic Mathematics. Traditional methods of teaching Mathematics create fear of this otherwise interesting subject in the majority of students. Fear increases failure. Often the traditional, conventional mathematical methods consist of very long lessons which are difficult to understand. Vedic Mathematics is an ancient system that is very flexible and encourages the development of intuition and innovation. It is a mental calculating tool that does not require a calculator because the calculator is embedded in each of us. Starting from the above problems of fear and failure in Mathematics, the goal of this paper is to do research with the control and the experimental group and to compare the test results. Two tests should be done for each of the groups. The control group would do the tests in the conventional way. The experimental group would do the first test in a conventional manner and then be subjected to different treatment, that is to say, be taught on the basis of Vedic Mathematics. After that, the second group would do the second test according to the principles of Vedic Mathematics. Expectations are that after short lectures on Vedic mathematics results of the experimental group would improve and that students will show greater interest in Mathematics.

  19. What Should We Grow in Our School Garden to Sell at the Farmers' Market? Initiating Statistical Literacy through Science and Mathematics Integration (United States)

    Selmer, Sarah J.; Rye, James A.; Malone, Elizabeth; Fernandez, Danielle; Trebino, Kathryn


    Statistical literacy is essential to scientific literacy, and the quest for such is best initiated in the elementary grades. The "Next Generation Science Standards and the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics" set forth practices (e.g., asking questions, using tools strategically to analyze and interpret data) and content (e.g.,…

  20. A course in mathematical statistics and large sample theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Rabi; Patrangenaru, Victor


    This graduate-level textbook is primarily aimed at graduate students of statistics, mathematics, science, and engineering who have had an undergraduate course in statistics, an upper division course in analysis, and some acquaintance with measure theoretic probability. It provides a rigorous presentation of the core of mathematical statistics. Part I of this book constitutes a one-semester course on basic parametric mathematical statistics. Part II deals with the large sample theory of statistics — parametric and nonparametric, and its contents may be covered in one semester as well. Part III provides brief accounts of a number of topics of current interest for practitioners and other disciplines whose work involves statistical methods. Large Sample theory with many worked examples, numerical calculations, and simulations to illustrate theory Appendices provide ready access to a number of standard results, with many proofs Solutions given to a number of selected exercises from Part I Part II exercises with ...

  1. Engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John


    A practical introduction to the core mathematics required for engineering study and practiceNow in its seventh edition, Engineering Mathematics is an established textbook that has helped thousands of students to succeed in their exams.John Bird's approach is based on worked examples and interactive problems. This makes it ideal for students from a wide range of academic backgrounds as the student can work through the material at their own pace. Mathematical theories are explained in a straightforward manner, being supported by practical engineering examples and applications in order to ensure

  2. Mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Geroch, Robert


    Mathematical Physics is an introduction to such basic mathematical structures as groups, vector spaces, topological spaces, measure spaces, and Hilbert space. Geroch uses category theory to emphasize both the interrelationships among different structures and the unity of mathematics. Perhaps the most valuable feature of the book is the illuminating intuitive discussion of the ""whys"" of proofs and of axioms and definitions. This book, based on Geroch's University of Chicago course, will be especially helpful to those working in theoretical physics, including such areas as relativity, particle

  3. Applied mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David


    Praise for the Third Edition"Future mathematicians, scientists, and engineers should find the book to be an excellent introductory text for coursework or self-study as well as worth its shelf space for reference." -MAA Reviews Applied Mathematics, Fourth Edition is a thoroughly updated and revised edition on the applications of modeling and analyzing natural, social, and technological processes. The book covers a wide range of key topics in mathematical methods and modeling and highlights the connections between mathematics and the applied and nat

  4. Speed mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Handley, Bill


    This new, revised edition of the bestselling Speed Mathematics features new chapters on memorising numbers and general information, calculating statistics and compound interest, square roots, logarithms and easy trig calculations. Written so anyone can understand, this book teaches simple strategies that will enable readers to make lightning-quick calculations. People who excel at mathematics use better strategies than the rest of us; they are not necessarily more intelligent. With Speed Mathematics you'll discover methods to make maths easy and fun. This book is perfect for stud

  5. Immense random colocalization, revealed by automated high content image cytometry, seriously questions FISH as gold standard for detecting EML4-ALK fusion. (United States)

    Smuk, Gábor; Tornóczky, Tamás; Pajor, László; Chudoba, Ilse; Kajtár, Béla; Sárosi, Veronika; Pajor, Gábor


    EML4-ALK gene fusion (inv2(p21p23)) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) predisposes to tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. One of the gold standard diagnostics is the dual color (DC) break-apart (BA) FISH technique, however, the unusual closeness of the involved genes has been suggested to raise likelihood of random co-localization (RCL) of signals. Although this is suspected to decrease sensitivity (often to as low as 40-70%), the exact level and effect of RCL has not been revealed thus far. Signal distances were analyzed to the 0.1 µm precision in more than 25,000 nuclei, via automated high content-image cytometry. Negative and positive controls were created using conventional DC BA-, and inv2(p21p23) mimicking probe-sets, respectively. Average distance between red and green signals was 9.72 pixels (px) (±5.14px) and 3.28px (±2.44px), in positives and negatives, respectively; overlap in distribution being 41%. Specificity and sensitivity of correctly determining ALK status was 97% and 29%, respectively. When investigating inv2(p21p23) with DC BA FISH, specificity is high, but seven out of ten aberrant nuclei are inevitably falsely classified as negative, due to the extreme level of RCL. Together with genetic heterogeneity and dilution effect of non-tumor cells in NSCLC, this immense analytical false negativity is the primary cause behind the often described low diagnostic sensitivity. These results convincingly suggest that if FISH is to remain a gold standard for detecting the therapy relevant inv(2), either a modified evaluation protocol, or a more reliable probe-design should be considered than the current DC BA one. © 2018 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2018 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  6. Applied mathematics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Patrick


    Applied Mathematics: Made Simple provides an elementary study of the three main branches of classical applied mathematics: statics, hydrostatics, and dynamics. The book begins with discussion of the concepts of mechanics, parallel forces and rigid bodies, kinematics, motion with uniform acceleration in a straight line, and Newton's law of motion. Separate chapters cover vector algebra and coplanar motion, relative motion, projectiles, friction, and rigid bodies in equilibrium under the action of coplanar forces. The final chapters deal with machines and hydrostatics. The standard and conte

  7. Business Mathematics Curriculum Guide. Bulletin 1612. Revised. (United States)

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Academic Programs.

    This curriculum guide for business mathematics was developed to establish statewide curriculum standards for the Louisiana Competency-based Education Program. Following an overview of the secondary school mathematics curriculum, eight goals for the business mathematics course are listed. A pacing chart with suggested time periods for each major…

  8. A hypothetical history of Old Babylonian mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens


    Most general standard histories of mathematics speak indiscriminately of “Babylonian” mathematics, presenting together the mathematics of the Old Babylonian and the Seleucid period (respectively 2000–1600 and 300–100 BCE) and neglecting the rest. Specialist literature has always known...

  9. Construction mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Virdi, Surinder; Virdi, Narinder Kaur


    Construction Mathematics is an introductory level mathematics text, written specifically for students of construction and related disciplines. Learn by tackling exercises based on real-life construction maths. Examples include: costing calculations, labour costs, cost of materials and setting out of building components. Suitable for beginners and easy to follow throughout. Learn the essential basic theory along with the practical necessities. The second edition of this popular textbook is fully updated to match new curricula, and expanded to include even more learning exercises. End of chapter exercises cover a range of theoretical as well as practical problems commonly found in construction practice, and three detailed assignments based on practical tasks give students the opportunity to apply all the knowledge they have gained. Construction Mathematics addresses all the mathematical requirements of Level 2 construction NVQs from City & Guilds/CITB and Edexcel courses, including the BTEC First Diploma in...

  10. Mathematical modelling

    CERN Document Server


    This book provides a thorough introduction to the challenge of applying mathematics in real-world scenarios. Modelling tasks rarely involve well-defined categories, and they often require multidisciplinary input from mathematics, physics, computer sciences, or engineering. In keeping with this spirit of modelling, the book includes a wealth of cross-references between the chapters and frequently points to the real-world context. The book combines classical approaches to modelling with novel areas such as soft computing methods, inverse problems, and model uncertainty. Attention is also paid to the interaction between models, data and the use of mathematical software. The reader will find a broad selection of theoretical tools for practicing industrial mathematics, including the analysis of continuum models, probabilistic and discrete phenomena, and asymptotic and sensitivity analysis.

  11. Algorithmic mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hougardy, Stefan


    Algorithms play an increasingly important role in nearly all fields of mathematics. This book allows readers to develop basic mathematical abilities, in particular those concerning the design and analysis of algorithms as well as their implementation. It presents not only fundamental algorithms like the sieve of Eratosthenes, the Euclidean algorithm, sorting algorithms, algorithms on graphs, and Gaussian elimination, but also discusses elementary data structures, basic graph theory, and numerical questions. In addition, it provides an introduction to programming and demonstrates in detail how to implement algorithms in C++. This textbook is suitable for students who are new to the subject and covers a basic mathematical lecture course, complementing traditional courses on analysis and linear algebra. Both authors have given this "Algorithmic Mathematics" course at the University of Bonn several times in recent years.

