The Math Wars: Tensions in the Development of School Mathematics Curricula
Wright, Pete
2012-01-01
The Math Wars have been raging since the 1990's in the United States, where the world of mathematics education has become polarised into two camps: the reformers and the traditionalists. In this article I explore the background to the Math Wars, with specific reference to conflicting ideologies of mathematics education. I draw parallels with…
District Finds the Right Equation to Improve Math Instruction
Holmstrom, Annette
2010-01-01
The math problem is common to most U.S. school districts, and education leaders are well aware that U.S. math achievement lags far behind many other countries in the world. University Place (Washington) School District Superintendent Patti Banks found the conspicuous income gap for math scores even more disturbing. In her school district, only 23%…
Robertson, William C
2006-01-01
Flummoxed by formulas? Queasy about equations? Perturbed by pi? Now you can stop cursing over calculus and start cackling over Math, the newest volume in Bill Robertson's accurate but amusing Stop Faking It! best sellers. As Robertson sees it, too many people view mathematics as a set of rules to be followed, procedures to memorize, and theorems to apply. This book focuses on the reasoning behind the rules, from math basics all the way up to a brief introduction to calculus.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Allison Henrich
2011-07-01
Full Text Available How might one teach mathematics to math-anxious students and at the same time reduce their math anxiety? This paper describes what we found when we incorporated a service learning component into a quantitative reasoning course at Seattle University in Fall 2010 (20 students and Spring 2011 (28 students. The course is taken primarily by humanities majors, many of whom would not take a course in math if they didn’t need to satisfy the university’s core requirement. For the service learning component, each student met with and tutored children at local schools for 1-2 hours per week (total about 15 service hours, kept a weekly journal reflecting on the experience, and wrote a five-page final paper on the importance and reasonable expectations of mathematics literacy. The autobiographies, self-description at the beginning of the class, focus group interviews at the end of the term, journal entries, final essays, and student evaluations indicated that the students gained confidence in their mathematical abilities, a greater interest in mathematics, and a broader sense of the importance of math literacy in modern society. One notable finding was that students discovered that the act of manufacturing enthusiasm about math as a tool for tutoring the children made them more enthusiastic about math in their own courses.
Pathways Post-Participation Outcomes: Preliminary Findings. Carnegie Math Pathways Research Brief
Norman, Jon
2017-01-01
The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching's Math Pathways seek to improve outcomes for community college students who take remedial math courses. The Pathways include two comprehensive instructional systems--Statway® and Quantaway® and are described in this report. They are designed to support students to achieve the necessary math…
Nelson, Vaunda; Stanko, Anne
1992-01-01
Describes Math Safari, a mathematical, scientific, geographic, informational adventure for fourth grade students. It integrates all curriculum areas and other skills by using information children must find in books to pose math problems about animals. It encourages cooperative learning, critical reading, analysis, and use of research skills. (SM)
Quigley, Cassie F.; Herro, Dani
2016-06-01
In response to a desire to strengthen the economy, educational settings are emphasizing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) curriculum and programs. Yet, because of the narrow approach to STEM, educational leaders continue to call for a more balanced approach to teaching and learning, which includes the arts, design, and humanities. This desire created space for science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics (STEAM) education, a transdisciplinary approach that focuses on problem-solving. STEAM-based curricula and STEAM-themed schools are appearing all over the globe. This growing national and global attention to STEAM provides an opportunity for teacher education to explore the ways in which teachers implement STEAM practices, examining the successes and challenges, and how teachers are beginning to make sense of this innovative teaching practice. The purpose of this paper is to examine the implementation of STEAM teaching practices in science and math middle school classrooms, in hopes to provide research-based evidence on this emerging topic to guide teacher educators.
Stiles, Jennifer; Louie, Jo
2016-01-01
Mobile tablets are becoming more prevalent in educational settings, but little is known about the impact of using technology-infused curricula in preschool classrooms. The research summarized in this brief suggests that well-designed tablet-based activities can indeed improve student learning outcomes at the preschool level. These positive…
Mathews, Linda Marie
2009-01-01
Talking Math, Blogging Math is a curriculum designed to aid middle school Pre- Algebra students' mathematical problem-solving through the use of academic language instruction, explanatory proofs, and online technology (blogging). Talking Math, Blogging Math was implemented over a period of ten weeks during the 2008 - 2009 school year. The school where the curriculum was implemented is a non-traditional classroom-based charter school. The 7th, 8th and 9th grade students attended class twice a ...
Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes
Casad, Bettina J.; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L.
2015-01-01
Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms. PMID:26579000
Parent-Child Math Anxiety and Math-Gender Stereotypes Predict Adolescents’ Math Education Outcomes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bettina J Casad
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents’ math anxiety including parents’ own math anxiety and children’s endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent’s math anxiety interacts with daughters’ and sons’ anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children’s math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA. Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and for boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents’ math anxiety in the effects of children’s math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents’ math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms.
Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes.
Casad, Bettina J; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L
2015-01-01
Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms.
Kolby, Jeff
2014-01-01
Twenty-three GRE Math Tests! The GRE math section is not easy. There is no quick fix that will allow you to ""beat"" the section. But GRE math is very learnable. If you study hard and master the techniques in this book, your math score will improve--significantly! The GRE cannot be ""beaten."" But it can be mastered--through hard work, analytical thought, and by training yourself to think like a test writer. Many of the problems in this book are designed to prompt you to think like a test writer. For example, you will find ""Duals."" These are pairs of similar problems in which only one prop
Algebra for All: California’s Eighth-Grade Algebra Initiative as Constrained Curricula
Domina, Thurston; Penner, Andrew M.; Penner, Emily K.; Conley, Annemarie
2015-01-01
Background/Context Across the United States, secondary school curricula are intensifying as a growing proportion of students enroll in high-level academic math courses. In many districts, this intensification process occurs as early as eighth grade, where schools are effectively constraining their mathematics curricula by restricting course offerings and placing more students into Algebra I. This paper provides a quantitative single-case research study of policy-driven curricular intensification in one California school district. Research Questions (1a) What effect did 8th eighth grade curricular intensification have on mathematics course enrollment patterns in Towering Pines Unified schools? (2b) How did the distribution of prior achievement in Towering Pines math classrooms change as the district constrained the curriculum by universalizing 8th eighth grade Algebra? (3c) Did 8th eighth grade curricular intensification improve students’ mathematics achievement? Setting Towering Pines is an immigrant enclave in the inner-ring suburbs of a major metropolitan area. The district’s 10 middle schools together enroll approximately 4,000 eighth graders each year. The districts’ students are ethnically diverse and largely economically disadvantaged. The study draws upon administrative data describing 8th eighth graders in the district in the 2004–20-05 through 2007–20-08 school years. Intervention/Program/Practice During the study period, Towering Pines dramatically intensified middle school students’ math curricula: In the 2004–20-05 school year 32% of the district’s 8th eighth graders enrolled in Algebra or a higher- level mathematics course; by the 2007–20-08 school year that proportion had increased to 84%. Research Design We use an interrupted time-series design, comparing students’ 8th eighth grade math course enrollments, 10th grade math course enrollments, and 10th grade math test scores across the four cohorts, controlling for demographics and
Is Math Anxiety Always Bad for Math Learning? The Role of Math Motivation.
Wang, Zhe; Lukowski, Sarah L; Hart, Sara A; Lyons, Ian M; Thompson, Lee A; Kovas, Yulia; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Plomin, Robert; Petrill, Stephen A
2015-12-01
The linear relations between math anxiety and math cognition have been frequently studied. However, the relations between anxiety and performance on complex cognitive tasks have been repeatedly demonstrated to follow a curvilinear fashion. In the current studies, we aimed to address the lack of attention given to the possibility of such complex interplay between emotion and cognition in the math-learning literature by exploring the relations among math anxiety, math motivation, and math cognition. In two samples-young adolescent twins and adult college students-results showed inverted-U relations between math anxiety and math performance in participants with high intrinsic math motivation and modest negative associations between math anxiety and math performance in participants with low intrinsic math motivation. However, this pattern was not observed in tasks assessing participants' nonsymbolic and symbolic number-estimation ability. These findings may help advance the understanding of mathematics-learning processes and provide important insights for treatment programs that target improving mathematics-learning experiences and mathematical skills. © The Author(s) 2015.
Algebra for All: California's Eighth-Grade Algebra Initiative as Constrained Curricula.
Domina, Thurston; Penner, Andrew M; Penner, Emily K; Conley, Annemarie
2014-08-01
Across the United States, secondary school curricula are intensifying as a growing proportion of students enroll in high-level academic math courses. In many districts, this intensification process occurs as early as eighth grade, where schools are effectively constraining their mathematics curricula by restricting course offerings and placing more students into Algebra I. This paper provides a quantitative single-case research study of policy-driven curricular intensification in one California school district. (1a) What effect did 8th eighth grade curricular intensification have on mathematics course enrollment patterns in Towering Pines Unified schools? (2b) How did the distribution of prior achievement in Towering Pines math classrooms change as the district constrained the curriculum by universalizing 8th eighth grade Algebra? (3c) Did 8th eighth grade curricular intensification improve students' mathematics achievement? Towering Pines is an immigrant enclave in the inner-ring suburbs of a major metropolitan area. The district's 10 middle schools together enroll approximately 4,000 eighth graders each year. The districts' students are ethnically diverse and largely economically disadvantaged. The study draws upon administrative data describing 8th eighth graders in the district in the 2004-20-05 through 2007-20-08 school years. During the study period, Towering Pines dramatically intensified middle school students' math curricula: In the 2004-20-05 school year 32% of the district's 8th eighth graders enrolled in Algebra or a higher- level mathematics course; by the 2007-20-08 school year that proportion had increased to 84%. We use an interrupted time-series design, comparing students' 8th eighth grade math course enrollments, 10th grade math course enrollments, and 10th grade math test scores across the four cohorts, controlling for demographics and prior achievement. We find that students' odds of taking higher level mathematics courses increased as this
Thom,R
1974-01-01
Le Prof. R. Thom expose ses vues sur l'enseignement des mathématiques modernes et des mathémathiques de toujours. Il est un grand mathématicien et était professeur à Strasbourg; maintenant il est professeur de hautes études scientifiques et était invité par le Prof. Piaget à Genève
Intergenerational Effects of Parents' Math Anxiety on Children's Math Achievement and Anxiety.
Maloney, Erin A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L
2015-09-01
A large field study of children in first and second grade explored how parents' anxiety about math relates to their children's math achievement. The goal of the study was to better understand why some students perform worse in math than others. We tested whether parents' math anxiety predicts their children's math achievement across the school year. We found that when parents are more math anxious, their children learn significantly less math over the school year and have more math anxiety by the school year's end-but only if math-anxious parents report providing frequent help with math homework. Notably, when parents reported helping with math homework less often, children's math achievement and attitudes were not related to parents' math anxiety. Parents' math anxiety did not predict children's reading achievement, which suggests that the effects of parents' math anxiety are specific to children's math achievement. These findings provide evidence of a mechanism for intergenerational transmission of low math achievement and high math anxiety. © The Author(s) 2015.
