Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of students. The…
Tyagi, Tarun Kumar
The relationship between mathematical creativity (MC) and mathematical problem-solving performance (MP) has often been studied but the causal relation between these two constructs has yet to be clearly reported. The main purpose of this study was to define the causal relationship between MC and MP. Data from a representative sample of 480…
de Guzman, Niño Jose P.; Belecina, Rene R.
The teaching of mathematics involves problem solving skills which prove to be difficult on the part of the pupils due to misrepresentation of the word problems. Oftentimes, pupils tend to represent the phrase "more than" as addition and the word difference as "- ". This paper aims to address the problem solving skills of grade…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a quantitative model of problem solving performance of students in the computer-based mathematics learning environment. Design/methodology/approach: Regularized logistic regression was used to create a quantitative model of problem solving performance of students that predicts whether students can…
Dhlamini, Joseph J.
This paper reports on a pilot study that investigated the effect of implementing a context-based problem solving instruction (CBPSI) to enhance the problem solving performance of high school mathematics learners. Primarily, the pilot study aimed: (1) to evaluate the efficiency of data collection instruments; and, (2) to test the efficacy of CBPSI…
Lein, Amy E.; Jitendra, Asha K.; Starosta, Kristin M.; Dupuis, Danielle N.; Hughes-Reid, Cheyenne L.; Star, Jon R.
In this study, the authors assessed the contribution of engagement (on-task behavior) to the mathematics problem-solving performance of seventh-grade students after accounting for prior mathematics achievement. A subsample of seventh-grade students in four mathematics classrooms (one high-, two average-, and one low-achieving) from a larger…
Harskamp, EG; Suhre, CJM
Mathematics teachers often experience difficulties in teaching students to become skilled problem solvers. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of two interactive computer programs for high school mathematics problem solving. Both programs present students with problems accompanied by instruction
Research on cognitive aspects of mathematical problem solving has made great progress in recent years, but the relationship of affective factors to problem-solving performance has been a neglected research area. The purpose of Affect and Mathematical Problem Solving: A New Perspective is to show how the theories and methods of cognitive science can be extended to include the role of affect in mathematical problem solving. The book presents Mandler's theory of emotion and explores its implications for the learning and teaching of mathematical problem solving. Also, leading researchers from mathematics, education, and psychology report how they have integrated affect into their own cognitive research. The studies focus on metacognitive processes, aesthetic influences on expert problem solvers, teacher decision-making, technology and teaching problem solving, and beliefs about mathematics. The results suggest how emotional factors like anxiety, frustration, joy, and satisfaction can help or hinder performance in...
Historically, many of the most important mathematical concepts arose from problems that were recreational in origin. This book takes advantage of that fact, using recreational mathematics - problems, puzzles and games - to teach students how to think critically. Encouraging active participation rather than just observation, the book focuses less on mathematical results than on how these results can be applied to thinking about problems and solving them. Each chapter contains a diverse array of problems in such areas as logic, number and graph theory, two-player games of strategy, solitaire ga
Peltier, Corey; Vannest, Kimberly J.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of schema instruction on the mathematical problem solving of students with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD). The participants were two fourth-grade students identified with EBD. The intervention package consisted of schema instruction, strategy instruction on problem-solving heuristics…
García Fernández, Trinidad; Kroesbergen, Evelyn; Rodríguez Pérez, Celestino; González-Castro, Paloma; González-Pienda, Julio A
This study examines the impact of executive functions, affective-motivational variables related to mathematics, mathematics achievement and task characteristics on fifth and sixth graders’ calibration accuracy after completing two mathematical problems. A sample of 188 students took part in the study. They were divided into two groups as function of their judgment accuracy after completing the two tasks (accurate= 79, inaccurate= 109). Differences between these groups were examined. The discriminative value of these variables to predict group membership was analyzed, as well as the effect of age, gender, and grade level. The results indicated that accurate students showed better levels of executive functioning, and more positive feelings, beliefs, and motivation related to mathematics. They also spent more time on the tasks. Mathematics achievement, perceived usefulness of mathematics, and time spent on Task 1 significantly predicted group membership, classifying 71.3% of the sample correctly. These results support the relationship between academic achievement and calibration accuracy, suggesting the need to consider a wide range of factors when explaining performance judgments.
Haghverdi, Majid; Wiest, Lynda R.
This study shows how separate and combined contextual and conceptual problem rewording can positively influence student performance in solving mathematical word problems. Participants included 80 seventh-grade Iranian students randomly assigned in groups of 20 to three experimental groups involving three types of rewording and a control group. All…
Full Text Available The article begins with a brief overview of the situation throughout the world regarding problem solving. The activities of the ProMath group are then described, as the purpose of this international research group is to improve mathematics teaching in school. One mathematics teaching method that seems to be functioning in school is the use of open problems (i.e., problem fields. Next we discuss the objectives of the Finnish curriculum that are connected with problem solving. Some examples and research results are taken from a Finnish–Chilean research project that monitors the development of problem-solving skills in third grade pupils. Finally, some ideas on “teacher change” are put forward. It is not possible to change teachers, but only to provide hints for possible change routes: the teachers themselves should work out the ideas and their implementation.
DeCaro, Marci S; Rotar, Kristin E; Kendra, Matthew S; Beilock, Sian L
High-pressure academic testing situations can lead people to perform below their actual ability levels by co-opting working memory (WM) resources needed for the task at hand (Beilock, 2008). In the current work we examine how performance pressure impacts WM and design an intervention to alleviate pressure's negative impact. Specifically, we explore the hypothesis that high-pressure situations trigger distracting thoughts and worries that rely heavily on verbal WM. Individuals performed verbally based and spatially based mathematics problems in a low-pressure or high-pressure testing situation. Results demonstrated that performance on problems that rely heavily on verbal WM resources was less accurate under high-pressure than under low-pressure tests. Performance on spatially based problems that do not rely heavily on verbal WM was not affected by pressure. Moreover, the more people reported worrying during test performance, the worse they performed on the verbally based (but not spatially based) maths problems. Asking some individuals to focus on the problem steps by talking aloud helped to keep pressure-induced worries at bay and eliminated pressure's negative impact on performance.
Full Text Available Three forms of mathematics education at school level are distinguished: direct expository teaching with an emphasis on procedures, with the expectation that learners will at some later stage make logical and functional sense of what they have learnt and practised (the prevalent form, mathematically rigorous teaching in terms of fundamental mathematical concepts, as in the so-called “modern mathematics” programmes of the sixties, teaching and learning in the context of engaging with meaningful problems and focused both on learning to become good problem solvers (teaching for problem solving andutilising problems as vehicles for the development of mathematical knowledge andproﬁciency by learners (problem-centred learning, in conjunction with substantialteacher-led social interaction and mathematical discourse in classrooms.Direct expository teaching of mathematical procedures dominated in school systems after World War II, and was augmented by the “modern mathematics” movement in the period 1960-1970. The latter was experienced as a major failure, and was soon abandoned. Persistent poor outcomes of direct expository procedural teaching of mathematics for the majority of learners, as are still being experienced in South Africa, triggered a world-wide movement promoting teaching mathematics for and via problem solving in the seventies and eighties of the previous century. This movement took the form of a variety of curriculum experiments in which problem solving was the dominant classroom activity, mainly in the USA, Netherlands, France and South Africa. While initially focusing on basic arithmetic (computation with whole numbers and elementary calculus, the problem-solving movement started to address other mathematical topics (for example, elementary statistics, algebra, differential equations around the turn of the century. The movement also spread rapidly to other countries, including Japan, Singapore and Australia. Parallel with the
García, Trinidad; Rodríguez, Celestino; González-Castro, Paloma; González-Pienda, Julio Antonio; Torrance, Mark
Calibration, or the correspondence between perceived performance and actual performance, is linked to students' metacognitive and self-regulatory skills. Making students more aware of the quality of their performance is important in elementary school settings, and more so when math problems are involved. However, many students seem to be poorly…
Craig, Tracy S.
Mathematical problem-solving is notoriously difficult to teach in a standard university mathematics classroom. The project on which this article reports aimed to investigate the effect of the writing of explanatory strategies in the context of mathematical problem solving on problem-solving behaviour. This article serves to describe the…
Bernardo, Allan B I
Does using a bilingual's 1st or 2nd language have an effect on problem solving in semantically rich domains like school mathematics? The author conducted a study to determine whether Filipino-English bilingual students' understanding and solving of word problems in arithmetic differed when the problems were in the students' 1st and 2nd languages. Two groups participated-students whose 1st language was Filipino and students whose 1st language was English-and easy and difficult arithmetic problems were used. The author used a recall paradigm to assess how students understood the word problems and coded the solution accuracy to assess problem solving. The results indicated a 1st-language advantage; that is, the students were better able to understand and solve problems in their 1st language, whether the 1st language was English or Filipino. Moreover, the advantage was more marked with the easy problems. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.
The relation between Lakatos' theory and issues in mathematics education, especially mathematical problem solving, is investigated by examining Lakatos' methodology of a scientific research program. (AIM)
Mathematically promising students are defined as those who have the potential to become the leaders and problem solvers of the future. The purpose of this research is to reveal what problem solving abilities mathematically promising students show in solving non-routine problems and type of profiles they present in the classroom and during problem…
This paper reviews the presentation of problem solving and process aspects of mathematics in curriculum documents from Australia, UK, USA and Singapore. The place of problem solving in the documents is reviewed and contrasted, and illustrative problems from teachers' support materials are used to demonstrate how problem solving is now more often…
Zhou, Xinlin; Li, Mengyi; Li, Leinian; Zhang, Yiyun; Cui, Jiaxin; Liu, Jie; Chen, Chuansheng
Numerous studies have shown that the brain regions around bilateral intraparietal cortex are critical for number processing and arithmetical computation. However, the neural circuits for more advanced mathematics such as mathematical problem solving (with little routine arithmetical computation) remain unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study (N = 24 undergraduate students) compared neural bases of mathematical problem solving (i.e., number series completion, mathematical word problem solving, and geometric problem solving) and arithmetical computation. Direct subject- and item-wise comparisons revealed that mathematical problem solving typically had greater activation than arithmetical computation in all 7 regions of the semantic system (which was based on a meta-analysis of 120 functional neuroimaging studies on semantic processing). Arithmetical computation typically had greater activation in the supplementary motor area and left precentral gyrus. The results suggest that the semantic system in the brain supports mathematical problem solving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A student is engaged in (non-routine) problem solving when there is no clear pathway to the solution. In contrast to routine problems, non-routine ones cannot be solved through the direct application of a standard procedure. Consider the following problem: In a quiz you get two points for each
Bostic, Jonathan D.; Pape, Stephen J.; Jacobbe, Tim
This teaching experiment provided students with continuous engagement in a problem-solving based instructional approach during one mathematics unit. Three sections of sixth-grade mathematics were sampled from a school in Florida, U.S.A. and one section was randomly assigned to experience teaching through problem solving. Students' problem-solving…
Bahar, Abdulkadir; Maker, C. June
Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of elementary…
Herdiana, Yunita; Wahyudin, Sispiyati, Ririn
This research is aimed to describe the effectiveness of discovery learning model on mathematical problem solving. This research investigate the students' problem solving competency before and after learned by using discovery learning model. The population used in this research was student in grade VII in one of junior high school in West Bandung Regency. From nine classes, class VII B were randomly selected as the sample of experiment class, and class VII C as control class, which consist of 35 students every class. The method in this research was quasi experiment. The instrument in this research is pre-test, worksheet and post-test about problem solving of mathematics. Based on the research, it can be conclude that the qualification of problem solving competency of students who gets discovery learning model on level 80%, including in medium category and it show that discovery learning model effective to improve mathematical problem solving.
Mathematics education and assessments increasingly involve arithmetic problems presented in context: a realistic situation that requires mathematical modeling. This study assessed the effects of such typical school mathematics contexts on two aspects of problem solving: performance and strategy use.
Devine, Matthew T.
In mathematical problem solving, American students are falling behind their global peers because of a lack of foundational and reasoning skills. A specific area of difficulty with problem solving is working non-routine, heuristic-based problems. Many students are not provided with effective instruction and often grow frustrated and dislike math.…
McMaster, Kirby; Sambasivam, Samuel; Blake, Ashley
In this research, we examine how problem solving frameworks differ between Mathematics and Software Development. Our methodology is based on the assumption that the words used frequently in a book indicate the mental framework of the author. We compared word frequencies in a sample of 139 books that discuss problem solving. The books were grouped…
Have you ever faced a mathematical problem and had no idea how to approach it? Or perhaps you had an idea but got stuck halfway through? This book guides you in developing your creativity, as it takes you on a voyage of discovery into mathematics. Readers will not only learn strategies for solving problems and logical reasoning, but they will also learn about the importance of proofs and various proof techniques. Other topics covered include recursion, mathematical induction, graphs, counting, elementary number theory, and the pigeonhole, extremal and invariance principles. Designed to help students make the transition from secondary school to university level, this book provides readers with a refreshing look at mathematics and deep insights into universal principles that are valuable far beyond the scope of this book. Aimed especially at undergraduate and secondary school students as well as teachers, this book will appeal to anyone interested in mathematics. Only basic secondary school mathematics is requi...
mathematical concepts, but more recent studies (e.g., Gelman & Gallistel , 1978) indicate that significant understanding of those concepts should be...Beranek, & Newman, 1980. Gelman, R., & Gallistel , C. R. The child’s understanding of number. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978. 43 Greeno
Robotic toys present unique opportunities for teachers of young children to integrate mathematics learning with engaging problem-solving tasks. This article describes a series of tasks using Bee-bots and Pro-bots, developed as part a larger project examining young children's use of robotic toys as tools in developing mathematical and metacognitive…
Joseph J. Dhlamini
Full Text Available This paper reports on a pilot study that investigated the effect of implementing a context-based problem solving instruction (CBPSI to enhance the problem solving performance of high school mathematics learners. Primarily, the pilot study aimed: (1 to evaluate the efficiency of data collection instruments; and, (2 to test the efficacy of CBPSI in relation to learners’ problem solving performance. In this paper CBPSI refers to a teaching approach in which everyday problem solving knowledge and practices are uncovered when learners are exposed to tasks that give meaning to their everyday experiences. Given that the design of a pilot study lacked the inclusion of a control group, it is reasonable to conclude that the current design embraced elements of a pre-experimental research approach in which a one-group pre-test post-test design was followed. Participants consisted of a convenient sample of 57 Grade 10 learners who performed poorly in mathematics problem solving. The results of the study informed various conceptual and methodological revisions to strengthen the design of the main study, however, this paper reports only the effect of CBPSI on participants’ problem solving performance. The post-intervention achievement test suggested that CBPSI was effective in substantially accelerating learners’ problem solving performance (p<0.05. Using a cognitive load theory, it is possible to explain aspects of growth in learners’ problem solving performance in relation to the conceptual notion of human cognitive architecture.
Dina, N. A.; Amin, S. M.; Masriyah
Flexibility is an ability which is needed in problem solving. One of the ways in problem solving is influenced by Adversity Quotient (AQ). AQ is the power of facing difficulties. There are three categories of AQ namely climber, camper, and quitter. This research is a descriptive research using qualitative approach. The aim of this research is to describe flexibility in mathematics problem solving based on Adversity Quotient. The subjects of this research are climber student, camper student, and quitter student. This research was started by giving Adversity Response Profile (ARP) questioner continued by giving problem solving task and interviews. The validity of data measurement was using time triangulation. The results of this research shows that climber student uses two strategies in solving problem and doesn’t have difficulty. The camper student uses two strategies in solving problem but has difficulty to finish the second strategies. The quitter student uses one strategy in solving problem and has difficulty to finish it.
Widodo, S. A.; Darhim; Ikhwanudin, T.
The purpose of this article was to find out the enhancement of students’ mathematical problem solving by using visual learning media. The ability to solve mathematical problems is the ability possessed by students to solve problems encountered, one of the problem-solving model of Polya. This preliminary study was not to make a model, but it only took a conceptual approach by comparing the various literature of problem-solving skills by linking visual learning media. The results of the study indicated that the use of learning media had not been appropriated so that the ability to solve mathematical problems was not optimal. The inappropriateness of media use was due to the instructional media that was not adapted to the characteristics of the learners. Suggestions that can be given is the need to develop visual media to increase the ability to solve problems.
Mills, Nadia Monrose
The ability to succeed in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) careers is contingent on a student's ability to engage in mathematical problem solving. As a result, there has been increased focus on students' ability to think critically by providing them more with problem solving experiences in the classroom. Much research has…
Evans, Brian R.
It is important for teacher educators to understand new alternative certification middle and high school teachers' mathematical problem solving abilities and perceptions. Teachers in an alternative certification program in New York were enrolled in a proof-based algebra course. At the beginning and end of a semester participants were given a…
Jacobse, Annemieke E.; Harskamp, Egbert G.
Metacognitive monitoring and regulation play an essential role in mathematical problem solving. Therefore, it is important for researchers and practitioners to assess students' metacognition. One proven valid, but time consuming, method to assess metacognition is by using think-aloud protocols.
The aim of this dissertation is to describe the role of educational strategy especially in field of the teaching of mathematics and to compare the mathematical problem solving strategies of primary school pupils which are taught by using different educational strategies. In the theoretical part, the main focus is on divergent educational strategies and their characteristics, next on factors affected teaching/learning process and finally on solving the problems. The empirical part of the disse...
Full Text Available This article looks at writing tasks as a methodology to support learners’ mathematical problemsolving strategies in the South African Foundation Phase context. It is a qualitative case study and explores the relation between the use of writing in mathematics and development of learners’ problem-solving strategies and conceptual understanding. The research was conducted in a suburban Foundation Phase school in Cape Town with a class of Grade 3 learners involved in a writing and mathematics intervention. Writing tasks were modelled to learners and implemented by them while they were engaged in mathematical problem solving. Data were gathered from a sample of eight learners of different abilities and included written work, interviews, field notes and audio recordings of ability group discussions. The results revealed an improvement in the strategies and explanations learners used when solving mathematical problems compared to before the writing tasks were implemented. Learners were able to reflect critically on their thinking through their written strategies and explanations. The writing tasks appeared to support learners in providing opportunities to construct and apply mathematical knowledge and skills in their development of problem-solving strategies.
Hussain, Shakir; Lindh, Jorgen; Shukur, Ghazi
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of one year of regular "LEGO" training on pupils' performances in schools. The underlying pedagogical perspective is the constructivist theory, where the main idea is that knowledge is constructed in the mind of the pupil by active learning. The investigation has been made in two…
Rolando V. Obiedo
Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of contextualized teaching on students’ problem solving skills in physics through a quasi-experimental approach. Problem solving performance of students was described quantitatively through their mean problem solving scores and problem solving skills level. A unit plan patterned from the cognitive apprenticeship approach and contextualized using maritime context of ship stability was implemented on the experimental group while the control group had the conventional lecture method. Pre and post assessment, which is a researcher-developed word problem assessment, was administered to both groups. Results indicated increased problem solving mean scores (p < 0.001, problem solving skill level (p < 0.001 of the experimental group while the control group increased only their problem solving skill level (p = 0.008. Thus, contextualized teaching can improve the problem solving performance of students. This study recommends using contextualization using other physics topics where other contexts can be applied.
Cornick, Jonathan; Guy, G. Michael; Beckford, Ian
Students at a large urban community college enrolled in seven classes of an experimental remedial algebra programme, which integrated study skills instruction and collaborative problem solving. A control group of seven classes was taught in a traditional lecture format without study skills instruction. Student performance in the course was…
Bullock, Audrey N.
Problem solving in mathematics has been a goal for students for decades. In the reviewed literature, problem solving was most often treated as the dependent variable and was defined very broadly; however, few studies were found that included problem solving as a treatment or independent variable. The purpose of this study was to investigate the…
Rizal, M.; Mansyur, J.
The purpose of this study is to obtain a description of the problem-solving behaviour of mathematics education students. The attainment of the purpose consisted of several stages: (1) to gain the subject from the mathematic education of first semester students, each of them who has a high, medium, and low competence of mathematic case. (2) To give two mathematical problems with different characteristics. The first problem (M1), the statement does not lead to a resolution. The second problem (M2), a statement leads to problem-solving. (3) To explore the behaviour of problem-solving based on the step of Polya (Rizal, 2011) by way of thinking aloud and in-depth interviews. The obtained data are analysed as suggested by Miles and Huberman (1994) but at first, time triangulation is done or data’s credibility by providing equivalent problem contexts and at different times. The results show that the behavioral problem solvers (mathematic education students) who are capable of high mathematic competency (ST). In understanding M1, ST is more likely to pay attention to an image first, read the texts piecemeal and repeatedly, then as a whole and more focus to the sentences that contain equations, numbers or symbols. As a result, not all information can be received well. When understanding the M2, ST can link the information from a problem that is stored in the working memory to the information on the long-term memory. ST makes planning to the solution of M1 and M2 by using a formula based on similar experiences which have been ever received before. Another case when implementing the troubleshooting plans, ST complete the M1 according to the plan, but not all can be resolved correctly. In contrast to the implementation of the solving plan of M2, ST can solve the problem according to plan quickly and correctly. According to the solving result of M1 and M2, ST conducts by reading the job based on an algorithm and reasonability. Furthermore, when SS and SR understand the
Nyala, Joseph; Assuah, Charles; Ayebo, Abraham; Tse, Newel
Stakeholders of mathematics education decry the rate at which students' performance are falling below expectation; they call for a shift to practical methods of teaching the subject in Ghanaian basic schools. The study explores the extent to which Ghanaian basic school mathematics teachers use problem-solving approach in their lessons. The…
This research aims to determine the leveling of critical thinking abilities of students of mathematics education in mathematical problem solving. It includes qualitative-explorative study that was conducted at University of PGRI Semarang. The generated data in the form of information obtained problem solving question and interview guides. The…
E Siswono, T. Y.; Kohar, A. W.; Hartono, S.
This study investigates secondary teachers’ belief about the three mathematics-related beliefs, i.e. nature of mathematics, teaching mathematics, learning mathematics, and knowledge about mathematical problem solving. Data were gathered through a set of task-based semi-structured interviews of three selected teachers with different philosophical views of teaching mathematics, i.e. instrumental, platonist, and problem solving. Those teachers were selected from an interview using a belief-related task from purposively selected teachers in Surabaya and Sidoarjo. While the interviews about knowledge examine teachers’ problem solving content and pedagogical knowledge, the interviews about beliefs examine their views on several cases extracted from each of such mathematics-related beliefs. Analysis included the categorization and comparison on each of beliefs and knowledge as well as their interaction. Results indicate that all the teachers did not show a high consistency in responding views of their mathematics-related beliefs, while they showed weaknesses primarily on problem solving content knowledge. Findings also point out that teachers’ beliefs have a strong relationship with teachers’ knowledge about problem solving. In particular, the instrumental teacher’s beliefs were consistent with his insufficient knowledge about problem-solving, while both platonist and problem-solving teacher’s beliefs were consistent with their sufficient knowledge of either content or pedagogical problem solving.
Kool, Marjolein; Keijzer, Ronald
A primary teacher needs mathematical problem solving ability. That is why Dutch student teachers have to show this ability in a nationwide mathematics test that contains many non-routine problems. Most student teachers prepare for this test by working on their own solving test-like problems. To what extent does these individual problem solving activities really contribute to their mathematical problem solving ability? Developing mathematical problem solving ability requires reflective mathema...
Artzt, Alice F.; Armour-Thomas, Eleanor
The roles of cognition and metacognition were examined in the mathematical problem-solving behaviors of students as they worked in small groups. As an outcome, a framework that links the literature of cognitive science and mathematical problem solving was developed for protocol analysis of mathematical problem solving. Within this framework, each…
Chen, Chiu-Jung; Liu, Pei-Lin
This study evaluated the effects of a personalized computer-assisted mathematics problem-solving program on the performance and attitude of Taiwanese fourth grade students. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the personalized computer-assisted program improved student performance and attitude over the nonpersonalized program.…
Full Text Available Mathematics is one of the most objective, logical, and practical academic disciplines. Yet, in addition to cognitive skills, mathematical problem solving also involves affective factors. In the current study, we first investigated effects of mathematics anxiety (MA and mathematical metacognition on word problem solving (WPS. We tested 224 children (116 boys, M = 10.15 years old, SD = 0.56 with the Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Children, the Chinese Revised-edition Questionnaire of Pupil's Metacognitive Ability in Mathematics, and WPS tasks. The results indicated that mathematical metacognition mediated the effect of MA on WPS after controlling for IQ. Second, we divided the children into four mathematics achievement groups including high achieving (HA, typical achieving (TA, low achieving (LA, and mathematical learning difficulty (MLD. Because mathematical metacognition and MA predicted mathematics achievement, we compared group differences in metacognition and MA with IQ partialled out. The results showed that children with MLD scored lower in self-image and higher in learning mathematics anxiety (LMA than the TA and HA children, but not in mathematical evaluation anxiety (MEA. MLD children's LMA was also higher than that of their LA counterparts. These results provide insight into factors that may mediate poor WPS performance which emerges under pressure in mathematics. These results also suggest that the anxiety during learning mathematics should be taken into account in mathematical learning difficulty interventions.
Lai, Yinghui; Zhu, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yinghe; Li, Yanjun
Mathematics is one of the most objective, logical, and practical academic disciplines. Yet, in addition to cognitive skills, mathematical problem solving also involves affective factors. In the current study, we first investigated effects of mathematics anxiety (MA) and mathematical metacognition on word problem solving (WPS). We tested 224 children (116 boys, M = 10.15 years old, SD = 0.56) with the Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Children, the Chinese Revised-edition Questionnaire of Pupil's Metacognitive Ability in Mathematics, and WPS tasks. The results indicated that mathematical metacognition mediated the effect of MA on WPS after controlling for IQ. Second, we divided the children into four mathematics achievement groups including high achieving (HA), typical achieving (TA), low achieving (LA), and mathematical learning difficulty (MLD). Because mathematical metacognition and MA predicted mathematics achievement, we compared group differences in metacognition and MA with IQ partialled out. The results showed that children with MLD scored lower in self-image and higher in learning mathematics anxiety (LMA) than the TA and HA children, but not in mathematical evaluation anxiety (MEA). MLD children's LMA was also higher than that of their LA counterparts. These results provide insight into factors that may mediate poor WPS performance which emerges under pressure in mathematics. These results also suggest that the anxiety during learning mathematics should be taken into account in mathematical learning difficulty interventions.
Lai, Yinghui; Zhu, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yinghe; Li, Yanjun
Mathematics is one of the most objective, logical, and practical academic disciplines. Yet, in addition to cognitive skills, mathematical problem solving also involves affective factors. In the current study, we first investigated effects of mathematics anxiety (MA) and mathematical metacognition on word problem solving (WPS). We tested 224 children (116 boys, M = 10.15 years old, SD = 0.56) with the Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Children, the Chinese Revised-edition Questionnaire of Pupil’s Metacognitive Ability in Mathematics, and WPS tasks. The results indicated that mathematical metacognition mediated the effect of MA on WPS after controlling for IQ. Second, we divided the children into four mathematics achievement groups including high achieving (HA), typical achieving (TA), low achieving (LA), and mathematical learning difficulty (MLD). Because mathematical metacognition and MA predicted mathematics achievement, we compared group differences in metacognition and MA with IQ partialled out. The results showed that children with MLD scored lower in self-image and higher in learning mathematics anxiety (LMA) than the TA and HA children, but not in mathematical evaluation anxiety (MEA). MLD children’s LMA was also higher than that of their LA counterparts. These results provide insight into factors that may mediate poor WPS performance which emerges under pressure in mathematics. These results also suggest that the anxiety during learning mathematics should be taken into account in mathematical learning difficulty interventions. PMID:26090806
Jagals, Divan; van der Walt, Marthie
Metacognition encompasses knowledge and regulation that, through reflection, sustain problem solving behaviour. How metacognitive awareness is constructed from reflection on metacognitive knowledge and regulation and how these reflections enable metacognitive skills for Mathematics problem solving remain unclear. Three secondary schools…
Yuli Eko Siswono, Tatag; Wachidul Kohar, Ahmad; Kurniasari, Ika; Puji Astuti, Yuliani
Weaknesses on problem solving of Indonesian students as reported by recent international surveys give rise to questions on how Indonesian teachers bring out idea of problem solving in mathematics lesson. An explorative study was undertaken to investigate how secondary teachers who teach mathematics at junior high school level understand and show belief toward mathematical problem solving. Participants were teachers from four cities in East Java province comprising 45 state teachers and 25 private teachers. Data was obtained through questionnaires and written test. The results of this study point out that the teachers understand pedagogical problem solving knowledge well as indicated by high score of observed teachers‘ responses showing understanding on problem solving as instruction as well as implementation of problem solving in teaching practice. However, they less understand on problem solving content knowledge such as problem solving strategies and meaning of problem itself. Regarding teacher's difficulties, teachers admitted to most frequently fail in (1) determining a precise mathematical model or strategies when carrying out problem solving steps which is supported by data of test result that revealed transformation error as the most frequently observed errors in teachers’ work and (2) choosing suitable real situation when designing context-based problem solving task. Meanwhile, analysis of teacher's beliefs on problem solving shows that teachers tend to view both mathematics and how students should learn mathematics as body static perspective, while they tend to believe to apply idea of problem solving as dynamic approach when teaching mathematics.
Fatigue resulting from sleep deficit can lead to decreased performance in a variety of cognitive domains and can result in potentially serious accidents. The present study aimed to test whether fatigue leads to increased Einstellung (low levels of cognitive flexibility) in a series of mathematical problem-solving tasks. Many situations involving…
Matteson, Shirley; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.
Twenty middle grades students were interviewed to gain insights into their reasoning about problem-solving strategies using a Problem Solving Justification Scheme as our theoretical lens and the basis for our analysis. The scheme was modified from the work of Harel and Sowder (1998) making it more broadly applicable and accounting for research…
Full Text Available The problem in this research is to know how the process of developing mathematics physics instructional book based on inquiry approach and its supporting documents to improve students' mathematical problem-solving ability. The purpose of this research is to provide mathematical physics instruction based on inquiry approach and its supporting documents (semester learning activity plan, lesson plan and mathematical problem-solving test to improve students' mathematical problem-solving ability. The development of textbook refers to the ADDIE model, including analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. The validation result from the expert team shows that the textbook and its supporting documents are valid. The test results of the mathematical problem-solving skills show that all test questions are valid and reliable. The result of the incorporation of the textbook in teaching and learning process revealed that students' mathematical problem-solving ability using mathematical physics instruction based on inquiry approach book was better than the students who use the regular book.
Lein, Amy E.; Jitendra, Asha K.; Starosta, Kristin M.; Dupuis, Danielle N.; Hughes-Reid, Cheyenne L.; Star, John R.
In this study, the authors assessed the contribution of engagement (on-task behavior) to the mathematics problem-solving performance of seventh-grade students after accounting for prior mathematics achievement. A subsample of seventh-grade students in four mathematics classrooms (one high-, two average-, and one low-achieving) from a larger…
Peltier, Corey; Vannest, Kimberly J.
The current study examines the effects of schema instruction on the problem-solving performance of four second-grade students with emotional and behavioral disorders. The existence of a functional relationship between the schema instruction intervention and problem-solving accuracy in mathematics is examined through a single case experiment using…
Kaplan, Rochelle G.; Patino, Rodrigo A.
Many mainstreamed students with limited English proficiency continue to face the difficulty of learning English as a second language (ESL) while studying mathematics and other content areas framed in the language of native speakers. The difficulty these students often encounter in mathematics classes and their poor performance on subsequent…
Full Text Available This study assessed the effectiveness of an online mathematical problem solving course designed using a social constructivist approach for pre-service teachers. Thirty-seven pre-service teachers at the Batu Lintang Teacher Institute, Sarawak, Malaysia were randomly selected to participate in the study. The participants were required to complete the course online without the typical face-to-face classes and they were also required to solve authentic mathematical problems in small groups of 4-5 participants based on the Polya’s Problem Solving Model via asynchronous online discussions. Quantitative and qualitative methods such as questionnaires and interviews were used to evaluate the effects of the online learning course. Findings showed that a majority of the participants were satisfied with their learning experiences in the course. There were no significant changes in the participants’ attitudes toward mathematics, while the participants’ skills in problem solving for “understand the problem” and “devise a plan” steps based on the Polya Model were significantly enhanced, though no improvement was apparent for “carry out the plan” and “review”. The results also showed that there were significant improvements in the participants’ critical thinking skills. Furthermore, participants with higher initial computer skills were also found to show higher performance in mathematical problem solving as compared to those with lower computer skills. However, there were no significant differences in the participants’ achievements in the course based on gender. Generally, the online social constructivist mathematical problem solving course is beneficial to the participants and ought to be given the attention it deserves as an alternative to traditional classes. Nonetheless, careful considerations need to be made in the designing and implementing of online courses to minimize problems that participants might encounter while
This article discusses an issue of inserting mathematical knowledge within the problem-solving processes. Relatively advanced mathematical knowledge is defined in terms of "three mathematical worlds"; relatively advanced problem-solving behaviours are defined in terms of taxonomies of "proof schemes" and "heuristic behaviours". The relationships…
Roheni; Herman, T.; Jupri, A.
This study investigates the skills of elementary school students’ in problem solving through the Scientific Approach. The purpose of this study is to determine mathematical problem solving skills of students by using Scientific Approach is better than mathematical problem solving skills of students by using Direct Instruction. This study is using quasi-experimental method. Subject of this study is students in grade V in one of state elementary school in Cirebon Regency. Instrument that used in this study is mathematical problem solving skills. The result of this study showed that mathematical problem solving skills of students who learn by using Scientific Approach is more significant than using Direct Instruction. Base on result and analysis, the conclusion is that Scientific Approach can improve students’ mathematical problem solving skills.
Nasution, M. L.; Yerizon, Y.; Gusmiyanti, R.
One of the purpose mathematic learning is to develop problem solving abilities. Problem solving is obtained through experience in questioning non-routine. Improving students’ mathematical problem-solving abilities required an appropriate strategy in learning activities one of them is models problem based learning (PBL). Thus, the purpose of this research is to determine whether the problem solving abilities of mathematical students’ who learn to use PBL better than on the ability of students’ mathematical problem solving by applying conventional learning. This research included quasi experiment with static group design and population is students class XI MIA SMAN 1 Lubuk Alung. Class experiment in the class XI MIA 5 and class control in the class XI MIA 6. The instrument of final test students’ mathematical problem solving used essay form. The result of data final test in analyzed with t-test. The result is students’ mathematical problem solving abilities with PBL better then on the ability of students’ mathematical problem solving by applying conventional learning. It’s seen from the high percentage achieved by the group of students who learn to use PBL for each indicator of students’ mathematical problem solving.
Full Text Available The paper describes one of the ways of developing pupils’ creative approach to problem solving. The described experiment is a part of a longitudinal research focusing on improvement of culture of problem solving by pupils. It deals with solving of problems using the following heuristic strategies: Analogy, Guess – check – revise, Systematic experimentation, Problem reformulation, Solution drawing, Way back and Use of graphs of functions. Most attention is paid to the question whether short-term work, in this case only over the period of three months, can result in improvement of pupils’ abilities to solve problems whose solving algorithms are easily accessible. It also answers the question which strategies pupils will prefer and with what results. The experiment shows that even short-term work can bear positive results as far as pupils’ approach to problem solving is concerned.
Chu, Yun; MacGregor, James N.