  12. Mathematical physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Sneyd, James


    There has been a long history of interaction between mathematics and physiology. This book looks in detail at a wide selection of mathematical models in physiology, showing how physiological problems can be formulated and studied mathematically, and how such models give rise to interesting and challenging mathematical questions. With its coverage of many recent models it gives an overview of the field, while many older models are also discussed, to put the modern work in context. In this second edition the coverage of basic principles has been expanded to include such topics as stochastic differential equations, Markov models and Gibbs free energy, and the selection of models has also been expanded to include some of the basic models of fluid transport, respiration/perfusion, blood diseases, molecular motors, smooth muscle, neuroendrocine cells, the baroreceptor loop, turboglomerular oscillations, blood clotting and the retina. Owing to this extensive coverage, the second edition is published in two volumes. ...

  13. Mathematical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Eck, Christof; Knabner, Peter


    Mathematical models are the decisive tool to explain and predict phenomena in the natural and engineering sciences. With this book readers will learn to derive mathematical models which help to understand real world phenomena. At the same time a wealth of important examples for the abstract concepts treated in the curriculum of mathematics degrees are given. An essential feature of this book is that mathematical structures are used as an ordering principle and not the fields of application. Methods from linear algebra, analysis and the theory of ordinary and partial differential equations are thoroughly introduced and applied in the modeling process. Examples of applications in the fields electrical networks, chemical reaction dynamics, population dynamics, fluid dynamics, elasticity theory and crystal growth are treated comprehensively.

  14. Compiling standardized information from clinical practice: using content analysis and ICF Linking Rules in a goal-oriented youth rehabilitation program. (United States)

    Lustenberger, Nadia A; Prodinger, Birgit; Dorjbal, Delgerjargal; Rubinelli, Sara; Schmitt, Klaus; Scheel-Sailer, Anke


    To illustrate how routinely written narrative admission and discharge reports of a rehabilitation program for eight youths with chronic neurological health conditions can be transformed to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. First, a qualitative content analysis was conducted by building meaningful units with text segments assigned of the reports to the five elements of the Rehab-Cycle ® : goal; assessment; assignment; intervention; evaluation. Second, the meaningful units were then linked to the ICF using the refined ICF Linking Rules. With the first step of transformation, the emphasis of the narrative reports changed to a process oriented interdisciplinary layout, revealing three thematic blocks of goals: mobility, self-care, mental, and social functions. The linked 95 unique ICF codes could be grouped in clinically meaningful goal-centered ICF codes. Between the two independent linkers, the agreement rate was improved after complementing the rules with additional agreements. The ICF Linking Rules can be used to compile standardized health information from narrative reports if prior structured. The process requires time and expertise. To implement the ICF into common practice, the findings provide the starting point for reporting rehabilitation that builds upon existing practice and adheres to international standards. Implications for Rehabilitation This study provides evidence that routinely collected health information from rehabilitation practice can be transformed to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health by using the "ICF Linking Rules", however, this requires time and expertise. The Rehab-Cycle ® , including assessments, assignments, goal setting, interventions and goal evaluation, serves as feasible framework for structuring this rehabilitation program and ensures that the complexity of local practice is appropriately reflected. The refined "ICF Linking Rules" lead to a standardized

  15. Mathematical statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Pestman, Wiebe R


    This textbook provides a broad and solid introduction to mathematical statistics, including the classical subjects hypothesis testing, normal regression analysis, and normal analysis of variance. In addition, non-parametric statistics and vectorial statistics are considered, as well as applications of stochastic analysis in modern statistics, e.g., Kolmogorov-Smirnov testing, smoothing techniques, robustness and density estimation. For students with some elementary mathematical background. With many exercises. Prerequisites from measure theory and linear algebra are presented.

  16. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth


    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  17. Discrete Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted


    The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Spring 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 18......The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Spring 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 18...

  18. Discrete Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted


    The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Autumn 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 15......The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Autumn 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 15...

  19. Connecting Mathematics and Writing Workshop: It's Kinda like Ice Skating (United States)

    Carter, Susan


    Second-grade students struggle with writing about mathematical topics during math class, so the teacher begins to integrate mathematical topics into their Writing Workshop. Content journals are used during math, and students are encouraged to write about personal connections to mathematical situations, as well as incorporate mathematical concepts…

  20. IGCSE core mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Wall, Terry


    Give your core level students the support and framework they require to get their best grades with this book dedicated to the core level content of the revised syllabus and written specifically to ensure a more appropriate pace. This title has been written for Core content of the revised Cambridge IGCSE Mathematics (0580) syllabus for first teaching from 2013. ? Gives students the practice they require to deepen their understanding through plenty of practice questions. ? Consolidates learning with unique digital resources on the CD, included free with every book. We are working with Cambridge

  1. Mathematical omnibus thirty lectures on classic mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Dmitry; Fuchs, Dmitry


    The book consists of thirty lectures on diverse topics, covering much of the mathematical landscape rather than focusing on one area. The reader will learn numerous results that often belong to neither the standard undergraduate nor graduate curriculum and will discover connections between classical and contemporary ideas in algebra, combinatorics, geometry, and topology. The reader's effort will be rewarded in seeing the harmony of each subject. The common thread in the selected subjects is their illustration of the unity and beauty of mathematics. Most lectures contain exercises, and solutions or answers are given to selected exercises. A special feature of the book is an abundance of drawings (more than four hundred), artwork by an accomplished artist, and about a hundred portraits of mathematicians. Almost every lecture contains surprises for even the seasoned researcher.

  2. Mathematical Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glimm, J.


    Progress for the past decade or so has been extraordinary. The solution of Fermat's Last Theorem [11] and of the Poincare Conjecture [1] have resolved two of the most outstanding challenges to mathematics. For both cases, deep and advanced theories and whole subfields of mathematics came into play and were developed further as part of the solutions. And still the future is wide open. Six of the original seven problems from the Clay Foundation challenge remain open, the 23 DARPA challenge problems are open. Entire new branches of mathematics have been developed, including financial mathematics and the connection between geometry and string theory, proposed to solve the problems of quantized gravity. New solutions of the Einstein equations, inspired by shock wave theory, suggest a cosmology model which fits accelerating expansion of the universe possibly eliminating assumptions of 'dark matter'. Intellectual challenges and opportunities for mathematics are greater than ever. The role of mathematics in society continues to grow; with this growth comes new opportunities and some growing pains; each will be analyzed here. We see a broadening of the intellectual and professional opportunities and responsibilities for mathematicians. These trends are also occuring across all of science. The response can be at the level of the professional societies, which can work to deepen their interactions, not only within the mathematical sciences, but also with other scientific societies. At a deeper level, the choices to be made will come from individual mathematicians. Here, of course, the individual choices will be varied, and we argue for respect and support for this diversity of responses. In such a manner, we hope to preserve the best of the present while welcoming the best of the new.

  3. Mathematical concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen


    The main intention of this book is to describe and develop the conceptual, structural and abstract thinking of mathematics. Specific mathematical structures are used to illustrate the conceptual approach; providing a deeper insight into mutual relationships and abstract common features. These ideas are carefully motivated, explained and illustrated by examples so that many of the more technical proofs can be omitted. The book can therefore be used: ·         simply as an overview of the panorama of mathematical structures and the relations between them, to be supplemented by more detailed texts whenever you want to acquire a working knowledge of some structure ·         by itself as a first introduction to abstract mathematics ·         together with existing textbooks, to put their results into a more general perspective ·         to gain a new and hopefully deeper perspective after having studied such textbooks Mathematical Concepts has a broader scope and is less detaile...

  4. Mathematics its content, methods and meaning

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksandrov, A D; Lavrent’ev, M A


    Hailed by The New York Times Book Review as ""nothing less than a major contribution to the scientific culture of this world,"" this major survey features the work of 18 outstanding mathematicians. Primary subjects include analytic geometry, algebra, ordinary and partial differential equations, the calculus of variations, functions of a complex variable, prime numbers, and theories of probability and functions. Other topics include linear and non-Euclidean geometry, topology, functional analysis, more. 1963 edition.

  5. Principle-Based Mathematics: An Exploratory Study


    Poon, Rebecca Chung-Yan


    Although educators and policymakers are becoming increasingly aware of the need for professional development that is content specific (Kennedy, 1999) and focuses on deepening and broadening teachers' knowledge of content for teaching (American Federation of Teachers, 2002; National Academy of Education, 2009), little attention has been given to supporting teachers' development of content knowledge as defined by Shulman (1986). Principle-Based Mathematics (PBM), a presentation of K-12 mathemat...

  6. Mathematical biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Andrew


    This book presents concise descriptions and analysis of the classical and modern models used in mathematical biophysics. The authors ask the question "what new information can be provided by the models that cannot be obtained directly from experimental data?" Actively developing fields such as regulatory mechanisms in cells and subcellular systems and electron transport and energy transport in membranes are addressed together with more classical topics such as metabolic processes, nerve conduction and heart activity, chemical kinetics, population dynamics, and photosynthesis. The main approach is to describe biological processes using different mathematical approaches necessary to reveal characteristic features and properties of simulated systems. With the emergence of powerful mathematics software packages such as MAPLE, Mathematica, Mathcad, and MatLab, these methodologies are now accessible to a wide audience. Provides succinct but authoritative coverage of a broad array of biophysical topics and models Wr...