When approximate number acuity predicts math performance: The moderating role of math anxiety
Libertus, Melissa E.
2018-01-01
Separate lines of research suggest that people who are better at estimating numerical quantities using the approximate number system (ANS) have better math performance, and that people with high levels of math anxiety have worse math performance. Only a handful of studies have examined both ANS acuity and math anxiety in the same participants and those studies report contradictory results. To address these inconsistencies, in the current study 87 undergraduate students completed assessments of ANS acuity, math anxiety, and three different measures of math. We considered moderation models to examine the interplay of ANS acuity and math anxiety on different aspects of math performance. Math anxiety and ANS acuity were both unique significant predictors of the ability to automatically recall basic number facts. ANS acuity was also a unique significant predictor of the ability to solve applied math problems, and this relation was further qualified by a significant interaction with math anxiety: the positive association between ANS acuity and applied problem solving was only present in students with high math anxiety. Our findings suggest that ANS acuity and math anxiety are differentially related to various aspects of math and should be considered together when examining their respective influences on math ability. Our findings also raise the possibility that good ANS acuity serves as a protective factor for highly math-anxious students on certain types of math assessments. PMID:29718939
When approximate number acuity predicts math performance: The moderating role of math anxiety.
Braham, Emily J; Libertus, Melissa E
2018-01-01
Separate lines of research suggest that people who are better at estimating numerical quantities using the approximate number system (ANS) have better math performance, and that people with high levels of math anxiety have worse math performance. Only a handful of studies have examined both ANS acuity and math anxiety in the same participants and those studies report contradictory results. To address these inconsistencies, in the current study 87 undergraduate students completed assessments of ANS acuity, math anxiety, and three different measures of math. We considered moderation models to examine the interplay of ANS acuity and math anxiety on different aspects of math performance. Math anxiety and ANS acuity were both unique significant predictors of the ability to automatically recall basic number facts. ANS acuity was also a unique significant predictor of the ability to solve applied math problems, and this relation was further qualified by a significant interaction with math anxiety: the positive association between ANS acuity and applied problem solving was only present in students with high math anxiety. Our findings suggest that ANS acuity and math anxiety are differentially related to various aspects of math and should be considered together when examining their respective influences on math ability. Our findings also raise the possibility that good ANS acuity serves as a protective factor for highly math-anxious students on certain types of math assessments.
When approximate number acuity predicts math performance: The moderating role of math anxiety.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emily J Braham
Full Text Available Separate lines of research suggest that people who are better at estimating numerical quantities using the approximate number system (ANS have better math performance, and that people with high levels of math anxiety have worse math performance. Only a handful of studies have examined both ANS acuity and math anxiety in the same participants and those studies report contradictory results. To address these inconsistencies, in the current study 87 undergraduate students completed assessments of ANS acuity, math anxiety, and three different measures of math. We considered moderation models to examine the interplay of ANS acuity and math anxiety on different aspects of math performance. Math anxiety and ANS acuity were both unique significant predictors of the ability to automatically recall basic number facts. ANS acuity was also a unique significant predictor of the ability to solve applied math problems, and this relation was further qualified by a significant interaction with math anxiety: the positive association between ANS acuity and applied problem solving was only present in students with high math anxiety. Our findings suggest that ANS acuity and math anxiety are differentially related to various aspects of math and should be considered together when examining their respective influences on math ability. Our findings also raise the possibility that good ANS acuity serves as a protective factor for highly math-anxious students on certain types of math assessments.
Attentional Bias in Math Anxiety
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Orly eRubinsten
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math. Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of math anxiety and 13 with low levels of math anxiety were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of 6 types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, were presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks. Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in math anxiety. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words. These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense math anxiety symptoms.
Carnegie Learning Curricula and Cognitive Tutor™. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report
What Works Clearinghouse, 2013
2013-01-01
"Carnegie Learning Curricula and Cognitive Tutor"®, published by Carnegie Learning, is a secondary math curricula that offers textbooks and interactive software to provide individualized, self-paced instruction based on student needs. The program includes pre-Algebra, Algebra I, Algebra II, and Geometry, as well as a three-course series…
Sustainability curricula in design education
Casais, M.; Christiaans, H.H.C.M.; Almendra, R.
2012-01-01
While sustainability in Design finds much attention in the literature, the education of sustainability in Design courses lacks discussion regarding curricula and importance. In an attempt to map the way sustainability is taught in Design Bachelor and Master Courses in the European Union, we began
Telehealth Education in Nursing Curricula.
Ali, Nagia S; Carlton, Kay Hodson; Ali, Omar S
2015-01-01
Telehealth care is a fast-growing avenue of providing health care services at a distance. A descriptive study was conducted to identify trends of telehealth education in 43 schools of nursing. Findings reflected inadequate integration of telehealth in classroom content, simulation, and clinical experiences. Interviews with 4 nursing leaders of telehealth provided some recommendations on how to integrate telehealth education in nursing curricula.
Pappas, Theoni
2002-01-01
Whether it's stuff in your kitchen or garden, stuff that powers your car or your body, stuff that helps you work, communicate or play, or stuff that you've never heard of you can bet that mathematics is there. MATH STUFF brings it all in the open in the Pappas style. Not many people think of mathematics as fascinating, exciting and invaluable. Yet Pappas writes about math ideas in such a way that conveys its often overlooked fascination, excitement, and worth. MATH STUFF deals with 38 topics in an non-threatening way that piques our curiosities. Open the book at random, and learn about such to
Engagement in Science and Engineering through Animal-Based Curricula
Mueller, Megan Kiely; Byrnes, Elizabeth M.; Buczek, Danielle; Linder, Deborah E.; Freeman, Lisa M.; Webster, Cynthia R. L.
2018-01-01
One of the persistent challenges in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education is increasing interest, learning, and retention, particularly with regard to girls and students in underserved areas. Educational curricula that promote process and content knowledge development as well as interest and engagement in STEM are critical in…
Sterling, Mary Jane
2008-01-01
Now, it is easier than ever before to understand complex mathematical concepts and formulas and how they relate to real-world business situations. All you have to do it apply the handy information you will find in Business Math For Dummies. Featuring practical practice problems to help you expand your skills, this book covers topics like using percents to calculate increases and decreases, applying basic algebra to solve proportions, and working with basic statistics to analyze raw data. Find solutions for finance and payroll applications, including reading financial statements, calculating wages and commissions, and strategic salary planning. Navigate fractions, decimals, and percents in business and real estate transactions, and take fancy math skills to work. You'll be able to read graphs and tables and apply statistics and data analysis. You'll discover ways you can use math in finance and payroll investments, banking and payroll, goods and services, and business facilities and operations. You'll learn ho...
Is Mathematical Anxiety Always Bad for Math Learning: The Role of Math Motivation
Wang, Zhe; Lukowski, Sarah L.; Hart, Sara Ann; Lyons, Ian M.; Thompson, Lee A.; Kovas, Yulia; Mazzocco, Michèle M.; Plomin, Robert; Petrill, Stephen A.
2015-01-01
The linear relations between math anxiety and math cognition have been frequently studied. However, the relations between anxiety and performance on complex cognitive tasks have been repeatedly demonstrated to follow a curvilinear fashion. Given the lack of attention to the possibility of such complex interplay between emotion and cognition in the math learning literature, the current study aimed to address this gap via exploring the relations between math anxiety, math motivation, and math cognition. The current study consisted of two samples. One sample included 262 pairs of young adolescent twins and the other included 237 adult college students. Participants self-reported their math anxiety and math motivation. Math cognition was assessed using a comprehensive battery of mathematics tasks. In both samples, results showed inverted-U relations between math anxiety and math performance in students with high intrinsic math motivation, and modest negative associations between math anxiety and math performance in students with low intrinsic math motivation. However, this pattern was not observed in tasks assessing student’s nonsymbolic and symbolic number estimation. These findings may help advance our understanding of mathematics learning processes and may provide important insights for treatment programs that target improving mathematics learning experiences and mathematical skills. PMID:26518438
University Curricula in Nanoelectronics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bruun, Erik; Nielsen, Ivan Ring
2009-01-01
-electronic devices (such as bio-devices or chemical devices), and possibilities for developing fundamentally new nanoscale electronic devices. New engineering curricula in nanoelectronics must take these developments into account. A model for the development of new curricula is presented and some representative...
Math-Gender Stereotypes in Elementary School Children
Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Greenwald, Anthony G.
2011-01-01
A total of 247 American children between 6 and 10 years of age (126 girls and 121 boys) completed Implicit Association Tests and explicit self-report measures assessing the association of (a) "me" with "male" (gender identity), (b) "male" with "math" (math-gender stereotype), and (c) "me" with "math" (math self-concept). Two findings emerged.…
Murray, Jenny
2006-01-01
Discussion in maths lessons has always been something encouraged by ATM but can be difficult to initiate for non-specialist and inexperienced teachers who may feel they need material in books to get them going. In this article, the author describes resources aimed at encouraging discussion among primary mathematicians. These resources include: (1)…
Green, Daniel; Kearney, Thomas
2015-01-01
Emperor penguins, the largest of all the penguin species, attain heights of nearly four feet and weigh up to 99 pounds. Many students are not motivated to learn mathematics when textbook examples contain largely nonexistent contexts or when the math is not used to solve significant problems found in real life. This article's project explores how…
Scarlatos, Lori L.
2006-01-01
Educators recognize that group work and physical involvement with learning materials can greatly enhance the understanding and retention of difficult concepts. As a result, math manipulatives--such as pattern blocks and number lines--have increasingly been making their way into classrooms and children's museums. Yet without the constant guidance…
Oguntoyinbo, Lekan
2012-01-01
Many experts give the nation's schools a poor grade for their approach to teaching mathematics and for their preparation of mathematics teachers. While many policymakers make much of data that suggest children in the United States lag behind many other advanced countries in math, many experts call for a change in mathematics education,…
Andrews, Sarah E.; Runyon, Christopher; Aikens, Melissa L.
2017-01-01
In response to calls to improve the quantitative training of undergraduate biology students, there have been increased efforts to better integrate math into biology curricula. One challenge of such efforts is negative student attitudes toward math, which are thought to be particularly prevalent among biology students. According to theory,…
Working memory, math performance, and math anxiety.
Ashcraft, Mark H; Krause, Jeremy A
2007-04-01
The cognitive literature now shows how critically math performance depends on working memory, for any form of arithmetic and math that involves processes beyond simple memory retrieval. The psychometric literature is also very clear on the global consequences of mathematics anxiety. People who are highly math anxious avoid math: They avoid elective coursework in math, both in high school and college, they avoid college majors that emphasize math, and they avoid career paths that involve math. We go beyond these psychometric relationships to examine the cognitive consequences of math anxiety. We show how performance on a standardized math achievement test varies as a function of math anxiety, and that math anxiety compromises the functioning of working memory. High math anxiety works much like a dual task setting: Preoccupation with one's math fears and anxieties functions like a resource-demanding secondary task. We comment on developmental and educational factors related to math and working memory, and on factors that may contribute to the development of math anxiety.