The article provides a review of recent research on insight problem-solving performance. We discuss what insight problems are, the different types of classic and newer insight problems, and how we can classify them. We also explain some of the other aspects that affect insight performance, such as hints, analogs, training, thinking aloud, and…
Patrisius Afrisno Udil; Tri Atmojo Kusmayadi; Riyadi Riyadi
This study aims to find out students’ metacognition process while solving the mathematics problem. It focuses on analyzing the metacognition process of students with high mathematics anxiety based on Polya’s problem solving phases. This study uses qualitative research with case study strategy. The subjects consist of 8 students of 7th grade selected through purposive sampling. Data in the form of Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS) result and recorded interview while solving mathematics problems ...
Full Text Available In history of education, problem solving is one of the important educational goals and teachers or parents have intended that their students have capacity of problem solving. In present research, it is tried that study the problem solving method for mathematical learning. This research is implemented via quasi-experimental method on 49 boy students at high school. The results of Leven test and T-test indicated that problem solving method has more effective on the improvement of mathematical learning than traditional instruction method. Therefore it seems that teachers of mathematics must apply the problem solving method in educational systems till students became self-efficiency in mathematical problem solving.
Emil C. Alcantara
Full Text Available The study aimed to assess the academic performance, critical thinking skills, and problem solving skills in mathematics of Grade-7 students in the five central public secondary schools of Area 2, Division of Batangas, Philippines. This study utilized descriptive method of research. Three hundred forty one (341 students of the public secondary schools out of the total of 2,324 Grade-7 students were selected through systematic random sampling as the subjects of the study. It was found out that the level of performance in Mathematics of the Grade-7 students is proficient. The level of critical thinking skills of students from the different schools is above average as well as their level of problem solving skills. The mathematics performance of the students is positively correlated to their level of critical thinking skills and problem solving skills. Students considered the following learning competencies in the different content areas of Grade-7 Mathematics as difficult to master: solving problems involving sets, describing the development of measurement from the primitive to the present international system of units, finding a solution of an equation or inequality involving one variable, using compass and straightedge to bisect line segments and angles, and analyzing, interpreting accurately and drawing conclusions from graphic and tabular presentations of statistical data.
Rusyda, N. A.; Kusnandi, K.; Suhendra, S.
The purpose of this research is to analyze of mathematical problem solving ability of students in one of secondary school on geometry. This research was conducted by using quantitative approach with descriptive method. Population in this research was all students of that school and the sample was twenty five students that was chosen by purposive sampling technique. Data of mathematical problem solving were collected through essay test. The results showed the percentage of achievement of mathematical problem solving indicators of students were: 1) solve closed mathematical problems with context in math was 50%; 2) solve the closed mathematical problems with the context beyond mathematics was 24%; 3) solving open mathematical problems with contexts in mathematics was 35%; And 4) solving open mathematical problems with contexts outside mathematics was 44%. Based on the percentage, it can be concluded that the level of achievement of mathematical problem solving ability in geometry still low. This is because students are not used to solving problems that measure mathematical problem solving ability, weaknesses remember previous knowledge, and lack of problem solving framework. So the students’ ability of mathematical problems solving need to be improved with implement appropriate learning strategy.
Mayfield, Kristin H; Chase, Philip N
This study compared three different methods of teaching five basic algebra rules to college students. All methods used the same procedures to teach the rules and included four 50-question review sessions interspersed among the training of the individual rules. The differences among methods involved the kinds of practice provided during the four review sessions. Participants who received cumulative practice answered 50 questions covering a mix of the rules learned prior to each review session. Participants who received a simple review answered 50 questions on one previously trained rule. Participants who received extra practice answered 50 extra questions on the rule they had just learned. Tests administered after each review included new questions for applying each rule (application items) and problems that required novel combinations of the rules (problem-solving items). On the final test, the cumulative group outscored the other groups on application and problem-solving items. In addition, the cumulative group solved the problem-solving items significantly faster than the other groups. These results suggest that cumulative practice of component skills is an effective method of training problem solving.
Participants in this study were asked to report what strategies were most often used in their attempts to foster their students' problem solving abilities. Participants included 70 second through fifth-grade elementary teachers from 42 schools in a large state of the south central region in the U.S. Data analyses of the interviews revealed that…
Problem solving has been a major theme in Japanese mathematics curricula for nearly 50 years. Numerous teacher reference books and lesson plans using problem solving have been published since the 1960s. Government-authorized mathematics textbooks for elementary grades, published by six private companies, have had more and more problem solving over…
Saunders, Alicia F.; Spooner, Fred; Ley Davis, Luann
Mathematical problem solving is necessary in many facets of everyday life, yet little research exists on how to teach students with more severe disabilities higher order mathematics like problem solving. Using a multiple probe across participants design, three middle school students with moderate intellectual disability (ID) were taught to solve…
Kaya, Deniz; Izgiol, Dilek; Kesan, Cenk
The aim was to determine elementary mathematics teacher candidates' problem solving skills and analyze problem solving skills according to various variables. The data were obtained from total 306 different grade teacher candidates receiving education in Department of Elementary Mathematics Education, Buca Faculty of Education, Dokuz Eylul…
Artzt, Alice F.; Armour-Thomas, Eleanor
Uses a "teaching as problem solving" perspective to examine the components of metacognition underlying the instructional practice of seven experienced and seven beginning secondary-school mathematics teachers. Data analysis of observations, lesson plans, videotapes, and audiotapes of structured interviews suggests that the metacognition of…
Handayani, I.; Januar, R. L.; Purwanto, S. E.
This research aims to know the influence of Missouri Mathematics Project Learning Model to Mathematical Problem-solving Ability of Students at Junior High School. This research is a quantitative research and uses experimental research method of Quasi Experimental Design. The research population includes all student of grade VII of Junior High School who are enrolled in the even semester of the academic year 2016/2017. The Sample studied are 76 students from experimental and control groups. The sampling technique being used is cluster sampling method. The instrument is consisted of 7 essay questions whose validity, reliability, difficulty level and discriminating power have been tested. Before analyzing the data by using t-test, the data has fulfilled the requirement for normality and homogeneity. The result of data shows that there is the influence of Missouri mathematics project learning model to mathematical problem-solving ability of students at junior high school with medium effect.
Jensen, Jens Højgaard; Niss, Martin; Jankvist, Uffe Thomas
The article addresses the problématique of where mathematization is taught in the educational system, and who teaches it. Mathematization is usually not a part of mathematics programs at the upper secondary level, but we argue that physics teaching has something to offer in this respect, if it fo......The article addresses the problématique of where mathematization is taught in the educational system, and who teaches it. Mathematization is usually not a part of mathematics programs at the upper secondary level, but we argue that physics teaching has something to offer in this respect...
Laird, Brian K; Bailey, Charles D; Hester, Kim
While effective and efficient solving of everyday problems is important in business domains, little is known about the effects of workplace monitoring on problem-solving performance. In a laboratory experiment, we explored the monitoring environment's effects on an individual's propensity to (1) establish pattern solutions to problems, (2) recognize when pattern solutions are no longer efficient, and (3) solve complex problems. Under three work monitoring regimes-no monitoring, human monitoring, and electronic monitoring-114 participants solved puzzles for monetary rewards. Based on research related to worker autonomy and theory of social facilitation, we hypothesized that monitored (versus non-monitored) participants would (1) have more difficulty finding a pattern solution, (2) more often fail to recognize when the pattern solution is no longer efficient, and (3) solve fewer complex problems. Our results support the first two hypotheses, but in complex problem solving, an interaction was found between self-assessed ability and the monitoring environment.
Swanson, H. Lee
The role of working memory (WM) in children's growth in mathematical problem solving was examined in a longitudinal study of children (N = 127). A battery of tests was administered that assessed problem solving, achievement, WM, and cognitive processing (inhibition, speed, phonological coding) in Grade 1 children, with follow-up testing in Grades…
Artzt, Alice F.; Armour-Thomas, Eleanor
The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the problem-solving behaviors and perceptions of (n=27) seventh-grade students as they worked on solving a mathematical problem within a small-group setting. An assessment system was developed that allowed for this analysis. To assess problem-solving behaviors within a small group a Group…
Lazakidou, G.; Paraskeva, F.; Retalis, S.
Three phases of development of self-regulatory skill in the domain of mathematical problem solving were designed to examine students' behaviour and the effects on their problem solving ability. Forty-eight Grade 4 students (10 year olds) participated in this pilot study. The students were randomly assigned to one of three groups, each representing…
Shaanan, Rachel Mogilevsky; Gordon, Moshe Stupel
The study presents an introductory idea of using mathematical averages as a tool for enriching mathematical problem solving. Throughout students' activities, a research was conducted on their ability to solve mathematical problems, and how to cope with a variety of mathematical tasks, in a variety of ways, using the skills, tools and experiences…
ÖÇAL, Mehmet Fatih; ŞİMŞEK, Mertkan
Problem solving skill is the core of mathematics education and its importance cannot be denied. This study specifically examined 56 freshmen pre-service mathematics teachers’ problem solving processes on a specific problem with the help of Geometer’s Sketchpad (GSP). They were grouped into two-person teams to solve a problem called "the mirror problem". They were expected to solve it by means of GSP. According to their works on GSP and related reflections, there appeared two differe...
Hull, Michael M.; Kuo, Eric; Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew
Much research in engineering and physics education has focused on improving students’ problem-solving skills. This research has led to the development of step-by-step problem-solving strategies and grading rubrics to assess a student’s expertise in solving problems using these strategies. These rubrics value “communication” between the student’s qualitative description of the physical situation and the student’s formal mathematical descriptions (usually equations) at two points: when initially setting up the equations, and when evaluating the final mathematical answer for meaning and plausibility. We argue that (i) neither the rubrics nor the associated problem-solving strategies explicitly value this kind of communication during mathematical manipulations of the chosen equations, and (ii) such communication is an aspect of problem-solving expertise. To make this argument, we present a case study of two students, Alex and Pat, solving the same kinematics problem in clinical interviews. We argue that Pat’s solution, which connects manipulation of equations to their physical interpretation, is more expertlike than Alex’s solution, which uses equations more algorithmically. We then show that the types of problem-solving rubrics currently available do not discriminate between these two types of solutions. We conclude that problem-solving rubrics should be revised or repurposed to more accurately assess problem-solving expertise.
Morgan, B. B., Jr.; Alluisi, E. A.
The acquisition of skill in the performance of a three-phase code transformation task (3P-COTRAN) was studied with 20 subjects who solved 27 3P-COTRAN problems during each of 8 successive sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the changes in the 3P-COTRAN factor structure resulting from practice, the distribution of practice-related gains in performance over the nine measures of the five 3P-COTRAN factors, and the effects of transformation complexities on the 3P-COTRAN performance of subjects. A significant performance gain due to practice was observed, with improvements in speed continuing even when accuracy reached asymptotic levels. Transformation complexity showed no effect on early performances but the 3- and 4-element transformations were solved quicker than the 5-element transformation in the problem-solving Phase III of later skilled performances.
Mathematics curriculum designers and policy decision makers are beginning to recognize the importance of problem solving, even at the earliest stages of mathematics learning. The Common Core includes sense making and perseverance in solving problems in its standards for mathematical practice for students at all grade levels. Incorporating problem…
Improving students' problem-solving abilities is a major, if not the major, goal of middle grades mathematics. To address this goal, the author, who is a university mathematics educator, and nine inner-city middle school teachers developed a math/science action research project. This article describes their unique approach to mathematical problem…
Wedelin, Dag; Adawi, Tom; Jahan, Tabassum; Andersson, Sven
How do engineering students approach mathematical modelling problems and how can they learn to deal with such problems? In the context of a course in mathematical modelling and problem solving, and using a qualitative case study approach, we found that the students had little prior experience of mathematical modelling. They were also inexperienced…
Full Text Available The students’ difficulty which was found is in the problem of understanding, drawing diagrams, reading the charts correctly, conceptual formal mathematical understanding, and mathematical problem solving. The appropriate problem representation is the basic way in order to understand the problem itself and make a plan to solve it. This research was the experimental classroom design with a pretest-posttest control in order to increase the representation of visual thinking ability on mathematical problem solving approach with contextual learning. The research instrument was a test, observation and interviews. Contextual approach increases of mathematical representations ability increases in students with high initial category, medium, and low compared to conventional approaches. Keywords: Visual Thinking Representation, Mathematical Problem Solving, Contextual Teaching Learning Approach DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.4.1.568.113-126
Full Text Available The study investigated the effects of two reflection support programs on elementary school mathematics teachers’ pedagogical problem solving view. Sixty-two teachers participated in a professional development program. Thirty teachers were assigned to the self-questioning (S_Q training and thirty two teachers were assigned to the reflection discourse (R_D training. The S_Q program was based on the IMPROVE self-questioning approach which emphasizes systematic discussion along the phases of mathematical or pedagogical problem solving as student and teacher. The R_D program emphasized discussion of standard based teaching and learning principles. Findings indicated that systematic reflection support (S_Q is effective for developing mathematics PCK, and strengthening metacognitive knowledge of mathematics teachers, more than reflection discourse (R_D. No differences were found between the groups in developing beliefs about teaching mathematics in using problem solving view.
Full Text Available In this paper, I report on preservice teachers’ reflections and perceptions on theirproblem-solving process in a technological context. The purpose of the study was to to investigatehow preservice teachers experience working individually in a dynamic geometry environment andhow these experiences affect their own mathematical activity when integrating content (nonroutineproblems and context (technology environment. Careful analysis of participants’ perceptionsregarding their thinking while engaged in problem solving, provided an opportunity to explorehow they explain the emergence of problem solving when working in a dynamic geometryenvironment. The two participants communicated their experience both through the lenses ofthemselves as problem solvers and as future mathematics educators. Moreover, the results of thestudy indicated that problem solving in a technology environment does not necessarily allow focuson decision-making, reflection, and problem solving processes as reported by previous research.
Morin, Lisa L.; Watson, Silvana M. R.; Hester, Peggy; Raver, Sharon
For students with mathematics difficulties (MD), math word problem solving is especially challenging. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a problem-solving strategy, bar model drawing, on the mathematical problem-solving skills of students with MD. The study extended previous research that suggested that schematic-based…
This paper replicates and extends my earlier work on productive failure in mathematical problem solving (Kapur, doi:10.1007/s11251-009-9093-x, 2009). One hundred and nine, seventh-grade mathematics students taught by the same teacher from a Singapore school experienced one of three learning designs: (a) traditional lecture and practice (LP), (b)…
Doorman, M.; Drijvers, P.; Dekker, T.; Heuvel-Panhuizen, T. van; Lange, J. de; Wijers, M.
This paper deals with the challenge to establish problem solving as a living domain in mathematics education in The Netherlands. While serious attempts are made to implement a problem-oriented curriculum based on principles of realistic mathematics education with room for modelling and with
Indigenous people of Dayak tribe in Kalimantan, Indonesia have traditionally relied on a system of mutual cooperation called "handep." The cultural context has an influence on students mathematics learning. The "handep" system might be suitable for modern learning situations to develop mathematical problem-solving skill. The…
A major impediment to problem solving in mathematics in the great majority of South African schools is that disadvantaged students from seriously impoverished learning environments are lacking in the necessary informal mathematical knowledge to develop their own strategies for solving non-routine problems. A randomized pretest-posttest control…
Sullivan, Peter; Walker, Nadia; Borcek, Chris; Rennie, Mick
While there is widespread agreement on the importance of incorporating problem solving and reasoning into mathematics classrooms, there is limited specific advice on how this can best happen. This is a report of an aspect of a project that is examining the opportunities and constraints in initiating learning by posing challenging mathematics tasks…
Surya, Edy; Sabandar, Jozua; Kusumah, Yaya S.; Darhim
The students' difficulty which was found is in the problem of understanding, drawing diagrams, reading the charts correctly, conceptual formal mathematical understanding, and mathematical problem solving. The appropriate problem representation is the basic way in order to understand the problem itself and make a plan to solve it. This research was…
Junsay, Merle L.
This is a quasi-experimental study that explored the effects of reflective learning on prospective teachers' conceptual understanding, critical thinking, problem solving, and mathematical communication skills and the relationship of these variables. It involved 60 prospective teachers from two basic mathematics classes of an institution of higher…
Gasco, Javier; Villarroel, Jose-Domingo
Introduction: Motivation is an important factor in the learning of mathematics. Within this area of education, word problem solving is central in most mathematics curricula of Secondary School. The objective of this research is to detect the differences in motivation in terms of the strategies used to solve word problems. Method: It analyzed the…
The aim of the study was to determine mathematics teacher candidates' knowledge about problem solving strategies through problem posing. This qualitative research was conducted with 95 mathematics teacher candidates studying at education faculty of a public university during the first term of the 2015-2016 academic year in Turkey. Problem Posing…
Marjolein Kool; Ronald Keijzer
A primary teacher needs mathematical problem solving ability. That is why Dutch student teachers have to show this ability in a nationwide mathematics test that contains many non-routine problems. Most student teachers prepare for this test by working on their own solving test-like problems. To what
Teachers have used graphic organizers successfully in teaching the writing process. This paper describes graphic organizers and their potential mathematics benefits for both students and teachers, elucidates a specific graphic organizer adaptation for mathematical problem solving, and discusses results using the "four-corners-and-a-diamond"…
Zheng, Xinhua; Swanson, H Lee; Marcoulides, George A
This study determined the working memory (WM) components (executive, phonological loop, and visual-spatial sketchpad) that best predicted mathematical word problem-solving accuracy of elementary school children in Grades 2, 3, and 4 (N=310). A battery of tests was administered to assess problem-solving accuracy, problem-solving processes, WM, reading, and math calculation. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that (a) all three WM components significantly predicted problem-solving accuracy, (b) reading skills and calculation proficiency mediated the predictive effects of the central executive system and the phonological loop on solution accuracy, and (c) academic mediators failed to moderate the relationship between the visual-spatial sketchpad and solution accuracy. The results support the notion that all components of WM play a major role in predicting problem-solving accuracy, but basic skills acquired in specific academic domains (reading and math) can compensate for some of the influence of WM on children's mathematical word problem solving. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oviatt, Sharon L.; Cohen, Adrienne O.
From a theoretical viewpoint, educational interfaces that facilitate communicative actions involving representations central to a domain can maximize students' effort associated with constructing new schemas. In addition, interfaces that minimize working memory demands due to the interface per se, for example by mimicking existing non-digital work practice, can preserve students' attentional focus on their learning task. In this research, we asked the question: What type of interface input capabilities provide best support for science problem solving in both low- and high- performing students? High school students' ability to solve a diverse range of biology problems was compared over longitudinal sessions while they used: (1) hardcopy paper and pencil (2) a digital paper and pen interface (3) pen tablet interface, and (4) graphical tablet interface. Post-test evaluations revealed that time to solve problems, meta-cognitive control, solution correctness, and memory all were significantly enhanced when using the digital pen and paper interface, compared with tablet interfaces. The tangible pen and paper interface also was the only alternative that significantly facilitated skill acquisition in low-performing students. Paradoxically, all students nonetheless believed that the tablet interfaces provided best support for their performance, revealing a lack of self-awareness about how to use computational tools to best advantage. Implications are discussed for how pen interfaces can be optimized for future educational purposes, and for establishing technology fluency curricula to improve students' awareness of the impact of digital tools on their performance.
This research aims to investigate the enhancement of students' mathematical problem solving through teaching with metacognitive scaffolding approach. This research used a quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest control. The subjects were pre-service elementary school teachers in a state university in Bandung. In this study, there were two groups: experimental and control groups. The experimental group consists of 60 studentswho acquire teaching mathematicsunder metacognitive scaffolding approach, while the control group consists of 58 studentswho acquire teaching mathematicsunder direct approach. Students were classified into three categories based on the mathematical prior ability, namely high, middle, and low. Data collection instruments consist of mathematical problem solving test instruments. By usingmean difference test, two conclusions of the research:(1) there is a significant difference in the enhancement of mathematical problem solving between the students who attended the course under metacognitive scaffolding approach and students who attended the course under direct approach, and(2) thereis no significant interaction effect of teaching approaches and ability level based on the mathematical prior ability toward enhancement of students' mathematical problem solving.
Mulyono; Hadiyanti, R.
Problem-solving is the primary purpose of the mathematics curriculum. Problem-solving abilities influenced beliefs and metacognition. Metacognition as superordinate capabilities can direct, regulate cognition and motivation and then problem-solving processes. This study aims to (1) test and analyzes the quality of problem-based learning and (2) investigate the problem-solving capabilities based on metacognition. This research uses mixed method study with The subject research are class XI students of Mathematics and Science at High School Kesatrian 2 Semarang which divided into tacit use, aware use, strategic use and reflective use level. The collecting data using scale, interviews, and tests. The data processed with the proportion of test, t-test, and paired samples t-test. The result shows that the students with levels tacit use were able to complete the whole matter given, but do not understand what and why a strategy is used. Students with aware use level were able to solve the problem, be able to build new knowledge through problem-solving to the indicators, understand the problem, determine the strategies used, although not right. Students on the Strategic ladder Use can be applied and adopt a wide variety of appropriate strategies to solve the issues and achieved re-examine indicators of process and outcome. The student with reflective use level is not found in this study. Based on the results suggested that study about the identification of metacognition in problem-solving so that the characteristics of each level of metacognition more clearly in a more significant sampling. Teachers need to know in depth about the student metacognitive activity and its relationship with mathematical problem solving and another problem resolution.
Sahendra, A.; Budiarto, M. T.; Fuad, Y.
This descriptive qualitative research aims at investigating student represented in mathematical word problem solving based on self-efficacy. The research subjects are two eighth graders at a school in Surabaya with equal mathematical ability consisting of two female students with high and low self-efficacy. The subjects were chosen based on the results of test of mathematical ability, documentation of the result of middle test in even semester of 2016/2017 academic year, and results of questionnaire of mathematics word problem in terms of self-efficacy scale. The selected students were asked to do mathematical word problem solving and be interviewed. The result of this study shows that students with high self-efficacy tend to use multiple representations of sketches and mathematical models, whereas students with low self-efficacy tend to use single representation of sketches or mathematical models only in mathematical word problem-solving. This study emphasizes that teachers should pay attention of student’s representation as a consideration of designing innovative learning in order to increase the self-efficacy of each student to achieve maximum mathematical achievement although it still requires adjustment to the school situation and condition.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate pre-service elementary mathematics teachers’ open geometric problem solving process in a Dynamic Geometry Environment. With its qualitative inquiry based research design employed, the participants of the study are three pre-service teachers from 4th graders of the Department of Elementary Mathematics Teaching. In this study, clinical interviews, screencaptures of the problem solving process in the Cabri Geomery Environment, and worksheets included 2 open geometry problems have been used to collect the data. It has been investigated that all the participants passed through similar recursive phases as construction, exploration, conjecture, validate, and justification in the problem solving process. It has been thought that this study provide a new point of view to curriculum developers, teachers and researchers
Reza Akhlaghi Garmjani
Full Text Available Teaching science and math has been underdeveloped in nurturing the talents and motivations of young people who are in search of professions in these fields. Identifying and strengthening the students' problem solving beliefs and behaviors, can be a great help to those involved in teaching mathematics. This study investigates on the university and high school students, teachers and professors' problem solving beliefs and behaviors. Considering the research method, this study is a field research in which questionnaire is used. Participants in this research were senior high school and university students, math teachers and math professors. Data collection method for beliefs and behavior variables was via the use of a questionnaire. The Mann-Whitney test results showed that problem solving in high school and university was different and the main difference was in mathematical professional beliefs and behaviors.
Rosales, Javier; Vicente, Santiago; Chamoso, Jose M.; Munez, David; Orrantia, Josetxu
Word problem solving involves the construction of two different mental representations, namely, mathematical and situational. Although educational research in word problem solving has documented different kinds of instruction at these levels, less is known about how both representational levels are evoked during word problem solving in day-to-day…
It is a widely known fact that gifted students have different skills compared to their peers. However, to what extent gifted students use mathematical thinking skills during probability problem solving process emerges as a significant question. Thence, the main aim of the present study is to examine 8th grade gifted students' probability…
This study explores how a problem-solving based professional learning community (PLC) affects the beliefs, knowledge, and instructional practices of two sixth-grade mathematics teachers. An interview and two observations were conducted prior to beginning the year-long PLC in order to gather information about the participants' beliefs,…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a computer-based story, which was designed in anchored instruction framework, on sixth-grade students' mathematics word problem-solving achievement. Problems were embedded in a story presented on a computer as computer story, and then compared with the paper-based version of the same story…
Yew, Wun Theam; Zamri, Sharifah Norul Akmar Syed
Problem solving strategies of eight pre-service secondary school mathematics teachers (PSSMTs) were examined in this study. A case study research design was employed and clinical interview technique was used to collect the data. Materials collected for analysis consisted of audiotapes and videotapes of clinical interviews, subjects' notes and…
Che, Megan; Wiegert, Elaine; Threlkeld, Karen
This study examines patterns in middle-grade boys' and girls' written problem solving strategies for a mathematical task involving proportional reasoning. The students participating in this study attend a coeducational charter middle school with single-sex classrooms. One hundred nineteen sixth-grade students' responses are analyzed by gender…
Santos-Trigo, Manuel; Barrera-Mora, Fernando
The study documents the extent to which high school teachers reflect on their need to revise and extend their mathematical and practicing knowledge. In this context, teachers worked on a set of tasks as a part of an inquiring community that promoted the use of different computational tools in problem solving approaches. Results indicated that the…
Björn, Piia Maria; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the extent to which primary school text comprehension predicts mathematical word problem-solving skills in secondary school among Finnish students. The participants were 224 fourth graders (9-10 years old at the baseline). The children's text-reading fluency, text comprehension and basic calculation…
This study aims to investigate (1) students' trust in mathematics calculation versus intuition in a physics problem solving and (2) whether this trust is related to achievement in physics in the context of epistemic game theoretical framework. To achieve this research objective, paper-pencil and interview sessions were conducted. A paper-pencil…
Özsoy, Gökhan; Kuruyer, Hayriye Gül; Çakiroglu, Ahmet
The purpose of the current study is to investigate the correlation between students' reading levels and mathematical problem solving skills. The present study was conducted in line with a qualitative research method, i.e., the phenomenological method. The study group of the current research is composed of six third grade students with different…
Full Text Available The present work explores the role that mathematical equations play in modifying students’ physical intuition (diSessa, 1993. The work is carried out assuming that students achieve a great deal of the refinement in their physical intuitions during problem solving (Sherin, 2006. The study is guided by the question of how the use of mathematical equations contributes to this refinement. The authors aim at expanding on Sherin´s (2006 hypothesis, suggesting a more bounding relation between physical intuitions and mathematics. In this scenario, intuitions play a more compelling role in “deciding” which equations are acceptable and which are not. Our hypothesis is constructed on the basis of three cases: the first published by Sherin (2006 and two more from registries of our own. The three cases are compared and analyzed in relation to the role of mathematical equations in refining – or not – the intuitive knowledge students bring to play during problem solving.
Sari, E. F. P.; Zulkardi; Putri, R. I. I.
This study aims to determine the problem-solving ability of sport students of PGRI Palembang semester V in the statistics course. Subjects in this study were sport students of PGRI Palembang semester V which amounted to 31 people. The research method used is quasi experiment type one case shoot study. Data collection techniques in this study use the test and data analysis used is quantitative descriptive statistics. The conclusion of this study shown that the mathematical problem solving ability of PGRI Palembang sport students of V semester in the statistical course is categorized well with the average of the final test score of 80.3.
Krawec, Jennifer L
The purpose of this study was to examine differences in math problem solving among students with learning disabilities (LD, n = 25), low-achieving students (LA, n = 30), and average-achieving students (AA, n = 29). The primary interest was to analyze the processes students use to translate and integrate problem information while solving problems. Paraphrasing, visual representation, and problem-solving accuracy were measured in eighth grade students using a researcher-modified version of the Mathematical Processing Instrument. Results indicated that both students with LD and LA students struggled with processing but that students with LD were significantly weaker than their LA peers in paraphrasing relevant information. Paraphrasing and visual representation accuracy each accounted for a statistically significant amount of variance in problem-solving accuracy. Finally, the effect of visual representation of relevant information on problem-solving accuracy was dependent on ability; specifically, for students with LD, generating accurate visual representations was more strongly related to problem-solving accuracy than for AA students. Implications for instruction for students with and without LD are discussed.
Oostermeijer, M.; Boonen, A.J.H.; Jolles, J.
The scientific literature shows that constructive play activities are positively related to children's spatial ability. Likewise, a close positive relation is found between spatial ability and mathematical word problem-solving performances. The relation between children's constructive play and their
Oswald, Tasha M; Beck, Jonathan S; Iosif, Ana-Maria; McCauley, James B; Gilhooly, Leslie J; Matter, John C; Solomon, Marjorie
Mathematics achievement in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been understudied. However, the ability to solve applied math problems is associated with academic achievement, everyday problem-solving abilities, and vocational outcomes. The paucity of research on math achievement in ASD may be partly explained by the widely-held belief that most individuals with ASD are mathematically gifted, despite emerging evidence to the contrary. The purpose of the study was twofold: to assess the relative proportions of youth with ASD who demonstrate giftedness versus disability on applied math problems, and to examine which cognitive (i.e., perceptual reasoning, verbal ability, working memory) and clinical (i.e., test anxiety) characteristics best predict achievement on applied math problems in ASD relative to typically developing peers. Twenty-seven high-functioning adolescents with ASD and 27 age- and Full Scale IQ-matched typically developing controls were assessed on standardized measures of math problem solving, perceptual reasoning, verbal ability, and test anxiety. Results indicated that 22% of the ASD sample evidenced a mathematics learning disability, while only 4% exhibited mathematical giftedness. The parsimonious linear regression model revealed that the strongest predictor of math problem solving was perceptual reasoning, followed by verbal ability and test anxiety, then diagnosis of ASD. These results inform our theories of math ability in ASD and highlight possible targets of intervention for students with ASD struggling with mathematics. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Saleh, H.; Suryadi, D.; Dahlan, J. A.
The aim of this research was to find out whether 7E learning cycle under hypnoteaching model can enhance students’ mathematical problem-solving skill. This research was quasi-experimental study. The design of this study was pretest-posttest control group design. There were two groups of sample used in the study. The experimental group was given 7E learning cycle under hypnoteaching model, while the control group was given conventional model. The population of this study was the student of mathematics education program at one university in Tangerang. The statistical analysis used to test the hypothesis of this study were t-test and Mann-Whitney U. The result of this study show that: (1) The students’ achievement of mathematical problem solving skill who obtained 7E learning cycle under hypnoteaching model are higher than the students who obtained conventional model; (2) There are differences in the students’ enhancement of mathematical problem-solving skill based on students’ prior mathematical knowledge (PMK) category (high, middle, and low).
Pratama, A. R.; Saputro, D. R. S.; Riyadi
The student with visual impairment, total blind category depends on the sense of touch and hearing in obtaining information. In fact, the two senses can receive information less than 20%. Thus, students with visual impairment of the total blind categories in the learning process must have difficulty, including learning mathematics. This study aims to describe the problem-solving process of the student with visual impairment, total blind category on mathematical literacy issues based on Polya phase. This research using test method similar problems mathematical literacy in PISA and in-depth interviews. The subject of this study was a student with visual impairment, total blind category. Based on the result of the research, problem-solving related to mathematical literacy based on Polya phase is quite good. In the phase of understanding the problem, the student read about twice by brushing the text and assisted with information through hearing three times. The student with visual impairment in problem-solving based on the Polya phase, devising a plan by summoning knowledge and experience gained previously. At the phase of carrying out the plan, students with visual impairment implement the plan in accordance with pre-made. In the looking back phase, students with visual impairment need to check the answers three times but have not been able to find a way.
Perrenet, J.C.; Taconis, R.
This study investigates the changes in mathematical problem-solving beliefs and behaviour of mathematics students during the years after entering university. Novice bachelor students fill in a questionnaire about their problem-solving beliefs and behaviour. At the end of their bachelor programme, as
Perrenet, Jacob; Taconis, Ruurd
This study investigates the changes in mathematical problem-solving beliefs and behaviour of mathematics students during the years after entering university. Novice bachelor students fill in a questionnaire about their problem-solving beliefs and behaviour. At the end of their bachelor programme, as experienced bachelor students, they again fill…
Full Text Available It is a widely known fact that gifted students have different skills compared to their peers. However, to what extent gifted students use mathematical thinking skills during probability problem solving process emerges as a significant question. Thence, the main aim of the present study is to examine 8th grade gifted students’ probability problem-solving process related to daily life in terms of mathematical thinking skills. In this regard, a case study was used in the study. The participants of the study were six students at 8th grade (four girls and two boys from the Science and Art Center. One of the purposeful sampling methods, maximum variation sampling was used for selecting the participants. Clinical interview and problems were used as a data collection tool. As a results of the study, it was determined that gifted students use reasoning and strategies skill, which is one of the mathematical thinking skills, mostly on the process of probability problem solving, and communication skills at least.
Fasni, N.; Turmudi, T.; Kusnandi, K.
This research background of this research is the importance of student problem solving abilities. The purpose of this study is to find out whether there are differences in the ability to solve mathematical problems between students who have learned mathematics using Ang’s Framework for Mathematical Modelling Instruction (AFFMMI) and students who have learned using scientific approach (SA). The method used in this research is a quasi-experimental method with pretest-postest control group design. Data analysis of mathematical problem solving ability using Indepent Sample Test. The results showed that there was a difference in the ability to solve mathematical problems between students who received learning with Ang’s Framework for Mathematical Modelling Instruction and students who received learning with a scientific approach. AFFMMI focuses on mathematical modeling. This modeling allows students to solve problems. The use of AFFMMI is able to improve the solving ability.
Sweller, John; Clark, Richard; Kirschner, Paul A.
Sweller, J., Clark, R., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Teaching general problem-solving skills is not a substitute for, or a viable addition to, teaching mathematics. Notices of the American Mathematical Society, 57, 1303-1304.
Darma, I. K.
This research is aimed at determining: 1) the differences of mathematical problem solving ability between the students facilitated with problem-based learning model and conventional learning model, 2) the differences of mathematical problem solving ability between the students facilitated with authentic and conventional assessment model, and 3) interaction effect between learning and assessment model on mathematical problem solving. The research was conducted in Bali State Polytechnic, using the 2x2 experiment factorial design. The samples of this research were 110 students. The data were collected using a theoretically and empirically-validated test. Instruments were validated by using Aiken’s approach of technique content validity and item analysis, and then analyzed using anova stylistic. The result of the analysis shows that the students facilitated with problem-based learning and authentic assessment models get the highest score average compared to the other students, both in the concept understanding and mathematical problem solving. The result of hypothesis test shows that, significantly: 1) there is difference of mathematical problem solving ability between the students facilitated with problem-based learning model and conventional learning model, 2) there is difference of mathematical problem solving ability between the students facilitated with authentic assessment model and conventional assessment model, and 3) there is interaction effect between learning model and assessment model on mathematical problem solving. In order to improve the effectiveness of mathematics learning, collaboration between problem-based learning model and authentic assessment model can be considered as one of learning models in class.