  7. Mathematical writing

    CERN Document Server

    Vivaldi, Franco


    This book teaches the art of writing mathematics, an essential -and difficult- skill for any mathematics student.   The book begins with an informal introduction on basic writing principles and a review of the essential dictionary for mathematics. Writing techniques are developed gradually, from the small to the large: words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, to end with short compositions. These may represent the introduction of a concept, the abstract of a presentation or the proof of a theorem. Along the way the student will learn how to establish a coherent notation, mix words and symbols effectively, write neat formulae, and structure a definition.   Some elements of logic and all common methods of proofs are featured, including various versions of induction and existence proofs. The book concludes with advice on specific aspects of thesis writing (choosing of a title, composing an abstract, compiling a bibliography) illustrated by large number of real-life examples. Many exercises are included; over 150...

  8. Physical mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Cahill, Kevin


    Unique in its clarity, examples and range, Physical Mathematics explains as simply as possible the mathematics that graduate students and professional physicists need in their courses and research. The author illustrates the mathematics with numerous physical examples drawn from contemporary research. In addition to basic subjects such as linear algebra, Fourier analysis, complex variables, differential equations and Bessel functions, this textbook covers topics such as the singular-value decomposition, Lie algebras, the tensors and forms of general relativity, the central limit theorem and Kolmogorov test of statistics, the Monte Carlo methods of experimental and theoretical physics, the renormalization group of condensed-matter physics and the functional derivatives and Feynman path integrals of quantum field theory.

  9. Mathematics is always invisible, Professor Dowling (United States)

    Cable, John


    This article provides a critical evaluation of a technique of analysis, the Social Activity Method, recently offered by Dowling (2013) as a `gift' to mathematics education. The method is found to be inadequate, firstly, because it employs a dichotomy (between `expression' and `content') instead of a finer analysis (into symbols, concepts and setting or phenomena), and, secondly, because the distinction between `public' and `esoteric' mathematics, although interesting, is allowed to obscure the structure of the mathematics itself. There is also criticism of what Dowling calls the `myth of participation', which denies the intimate links between mathematics and the rest of the universe that lie at the heart of mathematical pedagogy. Behind all this lies Dowling's `essentially linguistic' conception of mathematics, which is criticised on the dual ground that it ignores the chastening experience of formalism in mathematical philosophy and that linguistics itself has taken a wrong turn and ignores lessons that might be learnt from mathematics education.

  10. The Multicultural Mathematics Classroom: Culturally Aware Teaching through Cooperative Learning & Multiple Representations (United States)

    Jao, Limin


    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM, 2000) has created a set of standards to reform mathematics teaching procedures to ensure that all students understand mathematics and learn to think mathematically. The standards also require teachers to use strategies that allow all students to reason and communicate mathematically and…

  11. Mathematical Lives

    CERN Document Server

    Bartocci, Claudio; Guerraggio, Angelo; Lucchetti, Roberto; Williams, Kim


    Steps forward in mathematics often reverberate in other scientific disciplines, and give rise to innovative conceptual developments or find surprising technological applications. This volume brings to the forefront some of the proponents of the mathematics of the twentieth century, who have put at our disposal new and powerful instruments for investigating the reality around us. The portraits present people who have impressive charisma and wide-ranging cultural interests, who are passionate about defending the importance of their own research, are sensitive to beauty, and attentive to the soci

  12. Quotable Quotes in Mathematics (United States)

    Lo, Bruce W. N.


    As a way to dispel negative feelings toward mathematics, a variety of quotations are given. They are categorized by: what mathematics is, mathematicians, mathematics and other disciplines, different areas of mathematics, mathematics and humor, applications of mathematics, and pure versus applied mathematics. (MNS)

  13. Teaching Middle-Grades Mathematics through Financial Literacy (United States)

    Crawford-Ferre, Heather Glynn; Wiest, Lynda R.; Vega, Stephanie


    Because financial literacy is an important skill for middle-grades students, this article suggests numerous personal financial literacy tasks for use in the mathematics classroom. Also provided are specifics for implementing one of these tasks to address mathematical content.

  14. Mathematical quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Weaver, Nik


    With a unique approach and presenting an array of new and intriguing topics, Mathematical Quantization offers a survey of operator algebras and related structures from the point of view that these objects are quantizations of classical mathematical structures. This approach makes possible, with minimal mathematical detail, a unified treatment of a variety of topics.Detailed here for the first time, the fundamental idea of mathematical quantization is that sets are replaced by Hilbert spaces. Building on this idea, and most importantly on the fact that scalar-valued functions on a set correspond to operators on a Hilbert space, one can determine quantum analogs of a variety of classical structures. In particular, because topologies and measure classes on a set can be treated in terms of scalar-valued functions, we can transfer these constructions to the quantum realm, giving rise to C*- and von Neumann algebras.In the first half of the book, the author quickly builds the operator algebra setting. He uses this ...

  15. Mathematical stereochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Shinsaku


    Chirality and stereogenicity are closely related concepts and their differentiation and description is still a challenge in chemoinformatics. A new stereoisogram approach, developed by the author, is introduced in this book, providing a theoretical framework for mathematical aspects of modern stereochemistry. The discussion covers point-groups and permutation symmetry and exemplifies the concepts using organic molecules and inorganic complexes.

  16. Middle School Mathematics Teachers Panel Perspectives of Instructional Practicess (United States)

    Ziegler, Cindy


    In a local middle school, students were not meeting standards on the state mathematics tests. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore mathematics teachers' perspectives on effective mathematics instruction vis-a-vis the principles of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). Within this framework, the 6 principles in the…

  17. Influence of Writing Ability and Computation Skill on Mathematics Writing (United States)

    Powell, Sarah R.; Hebert, Michael A.


    Mathematics standards expect students to communicate about mathematics using oral and written methods, and some high-stakes assessments ask students to answer mathematics questions by writing. Assumptions about mathematics communication via writing include (a) students possess writing skill, (b) students can transfer this writing skill to…

  18. Making the Learning of Mathematics More Meaningful (United States)

    Ward, Robin A.


    In the early 1980's, the National Commission on Excellence in Education responded to the call for reform in the teaching and learning of mathematics. In particular, the Commission developed a document addressing the consensus that all students need to learn more, and often different, mathematics and that instruction in mathematics must be significantly revised. In a response to these calls for mathematics education reform, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) developed its Curriculum and Evaluation Standards (1989) with a two-fold purpose: 1) to create a coherent vision of what it means to be mathematically literate in a world that relies on calculators and computers, and 2) to create a set of standards to guide the revisions of school mathematics curriculum.

  19. Mathematics Teacher Identity in the Context of Mathematics Reform: Elementary Teacher Experiences (United States)

    Sun, Jennifer


    Reform efforts and changes in mathematics education have brought on a shift towards a new vision of mathematics teaching in the United States. In light of recent accountability standards, the focus on teacher learning within the context of mathematics professional development is even more pressing. Prior research on teacher learning in the context…

  20. Mathematical Creativity and Mathematical Aptitude: A Cross-Lagged Panel Analysis (United States)

    Tyagi, Tarun Kumar


    Cross-lagged panel correlation (CLPC) analysis has been used to identify causal relationships between mathematical creativity and mathematical aptitude. For this study, 480 8th standard students were selected through a random cluster technique from 9 intermediate and high schools of Varanasi, India. Mathematical creativity and mathematical…

  1. High school mathematics teachers' perspectives on the purposes of mathematical proof in school mathematics (United States)

    Dickerson, David S.; Doerr, Helen M.


    Proof serves many purposes in mathematics. In this qualitative study of 17 high school mathematics teachers, we found that these teachers perceived that two of the most important purposes for proof in school mathematics were (a) to enhance students' mathematical understanding and (b) to develop generalized thinking skills that were transferable to other fields of endeavor. We found teachers were divided on the characteristics (or features) of proofs that would serve these purposes. Teachers with less experience tended to believe that proofs in the high school should adhere to strict standards of language and reasoning while teachers with more experience tended to believe that proofs based on concrete or visual features were well suited for high school mathematics. This study has implications for teacher preparation because it appears that there is a wide variation in how teachers think about proof. It seems likely that students would experience proof very differently merely because they were seated in different classrooms.

  2. The language of mathematics telling mathematical tales

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, Bill


    Everyday mathematical ideas are expressed differently in different languages. This book probes those differences and explores their implications for mathematics education, arguing for alternatives to how we teach and learn mathematics.

  3. Mathematical analysis I

    CERN Document Server

    Canuto, Claudio


    The purpose of the volume is to provide a support for a first course in Mathematics. The contents are organised to appeal especially to Engineering, Physics and Computer Science students, all areas in which mathematical tools play a crucial role. Basic notions and methods of differential and integral calculus for functions of one real variable are presented in a manner that elicits critical reading and prompts a hands-on approach to concrete applications. The layout has a specifically-designed modular nature, allowing the instructor to make flexible didactical choices when planning an introductory lecture course. The book may in fact be employed at three levels of depth. At the elementary level the student is supposed to grasp the very essential ideas and familiarise with the corresponding key techniques. Proofs to the main results befit the intermediate level, together with several remarks and complementary notes enhancing the treatise. The last, and farthest-reaching, level requires the additional study of ...