Multi-User GeoGebra for Virtual Math Teams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gerry Stahl
2010-05-01
Full Text Available The Math Forum is an online resource center for pre-algebra, algebra, geometry and pre-calculus. Its Virtual Math Teams (VMT service provides an integrated web-based environment for small teams to discuss mathematics. The VMT collaboration environment now includes the dynamic mathematics application, GeoGebra. It offers a multi-user version of GeoGebra, which can be used in concert with VMT’s chat, web browsers, curricula and wiki repository.
Tobias, Sheila; Donady, Bonnie
1977-01-01
Describes the rationale and mode of operations for a Math Clinic at Wellesley University and Wesleyan College where counselors and math specialists work together to combat "math anxiety," particularly in female students. (HMV)
Students as Math Level Designers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Erik Ottar; Hanghøj, Thorkild; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik
The short paper presents preliminary findings from a pilot study on how students become motivated through design of learning games in math. The research is carried out in a Danish public school with two classes of 5th graders (N = 42 students). Over the course of two weeks, the students work...... with a design template for a runner game in the Unity 3D game design engine. The students are introduced to the concept of “flow” (Csikszentmihalyi, 1991) as a game design principle and are asked to design levels for a math runner game, which are both engaging as well as a meaningful way of learning math....... In this way, the students are positioned as “math level designers”, which means that they both have to redesign the difficulty of the runner game as well as the difficulty of the mathematical questions and possible answers....
Maths4Stats: Educating teachers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Renette J. Blignaut
2013-02-01
Full Text Available The inadequate nature of the education infrastructure in South Africa has led to poor academic performance at public schools. Problems within schools such as under-qualified teachers and poor teacher performance arise due to the poorly constructed education system in our country. The implementation in 2012 of the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS at public schools in South Africa saw the further crippling of some teachers, as they were unfamiliar with parts of the CAPS subject content. The Statistics and Population Studies department at the University of the Western Cape was asked to join the Maths4Stats project in 2012. This project was launched by Statistics South Africa in an effort to assist in training the teachers in statistical content within the CAPS Mathematics curricula. The University of the Western Cape’s team would like to share their experience of being part of the Maths4Stats training in the Western Cape. This article focuses on how the training sessions were planned and what the outcomes were. With the knowledge gained from our first Maths4Stats experience, it is recommended that future interventions are still needed to ensure that mathematics teachers become well-informed and confident to teach topics such as data handling, probability and regression analysis.
Taking Math Anxiety out of Math Instruction
Shields, Darla J.
2007-01-01
To take math anxiety out of math instruction, teachers need to first know how to easily diagnose it in their students and second, how to analyze causes. Results of a recent study revealed that while students believed that their math anxiety was largely related to a lack of mathematical understanding, they often blamed their teachers for causing…
Schoenborn, Barry
2010-01-01
Technical Math For Dummies is your one-stop, hands-on guide to acing the math courses youâ€™ll encounter as you work toward getting your degree, certifacation, or�license in the skilled trades. Youâ€™ll get easy-to-follow, plain-English guidance on mathematical formulas and methods that professionals use every day in the automotive, health, construction, licensed trades, maintenance, and other trades. Youâ€™ll learn how to apply concepts of algebra, geometry, and trigonometry and their formulas related to occupational areas of study. Plus, youâ€™ll find out how to perform basic arithmetic
Education Week, 2013
2013-01-01
This special report is the latest installment in an ongoing series about how online education is changing teaching and learning and the development of curricula. It was produced with support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Carnegie Corporation of New York. This paper contains the following articles: (1) Changing the Role of K-12…
Attentional bias in math anxiety.
Rubinsten, Orly; Eidlin, Hili; Wohl, Hadas; Akibli, Orly
2015-01-01
Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety (MA) as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math). Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of MA and 13 with low levels of MA) were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of six types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, was presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks) that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks). Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in MA. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words). These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense MA symptoms.
Kelly, Gerard W
1984-01-01
Clear, concise compendium of about 150 time-saving math short-cuts features faster, easier ways to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. Each problem includes an explanation of the method. No special math ability needed.
Math word problems for dummies
Sterling, Mary Jane
2008-01-01
Covers percentages, probability, proportions, and moreGet a grip on all types of word problems by applying them to real lifeAre you mystified by math word problems? This easy-to-understand guide shows you how to conquer these tricky questions with a step-by-step plan for finding the right solution each and every time, no matter the kind or level of problem. From learning math lingo and performing operations to calculating formulas and writing equations, you''ll get all the skills you need to succeed!Discover how to: * Translate word problems into plain English* Brush up on basic math skills* Plug in the right operation or formula* Tackle algebraic and geometric problems* Check your answers to see if they work
Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes
Casad, Bettina J.; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L.
2015-01-01
Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents’ math anxiety including parents’ own math anxiety and children’s endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent’s math anxiety interacts with daughters’ and sons’ anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math de...
Advanced Math Equals Career Readiness. Math Works
Achieve, Inc., 2013
2013-01-01
The equation is simple: No matter their background, students who take challenging math courses in high school get better jobs and earn more money throughout their entire lives. This paper stresses that: (1) Higher-level math opens doors for any and all postsecondary programs and keeps it open for advancement beyond entry-level jobs; and (2)…
Tankersley, Karen
1993-01-01
Teachers at a K-8 urban school in Phoenix, Arizona, worked to develop an effective math program that generated student interest and positive self-esteem. They eventually set aside classroom and large enclosed porch area to house math manipulative lab, where children could learn new concepts at concrete level. Results are excitement about math and…
Solving America's Math Problem
Vigdor, Jacob
2013-01-01
Concern about students' math achievement is nothing new, and debates about the mathematical training of the nation's youth date back a century or more. In the early 20th century, American high-school students were starkly divided, with rigorous math courses restricted to a college-bound elite. At midcentury, the "new math" movement sought,…
Is There a Causal Effect of High School Math on Labor Market Outcomes?
Joensen, Juanna Schroter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt
2009-01-01
In this paper, we exploit a high school pilot scheme to identify the causal effect of advanced high school math on labor market outcomes. The pilot scheme reduced the costs of choosing advanced math because it allowed for a more flexible combination of math with other courses. We find clear evidence of a causal relationship between math and…
Math anxiety differentially affects WAIS-IV arithmetic performance in undergraduates.
Buelow, Melissa T; Frakey, Laura L
2013-06-01
Previous research has shown that math anxiety can influence the math performance level; however, to date, it is unknown whether math anxiety influences performance on working memory tasks during neuropsychological evaluation. In the present study, 172 undergraduate students completed measures of math achievement (the Math Computation subtest from the Wide Range Achievement Test-IV), math anxiety (the Math Anxiety Rating Scale-Revised), general test anxiety (from the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College version), and the three Working Memory Index tasks from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV Edition (WAIS-IV; Digit Span [DS], Arithmetic, Letter-Number Sequencing [LNS]). Results indicated that math anxiety predicted performance on Arithmetic, but not DS or LNS, above and beyond the effects of gender, general test anxiety, and math performance level. Our findings suggest that math anxiety can negatively influence WAIS-IV working memory subtest scores. Implications for clinical practice include the utilization of LNS in individuals expressing high math anxiety.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Catherine Patricia Byrne
2015-08-01
Full Text Available I teach maths to all levels in an adult male remand prison in Ireland and am also studying for a PhD in maths in prison education in Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT. This paper describes recent initiatives piloted by maths teachers and school management to increase attendance, engagement and certification in maths. It assesses the effects of the initiatives and looks at future potential in this setting and in others. To set the paper in context, I begin by describing a typical day as a prison maths teacher.
Geist, Eugene
2015-01-01
This study was conducted to examine the attitudes of Head Start teachers toward mathematics and how it may influence how and what they teach in the classroom. In general, the findings of this study can be summarized as this: 1) Math anxiety affects how teachers assess their ability at mathematics. The more math anxiety they report, the lower they…
Premises for Structuring Ethnic Curricula.
Rice, M. J.
The primary purpose of the Georgia Anthropology Curriculum Project is to present the organizing concepts of anthropology in curricula suitable for use in elementary and intermediate grades. The philosophic premise of the Project is that a conceptually structured curricula is the most effective means of helping students to acquire a base of…
College Math Assessment: SAT Scores vs. College Math Placement Scores
Foley-Peres, Kathleen; Poirier, Dawn
2008-01-01
Many colleges and university's use SAT math scores or math placement tests to place students in the appropriate math course. This study compares the use of math placement scores and SAT scores for 188 freshman students. The student's grades and faculty observations were analyzed to determine if the SAT scores and/or college math assessment scores…
Comparison of student success using "atoms first" versus "traditional" curricula
Hillesheim, Christina S.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference between the "atoms first" and the "traditional" curricula. Specifically focusing on which curriculum better aligns to curricular expectations, leads to higher student success when students are grouped together, and when students are differentiated based on several factors. The main difference between the two approaches being the sequence of topics presented in the first semester general chemistry course. This study involves more than 9,500 general chemistry I and II students over 7 semesters with about half of them being taught using the "atoms first" approach. Student success was measured using the American Chemical Society's (ACS) final examination scores and the final letter grades. Alignment to curricular expectations was determined via a qualitative review of textbooks written for each of the approaches. This showed that the "atoms first" approach better aligns to research supported best practices. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed to determine if there is a significant difference between the "atoms first" and the "traditional" curricula. The "traditional" approach was found to lead to higher student achievement for both measures of student success in both chemistry I and II courses. Lastly, multiple linear, multinomial logistic, and binary logistic regressions were run using all of the subgroups---gender, race/ethnicity, major, ACT composite, math ACT, overall GPA, and classroom size---as predictor variables to determine if any significant interactions between the curricular methods and the different subgroups existed. Results found that the relationship between gender, GPA, and classroom size groupings significantly impact student achievement in general chemistry. Specifically, the "traditional" approach lead to higher student success compared to the "atoms first" approach for males, females, below average GPA students, above average GPA students, and students in large classroom
Female teachers' math anxiety affects girls' math achievement.
Beilock, Sian L; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Levine, Susan C
2010-02-02
People's fear and anxiety about doing math--over and above actual math ability--can be an impediment to their math achievement. We show that when the math-anxious individuals are female elementary school teachers, their math anxiety carries negative consequences for the math achievement of their female students. Early elementary school teachers in the United States are almost exclusively female (>90%), and we provide evidence that these female teachers' anxieties relate to girls' math achievement via girls' beliefs about who is good at math. First- and second-grade female teachers completed measures of math anxiety. The math achievement of the students in these teachers' classrooms was also assessed. There was no relation between a teacher's math anxiety and her students' math achievement at the beginning of the school year. By the school year's end, however, the more anxious teachers were about math, the more likely girls (but not boys) were to endorse the commonly held stereotype that "boys are good at math, and girls are good at reading" and the lower these girls' math achievement. Indeed, by the end of the school year, girls who endorsed this stereotype had significantly worse math achievement than girls who did not and than boys overall. In early elementary school, where the teachers are almost all female, teachers' math anxiety carries consequences for girls' math achievement by influencing girls' beliefs about who is good at math.