Wedelin, Dag; Adawi, Tom; Jahan, Tabassum; Andersson, Sven
How do engineering students approach mathematical modelling problems and how can they learn to deal with such problems? In the context of a course in mathematical modelling and problem solving, and using a qualitative case study approach, we found that the students had little prior experience of mathematical modelling. They were also inexperienced problem solvers, unaware of the importance of understanding the problem and exploring alternatives, and impeded by inappropriate beliefs, attitudes and expectations. Important impacts of the course belong to the metacognitive domain. The nature of the problems, the supervision and the follow-up lectures were emphasised as contributing to the impacts of the course, where students show major development. We discuss these empirical results in relation to a framework for mathematical thinking and the notion of cognitive apprenticeship. Based on the results, we argue that this kind of teaching should be considered in the education of all engineers.
This article discusses the approach of developing MuPAD into an open and parallel problem solving environment for mathematical applications. It introduces the key technologies domains and dynamic modules and describes the current $9 state of macro parallelism which covers three fields of parallel programming: message passing, network variables and work groups. First parallel algorithms and examples of using the prototype of the MuPAD problem solving environment $9 are demonstrated. (12 refs).
Thomas J. Pfaff
Mahajan, Sanjoy. Street-Fighting Mathematics: The Art of Educated Guessing and Opportunistic Problem Solving (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2010). 152 pp. ISBN 978--0--262--51429--3 Street-Fighting Mathematics is an engaging collection of problem-solving techniques. The book is not for a general audience, as it requires a significant level of mathematical and scientific background knowledge. In particular, most of the book requires knowledge of Calculus I and there are examples ...
Abdullah, Nasarudin; Halim, Lilia; Zakaria, Effandi
This study aimed to determine the impact of strategic thinking and visual representation approaches (VStops) on the achievement, conceptual knowledge, metacognitive awareness, awareness of problem-solving strategies, and student attitudes toward mathematical word problem solving among primary school students. The experimental group (N = 96)…
Dermitzaki, Irini; Leondari, Angeliki; Goudas, Marios
This study aimed at investigating the relations between students' strategic behaviour during problem solving, task performance and domain-specific self-concept. A total of 167 first- and second-graders were individually examined in tasks involving cubes assembly and in academic self-concept in mathematics. Students' cognitive, metacognitive, and…
T.A.J.M. van Gog (Tamara); L. Kester (Liesbeth); K. Dirkx (Kim); V. Hoogerheide (Vincent); J. Boerboom (Joris); P.P.J.L. Verkoeijen (Peter)
textabstractFour experiments investigated whether the testing effect also applies to the acquisition of problem-solving skills from worked examples. Experiment 1 (n = 120) showed no beneficial effects of testing consisting of isomorphic problem solving or example recall on final test performance,
Van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth; Dirkx, Kim; Hoogerheide, Vincent; Boerboom, Joris; Verkoeijen, Peter P. J. L.
Four experiments investigated whether the testing effect also applies to the acquisition of problem-solving skills from worked examples. Experiment 1 (n=120) showed no beneficial effects of testing consisting of isomorphic problem solving or example recall on final test performance, which
van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth; Dirkx, Kim; Hoogerheide, Vincent; Boerboom, Joris; Verkoeijen, Peter P J L
Four experiments investigated whether the testing effect also applies to the acquisition of problem-solving skills from worked examples. Experiment 1 (n = 120) showed no beneficial effects of testing consisting of isomorphic problem solving or example recall on final test performance, which
van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth; Dirkx, Kim; Hoogerheide, Vincent; Boerboom, Joris; Verkoeijen, Peter P. J. L.
Four experiments investigated whether the testing effect also applies to the acquisition of problem-solving skills from worked examples. Experiment 1 (n?=?120) showed no beneficial effects of testing consisting of "isomorphic" problem solving or "example recall" on final test performance, which consisted of isomorphic problem…
Nugraheni, L.; Budayasa, I. K.; Suwarsono, S. T.
The study was designed to discover examine the profile of metacognition of vocational high school student of the Machine Technology program that had high ability and field independent cognitive style in mathematical problem solving. The design of this study was exploratory research with a qualitative approach. This research was conducted at the Machine Technology program of the vocational senior high school. The result revealed that the high-ability student with field independent cognitive style conducted metacognition practices well. That involved the three types of metacognition activities, consisting of planning, monitoring, and evaluating at metacognition level 2 or aware use, 3 or strategic use, 4 or reflective use in mathematical problem solving. The applicability of the metacognition practices conducted by the subject was never at metacognition level 1 or tacit use. This indicated that the participant were already aware, capable of choosing strategies, and able to reflect on their own thinking before, after, or during the process at the time of solving mathematical problems.That was very necessary for the vocational high school student of Machine Technology program.
Lusiana, N. T.; Lukito, A.; Khabibah, S.
This study aims at describing students’ activity to understand the behaviors processes called self-monitoring in a cube and cuboid problem solving viewed from mathematics ability. The subjects were eight graders of junior high school who studied surface area and volume of cube and cuboid clussified into high, average and low mathematics abilities. Mathematics ability test to select the subjects the study. Data were collected through self-monitoring task and interviews. Data triangulation was used to verify the credibillity findings. Data analysis was done by data condensation, data display and conclusion drawing and verification. Results showed that students’ self-monitoring with high math ability is more fullfilled self-monitoring components. Students with average and low math abilities not fullfilled the component that covers verifying the results during solving the problem. It is expected that teachers must provide different learning treatments to improve students’ self-monitoring for better learning outcomes.
This research aims to develop a mathematics instructional model based realistic mathematics education (RME) to promote students' problem-solving abilities. The design research used Plomp models, which consists of preliminary phase, development or proto-typing phase and assessment phase. At this study, only the first two phases conducted. The first phase, a preliminary investigation, carried out with a literature study to examine the theory-based instructional learning RME model, characterist...
Sukmawati, Zuhairoh, Faihatuz
The purpose of this research was to develop authentic assessment model based on showcase portfolio on learning of mathematical problem solving. This research used research and development Method (R & D) which consists of four stages of development that: Phase I, conducting a preliminary study. Phase II, determining the purpose of developing and preparing the initial model. Phase III, trial test of instrument for the initial draft model and the initial product. The respondents of this research are the students of SMAN 8 and SMAN 20 Makassar. The collection of data was through observation, interviews, documentation, student questionnaire, and instrument tests mathematical solving abilities. The data were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. The results of this research are authentic assessment model design based on showcase portfolio which involves: 1) Steps in implementing the authentic assessment based Showcase, assessment rubric of cognitive aspects, assessment rubric of affective aspects, and assessment rubric of skill aspect. 2) The average ability of the students' problem solving which is scored by using authentic assessment based on showcase portfolio was in high category and the students' response in good category.
SUSAN E. EMBRETSON
Full Text Available The linear logistic test model (LLTM; Fischer, 1973 has been applied to a wide variety of new tests. When the LLTM application involves item complexity variables that are both theoretically interesting and empirically supported, several advantages can result. These advantages include elaborating construct validity at the item level, defining variables for test design, predicting parameters of new items, item banking by sources of complexity and providing a basis for item design and item generation. However, despite the many advantages of applying LLTM to test items, it has been applied less often to understand the sources of complexity for large-scale operational test items. Instead, previously calibrated item parameters are modeled using regression techniques because raw item response data often cannot be made available. In the current study, both LLTM and regression modeling are applied to mathematical problem solving items from a widely used test. The findings from the two methods are compared and contrasted for their implications for continued development of ability and achievement tests based on mathematical problem solving items.
Sari, D. P.; Usodo, B.; Subanti, S.
This research aims to describe metacognitive experience of mathematics education students with strong, average, and weak intrapersonal intelligence in open start problem solving. Type of this research was qualitative research. The research subject was mathematics education students in Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta in academic year 2017/2018. The selected students consisted of 6 students with details of two students in each intrapersonal intelligence category. The research instruments were questionnaire, open start problem solving task, and interview guidelines. Data validity used time triangulation. Data analyses were done through data collection, data reduction, data presentation, and drawing conclusion. Based on findings, subjects with strong intrapersonal intelligence had high self confidence that they were able to solve problem correctly, able to do planning steps and able to solve the problem appropriately. Subjects with average intrapersonal intelligence had high self-assessment that they were able to solve the problem, able to do planning steps appropriately but they had not maximized in carrying out the plan so that it resulted incorrectness answer. Subjects with weak intrapersonal intelligence had high self confidence in capability of solving math problem, lack of precision in taking plans so their task results incorrectness answer.
Umasenan a/l Thanikasalam
Occupational safety health is a multidisciplinary discipline concentrating on the safety, health and welfare of workers in the working place. Healthcare Students undergoing Occupational Safety Health internships are required to apply mathematical in areas such as safety legislation, safety behavior, ergonomics, chemical safety, OSH practices, industrial hygiene, risk management and safety health practices as problem solving. The aim of this paper is to investigate the level of mathematics and logic utilization from these students during their internship looking at areas of Hazard identification, Determining the population exposed to the hazard, Assessing the risk of the exposure to the hazards and Taking preventive and control. A total of 142 returning healthcare students from their Occupational Safety Health, internship were given a questionnaire to measure their perceptions towards mathematical and logic utilization. The overall results indicated a strong positive skewed result towards the use of Mathematics during their internship. The findings showed that mathematics were well delivered by the students during their internship. Mathematics could not be separated from OSH practice as a needed precision in quantifying safety, health an d welfare of workers in addition to empiricism.
Fasni, Nurli; Fatimah, Siti; Yulanda, Syerli
This research aims to achieve some purposes such as: to know whether mathematical problem solving ability of students who have learned mathematics using Multiple Intelligences based teaching model is higher than the student who have learned mathematics using cooperative learning; to know the improvement of the mathematical problem solving ability of the student who have learned mathematics using Multiple Intelligences based teaching model., to know the improvement of the mathematical problem solving ability of the student who have learned mathematics using cooperative learning; to know the attitude of the students to Multiple Intelligences based teaching model. The method employed here is quasi-experiment which is controlled by pre-test and post-test. The population of this research is all of VII grade in SMP Negeri 14 Bandung even-term 2013/2014, later on two classes of it were taken for the samples of this research. A class was taught using Multiple Intelligences based teaching model and the other one was taught using cooperative learning. The data of this research were gotten from the test in mathematical problem solving, scale questionnaire of the student attitudes, and observation. The results show the mathematical problem solving of the students who have learned mathematics using Multiple Intelligences based teaching model learning is higher than the student who have learned mathematics using cooperative learning, the mathematical problem solving ability of the student who have learned mathematics using cooperative learning and Multiple Intelligences based teaching model are in intermediate level, and the students showed the positive attitude in learning mathematics using Multiple Intelligences based teaching model. As for the recommendation for next author, Multiple Intelligences based teaching model can be tested on other subject and other ability.
Full Text Available Design curricula and all core design studio courses are prepared for performance attainment by giving theoretical and professional training. However students’ performance may be affected by both the constraints set on a design problem, and their learning styles. This study explores the performance of interior architectural students in relation to their learning styles (as proposed by Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory, and different types of constraints set on design problems. Design performance, measured as conceptual development, form and spatial configuration, structural innovation and ergonomics, and craftsmanship, was found to change throughout the two bipolar continuum of the learning cycle with regard to two design conditions characterized by different types of constraint use.
Muin, A.; Hanifah, S. H.; Diwidian, F.
This research was conducted to analyse the effect of creative problem solving (CPS) learning model on the students’ mathematical adaptive reasoning. The method used in this study was a quasi-experimental with randomized post-test only control group design. Samples were taken as many as two classes by cluster random sampling technique consisting of experimental class (CPS) as many as 40 students and control class (conventional) as many as 40 students. Based on the result of hypothesis testing with the t-test at the significance level of 5%, it was obtained that significance level of 0.0000 is less than α = 0.05. This shows that the students’ mathematical adaptive reasoning skills who were taught by CPS model were higher than the students’ mathematical adaptive reasoning skills of those who were taught by conventional model. The result of this research showed that the most prominent aspect of adaptive reasoning that could be developed through a CPS was inductive intuitive. Two aspects of adaptive reasoning, which were inductive intuitive and deductive intuitive, were mostly balanced. The different between inductive intuitive and deductive intuitive aspect was not too big. CPS model can develop student mathematical adaptive reasoning skills. CPS model can facilitate development of mathematical adaptive reasoning skills thoroughly.
Wulandari, R. D.; Lukito, A.; Khabibah, S.
The aim of this research is to describe the third grade of elementary school students’ mathematical problem in solving skills based on their reading abilities. This research is a descriptive research with qualitative approach. This research was conducted at elementary school Kebraon II Surabaya in second semester of 2016-2017 academic years. The participants of this research consist of third grade students with different reading abilities that are independent level, instructional level and frustration level. The participants of this research were selected with purposive sampling technique. The data of this study were collected using reading the narration texts, the Ekwall and Shanker Informal Reading Inventory, problem solving task and interview guidelines. The collected data were evaluated using a descriptive analysis method. Once the study had been completed, it was concluded that problem solving skills varied according to reading abilities, student with independent level and instructional level can solve the problem and students with frustration level can’t solve the problem because they can’t interpret the problem well.
Kargas, Christine Anestis; Stephens, Max
This study investigated how to improve the teaching of problem solving in a large Melbourne secondary school. Coaching was used to support and equip five teachers, some with limited experiences in teaching problem solving, with knowledge and strategies to build up students' problem solving and reasoning skills. The results showed increased…
Çiğdem Özcan, Zeynep
Studies highlight that using appropriate strategies during problem solving is important to improve problem-solving skills and draw attention to the fact that using these skills is an important part of students' self-regulated learning ability. Studies on this matter view the self-regulated learning ability as key to improving problem-solving skills. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between mathematical problem-solving skills and the three dimensions of self-regulated learning (motivation, metacognition, and behaviour), and whether this relationship is of a predictive nature. The sample of this study consists of 323 students from two public secondary schools in Istanbul. In this study, the mathematics homework behaviour scale was administered to measure students' homework behaviours. For metacognition measurements, the mathematics metacognition skills test for students was administered to measure offline mathematical metacognitive skills, and the metacognitive experience scale was used to measure the online mathematical metacognitive experience. The internal and external motivational scales used in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) test were administered to measure motivation. A hierarchic regression analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between the dependent and independent variables in the study. Based on the findings, a model was formed in which 24% of the total variance in students' mathematical problem-solving skills is explained by the three sub-dimensions of the self-regulated learning model: internal motivation (13%), willingness to do homework (7%), and post-problem retrospective metacognitive experience (4%).
Murni, V.; Sariyasa, S.; Ardana, I. M.
This study aims to describe the effet of GeoGebra utilization in the discovery learning model on mathematical problem solving ability and students’ attitude toward mathematics. This research was quasi experimental and post-test only control group design was used in this study. The population in this study was 181 of students. The sampling technique used was cluster random sampling, so the sample in this study was 120 students divided into 4 classes, 2 classes for the experimental class and 2 classes for the control class. Data were analyzed by using one way MANOVA. The results of data analysis showed that the utilization of GeoGebra in discovery learning can lead to solving problems and attitudes towards mathematics are better. This is because the presentation of problems using geogebra can assist students in identifying and solving problems and attracting students’ interest because geogebra provides an immediate response process to students. The results of the research are the utilization of geogebra in the discovery learning can be applied in learning and teaching wider subject matter, beside subject matter in this study.
Full Text Available This article reports on the design and findings of the first iteration of a classroom-based design research project which endeavours to design a professional development intervention for teachers’ mathematical problem-solving pedagogy. The major outcome of this study is the generation of design principles that can be used by other researchers developing a professional development (PD intervention for mathematical problem-solving pedagogy. This study contributes to the mathematical problem-solving pedagogy and PD body of knowledge by working with teachers in an under-researched environment (an informal settlement in Gauteng, South Africa. In this iteration, two experienced Grade 9 mathematics teachers and their learners at a public secondary school in Gauteng, South Africa, participated in a 6-month intervention. Findings from the data are discussed in light of their implications for the next cycle and other PD studies.
Freeman-Green, Shaqwana M.; O'Brien, Chris; Wood, Charles L.; Hitt, Sara Beth
This study examined the effects of explicit instruction in the SOLVE Strategy on the mathematical problem solving skills of six Grade 8 students with specific learning disabilities. The SOLVE Strategy is an explicit instruction, mnemonic-based learning strategy designed to help students in solving mathematical word problems. Using a multiple probe…
Schonberger, Ann Koch
This three-volume report deals with the hypothesis that males are more successful at solving mathematical and spatial problems than females. The general relationship between visual spatial abilities and mathematical problem-solving ability is also investigated. The research sample consisted of seventh graders. Each pupil took five spatial tests…
Krawec, Jennifer; Huang, Jia
The purpose of the present study was to test the efficacy of a modified cognitive strategy instructional intervention originally developed to improve the mathematical problem solving of middle and high school students with learning disabilities (LD). Fifth and sixth grade general education mathematics teachers and their students of varying ability (i.e., average-achieving [AA] students, low-achieving [LA] students, and students with LD) participated in the research study. Several features of the intervention were modified, including (a) explicitness of instruction, (b) emphasis on meta-cognition, (c) focus on problem-solving prerequisites, (d) extended duration of initial intervention, and (e) addition of visual supports. General education math teachers taught all instructional sessions to their inclusive classrooms. Curriculum-based measures (CBMs) of math problem solving were administered five times over the course of the year. A multilevel model (repeated measures nested within students and students nested within schools) was used to analyze student progress on CBMs. Though CBM scores in the intervention group were initially lower than that of the comparison group, intervention students improved significantly more in the first phase, with no differences in the second phase. Implications for instruction are discussed as well as directions for future research.
Narayanan, N. H
.... Results showed that various display strategies for augmenting information presented based on knowledge about both the viewer's gaze patterns and the problem solving procedure he or she is employing could indeed improve problem-solving performance.
Narayanan, N. H
.... Results showed that various display strategies for augmenting information presented based on knowledge about both the viewer's gaze patterns and the problem solving procedure he or she is employing could indeed improve problem-solving performance.
She, Hsiao-Ching; Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Li, Ta-Wei; Wang, Chia-Yu; Chiu, Hsin-Tien; Lee, Pei-Zon; Chou, Wen-Chi; Chuang, Ming-Hua
This study investigates the effect of Web-based Chemistry Problem-Solving, with the attributes of Web-searching and problem-solving scaffolds, on undergraduate students' problem-solving task performance. In addition, the nature and extent of Web-searching strategies students used and its correlation with task performance and domain knowledge also…
Hull, Michael M.; Kuo, Eric; Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew
Much research in engineering and physics education has focused on improving students' problem-solving skills. This research has led to the development of step-by-step problem-solving strategies and grading rubrics to assess a student's expertise in solving problems using these strategies. These rubrics value "communication" between the…
Full Text Available This research aims to develop a mathematics instructional model based realistic mathematics education (RME to promote students' problem-solving abilities. The design research used Plomp models, which consists of preliminary phase, development or proto-typing phase and assessment phase. At this study, only the first two phases conducted. The first phase, a preliminary investigation, carried out with a literature study to examine the theory-based instructional learning RME model, characteristics of learners, learning management descriptions by junior high school mathematics teacher and relevant research. The development phase is done by developing a draft model (an early prototype model that consists of the syntax, the social system, the principle of reaction, support systems, and the impact and effects of instructional support. Early prototype model contain a draft model, lesson plans, worksheets, and assessments. Tesssmer formative evaluation model used to revise the model. In this study only phase of one to one evaluation conducted. In the ppreliminary phase has produced a theory-based learning RME model, a description of the characteristics of learners in grade VIII Junior High School Padang and the description of teacher teaching in the classroom. The result showed that most students were still not be able to solve the non-routine problem. Teachers did not optimally facilitate students to develop problem-solving skills of students. It was recommended that the model can be applied in the classroom.
Harisman, Y.; Noto, M. S.; Bakar, M. T.; Amam, A.
This article discusses about students’ gesture between genders in answering problems of geometry. Gesture aims to check students’ understanding which is undefined from their writings. This study is a qualitative research, there were seven questions given to two students of eight grade Junior High School who had the equal ability. The data of this study were collected from mathematical problem solving test, videoing students’ presentation, and interviewing students by asking questions to check their understandings in geometry problems, in this case the researchers would observe the students’ gesture. The result of this study revealed that there were patterns of gesture through students’ conversation and prosodic cues, such as tones, intonation, speech rate and pause. Female students tended to give indecisive gestures, for instance bowing, hesitating, embarrassing, nodding many times in shifting cognitive comprehension, forwarding their body and asking questions to the interviewer when they found tough questions. However, male students acted some gestures such as playing their fingers, focusing on questions, taking longer time to answer hard questions, staying calm in shifting cognitive comprehension. We suggest to observe more sample and focus on students’ gesture consistency in showing their understanding to solve the given problems.
Preiszner, Bálint; Papp, Sándor; Pipoly, Ivett; Seress, Gábor; Vincze, Ernő; Liker, András; Bókony, Veronika
Success in problem solving, a form of innovativeness, can help animals exploit their environments, and recent research suggests that it may correlate with reproductive success. Innovativeness has been proposed to be especially beneficial in urbanized habitats, as suggested by superior problem-solving performance of urban individuals in some species. If there is stronger selection for innovativeness in cities than in natural habitats, we expect problem-solving performance to have a greater positive effect on fitness in more urbanized habitats. We tested this idea in great tits (Parus major) breeding at two urban sites and two forests by measuring their problem-solving performance in an obstacle-removal task and a food-acquisition task. Urban pairs were significantly faster problem-solvers in both tasks. Solving speed in the obstacle-removal task was positively correlated with hatching success and the number of fledglings, whereas performance in the food-acquisition task did not correlate with reproductive success. These relationships did not differ between urban and forest habitats. Neophobia, sensitivity to human disturbance, and risk taking in the presence of a predator did not explain the relationships of problem-solving performance either with habitat type or with reproductive success. Our results suggest that the benefit of innovativeness in terms of reproductive success is similar in urban and natural habitats, implying that problem-solving skills may be enhanced in urban populations by some other benefits (e.g. increased survival) or reduced costs (e.g. more opportunities to gain practice with challenging tasks).
Mahendra, Rengga; Slamet, Isnandar; Budiyono
One of the difficulties of students in learning mathematics is on the subject of geometry that requires students to understand abstract things. The aim of this research is to determine the effect of learning model Problem Posing and Problem Solving with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach to conceptual understanding and students' adaptive reasoning in learning mathematics. This research uses a kind of quasi experimental research. The population of this research is all seventh grade students of Junior High School 1 Jaten, Indonesia. The sample was taken using stratified cluster random sampling technique. The test of the research hypothesis was analyzed by using t-test. The results of this study indicate that the model of Problem Posing learning with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach can improve students' conceptual understanding significantly in mathematics learning. In addition tu, the results also showed that the model of Problem Solving learning with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach can improve students' adaptive reasoning significantly in learning mathematics. Therefore, the model of Problem Posing and Problem Solving learning with Realistic Mathematics Education Approach is appropriately applied in mathematics learning especially on the subject of geometry so as to improve conceptual understanding and students' adaptive reasoning. Furthermore, the impact can improve student achievement.
MARIA ANGELA SHIAKALLI
Full Text Available Could problem solving be the object of teaching in early education? Could children’s engagement in problem solving processes lead to skills and conceptual understanding development? Could appropriate teaching interventions scaffold children’s efforts? The sample consisted of 25 children attending public pre-school in Cyprus. The children were asked to construct different sized squares. Findings show that children responded positively to the problem and were successful in solving it. During the problem solving process children demonstrated development of skills and conceptual understanding. Teacher-children and children-children interactions played an important role in the positive outcome of the activity.
Seyyedeh Somayyeh Jalil-Abkenar
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of present research was the comparison of the effectiveness of cognitive & cognitive-metacognitive strategies based on mathematical problem-solving skills on 9th grade girl students with intellectual disability in Tehran Province. Materials & Methods: The research is an experimental, comparing pre-test and post-test data. The participants were chosen by cluster sampling from three schools three districts of Tehran Province (Gharchak, Shahrerey and Shahryar. Fifteen female students with Intellectual disability were assigned from each school and they were divided into three, one control and two experiment groups. For experimental groups students cognitive & cognitive-metacognitive strategies were taught in the 15 instructional sessions, but the control group students did not receive none of strategies in the same sessions. The instruments consist of Wechsler intelligence test was used for matching the groups in terms of IQ, a teacher performed the tests for mathematical problem-solving and instructional pakage of cognitive and cognitive-metacognitive strategies. The data analysis was done by using descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation and frequency table and ANCOVA. Results: The findings of this research showed that there was significant increasing in mathematical problem-solving skills in the group receiving cognitive-metacognitive strategies in comparison with the cognitive group (P<0.005 and control group (P<0.001. Beside, the mean difference of the cognitive group was significantly more than the control group (P<0.003. Conclusion: The mathematical problem-solving skill of the students have been improved through cognitive-metacognitive and cognitive strategies. Also, the instruction of cognitive-metacognitive strategies, in compared with cognitive strategy caused more improvement on the performance of mathematical problem-solving skills.
Ilyas, Muhammad; Salwah
The type of this research was experiment. The purpose of this study was to determine the difference and the quality of student's learning achievement between students who obtained learning through Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) approach and students who obtained learning through problem solving approach. This study was a quasi-experimental research with non-equivalent experiment group design. The population of this study was all students of grade VII in one of junior high school in Palopo, in the second semester of academic year 2015/2016. Two classes were selected purposively as sample of research that was: year VII-5 as many as 28 students were selected as experiment group I and VII-6 as many as 23 students were selected as experiment group II. Treatment that used in the experiment group I was learning by RME Approach, whereas in the experiment group II by problem solving approach. Technique of data collection in this study gave pretest and posttest to students. The analysis used in this research was an analysis of descriptive statistics and analysis of inferential statistics using t-test. Based on the analysis of descriptive statistics, it can be concluded that the average score of students' mathematics learning after taught using problem solving approach was similar to the average results of students' mathematics learning after taught using realistic mathematics education (RME) approach, which are both at the high category. In addition, It can also be concluded that; (1) there was no difference in the results of students' mathematics learning taught using realistic mathematics education (RME) approach and students who taught using problem solving approach, (2) quality of learning achievement of students who received RME approach and problem solving approach learning was same, which was at the high category.
Dewi, N. R.; Arini, F. Y.
The main purpose of this research is developing and produces a Calculus textbook model that supported with GeoGebra. This book was designed to enhancing students’ mathematical problem solving and mathematical representation. There were three stages in this research i.e. define, design, and develop. The textbooks consisted of 6 chapters which each chapter contains introduction, core materials and include examples and exercises. The textbook developed phase begins with the early stages of designed the book (draft 1) which then validated by experts. Revision of draft 1 produced draft 2. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. The analysis showed that the Calculus textbook model that supported with GeoGebra, valid and fill up the criteria of practicality.
Agaç, Gülay; MASAL, Ercan
Related literature emphasizes that affective factors are impactful on cognitive factors. For this reason, this study aims at revealing the relationship between problem solving, which is one of metacognitive characteristics, beliefs about mathematics and learned hopelessness, which are two affective characteristics. Therefore, addressing emotional aspects together with cognitive abilities will give rise to understanding of the students’ current situation and predicting ab...
Gultepe, Nejla; Yalcin Celik, Ayse; Kilic, Ziya
The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of students' conceptual understanding of chemical concepts and mathematical processing skills on algorithmic problem-solving skills. The sample (N = 554) included grades 9, 10, and 11 students in Turkey. Data were collected using the instrument "MPC Test" and with interviews. The MPC…
Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Mammarella, Irene Cristina
This study examines visual and spatial working memory skills in 35 third to fifth graders with both mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) and poor problem-solving skills and 35 of their peers with typical development (TD) on tasks involving both low and high attentional control. Results revealed that children with MLD, relative to TD children,…
Deliyianni, Eleni; Monoyiou, Annita; Elia, Iliada; Georgiou, Chryso; Zannettou, Eleni
This study investigated the modes of representations generated by kindergarteners and first graders while solving standard and problematic problems in mathematics. Furthermore, it examined the influence of pupils' visual representations on the breach of the didactical contract rules in problem solving. The sample of the study consisted of 38…
Schwartz, Catherine Stein
This study describes implementation of the same problem-solving activity in both online and face-to-face environments. The activity, done in the first class period or first module of a K-2 mathematics methods course, was initially used in a face-to-face class and then adapted later for use in an online class. While the task was originally designed…
Koyuncu, Ilhan; Akyuz, Didem; Cakiroglu, Erdinc
This study aims to investigate plane geometry problem-solving strategies of prospective mathematics teachers using dynamic geometry software (DGS) and paper-and-pencil (PPB) environments after receiving an instruction with GeoGebra (GGB). Four plane geometry problems were used in a multiple case study design to understand the solution strategies…
Muis, Krista R.; Psaradellis, Cynthia; Chevrier, Marianne; Di Leo, Ivana; Lajoie, Susanne P.
We developed an intervention based on the learning by teaching paradigm to foster self-regulatory processes and better learning outcomes during complex mathematics problem solving in a technology-rich learning environment. Seventy-eight elementary students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: learning by preparing to teach, or learning for…
This study was based on research and development design. The main purposes of this study were to develop an instructional process for enhancing mathematical literacy among students in secondary school and to study the effects of the developed instructional process on mathematical literacy. The instructional process was developed by analyzing and synthesizing realistic mathematics education and the DAPIC problem-solving process. The developed instructional process was verified by experts and was trialed. The designated pre-test/post-test control method was used to study the effectiveness of the developed instructional process on mathematical literacy. The sample consisted of 104 ninth grade students from a secondary school in Bangkok, Thailand. The developed instructional process consisted of five steps, namely (1 posing real life problems, (2 solving problems individually or in a group, (3 presenting and discussing, (4 developing formal mathematics, and (5 applying knowledge. The mathematical literacy of the experimental group was significantly higher after being taught through the instructional process. The same results were obtained when comparing the results of the experimental group with the control group.
Holistic math focuses on problem solving with numbers and concepts. Whole math activities for adults include shopping for groceries, eating in restaurants, buying gas, taking medicine, measuring a room, estimating servings, and compiling a family cookbook. (SK)
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of strategic problem solving with peer instruction on college students' performance in physics. The students enrolled in 2 sections of a physics course were studied; 1 section was the treatment group and the other section was the comparison group. Students in the treatment group received peer…
Lee, Youngmin; Nelson, David W.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two types of maps (generative vs. completed) and the amount of prior knowledge (high vs. low) on well-structured and ill-structured problem-solving performance. Forty-four undergraduates who were registered in an introductory instructional technology course participated in the study.…
Thomas J. Pfaff
Full Text Available Mahajan, Sanjoy. Street-Fighting Mathematics: The Art of Educated Guessing and Opportunistic Problem Solving (The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2010. 152 pp. ISBN 978--0--262--51429--3 Street-Fighting Mathematics is an engaging collection of problem-solving techniques. The book is not for a general audience, as it requires a significant level of mathematical and scientific background knowledge. In particular, most of the book requires knowledge of Calculus I and there are examples that will require knowledge of Physics. At the same time, there are parts of the book that don't require this much background. While the title of the book may be misleading, as it is really street-fighting mathematics for people with a fair amount of training in the subject, there is a lot to be gained from reading this book, and calculus teachers may find it to be a useful resource.
Baig, Mukhtiar; Tariq, Saba; Rehman, Rehana; Ali, Sobia; Gazzaz, Zohair J
To assess the effectiveness of concept mapping (CM) on the academic performance of medical students' in problem-solving as well as in declarative knowledge questions and their perception regarding CM. The present analytical and questionnaire-based study was carried out at Bahria University Medical and Dental College (BUMDC), Karachi, Pakistan. In this analytical study, students were assessed with problem-solving questions (A-type MCQs), and declarative knowledge questions (short essay questions), and 50% of the questions were from the topics learned by CM. Students also filled a 10-item, 3-point Likert scale questionnaire about their perception regarding the effectiveness of the CM approach, and two open-ended questions were also asked. There was a significant difference in the marks obtained in those problem-solving questions, which were learned by CM as compared to those topics which were taught by the traditional lectures (pacademic performance in problem solving but not in declarative knowledge questions. Students' perception about the effectiveness of CM was overwhelmingly positive.
Hobri; Suharto; Rifqi Naja, Ahmad
This research aims to determine students’ creative thinking level in problem solving based on NCTM in function subject. The research type is descriptive with qualitative approach. Data collection methods which were used are test and interview. Creative thinking level in problem solving based on NCTM indicators consists of (1) Make mathematical model from a contextual problem and solve the problem, (2) Solve problem using various possible alternatives, (3) Find new alternative(s) to solve the problem, (4) Determine the most efficient and effective alternative for that problem, (5) Review and correct mistake(s) on the process of problem solving. Result of the research showed that 10 students categorized in very satisfying level, 23 students categorized in satisfying level and 1 students categorized in less satisfying level. Students in very satisfying level meet all indicators, students in satisfying level meet first, second, fourth, and fifth indicator, while students in less satisfying level only meet first and fifth indicator.
Visser, Yusra Laila
This study compared the effect of lecture-based instruction to that of problem-based instruction on learner performance (on near-transfer and far-transfer problems), problem solving processes (reasoning strategy usage and reasoning efficiency), and attitudes (overall motivation and learner confidence) in a Genetics course. The study also analyzed the effect of self-regulatory skills and prior-academic achievement on performance for both instructional strategies. Sixty 11th grade students at a public math and science academy were assigned to either a lecture-based instructional strategy or a problem-based instructional strategy. Both treatment groups received 18 weeks of Genetics instruction through the assigned instructional strategy. In terms of problem solving performance, results revealed that the lecture-based group performed significantly better on near-transfer post-test problems. The problem-based group performed significantly better on far-transfer post-test problems. In addition, results indicated the learners in the lecture-based instructional treatment were significantly more likely to employ data-driven reasoning in the solving of problems, whereas learners in the problem-based instructional treatment were significantly more likely to employ hypothesis-driven reasoning in problem solving. No significant differences in reasoning efficiency were uncovered between treatment groups. Preliminary analysis of the motivation data suggested that there were no significant differences in motivation between treatment groups. However, a post-research exploratory analysis suggests that overall motivation was significantly higher in the lecture-based instructional treatment than in the problem-based instructional treatment. Learner confidence was significantly higher in the lecture-based group than in the problem-based group. A significant positive correlation was detected between self-regulatory skills scores and problem solving performance scores in the problem
Rifa’i, A.; Lestari, H. P.
This study was designed to know the effects of Think Pair Share using Scientific Approach on students' self-confidence and mathematical problem-solving. Quasi-experimental with pre-test post-test non-equivalent group method was used as a basis for design this study. Self-confidence questionnaire and problem-solving test have been used for measurement of the two variables. Two classes of the first grade in religious senior high school (MAN) in Indonesia were randomly selected for this study. Teaching sequence and series from mathematics book at control group in the traditional way and at experiment group has been in TPS using scientific approach learning method. For data analysis regarding students’ problem-solving skill and self-confidence, One-Sample t-Test, Independent Sample t-Test, and Multivariate of Variance (MANOVA) were used. The results showed that (1) TPS using a scientific approach and traditional learning had positive effects (2) TPS using scientific approach learning in comparative with traditional learning had a more significant effect on students’ self-confidence and problem-solving skill.