  4. Highlights from TIMSS 2011: Mathematics and Science Achievement of U.S. Fourth- and Eighth-Grade Students in an International Context. Appendix E: Standard Error Tables. NCES 2013-009 (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2012


    The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011 is the fifth administration of this international comparative study since 1995 when first administered. TIMSS is used to compare over time the mathematics and science knowledge and skills of fourth- and eighth-graders. TIMSS is designed to align broadly with mathematics and…

  5. Science modelling in pre-calculus: how to make mathematics problems contextually meaningful (United States)

    Sokolowski, Andrzej; Yalvac, Bugrahan; Loving, Cathleen


    'Use of mathematical representations to model and interpret physical phenomena and solve problems is one of the major teaching objectives in high school math curriculum' (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), Principles and Standards for School Mathematics, NCTM, Reston, VA, 2000). Commonly used pre-calculus textbooks provide a wide range of application problems. However, these problems focus students' attention on evaluating or solving pre-arranged formulas for given values. The role of scientific content is reduced to provide a background for these problems instead of being sources of data gathering for inducing mathematical tools. Students are neither required to construct mathematical models based on the contexts nor are they asked to validate or discuss the limitations of applied formulas. Using these contexts, the instructor may think that he/she is teaching problem solving, where in reality he/she is teaching algorithms of the mathematical operations (G. Kulm (ed.), New directions for mathematics assessment, in Assessing Higher Order Thinking in Mathematics, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 1994, pp. 221-240). Without a thorough representation of the physical phenomena and the mathematical modelling processes undertaken, problem solving unintentionally appears as simple algorithmic operations. In this article, we deconstruct the representations of mathematics problems from selected pre-calculus textbooks and explicate their limitations. We argue that the structure and content of those problems limits students' coherent understanding of mathematical modelling, and this could result in weak student problem-solving skills. Simultaneously, we explore the ways to enhance representations of those mathematical problems, which we have characterized as lacking a meaningful physical context and limiting coherent student understanding. In light of our discussion, we recommend an alternative to strengthen the process of teaching mathematical modelling - utilization

  6. Understanding in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sierpinska, Anna


    The concept of understanding in mathematics with regard to mathematics education is considered in this volume, the main problem for mathematics teachers being how to facilitate their students'' understanding of the mathematics being taught.

  7. Mathematical epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Driessche, Pauline; Wu, Jianhong


    Based on lecture notes of two summer schools with a mixed audience from mathematical sciences, epidemiology and public health, this volume offers a comprehensive introduction to basic ideas and techniques in modeling infectious diseases, for the comparison of strategies to plan for an anticipated epidemic or pandemic, and to deal with a disease outbreak in real time. It covers detailed case studies for diseases including pandemic influenza, West Nile virus, and childhood diseases. Models for other diseases including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, fox rabies, and sexually transmitted infections are included as applications. Its chapters are coherent and complementary independent units. In order to accustom students to look at the current literature and to experience different perspectives, no attempt has been made to achieve united writing style or unified notation. Notes on some mathematical background (calculus, matrix algebra, differential equations, and probability) have been prepared and may be downlo...

  8. Applied mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedelec, J.C.


    The 1988 progress report of the Applied Mathematics center (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research fields of the Center are the scientific calculus, the probabilities and statistics and the video image synthesis. The research topics developed are: the analysis of numerical methods, the mathematical analysis of the physics and mechanics fundamental models, the numerical solution of complex models related to the industrial problems, the stochastic calculus and the brownian movement, the stochastic partial differential equations, the identification of the adaptive filtering parameters, the discrete element systems, statistics, the stochastic control and the development, the image synthesis techniques for education and research programs. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed [fr

  9. Mathematical methods for physical and analytical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Goodson, David Z


    Mathematical Methods for Physical and Analytical Chemistry presents mathematical and statistical methods to students of chemistry at the intermediate, post-calculus level. The content includes a review of general calculus; a review of numerical techniques often omitted from calculus courses, such as cubic splines and Newton's method; a detailed treatment of statistical methods for experimental data analysis; complex numbers; extrapolation; linear algebra; and differential equations. With numerous example problems and helpful anecdotes, this text gives chemistry students the mathematical

  10. Mathematics Curriculum, the Philosophy of Mathematics and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A curriculum designed around habits of mind comprises both the content and the process. The existing .... Research in learning shows that ... and various interrelated experiences that ... mathematics has very little connection with .... that uses workplace and everyday tasks to .... cognitive sciences has supported the notion.

  11. Assessing Mathematical Competencies: An Analysis of Swedish National Mathematics Tests (United States)

    Boesen, Jesper; Lithner, Johan; Palm, Torulf


    Internationally, education reform has been directed towards describing educational goals that go beyond topic and content descriptions. The idea of mathematical competencies describes such goals. National tests have been seen as one way of communicating these goals and influence teaching. The present study analyses Swedish national tests in…

  12. Early predictors of high school mathematics achievement. (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S; Duncan, Greg J; Davis-Kean, Pamela E; Duckworth, Kathryn; Claessens, Amy; Engel, Mimi; Susperreguy, Maria Ines; Chen, Meichu


    Identifying the types of mathematics content knowledge that are most predictive of students' long-term learning is essential for improving both theories of mathematical development and mathematics education. To identify these types of knowledge, we examined long-term predictors of high school students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics achievement. Analyses of large, nationally representative, longitudinal data sets from the United States and the United Kingdom revealed that elementary school students' knowledge of fractions and of division uniquely predicts those students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics achievement in high school, 5 or 6 years later, even after statistically controlling for other types of mathematical knowledge, general intellectual ability, working memory, and family income and education. Implications of these findings for understanding and improving mathematics learning are discussed.

  13. Mathematical foundation of computer science

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, YN


    The interesting feature of this book is its organization and structure. That consists of systematizing of the definitions, methods, and results that something resembling a theory. Simplicity, clarity, and precision of mathematical language makes theoretical topics more appealing to the readers who are of mathematical or non-mathematical background. For quick references and immediate attentions¾concepts and definitions, methods and theorems, and key notes are presented through highlighted points from beginning to end. Whenever, necessary and probable a visual approach of presentation is used. The amalgamation of text and figures make mathematical rigors easier to understand. Each chapter begins with the detailed contents, which are discussed inside the chapter and conclude with a summary of the material covered in the chapter. Summary provides a brief overview of all the topics covered in the chapter. To demonstrate the principles better, the applicability of the concepts discussed in each topic are illustrat...

  14. English learners in the mathematics classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Coggins, Debra S (Susan)


    Research-based strategies to reach English learners - now aligned with the Common Core!Enable your English learners to build higher-level math skills and gain greater fluency in their new language-all while achieving the goals of the Common Core. Now in its second edition, this trusted resource includes:  Mathematics lesson scenarios in every chapter, directly connected to Common Core Standards and the Standards for Mathematical Practice Instructional approaches that promote participation, hands-on learning, and true comprehension of mathematics concepts that benefit ALL students Sample lessons, visuals, and essential vocabulary that connect mathematical concepts with language development.

  15. Dilemma in Teaching Mathematics (United States)

    Md Kamaruddin, Nafisah Kamariah; Md Amin, Zulkarnain


    The challenge in mathematics education is finding the best way to teach mathematics. When students learn the reasoning and proving in mathematics, they will be proficient in mathematics. Students must know mathematics before they can apply it. Symbolism and logic is the key to both the learning of mathematics and its effective application to…

  16. Computer-Game-Based Tutoring of Mathematics (United States)

    Ke, Fengfeng


    This in-situ, descriptive case study examined the potential of implementing computer mathematics games as an anchor for tutoring of mathematics. Data were collected from middle school students at a rural pueblo school and an urban Hispanic-serving school, through in-field observation, content analysis of game-based tutoring-learning interactions,…

  17. Authentic Teaching Experiences in Secondary Mathematics Methods (United States)

    Stickles, Paula R.


    Often secondary mathematics methods courses include classroom peer teaching, but many pre-service teachers find it challenging to teach their classmate peers as there are no discipline issues and little mathematical discourse as the "students" know the content. We will share a recent change in our methods course where pre-service…

  18. Creating standards: Creating illusions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    written standards may open up for the creation of illusions. These are created when written standards' content is not in accordance with the perception standard adopters and standard users have of the specific practice phenomenon's content. This general theoretical argument is exemplified by the specific...

  19. An introduction to financial mathematics


    Mármol, Maite


    The present document includes the slides used in the course Mathematics For Finance (International Business and Business Administration and Management). The course content is divided into five units: “Introduction: Some general ideas”, “Financial arrangements”, “Annuities”, “Loans” and “Bonds”

  20. Science and Mathematics in Astronomy (United States)

    Woolack, Edward


    A brief historical introduction to the development of observational astronomy will be presented. The close historical relationship between the successful application of mathematical concepts and advances in astronomy will be presented. A variety of simple physical demonstrations, hands-on group activities, and puzzles will be used to understand how the properties of light can be used to understand the contents of our universe.