Enhancing Mathematical Communication for Virtual Math Teams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gerry Stahl
2010-06-01
Full Text Available The Math Forum is an online resource center for pre-algebra, algebra, geometry and pre-calculus. Its Virtual Math Teams (VMT service provides an integrated web-based environment for small teams of people to discuss math and to work collaboratively on math problems or explore interesting mathematical micro-worlds together. The VMT Project studies the online math discourse that takes place during sessions of virtual math teams working on open-ended problem-solving tasks. In particular, it investigates methods of group cognition that are employed by teams in this setting. The VMT environment currently integrates social networking, synchronous text chat, a shared whiteboard for drawing, web browsers and an asynchronous wiki for exchanging findings within the larger community. A simple version of MathML is supported in the whiteboard, chat and wiki for displaying mathematical expressions. The VMT Project is currently integrating the dynamic mathematics application, GeoGebra, into its collaboration environment. This will create a multi-user version of GeoGebra, which can be used in concert with the chat, web browsers, curricular topics and wiki repository.
The neurodevelopmental basis of math anxiety.
Young, Christina B; Wu, Sarah S; Menon, Vinod
2012-05-01
Math anxiety is a negative emotional reaction to situations involving mathematical problem solving. Math anxiety has a detrimental impact on an individual's long-term professional success, but its neurodevelopmental origins are unknown. In a functional MRI study on 7- to 9-year-old children, we showed that math anxiety was associated with hyperactivity in right amygdala regions that are important for processing negative emotions. In addition, we found that math anxiety was associated with reduced activity in posterior parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex regions involved in mathematical reasoning. Multivariate classification analysis revealed distinct multivoxel activity patterns, which were independent of overall activation levels in the right amygdala. Furthermore, effective connectivity between the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex regions that regulate negative emotions was elevated in children with math anxiety. These effects were specific to math anxiety and unrelated to general anxiety, intelligence, working memory, or reading ability. Our study identified the neural correlates of math anxiety for the first time, and our findings have significant implications for its early identification and treatment.
Catherine Patricia Byrne
2015-01-01
I teach maths to all levels in an adult male remand prison in Ireland and am also studying for a PhD in maths in prison education in Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT). This paper describes recent initiatives piloted by maths teachers and school management to increase attendance, engagement and certification in maths. It assesses the effects of the initiatives and looks at future potential in this setting and in others. To set the paper in context, I begin by describing a typical day as a ...
Byrne, Catherine; Carr, Michael
2015-01-01
I teach maths to all levels in an adult male remand prison in Ireland and am also studying for a PhD in maths in prison education in Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT). This paper describes recent initiatives piloted by maths teachers and school management to increase attendance, engagement and certification in maths. It assesses the effects of the initiatives and looks at future potential in this setting and in others. To set the paper in context, I begin by describing a typical day as a p...
Getting Manipulative about Math.
Scheer, Janet K.; And Others
1984-01-01
Math manipulatives that are made from inexpensive, common items help students understand basic mathematics concepts. Learning activities using Cheerios, jellybeans, and clay as teaching materials are suggested. (DF)
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Butgereit, L
2012-10-01
Full Text Available In this presentation the author explains how the Dr Math service works; how tutors are recruited to act as Dr Math; and how school pupils can reach Dr Math for help with their mathematics homework....
Math anxiety in second and third graders and its relation to mathematics achievement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sarah eWu
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Although the detrimental effects of math anxiety in adults are well understood, few studies have examined how it affects younger children who are beginning to learn math in a formal academic setting. Here, we examine the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement in 2nd and 3rd graders. In response to the need for a grade-appropriate measure of assessing math anxiety in this group we first describe the development of Scale for Early Mathematics Anxiety (SEMA, a new measure for assessing math anxiety in 2nd and 3rd graders that is based on the Math Anxiety Rating Scale. We demonstrate the construct validity and reliability of the SEMA and use it to characterize the effect of math anxiety on standardized measures of math abilities, as assessed using the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-II. Math achievement, as measured by the WIAT-II Math Composite score, was significantly and negatively correlated with SEMA but not with trait anxiety scores. Additional analyses showed that SEMA scores were significantly correlated with scores on the Math Reasoning subtest, which involves more complex verbal problem solving, but not with the Numerical Operations subtest which assesses basic computation skills. Our results suggest that math anxiety has a pronounced effect on more demanding calculations. Our results further suggest that math anxiety has an equally detrimental impact on math achievement regardless of whether children have an anxiety related to numbers or to the situational and social experience of doing math. Critically, these effects were unrelated to trait anxiety, providing the first evidence that the specific effects of math anxiety can be detected in the earliest stages of formal math learning in school. Our findings provide new insights into the developmental origins of math anxiety, and further underscore the need to remediate math anxiety and its deleterious effects on math achievement in young children.
Family Maths and Complexity Theory
Webb, Paul; Austin, Pam
2012-01-01
The importance of family involvement is highlighted by findings that parents’ behaviours, beliefs and attitudes affect children’s behaviour in a major way. The Family Maths programme, which is the focus of this study, provides support for the transformative education practices targeted by the South African Department of Education by offering an intervention which includes teachers, learners and their families in an affirming learning community. In this study participating parents were intervi...
Worrying Thoughts Limit Working Memory Capacity in Math Anxiety.
Shi, Zhan; Liu, Peiru
2016-01-01
Sixty-one high-math-anxious persons and sixty-one low-math-anxious persons completed a modified working memory capacity task, designed to measure working memory capacity under a dysfunctional math-related context and working memory capacity under a valence-neutral context. Participants were required to perform simple tasks with emotionally benign material (i.e., lists of letters) over short intervals while simultaneously reading and making judgments about sentences describing dysfunctional math-related thoughts or sentences describing emotionally-neutral facts about the world. Working memory capacity for letters under the dysfunctional math-related context, relative to working memory capacity performance under the valence-neutral context, was poorer overall in the high-math-anxious group compared with the low-math-anxious group. The findings show a particular difficulty employing working memory in math-related contexts in high-math-anxious participants. Theories that can provide reasonable interpretations for these findings and interventions that can reduce anxiety-induced worrying intrusive thoughts or improve working memory capacity for math anxiety are discussed.
Worrying Thoughts Limit Working Memory Capacity in Math Anxiety.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhan Shi
Full Text Available Sixty-one high-math-anxious persons and sixty-one low-math-anxious persons completed a modified working memory capacity task, designed to measure working memory capacity under a dysfunctional math-related context and working memory capacity under a valence-neutral context. Participants were required to perform simple tasks with emotionally benign material (i.e., lists of letters over short intervals while simultaneously reading and making judgments about sentences describing dysfunctional math-related thoughts or sentences describing emotionally-neutral facts about the world. Working memory capacity for letters under the dysfunctional math-related context, relative to working memory capacity performance under the valence-neutral context, was poorer overall in the high-math-anxious group compared with the low-math-anxious group. The findings show a particular difficulty employing working memory in math-related contexts in high-math-anxious participants. Theories that can provide reasonable interpretations for these findings and interventions that can reduce anxiety-induced worrying intrusive thoughts or improve working memory capacity for math anxiety are discussed.
Jansen, B.R.J.; Louwerse, J.; Straatemeier, M.; van der Ven, S.H.G.; Klinkenberg, S.; van der Maas, H.L.J.
2013-01-01
It was investigated whether children would experience less math anxiety and feel more competent when they, independent of ability level, experienced high success rates in math. Comparable success rates were achieved by adapting problem difficulty to individuals' ability levels with a
Leff MS, Lawrence S
2016-01-01
This completely revised edition reflects all of the new questions and question types that will appear on the new SAT, scheduled to be administered in Spring 2016. Includes hundreds of revised math questions and answer explanations, math strategies, test-taking tips, and much more.
The series of String-Math conferences has developed into a central event on the interface between mathematics and physics related to string theory, quantum field theory and neighboring subjects. The conference will take place from July 24-28 in the main building of Hamburg university. The String-Math conference is organised by the University of Hamburg jointly with DESY Hamburg.
Jansen, Brenda R. J.; Louwerse, Jolien; Straatemeier, Marthe; Van der Ven, Sanne H. G.; Klinkenberg, Sharon; Van der Maas, Han L. J.
2013-01-01
It was investigated whether children would experience less math anxiety and feel more competent when they, independent of ability level, experienced high success rates in math. Comparable success rates were achieved by adapting problem difficulty to individuals' ability levels with a computer-adaptive program. A total of 207 children (grades 3-6)…
Madore, Blair
2015-01-01
Reflective of the current GRE, this third edition includes a description of the General Math Exam explaining structure, questions types, and scoring, strategies for problem solving, two full-length math sample sections structured to reflect the actual exam, answers thoroughly explained, and more.
Silk, Kami J; Parrott, Roxanne L
2014-01-01
Health risks are often communicated to the lay public in statistical formats even though low math skills, or innumeracy, have been found to be prevalent among lay individuals. Although numeracy has been a topic of much research investigation, the role of math self-efficacy and math anxiety on health and risk communication processing has received scant attention from health communication researchers. To advance theoretical and applied understanding regarding health message processing, the authors consider the role of math anxiety, including the effects of math self-efficacy, numeracy, and form of presenting statistics on math anxiety, and the potential effects for comprehension, yielding, and behavioral intentions. The authors also examine math anxiety in a health risk context through an evaluation of the effects of exposure to a message about genetically modified foods on levels of math anxiety. Participants (N = 323) were randomly assigned to read a message that varied the presentation of statistical evidence about potential risks associated with genetically modified foods. Findings reveal that exposure increased levels of math anxiety, with increases in math anxiety limiting yielding. Moreover, math anxiety impaired comprehension but was mediated by perceivers' math confidence and skills. Last, math anxiety facilitated behavioral intentions. Participants who received a text-based message with percentages were more likely to yield than participants who received either a bar graph with percentages or a combined form. Implications are discussed as they relate to math competence and its role in processing health and risk messages.
Math anxiety in second and third graders and its relation to mathematics achievement.