Santos-Trigo, Manuel; Moreno-Armella, Luis; Camacho-Machín, Matías
The aim of this study is to analyze and document the extent to which high school teachers rely on a set of technology affordances to articulate epistemological and cognitive actions in problem solving approaches. Participants were encouraged to construct dynamic representations of tasks and always to look for different ways to identify and support…
Chan, Man Ching Esther; Clarke, David; Cao, Yiming
Interactive problem solving and learning are priorities in contemporary education, but these complex processes have proved difficult to research. This project addresses the question "How do we optimise social interaction for the promotion of learning in a mathematics classroom?" Employing the logic of multi-theoretic research design, this project uses the newly built Science of Learning Research Classroom (ARC-SR120300015) at The University of Melbourne and equivalent facilities in China to investigate classroom learning and social interactions, focusing on collaborative small group problem solving as a way to make the social aspects of learning visible. In Australia and China, intact classes of local year 7 students with their usual teacher will be brought into the research classroom facilities with built-in video cameras and audio recording equipment to participate in purposefully designed activities in mathematics. The students will undertake a sequence of tasks in the social units of individual, pair, small group (typically four students) and whole class. The conditions for student collaborative problem solving and learning will be manipulated so that student and teacher contributions to that learning process can be distinguished. Parallel and comparative analyses will identify culture-specific interactive patterns and provide the basis for hypotheses about the learning characteristics underlying collaborative problem solving performance documented in the research classrooms in each country. The ultimate goals of the project are to generate, develop and test more sophisticated hypotheses for the optimisation of social interaction in the mathematics classroom in the interest of improving learning and, particularly, student collaborative problem solving.
Murni, Atma; Sabandar, Jozua; S. Kusumah, Yaya; Kartasamita, Bana Goerbana
The aim of this study is to know the differences of enhancement in mathematical problem solving ability (MPSA) between the students who received soft skill- based metacognitive learning (SSML) with the students who got conventional learning (CL). This research is a quasi experimental design with pretest-postest control group. The population in this study is the students of Junior High School in Pekanbaru city. The sample consist of 135 students, 68 of them are from the high-level...
King, Megan E.
Classroom communication can often be a teacher-centered discussion. Due to the teacher centered format of discussions students are not engaging in meaningful discourse in mathematics classroom, which is part of the NCTM 2000 Standards as well as a necessary component to learning. Students can only learn communication skills when discourse is a central feature from the classroom. In addition, students must explicitly learn problem-solving skills. Unfortunately, many of these features are absen...
Prayitno, S. H.; Suwarsono, St.; Siswono, T. Y. E.
Conceptual comprehension in this research is the ability to use the procedures that are owned by pre-service teachers to solve problems by finding the relation of the concept to another, or can be done by identifying the type of problem and associating it with a troubleshooting procedures, or connect the mathematical symbols with mathematical ideas and incorporate them into a series of logical reasoning, or by using prior knowledge that occurred directly, through its conceptual knowledge. The goal of this research is to describe the profile of conceptual comprehensin of pre-service teachers with low emotional intelligence in mathematical problems solving. Through observation and in-depth interview with the research subject the conclusion was that: pre-service teachers with low emotional intelligence pertained to the level of formal understanding in understanding the issues, relatively to the level of intuitive understanding in planning problem solving, to the level of relational understanding in implementing the relational problem solving plan, and pertained to the level of formal understanding in looking back to solve the problem.
Sala, Giovanni; Gobet, Fernand
It has been proposed that playing chess enables children to improve their ability in mathematics. These claims have been recently evaluated in a meta-analysis (Sala & Gobet, 2016, Educational Research Review, 18, 46-57), which indicated a significant effect in favor of the groups playing chess. However, the meta-analysis also showed that most of the reviewed studies used a poor experimental design (in particular, they lacked an active control group). We ran two experiments that used a three-group design including both an active and a passive control group, with a focus on mathematical ability. In the first experiment (N = 233), a group of third and fourth graders was taught chess for 25 hours and tested on mathematical problem-solving tasks. Participants also filled in a questionnaire assessing their meta-cognitive ability for mathematics problems. The group playing chess was compared to an active control group (playing checkers) and a passive control group. The three groups showed no statistically significant difference in mathematical problem-solving or metacognitive abilities in the posttest. The second experiment (N = 52) broadly used the same design, but the Oriental game of Go replaced checkers in the active control group. While the chess-treated group and the passive control group slightly outperformed the active control group with mathematical problem solving, the differences were not statistically significant. No differences were found with respect to metacognitive ability. These results suggest that the effects (if any) of chess instruction, when rigorously tested, are modest and that such interventions should not replace the traditional curriculum in mathematics.
Fyfe, Emily R; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany
The goal of the current research was to better understand when and why feedback has positive effects on learning and to identify features of feedback that may improve its efficacy. In a randomized experiment, second-grade children received instruction on a correct problem-solving strategy and then solved a set of relevant problems. Children were assigned to receive no feedback, immediate feedback, or summative feedback from the computer. On a posttest the following day, feedback resulted in higher scores relative to no feedback for children who started with low prior knowledge. Immediate feedback was particularly effective, facilitating mastery of the material for children with both low and high prior knowledge. Results suggest that minimal computer-generated feedback can be a powerful form of guidance during problem solving. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tolar, Tammy D.; Fuchs, Lynn; Fletcher, Jack M.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.
Three cohorts of third-grade students (N = 813) were evaluated on achievement, cognitive abilities, and behavioral attention according to contrasting research traditions in defining math learning disability (LD) status: low achievement versus extremely low achievement and IQ-achievement discrepant versus strictly low-achieving LD. We use methods from these two traditions to form math problem solving LD groups. To evaluate group differences, we used MANOVA-based profile and canonical analyses to control for relations among the outcomes and regression to control for group definition variables. Results suggest that basic arithmetic is the key distinguishing characteristic that separates low-achieving problem solvers (including LD, regardless of definition) from typically achieving students. Word problem solving is the key distinguishing characteristic that separates IQ-achievement-discrepant from strictly low-achieving LD students, favoring the IQ-achievement-discrepant students. PMID:24939971
Iglesias-Sarmiento, Valentín; Deaño, Manuel; Alfonso, Sonia; Conde, Ángeles
The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of cognitive functioning to arithmetic problem solving and to explore the cognitive profiles of children with attention deficit and/or hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and with mathematical learning disabilities (MLD). The sample was made up of a total of 90 students of 4th, 5th, and 6th grade organized in three: ADHD (n=30), MLD (n=30) and typically achieving control (TA; n=30) group. Assessment was conducted in two sessions in which the PASS processes and arithmetic problem solving were evaluated. The ADHD group's performance in planning and attention was worse than that of the control group. Children with MLD obtained poorer results than the control group in planning and simultaneous and successive processing. Executive processes predicted arithmetic problem solving in the ADHD group whereas simultaneous processing was the unique predictor in the MLD sample. Children with ADHD and with MLD showed characteristic cognitive profiles. Groups' problem-solving performance can be predicted from their cognitive functioning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rajotte, Thomas; Marcotte, Christine; Bureau-Levasseur, Lisa
In recent decades, the dropout rate in Abitibi-Témiscamingue is a worrying phenomenon. An analysis of ministerial examination results identifies that students in Abitibi-Témiscamingue have specific difficulties with mathematical problem solving tasks. Among the activities that develop those skills, the daily routines in mathematics seem to be a…
González-Castro, Paloma; Cueli, Marisol; Areces, Débora; Rodríguez, Celestino; Sideridis, Georgios
Problem solving represents a salient deficit in students with mathematical learning difficulties (MLD) primarily caused by difficulties with informal and formal mathematical competencies. This study proposes a computerized intervention tool, the integrated dynamic representation (IDR), for enhancing the early learning of basic mathematical…
Abosede, Subuola Catherine; Adesanya, Adebimpe Olusola
This study is aimed at determining the contributions of self-efficacy and problem solving skills to the job performance of secretaries. The study also ascertained the relationship among self-efficacy, problem solving skills and job performance of the secretaries. The study employed the descriptive research design. Ten (10) secretaries were…
Perennial poor performance recorded annually in both internal and external examinations in Mathematics has been a great concern for the Mathematics Educators in Nigeria. This paper discusses problem-solving and influence of problem-solving strategies on students' performance in mathematics. The concept of ...
Wesley Pacheco Calixto
Full Text Available Having the property to modify only the geometry of a polygonal structure, preserving its physical magnitudes, the Conformal Mapping is an exceptional tool to solve electromagnetism problems with known boundary conditions. This work aims to introduce a new developed mathematical operator, based on polynomial extrapolation. This operator has the capacity to accelerate an optimization method applied in conformal mappings, to determinate the equipotential lines, the field lines, the capacitance, and the permeance of some polygonal geometry electrical devices with an inner dielectric of permittivity ε. The results obtained in this work are compared with other simulations performed by the software of finite elements method, Flux 2D.
Abramovich, Sergei; Connell, Michael
The paper reflects on an earlier research on the use of technology in secondary mathematics teacher education through the lenses of newer digital tools (Wolfram Alpha, Maple), most recent standards for teaching mathematics, and recommendations for the preparation of schoolteachers. New ideas of technology integration into mathematics education…
The Effect of Dynamic and Interactive Mathematics Learning Environments (DIMLE), Supporting Multiple Representations, on Perceptions of Elementary Mathematics Pre-Service Teachers in Problem Solving Process
Ozdemir, S.; Reis, Z. Ayvaz
Mathematics is an important discipline, providing crucial tools, such as problem solving, to improve our cognitive abilities. In order to solve a problem, it is better to envision and represent through multiple means. Multiple representations can help a person to redefine a problem with his/her own words in that envisioning process. Dynamic and…
This research study investigates the ability of students to tackle the solving of unique mathematical problems in the domain of numerical series, verbal and formal, and its influence on the motivation of junior high students with learning disabilities in the Arab sector. Two instruments were used to collect the data: mathematical series were…
Tobias, Jennifer M.; Ortiz, Enrique
Preservice elementary teachers need to be given the experiences of integrating mathematics with other subjects. They need to go into the classroom with the understanding that mathematics is not an isolated topic. This article describes a paper airplane activity that was presented in a class of preservice elementary education teachers to show how…
Jitendra, Asha K.; Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Lein, Amy E.; Zaslofsky, Anne F.; Kunkel, Amy K.; Jung, Pyung-Gang; Egan, Andrea M.
This study examined the quality of the research base related to strategy instruction priming the underlying mathematical problem structure for students with learning disabilities and those at risk for mathematics difficulties. We evaluated the quality of methodological rigor of 18 group research studies using the criteria proposed by Gersten et…
Lestari, N. D. S.; Juniati, D.; Suwarsono, St.
The purpose of this paper is to describe to what extent the prospective teachers can be considered as mathematically literate and how they communicate their reasoning in solving the problem based on the sex differences. Data were collected through mathematics literacy test on occupational context by 157 of prospective teachers from three universities in East Java, Indonesia. Their written responses were collected, organized based on the sex differences, analyzed and categorized to one of three levels of mathematical literacy. The examples of interesting students’ response altogether with the scoring are discussed to describe their characteristic on mathematical literacy and their communication. The result showed that in general the mathematical literacy of female prospective teachers tend to be better than male prospective math teachers. Female prospective teachers are more capable of logical reasoning, using concepts, facts and procedures and algebraic operations to draw conclusions; make an interpretations and evaluations. This study has an implication that gender differences in mathematical literacy of prospective math teachers do exist, therefore this issue should be given a serious concern from the development programs of the faculty.
Bush, Sarah A.; Friedel, Curtis R.; Hoerbert, Lindsey R.; Broyles, Thomas W.
With an evolving and expanding agricultural industry, it is crucial to provide future professionals with valuable experiences and skills in problem solving, communication, and teamwork. Agricultural summer programs for secondary students, which provide cooperative learning experiences with a focus on group work and problem solving, aim to help…
Widuri, S. Y. S.; Almash, L.; Zuzano, F.
The students activity and responsible in studying mathematic is still lack. It gives an effect for the bad result in studying mathematic. There is one of learning technic to increase students activity in the classroom and the result of studying mathematic with applying a learning technic. It is “Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving (TAPPS)”. The purpose of this research is to recognize the developing of students activity in mathematic subject during applying that technic “TAPPS” in seven grade at SMPN 15 Padang and compare the students proportion in learning mathematic with TAPPS between learning process without it in seven grade at SMPN 15 Padang. Students activity for indicators 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 at each meeting is likely to increase and students activity for indicator 7 at each meeting is likely to decrease. The finding of this research is χ 2 = 9,42 and the value of p is 0,0005 < p < 0,005. Therefore p < 0,05 has means H 0 was rejected and H 1 was accepted. Thus, it was concluded that the activities and result in studying mathematic increased after applying learning technic the TAPPS.
Jitendra, Asha K; Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Lein, Amy E; Zaslofsky, Anne F; Kunkel, Amy K; Jung, Pyung-Gang; Egan, Andrea M
This study examined the quality of the research base related to strategy instruction priming the underlying mathematical problem structure for students with learning disabilities and those at risk for mathematics difficulties. We evaluated the quality of methodological rigor of 18 group research studies using the criteria proposed by Gersten et al. and 10 single case design (SCD) research studies using criteria suggested by Horner et al. and the What Works Clearinghouse. Results indicated that 14 group design studies met the criteria for high-quality or acceptable research, whereas SCD studies did not meet the standards for an evidence-based practice. Based on these findings, strategy instruction priming the mathematics problem structure is considered an evidence-based practice using only group design methodological criteria. Implications for future research and for practice are discussed. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.
Root, Jenny; Saunders, Alicia; Spooner, Fred; Brosh, Chelsi
The ability to solve mathematical problems related to purchasing and personal finance is important in promoting skill generalization and increasing independence for individuals with moderate intellectual disabilities (IDs). Using a multiple probe across participant design, this study investigated the effects of modified schema-based instruction…
Monaghan, John; Pool, Peter; Roper, Tom; Threlfall, John
This article describes one type of mathematical problem, open-start problems, and discusses their potential for use in assessment. In open-start problems how one starts to address the problem can vary but they have a correct answer. We argue that the use of open-start problems in assessment could positively influence classroom mathematics…
Kaplan, Rochelle G.; Patino, Rodrigo A.
Although it takes only 2 years to attain conversational competence in a second language, it takes up to 7 years to realize sufficient language competence to achieve academically at the level of native speakers. Specific adaptations in instructional methods in mathematics for language minority students should include techniques from English as a…
Kramarski, Bracha; Friedman, Sheli
The study examined how student control over metacognitive prompts in a multimedia environment affects students' ability to solve mathematical problems in immediate comprehension tasks using a multimedia program and a delayed-transfer test. It also examined the effect on metacognitive discourse, mental effort, and engagement with multimedia-based…
This study aims to observe the pre-service secondary mathematics teachers' metacognitive awareness in terms of the variables gender and class level and determine their metacognitive behaviours which showed in the non-routine problems. A partially mixed sequential dominant status design was carried out with a total of 287 participants. The data of…
de Mul, F.F.M.; Martin Batlle, C.; Martin i Batlle, Cristina; de Bruijn, Imme; Rinzema, K.; Rinzema, Kees
Teaching physics to first-year university students (in the USA: junior/senior level) is often hampered by their lack of skills in the underlying mathematics, and that in turn may block their understanding of the physics and their ability to solve problems. Examples are vector algebra, differential
This paper presents the contents and the teaching methods used in the fourth semester course - REG4E - an important subject in engineering, namely Control Theory and Dynamical Systems. Control Theory courses in engineering education are usually related to exercises in the laboratory or to projects....... However, in order to understand complexity of control systems, the students need to possess an analytical understanding of abstract mathematical problems. Our main goal is to illustrate the theory through the robot project, but at the same time we force our students to train their analytical skills...
The important role that metacognition plays as a predictor for student mathematical learning and for mathematical problem-solving, has been extensively documented. But only recently has attention turned to primary grades, and more research is needed at this level. The goals of this paper are threefold: (1) to present metacognitive framework during mathematics problem-solving, (2) to describe their multi-method interview approach developed to study student mathematical metacognition, and (3) to empirically evaluate the utility of their model and the adaptation of their approach in the context of grade 2 and grade 4 mathematics problem-solving. The results are discussed not only with regard to further development of the adapted multi-method interview approach, but also with regard to their theoretical and practical implications.
Zeynep Yurtseven Avci
Full Text Available The availability of internet-based technologies and practices are increasing every day for our daily lives. Most of those contemporary technologies have interactive features and provide unique opportunities for today’s learners. Although a growing amount of research focuses on learning with online tools, little known about which features and affordances contribute for effective classroom learning. This study investigates student and teacher perceptions on how students’ mathematics learning was impacted by online practice, communication and collaboration tools. The present experimental research has been designed with using qualitative case study method and provides detailed accounts of students' experiences with the technologies along with investigation of the features and affordances of the tools that made them contribute to effective learning.
Quinn, Diane M.; Spencer, Steven J.
Investigated whether stereotype threat would depress college women's math performance. In one test, men outperformed women when solving word problems, though women performed equally when problems were converted into numerical equivalents. In another test, participants solved difficult problems in high or reduced stereotype threat conditions. Women…
Kim, Hae-Ran; Song, Yeoungsuk; Lindquist, Ruth; Kang, Hee-Young
Team-based learning (TBL) has been used as a learner-centered teaching strategy in efforts to improve students' problem-solving, knowledge and practice performance. Although TBL has been used in nursing education in Korea for a decade, few studies have studied its effects on Korean nursing students' learning outcomes. To examine the effects of TBL on problem-solving ability and learning outcomes (knowledge and clinical performance) of Korean nursing students. Randomized controlled trial. 63 third-year undergraduate nursing students attending a single university were randomly assigned to the TBL group (n=32), or a control group (n=31). The TBL and control groups attended 2h of class weekly for 3weeks. Three scenarios with pulmonary disease content were employed in both groups. However, the control group received lectures and traditional case study teaching/learning strategies instead of TBL. A questionnaire of problem-solving ability was administered at baseline, prior to students' exposure to the teaching strategies. Students' problem-solving ability, knowledge of pulmonary nursing care, and clinical performance were assessed following completion of the three-week pulmonary unit. After the three-week educational interventions, the scores on problem-solving ability in the TBL group were significantly improved relative to that of the control group (t=10.89, pproblem-solving ability, knowledge and clinical performance. More research on other specific learning outcomes of TBL for nursing students is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zandberg, Lies; Quinn, John L; Naguib, Marc; van Oers, Kees
Individuals develop innovative behaviours to solve foraging challenges in the face of changing environmental conditions. Little is known about how individuals differ in their tendency to solve problems and in their subsequent use of this solving behaviour in social contexts. Here we investigated whether individual variation in problem-solving performance could be explained by differences in the likelihood of solving the task, or if they reflect differences in foraging strategy. We tested this by studying the use of a novel foraging skill in groups of great tits (Parus major), consisting of three naive individuals with different personality, and one knowledgeable tutor. We presented them with multiple, identical foraging devices over eight trials. Though birds of different personality type did not differ in solving latency; fast and slow explorers showed a steeper increase over time in their solving rate, compared to intermediate explorers. Despite equal solving potential, personality influenced the subsequent use of the skill, as well as the pay-off received from solving. Thus, variation in the tendency to solve the task reflected differences in foraging strategy among individuals linked to their personality. These results emphasize the importance of considering the social context to fully understand the implications of learning novel skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lee, Youngmin; Baylor, Amy L.; Nelson, David W.
The purpose of this article is to provide five empirically-derived guidelines for knowledge map construction tools that facilitate problem solving. First, the combinational representation principle proposes that conceptual and corresponding procedural knowledge should be represented together (rather than separately) within the knowledge map.…
Peltier, Corey; Vannest, Kimberly J.
A variety of instructional practices have been recommended to increase the problem-solving (PS) performance of elementary school children. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to systematically review research on the use of schema instruction to increase the PS performance of elementary school-age students. A total of 21 studies, with 3,408…
Özcan, Zeynep Çigdem
Studies highlight that using appropriate strategies during problem solving is important to improve problem-solving skills and draw attention to the fact that using these skills is an important part of students' self-regulated learning ability. Studies on this matter view the self-regulated learning ability as key to improving problem-solving…
Timmermans, R.E.; van Lieshout, E.C.D.M.; Verhoeven, L.
Effects of guided (GI) and direct instruction (DI) in solving subtraction problems for mathematically low performers in regular schools were compared. In the GI condition, self-development of solution procedures was encouraged whereas in the DI condition one prescribed strategy was to be used. Forty
Prismana, R. D. E.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Pramudya, I.
The ability of solving problem is a part of the mathematic curriculum that is very important. Problem solving prefers the process and strategy that is done by students in solving a problem rather than the result. This learning concept in accordance with the stages on the revised bloom’s taxonomy. The revised Bloom’s Taxonomy has two dimensions, namely the dimension of cognitive process and the dimension of knowledge. Dimension of knowledge has four categories, but this study only restricted on two knowledge, conceptual knowledge and procedural knowledge. Dimensions of cognitive processes are categorized into six kinds, namely remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating. Implementation of learning more emphasis on the role of students. Students must have their own belief in completing tasks called self-efficacy. This research is a qualitative research. This research aims to know the site of the students’ difficulty based on revised Bloom’s Taxonomy viewed from high self-efficacy. The results of the study stated the students with high self efficacy have difficulties site. They are evaluating conceptual knowledge, evaluating procedural knowledge, creating conceptual knowledge, and creating procedural knowledge. It could be the consideration of teachers in the teaching, so as to reduce the difficulties of learning in students.
Müller, Corsin A.; Riemer, Stefanie; Virányi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike
Human infants develop an understanding of their physical environment through playful interactions with objects. Similar processes may influence also the performance of non-human animals in physical problem-solving tasks, but to date there is little empirical data to evaluate this hypothesis. In addition or alternatively to prior experiences, inhibitory control has been suggested as a factor underlying the considerable individual differences in performance reported for many species. Here we report a study in which we manipulated the extent of object-related experience for a cohort of dogs (Canis familiaris) of the breed Border Collie over a period of 18 months, and assessed their level of inhibitory control, prior to testing them in a series of four physical problem-solving tasks. We found no evidence that differences in object-related experience explain variability in performance in these tasks. It thus appears that dogs do not transfer knowledge about physical rules from one physical problem-solving task to another, but rather approach each task as a novel problem. Our results, however, suggest that individual performance in these tasks is influenced in a complex way by the subject’s level of inhibitory control. Depending on the task, inhibitory control had a positive or a negative effect on performance and different aspects of inhibitory control turned out to be the best predictors of individual performance in the different tasks. Therefore, studying the interplay between inhibitory control and problem-solving performance will make an important contribution to our understanding of individual and species differences in physical problem-solving performance. PMID:26863141
Corsin A Müller
Full Text Available Human infants develop an understanding of their physical environment through playful interactions with objects. Similar processes may influence also the performance of non-human animals in physical problem-solving tasks, but to date there is little empirical data to evaluate this hypothesis. In addition or alternatively to prior experiences, inhibitory control has been suggested as a factor underlying the considerable individual differences in performance reported for many species. Here we report a study in which we manipulated the extent of object-related experience for a cohort of dogs (Canis familiaris of the breed Border Collie over a period of 18 months, and assessed their level of inhibitory control, prior to testing them in a series of four physical problem-solving tasks. We found no evidence that differences in object-related experience explain variability in performance in these tasks. It thus appears that dogs do not transfer knowledge about physical rules from one physical problem-solving task to another, but rather approach each task as a novel problem. Our results, however, suggest that individual performance in these tasks is influenced in a complex way by the subject's level of inhibitory control. Depending on the task, inhibitory control had a positive or a negative effect on performance and different aspects of inhibitory control turned out to be the best predictors of individual performance in the different tasks. Therefore, studying the interplay between inhibitory control and problem-solving performance will make an important contribution to our understanding of individual and species differences in physical problem-solving performance.
Müller, Corsin A; Riemer, Stefanie; Virányi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike
Human infants develop an understanding of their physical environment through playful interactions with objects. Similar processes may influence also the performance of non-human animals in physical problem-solving tasks, but to date there is little empirical data to evaluate this hypothesis. In addition or alternatively to prior experiences, inhibitory control has been suggested as a factor underlying the considerable individual differences in performance reported for many species. Here we report a study in which we manipulated the extent of object-related experience for a cohort of dogs (Canis familiaris) of the breed Border Collie over a period of 18 months, and assessed their level of inhibitory control, prior to testing them in a series of four physical problem-solving tasks. We found no evidence that differences in object-related experience explain variability in performance in these tasks. It thus appears that dogs do not transfer knowledge about physical rules from one physical problem-solving task to another, but rather approach each task as a novel problem. Our results, however, suggest that individual performance in these tasks is influenced in a complex way by the subject's level of inhibitory control. Depending on the task, inhibitory control had a positive or a negative effect on performance and different aspects of inhibitory control turned out to be the best predictors of individual performance in the different tasks. Therefore, studying the interplay between inhibitory control and problem-solving performance will make an important contribution to our understanding of individual and species differences in physical problem-solving performance.
Hong, Felix T
Rosen classified sciences into two categories: formalizable and unformalizable. Whereas formalizable sciences expressed in terms of mathematical theories were highly valued by Rutherford, Hutchins pointed out that unformalizable parts of soft sciences are of genuine interest and importance. Attempts to build mathematical theories for biology in the past century was met with modest and sporadic successes, and only in simple systems. In this article, a qualitative model of humans' high creativity is presented as a starting point to consider whether the gap between soft and hard sciences is bridgeable. Simonton's chance-configuration theory, which mimics the process of evolution, was modified and improved. By treating problem solving as a process of pattern recognition, the known dichotomy of visual thinking vs. verbal thinking can be recast in terms of analog pattern recognition (non-algorithmic process) and digital pattern recognition (algorithmic process), respectively. Additional concepts commonly encountered in computer science, operations research and artificial intelligence were also invoked: heuristic searching, parallel and sequential processing. The refurbished chance-configuration model is now capable of explaining several long-standing puzzles in human cognition: a) why novel discoveries often came without prior warning, b) why some creators had no ideas about the source of inspiration even after the fact, c) why some creators were consistently luckier than others, and, last but not least, d) why it was so difficult to explain what intuition, inspiration, insight, hunch, serendipity, etc. are all about. The predictive power of the present model was tested by means of resolving Zeno's paradox of Achilles and the Tortoise after one deliberately invoked visual thinking. Additional evidence of its predictive power must await future large-scale field studies. The analysis was further generalized to constructions of scientific theories in general. This approach
Schulte, Fiona; Vannatta, Kathryn; Barrera, Maru
The aim of this study was to explore the ability of a group social skills intervention program for childhood brain tumor survivors to effect two steps of the social information processing model: social problem solving and social performance. Participants were 15 survivors (eight men and seven women) aged 7-15 years. The intervention consisted of eight 2-h weekly sessions focused on social skills including friendship making. Social problem solving, using hypothetical scenarios, was assessed during sessions 1 and 8. Social performance was observed during intervention sessions 1, 4, and 8. Compared with session 1, significant increases were found in social performance: frequency of maintaining eye contact and social conversations with peers over the course of the intervention. No significant changes in social problem solving were noted. This pilot study is the first to report improvements related to group social skills intervention at the level of observed social performance over the course of intervention. The lack of change in social problem solving suggests that survivors may possess the social knowledge required for social situations but have difficulty enacting social behaviors. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
This research investigation examined the effects of Singapore's Model Method, also known as "model drawing" or "bar modeling" on the word problem-solving performance of American third and fourth grade students. Employing a single-case design, a researcher-designed teaching intervention was delivered to a child in third…
LUZ STELLA LÓPEZ
Full Text Available This article shares the design, implementation, and evaluation of theLesson Study process used for the professional development of teachers of mathematics, through the Red de Comprensión Lectora y Matemáticas – CCyM Network, in ways to teach mathematics through problem solving. The program began with a course on the implementation of the Thinking Classroom, followed by the semi-presencial Lesson Study process. An analysis of teacher interactions during the Lesson Study process yielded these categories of study: Group Collective Thinking, Mathematical Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Subject Matter Knowledge, Knowledge about Technology, and Expert Support. The analysis reflected variations in group interactions, in the command of concepts, in reflective practice, in the ability to make arguments and to propose changes in practice, and in the ability to self-regulate.
Full Text Available Drawing appropriate diagrams is a useful problem solving heuristic that can transform a problem into a representation that is easier to exploit for solving it. One major focus while helping introductory physics students learn effective problem solving is to help them understand that drawing diagrams can facilitate problem solution. We conducted an investigation in which two different interventions were implemented during recitation quizzes in a large enrollment algebra-based introductory physics course. Students were either (i asked to solve problems in which the diagrams were drawn for them or (ii explicitly told to draw a diagram. A comparison group was not given any instruction regarding diagrams. We developed rubrics to score the problem solving performance of students in different intervention groups and investigated ten problems. We found that students who were provided diagrams never performed better and actually performed worse than the other students on three problems, one involving standing sound waves in a tube (discussed elsewhere and two problems in electricity which we focus on here. These two problems were the only problems in electricity that involved considerations of initial and final conditions, which may partly account for why students provided with diagrams performed significantly worse than students who were not provided with diagrams. In order to explore potential reasons for this finding, we conducted interviews with students and found that some students provided with diagrams may have spent less time on the conceptual analysis and planning stage of the problem solving process. In particular, those provided with the diagram were more likely to jump into the implementation stage of problem solving early without fully analyzing and understanding the problem, which can increase the likelihood of mistakes in solutions.
Maries, Alexandru; Singh, Chandralekha
Drawing appropriate diagrams is a useful problem solving heuristic that can transform a problem into a representation that is easier to exploit for solving it. One major focus while helping introductory physics students learn effective problem solving is to help them understand that drawing diagrams can facilitate problem solution. We conducted an investigation in which two different interventions were implemented during recitation quizzes in a large enrollment algebra-based introductory physics course. Students were either (i) asked to solve problems in which the diagrams were drawn for them or (ii) explicitly told to draw a diagram. A comparison group was not given any instruction regarding diagrams. We developed rubrics to score the problem solving performance of students in different intervention groups and investigated ten problems. We found that students who were provided diagrams never performed better and actually performed worse than the other students on three problems, one involving standing sound waves in a tube (discussed elsewhere) and two problems in electricity which we focus on here. These two problems were the only problems in electricity that involved considerations of initial and final conditions, which may partly account for why students provided with diagrams performed significantly worse than students who were not provided with diagrams. In order to explore potential reasons for this finding, we conducted interviews with students and found that some students provided with diagrams may have spent less time on the conceptual analysis and planning stage of the problem solving process. In particular, those provided with the diagram were more likely to jump into the implementation stage of problem solving early without fully analyzing and understanding the problem, which can increase the likelihood of mistakes in solutions.
Psycharis, Sarantos; Kallia, Maria
In this paper we investigate whether computer programming has an impact on high school student's reasoning skills, problem solving and self-efficacy in Mathematics. The quasi-experimental design was adopted to implement the study. The sample of the research comprised 66 high school students separated into two groups, the experimental and the…
Chan, Man Ching Esther; Clarke, David; Cao, Yiming
Interactive problem solving and learning are priorities in contemporary education, but these complex processes have proved difficult to research. This project addresses the question "How do we optimise social interaction for the promotion of learning in a mathematics classroom?" Employing the logic of multi-theoretic research design,…
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the Scratch and Lego Mindstorms Ev3 programming activities on academic achievement with respect to computer programming, and on the problem-solving and logical-mathematical thinking skills of students. This study was a semi-experimental, pretest-posttest study with two experimental groups and…
Babbitt, Beatrice C.
Although many common problem-solving errors within the realm of school mathematics have been previously identified, a compilation of such errors is not readily available within learning disabilities textbooks, mathematics education texts, or teacher's manuals for school mathematics texts. Using data on error frequencies drawn from both the Fourth…
RUSNILAWATI Eva Gustiana RUSNILAWATI
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to produce Flipbook-based Electronic Teaching Materials (BAE based on problem solving skills with CTL Approach on Vocational School Class V learning valid, practical, and effective. This type of research is development research (Development Research. This research developed Flipbook-assisted Electronic Teaching Materials (BAE on the mathematics learning of Class V Primary School by using the 4-D development model developed by Thiagarajan, Semmel, and Semmel. The validation results show that the developed Teaching Materials are worthy of use with a good minimum category. The results of the experiments show that Electronic Materials developed are practical and effective. Completed learning in the classical has reached the minimum criteria of 75% that is for problem-solving test reached 86%. Based on a questionnaire of attitudes toward mathematics, 88% of students showed an increase in attitude scores on mathematics, and 85% of students showed attitudes toward mathematics with a good minimum category.
Tatzl, Dietmar; Messnarz, Bernd
This article investigates the influence of English as the examination language on the solution of physics and science problems by non-native speakers in tertiary engineering education. For that purpose, a statistically significant total number of 96 students in four year groups from freshman to senior level participated in a testing experiment in the Degree Programme of Aviation at the FH JOANNEUM University of Applied Sciences, Graz, Austria. Half of each test group were given a set of 12 physics problems described in German, the other half received the same set of problems described in English. It was the goal to test linguistic reading comprehension necessary for scientific problem solving instead of physics knowledge as such. The results imply that written undergraduate English-medium engineering tests and examinations may not require additional examination time or language-specific aids for students who have reached university-entrance proficiency in English as a foreign language.
Barrow, Lloyd H.; And Others
This activity was created to address a lack of problem-solving activities for elementary children. A "monorail" activity from the Evening Science Program for K-3 Students and Parents program is presented to illustrate the problem-solving format. Designed for performance at stations by groups of two students. (LZ)
Ebomoyi, Josephine Itota
The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) Determine the relationship between learning strategies and performance in problem solving, (2) Explore the role of a student's declared major on performance in problem solving, (3) Understand the decision making process of high and low achievers during problem solving. Participants (N = 65) solved problems using the Interactive multimedia exercise (IMMEX) software. All participants not only solved "Microquest," which focuses on cellular processes and mode of action of antibiotics, but also "Creeping Crud," which focuses on the cause, origin and transmission of diseases. Participants also responded to the "Motivated Strategy Learning Questionnaire" (MSLQ). Hierarchical multiple regression was used for analysis with GPA (Gracie point average) as a control. There were 49 (78.6%) that successfully solved "Microquest" while 52 (82.5%) successfully solved "Creeping Crud". Metacognitive self regulation strategy was significantly (p low achievers. Common strategies and attributes included metacognitive skills, writing to keep track, using prior knowledge. Others included elements of frustration/confusion and self-esteem problems. The implications for educational and relevance to real life situations are discussed.
Lundahl, Allison A.
Schools implementing Response to Intervention (RtI) procedures frequently engage in team problem-solving processes to address the needs of students who require intensive and individualized services. Because the effectiveness of the problem-solving process will impact the overall success of RtI systems, the present study was designed to learn more about how to strengthen the integrity of the problem-solving process. Research suggests that school districts must ensure high quality training and ongoing support to enhance the effectiveness, acceptability, and sustainability of the problem-solving process within an RtI model; however, there is a dearth of research examining the effectiveness of methods to provide this training and support. Consequently, this study investigated the effects of performance feedback and coaching strategies on the integrity with which teams of educators conducted the problem-solving process in schools. In addition, the relationships between problem-solving integrity, teacher acceptability, and student outcomes were examined. Results suggested that the performance feedback increased problem-solving procedural integrity across two of the three participating schools. Conclusions about the effectiveness of the (a) coaching intervention and (b) interventions implemented in the third school were inconclusive. Regression analyses indicated that the integrity with which the teams conducted the problem-solving process was a significant predictor of student outcomes. However, the relationship between problem-solving procedural integrity and teacher acceptability was not statistically significant.