  1. Learning mathematics outside the classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Arne

    visits by researchers. The aim is to examine teaching forms and contents in outdoor teaching integrating mathematics, and this setting’s influence on pupils experienced learning, motivation, well-being and physical activity. Teachers’ management of outdoor education is also part of the study. Data were...

  2. Teaching Mathematical Modeling in Mathematics Education (United States)

    Saxena, Ritu; Shrivastava, Keerty; Bhardwaj, Ramakant


    Mathematics is not only a subject but it is also a language consisting of many different symbols and relations. Taught as a compulsory subject up the 10th class, students are then able to choose whether or not to study mathematics as a main subject. The present paper discusses mathematical modeling in mathematics education. The article provides…

  3. Doing Mathematics with Purpose: Mathematical Text Types (United States)

    Dostal, Hannah M.; Robinson, Richard


    Mathematical literacy includes learning to read and write different types of mathematical texts as part of purposeful mathematical meaning making. Thus in this article, we describe how learning to read and write mathematical texts (proof text, algorithmic text, algebraic/symbolic text, and visual text) supports the development of students'…

  4. Teachers' Mathematics as Mathematics-at-Work (United States)

    Bednarz, Nadine; Proulx, Jérôme


    Through recognising mathematics teachers as professionals who use mathematics in their workplace, this article traces a parallel between the mathematics enacted by teachers in their practice and the mathematics used in workplaces found in studies of professionals (e.g. nurses, engineers, bankers). This parallel is developed through the five…

  5. Improving University Students' Perception of Mathematics and Mathematics Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly L. Wismath


    Full Text Available Although mathematical and quantitative reasoning skills are an essential part of adult life in our society, many students arrive at post-secondary education without such skills. Taking a standard mathematics course such as calculus may do little to improve those skills. Using a modification of the Tapia & Marsh questionnaire, we surveyed 62 students taking a broad quantitative reasoning course designed to develop quantitative skills, with respect to two broad attitudinal areas: students’ perception of their own ability, confidence and anxiety, and their perception of the value of mathematics in their studies and their lives. Pre- to post-course comparisons were done by both paired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Our results showed a significant increase in confidence and decrease in anxiety, while perception of the value of mathematics was already high and changed little by the end of the course.

  6. Mathematical intuitionism

    CERN Document Server

    Dragalin, A G


    This monograph is intended to present the most important methods of proof theory in intuitionistic logic, assuming the reader to have mastered an introductory course in mathematical logic. The book starts with purely syntactical methods based on Gentzen's cut-elimination theorem, followed by intuitionistic arithmetic where Kleene's realizability method plays a central role. The author then studies algebraic models and completeness theorems for them. After giving a survey on the principles of intuitionistic analysis, the last part of the book presents the cut-elimination theorem in intuitionistic simple theory of types with an extensionality rule.

  7. Effects of soil organic matter content on cadmium toxicity in Eisenia fetida: implications for the use of biomarkers and standard toxicity tests. (United States)

    Irizar, A; Rodríguez, M P; Izquierdo, A; Cancio, I; Marigómez, I; Soto, M


    Bioavailability is affected by soil physicochemical characteristics such as pH and organic matter (OM) content. In addition, OM constitutes the energy source of Eisenia fetida, a well established model species for soil toxicity assessment. The present work aimed at assessing the effects of changes in OM content on the toxicity of Cd in E. fetida through the measurement of neutral red uptake (NRU) and mortality, growth, and reproduction (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] Nos. 207 and 222). Complementarily, metallothionein (MT) and catalase transcription levels were measured. To decrease variability inherent to natural soils, artificial soils (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 1984) with different OM content (6, 10, and 14%) and spiked with Cd solutions at increasing concentrations were used. Low OM in soil decreased soil ingestion and Cd bioaccumulation but also increased Cd toxicity causing lower NRU of coelomocytes, 100 % mortality, and stronger reproduction impairment, probably due to the lack of energy to maintain protection mechanisms (production of MT).Cd bioaccumulation did not reflect toxicity, and OM played a pivotal role in Cd toxicity. Thus, OM content should be taken into account when using E. fetida in in vivo exposures for soil health assessment.

  8. Algebra II textbook for students of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Gorodentsev, Alexey L


    This book is the second volume of an intensive “Russian-style” two-year undergraduate course in abstract algebra, and introduces readers to the basic algebraic structures – fields, rings, modules, algebras, groups, and categories – and explains the main principles of and methods for working with them. The course covers substantial areas of advanced combinatorics, geometry, linear and multilinear algebra, representation theory, category theory, commutative algebra, Galois theory, and algebraic geometry – topics that are often overlooked in standard undergraduate courses. This textbook is based on courses the author has conducted at the Independent University of Moscow and at the Faculty of Mathematics in the Higher School of Economics. The main content is complemented by a wealth of exercises for class discussion, some of which include comments and hints, as well as problems for independent study.

  9. Algebra I textbook for students of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Gorodentsev, Alexey L


    This book is the first volume of an intensive “Russian-style” two-year undergraduate course in abstract algebra, and introduces readers to the basic algebraic structures – fields, rings, modules, algebras, groups, and categories – and explains the main principles of and methods for working with them. The course covers substantial areas of advanced combinatorics, geometry, linear and multilinear algebra, representation theory, category theory, commutative algebra, Galois theory, and algebraic geometry – topics that are often overlooked in standard undergraduate courses. This textbook is based on courses the author has conducted at the Independent University of Moscow and at the Faculty of Mathematics in the Higher School of Economics. The main content is complemented by a wealth of exercises for class discussion, some of which include comments and hints, as well as problems for independent study.

  10. Mathematical foundations of biomechanics. (United States)

    Niederer, Peter F


    The aim of biomechanics is the analysis of the structure and function of humans, animals, and plants by means of the methods of mechanics. Its foundations are in particular embedded in mathematics, physics, and informatics. Due to the inherent multidisciplinary character deriving from its aim, biomechanics has numerous connections and overlapping areas with biology, biochemistry, physiology, and pathophysiology, along with clinical medicine, so its range is enormously wide. This treatise is mainly meant to serve as an introduction and overview for readers and students who intend to acquire a basic understanding of the mathematical principles and mechanics that constitute the foundation of biomechanics; accordingly, its contents are limited to basic theoretical principles of general validity and long-range significance. Selected examples are included that are representative for the problems treated in biomechanics. Although ultimate mathematical generality is not in the foreground, an attempt is made to derive the theory from basic principles. A concise and systematic formulation is thereby intended with the aim that the reader is provided with a working knowledge. It is assumed that he or she is familiar with the principles of calculus, vector analysis, and linear algebra.

  11. Theoretical Basics of Teaching Discrete Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Perminov


    Full Text Available  The paper deals with the research findings concerning the process of mastering the theoretical basics of discrete mathematics by the students of vocational pedagogic profile. The methodological analysis is based on the subject and functions of the modern discrete mathematics and its role in mathematical modeling and computing. The modern discrete mathematics (i.e. mathematics of the finite type structures plays the important role in modernization of vocational training. It is especially rele- vant to training students for vocational pedagogic qualifications, as in the future they will be responsible for training the middle and the senior level specialists in engineer- ing and technical spheres. Nowadays in different industries, there arise the problems which require for their solving both continual – based on the classical mathematical methods – and discrete modeling. The teaching course of discrete mathematics for the future vocational teachers should be relevant to the target qualification and aimed at mastering the mathematical modeling, systems of computer mathematics and computer technologies. The author emphasizes the fundamental role of mastering the language of algebraic and serial structures, as well as the logical, algorithmic, combinatory schemes dominating in dis- crete mathematics. The guidelines for selecting the content of the course in discrete mathematics are specified. The theoretical findings of the research can be put into practice whilst developing curricula and working programs for bachelors and masters’ training. 

  12. Meeting in mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Arne; Georgiev, Vladimir; Ulovec, Andreas

    To encourage many more young people to appreciate the real nature and spirit of mathematics and possibly to be enrolled in mathematics study it is important to involve them in doing mathematics (not just learning about mathematics). This goal could be achieved if mathematics teachers are prepared...... to identify and work with mathematically gifted students (without loosing the rest). The book offers chapters on gifted students, mathematical competences and other issues....

  13. Forum of Mathematics for Industry 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Anderssen, Robert; Cheng, Jin; Fukumoto, Yasuhide; McKibbin, Robert; Polthier, Konrad; Takagi, Tsuyoshi; Toh, Kim-Chuan


    This book is a collection of papers presented at the Forum “The Impact of Applications on Mathematics” in October 2013. It describes an appropriate framework in which to highlight how real-world problems, over the centuries and today, have influenced and are influencing the development of mathematics and, thereby, how mathematics is reshaped, in order to advance mathematics and its application. The contents of this book address productive and successful interaction between industry and mathematicians, as well as the cross-fertilization and collaboration that result when mathematics is involved with the advancement of science and technology.

  14. Modeling in the Common Core State Standards (United States)

    Tam, Kai Chung


    The inclusion of modeling and applications into the mathematics curriculum has proven to be a challenging task over the last fifty years. The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) has made mathematical modeling both one of its Standards for Mathematical Practice and one of its Conceptual Categories. This article discusses the need for mathematical…

  15. Implications of Informal Education Experiences for Mathematics Teachers' Ability to Make Connections beyond Formal Classroom (United States)

    Popovic, Gorjana; Lederman, Judith S.