Wu, Sarah S; Barth, Maria; Amin, Hitha; Malcarne, Vanessa; Menon, Vinod
2012-01-01
Although the detrimental effects of math anxiety in adults are well understood, few studies have examined how it affects younger children who are beginning to learn math in a formal academic setting. Here, we examine the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement in second and third graders. In response to the need for a grade-appropriate measure of assessing math anxiety in this group we first describe the development of Scale for Early Mathematics Anxiety (SEMA), a new measure for assessing math anxiety in second and third graders that is based on the Math Anxiety Rating Scale. We demonstrate the construct validity and reliability of the SEMA and use it to characterize the effect of math anxiety on standardized measures of math abilities, as assessed using the Mathematical Reasoning and Numerical Operations subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-II). Math achievement, as measured by the WIAT-II Math Composite score, was significantly and negatively correlated with SEMA but not with trait anxiety scores. Additional analyses showed that SEMA scores were strongly correlated with Mathematical Reasoning scores, which involves more complex verbal problem solving. SEMA scores were weakly correlated with Numerical Operations which assesses basic computation skills, suggesting that math anxiety has a pronounced effect on more demanding calculations. We also found that math anxiety has an equally detrimental impact on math achievement regardless of whether children have an anxiety related to numbers or to the situational and social experience of doing math. Critically, these effects were unrelated to trait anxiety, providing the first evidence that the specific effects of math anxiety can be detected in the earliest stages of formal math learning in school. Our findings provide new insights into the developmental origins of math anxiety, and further underscore the need to remediate math anxiety and its deleterious effects on math achievement
McComas, David
2013-01-01
The flight software (FSW) math library is a collection of reusable math components that provides typical math utilities required by spacecraft flight software. These utilities are intended to increase flight software quality reusability and maintainability by providing a set of consistent, well-documented, and tested math utilities. This library only has dependencies on ANSI C, so it is easily ported. Prior to this library, each mission typically created its own math utilities using ideas/code from previous missions. Part of the reason for this is that math libraries can be written with different strategies in areas like error handling, parameters orders, naming conventions, etc. Changing the utilities for each mission introduces risks and costs. The obvious risks and costs are that the utilities must be coded and revalidated. The hidden risks and costs arise in miscommunication between engineers. These utilities must be understood by both the flight software engineers and other subsystem engineers (primarily guidance navigation and control). The FSW math library is part of a larger goal to produce a library of reusable Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) FSW components. A GN&C FSW library cannot be created unless a standardized math basis is created. This library solves the standardization problem by defining a common feature set and establishing policies for the library s design. This allows the libraries to be maintained with the same strategy used in its initial development, which supports a library of reusable GN&C FSW components. The FSW math library is written for an embedded software environment in C. This places restrictions on the language features that can be used by the library. Another advantage of the FSW math library is that it can be used in the FSW as well as other environments like the GN&C analyst s simulators. This helps communication between the teams because they can use the same utilities with the same feature set and syntax.
Motivation and Math Anxiety for Ability Grouped College Math Students
Helming, Luralyn
2013-01-01
The author studied how math anxiety, motivation, and ability group interact to affect performance in college math courses. This clarified the effects of math anxiety and ability grouping on performance. It clarified the interrelationships between math anxiety, motivation, and ability grouping by considering them in a single analysis. It introduces…
Simple arithmetic: not so simple for highly math anxious individuals.
Chang, Hyesang; Sprute, Lisa; Maloney, Erin A; Beilock, Sian L; Berman, Marc G
2017-12-01
Fluency with simple arithmetic, typically achieved in early elementary school, is thought to be one of the building blocks of mathematical competence. Behavioral studies with adults indicate that math anxiety (feelings of tension or apprehension about math) is associated with poor performance on cognitively demanding math problems. However, it remains unclear whether there are fundamental differences in how high and low math anxious individuals approach overlearned simple arithmetic problems that are less reliant on cognitive control. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural correlates of simple arithmetic performance across high and low math anxious individuals. We implemented a partial least squares analysis, a data-driven, multivariate analysis method to measure distributed patterns of whole-brain activity associated with performance. Despite overall high simple arithmetic performance across high and low math anxious individuals, performance was differentially dependent on the fronto-parietal attentional network as a function of math anxiety. Specifically, low-compared to high-math anxious individuals perform better when they activate this network less-a potential indication of more automatic problem-solving. These findings suggest that low and high math anxious individuals approach even the most fundamental math problems differently. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.
Andrews, Amanda; Brown, Jennifer
2015-01-01
Math anxiety is a reoccurring problem for many students, and the effects of this anxiety on college students are increasing. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre-enrollment math anxiety, standardized test scores, math placement scores, and academic success during freshman math coursework (i.e., pre-algebra, college…
Stacy, Sara T; Cartwright, Macey; Arwood, Zjanya; Canfield, James P; Kloos, Heidi
2017-01-01
Students rarely practice math outside of school requirements, which we refer to as the "math-practice gap". This gap might be the reason why students struggle with math, making it urgent to develop means by which to address it. In the current paper, we propose that math apps offer a viable solution to the math-practice gap: Online apps can provide access to a large number of problems, tied to immediate feedback, and delivered in an engaging way. To substantiate this conversation, we looked at whether tablets are sufficiently engaging to motivate children's informal math practice. Our approach was to partner with education agencies via a community-based participatory research design. The three participating education agencies serve elementary-school students from low-SES communities, allowing us to look at tablet use by children who are unlikely to have extensive access to online math enrichment programs. At the same time, the agencies differed in several structural details, including whether our intervention took place during school time, after school, or during the summer. This allowed us to shed light on tablet feasibility under different organizational constraints. Our findings show that tablet-based math practice is engaging for young children, independent of the setting, the student's age, or the math concept that was tackled. At the same time, we found that student engagement was a function of the presence of caring adults to facilitate their online math practice.
Promotive and Corrosive Factors in African American Students' Math Beliefs and Achievement.
Diemer, Matthew A; Marchand, Aixa D; McKellar, Sarah E; Malanchuk, Oksana
2016-06-01
Framed by expectancy-value theory (which posits that beliefs about and the subjective valuation of a domain predict achievement and decision-making in that domain), this study examined the relationships among teacher differential treatment and relevant math instruction on African American students' self-concept of math ability, math task value, and math achievement. These questions were examined by applying structural equation modeling to 618 African American youth (45.6 % female) followed from 7th to 11th grade in the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study. While controlling for gender and prior math achievement, relevant math instruction promoted and teacher differential treatment corroded students' math beliefs and achievement over time. Further, teacher discrimination undermined students' perceptions of their teachers, a mediating process under-examined in previous inquiry. These findings suggest policy and practice levers to narrow opportunity gaps, as well as foster math achievement and science, technology, engineering and math success.
Kolby, Jeff
2011-01-01
Comprehensive Prep for SAT Math Every year, students pay 1,000 and more to test prep companies to prepare for the math section of the new SAT. Now you can get the same preparation in a book. Features: * Comprehensive Review: Twenty-three chapters provide complete review of SAT math. * Practice: Includes 164 examples and more than 500 exercises! Arranged from easy to medium to hard to very hard. * Diagnostic Test: The diagnostic test measures your strengths and weaknesses and directs you to areas you need to study more. * Performance: If your target is a 700+ score, this is the book!
Grätzer, George
2007-01-01
For close to two decades, Math into Latex has been the standard introduction and complete reference for writing articles and books containing mathematical formulas. In this fourth edition, the reader is provided with important updates on articles and books. An important new topic is discussed: transparencies (computer projections). Key features of More Math into Latex, 4th edition: Installation instructions for PC and Mac users; An example-based, visual approach and a gentle introduction with the Short Course; A detailed exposition of multiline math formulas with a Visual Guide; A unified appr
Principals in Partnership with Math Coaches
Grant, Catherine Miles; Davenport, Linda Ruiz
2009-01-01
One of the most promising developments in math education is the fact that many districts are hiring math coaches--also called math resource teachers, math facilitators, math lead teachers, or math specialists--to assist elementary-level teachers with math instruction. What must not be lost, however, is that principals play an essential role in…
A Study of Perceptions of Math Mindset, Math Anxiety, and View of Math by Young Adults
Hocker, Tami
2017-01-01
This study's purpose was to determine whether instruction in growth math mindset led to change in perceptions of 18-22-year-old at-risk students in math mindset, math anxiety, and view of math. The experimental curriculum was created by the researcher with the guidance of experts in mathematics and education and focused on the impact of brain…
Productive failure in learning math.
Kapur, Manu
2014-06-01
When learning a new math concept, should learners be first taught the concept and its associated procedures and then solve problems, or solve problems first even if it leads to failure and then be taught the concept and the procedures? Two randomized-controlled studies found that both methods lead to high levels of procedural knowledge. However, students who engaged in problem solving before being taught demonstrated significantly greater conceptual understanding and ability to transfer to novel problems than those who were taught first. The second study further showed that when given an opportunity to learn from the failed problem-solving attempts of their peers, students outperformed those who were taught first, but not those who engaged in problem solving first. Process findings showed that the number of student-generated solutions significantly predicted learning outcomes. These results challenge the conventional practice of direct instruction to teach new math concepts and procedures, and propose the possibility of learning from one's own failed problem-solving attempts or those of others before receiving instruction as alternatives for better math learning. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
LGBTQ-Inclusive Curricula: Why Supportive Curricula Matter
Snapp, Shannon D.; McGuire, Jenifer K.; Sinclair, Katarina O.; Gabrion, Karlee; Russell, Stephen T.
2015-01-01
There is growing attention to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and questioning (LGBTQ) issues in schools, including efforts to address such issues through the curriculum. This study examines whether students' perceptions of personal safety and school climate safety are stronger when curricula that include LGBTQ people are present and…
Number-specific and general cognitive markers of preschoolers' math ability profiles.
Gray, Sarah A; Reeve, Robert A
2016-07-01
Different number-specific and general cognitive markers have been claimed to underlie preschoolers' math ability. It is unclear, however, whether similar/different cognitive markers, or combinations of them, are associated with different patterns of emerging math abilities (i.e., different patterns of strength and weakness). To examine this question, 103 preschoolers (40-60 months of age) completed six math tasks (count sequence, object counting, give a number, naming numbers, ordinal relations, and arithmetic), three number-specific markers of math ability (dot enumeration, magnitude comparison, and spontaneous focusing on numerosity), and four general markers (working memory, response inhibition, attention, and vocabulary). A three-step latent profile modeling procedure identified five math ability profiles that differed in their patterns of math strengths and weaknesses; specifically, the profiles were characterized by (a) excellent math ability on all math tasks, (b) good arithmetic ability, (c) good math ability but relatively poor count sequence recitation ability, (d) average ability on all math tasks, and (e) poor ability on all math tasks. After controlling for age, only dot enumeration and spontaneous focusing on numerosity were associated with the math ability profiles, whereas vocabulary was also marginally significant, and these markers were differentially associated with different profiles; that is, different cognitive markers were associated with different patterns of strengths and weaknesses in math abilities. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the development of math cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Math anxiety in Thai early adolescents: a cognitive-behavioral perspective.
Wangsiriwech, Tawatchai; Pisitsungkagarn, Kullaya; Jarukasemthawee, Somboon
2017-08-29
With its high prevalence and debilitating impact on students, math anxiety is well studied within the educational context. However, the problem has yet to be examined from the psychological perspective, which is necessary in order to produce a more comprehensive perspective and to pave the way for therapeutic intervention. The current study, therefore, was conducted to identify cognitive and behavioral factors relevant to the occurrence and maintenance of math anxiety. Data were collected from 300 grade 9 students (150 females and 150 males) from public and private schools in Bangkok, Thailand. Participants responded to the measures of math anxiety, negative math beliefs, negative math appraisals and math avoidance. Structural equation modeling was conducted. Model fit indices obtained consistently suggested the good fitness of the model to the data [e.g. χ2/df = 0.42, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.00]. Negative math beliefs, negative math appraisals and math avoidance had a significant direct effect on math anxiety. Additionally, the indirect effect of negative math appraisal was observed between negative math beliefs and math anxiety. In summary, the proposed model accounted for 84.5% of the variance in the anxiety. The findings are discussed with particular focus on implications for therapeutic intervention for math anxiety.