Syahputra, Edi; Surya, Edy
This paper is a summary study of team Postgraduate on 11th grade. The objective of this study is to develop a learning model based on problem solving which can construct high-order thinking on the learning mathematics in SMA/MA. The subject of dissemination consists of Students of 11th grade in SMA/MA in 3 kabupaten/kota in North Sumatera, namely:…
Full Text Available Recent studies have uncovered relationships between measures of various cognitive performances and proxies of fitness such as reproductive success in non-human animals. However, to better understand the evolution of cognition in the wild, we still have to determine the causality of these relationships and the underlying mechanisms. The cognitive ability of an individual may directly influence its ability to raise many and/or high quality young through for example its provisioning ability. Conversely, large and/or high quality broods may lead to high parental motivation to solve problems related to their care. To answer this question, we manipulated reproductive success through brood size and measured subsequent problem-solving performance in wild great tit parents. Our results show that brood size manipulation did not affect the probability to solve the task. Moreover, solver pairs fledged more young than non-solver pairs independently of brood size treatment in one of the two experimental years and they showed higher nestling provisioning rate in both years. Overall, it shows that problem-solving performance was not driven by motivation and suggest that problem-solvers may achieve higher fledging success through higher provisioning rates. Our study constitutes a first key step toward a mechanistic understanding of the consequences of innovation ability for individual fitness in the wild.
Boecker, Heinz-Dieter; Fischer, Gerhard
This book is unique in that its stress is not on the mastery of a programming language, but on the importance and value of interactive problem solving. The authors focus on several specific interest worlds: mathematics, computer science, artificial intelligence, linguistics, and games; however, their approach can serve as a model that may be applied easily to other fields as well. Those who are interested in symbolic computing will find that Interactive Problem Solving Using LOGO provides a gentle introduction from which one may move on to other, more advanced computational frameworks or more
Chu, Junyi; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R
The format of a mathematics problem often influences students' problem-solving performance. For example, providing diagrams in conjunction with story problems can benefit students' understanding, choice of strategy, and accuracy on story problems. However, it remains unclear whether providing diagrams in conjunction with symbolic equations can benefit problem-solving performance as well. We tested the impact of diagram presence on students' performance on algebra equation problems to determine whether diagrams increase problem-solving success. We also examined the influence of item- and student-level factors to test the robustness of the diagram effect. We worked with 61 seventh-grade students who had received 2 months of pre-algebra instruction. Students participated in an experimenter-led classroom session. Using a within-subjects design, students solved algebra problems in two matched formats (equation and equation-with-diagram). The presence of diagrams increased equation-solving accuracy and the use of informal strategies. This diagram benefit was independent of student ability and item complexity. The benefits of diagrams found previously for story problems generalized to symbolic problems. The findings are consistent with cognitive models of problem-solving and suggest that diagrams may be a useful additional representation of symbolic problems. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Garner, Mary L.; Watson, Virginia; Rogers, Beth; Head, Catherine
Math teachers' circles are a form of professional development that is recommended by the Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences in their publication Mathematical Education of Teachers II (2012). However, little research has been published on how effective math teachers' circles are in advancing the mathematical knowledge of teachers and…
Felmer , Patricio; Perdomo-Díaz , Josefa; Giaconi , Valentina; Espinoza , Carmen ,
International audience; In this article, we report on an exploratory study on teaching practices related to problem solving of a group of 29 novel secondary mathematics teachers. For this purpose, two independent instruments were designed, the first one is based on lesson observations, and the second one is a questionnaire answered by teachers about their teaching practices while working on non-routine problem solving with their students. For each instrument, we perform a statistical analysis...
Leighton, Chet; McCabe, Cynthia
Just-In-Time Learning (JIT Learning) is a semester-long graduate course that teaches corporate trainers and instructional designers how to design performance improvement interventions. This course is part of a Master's program in Instructional Technology at San Francisco State University. The course has been offered three times and has been…
Sharit, Joseph; Taha, Jessica; Berkowsky, Ronald W; Profita, Halley; Czaja, Sara J
Although access to Internet health information can be beneficial, solving complex health-related problems online is challenging for many individuals. In this study, we investigated the performance of a sample of 60 adults ages 18 to 85 years in using the Internet to resolve a relatively complex health information problem. The impact of age, Internet experience, and cognitive abilities on measures of search time, amount of search, and search accuracy was examined, and a model of Internet information seeking was developed to guide the characterization of participants' search strategies. Internet experience was found to have no impact on performance measures. Older participants exhibited longer search times and lower amounts of search but similar search accuracy performance as their younger counterparts. Overall, greater search accuracy was related to an increased amount of search but not to increased search duration and was primarily attributable to higher cognitive abilities, such as processing speed, reasoning ability, and executive function. There was a tendency for those who were younger, had greater Internet experience, and had higher cognitive abilities to use a bottom-up (i.e., analytic) search strategy, although use of a top-down (i.e., browsing) strategy was not necessarily unsuccessful. Implications of the findings for future studies and design interventions are discussed.
Full Text Available Experimental evidence suggests that females would prefer males with better cognitive abilities as mates. However, little is known about the traits reflecting enhanced cognitive skills on which females might base their mate-choice decisions. In particular, it has been suggested that male foraging performance could be used as an indicator of cognitive capacity, but convincing evidence for this hypothesis is still lacking. In the present study, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata modify their mating preferences after having observed the performance of males on a problem-solving task. Specifically, we measured the females’ preferences between two males once before and once after an observation period, during which their initially preferred male was incapable of solving the task contrary to their initially less-preferred male. We also conducted a control treatment to test whether the shift in female preferences was attributable to differences between the two stimulus males in their foraging efficiency. Finally, we assessed each bird’s performance in a color associative task to check whether females can discriminate among males based on their learning speed. We found that females significantly increased their preference toward the most efficient male in both treatments. Yet, there was no difference between the two treatments and we found no evidence that females assess male cognitive ability indirectly via morphological traits. Thus, our results suggest that females would not use the males’ problem-solving performance as an indicator of general cognitive ability to gain indirect fitness benefits (i.e., good genes but rather to assess their foraging efficiency and gain direct benefits.
Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Kuo, Fan-Ray
Web-based problem-solving, a compound ability of critical thinking, creative thinking, reasoning thinking and information-searching abilities, has been recognised as an important competence for elementary school students. Some researchers have reported the possible correlations between problem-solving competence and information searching ability;…
Maries, Alexandru; Singh, Chandralekha
Drawing appropriate diagrams is a useful problem solving heuristic that can transform a problem into a representation that is easier to exploit for solving it. One major focus while helping introductory physics students learn effective problem solving is to help them understand that drawing diagrams can facilitate problem solution. We conducted an…
Duranton, Charlotte; Rödel, Heiko G; Bedossa, Thierry; Belkhir, Séverine
The authors investigated differences between female and male pet dogs in physical cognition using an object manipulation task. Subjects (24 females and 23 males of different breeds) had to open a box in order to obtain a food reward during 3 consecutive trials, and latency times before success were measured. Males were significantly more successful in opening the box during the first trial. However, this sex difference was inversed when successful individuals were retested. During the following 2 trials, females were more successful than males, indicating that they were able to improve their skills more quickly once they had managed to succeed for a first time. Sex-specific dynamics in repeated problem-solving tasks might be an important contributor to individual differences in cognitive performance of pet dogs. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Jennifer L. Docktor; Natalie E. Strand; José P. Mestre; Brian H. Ross
Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in w...
Bassuk, James A; Washington, Ida M
The purpose of this study was to illustrate the application of A3 Problem Solving Reports of the Toyota Production System to our research vivarium through the methodology of Continuous Performance Improvement, a lean approach to healthcare management at Seattle Children's (Hospital, Research Institute, Foundation). The Report format is described within the perspective of a 10-step scientific method designed to realize measurable improvements of Issues identified by the Report's Author, Sponsor and Coach. The 10-step method (Issue, Background, Current Condition, Goal, Root Cause, Target Condition, Countermeasures, Implementation Plan, Test, and Follow-up) was shown to align with Shewhart's Plan-Do-Check-Act process improvement cycle in a manner that allowed for quantitative analysis of the Countermeasure's outcomes and of Testing results. During fiscal year 2012, 9 A3 Problem Solving Reports were completed in the vivarium under the teaching and coaching system implemented by the Research Institute. Two of the 9 reports are described herein. Report #1 addressed the issue of the vivarium's veterinarian not being able to provide input into sick animal cases during the work day, while report #7 tackled the lack of a standard in keeping track of weekend/holiday animal health inspections. In each Report, a measurable Goal that established the basis for improvement recognition was present. A Five Whys analysis identified the Root Cause for Report #1 as historical work patterns that existed before the veterinarian was hired on and that modern electronic communication tools had not been implemented. The same analysis identified the Root Cause for Report #7 as the vivarium had never standardized the process for weekend/holiday checks. Successful outcomes for both Reports were obtained and validated by robust audit plans. The collective data indicate that vivarium staff acquired a disciplined way of reporting on, as well as solving, problems in a manner consistent with high
James A Bassuk
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to illustrate the application of A3 Problem Solving Reports of the Toyota Production System to our research vivarium through the methodology of Continuous Performance Improvement, a lean approach to healthcare management at Seattle Children's (Hospital, Research Institute, Foundation. The Report format is described within the perspective of a 10-step scientific method designed to realize measurable improvements of Issues identified by the Report's Author, Sponsor and Coach. The 10-step method (Issue, Background, Current Condition, Goal, Root Cause, Target Condition, Countermeasures, Implementation Plan, Test, and Follow-up was shown to align with Shewhart's Plan-Do-Check-Act process improvement cycle in a manner that allowed for quantitative analysis of the Countermeasure's outcomes and of Testing results. During fiscal year 2012, 9 A3 Problem Solving Reports were completed in the vivarium under the teaching and coaching system implemented by the Research Institute. Two of the 9 reports are described herein. Report #1 addressed the issue of the vivarium's veterinarian not being able to provide input into sick animal cases during the work day, while report #7 tackled the lack of a standard in keeping track of weekend/holiday animal health inspections. In each Report, a measurable Goal that established the basis for improvement recognition was present. A Five Whys analysis identified the Root Cause for Report #1 as historical work patterns that existed before the veterinarian was hired on and that modern electronic communication tools had not been implemented. The same analysis identified the Root Cause for Report #7 as the vivarium had never standardized the process for weekend/holiday checks. Successful outcomes for both Reports were obtained and validated by robust audit plans. The collective data indicate that vivarium staff acquired a disciplined way of reporting on, as well as solving, problems in a manner
One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, "knowledge chunks" are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for meta-cognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition.
Christensen, Kip W.; Martin, Loren
Interpersonal and cognitive skills, adaptability, and critical thinking can be developed through problem solving and cooperative learning in technology education. These skills have been identified as significant needs of the workplace as well as for functioning in society. (SK)
Kribbs, Elizabeth E.; Rogowsky, Beth A.
Mathematics word-problems continue to be an insurmountable challenge for many middle school students. Educators have used pictorial and schematic illustrations within the classroom to help students visualize these problems. However, the data shows that pictorial representations can be more harmful than helpful in that they only display objects or…
The results of an exploratory study into measurement of elementary mathematics ability are presented. The focus is on the abilities involved in solving standard computation problems on the one hand and problems presented in a realistic context on the other. The objectives were to assess to what extent these abilities are shared or distinct, and…
Little, Jake; Anderson, Judy
There is an acknowledged gap between the theory presented in university preparation programmes and the reality of classroom practice that has resulted in many secondary mathematics pre-service teachers failing to implement university-endorsed teaching strategies. Using responses to a questionnaire and interviews, this qualitative study examined…
The availability of sophisticated computer programs such as "Wolfram Alpha" has made many problems found in the secondary mathematics curriculum somewhat obsolete for they can be easily solved by the software. Against this background, an interplay between the power of a modern tool of technology and educational constraints it presents is…
Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.
Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an…
Problem solving is one of the main competences we seek to teach students at school for use in their future lives. However, when dealing with mathematical problems, teachers encounter a wide variety of difficulties. To foster students' problem-solving skills, the authors developed "strategy keys." Strategy keys can serve as material to…
Hall, Eve R.; And Others
The current period in mathematics education can be characterized as one of reform. Many feel that children in the United States are not learning enough appropriate mathematics; these critics are concerned with the specific areas of problem solving and children's conceptions of the nature and uses of mathematics. A pretest/posttest experimental…
Karatas, Ilhan; Baki, Adnan
Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educating students as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum.…
Karimah, R. K. N.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Pramudya, I.
Learning in the current 2013 curriculum is based on contextual issues based on questions that can encourage students to think broadly. HOTS is a real-life based assessment of everyday life, but in practice, the students are having trouble completing the HOTS issue. Learning difficulty is also influenced by personality type Based on the fact that the real difference one can see from a person is behavior. Kersey classifies the personality into 4 types, namely Idealist, Rational, Artisan, and Guardian. The researcher focuses on the type of guardian personality that is the type of personality that does not like the picture. This study aims to describe the difficulty of learning mathematics in students with a type of guardian personality in the completion of Geometry materials especially in solving HOTS. This research type is descriptive qualitative research. Instruments used in this study were the researchers themselves, personality class test sheets, learning difficulty test sheets in the form of HOTS Geometry test, and interview guides. The results showed that students with guardian personality it was found that a total of 3.37 % difficulties of number fact skill, 4.49 % difficulties of arithmetics skill, 37.08 % difficulties of information skill, 31.46% difficulties of language skill, 23.60 % difficulties of visual-spatial skill.
Jäkel, Frank; Schreiber, Cornell
Problem solving research has encountered an impasse. Since the seminal work of Newell und Simon (1972) researchers do not seem to have made much theoretical progress (Batchelder and Alexander, 2012; Ohlsson, 2012). In this paper we argue that one factor that is holding back the field is the widespread rejection of introspection among cognitive…
Greene, Kim; Heyck-Williams, Jeff; Timpson Gray, Elicia
Problem solving spans all grade levels and content areas, as evidenced by this compilation of projects from schools across the United States. In one project, high school girls built a solar-powered tent to serve their city's homeless population. In another project, 4th graders explored historic Jamestown to learn about the voices lost to history.…
Owoh, Jeremy Strickland
In today's technology enriched schools and workforces, creative problem-solving is involved in many aspects of a person's life. The educational systems of developed nations are designed to raise students who are creative and skillful in solving complex problems. Technology and the age of information require nations to develop generations of…
This study investigated the relative effectiveness of problem-solving, guideddiscovery, and expository methods of instruction on students performance in redox reaction, considering their mathematics ability. It was a quasiexperimental research using non-randomized-pre-test post-test control group design with expository ...
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving...... approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools....
René Victor Valqui Vidal
Full Text Available This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools.
A sample of 127 high school Advanced Placement (AP) Calculus students from two schools was utilized to study the effects of an engineering design-based problem solving strategy on student performance with AP style Related Rate questions and changes in conceptions, beliefs, and influences. The research design followed a treatment-control multiple…
Yakubova, Gulnoza; Zeleke, Waganesh A.
In this study, the effectiveness of teaching problem-solving to improve transition-related task performance of three students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was examined using a multiple probe across students design. Target behaviors included various transition-related tasks individualized for each student based on their individual…
Dermitzaki, Irini; Stavroussi, Panayiota; Bandi, Maria; Nisiotou, Ioulia
The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent students with mild mental retardation exhibit strategic behaviour during problem solving and to investigate the relationships between the ongoing behaviours examined and the students' respective performance. Eleven students with non-organic mild mental retardation participated in the study.…
Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Wu, Po-Han; Chen, Chi-Chang
In this paper, an online game was developed in the form of a competitive board game for conducting web-based problem-solving activities. The participants of the game determined their move by throwing a dice. Each location of the game board corresponds to a gaming task, which could be a web-based information-searching question or a mini-game; the…
Many industrial production work systems have increased in complexity, and their new business model scompete on innovation, rather than low cost.At a medical device production facility committed to Lean Production, a research project was carried out to use Appreciative Inquiry to better engage...... employee strengths in continuou simprovements of the work system. The research question was: “How can Lean problem solving and Appreciative Inquiry be combined for optimized work system innovation?” The research project was carried out as a co-creation process with close cooperation between researcher...
Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul
as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organisational issues, specifically new organisational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organisational forms and to point to some design problems that characterise these forms.......Two of Herbert Simon's best-known papers are 'The Architecture of Complexity' and 'The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems.' We discuss the neglected links between these two papers, highlighting the role of decomposition in the context of problems on which constraints have been imposed...
Stoyanov, S.; Stoyanov, Slavi; Kommers, Petrus A.M.
The main theoretical position of this paper is that it is the explicit problem-solving support in concept mapping software that produces a stronger effect in problem-solving performance than the implicit support afforded by the graphical functionality of concept mapping software. Explicit
Eric D. Johnson
Full Text Available Humans have long been characterized as poor probabilistic reasoners when presented with explicit numerical information. Bayesian word problems provide a well-known example of this, where even highly educated and cognitively skilled individuals fail to adhere to mathematical norms. It is widely agreed that natural frequencies can facilitate Bayesian reasoning relative to normalized formats (e.g. probabilities, percentages, both by clarifying logical set-subset relations and by simplifying numerical calculations. Nevertheless, between-study performance on transparent Bayesian problems varies widely, and generally remains rather unimpressive. We suggest there has been an over-focus on this representational facilitator (i.e. transparent problem structures at the expense of the specific logical and numerical processing requirements and the corresponding individual abilities and skills necessary for providing Bayesian-like output given specific verbal and numerical input. We further suggest that understanding this task-individual pair could benefit from considerations from the literature on mathematical cognition, which emphasizes text comprehension and problem solving, along with contributions of online executive working memory, metacognitive regulation, and relevant stored knowledge and skills. We conclude by offering avenues for future research aimed at identifying the stages in problem solving at which correct versus incorrect reasoners depart, and how individual difference might influence this time point.
Les Representations Graphiques Dans La Resolution De Problemes: Une Experience D'Entrainement D'Etudiants Dans Un Club Mathematique (Graphic Representations in Problem Solving: A Training Program for Students in a Mathematical Club).
Callejo, Maria Luz
Reports, in French, an investigation on the use of graphic representations in problem-solving tasks of the type in Spanish Mathematical Olympiads. Analysis showed that the choice and interpretation of the first graphic representation played a decisive role in the discovery of the solution. (34 references) (Author/MKR)
This chapter aims to deconstruct some persistent myths about creativity: the myth of individualism and of the genius. By looking at literature that approaches creativity as a participatory and distributed phenomenon and by bringing empirical evidence from artists’ studios, the author presents a p......, what can educators at higher education learn from the ways creative groups solve problems? How can artists contribute to inspiring higher education?......This chapter aims to deconstruct some persistent myths about creativity: the myth of individualism and of the genius. By looking at literature that approaches creativity as a participatory and distributed phenomenon and by bringing empirical evidence from artists’ studios, the author presents...... a perspective that is relevant to higher education. The focus here is on how artists solve problems in distributed paths, and on the elements of creative collaboration. Creative problem-solving will be looked at as an ongoing dialogue that artists engage with themselves, with others, with recipients...
Hong, Dae S.
In its mathematics standards, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) states that problem solving is an integral part of all mathematics learning and exposure to problem solving strategies should be embedded across the curriculum. Furthermore, by high school, students should be able to use, decide and invent a wide range of strategies.…
Miriam S. Rohe
Full Text Available In this paper, we bring together research on complex problem solving with that on motivational psychology about goal setting. Complex problems require motivational effort because of their inherent difficulties. Goal Setting Theory has shown with simple tasks that high, specific performance goals lead to better performance outcome than do-your-best goals. However, in complex tasks, learning goals have proven more effective than performance goals. Based on the Zurich Resource Model (Storch & Krause, 2014, so-called motto-goals (e.g., "I breathe happiness" should activate a person’s resources through positive affect. It was found that motto-goals are effective with unpleasant duties. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that motto-goals outperform learning and performance goals in the case of complex problems. A total of N = 123 subjects participated in the experiment. In dependence of their goal condition, subjects developed a personal motto, learning, or performance goal. This goal was adapted for the computer-simulated complex scenario Tailorshop, where subjects worked as managers in a small fictional company. Other than expected, there was no main effect of goal condition for the management performance. As hypothesized, motto goals led to higher positive and lower negative affect than the other two goal types. Even though positive affect decreased and negative affect increased in all three groups during Tailorshop completion, participants with motto goals reported the lowest rates of negative affect over time. Exploratory analyses investigated the role of affect in complex problem solving via mediational analyses and the influence of goal type on perceived goal attainment.
Full Text Available The original aim of complex problem solving (CPS research was to bring the cognitive demands of complex real-life problems into the lab in order to investigate problem solving behavior and performance under controlled conditions. Up until now, the validity of psychometric intelligence constructs has been scrutinized with regard to its importance for CPS performance. At the same time, different CPS measurement approaches competing for the title of the best way to assess CPS have been developed. In the first part of the paper, we investigate the predictability of CPS performance on the basis of the Berlin Intelligence Structure Model and Cattell’s investment theory as well as an elaborated knowledge taxonomy. In the first study, 137 students managed a simulated shirt factory (Tailorshop; i.e., a complex real life-oriented system twice, while in the second study, 152 students completed a forestry scenario (FSYS; i.e., a complex artificial world system. The results indicate that reasoning – specifically numerical reasoning (Studies 1 and 2 and figural reasoning (Study 2 – are the only relevant predictors among the intelligence constructs. We discuss the results with reference to the Brunswik symmetry principle. Path models suggest that reasoning and prior knowledge influence problem solving performance in the Tailorshop scenario mainly indirectly. In addition, different types of system-specific knowledge independently contribute to predicting CPS performance. The results of Study 2 indicate that working memory capacity, assessed as an additional predictor, has no incremental validity beyond reasoning. We conclude that (1 cognitive abilities and prior knowledge are substantial predictors of CPS performance, and (2 in contrast to former and recent interpretations, there is insufficient evidence to consider CPS a unique ability construct. In the second part of the paper, we discuss our results in light of recent CPS research, which predominantly
Süß, Heinz-Martin; Kretzschmar, André
The original aim of complex problem solving (CPS) research was to bring the cognitive demands of complex real-life problems into the lab in order to investigate problem solving behavior and performance under controlled conditions. Up until now, the validity of psychometric intelligence constructs has been scrutinized with regard to its importance for CPS performance. At the same time, different CPS measurement approaches competing for the title of the best way to assess CPS have been developed. In the first part of the paper, we investigate the predictability of CPS performance on the basis of the Berlin Intelligence Structure Model and Cattell’s investment theory as well as an elaborated knowledge taxonomy. In the first study, 137 students managed a simulated shirt factory (Tailorshop; i.e., a complex real life-oriented system) twice, while in the second study, 152 students completed a forestry scenario (FSYS; i.e., a complex artificial world system). The results indicate that reasoning – specifically numerical reasoning (Studies 1 and 2) and figural reasoning (Study 2) – are the only relevant predictors among the intelligence constructs. We discuss the results with reference to the Brunswik symmetry principle. Path models suggest that reasoning and prior knowledge influence problem solving performance in the Tailorshop scenario mainly indirectly. In addition, different types of system-specific knowledge independently contribute to predicting CPS performance. The results of Study 2 indicate that working memory capacity, assessed as an additional predictor, has no incremental validity beyond reasoning. We conclude that (1) cognitive abilities and prior knowledge are substantial predictors of CPS performance, and (2) in contrast to former and recent interpretations, there is insufficient evidence to consider CPS a unique ability construct. In the second part of the paper, we discuss our results in light of recent CPS research, which predominantly utilizes the
Harper, Suzanne R.; Cox, Dana C.
In the authors' attempts to incorporate problem solving into their mathematics courses, they have found that student ambition and creativity are often hampered by feelings of risk, as many students are conditioned to value a produced solution over the actual process of building one. Eliminating risk is neither possible nor desired. The challenge,…
Chio, José Angel; Álvarez, Aida; López, Margarita
The objective of this paper is to favour the methodological process of reflexive analysis in problem solving in the general teaching methods that concentrates in strengthening the dimensional analysis, to gain a greater preparation of the students for the solution of mathematical problems.
In this dissertation I will start with the broad research question of what does problem solving in upper division physics look like? My focus in this study is on students' problem solving in physics theory courses. Some mathematical formalisms are common across all physics core courses such as using the process of separation of variables, doing Taylor series, or using the orthogonality properties of mathematical functions to set terms equal to zero. However, there are slight differences in their use of these mathematical formalisms across different courses, possibly because of how students map different physical systems to these processes. Thus, my first main research question aims to answer how students perform these recurring processes across upper division physics courses. I break this broad question into three particular research questions: What knowledge pieces do students use to make connections between physics and procedural math? How do students use their knowledge pieces coherently to provide reasoning strategies in estimation problems? How do students look ahead into the problem to read the information out of the physical scenario to align their use of math in physics? Building on the previous body of the literature, I will use the theory family of Knowledge in Pieces and provide evidence to expand this theoretical foundation. I will compare my study with previous studies and provide suggestions on how to generalize these theory expansions for future use. My experimental data mostly come from video-based classroom data. Students in groups of 2-4 students solve in-class problems in quantum mechanics and electromagnetic fields 1 courses collaboratively. In addition, I will analyze clinical interviews to demonstrate how a single case study student plays an epistemic game to estimate the total energy in a hurricane. My second research question is more focused on a particular instructional context. How do students frame problem solving in quantum mechanics? I
Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.
Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers' implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.
Jennifer L. Docktor
Full Text Available Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers’ implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.
development through situated mathematical problem solving. Modeling activities described in this paper support the epistemological position regarding the interplay that exists between the development of mathematical concepts and available methods of calculation. The spreadsheet used is Microsoft Excel 2001
Full Text Available According to the OECD's PISA 2012 Turkey problem-solving report, Turkey and Serbia are at the same mathematical literacy level. However, Serbia's average of problem-solving competency is said to be higher than Turkey's. In this study, school variables that affect problem-solving competency of the two countries were examined and compared. The method of the study was causal comparison method, and HLM analysis was performed on data of 4494 students from 147 schools in Turkey sample and 4059 students from 132 schools in Serbia sample separately. As a result of HLM analysis, "obstacle and family donation" variable for Serbia and "abandon, teacher morale and mathematics competition" variable for Turkey were statistically significant. Although it was found that for each countries different variables influence the problem-solving competency, it was quite remarkable that these variables are in common in that they are components of the school climate concept.
Kim, Yun Hee; Jang, Keum Seong
This study was conducted to examine the effects of simulation-based education regarding care in a cardio-pulmonary emergency care as related to knowledge, clinical performance ability, and problem solving process in new nurses. An equivalent control group pre-post test experimental design was used. Fifty new nurses were recruited, 26 nurses for the experimental group and 24 nurses for the control group. The simulation-based cardio-pulmonary emergency care education included lecture, skill training, team-based practice, and debriefing, and it was implemented with the experimental group for a week in May, 2009. Data were analyzed using frequency, ratio, chi-square, Fisher's exact probability and t-test with the SPSS program. The experimental group who had the simulation-based education showed significantly higher know-ledge (t=5.76, pproblem solving process was not included (t=1.11, p=.138). The results indicate that a simulation-based education is an effective teaching method to improve knowledge and clinical performance ability in new nurses learning cardio-pulmonary emergency care. Further study is needed to identify the effect of a simulation-based team discussion on cognitive outcome of clinical nurses such as problem solving skills.
Mushlihuddin, R.; Nurafifah; Irvan
The student’s low ability in mathematics problem solving proved to the less effective of a learning process in the classroom. Effective learning was a learning that affects student’s math skills, one of which is problem-solving abilities. Problem-solving capability consisted of several stages: understanding the problem, planning the settlement, solving the problem as planned, re-examining the procedure and the outcome. The purpose of this research was to know: (1) was there any influence of PBL model in improving ability Problem solving of student math in a subject of vector analysis?; (2) was the PBL model effective in improving students’ mathematical problem-solving skills in vector analysis courses? This research was a quasi-experiment research. The data analysis techniques performed from the test stages of data description, a prerequisite test is the normality test, and hypothesis test using the ANCOVA test and Gain test. The results showed that: (1) there was an influence of PBL model in improving students’ math problem-solving abilities in vector analysis courses; (2) the PBL model was effective in improving students’ problem-solving skills in vector analysis courses with a medium category.
Scaffolding students' problem solving and helping them to improve problem solving skills are critical in instructional design courses. This study investigated the effects of students' uses of a digital mapping tool on their problem solving performance in a design case study. It was found that the students who used the digital mapping tool…
Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)
Frew Demeke Alemu
concerted efforts of unofficial actors to establish unofficial communication ... Frew Demeke Alemu (LLB, LLM in International Human Rights Law from Lund ..... 24 Tamra Pearson d'Estrée (2009), “Problem-Solving Approaches”, (in The SAGE ...
Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H
Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved
on the nature of physics problem- solving competency. The first, Sommerfeld’s, is a “theory first, phenomenon second” approach. Here the relevant problems originate in one of the theories of physics and the job goal of the problem- solver is to make a mathematical analysis of the suitable equation......A central goal of physics education is to teach problem-solving competency, but the nature of this competency is not well-described in the literature. The present paperarticle uses recent historical scholarship on Arnold Sommerfeld and Enrico Fermi to identify and characterize two positions......(s) and then give a qualitative analysis of the phenomenon that arise from these mathematical results. Fermi’s position is a “phenomenon first, theory second” approach, where the starting point is a physical phenomenon that is analyzed and then brought into the realm of a physics theory. The two positions...
Chitpin, Stephanie; Simon, Marielle
The examination of problem-solving processes continues to be a current research topic in education. Knowing how to solve problems is not only a key aspect of learning mathematics but is also at the heart of cognitive theories, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computers sciences. Problem solving is a multistep, higher-order cognitive task…
Von Kuster, Lee N.
Defines problem solving, discusses the use of problems developed by students that are relevant to their own lives, presents examples of practical mathematics problems that deal with local situations, discusses fringe benefits of this type of problem solving, and addresses teachers' concern that this method consumes too much time. (MBR)
We show that the underlying mathematical structure of dimensional analysis (DA), in the qualitative methods in problem-solving context, is the algebra of the affine spaces. In particular, we show that the qualitative problem-solving procedure based on the parallel decomposition of a problem into simple special cases yields the new original mathematical concepts of special points and special representations of affine spaces. A qualitative problem-solving algorithm piloted by the mathematics of DA is illustrated by a set of examples.
Full Text Available Arjun SinghDepartment of Pathology, Sri Venkateshwara Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Pondicherry, IndiaPurpose: We use different methods to train our undergraduates. The patient-oriented problem-solving (POPS system is an innovative teaching–learning method that imparts knowledge, enhances intrinsic motivation, promotes self learning, encourages clinical reasoning, and develops long-lasting memory. The aim of this study was to develop POPS in teaching pathology, assess its effectiveness, and assess students’ preference for POPS over didactic lectures.Method: One hundred fifty second-year MBBS students were divided into two groups: A and B. Group A was taught by POPS while group B was taught by traditional lectures. Pre- and post-test numerical scores of both groups were evaluated and compared. Students then completed a self-structured feedback questionnaire for analysis.Results: The mean (SD difference in pre- and post-test scores of groups A and B was 15.98 (3.18 and 7.79 (2.52, respectively. The significance of the difference between scores of group A and group B teaching methods was 16.62 (P < 0.0001, as determined by the z-test. Improvement in post-test performance of group A was significantly greater than of group B, demonstrating the effectiveness of POPS. Students responded that POPS facilitates self-learning, helps in understanding topics, creates interest, and is a scientific approach to teaching. Feedback response on POPS was strong in 57.52% of students, moderate in 35.67%, and negative in only 6.81%, showing that 93.19% students favored POPS over simple lectures.Conclusion: It is not feasible to enforce the PBL method of teaching throughout the entire curriculum; However, POPS can be incorporated along with audiovisual aids to break the monotony of dialectic lectures and as alternative to PBL.Keywords: medical education, problem-solving exercise, problem-based learning
Havva ILGIN; Derya ARSLAN
In this research, by carrying out activities based on texts, effect of providing problem solving skill on students’ levels of problem solving attainment was tried to be identified. Research was performed according to pretest-posttest Experimental Model with Control Group, in 2008-2009 educational year at second grade of an elementary school in Denizli province. For nine weeks, four hours in a week, while teacher guide book was being followed in control group in Turkish language lesson, texts ...
Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul
as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organizational issues, specifically new organizational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organizational forms and to point to some design problems that characterize these forms.Keywords: Herbert...... Simon, problem-solving, new organizational forms. JEL Code: D23, D83......Two of Herbert Simon's best-known papers are "The Architecture of Complexity" and "The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems." We discuss the neglected links between these two papers, highlighting the role of decomposition in the context of problems on which constraints have been imposed...
Intelligent information processing signifies an opportunity of having man's intellectual activity executed on the computer, in which inference, in place of ordinary calculation, is used as the basic operational mechanism for such an information processing. Many inference rules are derived from syllogisms in formal logic. The problem of programming this inference function is referred to as a problem solving. Although logically inference and problem-solving are in close relation, the calculation ability of current computers is on a low level for inferring. For clarifying the relation between inference and computers, nonmonotonic logic has been considered. The paper deals with the above topics. 16 references.
G. [., and Sussman, G. J. AMORD: Explicit Control or Reasoning. In Proceedings of the Symposium on Artificial Intellignece and Programming Languagues...0505 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK Artificial Intelligence Laboratory AREA& WORK UNIT NUMBERS 545...extending ideas from the field of Artificial Intelligence (A), we describ office work as a problem solving activity. A knowledge embedding language called
Tolman, Richard R.
Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)
This paper presents a bibliography of 263 references related to human problem solving, arranged by subject matter. The references were taken from PsycInfo and Academic Premier data-base. Journal papers, book chapters, and dissertations are included. The topics include human development, education, neuroscience, and research in applied settings. It…
Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving…
Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.
This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…
Xia, J; Li, Chunbo
The severe and long-lasting symptoms of schizophrenia are often the cause of severe disability. Environmental stress such as life events and the practical problems people face in their daily can worsen the symptoms of schizophrenia. Deficits in problem solving skills in people with schizophrenia affect their independent and interpersonal functioning and impair their quality of life. As a result, therapies such as problem solving therapy have been developed to improve problem solving skills for people with schizophrenia. To review the effectiveness of problem solving therapy compared with other comparable therapies or routine care for those with schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (September 2006), which is based on regular searches of BIOSIS, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. We inspected references of all identified studies for further trials. We included all clinical randomised trials comparing problem solving therapy with other comparable therapies or routine care. We extracted data independently. For homogenous dichotomous data we calculated random effects, relative risk (RR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) and, where appropriate, numbers needed to treat (NNT) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) using a random effects statistical model. We included only three small trials (n=52) that evaluated problem solving versus routine care, coping skills training or non-specific interaction. Inadequate reporting of data rendered many outcomes unusable. We were unable to undertake meta-analysis. Overall results were limited and inconclusive with no significant differences between treatment groups for hospital admission, mental state, behaviour, social skills or leaving the study early. No data were presented for global state, quality of life or satisfaction. We found insufficient evidence to confirm or refute the benefits of problem solving therapy as an additional
The Mathematics teacher questionnaire, administered as part of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011, comprised questions pertaining to the classroom practices of Teacher Clarity, Classroom Discussion, Feedback, Formative Assessment, Problem Solving and Metacognitive Strategies, ...
Jamieson, Thad Spencer
The use of mathematics performance tasks can provide a window into how a student is applying mathematics to various situations, how they are reasoning mathematically and how they are applying conceptual knowledge through problem solving and critical thinking. The purpose of this study was to investigate, according to the elementary mathematics…
Dawkins, Paul Christian; Mendoza Epperson, James A.