    The Common Core Standard for Mathematical Practice 4: Model with Mathematics specifies that mathematically proficient students are able to make connections between school mathematics and its applications to solving real-world problems. Hence, mathematics teachers are expected to incorporate connections between mathematical concepts they teach and…

  16. Stimulating Mathematical Reasoning with Simple Open-Ended Tasks (United States)

    West, John


    The importance of mathematical reasoning is unquestioned and providing opportunities for students to become involved in mathematical reasoning is paramount. The open-ended tasks presented incorporate mathematical content explored through the contexts of problem solving and reasoning. This article presents a number of simple tasks that may be…

  17. The Role of Reasoning in the Australian Curriculum: Mathematics (United States)

    McCluskey, Catherine; Mulligan, Joanne; Mitchelmore, Mike


    The mathematical proficiencies in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" of understanding, problem solving, reasoning, and fluency are intended to be entwined actions that work together to build generalised understandings of mathematical concepts. A content analysis identifying the incidence of key proficiency terms (KPTs) embedded in…

  18. Exploring Wind Power: Improving Mathematical Thinking through Digital Fabrication (United States)

    Tillman, Daniel A.; An, Song A.; Cohen, Jonathan D.; Kjellstrom, William; Boren, Rachel L.


    This mixed methods study examined the impacts of digital fabrication activities that were integrated into contextualized mathematics education. The study investigated the students' mathematics content knowledge and attitudes. Data analysis yielded two key findings regarding our intervention combined with the other mathematics activities resulted…

  19. Development of a Multidisciplinary Middle School Mathematics Infusion Model (United States)

    Russo, Maria; Hecht, Deborah; Burghardt, M. David; Hacker, Michael; Saxman, Laura


    The National Science Foundation (NSF) funded project "Mathematics, Science, and Technology Partnership" (MSTP) developed a multidisciplinary instructional model for connecting mathematics to science, technology and engineering content areas at the middle school level. Specifically, the model infused mathematics into middle school curriculum…

  20. Delivering Online Professional Development in Mathematics to Rural Educators (United States)

    Cady, Jo; Rearden, Kristin


    Rural school districts struggle to attract, retain, and support highly qualified mathematics teachers. A series of four online professional development courses in the form of integrated mathematics content and pedagogy courses was designed to meet the professional development needs of rural middle school mathematics teachers. Changes in teachers'…

  1. Pedagogical Applications from Real Analysis for Secondary Mathematics Teachers (United States)

    Wasserman, Nicholas; Weber, Keith


    In this article, we consider the potential influences of the study of proofs in advanced mathematics on secondary mathematics teaching. Thus far, the literature has highlighted the benefits of applying the conclusions of particular proofs to secondary content and of developing a more general sense of disciplinary practices in mathematics in…

  2. Mathematics, the Computer, and the Impact on Mathematics Education. (United States)

    Tooke, D. James


    Discusses the connection between mathematics and the computer; mathematics curriculum; mathematics instruction, including teachers learning to use computers; and the impact of the computer on learning mathematics. (LRW)

  3. Attrition during a randomized controlled trial of reduced nicotine content cigarettes as a proxy for understanding acceptability of nicotine product standards. (United States)

    Mercincavage, Melissa; Wileyto, E Paul; Saddleson, Megan L; Lochbuehler, Kirsten; Donny, Eric C; Strasser, Andrew A


    To determine (1) if nicotine content affects study attrition-a potential behavioral measure of acceptability-in a trial that required compliance with three levels of reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes, and (2) if attrition is associated with subjective and behavioral responses to RNC cigarettes. Secondary analysis of a 35-day, parallel-design, open-label, randomized controlled trial. After a 5-day baseline period, participants were randomized to smoke for three 10-day periods: their preferred brand (control group) or RNC cigarettes with three nicotine levels in a within-subject stepdown (one group: high-moderate-low) or non-stepdown (five groups: high-low-moderate, low-moderate-high, low-high-moderate, moderate-low-high, moderate-high-low) fashion. A single site in Philadelphia, PA, USA. A total of 246 non-treatment-seeking daily smokers [mean age = 39.52, cigarettes per day (CPD) = 20.95, 68.3% white] were recruited from October 2007 to June 2013. The primary outcome was attrition. Key predictors were nicotine content transition and study period. Exploratory predictors were taste and strength subjective ratings, total puff volume and carbon monoxide (CO) boost. Covariates included: age, gender, race, education and nicotine dependence. Overall attrition was 31.3% (n = 77): 24.1% of the control and 25.0% of the stepdown RNC cigarette groups dropped out versus 44.6% of non-stepdown groups (P = 0.006). Compared with controls, attrition odds were 4.5 and 4.7 times greater among smokers transitioning from preferred and the highest RNC cigarettes to the lowest RNC cigarettes, respectively (P = 0.001 and 0.003). Providing more favorable initial taste ratings of study cigarettes decreased attrition odds by 2% (P = 0.012). The majority of participants completed a 35-day trial of varying levels of reduced nicotine content cigarettes. Participant dropout was greater for cigarettes with lower nicotine content and less in smokers reporting more favorable

  4. Authenticity of Mathematical Modeling (United States)

    Tran, Dung; Dougherty, Barbara J.


    Some students leave high school never quite sure of the relevancy of the mathematics they have learned. They fail to see links between school mathematics and the mathematics of everyday life that requires thoughtful decision making and often complex problem solving. Is it possible to bridge the gap between school mathematics and the mathematics in…

  5. A refresher course in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Camm, F J


    Readers wishing to renew and extend their acquaintance with a variety of branches of mathematics will find this volume a practical companion. Geared toward those who already possess some familiarity with its subjects, the easy-to-follow explanations and straightforward tone make this book highly accessible. The contents are arranged logically and in order of difficulty: fractions, decimals, square and cube root, the metric system, algebra, quadratic and cubic equations, graphs, and the calculus are among the topics. Explanations of mathematical principles are followed by worked examples, and t

  6. Anticipation Guides: Reading for Mathematics Understanding (United States)

    Adams, Anne E.; Pegg, Jerine; Case, Melissa


    With the acceptance by many states of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics, new emphasis is being placed on students' ability to engage in mathematical practices such as understanding problems (including word problems), reading and critiquing arguments, and making explicit use of definitions (CCSSI 2010). Engaging students in…

  7. Using Maxima in the Mathematics Classroom (United States)

    Fedriani, Eugenio M.; Moyano, Rafael


    Coming from the Macsyma system and adapted to the Common Lisp standard, Maxima can be regarded as a tool for a frequent use in the mathematics classroom. The main aim of this work is to show some possibilities of Maxima and its graphical interface through our experience as Mathematics teachers in Business degrees, although it can be easily spread…

  8. Influence of moisture content of combusted wood on the thermal efficiency of a boiler (United States)

    Dzurenda, Ladislav; Banski, Adrián


    In the paper the influence of moisture content of wood on the heat losses and thermal efficiency of a boiler is analysed. The moisture content of wood has a negative effect, especially on flue gas loss. The mathematical dependence of the thermal efficiency of a boiler is presented for the following boundary conditions: the moisture content of wood 10-60%, range of temperatures of emitted flue gases from the boiler into the atmosphere 120-200 C, the emissions meeting the emission standards: carbon monoxide 250 mgm-3, fly ash 50 mgm-3 and the heat power range 30-100%.

  9. Influence of moisture content of combusted wood on the thermal efficiency of a boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzurenda Ladislav


    Full Text Available In the paper the influence of moisture content of wood on the heat losses and thermal efficiency of a boiler is analysed. The moisture content of wood has a negative effect, especially on flue gas loss. The mathematical dependence of the thermal efficiency of a boiler is presented for the following boundary conditions: the moisture content of wood 10-60%, range of temperatures of emitted flue gases from the boiler into the atmosphere 120-200 C, the emissions meeting the emission standards: carbon monoxide 250 mgm−3, fly ash 50 mgm−3 and the heat power range 30-100%.

  10. From Square Dance to Mathematics (United States)

    Bremer, Zoe


    In this article, the author suggests a cross-curricular idea that can link with PE, dance, music and history. Teacher David Schmitz, a maths teacher in Illinois who was also a square dance caller, had developed a maths course that used the standard square dance syllabus to teach mathematical principles. He presents an intensive, two-week course…

  11. Editorial: Advanced Learning Technologies, Performance Technologies, Open Contents, and Standards - Some Papers from the Best Papers of the Conference ICCE C3 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Klett (IEEE Fellow


    Full Text Available This special issue deals with several cutting edge research outcomes from recent advancement of learning technologies. Advanced learning technologies are the composition of various related technologies and concepts such as i internet technologies and mobile technologies, ii human and organizational performance/knowledge management, and iii underlying trends toward open technology, open content and open education. This editorial note describes the overview of these topics related to the advanced learning technologies to provide the common framework for the accepted papers in this special issue.