The Math Promise: Celebrating at Home and School
Legnard, Danielle; Austin, Susan
2014-01-01
The Math Promise is a contract that family members make with one another. They commit to spending mathematical time together; getting to know each other's mathematical thinking and understanding; and finding time to play math games, solve problems, and notice mathematics in their daily lives. Whether parents and children are cooking in the…
European Curricula, Xenophobia and Warfare.
Coulby, David
1997-01-01
Examines school and university curricula in Europe and the extent of their influence on xenophobia. Considers the pluralistic nature of the European population. Discusses the role of curriculum selection and language policy in state efforts to promote nationalism. Assesses the role of curricular systems in the actual encouragement of warfare,…
Developmentally Appropriate Peace Education Curricula
Lewsader, Joellen; Myers-Walls, Judith A.
2017-01-01
Peace education has been offered to children for decades, but those curricula have been only minimally guided by children's developmental stages and needs. In this article, the authors apply their research on children's developmental understanding of peace along with peace education principles and Vygotsky's sociocultural theory to present…
Preschool Math Exposure in Private Center-Based Care and Low-SES Children's Math Development
Bachman, Heather J.; Degol, Jessica L.; Elliott, Leanne; Scharphorn, Laura; El Nokali, Nermeen E.; Palmer, Kalani M.
2018-01-01
Research Findings: The present study examined the amount of exposure to math activities that children of low socioeconomic status (SES) encounter in private community-based preschool classrooms and whether greater time in these activities predicted higher math skills. Three cohorts of 4- to 5-year-old children were recruited from 30 private…
Do high school students with different styles have different level of math anxiety?
Shirvani, Hosin; Guerra, Federico
2015-01-01
This study included 240 mostly Hispanic students from one high school. The study used a learning style survey and a math anxiety survey to find students’ learning styles and level of math anxiety. The study examined whether students with three learning styles (auditory, visual, and kinesthetic) had a different level of math anxiety. The study found that children with kinesthetic learning style had higher math anxiety than the other two types. The study also examined whether there were differe...
Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years
Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus
2010-01-01
Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported evaluation of mathematics, and math anxiety in 140 primary school children between the end of first grade and the middle of third grade. Structural equation modeling revealed a strong influence of calculation ability and math anxiety on the evaluation of mathematics but no effect of math anxiety on calculation ability or vice versa—contrasting with the frequent clinical reports of math anxiety even in very young MLD children. To summarize, our study is a first step toward a better understanding of the link between math anxiety and math performance in early primary school years performance during typical and atypical courses of development. PMID:20401159
Finding New Math Identities by Computer
Bailey, David H.; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)
1996-01-01
Recently a number of interesting new mathematical identities have been discovered by means of numerical searches on high performance computers, using some newly discovered algorithms. These include the following: pi = ((sup oo)(sub k=0))(Sigma) (1 / 16) (sup k) ((4 / 8k+1) - (2 / 8k+4) - (1 / 8k+5) - (1 / 8k+6)) and ((17 pi(exp 4)) / 360) = ((sup oo)(sub k=1))(Sigma) (1 + (1/2) + (1/3) + ... + (1/k))(exp 2) k(exp -2), zeta(3, 1, 3, 1, ..., 3, 1) = (2 pi(exp 4m) / (4m+2)! where m = number of (3,1) pairs. and where zeta(n1,n2,...,nr) = (sub k1 (is greater than) k2 (is greater than) ... (is greater than) kr)(Sigma) (1 / (k1 (sup n1) k2 (sup n2) ... kr (sup nr). The first identity is remarkable in that it permits one to compute the n-th binary or hexadecimal digit of pu directly, without computing any of the previous digits, and without using multiple precision arithmetic. Recently the ten billionth hexadecimal digit of pi was computed using this formula. The third identity has connections to quantum field theory. (The first and second of these been formally established; the third is affirmed by numerical evidence only.) The background and results of this work will be described, including an overview of the algorithms and computer techniques used in these studies.
Lachance, Jennifer A.; Mazzocco, Michèle M.M.
2009-01-01
We report on a longitudinal study designed to assess possible sex differences in math achievement, math ability, and math-related tasks during the primary school age years. Participants included over 200 children from one public school district. Annual assessments included measures of math ability, math calculation achievement scores, rapid naming and decoding tasks, visual perception tests, visual motor tasks, and reading skills. During select years of the study we also administered tests of counting and math facts skills. We examined whether girls or boys were overrepresented among the bottom or top performers on any of these tasks, relative to their peers, and whether growth rates or predictors of math-related skills differed for boys and girls. Our findings support the notion that sex differences in math are minimal or nonexistent on standardized psychometric tests routinely given in assessments of primary school age children. There was no persistent finding suggesting a male or female advantage in math performance overall, during any single year of the study, or in any one area of math or spatial skills. Growth rates for all skills, and early correlates of later math performance, were comparable for boys and girls. The findings fail to support either persistent or emerging sex differences on non-specialized math ability measures during the primary school age years. PMID:20463851
Andrews, Sarah E; Runyon, Christopher; Aikens, Melissa L
2017-01-01
In response to calls to improve the quantitative training of undergraduate biology students, there have been increased efforts to better integrate math into biology curricula. One challenge of such efforts is negative student attitudes toward math, which are thought to be particularly prevalent among biology students. According to theory, students' personal values toward using math in a biological context will influence their achievement and behavioral outcomes, but a validated instrument is needed to determine this empirically. We developed the Math-Biology Values Instrument (MBVI), an 11-item college-level self--report instrument grounded in expectancy-value theory, to measure life science students' interest in using math to understand biology, the perceived usefulness of math to their life science career, and the cost of using math in biology courses. We used a process that integrates multiple forms of validity evidence to show that scores from the MBVI can be used as a valid measure of a student's value of math in the context of biology. The MBVI can be used by instructors and researchers to help identify instructional strategies that influence math-biology values and understand how math-biology values are related to students' achievement and decisions to pursue more advanced quantitative-based courses. © 2017 S. E. Andrews et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Math in Action. Hands-On, Minds-On Math.
Waite-Stupiansky, Sandra; Stupiansky, Nicholas G.
1998-01-01
Hands-on math must also involve students' minds in creative thinking. Math manipulatives must be used for uncovering, not just discovering. This paper presents guidelines for planning hands-on, minds-on math for elementary students. Suggestions include dialoging, questioning, integrating manipulatives and other tools, writing, and evaluating. (SM)
Cummings, Kristina M.
The omnipresence of science and technology in our society require the development of a critical and scientifically literate citizenry. However, the inclusion of socioscientific issues, which are open-ended controversial issues informed by both science and societal factors such as politics, economics, and ethics, do not guarantee the development of these skills. The purpose of this critical discourse analysis is to identify and analyze the discursive strategies used in intermediate science texts and curricula that address socioscientific topics and the extent to which the discourses are designed to promote or suppress the development of scientific literacy and a critical pedagogy. Three curricula that address the issue of energy and climate change were analyzed using Gee's (2011) building tasks and inquiry tools. The curricula were written by an education organization entitled PreSEES, a corporate-sponsored group called NEED, and a non-profit organization named Oxfam. The analysis found that the PreSEES and Oxfam curricula elevated the significance of climate change and the NEED curriculum deemphasized the issue. The PreSEES and Oxfam curricula promoted the development of scientific literacy while the NEED curricula suppressed its development. The PreSEES and Oxfam curricula both promoted the development of the critical pedagogy; however, only the Oxfam curricula provided authentic opportunities to enact sociopolitical change. The NEED curricula suppressed the development of critical pedagogy. From these findings, the following conclusions were drawn. When socioscientific issues are presented with the development of scientific literacy and critical pedagogy, the curricula allow students to develop fact-based opinions about the issue. However, curricula that address socioscientific issues without the inclusion of these skills minimize the significance of the issue and normalize the hegemonic worldview promoted by the curricula's authors. Based on these findings
An Annotated Math Lab Inventory.
Schussheim, Joan Yares
1980-01-01
A listing of mathematics laboratory material is organized as follows: learning kits, tape programs, manipulative learning materials, publications, math games, math lab library, and an alphabetized listing of publishers and/or companies offering materials. (MP)
Tcheang, Lili
2014-01-01
Cultural differences have been shown across a number of different cognitive domains from vision, language, and music. Mathematical cognition is another domain that is an integral part of modern society and because there are a fixed number of ways in which many math operations can be performed, it is also an apposite tool for cultural comparisons. This discussion examines the literature on mathematical processing in accordance with culture, summarizing the brain regions involved across various mathematical tasks. In doing so, we provide a clear picture of the anatomical similarities and differences between cultures when performing different math tasks. This information is useful to explore the possibility of enhancement of mathematical skills, where different strategies may be applicable in accordance with culture. It also contributes to the evolutionary development of different math skills and the growing theory that anatomical and behavioral studies must account for the cultural identity of their sample.
Avoiding math on a rapid timescale: Emotional responsivity and anxious attention in math anxiety.
Pizzie, Rachel G; Kraemer, David J M
2017-11-01
Math anxiety (MA) is characterized by negative feelings towards mathematics, resulting in avoidance of math classes and of careers that rely on mathematical skills. Focused on a long timescale, this research may miss important cognitive and affective processes that operate moment-to-moment, changing rapid reactions even when a student simply sees a math problem. Here, using fMRI with an attentional deployment paradigm, we show that MA influences rapid spontaneous emotional and attentional responses to mathematical stimuli upon brief presentation. Critically, participants viewed but did not attempt to solve the problems. Indicating increased threat reactivity to even brief presentations of math problems, increased MA was associated with increased amygdala response during math viewing trials. Functionally and anatomically defined amygdala ROIs yielded similar results, indicating robustness of the finding. Similar to the pattern of vigilance and avoidance observed in specific phobia, behavioral results of the attentional paradigm demonstrated that MA is associated with attentional disengagement for mathematical symbols. This attentional avoidance is specific to math stimuli; when viewing negatively-valenced images, MA is correlated with attentional engagement, similar to other forms of anxiety. These results indicate that even brief exposure to mathematics triggers a neural response related to threat avoidance in highly MA individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
When math hurts: math anxiety predicts pain network activation in anticipation of doing math.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ian M Lyons
Full Text Available Math can be difficult, and for those with high levels of mathematics-anxiety (HMAs, math is associated with tension, apprehension, and fear. But what underlies the feelings of dread effected by math anxiety? Are HMAs' feelings about math merely psychological epiphenomena, or is their anxiety grounded in simulation of a concrete, visceral sensation - such as pain - about which they have every right to feel anxious? We show that, when anticipating an upcoming math-task, the higher one's math anxiety, the more one increases activity in regions associated with visceral threat detection, and often the experience of pain itself (bilateral dorso-posterior insula. Interestingly, this relation was not seen during math performance, suggesting that it is not that math itself hurts; rather, the anticipation of math is painful. Our data suggest that pain network activation underlies the intuition that simply anticipating a dreaded event can feel painful. These results may also provide a potential neural mechanism to explain why HMAs tend to avoid math and math-related situations, which in turn can bias HMAs away from taking math classes or even entire math-related career paths.