This study investigates interactions between calculus learning and problem-solving in the context of two first-semester undergraduate calculus courses in the USA. We assessed students' problem-solving abilities in a common US calculus course design that included traditional lecture and assessment with problem-solving-oriented labs. We investigate this blended instruction as a local representative of the US calculus reform movements that helped foster it. These reform movements tended to emphasize problem-solving as well as multiple mathematical registers and quantitative modelling. Our statistical analysis reveals the influence of the blended traditional/reform calculus instruction on students' ability to solve calculus-related, non-routine problems through repeated measures over the semester. The calculus instruction in this study significantly improved students' performance on non-routine problems, though performance improved more regarding strategies and accuracy than it did for drawing conclusions and providing justifications. We identified problem-solving behaviours that characterized top performance or attrition in the course. Top-performing students displayed greater algebraic proficiency, calculus skills, and more general heuristics than their peers, but overused algebraic techniques even when they proved cumbersome or inappropriate. Students who subsequently withdrew from calculus often lacked algebraic fluency and understanding of the graphical register. The majority of participants, when given a choice, relied upon less sophisticated trial-and-error approaches in the numerical register and rarely used the graphical register, contrary to the goals of US calculus reform. We provide explanations for these patterns in students' problem-solving performance in view of both their preparation for university calculus and the courses' assessment structure, which preferentially rewarded algebraic reasoning. While instruction improved students' problem-solving
Alberida, H.; Lufri; Festiyed; Barlian, E.
This research aims to develop problem solving model for science learning in junior high school. The learning model was developed using the ADDIE model. An analysis phase includes curriculum analysis, analysis of students of SMP Kota Padang, analysis of SMP science teachers, learning analysis, as well as the literature review. The design phase includes product planning a science-learning problem-solving model, which consists of syntax, reaction principle, social system, support system, instructional impact and support. Implementation of problem-solving model in science learning to improve students' science process skills. The development stage consists of three steps: a) designing a prototype, b) performing a formative evaluation and c) a prototype revision. Implementation stage is done through a limited trial. A limited trial was conducted on 24 and 26 August 2015 in Class VII 2 SMPN 12 Padang. The evaluation phase was conducted in the form of experiments at SMPN 1 Padang, SMPN 12 Padang and SMP National Padang. Based on the development research done, the syntax model problem solving for science learning at junior high school consists of the introduction, observation, initial problems, data collection, data organization, data analysis/generalization, and communicating.
Toh, Pee Choon; Leong, Yew Hoong; Toh, Tin Lam; Dindyal, Jaguthsing; Quek, Khiok Seng; Tay, Eng Guan; Ho, Foo Him
Mathematical problem solving is the mainstay of the mathematics curriculum for Singapore schools. In the preparation of prospective mathematics teachers, the authors, who are mathematics teacher educators, deem it important that pre-service mathematics teachers experience non-routine problem solving and acquire an attitude that predisposes them to…
Creswell, J David; Dutcher, Janine M; Klein, William M P; Harris, Peter R; Levine, John M
High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings.
Hämäläinen, Raija; De Wever, Bram; Nissinen, Kari; Cincinnato, Sebastiano
Purpose Research has shown that the problem-solving skills of adults with a vocational education and training (VET) background in technology-rich environments (TREs) are often inadequate. However, some adults with a VET background do have sound problem-solving skills. The present study aims to provide insight into the socio-demographic, work-related and everyday life factors that are associated with a strong problem-solving performance. Design/methodology/approach The study builds...
Full Text Available Teaching how to solve problems – from solving simple equations to solving difficult competition tasks – has been one of the greatest challenges for mathematics education for many years. Trying to find an effective method is an important educational task. Among others, the question arises as to whether a method in which students help each other might be useful. The present article describes part of an experiment that was designed to determine the effects of cooperative teaching techniques on the development of problem-solving skills.
Dreams have produced art, music, novels, films, mathematical proofs, designs for architecture, telescopes, and computers. Dreaming is essentially our brain thinking in another neurophysiologic state-and therefore it is likely to solve some problems on which our waking minds have become stuck. This neurophysiologic state is characterized by high activity in brain areas associated with imagery, so problems requiring vivid visualization are also more likely to get help from dreaming. This article reviews great historical dreams and modern laboratory research to suggest how dreams can aid creativity and problem-solving. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.
Melise Maria Vallim Reis
Full Text Available This paper is based on activities developed in a public school project entitled “Development and Evaluation of a Participative Pedagogy of University in High School: emphasis on Mathematics, Science, and Communication”. In this project, we use qualitative research to study the introduction and development of a methodology that uses problem solving to teach Mathematics in a public high school class, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The data analysis showed that the experience was successful in generating new meanings for students, exposing them to an investigative approach, as well as stimulating their participation in the classes. It provided strong evidence that problem solving methodology is feasible for public schools, despite the many constraints that may interfere in the process. Keywords: Mathematics Education. Problem Solving. High School. Linear Systems and Functions.Este artigo é baseado em atividades desenvolvidas dentro de um projeto mais amplo – modalidade FAPESP “Ensino Público” – intitulado “Desenvolvimento e Avaliação de Uma Pedagogia Universitária Participativa no Ensino Médio: Atividades com ênfase em Matemática, Ciências e Comunicação”. Nele foram utilizados métodos de pesquisa qualitativa para o estudo da implantação da metodologia de ensino de Matemática através da Resolução de Problemas, junto a alguns alunos de uma escola pública, no interior do Estado de São Paulo. A análise dos dados mostrou que a experiência teve êxito, tanto para a geração de significados aos alunos, aproximando-os de uma proposta investigativa, quanto para a melhoria de sua participação em sala de aula. Trouxe indícios de que metodologias diferenciadas podem ser eficazes no ensino público, apesar das contingências do mesmo e das dificuldades geradas pelas mudanças. Palavras-chave: Educação Matemática. Resolução de Problemas. Ensino Médio. Sistemas Lineares e Funções.
Furukawa, K; Nakajima, R; Yonezawa, A; Goto, S; Aoyama, A
The heart of the fifth generation computer will be powerful mechanisms for problem solving and inference. A deduction-oriented language is to be designed, which will form the core of the whole computing system. The language is based on predicate logic with the extended features of structuring facilities, meta structures and relational data base interfaces. Parallel computation mechanisms and specialized hardware architectures are being investigated to make possible efficient realization of the language features. The project includes research into an intelligent programming system, a knowledge representation language and system, and a meta inference system to be built on the core. 30 references.
Lovett, Andrew; Forbus, Kenneth
We present a computational model of visual problem solving, designed to solve problems from the Raven's Progressive Matrices intelligence test. The model builds on the claim that analogical reasoning lies at the heart of visual problem solving, and intelligence more broadly. Images are compared via structure mapping, aligning the common relational structure in 2 images to identify commonalities and differences. These commonalities or differences can themselves be reified and used as the input for future comparisons. When images fail to align, the model dynamically rerepresents them to facilitate the comparison. In our analysis, we find that the model matches adult human performance on the Standard Progressive Matrices test, and that problems which are difficult for the model are also difficult for people. Furthermore, we show that model operations involving abstraction and rerepresentation are particularly difficult for people, suggesting that these operations may be critical for performing visual problem solving, and reasoning more generally, at the highest level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
McLeavey, Breda C.; And Others
Compared self-poisoning patients with psychiatric patients and nonpatient controls on problem-solving skills and locus of control. The psychiatric and self-poisoning groups showed deficits on interpersonal problem solving compared with nonpatient controls. The self-poisoning group performed below or at the level of the psychiatric group. Locus of…
An investigation was carried out to examine the effects of cognitive style on learners' performance and interaction during complex problem solving with a computer modeling tool. One hundred and nineteen undergraduates volunteered to participate in the study. Participants were first administered a test, and based on their test scores they were…
Arjun SinghDepartment of Pathology, Sri Venkateshwara Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Pondicherry, IndiaPurpose: We use different methods to train our undergraduates. The patient-oriented problem-solving (POPS) system is an innovative teaching–learning method that imparts knowledge, enhances intrinsic motivation, promotes self learning, encourages clinical reasoning, and develops long-lasting memory. The aim of this study was to develop POPS in teaching pathology, asse...
Shin, Mikyung; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty
The purpose of this study was to synthesize the findings from 23 articles that compared the mathematical and cognitive performances of students with mathematics learning disabilities (LD) to (a) students with LD in mathematics and reading, (b) age- or grade-matched students with no LD, and (c) mathematical-ability-matched younger students with no LD. Overall results revealed that students with mathematics LD exhibited higher word problem-solving abilities and no significant group differences on working memory, long-term memory, and metacognition measures compared to students with LD in mathematics and reading. Findings also revealed students with mathematics LD demonstrated significantly lower performance compared to age- or grade-matched students with no LD on both mathematical and cognitive measures. Comparison between students with mathematics LD and younger students with no LD revealed mixed outcomes on mathematical measures and generally no significant group differences on cognitive measures. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.
Mulyono; Noor, N. L.
Goal orientation differences between mastery goals and performance goals can be a cause of high and low self-regulation and problem-solving abilities. To overcome these problems applied 7E-learning cycle in which students learn and develop ways to optimise the power of reason through the learning phase elicit, engage, explore, explain, elaborate, evaluate, and extend. This study aimed to test the effectiveness of learning by 7E-learning cycle and describe self-regulation and mathematics problem solving based on goal-orientation after the implementation 7E-learning cycle. This study used mix method design with research subject is graders XII sciences MA NU Nurul Ulum Jekulo Kudus which divided into goal orientation is mastery goal and performance goal. The independent variable of this research is learning model, while the dependent variable is problem solving and self-regulation. Then, collecting data using scale, interviews and tests. The data processed with the proportion of test, t-test, paired samples t-test, and Normality-gain. The results show problem-solving abilities of students through 7E-learning cycle the average of mathematical problem-solving capability class, self-regulation at 7E-learning cycle is better than the traditional model study. The problem-solving skills at 7E-learning cycle are better than the traditional model study, there is an increase in self-regulation through 7E-learning cycle of 0.4 (medium), and there is an increased problem-solving ability through 7E-learning cycle by 0.79 (high). Based on the qualitative analysis, self-regulation and problem-solving ability after the implementation of 7E-learning cycle students of a mastery goal group are better than the performance goal team. It is suggested to implement 7E-learning cycle to improve self-regulation and problem-solving ability as well as directing and fostering mastery goal on the student in the learning process.
Huang, Jia; Tan, Shu-ping; Walsh, Sarah C; Spriggens, Lauren K; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K
The current study aimed to examine the contribution of neurocognition and social cognition to components of social problem solving. Sixty-seven inpatients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls were administrated batteries of neurocognitive tests, emotion perception tests, and the Chinese Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (CAIPSS). MANOVAs were conducted to investigate the domains in which patients with schizophrenia showed impairments. Correlations were used to determine which impaired domains were associated with social problem solving, and multiple regression analyses were conducted to compare the relative contribution of neurocognitive and social cognitive functioning to components of social problem solving. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse in sustained attention, working memory, negative emotion, intention identification and all components of the CAIPSS. Specifically, sustained attention, working memory and negative emotion identification were found to correlate with social problem solving and 1-back accuracy significantly predicted the poor performance in social problem solving. Among the dysfunctions in schizophrenia, working memory contributed most to deficits in social problem solving in patients with schizophrenia. This finding provides support for targeting working memory in the development of future social problem solving rehabilitation interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The paper describes and interprets data of a study on counterfactual problem solving in representatives of modern industrial culture. The study was inspired by similar experiments carried out by A.R. Luria during his expedition to Central Asia. The hypothesis of our study was that representatives of modern industrial culture would solve counterfactual puzzles at a slower rate and with higher numbers of mistakes than similar non-counterfactual tasks. The experiments we conducted supported this hypothesis as well as provided us with some insights as to how to further develop it. For instance, we found no significant differences in time lag in solving counterfactual and ‘realistic’ tasks between the subjects with mathematical and the ones with liberal arts education. As an interpretation of the obtained data, we suggest a two-stage model of counterfactual problem solving: on the first stage, where situated cognition dominates, the realistic situation is transferred into the system of symbols unrelated to this very situation; on the second stage, operations are carried out within the framework of this new system of symbols.
Castledine, Alanah-Rei; Chalmers, Chris
With the current curriculum focus on correlating classroom problem solving lessons to real-world contexts, are LEGO robotics an effective problem solving tool? This present study was designed to investigate this question and to ascertain what problem solving strategies primary students engaged with when working with LEGO robotics and whether the…
van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.
Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to well-structured…
ABSTRACT The aim of this research to develop a mathematics learning instrument using contextual open ended problem solving with mathematic comic to increase the problem solving skill which valid, practical and effective. The type of research used in this study is development research using modification of Plomp model. Learning instrumen that have been develop are: syllabus, Lesson plan, worksheet, mathematics comic, and problem solving ability test. The results showed: (1 device developed valid; (2 practical learning is characterized by the positive response of students and good teachers ability, (3 Effectiveness characterized by (a problem solving ability score of the experimental class higher than minimum completeness criterion, (b learn interest and problem solving skill, both affected the problem solving ability positively, (c problem solving ability of the experimental class score is higher than the control class, (d problem solving skill of the experimental class is increasing by 31%, the problem solving ability of the experimental class higher than the control class.. Because of the learning instrument develope are valid, practice and effective, it is shows that the research has ben reach out. Keywords: contextual teaching and learning, open ended problem solving, mathematics comic, problem solving.
Bayer, Steven E.; Wang, Lui
Genetic algorithms are highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem-solving methods) loosely based on the processes of population genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Genetic algorithms have proven useful in domains where other optimization techniques perform poorly. The main purpose of the paper is to discuss a NASA-sponsored software development project to develop a general-purpose tool for using genetic algorithms. The tool, called Splicer, can be used to solve a wide variety of optimization problems and is currently available from NASA and COSMIC. This discussion is preceded by an introduction to basic genetic algorithm concepts and a discussion of genetic algorithm applications.
The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.
Mashood, K. K.; Singh, Vijay A.
Research suggests that problem-solving skills are transferable across domains. This claim, however, needs further empirical substantiation. We suggest correlation studies as a methodology for making preliminary inferences about transfer. The correlation of the physics performance of students with their performance in chemistry and mathematics in…
Full Text Available Creating effective mathematics learning is a complex and continuous undertaking. Using the right approach of learning and utilizing technological developments is an attempt to improve the quality of learning. This paper examines the problem solving learning computer-assisted and how its potential in developing high-order thinking skills of students.
Harskamp, E.; Suhre, C.
This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a student controlled computer program for high school mathematics based on instruction principles derived from Schoenfeld's theory of problem solving. The computer program allows students to choose problems and to make use of hints during different episodes
Boonen, Anton J. H.; de Koning, Björn B.; Jolles, Jelle; van der Schoot, Menno
Successfully solving mathematical word problems requires both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. In Realistic Math Education (RME), however, students primarily learn to apply the first of these skills (i.e., representational skills) in the context of word problem solving. Given this, it seems legitimate to assume that students from a RME curriculum experience difficulties when asked to solve semantically complex word problems. We investigated this assumption under 80 sixth grade students who were classified as successful and less successful word problem solvers based on a standardized mathematics test. To this end, students completed word problems that ask for both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. The results showed that even successful word problem solvers had a low performance on semantically complex word problems, despite adequate performance on semantically less complex word problems. Based on this study, we concluded that reading comprehension skills should be given a (more) prominent role during word problem solving instruction in RME. PMID:26925012
Full Text Available Successfully solving mathematical word problems requires both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. In Realistic Math Education (RME, however, students primarily learn to apply the first of these skills (i.e., representational skills in the context of word problem solving. Given this, it seems legitimate to assume that students from a RME curriculum experience difficulties when asked to solve semantically complex word problems. We investigated this assumption under 80 sixth grade students who were classified as successful and less successful word problem solvers based on a standardized mathematics test. To this end, students completed word problems that ask for both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. The results showed that even successful word problem solvers had a low performance on semantically complex word problems, despite adequate performance on semantically less complex word problems. Based on this study, we concluded that reading comprehension skills should be given a (more prominent role during word problem solving instruction in RME.
Boonen, Anton J H; de Koning, Björn B; Jolles, Jelle; van der Schoot, Menno
Successfully solving mathematical word problems requires both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. In Realistic Math Education (RME), however, students primarily learn to apply the first of these skills (i.e., representational skills) in the context of word problem solving. Given this, it seems legitimate to assume that students from a RME curriculum experience difficulties when asked to solve semantically complex word problems. We investigated this assumption under 80 sixth grade students who were classified as successful and less successful word problem solvers based on a standardized mathematics test. To this end, students completed word problems that ask for both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. The results showed that even successful word problem solvers had a low performance on semantically complex word problems, despite adequate performance on semantically less complex word problems. Based on this study, we concluded that reading comprehension skills should be given a (more) prominent role during word problem solving instruction in RME.
Ramful, Ajay; Ho, Siew Yin
In this article, Ajay Ramful and Siew Yin Ho explain the meaning of quantitative reasoning, describing how it is used in the to solve mathematical problems. They also describe a diagrammatic approach to represent relationships among quantities and provide examples of problems and their solutions.
Ensinar capacidades gerais de resolução de problemas não é uma substituição, nem um complemento viável, a ensinar matemática [Teaching general problem-solving skills is not a substitute for, or a viable addition to, teaching mathematics
Sweller, John; Clark, Richard; Kirschner, Paul A.
Sweller, J., Clark, R. E., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012). Ensinar capacidades gerais de resolução de problemas não é uma substituição, nem um complemento viável, a ensinar matemática [Teaching general problem-solving skills is not a substitute for, or a viable addition to, teaching mathematics]. Gazeta
The interrelationship between mathematics and science education has frequently been emphasized, and common goals and approaches have often been adopted between disciplines. Improving students' problem-solving skills in mathematics and science education has always been given special attention; however, the problem-posing approach which plays a key role in mathematics education has not been commonly utilized in science education. As a result, the purpose of this study was to better determine the effects of the problem-posing approach on students' problem-solving skills and metacognitive awareness in science education. This was a quasi-experimental based study conducted with 61 chemistry and 40 physics students; a problem-solving inventory and a metacognitive awareness inventory were administered to participants both as a pre-test and a post-test. During the 2017-2018 academic year, problem-solving activities based on the problem-posing approach were performed with the participating students during their senior year in various university chemistry and physics departments throughout the Republic of Turkey. The study results suggested that structured, semi-structured, and free problem-posing activities improve students' problem-solving skills and metacognitive awareness. These findings indicated not only the usefulness of integrating problem-posing activities into science education programs but also the need for further research into this question.
Arum, D. P.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Pramudya, I.
There are many errors can be identified when students solving mathematics problems, particularly in solving the probabilistic problem. This present study aims to investigate students’ difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem. It focuses on analyzing and describing students errors during solving the problem. This research used the qualitative method with case study strategy. The subjects in this research involve ten students of 9th grade that were selected by purposive sampling. Data in this research involve students’ probabilistic problem-solving result and recorded interview regarding students’ difficulties in solving the problem. Those data were analyzed descriptively using Miles and Huberman steps. The results show that students have difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem and can be divided into three categories. First difficulties relate to students’ difficulties in understanding the probabilistic problem. Second, students’ difficulties in choosing and using appropriate strategies for solving the problem. Third, students’ difficulties with the computational process in solving the problem. Based on the result seems that students still have difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem. It means that students have not able to use their knowledge and ability for responding probabilistic problem yet. Therefore, it is important for mathematics teachers to plan probabilistic learning which could optimize students probabilistic thinking ability.
.... This thesis describes the Integrated Problem Solving Architecture (IPSA) that combines qualitative, quantitative and diagrammatic reasoning skills to produce annotated solutions to engineering problems...
Bae, Young Seh
Mathematical Word Problem Solving of Students with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Students with Typical Development Young Seh Bae This study investigated mathematical word problem solving and the factors associated with the solution paths adopted by two groups of participants (N=40), students with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and typically…
Chen, Xi; Hertzog, Christopher; Park, Denise C
An important aspect of successful aging is maintaining the ability to solve everyday problems encountered in daily life. The limited evidence today suggests that everyday problem solving ability increases from young adulthood to middle age, but decreases in older age. The present study examined age differences in the relative contributions of fluid and crystallized abilities to solving problems on the Everyday Problems Test (EPT). We hypothesized that due to diminishing fluid resources available with advanced age, crystallized knowledge would become increasingly important in predicting everyday problem solving with greater age. Two hundred and twenty-one healthy adults from the Dallas Lifespan Brain Study, aged 24-93 years, completed a cognitive battery that included measures of fluid ability (i.e., processing speed, working memory, inductive reasoning) and crystallized ability (i.e., multiple measures of vocabulary). These measures were used to predict performance on EPT. Everyday problem solving showed an increase in performance from young to early middle age, with performance beginning to decrease at about age of 50 years. As hypothesized, fluid ability was the primary predictor of performance on everyday problem solving for young adults, but with increasing age, crystallized ability became the dominant predictor. This study provides evidence that everyday problem solving ability differs with age, and, more importantly, that the processes underlying it differ with age as well. The findings indicate that older adults increasingly rely on knowledge to support everyday problem solving, whereas young adults rely almost exclusively on fluid intelligence. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Davis, R.; Smith, R.G.
The authors describe the concept of distributed problem solving and defines it as the cooperative solution of problems by a decentralized and loosely coupled collection of problem solvers. This approach to problem solving offers the promise of increased performance and provides a useful medium for exploring and developing new problem-solving techniques. A framework is presented called the contract net that specifies communication and control in a distribution problem solver. Task distribution is viewed as an interactive process, a discussion carried on between a node with a task to be executed and a group of nodes that may be able to execute the task. The kinds of information are described that must be passed between nodes during the discussion in order to obtain effective problem-solving behavior. This discussion is the origin of the negotiation metaphor: task distribution is viewed as a form of contract negotiation. 32 references.
Sulistyowati, F.; Budiyono, B.; Slamet, I.
This research aims to analyze the comparison Problem Solving Reasoning (PSR) and Problem Based Instruction (PBI) on problem solving and mathematical communication abilities viewed from Self-Regulated Learning (SRL). Learning was given to grade 8th junior high school students. This research uses quasi experimental method, and then with descriptive analysis. Data were analyzed using two-ways multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with different cells. The result of data analysis were learning model gives different effect, level of SRL gives the same effect, and there is no interaction between the learning model with the SRL on the problem solving and mathematical communication abilities. The t-test statistic was used to find out more effective learning model. Based on the test, regardless of the level of SRL, PSR is more effective than PBI for problemsolving ability. The result of descriptive analysis was PSR had the advantage in creating learning that optimizing the ability of learners in reasoning to solve a mathematical problem. Consequently, the PSR is the right learning model to be applied in the classroom to improve problem solving ability of learners.
J David Creswell
Full Text Available High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings.
We use different methods to train our undergraduates. The patient-oriented problem-solving (POPS) system is an innovative teaching-learning method that imparts knowledge, enhances intrinsic motivation, promotes self learning, encourages clinical reasoning, and develops long-lasting memory. The aim of this study was to develop POPS in teaching pathology, assess its effectiveness, and assess students' preference for POPS over didactic lectures. One hundred fifty second-year MBBS students were divided into two groups: A and B. Group A was taught by POPS while group B was taught by traditional lectures. Pre- and posttest numerical scores of both groups were evaluated and compared. Students then completed a self-structured feedback questionnaire for analysis. The mean (SD) difference in pre- and post-test scores of groups A and B was 15.98 (3.18) and 7.79 (2.52), respectively. The significance of the difference between scores of group A and group B teaching methods was 16.62 (P effectiveness of POPS. Students responded that POPS facilitates self-learning, helps in understanding topics, creates interest, and is a scientific approach to teaching. Feedback response on POPS was strong in 57.52% of students, moderate in 35.67%, and negative in only 6.81%, showing that 93.19% students favored POPS over simple lectures. It is not feasible to enforce the PBL method of teaching throughout the entire curriculum; However, POPS can be incorporated along with audiovisual aids to break the monotony of dialectic lectures and as alternative to PBL.
This paper analyzes the thought process involved in problem solving and its categorization as creative thinking as defined by psychologist R. Weisberg (2006). Additionally, the notion of insight, sometimes present in unconscious creative thinking and often leading to creative ideas, is discussed in the context of geometry problem solving. In…
Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; Good, Brandon
Twenty-first century teaching and learning focus on the fundamental skills of critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and innovation, and collaboration and communication. Metacognition is a crucial aspect of both problem solving and critical thinking, but it is often difficult to get students to engage in authentic metacognitive…
Shute, Valerie J.; Wang, Lubin
This paper examines possible improvement to problem solving skills as a function of playing the video game "Portal 2." Stealth assessment is used in the game to evaluate students' problem solving abilities--specifically basic and flexible rule application. The stealth assessment measures will be validated against commonly accepted…
Hartvig, Susanne C
This short paper discusses typical engineering tasks and problem solving methods, based on a field study of engineering tasks at a Danish engineering firm. The field study has identified ten classes of design tasks and in this paper these classes are related to problem solving methods. The descri...
Full Text Available Most educators agree that problem solving is among the most meaningful and importantkinds of learning and thingking. That is, the central focus of learning and instructionshould be learning to solve problems. There are several warrants supporting that claims.They are authenticity, relevance, problem solving engages deeper learning angtherefore enhances meaning making, and constructed to represent problems (problemsolving is more meaningful. It is the reason why we must provide teaching and learningto make studentâ€™s problem solving skill in progress. There are many informationprocessingmodels of problem solving, such as simplified model of the problem-solvingprocess by Gicks, Polyaâ€™s problem solving process etc. One of them is IDEAL problemsolving. Each letter of IDEAL is stand for an aspect of thinking that is important forproblem solving. IDEAL is identify problem, Define Goal, Explore possible strategies,Anticipate outcme and Act, and Look back and learn. Using peer interaction andquestion prompt in small group in IDEAL problem solving teaching and Learning canimprove problem solving skill.Kata kunci: IDEAL Problem Solving, Interaksi Sebaya, Pertanyaan Penuntun, KelompokKecil.
Yew, Wun Thiam; Lian, Lim Hooi; Meng, Chew Cheng
The purpose of this article was to examine problem solving strategies among primary school teachers. The researchers employed survey research design to examine their problem solving strategies. The participants of this study consisted of 120 primary school teachers from a public university in Peninsula Malaysia who enrolled in a 4-year Graduating…
Warren, Louis L.
This qualitative study investigates what problem solving strategies interns learn from their clinical teachers during their internships. Twenty-four interns who completed their internship in the elementary grades shared what problem solving strategies had the greatest impact upon them in learning how to deal with problems during their internship.…
Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Farley, John
A model of expertise in physics problem solving was tested on undergraduate science, physics, and engineering majors enrolled in an introductory-level physics course. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to expertise in physics problem solving including motivation, metacognitive planning,…
Beane, Arthur J.
The use of computers to solve value oriented, deterministic, algorithmic problems, has evolved a structured life cycle model of the software process. The symbolic processing techniques used, primarily in research, for solving nondeterministic problems, and those for which an algorithmic solution is unknown, have evolved a different model, much less structured. Traditionally, the two approaches have been used completely independently. With the advent of low cost, high performance 32 bit workstations executing identical software with large minicomputers and mainframes, it became possible to begin to merge both models into a single extended model of computer problem solving. The implementation of such an extended model on a VAX family of micro/mini/mainframe systems is described. Examples in both development and deployment of applications involving a blending of AI and traditional techniques are given.
Docktor, Jennifer L.; Dornfeld, Jay; Frodermann, Evan; Heller, Kenneth; Hsu, Leonardo; Jackson, Koblar Alan; Mason, Andrew; Ryan, Qing X.; Yang, Jie
Problem solving is a complex process valuable in everyday life and crucial for learning in the STEM fields. To support the development of problem-solving skills it is important for researchers and curriculum developers to have practical tools that can measure the difference between novice and expert problem-solving performance in authentic classroom work. It is also useful if such tools can be employed by instructors to guide their pedagogy. We describe the design, development, and testing of a simple rubric to assess written solutions to problems given in undergraduate introductory physics courses. In particular, we present evidence for the validity, reliability, and utility of the instrument. The rubric identifies five general problem-solving processes and defines the criteria to attain a score in each: organizing problem information into a Useful Description, selecting appropriate principles (Physics Approach), applying those principles to the specific conditions in the problem (Specific Application of Physics), using Mathematical Procedures appropriately, and displaying evidence of an organized reasoning pattern (Logical Progression).
Jennifer L. Docktor
Full Text Available Problem solving is a complex process valuable in everyday life and crucial for learning in the STEM fields. To support the development of problem-solving skills it is important for researchers and curriculum developers to have practical tools that can measure the difference between novice and expert problem-solving performance in authentic classroom work. It is also useful if such tools can be employed by instructors to guide their pedagogy. We describe the design, development, and testing of a simple rubric to assess written solutions to problems given in undergraduate introductory physics courses. In particular, we present evidence for the validity, reliability, and utility of the instrument. The rubric identifies five general problem-solving processes and defines the criteria to attain a score in each: organizing problem information into a Useful Description, selecting appropriate principles (Physics Approach, applying those principles to the specific conditions in the problem (Specific Application of Physics, using Mathematical Procedures appropriately, and displaying evidence of an organized reasoning pattern (Logical Progression.
Ayaz, Hasan; Shewokis, Patricia A; Izzetoğlu, Meltem; Çakır, Murat P; Onaral, Banu
Recent neuroimaging studies have implicated prefrontal and parietal cortices for mathematical problem solving. Mental arithmetic tasks have been used extensively to study neural correlates of mathematical reasoning. In the present study we used geometric problem sets (tangram tasks) that require executive planning and visuospatial reasoning without any linguistic representation interference. We used portable optical brain imaging (functional near infrared spectroscopy--fNIR) to monitor hemodynamic changes within anterior prefrontal cortex during tangram tasks. Twelve healthy subjects were asked to solve a series of computerized tangram puzzles and control tasks that required same geometric shape manipulation without problem solving. Total hemoglobin (HbT) concentration changes indicated a significant increase during tangram problem solving in the right hemisphere. Moreover, HbT changes during failed trials (when no solution found) were significantly higher compared to successful trials. These preliminary results suggest that fNIR can be used to assess cortical activation changes induced by geometric problem solving. Since fNIR is safe, wearable and can be used in ecologically valid environments such as classrooms, this neuroimaging tool may help to improve and optimize learning in educational settings.
Docktor, Jennifer L.; Dornfeld, Jay; Frodermann, Evan; Heller, Kenneth; Hsu, Leonardo; Jackson, Koblar Alan; Mason, Andrew; Ryan, Qing X.; Yang, Jie
Problem solving is a complex process valuable in everyday life and crucial for learning in the STEM fields. To support the development of problem-solving skills it is important for researchers and curriculum developers to have practical tools that can measure the difference between novice and expert problem-solving performance in authentic…
Yurtsal, Zeliha Burcu; Özdemir, Levent
Midwifery profession is required to bring solutions to problems and a midwife is expected to be an assertive person and to develop midwifery care. This study was planned to examine the relationship between assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 201 midwives between July 2008 and February 2009 in the city center of Sivas. The Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) and Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) were used to determine the level of assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. Statistical methods were used as mean, standard deviation, percentage, Student's T, ANOVA and Tukey HSD, Kruskal Wallis, Fisher Exact, Pearson Correlation and Chi-square tests and P problem-solving skills training. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the RAS and PSI scores. The RAS scores decreased while the problem-solving scores increased (r: -0451, P problem solving skills of midwives, and midwives who were assertive solved their problems better than did others. Assertiveness and problem-solving skills training will contribute to the success of the midwifery profession. Midwives able to solve problems, and display assertive behaviors will contribute to the development of midwifery profession.
behaviors of cooperating humans are not necessary for simple tasks. Those of cooperating wolves or wasps might perform more reliably and could be...observed in wolves (Mech 1970), lions (Schaller 1972), and coyotes (Robinson 1952, Hamlin 1979). In coyotes this behavior seems to be directed toward...predation in Yellowstone National Park. J. Mammal. 33:470-476. value - low Schaller, G. B. 1972. The Serengeti lion: a study of predator-prey relationships
This is a study of individual differences in environmental problem-solving, the probable roots of these differences, and their implications for the education of resource professionals. A group of student Resource Managers were required to elaborate their conception of a complex resource issue (Spruce Budworm management) and to generate some ideas on management policy. Of particular interest was the way in which subjects dealt with the psychosocial aspects of the problem. A structural and content analysis of responses indicated a predominance of relatively compartmentalized styles, a technological orientation, and a tendency to ignore psychosocial issues. A relationship between problem-solving behavior and personal (psychosocial) style was established which, in the context of other evidence, suggests that problem-solving behavior is influenced by more deep seated personality factors. The educational implication drawn was that problem-solving cannot be viewed simply as an intellectual-technical activity but one that involves, and requires the education of, the whole person.
Use the IAQ Problem Solving Tool to learn about the connection between health complaints and common solutions in schools. This resource provides an easy, step-by-step process to start identifying and resolving IAQ problems found at your school.
This article outlines a method of problem solving which considers holistic solutions to complex problems. Soft systems methodology allows people involved in the problem situation to have control over the decision-making process.
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui
In this paper we will document that real-life problem solving in complex situations demands both rational (scientific) and intuitive (artistic) thinking. First, the concepts of art and science will be discussed; differences and similarities will be enhanced. Thereafter the concept of group problem...... solving facilitation both as science and art will be presented. A case study related to examination's planning will be discussed to illustrate the main concepts in practice. In addition, other cases studies will also be shortly presented....
What makes problem solving in physics difficult? How do students solve physics problems, and how does this compare to an expert physicist's strategy? Over the past twenty years, physics education research has revealed several differences between novice and expert problem solving. The work of Chi, Feltovich, and Glaser demonstrates that novices tend to categorize problems based on surface features, while experts categorize according to theory, principles, or concepts1. If there are differences between how problems are categorized, then are there differences between how physics problems are solved? Learning more about the problem solving process, including how students like to learn and what is most effective, requires both qualitative and quantitative analysis. In an effort to learn how novices and experts solve introductory electricity problems, a series of in-depth interviews were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. One-way ANOVA tests were performed in order to learn if there are any significant problem solving differences between: (a) novices and experts, (b) genders, (c) students who like to answer questions in class and those who don't, (d) students who like to ask questions in class and those who don't, (e) students employing an interrogative approach to problem solving and those who don't, and (f) those who like physics and those who dislike it. The results of both the qualitative and quantitative methods reveal that inquiry-based problem solving is prevalent among novices and experts, and frequently leads to the correct physics. These findings serve as impetus for the third dimension of this work: the development of Choose Your Own Adventure Physics(c) (CYOAP), an innovative teaching tool in physics which encourages inquiry-based problem solving. 1Chi, M., P. Feltovich, R. Glaser, "Categorization and Representation of Physics Problems by Experts and Novices", Cognitive Science, 5, 121--152 (1981).
Swanson, H. Lee; Fung, Wenson
This study determined the working memory (WM) components (executive, phonological short-term memory [STM], and visual-spatial sketchpad) that best predicted mathematical word problem-solving accuracy in elementary schoolchildren (N = 392). The battery of tests administered to assess mediators between WM and problem-solving included measures of…
Students' mathematical problem-solving experiences are fraught with failed attempts, wrong turns, and partial successes that move in fits and jerks, oscillating between periods of inactivity, stalled progress, rapid advancement, and epiphanies. Students' problem-solving journals, however, do not always reflect this rather organic process. Without…
Cormas, Peter C.