  12. Balancing Considerations of Equity, Content Quality, and Technical Excellence in Designing, Validating and Implementing Performance Assessments in the Context of Mathematics Instructional Reform: The Experience of the QUASAR Project. (United States)

    Silver, Edward A.; Lane, Suzanne

    Issues of educational equity and quality are explored in the context of the Quantitative Understanding: Amplifying Student Achievement and Reasoning (QUASAR) project, a national educational reform project aimed at fostering and studying the development and implementation of enhanced mathematics instructional programs for students attending middle…

  13. Standard format and content for a licensee physical security plan for the protection of special nuclear material of moderate or low strategic significance - January 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This guide describes the information required in the physical security plan submitted as part of an application for a license to possess, use, or transport special nuclear material (SNM) of moderate strategic significance or 10 kg or more of SNM of low strategic significance and recommends a standard format for presenting the information in an orderly arrangement. This standards format will thus serve as an aid to uniformity and completeness in the preparation and review of the physical protection plan of the license application. This document can also be used as guidance by licensees possessing or transporting less than 10 kg of SNM of low strategic significance in understanding the intent and implementing the requirements of paragraphs 73.67(a), 73.67(f), and 73.67(g) of 10 CRF Part 73

  14. Standard format and content for a licensee physical security plan for the protection of special nuclear material of moderate or low strategic significance (Revision 1, Feb. 1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This regulatory guide describes the information required in the physical security plan submitted as part of an application for a license to possess, use, or transport Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) of moderate strategic significance or 10 kg or more of SNM of low strategic significance and recommends a standard format for presenting the information in an orderly arrangement. This standard format will thus serve as an aid to uniformity and completeness in the preparation and review of the physical security plan of the license application. This document can also be used as guidance by licensees possessing or transporting less than 10 kg of SNM of low strategic significance in understanding the intent and implementing the requirements of paragraphs 73.67(a), 73.67(f), and 73.67(g) of 10 CFR Part 73

  15. Mathematics education, democracy and development: Exploring connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Vithal


    Full Text Available Mathematics education and its links to democracy and development are explored in this article, with specific reference to the case of South Africa. This is done by engaging four key questions. Firstly, the question of whether mathematics education can be a preparation for democracy and include a concern for development, is discussed by drawing on conceptual tools of critical mathematics education and allied areas in a development context. Secondly, the question of how mathematics education is distributed in society and participates in shaping educational possibilities in addressing its development needs and goals is used to examine the issues emerging from mathematics performance in international studies and the national Grade 12 examination; the latter is explored specifically in respect of the South African mathematics curriculum reforms and teacher education challenges. Thirdly, the question of whether a mathematics classroom can be a space for democratic living and learning that equally recognises the importance of issues of development in contexts like South Africa, as a post-conflict society still healing from its apartheid wounds, continuing inequality and poverty, is explored through pedagogies of conflict, dialogue and forgiveness. Finally the question of whether democracy and development can have anything to do with mathematics content matters, is discussed by appropriating, as a metaphor, South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s framework of multiple ‘truths’, to seek links within and across the various forms and movements in mathematics and mathematics education that have emerged in the past few decades.

  16. Mathematics Models in Chemistry--An Innovation for Non-Mathematics and Non-Science Majors (United States)

    Rash, Agnes M.; Zurbach, E. Peter


    The intention of this article is to present a year-long interdisciplinary course, Mathematical Models in Chemistry. The course is comprised of eleven units, each of which has both a mathematical and a chemical component. A syllabus of the course is given and the format of the class is explained. The interaction of the professors and the content is…


    Educational Services, Inc., Watertown, MA.


  18. Figures of thought mathematics and mathematical texts

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, David


    Examines the ways in which mathematical works can be read as texts, examines their textual strategiesand demonstrates that such readings provide a rich source of philosophical debate regarding mathematics.

  19. А mathematical model study of suspended monorail




    The mathematical model of suspended monorail track with allowance for elastic strain which occurs during movement of the monorail carriage was developed. Standard forms for single span and double span of suspended monorail sections were established.

  20. А mathematical model study of suspended monorail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The mathematical model of suspended monorail track with allowance for elastic strain which occurs during movement of the monorail carriage was developed. Standard forms for single span and double span of suspended monorail sections were established.

  1. A First Course in Applied Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Rebaza, Jorge


    Explore real-world applications of selected mathematical theory, concepts, and methods Exploring related methods that can be utilized in various fields of practice from science and engineering to business, A First Course in Applied Mathematics details how applied mathematics involves predictions, interpretations, analysis, and mathematical modeling to solve real-world problems. Written at a level that is accessible to readers from a wide range of scientific and engineering fields, the book masterfully blends standard topics with modern areas of application and provides the needed foundation

  2. Reforming Science and Mathematics Education (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.


    Since 1991, the National Science Foundation has signed cooperative agreements with 26 states to undertake ambitious and comprehensive initiatives to reform science, mathematics, and technology education. Collectively, those agreements are known as the State Systemic Initiatives (SSI's). Two complimentary programs, The Urban and Rural Systemic Initiatives (USI's and RSI's), address similar reforms in the nation's largest cities and poorest rural areas. The SSI Program departs significantly from past NSF practice in several ways. The funding is for a longer term and is larger in amount, and the NSF is taking a more activist role, seeking to leverage state and private funds and promote the coordination of programs within states. The Initiatives also have a stronger policy orientation than previous NSF programs have had. The NSF strategy is a reflection of the growing and widely held view that meaningful reforms in schools are most likely to be achieved through state initiatives that set clear and ambitious learning goals and standards; align all of the available policy levers in support of reform; stimulate school-level initiatives; and mobilize human and financial resources to support these changes. Two premises underlie systemic reform: (1) all children can meet significantly higher standards if they are asked to do so and given adequate opportunities to master the content, and (2) state and local policy changes can create opportunities by giving schools strong and consistent signals about the changes in practice and performance that are expected. Because this is an enormous investment of Federal resources that is intended to bring about deep, systemic improvement in the nation's ability to teach science and mathematics effectively, the NSF has contracted with a consortium of independent evaluators to conduct a review of the program. The first of the SSI's were funded in 1991, sufficiently long ago to begin to formulate some initial impressions of their impact. Take

  3. Can Scientific Research Answer the "What" Question of Mathematics Education? (United States)

    van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja


    This paper problematizes the issue of how decisions about the content of mathematics education can be made. After starting with two examples where research in mathematics education resulted in different choices on the content of primary school teaching, I explore where and how, in the scientific enterprise within the domain of education, issues of…

  4. Scale development for pre-service mathematics teachers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to develop a scale to determine pre-service mathematics teachers' perceptions related to their pedagogical content knowledge. Firstly, a preliminary perception scale of pedagogical content knowledge was constructed and then administered to 112 pre-service mathematics teachers who were ...

  5. The Professional Learning Experiences of Non-Mathematics Subject Specialist Teachers: A Descriptive Study


    Ho Younghusband, Alice Christine


    Certified teachers in British Columbia (BC) schools can be assigned to teach secondary mathematics without having a major, minor, or formal background in mathematics. This is known as out-of-field teaching. These non-mathematics subject specialist teachers (NMSSTs) must learn or relearn the subject matter of mathematics to teach secondary mathematics. This study investigates what professional learning activities NMSSTs participate in to gain subject matter content knowledge in mathematics, wh...

  6. Demographic profile and perceived INSET needs of secondary mathematics teachers in Limpopo province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline Rakumako


    Full Text Available The findings of a study on the demographic profile and perceived INSET needs of secondary Mathematics teachers in Limpopo province are described. The survey instrument employed was the Science Teacher Inventory of Needs for Limpopo province (STIN-LP. Most teachers who responded to this survey teach at a rural or township school, are between 20 and 40 years old, and have between four and ten years experience in teaching Mathematics. Standard 10 is the highest academic qualification of half of the teachers, with 67% of teachers having an M+3 as their highest professional qualification. Teachers indicated interest in all the 38 INSET need items included in the STIN-LP with motivating learners to learn Mathematics, using audio-visual equipment and applying mathematics to daily life of learners among the most important need. The least support was indicated, among others, for needs related to the history of mathematics, improving content knowledge, how mathematics is used in society, and teaching large classes. Poor communication of INSET activities was reported to be the greatest barrier to INSET participation. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  7. Mathematical Modelling Approach in Mathematics Education (United States)

    Arseven, Ayla


    The topic of models and modeling has come to be important for science and mathematics education in recent years. The topic of "Modeling" topic is especially important for examinations such as PISA which is conducted at an international level and measures a student's success in mathematics. Mathematical modeling can be defined as using…

  8. Undergraduate mathematics competitions (1995–2016) Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv

    CERN Document Server

    Brayman, Volodymyr


    Versatile and comprehensive in content, this book of problems will appeal to students in nearly all areas of mathematics. The text offers original and advanced problems proposed from 1995 to 2016 at the Mathematics Olympiads. Essential for undergraduate students, PhD students, and instructors, the problems in this book vary in difficulty and cover most of the obligatory courses given at the undergraduate level, including calculus, algebra, geometry, discrete mathematics, measure theory, complex analysis, differential equations, and probability theory. Detailed solutions to all of the problems from Part I are supplied in Part II, giving students the ability to check their solutions and observe new and unexpected ideas. Most of the problems in this book are not technical and allow for a short and elegant solution. The problems given are unique and non-standard; solving the problems requires a creative approach as well as a deep understanding of the material. Nearly all of the problems are originally authored by...