When Math Hurts: Math Anxiety Predicts Pain Network Activation in Anticipation of Doing Math
Lyons, Ian M.; Beilock, Sian L.
2012-01-01
Math can be difficult, and for those with high levels of mathematics-anxiety (HMAs), math is associated with tension, apprehension, and fear. But what underlies the feelings of dread effected by math anxiety? Are HMAs’ feelings about math merely psychological epiphenomena, or is their anxiety grounded in simulation of a concrete, visceral sensation – such as pain – about which they have every right to feel anxious? We show that, when anticipating an upcoming math-task, the higher one’s math anxiety, the more one increases activity in regions associated with visceral threat detection, and often the experience of pain itself (bilateral dorso-posterior insula). Interestingly, this relation was not seen during math performance, suggesting that it is not that math itself hurts; rather, the anticipation of math is painful. Our data suggest that pain network activation underlies the intuition that simply anticipating a dreaded event can feel painful. These results may also provide a potential neural mechanism to explain why HMAs tend to avoid math and math-related situations, which in turn can bias HMAs away from taking math classes or even entire math-related career paths. PMID:23118929
When math hurts: math anxiety predicts pain network activation in anticipation of doing math.
Lyons, Ian M; Beilock, Sian L
2012-01-01
Math can be difficult, and for those with high levels of mathematics-anxiety (HMAs), math is associated with tension, apprehension, and fear. But what underlies the feelings of dread effected by math anxiety? Are HMAs' feelings about math merely psychological epiphenomena, or is their anxiety grounded in simulation of a concrete, visceral sensation - such as pain - about which they have every right to feel anxious? We show that, when anticipating an upcoming math-task, the higher one's math anxiety, the more one increases activity in regions associated with visceral threat detection, and often the experience of pain itself (bilateral dorso-posterior insula). Interestingly, this relation was not seen during math performance, suggesting that it is not that math itself hurts; rather, the anticipation of math is painful. Our data suggest that pain network activation underlies the intuition that simply anticipating a dreaded event can feel painful. These results may also provide a potential neural mechanism to explain why HMAs tend to avoid math and math-related situations, which in turn can bias HMAs away from taking math classes or even entire math-related career paths.
Admission Math Level and Student Performance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
la Cour, Lisbeth
2015-01-01
In this paper we analyze the study performance data for three cohorts of students for the course in Economics at the Business Diploma (herafter HD) study program at Copenhagen Business School. Out main findings are 1) that students with the lowest level of math from high school are performing worse...
Group Activities for Math Enthusiasts
Holdener, J.; Milnikel, R.
2016-01-01
In this article we present three group activities designed for math students: a balloon-twisting workshop, a group proof of the irrationality of p, and a game of Math Bingo. These activities have been particularly successful in building enthusiasm for mathematics and camaraderie among math faculty and students at Kenyon College.
Incorporating technical analysis in undergraduate curricula
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael R. Melton
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce instruction of technical analysis on the undergraduate level that can coincide with traditional teachings of fundamental analysis. Design/methodology/approach – Through examples using the latest in security analysis technology, this paper illustrates the importance of technical security analysis. Findings – This research illustrates how technical analysis techniques may be used to make more significant investment decisions. Originality/value – Kirkpatrick and Dahlquist define technical analysis as a security analysis discipline for forecasting future direction of prices through the study of past market data primarily price and volume This form of analysis has stood in direct contrast to the fundamental analysis approach whereby actual facts of the company its industry and sector may be ignored. Understanding this contrast, much of academia has chosen to continue to focus its finance curricula on fundamental analysis techniques. As more universities implement trading rooms to reflect that of industry, they must recognize that any large brokerage trading group or financial institution will typically have both a technical analysis and fundamental analysis team. Thus, the need to incorporate technical analysis into undergraduate finance curricula.
How Math Anxiety Relates to Number–Space Associations
Georges, Carrie; Hoffmann, Danielle; Schiltz, Christine
2016-01-01
Given the considerable prevalence of math anxiety, it is important to identify the factors contributing to it in order to improve mathematical learning. Research on math anxiety typically focusses on the effects of more complex arithmetic skills. Recent evidence, however, suggests that deficits in basic numerical processing and spatial skills also constitute potential risk factors of math anxiety. Given these observations, we determined whether math anxiety also depends on the quality of spatial-numerical associations. Behavioral evidence for a tight link between numerical and spatial representations is given by the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect, characterized by faster left-/right-sided responses for small/large digits respectively in binary classification tasks. We compared the strength of the SNARC effect between high and low math anxious individuals using the classical parity judgment task in addition to evaluating their spatial skills, arithmetic performance, working memory and inhibitory control. Greater math anxiety was significantly associated with stronger spatio-numerical interactions. This finding adds to the recent evidence supporting a link between math anxiety and basic numerical abilities and strengthens the idea that certain characteristics of low-level number processing such as stronger number–space associations constitute a potential risk factor of math anxiety. PMID:27683570
How math anxiety relates to number-space associations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carrie Georges
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Given the considerable prevalence of math anxiety, it is important to identify the factors contributing to it in order to improve mathematical learning. Research on math anxiety typically focusses on the effects of more complex arithmetic skills. Recent evidence, however, suggests that deficits in basic numerical processing and spatial skills also constitute potential risk factors of math anxiety. Given these observations, we determined whether math anxiety also depends on the quality of spatial-numerical associations. Behavioural evidence for a tight link between numerical and spatial representations is given by the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes effect, characterized by faster left-/right-sided responses for small/large digits respectively in binary classification tasks. We compared the strength of the SNARC effect between high and low math anxious individuals using the classical parity judgment task in addition to evaluating their spatial skills, arithmetic performance, working memory and inhibitory control. Greater math anxiety was significantly associated with stronger spatio-numerical interactions. This finding adds to the recent evidence supporting a link between math anxiety and basic numerical abilities and strengthens the idea that certain characteristics of low-level number processing such as stronger number-space associations constitute a potential risk factor of math anxiety.
How Math Anxiety Relates to Number-Space Associations.
Georges, Carrie; Hoffmann, Danielle; Schiltz, Christine
2016-01-01
Given the considerable prevalence of math anxiety, it is important to identify the factors contributing to it in order to improve mathematical learning. Research on math anxiety typically focusses on the effects of more complex arithmetic skills. Recent evidence, however, suggests that deficits in basic numerical processing and spatial skills also constitute potential risk factors of math anxiety. Given these observations, we determined whether math anxiety also depends on the quality of spatial-numerical associations. Behavioral evidence for a tight link between numerical and spatial representations is given by the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect, characterized by faster left-/right-sided responses for small/large digits respectively in binary classification tasks. We compared the strength of the SNARC effect between high and low math anxious individuals using the classical parity judgment task in addition to evaluating their spatial skills, arithmetic performance, working memory and inhibitory control. Greater math anxiety was significantly associated with stronger spatio-numerical interactions. This finding adds to the recent evidence supporting a link between math anxiety and basic numerical abilities and strengthens the idea that certain characteristics of low-level number processing such as stronger number-space associations constitute a potential risk factor of math anxiety.
Merchant, Ronald
1980-01-01
Describes a new course at Spokane Falls Community College which builds on and reviews basic business math and electronic calculator skills. Material is self-paced and includes work with metrics. Discusses student evaluation of the course and type of equipment used. (CT)
Texas Child Care, 2003
2003-01-01
Offers examples of materials and activities that promote and guide math-learning opportunities in all areas of the classroom. Materials and activities relate to: (1) art center; (2) science and discovery center; (3) blocks; (4) library and writing centers; (5) music and movement; (6) manipulatives; (7) dramatic play; (8) outdoor play; and (9)…
Understand electrical and electronics maths
Bishop, Owen
1993-01-01
Understand Electrical and Electronics Maths covers elementary maths and the aspects of electronics. The book discusses basic maths including quotients, algebraic fractions, logarithms, types of equations and balancing of equations. The text also describes the main features and functions of graphs and the solutions to simpler types of electronics problems. The book then tackles the applications of polar coordinates in electronics, limits, differentiation and integration, and the applications of maths of rates of change in electronics. The activities of an electronic circuit; techniques of math
Is there a Causal Effect of High School Math on Labor Market Outcomes?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Joensen, E. Juanna Schröter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt
2009-01-01
In this paper, we exploit a high school pilot scheme to identify the causal effect of advanced high school math on labor market outcomes. The pilot scheme reduced the costs of choosing advanced math because it allowed for a more flexible combination of math with other courses. We find clear...... evidence of a causal relationship between math and earnings for students who are induced to choose math after being exposed to the pilot scheme. The effect partly stems from the fact that these students end up with a higher education....
History of nuclear engineering curricula
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murphy, G.
1975-01-01
With the realization that nuclear energy had a vast potential for peacetime development, universities throughout the country began to develop courses in nuclear energy. A pioneering educational effort was necessary because there was an inadequate number of trained faculty, no established curricula, no textbooks, and very little suitable equipment. Nevertheless, by the early 1950's, several programs in nuclear science and engineering were beginning to provide instruction to potential nuclear engineers. At that time, the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) established a nuclear committee to cooperate with the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in nuclear education matters. With the financial support of the AEC, textbook material was developed, faculty training programs were instituted, and funds were made available for equipment. Because of the large interest shown in the field, many colleges and universities began to develop nuclear engineering curricula. After a few years, the need arose for general guidelines in curricular development. This led to the development of a Committee on Objective Criteria in Nuclear Engineering Education in which ASEE and the American Nuclear Society cooperated with the support of AEC. The committee report emphasized basic science, nuclear energy concepts, and nuclear technology, which have continued to be the significant components of a nuclear engineering curriculum. The last ten years have brought increased emphasis on BS programs, the introduction of extensive computer-based instruction, and an increasing emphasis on the engineering aspects of nuclear reactor power systems
Katz, Sheldon; Klemm, Albrecht; Morrison, David R
2015-01-01
This volume contains the proceedings of the conference String-Math 2012, which was held July 16-21, 2012, at the Hausdorff Center for Mathematics, Universitat Bonn. This was the second in a series of annual large meetings devoted to the interface of mathematics and string theory. These meetings have rapidly become the flagship conferences in the field. Topics include super Riemann surfaces and their super moduli, generalized moonshine and K3 surfaces, the latest developments in supersymmetric and topological field theory, localization techniques, applications to knot theory, and many more. The contributors include many leaders in the field, such as Sergio Cecotti, Matthias Gaberdiel, Rahul Pandharipande, Albert Schwarz, Anne Taormina, Johannes Walcher, Katrin Wendland, and Edward Witten. This book will be essential reading for researchers and students in this area and for all mathematicians and string theorists who want to update themselves on developments in the math-string interface.
Glaese, John R.; Tobbe, Patrick A.