Preservice teachers (N = 27) in two sections of a sequenced, methodological and process integrated mathematics/science course solved a levers problem with three similar learning processes and a problem-solving approach, and identified a problem-solving approach through one different learning process. Similar learning processes used included:…
This study aimed to describe the difference effect of inquiry approach and problem solving approach on motivations to learn mathematics and student mathematics achievement and the better effect of inquiry approach and problem solving approach on motivations to learn mathematics and student mathematics achievement. This research was a quasi-experimental using nonrandomized control group, pretest-posttest design. The data were collected through non-test and test. The data were analyzed using the MANOVA test and independent sample t-test with significance level of 0,05. The results of the study show the inquiry approach and problem solving approach was not effective to increase the student mathematics achievement, the inquiry approach and problem solving approach was not effective to increase the motivation to learn mathematics, and there is no difference effect between the inquiry approach and the problem solving approach on learning motivations and the student mathematics achievement. Keywords: inquiry approach, problem solving approach, motivations to learn mathematics, student mathematics achievement
Crooks, Noelle M.; Alibali, Martha W.
This study investigated whether activating elements of prior knowledge can influence how problem solvers encode and solve simple mathematical equivalence problems (e.g., 3 + 4 + 5 = 3 + __). Past work has shown that such problems are difficult for elementary school students (McNeil and Alibali, 2000). One possible reason is that children's experiences in math classes may encourage them to think about equations in ways that are ultimately detrimental. Specifically, children learn a set of patterns that are potentially problematic (McNeil and Alibali, 2005a): the perceptual pattern that all equations follow an “operations = answer” format, the conceptual pattern that the equal sign means “calculate the total”, and the procedural pattern that the correct way to solve an equation is to perform all of the given operations on all of the given numbers. Upon viewing an equivalence problem, knowledge of these patterns may be reactivated, leading to incorrect problem solving. We hypothesized that these patterns may negatively affect problem solving by influencing what people encode about a problem. To test this hypothesis in children would require strengthening their misconceptions, and this could be detrimental to their mathematical development. Therefore, we tested this hypothesis in undergraduate participants. Participants completed either control tasks or tasks that activated their knowledge of the three patterns, and were then asked to reconstruct and solve a set of equivalence problems. Participants in the knowledge activation condition encoded the problems less well than control participants. They also made more errors in solving the problems, and their errors resembled the errors children make when solving equivalence problems. Moreover, encoding performance mediated the effect of knowledge activation on equivalence problem solving. Thus, one way in which experience may affect equivalence problem solving is by influencing what students encode about the
Flores, Margaret M.; Hinton, Vanessa M.; Burton, Megan E.
Mathematical word problems are the most common form of mathematics problem solving implemented in K-12 schools. Identifying key words is a frequent strategy taught in classrooms in which students struggle with problem solving and show low success rates in mathematics. Researchers show that using the concrete-representational-abstract (CRA)…
Patterson, Fiona; Lopes, Safiatu; Harding, Stephen; Vaux, Emma; Berkin, Liz; Black, David
The aim of this study was to follow up a sample of physicians who began core medical training (CMT) in 2009. This paper examines the long-term validity of CMT and GP selection methods in predicting performance in the Membership of Royal College of Physicians (MRCP(UK)) examinations. We performed a longitudinal study, examining the extent to which the GP and CMT selection methods (T1) predict performance in the MRCP(UK) examinations (T2). A total of 2,569 applicants from 2008-09 who completed CMT and GP selection methods were included in the study. Looking at MRCP(UK) part 1, part 2 written and PACES scores, both CMT and GP selection methods show evidence of predictive validity for the outcome variables, and hierarchical regressions show the GP methods add significant value to the CMT selection process. CMT selection methods predict performance in important outcomes and have good evidence of validity; the GP methods may have an additional role alongside the CMT selection methods. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.
Cormier, Damien C.; Yeo, Seungsoo; Christ, Theodore J.; Offrey, Laura D.; Pratt, Katherine
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship of mathematics calculation rate (curriculum-based measurement of mathematics; CBM-M), reading rate (curriculum-based measurement of reading; CBM-R), and mathematics application and problem solving skills (mathematics screener) among students at four levels of proficiency on a statewide…
Full Text Available Problem solving plays an important role in mathematics and should have a prominent role in the mathematics education. The term “problem solving” refers to mathematics tasks that have the potential to provide intellectual challenges for enhancing students’ mathematical understanding and development. In addition, the contextual problem that requires students to connect their mathematical knowledge in solving mathematical situational problem is believed to be an impact on the development students’ problem-solving ability. The tasks that have been developed by PISA meet both of these criteria. As stated by the NCTM, that problem-solving skill and ability should be developed to students when they were in primary school (K5-8, therefore, it is important to do an effort to guide students in developing problem-solving ability from primary school such as accustom students to do some mathematical solving-problem tasks. Thus, in this research we tried to investigate how to develop mathematical problem-solving tasks like PISA’s question that have potential effect toward students’ mathematical problem-solving abilities?. We used a formative evaluation type of development research as an mean to achieve this research goal. This type of research is conducted in two steps, namely preliminary stage and formative evaluation stage covering self evaluation, prototyping (expert reviews, one-to-one, and small group, and field test. This research involve four primary schools in Palembang, there are SD Muhammadiyah 6 Palembang, MIN 1 & MIN 2 Palembang, and SDN 179 Palembang. The result of this research showed that the mathematical problem-solving tasks that have been developed have potential effect in exploring mathematical problem-solving ability of the primary school students. It is shown from their work in solving problem where all of the indicators of problem solving competency have emerged quite well category. In addition, based on interview
Mathematical modeling is a complex mathematical activity, the teaching and learning of modeling and applications involves many aspects, of mathematical thinking and learning. Mathematical model is not use only in mathematics learning and natural sciences (such as physics, biology, earth science, meteorology and engineering) but also in the social sciences (such as economic, psychology, sociology and political science). Mathematical modeling in mathematical learning and problem solving involve...
Shumway, J M; Vargas, M E; Heller, L E
The need to include in the medical curriculum instructional activities to promote the development of problem-solving abilities has been asserted at the national and international levels. In research on the mental process involved in the solution of problems in medicine, problem-solving has been defined as a hypothetical-deductive activity engaged in by experienced physicians, in which the early generation of hypotheses influences the subsequent gathering of information. This article comments briefly on research on the mental process by which medical problems are solved. It describes the methods that research has shown to be most applicable in instruction to develop problem-solving abilities, and presents some educational principles that justify their application. The "trail-following" approach is the method that has been most commonly used to study the physician's problem-solving behavior. The salient conclusions from this research are that in the problem-solving process the diagnostic hypothesis is generated very early on and with limited data; the number of hypotheses is small; the problem-solving approach is specific to the type of medical problem and case in hand; and the accumulation of medical knowledge and experience forms the basis of clinical competence. Four methods for teaching the solution of problems are described: case presentation, the rain of ideas, the nominal groups technique and decision-making consensus, the census and analysis of forces in the field, and the analysis of clinical decisions. These methods are carried out in small groups. The advantages of the small groups are that the students are active participants in the learning process, they receive formative evaluation of their performance in a setting conductive to learning, and are able to interact with their instructor if he makes proper use of the right questioning techniques. While no single problem-solving method can be useful to all students or in all the problems they encounter
Nagar, Atulya; Deep, Kusum; Pant, Millie; Bansal, Jagdish; Ray, Kanad; Gupta, Umesh
The present book is based on the research papers presented in the International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2012), held at JK Lakshmipat University, Jaipur, India. This book provides the latest developments in the area of soft computing and covers a variety of topics, including mathematical modeling, image processing, optimization, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, data mining, etc. The objective of the book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments that are taking place in various fields and the latest sophisticated problem solving tools that are being developed to deal with the complex and intricate problems that are otherwise difficult to solve by the usual and traditional methods. The book is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various fields of Science and Technology.
Deep, Kusum; Nagar, Atulya; Bansal, Jagdish
The present book is based on the research papers presented in the 3rd International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2013), held as a part of the golden jubilee celebrations of the Saharanpur Campus of IIT Roorkee, at the Noida Campus of Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India. This book is divided into two volumes and covers a variety of topics including mathematical modelling, image processing, optimization, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, medical and health care, data mining etc. Particular emphasis is laid on soft computing and its application to diverse fields. The prime objective of the book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments that are taking place in various fields and the latest sophisticated problem solving tools that are being developed to deal with the complex and intricate problems, which are otherwise difficult to solve by the usual and traditional methods. The book is directed ...
Afriansyah, Ekasatya Aldila
Mathematical problem solving and problem posing skill are the mathematical skills that need to be owned by students. By having this skill, students can be more creative in expressing ideas by connecting the knowledge that they held previously. But in reality, there are some students who are lack of problem solving skill; therefore it is really important to improve learning through appropriate approach. Realistic approach had been chosen as the learning theory to be applied in the class. This ...
Wiltshire, Travis J; Butner, Jonathan E; Fiore, Stephen M
Multiple theories of problem-solving hypothesize that there are distinct qualitative phases exhibited during effective problem-solving. However, limited research has attempted to identify when transitions between phases occur. We integrate theory on collaborative problem-solving (CPS) with dynamical systems theory suggesting that when a system is undergoing a phase transition it should exhibit a peak in entropy and that entropy levels should also relate to team performance. Communications from 40 teams that collaborated on a complex problem were coded for occurrence of problem-solving processes. We applied a sliding window entropy technique to each team's communications and specified criteria for (a) identifying data points that qualify as peaks and (b) determining which peaks were robust. We used multilevel modeling, and provide a qualitative example, to evaluate whether phases exhibit distinct distributions of communication processes. We also tested whether there was a relationship between entropy values at transition points and CPS performance. We found that a proportion of entropy peaks was robust and that the relative occurrence of communication codes varied significantly across phases. Peaks in entropy thus corresponded to qualitative shifts in teams' CPS communications, providing empirical evidence that teams exhibit phase transitions during CPS. Also, lower average levels of entropy at the phase transition points predicted better CPS performance. We specify future directions to improve understanding of phase transitions during CPS, and collaborative cognition, more broadly. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Kamis, Arnold; Khan, Beverly K.
How do we model and improve technical problem solving, such as network subnetting? This paper reports an experimental study that tested several hypotheses derived from Kolb's experiential learning cycle and Huber's problem solving model. As subjects solved a network subnetting problem, they mapped their mental processes according to Huber's…
Pestel, Beverly C.
Reviews research relevant to the problem of unsatisfactory student problem-solving abilities and suggests a teaching strategy that addresses the issue. Author explains how she uses teaching aloud problem solving (TAPS) in college chemistry and presents evaluation data. Among the findings are that the TAPS class got fewer problems completely right,…
Luwel, Koen; Siegler, Robert S.; Verschaffel, Lieven
An eight-session microgenetic study of acquisition of an insightful problem-solving strategy was conducted. A total of 35 second graders who did not use this insightful strategy initially were assigned to two groups that differed in the frequency of problems likely to facilitate discovery and generalization of the strategy. Children in the…
Diamond, Lindsay Lile
Problem solving is recognized as a critical component to becoming a self-determined individual. The development of this skill should be fostered in the early years through the use of age-appropriate direct and embedded activities. However, many early childhood teachers may not be providing adequate instruction in this area. This column provides a…
Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Way, Jennifer; Bobis, Janette
This paper explores young children's drawings (6 years old) in early number and addition activities in Malaysia. Observation, informal interviews and analysis of drawings revealed two types of drawing, and gave insight into the transitional process required for children to utilise drawings in problem solving. We argue the importance of valuing and…
McBryde, Merry J.; Karr-Kidwell, PJ
The need for new expertise in problem solving in the work setting has emerged as a woman's issue because work outside the home has become a primary means for personal goal attainment for about half the women in the United States and because traditional career patterns and norms are ineffective. Career planning is the process of individual career…
Yin, Khoo Yin; Abdullah, Abdul Ghani Kanesan; Alazidiyeen, Naser Jamil
This research attempts to examine the collaborative problem solving methods towards critical thinking based on economy (AE) and non economy (TE) in the SPM level among students in the lower sixth form. The quasi experiment method that uses the modal of 3X2 factorial is applied. 294 lower sixth form students from ten schools are distributed…
Full Text Available The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.
Polland, Mark J.
In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…
Rycerz, K.; Bubak, M.; Sloot, P.; Getov, V.; Gorlatch, S.; Bubak, M.; Priol, T.
Interactive Problem Solving Environments (PSEs) offer an integrated approach for constructing and running complex systems, such as distributed simulation systems. To achieve efficient execution of High Level Architecture (HLA)-based distributed interactive simulations on the Grid, we introduce a PSE
This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…
Avramiotis, Spyridon; Tsaparlis, Georgios
This study is concerned with the effects of computer simulations of two novel chemistry problems on the problem solving ability of students. A control-experimental group, equalized by pair groups (n[subscript Exp] = n[subscript Ctrl] = 78), research design was used. The students had no previous experience of chemical practical work. Student…
An attempt to implement problem solving as a teacher of ninth grade algebra is described. The problems selected were not general ones, they involved combinations and represented various situations and were more complex which lead to the discovery of Steiner triple systems.
This study investigated the relation between problem-solving strategies in the marital conflict and marital satisfaction. Four problem-solving strategies (Dialogue, Loyalty, Escalation of conflict and Withdrawal) were measured by the Problem-Solving Strategies Inventory, in two versions: self-report and report of partners' perceived behaviour. This measure refers to the concept of Rusbult, Johnson and Morrow, and meets high standards of reliability (alpha Cronbach from alpha = 0.78 to alpha = 0.94) and validity. Marital satisfaction was measured by Marriage Success Scale. The sample was composed of 147 marital couples. The study revealed that satisfied couples, in comparison with non-satisfied couples, tend to use constructive problem-solving strategies (Dialogue and Loyalty). They rarely use destructive strategies like Escalation of conflict or Withdrawal. Dialogue is the strategy connected with satisfaction in a most positive manner. These might be very important guidelines to couples' psychotherapy. Loyalty to oneself is a significant positive predictor of male satisfaction is also own Loyalty. The study shows that constructive attitudes are the most significant predictors of marriage satisfaction. It is therefore worth concentrating mostly on them in the psychotherapeutic process instead of eliminating destructive attitudes.
Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.
Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…
Foerder, Preston; Galloway, Marie; Barthel, Tony; Moore, Donald E; Reiss, Diana
The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.
10, 2012. 39. Cooperative learning, problem solving and mediating artifacts. F. Bahmaei6 & N. ... out cooperative learning in the end, post-test was done and by analyzing the tests it was concluded that ... Johnson et al, 1991 b, Reynolds et al. 1995, Vidakovic .... connection of mental constructs (Hiebert, Carpenter, 1992).
Bennis, Warren G
The results of two studies are contained in this report in summary form. They represent the first parts of a program of research designed to study the effects of change and history on the on the behaviors of problem-solving Groups...
Silver, Edward A.; Lane, Suzanne
Compared mathematical performance of middle school students in low-income communities involved in the QUASAR project to those of a demographically similar school and of a nationally representative sample. QUASAR mathematics instruction emphasizes reasoning, problem-solving, and understanding. Quasar students outperformed NAEP's disadvantaged urban…
Novita, Rita; Zulkardi, Zulkardi; Hartono, Yusuf
Problem solving plays an important role in mathematics and should have a prominent role in the mathematics education. The term “problem solving” refers to mathematics tasks that have the potential to provide intellectual challenges for enhancing students’ mathematical understanding and development. In addition, the contextual problem that requires students to connect their mathematical knowledge in solving mathematical situational problem is believed to be an impact on the development student...
Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan keefektifan dan perbandingan keefektifan dari pendekatan open-ended dan problem solving pada pembelajaran bangun ruang sisi datar ditinjau dari pencapaian kemampuan penalaran, pemecahan masalah, dan komunikasi matematis. Penelitian ini adalah quasi experiment dengan desain pretest-posttest nonequivalent group design. Populasi penelitian mencakup seluruh siswa kelas VIII SMP Negeri 1 Pandak, Bantul, Yogyakarta. Selanjutnya dengan memilih secara acak dari keseluruhan kelas tersebut, terpilih kelas VIII F dan VIII G sebagai sampel penelitian. Untuk menguji keefektifan masing-masing pendekatan pembelajaran digunakan uji one sample t-test. Untuk menguji bahwa pendekatan open-ended lebih efektif daripada pendekatan problem solving, data dianalisis menggunakan MANOVA yang dilanjutkan dengan uji t-Bonferroni. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kedua pendekatan pembelajaran efektif ditinjau dari masing-masing aspek, dan pendekatan open-ended lebih efektif daripada pendekatan problem solving pada pembelajaran bangun ruang sisi datar ditinjau dari pencapaian kemampuan penalaran, pemecahan masalah, dan komunikasi matematis di SMP. Kata Kunci: pendekatan open-ended, pendekatan problem solving, kemampuan penalaran, kemampuan pemecahan masalah, kemampuan komunikasi matematis THE EFFECTIVENESS OF OPEN-ENDED AND PROBLEM SOLVING APPROACH IN MATTER OF FLAT SIDE CONSTRUCT IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL Abstract The aims of this research are to decide the effectiveness and the comparison of the effectiveness of open-ended and problem solving approach toward matter of flat side construct lesson viewed from achivement of reasoning ability, problem solving and mathematics communication. This study was a quasi experimental study using the pretest-posttest nonequivalent group design. The research population covered the entire VIII class students’ of SMP Negeri 1 Pandak, Bantul, Yogyakarta. From the population, classes of VIII F and
Full Text Available The paper is a sequel to the article (Novotná et al., 2014, where the authors present the results of a 4-month experiment whose main aim was to change pupils’ culture of problem solving by using heuristic strategies suitable for problem solving in mathematics education. (Novotná et al., 2014 focused on strategies Analogy, Guess – check – revise, Systematic experimentation, Problem reformulation, Solution drawing, Working backwards and Use of graphs of functions. This paper focuses on two other heuristic strategies convenient for improvement of pupils’ culture of problem solving: Introduction of an auxiliary element and Omitting a condition. In the first part, the strategies Guess – Check – Revise, Working backwards, Introduction of an auxiliary element and Omitting a condition are characterized in detail and illustrated by examples of their use in order to capture their characteristics. In the second part we focus on the newly introduced strategies and analyse work with them in lessons using the tools from (Novotná et al., 2014. The analysis of results of the experiment indicates that, unlike in case of the strategy Introduction of an auxiliary element, successful use of the strategy Omitting a condition requires longer teacher’s work with the pupils. The following analysis works with the strategy Systematic experimentation, which seemed to be the easiest to master in (Novotná et al., 2014; we focus on the dangers it bears when it is used by pupils. The conclusion from (Novotná et al., 2014, which showed that if pupils are introduced to an environment that supports their creativity, their attitude towards problem solving changes in a positive way already after the period of four months, is confirmed.
Schmidt, F.; Scheuermann, W.; Schatz, A.
The availability of supercomputers enables the engineer to formulate new strategies for problem solving. One such strategy is the Integrated Planning and Simulation System (IPSS). With the integrated systems, simulation models with greater consistency and good agreement with actual plant data can be effectively realized. In the present work some of the basic ideas of IPSS are described as well as some of the conditions necessary to build such systems. Hardware and software characteristics as realized are outlined. (orig.) [de
Jennifer L. Docktor; Jay Dornfeld; Evan Frodermann; Kenneth Heller; Leonardo Hsu; Koblar Alan Jackson; Andrew Mason; Qing X. Ryan; Jie Yang
Problem solving is a complex process valuable in everyday life and crucial for learning in the STEM fields. To support the development of problem-solving skills it is important for researchers and curriculum developers to have practical tools that can measure the difference between novice and expert problem-solving performance in authentic classroom work. It is also useful if such tools can be employed by instructors to guide their pedagogy. We describe the design, development, and testing of...
Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E.
Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals. PMID:22874748
Deep, Kusum; Pant, Millie; Bansal, Jagdish; Nagar, Atulya
This two volume book is based on the research papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2014) and covers a variety of topics, including mathematical modelling, image processing, optimization methods, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, medical and healthcare, data mining, etc. Mainly the emphasis is on Soft Computing and its applications in diverse areas. The prime objective of this book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments in various fields of Science, Engineering and Technology and is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various real-world applications of ‘Soft Computing’.
Burton, Catherine L; Strauss, Esther; Hultsch, David F; Hunter, Michael A
The relationship between cognitive functioning and a performance-based measure of everyday problem-solving, the Everyday Problems Test (EPT), thought to index instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), was examined in 291 community-dwelling non-demented older adults. Performance on the EPT was found to vary according to age, cognitive status, and education. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, after adjusting for demographic and health variables, measures of cognitive functioning accounted for 23.6% of the variance in EPT performance. In particular, measures of global cognitive status, cognitive decline, speed of processing, executive functioning, episodic memory, and verbal ability were significant predictors of EPT performance. These findings suggest that cognitive functioning along with demographic variables are important determinants of everyday problem-solving.
Rampho, G. J.; Ramorola, M. Z.
In this paper we present the results of a study on the effectiveness of combinations of delivery modes of distance education in learning problem-solving skills in a distance education introductory physics course. A problem-solving instruction with the explicit teaching of a problem-solving strategy and worked-out examples were implemented in the course. The study used the ex post facto research design with stratified sampling to investigate the effect of the learning of a problem-solving strategy on the problem-solving performance. The number of problems attempted and the mean frequency of using a strategy in solving problems in the three course presentation modes were compared. The finding of the study indicated that combining the different course presentation modes had no statistically significant effect in the learning of problem-solving skills in the distance education course.
方紫薇 Tzu-Wei Fang
Full Text Available 本研究旨在探討正向情緒及幽默對學生在科學問題解決時的成績表現、認知評估與事後情緒之影響。本研究針對國中生進行調查研究，共施測318位八年級學生，男生166 位、女生152 位。經進行t檢定及多變量變異數之統計分析後，研究結果顯示，在油醋分離之問題解決題目上，高正向情緒者在科學問題解決之成績表現、有趣程度之認知評估及事後之正向情緒，皆顯著高於低正向情緒者；在事後負向情緒上則顯著低於低正向情緒者。在鐵棒戳紙題目方面，高正向情緒者認知評估之挑戰、有趣、容易之分數，以及事後正向情緒皆顯著高於低正向情緒者。幽默版本激起之正向情緒是有比原始版本高。但幽默版本與原始版本在科學問題解決上之成績表現、認知評估與事後情緒上皆未達顯著差異。本研究可提供教師教學之參考，即如何營造正向情緒的學習氛圍及環境，來促進科學問題解決能力之學習。 This study investigates whether emotions and humor can influence science problem-solving performance, cognitive appraisal, and emotion after the event. This study conducts a survey of 318 junior high school students (166 Male and 152 Female. The statistical methods used to analyze the data are t test and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. The results of this study are as follows: (1 When solving the scientific problem of Oil and Vinegar Separation, students with high positive emotions had superior science problem-solving performance, interest appraisal, and positive emotions after the event compared to students with low positive emotions; however, they experienced lower negative emotion after the event than low positive emotion students did; and (2 when solving the scientific problem of Can the Iron Bar Pierce the Paper, students with high positive emotions reported higher scores of cognitive
Rr Chusnul, C.; Mardiyana, S., Dewi Retno
Problem solving is the basis of mathematics learning. Problem solving teaches us to clarify an issue coherently in order to avoid misunderstanding information. Sometimes there may be mistakes in problem solving due to misunderstanding the issue, choosing a wrong concept or misapplied concept. The problem-solving test was carried out after students were given treatment on learning by using cooperative learning of TTW type. The purpose of this study was to elucidate student problem regarding to problem solving errors after learning by using cooperative learning of TTW type. Newman stages were used to identify problem solving errors in this study. The new research used a descriptive method to find out problem solving errors in students. The subject in this study were students of Vocational Senior High School (SMK) in 10th grade. Test and interview was conducted for data collection. Thus, the results of this study suggested problem solving errors in students after learning by using cooperative learning of TTW type for Newman stages.
Adams, Wendy Kristine
The purpose of my research was to produce a problem solving evaluation tool for physics. To do this it was necessary to gain a thorough understanding of how students solve problems. Although physics educators highly value problem solving and have put extensive effort into understanding successful problem solving, there is currently no efficient way to evaluate problem solving skill. Attempts have been made in the past; however, knowledge of the principles required to solve the subject problem are so absolutely critical that they completely overshadow any other skills students may use when solving a problem. The work presented here is unique because the evaluation tool removes the requirement that the student already have a grasp of physics concepts. It is also unique because I picked a wide range of people and picked a wide range of tasks for evaluation. This is an important design feature that helps make things emerge more clearly. This dissertation includes an extensive literature review of problem solving in physics, math, education and cognitive science as well as descriptions of studies involving student use of interactive computer simulations, the design and validation of a beliefs about physics survey and finally the design of the problem solving evaluation tool. I have successfully developed and validated a problem solving evaluation tool that identifies 44 separate assets (skills) necessary for solving problems. Rigorous validation studies, including work with an independent interviewer, show these assets identified by this content-free evaluation tool are the same assets that students use to solve problems in mechanics and quantum mechanics. Understanding this set of component assets will help teachers and researchers address problem solving within the classroom.
de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez
Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks...... by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have...... an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non...
that “learning is problem solving”. Therefore, teaching problem solving is teaching people how to learn, so is problem solving in chemistry education. Kalbag (4) states that problem solving orientation in chemistry education has an importance in that problem solving converts information into knowledge. Kalbag further states.
Roesler, Rebecca A.
Teaching is replete with problem solving. Problem solving as a skill, however, is seldom addressed directly within music teacher education curricula, and research in music education has not examined problem solving systematically. A framework detailing problem-solving component skills would provide a needed foundation. I observed problem solving…
Hyde, Janet S.; Mertz, Janet E.
Using contemporary data from the U.S. and other nations, we address 3 questions: Do gender differences in mathematics performance exist in the general population? Do gender differences exist among the mathematically talented? Do females exist who possess profound mathematical talent? In regard to the first question, contemporary data indicate that girls in the U.S. have reached parity with boys in mathematics performance, a pattern that is found in some other nations as well. Focusing on the ...
Keeton, Kathryn E.; Richard, Elizabeth E.; Davis, Jeffrey R.
Over the past five years, the Human Health and Performance (HH&P) Directorate at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has conducted a number of pilot and ongoing projects in collaboration and open innovation. These projects involved the use of novel open innovation competitions that sought solutions from "the crowd", non-traditional problem solvers. The projects expanded to include virtual collaboration centers such as the NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC) and more recently a collaborative research project between NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF). These novel problem-solving tools produced effective results and the HH&P wanted to capture the knowledge from these new tools, to teach the results to the directorate, and to implement new project management tools and coursework. The need to capture and teach the results of these novel problem solving tools, the HH&P decided to create a web-based tool to capture best practices and case studies, to teach novice users how to use new problem solving tools and to change project management training/. This web-based tool was developed with a small, multi-disciplinary group and named the Solution Mechanism Guide (SMG). An alpha version was developed that was tested against several sessions of user groups to get feedback on the SMG and determine a future course for development. The feedback was very positive and the HH&P decided to move to the beta-phase of development. To develop the web-based tool, the HH&P utilized the NASA Tournament Lab (NTL) to develop the software with TopCoder under an existing contract. In this way, the HH&P is using one new tool (the NTL and TopCoder) to develop the next generation tool, the SMG. The beta-phase of the SMG is planed for release in the spring of 2014 and results of the beta-phase testing will be available for the IAC meeting in September. The SMG is intended to disrupt the way problem solvers and project managers approach problem solving and to increase the
Whitney, Todd; Hirn, Regina G.; Lingo, Amy S.
In the present study, we examined the effects of a fluency-building mathematics program called Great Leaps Math on fluency of basic addition mathematics facts zero to nine and word problem solving using a multiple probe design across participants. Three elementary students with challenging behaviors and mathematics difficulty participated in the…
Patrick Kyllonen; Cristina Anguiano Carrasco; Harrison J. Kell
Complex problem solving (CPS) has emerged over the past several decades as an important construct in education and in the workforce. We examine the relationship between CPS and general fluid ability (Gf) both conceptually and empirically. A review of definitions of the two factors, prototypical tasks, and the information processing analyses of performance on those tasks suggest considerable conceptual overlap. We review three definitions of CPS: a general definition emerging from the human pr...
Simpol, N. S. H.; Shahrill, M.; Li, H.-C.; Prahmana, R. C. I.
This study implemented two pedagogical strategies, the Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving and Pólya’s Problem Solving, to support students’ learning of fractions. The participants were 51 students (ages 11-13) from two Year 7 classes in a government secondary school in Brunei Darussalam. A mixed method design was employed in the present study, with data collected from the pre- and post-tests, problem solving behaviour questionnaire and interviews. The study aimed to explore if there were differences in the students’ problem solving behaviour before and after the implementation of the problem solving strategies. Results from the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test revealed a significant difference in the test results regarding student problem solving behaviour, z = -3.68, p = .000, with a higher mean score for the post-test (M = 95.5, SD = 13.8) than for the pre-test (M = 88.9, SD = 15.2). This implied that there was improvement in the students’ problem solving performance from the pre-test to the post-test. Results from the questionnaire showed that more than half of the students increased scores in all four stages of the Pólya’s problem solving strategy, which provided further evidence of the students’ improvement in problem solving.
Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Babar, Muhammad Ali
Observational studies of engineering design activities can inform the research community on the problem solving models that are employed by professional engineers. Design is defined as an ill-defined problem which includes both engineering design and software design, hence understanding problem...... solving models from other design domains is of interest to the engineering design community. For this paper an observational study of two software design sessions performed for the workshop on “Studying professional Software Design” is compared to analysis from engineering design. These findings provide...... useful insights of how software designers move from a problem domain to a solution domain and the commonalities between software designers’ and engineering designers’ design activities. The software designers were found to move quickly to a detailed design phase, employ co-.evolution and adopt...
Sarfan, Laurel D; Gooch, Peter; Clerkin, Elise M
Emotion regulation strategies have been conceptualized as adaptive or maladaptive, but recent evidence suggests emotion regulation outcomes may be context-dependent. The present study tested whether the adaptiveness of a putatively adaptive emotion regulation strategy-problem solving-varied across contexts of high and low controllability. The present study also tested rumination, suggested to be one of the most putatively maladaptive strategies, which was expected to be associated with negative outcomes regardless of context. Participants completed an in vivo speech task, in which they were randomly assigned to a controllable ( n = 65) or an uncontrollable ( n = 63) condition. Using moderation analyses, we tested whether controllability interacted with emotion regulation use to predict negative affect, avoidance, and perception of performance. Partially consistent with hypotheses, problem solving was associated with certain positive outcomes (i.e., reduced behavioral avoidance) in the controllable (vs. uncontrollable) condition. Consistent with predictions, rumination was associated with negative outcomes (i.e., desired avoidance, negative affect, negative perception of performance) in both conditions. Overall, findings partially support contextual models of emotion regulation, insofar as the data suggest that the effects of problem solving may be more adaptive in controllable contexts for certain outcomes, whereas rumination may be maladaptive regardless of context.
The internet provides free learning opportunities for declarative (Wikipedia, YouTube) and procedural (Kahn Academy, MOOCs) knowledge, challenging colleges to provide learning at a higher cognitive level. Our ``Modeling Applied to Problem Solving'' pedagogy for Newtonian Mechanics imparts strategic knowledge - how to systematically determine which concepts to apply and why. Declarative and procedural knowledge is learned online before class via an e-text, checkpoint questions, and homework on edX.org (see http://relate.mit.edu/physicscourse); it is organized into five Core Models. Instructors then coach students on simple ``touchstone problems'', novel exercises, and multi-concept problems - meanwhile exercising three of the four C's: communication, collaboration, critical thinking and problem solving. Students showed 1.2 standard deviations improvement on the MIT final exam after three weeks instruction, a significant positive shift in 7 of the 9 categories in the CLASS, and their grades improved by 0.5 standard deviation in their following physics course (Electricity and Magnetism).
Coelho, Ricardo Lopes
It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem solving could be improved by means of HPS. Three typical problems in introductory courses of mechanics—the inclined plane, the simple pendulum and the Atwood machine—are taken as the object of the present study. The solving strategies of these problems in the eighteenth and nineteenth century constitute the historical component of the study. Its philosophical component stems from the foundations of mechanics research literature. The use of HPS leads us to see those problems in a different way. These different ways can be tested, for which experiments are proposed. The traditional solving strategies for the incline and pendulum problems are adequate for some situations but not in general. The recourse to apparent weights in the Atwood machine problem leads us to a new insight and a solving strategy for composed Atwood machines. Educational implications also concern the development of logical thinking by means of the variety of lines of thought provided by HPS.
Byun, Hyunjung; Lee, Jung; Cerreto, Frank A.
The purpose of this research is to investigate the relative effectiveness of using three different question-prompt strategies on promoting metacognitive skills and performance in ill-structured problem solving by examining the interplay between peer interaction and cognitive scaffolding. An ill-structured problem-solving task was given to three…
Robledo, Issac C.; Hester, Kimberly S.; Peterson, David R.; Barrett, Jamie D.; Day, Eric A.; Hougen, Dean P.; Mumford, Michael D.
People make errors in their creative problem-solving efforts. The intent of this article was to assess whether error-management training would improve performance on creative problem-solving tasks. Undergraduates were asked to solve an educational leadership problem known to call for creative thought where problem solutions were scored for…
Tekinerdogan, B.; Aksit, Mehmet; Dogru, Ali H.; Bicer, Veli
Software engineering is compared with traditional engineering disciplines using a domain specific problem-solving model called Problem-Solving for Engineering Model (PSEM). The comparative analysis is performed both from a historical and contemporary view. The historical view provides lessons on the
Sharp, Emily; Shih Dennis, Minyi
This study used a multiple probe across participants design to examine the effects of a model drawing strategy (MDS) intervention package on fraction comparing and ordering word problem-solving performance of three Grade 4 students. MDS is a form of cognitive strategy instruction for teaching word problem solving that includes explicit instruction…
Steinberg, Esther R.; And Others
This study was conducted to determine whether students would use a computer-presented organizational/memory tool as an aid in problem solving, and whether and how locus of control would affect tool use and problem-solving performance. Learners did use the tools, which were most effective in the learner control with feedback condition. (MBR)
Problem solving skills and abilities are critical in life and more specifically in the engineering field. Unfortunately, significant numbers of South African students who are accessing higher education lack problem solving skills and this results in poor academic performance jeopardizing their progress especially from first to second year. On the…
OECD Publishing, 2016
The education sector performs well for information and communication technology (ICT) and problem-solving skills, although it still lags behind the professional, scientific and technical activities sector. Primary and secondary teachers have better ICT and problem-solving skills than the general population, and similar skills to other…
Mateycik, Frances Ann
This research project investigates students' development of problem solving schemata while using strategies that facilitate the process of using solved examples to assist with a new problem (case reuse). Focus group learning interviews were used to explore students' perceptions and understanding of several problem solving strategies. Individual clinical interviews were conducted and quantitative examination data were collected to assess students' conceptual understanding, knowledge organization, and problem solving performance on a variety of problem tasks. The study began with a short one-time treatment of two independent, research-based strategies chosen to facilitate case reuse. Exploration of students' perceptions and use of the strategies lead investigators to select one of the two strategies to be implemented over a full semester of focus group interviews. The strategy chosen was structure mapping. Structure maps are defined as visual representations of quantities and their associations. They were created by experts to model the appropriate mental organization of knowledge elements for a given physical concept. Students were asked to use these maps as they were comfortable while problem solving. Data obtained from this phase of our study (Phase I) offered no evidence of improved problem solving schema. The 11 contact hour study was barely sufficient time for students to become comfortable using the maps. A set of simpler strategies were selected for their more explicit facilitation of analogical reasoning, and were used together during two more semester long focus group treatments (Phase II and Phase III of this study). These strategies included the use of a step-by-step process aimed at reducing cognitive load associated with mathematical procedure, direct reflection of principles involved in a given set of problems, and the direct comparison of problem pairs designed to be void of surface similarities (similar objects or object orientations) and sharing
Eisenmann, Petr; Novotná, Jarmila; Pribyl, Jirí; Brehovský, Jirí
The article reports the results of a longitudinal research study conducted in three mathematics classes in Czech schools with 62 pupils aged 12-18 years. The pupils were exposed to the use of selected heuristic strategies in mathematical problem solving for a period of 16 months. This was done through solving problems where the solution was the…
Schoppek, Wolfgang; Tulis, Maria
The fluency of basic arithmetical operations is a precondition for mathematical problem solving. However, the training of skills plays a minor role in contemporary mathematics instruction. The authors proposed individualization of practice as a means to improve its efficiency, so that the time spent with the training of skills is minimized. As a…
Jitendra, Asha K.; Harwell, Michael R.; Dupuis, Danielle N.; Karl, Stacy R.; Lein, Amy E.; Simonson, Gregory; Slater, Susan C.