  9. Can Pedagogical Concerns Eclipse Mathematical Knowledge? (United States)

    Creager, Mark A.; Jacobson, Erik; Aydeniz, Fetiye


    Mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) is often thought of as a transformed, mutually-influencing mixture of content and pedagogy. However when individuals' MKT does not integrate content and pedagogy, one type of knowledge can supersede the other, sometimes unconsciously. We exemplify this with Emma, a prospective elementary teacher, whose…

  10. Rwandan grade 6 mathematics teachers' knowledge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    1University Rwanda, College of Education, 2 School of Education, University of .... one hand, and Knowledge of Content and Students (KCS) and Knowledge of Content and ..... The nature and development of middle school mathematics ... of freshman science student teachers from different science teaching domains.

  11. Observed communication skills: how do they relate to the consultation content? A nation-wide study of graduate medical students seeing a standardized patient for a first-time consultation in a general practice setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holen Are


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we wanted to investigate the relationship between background variables, communication skills, and the bio-psychosocial content of a medical consultation in a general practice setting with a standardized patient. Methods Final-year medical school students (N = 111 carried out a consultation with an actor playing the role of a patient with a specific somatic complaint, psychosocial stressors, and concerns about cancer. Based on videotapes, communication skills and consultation content were scored separately. Results The mean level of overall communication skills had a significant impact upon the counts of psychosocial issues, the patient's concerns about cancer, and the information and planning parts of the consultation content being addressed. Gender and age had no influence upon the relationship between communication skills and consultation content. Conclusion Communication skills seem to be important for final-year students' competence in addressing sensitive psychosocial issues and patients' concerns as well as informing and planning with patients being representative for a fairly complex case in general practice. This result should be considered in the design and incorporation of communication skills training as part of the curriculum of medical schools.

  12. Succeeding at teaching secondary mathematics your first year

    CERN Document Server

    Roddick, Cheryl D


    This practical resource helps beginning secondary mathematics teachers design a curriculum that is meaningful, differentiate instruction, engage students, meet standards, assess student understanding, and more.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Testov


    Full Text Available The paper discusses basic implementation aspects of the Mathematical Education Development Concept, adopted by the Russian Government in 2013. According to the above document, the main problems of mathematical education include: low motivation of secondary and higher school students for studying the discipline, resulted from underestimation of mathematical knowledge; and outdated educational content, overloaded by technical elements. In the author’s opinion, a number of important new mathematical fields, developed over the last years, - the graph theory, discrete mathematics, encoding theory, fractal geometry, etc – have a large methodological and applied educational potential. However, these new subdisciplines have very little representation both in the secondary and higher school mathematical curricula. As a solution for overcoming the gap between the latest scientific achievements and pedagogical practices, the author recommends integration of the above mentioned mathematical disciplines in educational curricula instead of some outdated technical issues. In conclusion, the paper emphasizes the need for qualified mathematical teachers’ training for solving the problems of students’ motivation development and content updates.

  14. Developing Mathematics Problems Based on Pisa Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahibul Ahyan


    Full Text Available This research aims to produce mathematics problems based on PISA level with valid and practical content of change and relationships and has potential effect for Junior High School students. A development research method developed by Akker, Gravemeijer, McKenney and Nieveen is used this research. In the first stage, the researcher analyzed students, algebra material in school-based curricula (KTSP and mathematics problems of PISA 2003 of change and relationships content. The second stage, the researcher designed 13 problems with content of change and relationships. The last, the researcher used formative evaluation design developed by Tessmer which includes self evaluation, one-to-one, expert review, small group, and field test. The data collect by walk through, interview, and questionnaire. The result of this research indicated that 12 mathematical problems based on PISA level of change and relationships content that developed have validity, practically, and potential effects for Junior High School students.



    Mrs. K. K. Sumathi


    The present study is aimed at finding the effectiveness of folk mathematics on achievement at secondary level student. It was an experimental method conducted on secondary school students in teaching mathematics for seventh standard. The result concluded by the investigator was that the effect of folk mathematics was better than the traditional method of teaching.

  16. The Role of Expository Writing in Mathematical Problem Solving (United States)

    Craig, Tracy S.


    Mathematical problem-solving is notoriously difficult to teach in a standard university mathematics classroom. The project on which this article reports aimed to investigate the effect of the writing of explanatory strategies in the context of mathematical problem solving on problem-solving behaviour. This article serves to describe the…

  17. Lixiviation of polymer matrix parcels of nuclear wastes in an environment with a low water content with respect to the standard characterisation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Vincent


    It is generally admitted that, in a nuclear waste storage site, a possible return of radionuclides towards the biosphere would mainly occur by leaching of coated items and their transport by natural waters. Therefore, lixiviation properties of coated nuclear wastes are among the most important. The objective of this research thesis is therefore to compare the activity release of samples of ion exchange polymer coated by a polymer (epoxy or polyester) matrix. Two types of tests have been performed: a standard test (sample immersion in water) and a lysimeter test (simulation of the geological environment by means of glass balls). The lixiviation of tritium-containing water is studied after a 300 day long experiment. The modelling of the release of tritium-containing water by using Fick equations gives good results. Factors influencing the lixiviation of cobalt ions and caesium ions are studied, and the lixiviation of these both ions is then modelled [fr

  18. Mathematics related anxiety: Mathematics bogeyman or not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Videnović Marina


    Full Text Available Data of the PISA 2003 survey indicate high levels of mathematics anxiety of students in Serbia. More than half of our students worry whether they will have difficulties in mathematics class or whether they will earn poor marks. Aims of this study therefore are: examining relationship between math anxiety and achievement at mathematics literacy scale; establishing possible predictors of math anxiety and identification of students' groups in relations to their relationship towards mathematics as a subject. Mathematics anxiety is statistically negatively correlated with school achievement and achievement at mathematics literacy scale. Socio-demographic factors, motivational and cognitive aspects related to learning mathematics, perception of school and classroom climate explain 40% variance of mathematics anxiety. Based on students' relationship towards mathematics they cam be divided into three groups; while dimensions that apart them are uninterested-interested in mathematics and presence-absence of anxiety. The group displaying anxiety scores lowest among the three. Applying qualitative analysis students' and teachers' attitudes on specific issues related to teaching and learning mathematics was examined.

  19. Reduction of CT beam hardening artefacts of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer by variation of the tantalum content: evaluation in a standardized aortic endoleak phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treitl, Karla M.; Scherr, Michael; Foerth, Monika; Braun, Franziska; Maxien, Daniel; Treitl, Marcus


    Our aim was to develop an aortic stent graft phantom to simulate endoleak treatment and to find a tantalum content (TC) of ethylene-vinyl-alcohol-copolymer that causes fewer computed tomography (CT) beam hardening artefacts, but still allows for fluoroscopic visualization. Ethylene-vinyl-alcohol-copolymer specimens of different TC (10-50 %, and 100 %) were injected in an aortic phantom bearing a stent graft and endoleak cavities with simulated re-perfusion. Fluoroscopic visibility of the ethylene-vinyl-alcohol-copolymer specimens was analyzed. In addition, six radiologists analyzed endoleak visibility, and artefact intensity of ethylene-vinyl-alcohol-copolymer in CT. Reduction of TC significantly decreased CT artefact intensity of ethylene-vinyl-alcohol-copolymer and increased visibility of endoleak re-perfusion (p < 0.000). It also significantly decreased fluoroscopic visibility of ethylene-vinyl-alcohol-copolymer (R = 0.883, p ≤ 0.01), and increased the active embolic volumes prior to visualization (Δ ≥ 40 μl). Ethylene-vinyl-alcohol-copolymer specimens with a TC of 45-50 % exhibited reasonable visibility, a low active embolic volume and a tolerable CT artefact intensity. The developed aortic stent graft phantom allows for a reproducible simulation of embolization of endoleaks. The data suggest a reduction of the TC of ethylene-vinyl-alcohol-copolymer to 45 -50 % of the original, to interfere less with diagnostic imaging in follow-up CT examinations, while still allowing for fluoroscopic visualization. (orig.)

  20. Assessing environmental vulnerability in EIA-The content and context of the vulnerability concept in an alternative approach to standard EIA procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvaerner, Jens; Swensen, Grete; Erikstad, Lars


    In the traditional EIA procedure environmental vulnerability is only considered to a minor extent in the early stages when project alternatives are worked out. In Norway, an alternative approach to EIA, an integrated vulnerability model (IVM), emphasising environmental vulnerability and alternatives development in the early stages of EIA, has been tried out in a few pilot cases. This paper examines the content and use of the vulnerability concept in the IVM approach, and discusses the concept in an EIA context. The vulnerability concept is best suited to overview analyses and large scale spatial considerations. The concept is particularly useful in the early stages of EIA when alternatives are designed and screened. By introducing analyses of environmental vulnerability at the start of the EIA process, the environment can be a more decisive issue for the creation of project alternatives as well as improving the basis for scoping. Vulnerability and value aspects should be considered as separate dimensions. There is a need to operate with a specification between general and specific vulnerability. The concept of environmental vulnerability has proven useful in a wide range of disciplines. Different disciplines have different lengths of experience regarding vulnerability. In disciplines such as landscape planning and hydrogeology we find elements suitable as cornerstones in the further development of an interdisciplinary methodology. Further development of vulnerability criteria in different disciplines and increased public involvement in the early stages of EIA are recommended