This experimental study evaluated the effectiveness of a research-based intervention, schema-based instruction (SBI), on students' proportional problem solving. SBI emphasizes the underlying mathematical structure of problems, uses schematic diagrams to represent information in the problem text, provides explicit problem-solving and metacognitive…
Rakkapao, S.; Prasitpong, S.
This study applies the model analysis technique to explore the distribution of Thai students’ attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving and how those attitudes and approaches change as a result of different experiences in physics learning. We administered the Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving (AAPS) survey to over 700 Thai university students from five different levels, namely students entering science, first-year science students, and second-, third- and fourth-year physics students. We found that their inferred mental states were generally mixed. The largest gap between physics experts and all levels of the students was about the role of equations and formulas in physics problem solving, and in views towards difficult problems. Most participants of all levels believed that being able to handle the mathematics is the most important part of physics problem solving. Most students’ views did not change even though they gained experiences in physics learning.
Relative Effects of Problem-Solving and Concept Mapping Instructional ... mapping strategies are also discussed and their significance and importance to students. ... development of problem solving skills before the end of SSCE Programmebr ...
Milovanovic, Ivica; Jeuring, Johan
In this paper, we explore theoretical and practical aspects of the automatic generation of knowledge spaces from problem solving strategies. We show how the generated spaces can be used for adapting strategy-based problem solving learning environments (PSLEs).
Students' Competence in some Problem Solving Skills throughout their B.Sc. Course. ... there is a need for explicitly identifying important cognitive skills and strategies and ... Keywords: Cognitive skills, thinking skills, problem solving, students' ...
McFarland, Craig P; Primosch, Mark; Maxson, Chelsey M; Stewart, Brandon T
Recent work has revealed links between memory, imagination, and problem solving, and suggests that increasing access to detailed memories can lead to improved imagination and problem-solving performance. Depression is often associated with overgeneral memory and imagination, along with problem-solving deficits. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that an interview designed to elicit detailed recollections would enhance imagination and problem solving among both depressed and nondepressed participants. In a within-subjects design, participants completed a control interview or an episodic specificity induction prior to completing memory, imagination, and problem-solving tasks. Results revealed that compared to the control interview, the episodic specificity induction fostered increased detail generation in memory and imagination and more relevant steps on the problem-solving task among depressed and nondepressed participants. This study builds on previous work by demonstrating that a brief interview can enhance problem solving among individuals with depression and supports the notion that episodic memory plays a key role in problem solving. It should be noted, however, that the results of the interview are relatively short-lived.
Hrepic, Zdeslav; Lodder, Katherine; Shaw, Kimberly A.
Pen input computers combined with interactive software may have substantial potential for promoting active instructional methodologies and for facilitating students' problem solving ability. An excellent example is a study in which introductory physics students improved retention, conceptual understanding and problem solving abilities when one of three weekly lectures was replaced with group problem solving sessions facilitated with Tablet PCs and DyKnow software [1,2]. The research goal of the present study was to isolate the effect of the methodology itself (using additional time to teach problem solving) from that of the involved technology. In Fall 2011 we compared the performance of students taking the same introductory physics lecture course while enrolled in two separate problem-solving sections. One section used pen-based computing to facilitate group problem solving while the other section used low-tech methods for one third of the semester (covering Kinematics), and then traded technologies for the middle third of the term (covering Dynamics). Analysis of quiz, exam and standardized pre-post test results indicated no significant difference in scores of the two groups. Combining this result with those of previous studies implies primacy of pedagogy (collaborative problem solving itself) over technology for student learning in problem solving recitations.
This comprehensive and stimulating introduction to Matlab, a computer language now widely used for technical computing, is based on an introductory course held at Qian Weichang College, Shanghai University, in the fall of 2014. Teaching and learning a substantial programming language aren’t always straightforward tasks. Accordingly, this textbook is not meant to cover the whole range of this high-performance technical programming environment, but to motivate first- and second-year undergraduate students in mathematics and computer science to learn Matlab by studying representative problems, developing algorithms and programming them in Matlab. While several topics are taken from the field of scientific computing, the main emphasis is on programming. A wealth of examples are completely discussed and solved, allowing students to learn Matlab by doing: by solving problems, comparing approaches and assessing the proposed solutions.
Mair, C; Martincova, M; Shepperd, MJ
We consider software project cost estimation from a problem solving perspective. Taking a cognitive psychological approach, we argue that the algorithmic basis for CBR tools is not representative of human problem solving and this mismatch could account for inconsistent results. We describe the fundamentals of problem solving, focusing on experts solving ill-defined problems. This is supplemented by a systematic literature review of empirical studies of expert problem solving of non-trivial pr...
Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer
This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…
This paper focuses on the uses of systemic problem solving in chemistry at the tertiary level. Traditional problem solving (TPS) is a useful tool to help teachers examine recall of information, comprehension, and application. However, systemic problem solving (SPS) can challenge students and probe higher cognitive skills ...
Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.
Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…
Axelsdottir, Aslaug; Nygaard, Martin; Edwards, Kasper
This paper outlines the NAX problem solving approach developed by a group of problem solving experts at a large Danish Producer of medical equipment. The company, “Medicmeter” is one of Denmark’s leading companies when it comes to lean and it has developed a strong problem solving culture. The ma...
Deep, Kusum; Bansal, Jagdish; Nagar, Atulya; Das, Kedar
This two volume book is based on the research papers presented at the 5th International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving (SocProS 2015) and covers a variety of topics, including mathematical modelling, image processing, optimization methods, swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy logic, neural networks, forecasting, medical and health care, data mining, etc. Mainly the emphasis is on Soft Computing and its applications in diverse areas. The prime objective of this book is to familiarize the reader with the latest scientific developments in various fields of Science, Engineering and Technology and is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various real-world applications of ‘Soft Computing’.
Bosch, Marianna; Winsløw, Carl
A main difference between the mathematical activity of students and that of researchers is that researchers pursue their mathematical work in a seemingly self-sustaining dynamics of questions and answers, while students rely on teachers to sustain this dynamics. Unlike researchers, students gener...
Leone, Joseph; Shin, Don G.
This work explores a distributed problem solving (DPS) approach, namely the AM/AG model, to cooperative memory recall. The AM/AG model is a hierarchic social system metaphor for DPS based on the Mintzberg's model of organizations. At the core of the model are information flow mechanisms, named amplification and aggregation. Amplification is a process of expounding a given task, called an agenda, into a set of subtasks with magnified degree of specificity and distributing them to multiple processing units downward in the hierarchy. Aggregation is a process of combining the results reported from multiple processing units into a unified view, called a resolution, and promoting the conclusion upward in the hierarchy. The combination of amplification and aggregation can account for a memory recall process which primarily relies on the ability of making associations between vast amounts of related concepts, sorting out the combined results, and promoting the most plausible ones. The amplification process is discussed in detail. An implementation of the amplification process is presented. The process is illustrated by an example.
Lee Chien Sing
Full Text Available The dynamic challenges of an increasingly borderless world buoyed by advances in telecommunications and information technology has resulted in educational reform and subsequently, a reconceptualisation of what constitutes a learner, learning and the influence of the learning environment on the process of learning. In keeping up with the changing trends and challenges of an increasingly networked, dynamic and challenging international community, means to provide an alternative environment that stimulates inquiry and equips learners with the skills needed to manage technological change and innovations must be considered. This paper discusses the importance of interaction, cognition and context, collaboration in a networked computer-mediated environment, the problem-solving approach as a catalyst in stimulating creative and critical thinking and in providing context for meaningful interaction and whether the interactive environment created through computer-mediated collaboration will motivate learners to be responsible for their own learning and be independent thinkers. The sample involved learners from three schools in three different countries. Findings conclude that a rich interactive environment must be personally relevant to the learner by simulating authentic problems without lowering the degree of cognitive complexity. Review in curriculum, assessment and teacher training around constructivist principles are also imperative as these interrelated factors form part of the learning process system.
Polyak, Stephen T.; von Davier, Alina A.; Peterschmidt, Kurt
This paper describes a psychometrically-based approach to the measurement of collaborative problem solving skills, by mining and classifying behavioral data both in real-time and in post-game analyses. The data were collected from a sample of middle school children who interacted with a game-like, online simulation of collaborative problem solving tasks. In this simulation, a user is required to collaborate with a virtual agent to solve a series of tasks within a first-person maze environment. The tasks were developed following the psychometric principles of Evidence Centered Design (ECD) and are aligned with the Holistic Framework developed by ACT. The analyses presented in this paper are an application of an emerging discipline called computational psychometrics which is growing out of traditional psychometrics and incorporates techniques from educational data mining, machine learning and other computer/cognitive science fields. In the real-time analysis, our aim was to start with limited knowledge of skill mastery, and then demonstrate a form of continuous Bayesian evidence tracing that updates sub-skill level probabilities as new conversation flow event evidence is presented. This is performed using Bayes' rule and conversation item conditional probability tables. The items are polytomous and each response option has been tagged with a skill at a performance level. In our post-game analysis, our goal was to discover unique gameplay profiles by performing a cluster analysis of user's sub-skill performance scores based on their patterns of selected dialog responses. PMID:29238314
Stephen T. Polyak
Full Text Available This paper describes a psychometrically-based approach to the measurement of collaborative problem solving skills, by mining and classifying behavioral data both in real-time and in post-game analyses. The data were collected from a sample of middle school children who interacted with a game-like, online simulation of collaborative problem solving tasks. In this simulation, a user is required to collaborate with a virtual agent to solve a series of tasks within a first-person maze environment. The tasks were developed following the psychometric principles of Evidence Centered Design (ECD and are aligned with the Holistic Framework developed by ACT. The analyses presented in this paper are an application of an emerging discipline called computational psychometrics which is growing out of traditional psychometrics and incorporates techniques from educational data mining, machine learning and other computer/cognitive science fields. In the real-time analysis, our aim was to start with limited knowledge of skill mastery, and then demonstrate a form of continuous Bayesian evidence tracing that updates sub-skill level probabilities as new conversation flow event evidence is presented. This is performed using Bayes' rule and conversation item conditional probability tables. The items are polytomous and each response option has been tagged with a skill at a performance level. In our post-game analysis, our goal was to discover unique gameplay profiles by performing a cluster analysis of user's sub-skill performance scores based on their patterns of selected dialog responses.
Polyak, Stephen T; von Davier, Alina A; Peterschmidt, Kurt
This paper describes a psychometrically-based approach to the measurement of collaborative problem solving skills, by mining and classifying behavioral data both in real-time and in post-game analyses. The data were collected from a sample of middle school children who interacted with a game-like, online simulation of collaborative problem solving tasks. In this simulation, a user is required to collaborate with a virtual agent to solve a series of tasks within a first-person maze environment. The tasks were developed following the psychometric principles of Evidence Centered Design (ECD) and are aligned with the Holistic Framework developed by ACT. The analyses presented in this paper are an application of an emerging discipline called computational psychometrics which is growing out of traditional psychometrics and incorporates techniques from educational data mining, machine learning and other computer/cognitive science fields. In the real-time analysis, our aim was to start with limited knowledge of skill mastery, and then demonstrate a form of continuous Bayesian evidence tracing that updates sub-skill level probabilities as new conversation flow event evidence is presented. This is performed using Bayes' rule and conversation item conditional probability tables. The items are polytomous and each response option has been tagged with a skill at a performance level. In our post-game analysis, our goal was to discover unique gameplay profiles by performing a cluster analysis of user's sub-skill performance scores based on their patterns of selected dialog responses.
Full Text Available The aims of this study are to determine the improvement of critical thinking skills mathematical and metacognition of students who are taught with problem solving approach and the correlation between mathematical critical thinking and metacognition of students. This research is an experimental research with pretest-posttest control group design. The sample this research is the students of class VIII_2 and VIII_3 in SMP Negeri 1 Banda Aceh. Collecting data technique are test and nontest. Data were analyzed using t-test and correlation test. The result of the research shows 1 the critical thinking ability of the students who get the learning through problem solving approach is better than the students who get the conventional learning, 2 Metacognition of students who get the learning by using problem solving approach is better than the students who get the conventional learning, 3 a positive and significant relationship between students' metacognition and critical thinking skills.
Jiang, Weili; Shang, Siyuan; Su, Yanjie
People may experience an "aha" moment, when suddenly realizing a solution of a puzzling problem. This experience is called insight problem solving. Several findings suggest that catecholamine-related genes may contribute to insight problem solving, among which the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is the most promising candidate. The current study examined 753 healthy individuals to determine the associations between 7 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms on the COMT gene and insight problem-solving performance, while considering gender differences. The results showed that individuals carrying A allele of rs4680 or T allele of rs4633 scored significantly higher on insight problem-solving tasks, and the COMT gene rs5993883 combined with gender interacted with correct solutions of insight problems, specifically showing that this gene only influenced insight problem-solving performance in males. This study presents the first investigation of the genetic impact on insight problem solving and provides evidence that highlights the role that the COMT gene plays in insight problem solving.
Vaskinn, Anja; Sundet, Kjetil; Hultman, Christina M; Friis, Svein; Andreassen, Ole A
This study examined social problem-solving performance in high-functioning schizophrenia (n=26) and its relation to neurocognition. Ten healthy controls were used as a comparison group. Social problem-solving was assessed with the Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (AIPSS) method. The schizophrenia group was outperformed by healthy controls on all AIPSS measures, reaching statistical significance for sending skills. Exploration of the internal relationship between different aspects of social problem-solving showed that identification of an interpersonal problem (a receiving skill) was not correlated with formulating solutions to the problem (processing skills) or successfully role-playing solutions (interpersonal sending skills). Non-verbal performance in the role-play (an interpersonal sending skill) was not significantly correlated with identification of an interpersonal problem or the generation of solutions. This suggests a dissociation of social problem-solving processes. Social problem-solving was significantly associated with psychomotor speed, verbal learning, semantic fluency and cognitive flexibility. Clinical implications are that remediation of social problem-solving skills should focus on role-playing (nonverbal) interpersonal behaviors, rather than on verbally analyzing an interpersonal problem and clarifying alternative solutions.
. Qualitative and quantitative measures were also used to document the case study. The outcome of the people development system needs to be measured to understand its value in developing the problem solving capabilities among the employees. Only with developed and equipped employees, the Kitting Department can reduce its wastages, optimize its performance and thereby play a crucial role in making ABC Company a world class organization. As pertinent results of the PDS implementation, in general Kitting Department successfully achieved to meet their Department Key Performance Indicator and particularly the employees’ are also improve by practicing good lean behaviors and skill and knowledge in using lean tools which lead to better leanness level by improving employees’ problem solving capabilities in eliminating waste. On the whole, the lean process management and the resultant PDS is having positive applications, and importantly could also have positive applications in the future as well.
Jens F. Beckmann
Full Text Available In this paper we argue that a synthesis of findings across the various sub-areas of research in complex problem solving and consequently progress in theory building is hampered by an insufficient differentiation of complexity and difficulty. In the proposed framework of person, task, and situation (PTS, complexity is conceptualized as a quality that is determined by the cognitive demands that the characteristics of the task and the situation impose. Difficulty represents the quantifiable level of a person’s success in dealing with such demands. We use the well-documented “semantic effect” as an exemplar for testing some of the conceptual assumptions derived from the PTS framework. We demonstrate how a differentiation between complexity and difficulty can help take beyond a potentially too narrowly defined psychometric perspective and subsequently gain a better understanding of the cognitive mechanisms behind this effect. In an empirical study a total of 240 university students were randomly allocated to one of four conditions. The four conditions resulted from contrasting the semanticity level of the variable labels used in the CPS system (high vs. low and two instruction conditions for how to explore the CPS system’s causal structure (starting with the assumption that all relationships between variables existed vs. starting with the assumption that none of the relationships existed. The variation in the instruction aimed at inducing knowledge acquisition processes of either (1 systematic elimination of presumptions, or (2 systematic compilation of a mental representation of the causal structure underpinning the system. Results indicate that (a it is more complex to adopt a “blank slate” perspective under high semanticity as it requires processes of inhibiting prior assumptions, and (b it seems more difficult to employ a systematic heuristic when testing against presumptions. In combination, situational characteristics, such as the
Full Text Available Complex problem solving (CPS has emerged over the past several decades as an important construct in education and in the workforce. We examine the relationship between CPS and general fluid ability (Gf both conceptually and empirically. A review of definitions of the two factors, prototypical tasks, and the information processing analyses of performance on those tasks suggest considerable conceptual overlap. We review three definitions of CPS: a general definition emerging from the human problem solving literature; a more specialized definition from the “German School” emphasizing performance in many-variable microworlds, with high domain-knowledge requirements; and a third definition based on performance in Minimal Complex Systems (MCS, with fewer variables and reduced knowledge requirements. We find a correlation of 0.86 between expert ratings of the importance of CPS and Gf across 691 occupations in the O*NET database. We find evidence that employers value both Gf and CPS skills, but CPS skills more highly, even after controlling for the importance of domain knowledge. We suggest that this may be due to CPS requiring not just cognitive ability but additionally skill in applying that ability in domains. We suggest that a fruitful future direction is to explore the importance of domain knowledge in CPS.
de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Shmueli, Erez; Pentland, Alex; Lehmann, Sune
Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team's performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today's most complex problems.
Full Text Available Abstract: Mathematical Problem-solving is taught to improve students' high-order thinking skills. A heuristic problem-solving strategy is used to find different Problem-solving. This research is to: 1 describe the student's Problem-solving ability profile in finding the pattern of algebra solving through the "IDEAL" (Identify Define Explore Act Look back strategy by developing Larson’s Problem-solving pattern, 2 measuring the extent of the pattern can be formed by using " IDEAL". Finding patterns is part of the first heuristic strategy. The research method used a qualitative approach with descriptive analysis. Problems conveyed to students are done in pairs of two people, with the consideration that more discussion opportunities with friends make it possible to get more than five troubleshooting as Larson puts it. The results showed that: 1 profile Problem-solving ability found pattern with "IDEAL" strategy from student got result that from problem given to 20 student group can help solve algebra Problem-solving; 2 there are four kinds of Problem-solving patterns consisting of 3 Larson model Problem-solving patterns and one Problem-solving pattern using geometry sequence pattern. Keyword: Problem-solving Pattern, Heuristic, “IDEAL” Strategy Abstrak: Pemecahan masalah matematika diajarkan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan pemikiran tingkat tinggi mahasiswa. Strategi pemecahan masalah heuristic digunakan untuk menemukan pemecahan masalah yang berbeda. Penelitian ini untuk: 1 menggambarkan profil kemampuan pemecahan masalah mahasiswa dalam menemukan pola pemecahan aljabar melalui strategi “IDEAL” (Identify Define Explore Act Look back dengan mengembangkan pola pemecahan masalah Larson, 2 mengukur sejauhmana pola yang dapat dibentuk mahasiswa dengan menggunakan strategi “IDEAL”. Menemukan Pola merupakan bagian dari strategi heuristik yang pertama. Metode penelitiannya menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan analisis deskriptif. Masalah
Docktor, Jennifer Lynn
Problem solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving throughout the educational system, there is no standard way to evaluate written problem solving that is valid, reliable, and easy to use. Most tests of problem solving performance given in the classroom focus on the correctness of the end result or partial results rather than the quality of the procedures and reasoning leading to the result, which gives an inadequate description of a student's skills. A more detailed and meaningful measure is necessary if different curricular materials or pedagogies are to be compared. This measurement tool could also allow instructors to diagnose student difficulties and focus their coaching. It is important that the instrument be applicable to any problem solving format used by a student and to a range of problem types and topics typically used by instructors. Typically complex processes such as problem solving are assessed by using a rubric, which divides a skill into multiple quasi-independent categories and defines criteria to attain a score in each. This dissertation describes the development of a problem solving rubric for the purpose of assessing written solutions to physics problems and presents evidence for the validity, reliability, and utility of score interpretations on the instrument.
Sutarno, S.; Setiawan, A.; Kaniawati, I.; Suhandi, A.
This study is a preliminary research aiming at exploring pre-service physics teachers’ skills in applying the stage of problem-solving strategies. A total of 76 students of physics education study program at a college in Bengkulu Indonesia participated in the study. The skills on solving physics problems are being explored through exercises that demand the use of problem-solving strategies with several stages such as useful description, physics approach, specific application of physics, physics equation, mathematical procedures, and logical progression. Based on the results of data analysis, it is found that the pre-service physics teachers’ skills are in the moderate category for physics approach and mathematical procedural, and low category for the others. It was concluded that the pre-service physics teachers’ problem-solving skills are categorized low. It is caused by the learning of physics that has done less to practice problem-solving skills. The problems provided are only routine and poorly trained in the implementation of problem-solving strategies.The results of the research can be used as a reference for the importance of the development of physics learning based on higher order thinking skills.
Samo, Damianus Dao; Darhim; Kartasasmita, Bana G.
The purpose of this study is to show the differences in problem-solving ability between first-year University students who received culture-based contextual learning and conventional learning. This research is a quantitative research using quasi-experimental research design. Samples were the First-year students of mathematics education department;…
English, Lyn D.; Hudson, Peter; Dawes, Les
Incorporating engineering concepts into middle school curriculum is seen as an effective way to improve students' problem-solving skills. A selection of findings is reported from a science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM)-based unit in which students in the second year (grade 8) of a three-year longitudinal study explored…
Katic, Elvira K.; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Weber, Keith H.
This study investigates how a variety of resources mediated collaborative problem solving for a group of preservice teachers. The participants in this study completed mathematical, combinatorial tasks and then watched a video of a sixth grader as he exhibited sophisticated reasoning to recognize the isomorphic structure of these problems. The…
Hua, Youjia; Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Kaldenberg, Erica R.; Lucas, Kristin G.; Therrien, William J.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of teaching a three-step cognitive strategy (TIP) using the schema broadening procedures on functional mathematical problem solving skills of young adults with intellectual disability (ID). We randomly assigned 14 learners with ID to the control and experimental group before the…
Across the primary and secondary phases, pupils are encouraged to use and apply their knowledge, skills, and understanding of mathematics to solve problems in a variety of forms, ranging from single-stage word problems to the challenge of extended rich tasks. Amongst many others, Cockcroft (1982) emphasised the importance and relevance of…
Problem solving therapy (PST) is one of the focused psychological strategies supported by Medicare for use by appropriately trained general practitioners. This article reviews the evidence base for PST and its use in the general practice setting. Problem solving therapy involves patients learning or reactivating problem solving skills. These skills can then be applied to specific life problems associated with psychological and somatic symptoms. Problem solving therapy is suitable for use in general practice for patients experiencing common mental health conditions and has been shown to be as effective in the treatment of depression as antidepressants. Problem solving therapy involves a series of sequential stages. The clinician assists the patient to develop new empowering skills, and then supports them to work through the stages of therapy to determine and implement the solution selected by the patient. Many experienced GPs will identify their own existing problem solving skills. Learning about PST may involve refining and focusing these skills.
Goddard, L; Dritschel, B; Burton, A
Depressed patients frequently exhibit deficiencies in social problem solving (SPS). A possible cause of this deficit is an impairment in patients' ability to retrieve specific autobiographical memories. A clinically depressed group and a hospital control group performed the Means-End Problem-Solving (MEPS; J. J. Platt & G. Spivack, 1975a) task, during which they were required to attend to the memories retrieved during solution generation. Memories were categorized according to whether they were specific, categoric, or extended and whether the valence of the memories was positive or negative. Results support the general hypothesis that SPS skill is a function of autobiographical memory retrieval as measured by a cuing task and by the types of memories retrieved during the MEPS. However, the dysfunctional nature of categoric memories in SPS, rather than the importance of specific memories, was highlighted in the depressed group. Valence proved to be an unimportant variable in SPS ability. The cyclical links among autobiographical memory retrieval, SPS skills, and depression are discussed.
Armour, Carl L.; Williamson, Samuel C.
Environmental problems are difficult to solve because their causes and effects are not easily understood. When attempts are made to analyze causes and effects, the principal challenge is organization of information into a framework that is logical, technically defensible, and easy to understand and communicate. When decisionmakers attempt to solve complex problems before an adequate cause and effect analysis is performed there are serious risks. These risks include: greater reliance on subjective reasoning, lessened chance for scoping an effective problem solving approach, impaired recognition of the need for supplemental information to attain understanding, increased chance for making unsound decisions, and lessened chance for gaining approval and financial support for a program/ Cause and effect relationships can be modeled. This type of modeling has been applied to various environmental problems, including cumulative impact assessment (Dames and Moore 1981; Meehan and Weber 1985; Williamson et al. 1987; Raley et al. 1988) and evaluation of effects of quarrying (Sheate 1986). This guidance for field users was written because of the current interest in documenting cause-effect logic as a part of ecological problem solving. Principal literature sources relating to the modeling approach are: Riggs and Inouye (1975a, b), Erickson (1981), and United States Office of Personnel Management (1986).
Shaykhian, Linda H.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali
There are numerous ways for engineers and students to become better problem-solvers. The use of command line and visual programming tools can help to model a problem and formulate a solution through visualization. The analysis of problem attributes and constraints provide insight into the scope and complexity of the problem. The visualization aspect of the problem-solving approach tends to make students and engineers more systematic in their thought process and help them catch errors before proceeding too far in the wrong direction. The problem-solver identifies and defines important terms, variables, rules, and procedures required for solving a problem. Every step required to construct the problem solution can be defined in program commands that produce intermediate output. This paper advocates improved problem solving skills through using a programming tool. MatLab created by MathWorks, is an interactive numerical computing environment and programming language. It is a matrix-based system that easily lends itself to matrix manipulation, and plotting of functions and data. MatLab can be used as an interactive command line or a sequence of commands that can be saved in a file as a script or named functions. Prior programming experience is not required to use MatLab commands. The GNU Octave, part of the GNU project, a free computer program for performing numerical computations, is comparable to MatLab. MatLab visual and command programming are presented here.
Manurung, Sondang R.; Rustaman, Nuryani Y.; Siregar, Nelson
The purpose of this study is to determine the students' ability to map out the problem solving. This paper would show a schematic template map used to analyze the students' tasks in performing problem solving pedagogically. Scheme of problem solving map of student was undertaken based on Toulmin Argumentation Pattern (TAP) argumentative discourse. The samples of this study were three work-sheets of physics education students who represented the upper, middle and lower levels of class in one LPTK in Medan. The instrument of this study was an essay test in kinematics topic. The data analyses were performed with schematic template map in order to know the students' ability in mapping the problem solving. The results showed that the student in the Upper level of class followed the appropriate direction pattern, while two others students could not followed the pattern exactly.
The study tries to give information on the leadership behavior of restaurant managers in their problem solving. The results of the study were collected by evaluating three restaurant managers by interviewing them. The restaurant managers’ answers were compared to transformational and transactional leadership model and the aspects of it. Their problem solving skills were evaluated by the help of a rational and creative problem solving model. The study showed that restaurant managers have both ...
Fensel, Dieter; Motta, Enrico; van Harmelen, Frank; Benjamins, V. Richard; Crubezy, Monica; Decker, Stefan; Gaspari, Mauro; Groenboom, Rix; Grosso, William; Musen, Mark; Plaza, Enric; Schreiber, Guus; Studer, Rudi; Wielinga, Bob
Problem-solving methods provide reusable architectures and components for implementing the reasoning part of knowledge-based systems. The UNIFIED PROBLEM-SOLVING METHOD DESCRIPTION LANGUAGE (UPML) has been developed to describe and implement such architectures and components to facilitate their semi-automatic reuse and adaptation. In a nutshell, UPML is a framework for developing knowledge-intensive reasoning systems based on libraries ofg eneric problem-solving components. The paper describe...
Chong, Maureen Siew Fang; Shahrill, Masitah; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Zulkardi
Non-routine problems are related to real-life context and require some realistic considerations and real-world knowledge in order to resolve them. This study examines several activity tasks incorporated with non-routine problems through the use of an emerging mathematics framework, at two junior colleges in Brunei Darussalam. The three sampled teachers in this study assisted in selecting the topics and the lesson plan designs. They also recommended the development of the four activity tasks: incorporating the use of technology; simulation of a reality television show; designing real-life sized car park spaces for the school; and a classroom activity to design a real-life sized dustpan. Data collected from all four of the activity tasks were analyzed based on the students' group work. The findings revealed that the most effective activity task in teaching problem solving was to design a real-life sized car park. This was because the use of real data gave students the opportunity to explore, gather information and give or receive feedback on the effect of their reasons and proposed solutions. The second most effective activity task was incorporating the use of technology as it enhanced the students' understanding of the concepts learnt in the classroom. This was followed by the classroom activity that used real data as it allowed students to work and assess the results mathematically. The simulation of a television show was found to be the least effective since it was viewed as not sufficiently challenging to the students.
Griffin, Andrea S; Guez, David
Behavioural innovations have become central to our thinking about how animals adjust to changing environments. It is now well established that animals vary in their ability to innovate, but understanding why remains a challenge. This is because innovations are rare, so studying innovation requires alternative experimental assays that create opportunities for animals to express their ability to invent new behaviours, or use pre-existing ones in new contexts. Problem solving of extractive foraging tasks has been put forward as a suitable experimental assay. We review the rapidly expanding literature on problem solving of extractive foraging tasks in order to better understand to what extent the processes underpinning problem solving, and the factors influencing problem solving, are in line with those predicted, and found, to underpin and influence innovation in the wild. Our aim is to determine whether problem solving can be used as an experimental proxy of innovation. We find that in most respects, problem solving is determined by the same underpinning mechanisms, and is influenced by the same factors, as those predicted to underpin, and to influence, innovation. We conclude that problem solving is a valid experimental assay for studying innovation, propose a conceptual model of problem solving in which motor diversity plays a more central role than has been considered to date, and provide recommendations for future research using problem solving to investigate innovation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Youssef-Shalala, Amina; Ayres, Paul; Schubert, Carina; Sweller, John
Cognitive load theory was used to hypothesize that a general problem-solving strategy based on a make-as-many-moves-as-possible heuristic could facilitate problem solutions for transfer problems. In four experiments, school students were required to learn about a topic through practice with a general problem-solving strategy, through a conventional problem solving strategy or by studying worked examples. In Experiments 1 and 2 using junior high school students learning geometry, low knowledge students in the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher on near or far transfer tests than the conventional problem-solving group. In Experiment 3, an advantage for a general problem-solving group over a group presented worked examples was obtained on far transfer tests using the same curriculum materials, again presented to junior high school students. No differences between conditions were found in Experiments 1, 2, or 3 using test problems similar to the acquisition problems. Experiment 4 used senior high school students studying economics and found the general problem-solving group scored significantly higher than the conventional problem-solving group on both similar and transfer tests. It was concluded that the general problem-solving strategy was helpful for novices, but not for students that had access to domain-specific knowledge. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Hyde, Janet S; Mertz, Janet E
Using contemporary data from the U.S. and other nations, we address 3 questions: Do gender differences in mathematics performance exist in the general population? Do gender differences exist among the mathematically talented? Do females exist who possess profound mathematical talent? In regard to the first question, contemporary data indicate that girls in the U.S. have reached parity with boys in mathematics performance, a pattern that is found in some other nations as well. Focusing on the second question, studies find more males than females scoring above the 95th or 99th percentile, but this gender gap has significantly narrowed over time in the U.S. and is not found among some ethnic groups and in some nations. Furthermore, data from several studies indicate that greater male variability with respect to mathematics is not ubiquitous. Rather, its presence correlates with several measures of gender inequality. Thus, it is largely an artifact of changeable sociocultural factors, not immutable, innate biological differences between the sexes. Responding to the third question, we document the existence of females who possess profound mathematical talent. Finally, we review mounting evidence that both the magnitude of mean math gender differences and the frequency of identification of gifted and profoundly gifted females significantly correlate with sociocultural factors, including measures of gender equality across nations.
Excursions in Classical Analysis introduces undergraduate students to advanced problem solving and undergraduate research in two ways. Firstly, it provides a colourful tour of classical analysis which places a wide variety of problems in their historical context. Secondly, it helps students gain an understanding of mathematical discovery and proof. In demonstrating a variety of possible solutions to the same sample exercise, the reader will come to see how the connections between apparently inapplicable areas of mathematics can be exploited in problem-solving. This book will serve as excellent preparation for participation in mathematics competitions, as a valuable resource for undergraduate mathematics reading courses and seminars and as a supplement text in a course on analysis. It can also be used in independent study, since the chapters are free-standing.
Csapó, Benő; Molnár, Gyöngyvér
There is a growing demand for assessment instruments which can be used in higher education, which cover a broader area of competencies than the traditional tests for disciplinary knowledge and domain-specific skills, and which measure students' most important general cognitive capabilities. Around the age of the transition from secondary to tertiary education, such assessments may serve several functions, including selecting the best-prepared candidates for certain fields of study. Dynamic problem-solving (DPS) is a good candidate for such a role, as tasks that assess it involve knowledge acquisition and knowledge utilization as well. The purpose of this study is to validate an online DPS test and to explore its potential for assessing students' DPS skills at the beginning of their higher education studies. Participants in the study were first-year students at a major Hungarian university (n = 1468). They took five tests that measured knowledge from their previous studies: Hungarian language and literature, mathematics, history, science and English as a Foreign Language (EFL). A further, sixth test based on the MicroDYN approach, assessed students' DPS skills. A brief questionnaire explored learning strategies and collected data on students' background. The testing took place at the beginning of the first semester in three 2-h sessions. Problem-solving showed relatively strong correlations with mathematics (r = 0.492) and science (r = 0.401), and moderate correlations with EFL (r = 0.227), history (r = 0.192), and Hungarian (r = 0.125). Weak but still significant correlations were found with certain learning strategies, positive correlations with elaboration strategies, and a negative correlation with memorization strategies. Significant differences were observed between male and female students; men performed significantly better in DPS than women. Results indicated the dominant role of the first phase of solving dynamic problems, as knowledge acquisition