1986-01-01
The Space Station Mechanism Test Bed consists of a hydraulically driven, computer controlled six degree of freedom (DOF) motion system with which docking, berthing, and other mechanisms can be evaluated. Measured contact forces and moments are provided to the simulation host computer to enable representation of orbital contact dynamics. This report describes the development of a generalized math model which represents the relative motion between two rigid orbiting vehicles. The model allows motion in six DOF for each body, with no vehicle size limitation. The rotational and translational equations of motion are derived. The method used to transform the forces and moments from the sensor location to the vehicles' centers of mass is also explained. Two math models of docking mechanisms, a simple translational spring and the Remote Manipulator System end effector, are presented along with simulation results. The translational spring model is used in an attempt to verify the simulation with compensated hardware in the loop results.
All Students Need Advanced Mathematics. Math Works
Achieve, Inc., 2013
2013-01-01
This fact sheet explains that to thrive in today's world, all students will need to graduate with very strong math skills. That can only mean one thing: advanced math courses are now essential math courses. Highlights of this paper include: (1) Advanced math equals college success; (2) Advanced math equals career opportunity; and (3) Advanced math…
2007-01-01
game tool Game Tool Interactive Media Element The purpose of this interactive exercise is to help you understand the math in the income statement and balance sheet., Give the proper mathematical computations in order to correctly prepare the income statement and the balance sheet.The exercise is divided into 3 parts: The income Statement, The Balance Sheet - Assets, The Balance Sheet - Liabilities, GB3050 Financial Reporting and Analysis
De Robbio, Antonella
1997-01-01
This paper shows the prestigious mathematics database MathSci, produced by American Mathematical Society (AMS). It is an indexing resource that deals with the whole literature about mathematics. The subject involved in referred to mathematical sciences and others relating such as Statistics, Information science, Operative research and Mathematics Physics. Moreover it indexes sciences related to applied mathematics such as Astronomy, Astrophysics, Biology, Compartmental Sciences, Thermodyn...
Hamadneh, Iyad M.; Al-Masaeed, Aslan
2015-01-01
This study aimed at finding out mathematics teachers' attitudes towards photo math application in solving mathematical problems using mobile camera; it also aim to identify significant differences in their attitudes according to their stage of teaching, educational qualifications, and teaching experience. The study used judgmental/purposive…
Necka, Elizabeth A; Sokolowski, H Moriah; Lyons, Ian M
2015-01-01
Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap) to assess individuals' self-math overlap. This non-verbal single-item measure showed that identifying oneself with math (having higher self-math overlap) was strongly associated with lower math anxiety (r = -0.610). We also expected that having higher self-math overlap would leave one especially susceptible to the threat of poor math performance to the self. We identified two competing hypotheses regarding how this plays out in terms of math anxiety. Those higher in self-math overlap might be more likely to worry about poor math performance, exacerbating the negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. Alternatively, those higher in self-math overlap might exhibit self-serving biases regarding their math ability, which would instead predict a decoupling of the relation between their perceived and actual math ability, and in turn the relation between their math ability and math anxiety. Results clearly favored the latter hypothesis: those higher in self-math overlap exhibited almost no relation between math anxiety and math ability, whereas those lower in self-math overlap showed a strong negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. This was partially explained by greater self-serving biases among those higher in self-math overlap. In sum, these results reveal that the degree to which one integrates math into one's self - self-math overlap - may provide insight into how the pernicious negative relation between math anxiety and math ability may be ameliorated.
Necka, Elizabeth A.; Sokolowski, H. Moriah; Lyons, Ian M.
2015-01-01
Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap) to assess individuals’ self-math overlap. This non-verbal single-item measure showed that identifying oneself with math (having higher self-math overlap) was strongly associated with lower math anxiety (r = -0.610). We also expected that having higher self-math overlap would leave one especially susceptible to the threat of poor math performance to the self. We identified two competing hypotheses regarding how this plays out in terms of math anxiety. Those higher in self-math overlap might be more likely to worry about poor math performance, exacerbating the negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. Alternatively, those higher in self-math overlap might exhibit self-serving biases regarding their math ability, which would instead predict a decoupling of the relation between their perceived and actual math ability, and in turn the relation between their math ability and math anxiety. Results clearly favored the latter hypothesis: those higher in self-math overlap exhibited almost no relation between math anxiety and math ability, whereas those lower in self-math overlap showed a strong negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. This was partially explained by greater self-serving biases among those higher in self-math overlap. In sum, these results reveal that the degree to which one integrates math into one’s self – self-math overlap – may provide insight into how the pernicious negative relation between math anxiety and math ability may be ameliorated. PMID
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elizabeth A Necka
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap to assess individuals’ self-math overlap. This nonverbal single-item measure showed that identifying oneself with math (having higher self-math overlap was strongly associated with lower math anxiety (r=-.610. We also expected that having higher self-math overlap would leave one especially susceptible to the threat of poor math performance to the self. We identified two competing hypotheses regarding how this plays out in terms of math anxiety. Those higher in self-math overlap might be more likely to worry about poor math performance, exacerbating the negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. Alternatively, those higher in self-math overlap might exhibit self-serving biases regarding their math ability, which would instead predict a decoupling of the relation between their perceived and actual math ability, and in turn the relation between their math ability and math anxiety. Results clearly favored the latter hypothesis: those higher in self-math overlap exhibited almost no relation between math anxiety and math ability, whereas those lower in self-math overlap showed a strong negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. This was partially explained by greater self-serving biases among those higher in self-math overlap. In sum, these results reveal that the degree to which one integrates math into one’s self – self-math overlap – may provide insight into how the pernicious negative relation between math anxiety and math ability may be
Ethical Hacking in Information Security Curricula
Trabelsi, Zouheir; McCoey, Margaret
2016-01-01
Teaching offensive security (ethical hacking) is becoming a necessary component of information security curricula with a goal of developing better security professionals. The offensive security components extend curricula beyond system defense strategies. This paper identifies and discusses the learning outcomes achieved as a result of hands-on…
Can Law Become Curricula's Guidance Counselor?
Goslin, Kimberly G.
2008-01-01
This article asserts that curricula, a living text, ought to take into consideration the virtues of fairness, justice, and integrity as found in law, in order to judge controversial issues of curriculum. This assertion is argued through a comparison of jurisprudence and pedagogy, as well as law and curricula. Dworkin's (1986) contention of "law as…
Integrating Sustainability Education into International Marketing Curricula
Perera, Chamila Roshani; Hewege, Chandana Rathnasiri
2016-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to extend the current knowledge of curriculum developments in international business and marketing curricula. Integrating sustainability into business and marketing curricula of the universities are widely debated in previous literature. Sustainability is a global phenomenon; however, curriculum development…
Curricula for sustainability in higher education
2017-01-01
This books presents the curricula necessary for sustainability in higher education. It shows how the learning process is transforming in order to promote sustainability. It prepares administrators, teachers and students to diffuse the development in the field, showing a curricula based on three interconnected pillars: the environment, the economic and the social aspects. It contains 8 chapters introducing research advances in the field.
Information Systems Curricula: A Fifty Year Journey
Longenecker, Herbert E., Jr.; Feinstein, David; Clark, Jon D.
2013-01-01
This article presents the results of research to explore the nature of changes in skills over a fifty year period spanning the life of Information Systems model curricula. Work begun in 1999 was expanded both backwards in time, as well as forwards to 2012 to define skills relevant to Information Systems curricula. The work in 1999 was based on job…
Advanced Math: Closing the Equity Gap. Math Works
Achieve, Inc., 2013
2013-01-01
Minority and low-income students are less likely to have access to, enroll in and succeed in higher-level math courses in high school than their more advantaged peers. Under these circumstances, higher-level math courses function not as the intellectual and practical boost they should be, but as a filter that screens students out of the pathway to…
Early Math Interest and the Development of Math Skills
Fisher, Paige H.; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer; Doctoroff, Greta L.; Arnold, David H.
2012-01-01
Prior models suggest that math attitudes and ability might strengthen each other over time in a reciprocal fashion (Ma, 1997). The current study investigated the relationship between math interest and skill both concurrently and over time in a preschool sample. Analyses of concurrent relationships indicated that high levels of interest were…
Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years
Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus
2009-01-01
Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported…
Cargnelutti, Elisa; Tomasetto, Carlo; Passolunghi, Maria Chiara
2017-06-01
Both general and math-specific anxiety are related to proficiency in mathematics. However, it is not clear when math anxiety arises in young children, nor how it relates to early math performance. This study therefore investigated the early association between math anxiety and math performance in Grades 2 and 3, by accounting for general anxiety and by further inspecting the prevalent directionality of the anxiety-performance link. Results revealed that this link was significant in Grade 3, with a prevalent direction from math anxiety to performance, rather than the reverse. Longitudinal analyses also showed an indirect effect of math anxiety in Grade 2 on subsequent math performance in Grade 3. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of monitoring anxiety from the early stages of schooling in order to promote proficient academic performance.
Cryer, CW
2014-01-01
Mathematics and engineering are inevitably interrelated, and this interaction will steadily increase as the use of mathematical modelling grows. Although mathematicians and engineers often misunderstand one another, their basic approach is quite similar, as is the historical development of their respective disciplines. The purpose of this Math Primer is to provide a brief introduction to those parts of mathematics which are, or could be, useful in engineering, especially bioengineering. The aim is to summarize the ideas covered in each subject area without going into exhaustive detail. Formula
The influence of math anxiety on symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude processing.
Dietrich, Julia F; Huber, Stefan; Moeller, Korbinian; Klein, Elise
2015-01-01
Deficits in basic numerical abilities have been investigated repeatedly as potential risk factors of math anxiety. Previous research suggested that also a deficient approximate number system (ANS), which is discussed as being the foundation for later math abilities, underlies math anxiety. However, these studies examined this hypothesis by investigating ANS acuity using a symbolic number comparison task. Recent evidence questions the view that ANS acuity can be assessed using a symbolic number comparison task. To investigate whether there is an association between math anxiety and ANS acuity, we employed both a symbolic number comparison task and a non-symbolic dot comparison task, which is currently the standard task to assess ANS acuity. We replicated previous findings regarding the association between math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect for response times. High math anxious individuals showed a larger distance effect than less math anxious individuals. However, our results revealed no association between math anxiety and ANS acuity assessed using a non-symbolic dot comparison task. Thus, our results did not provide evidence for the hypothesis that a deficient ANS underlies math anxiety. Therefore, we propose that a deficient ANS does not constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Moreover, our results suggest that previous interpretations regarding the interaction of math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect have to be updated. We suggest that impaired number comparison processes in high math anxious individuals might account for the results rather than deficient ANS representations. Finally, impaired number comparison processes might constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Implications for current models regarding the origins of math anxiety are discussed.
The influence of math anxiety on symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude processing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julia Felicitas Dietrich
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Deficits in basic numerical abilities have been investigated repeatedly as potential risk factors of math anxiety. Previous research suggested that also a deficient approximate number system (ANS, which is discussed as being the foundation for later math abilities, underlies math anxiety. However, these studies examined this hypothesis by investigating ANS acuity using a symbolic number comparison task. Recent evidence questions the view that ANS acuity can be assessed using a symbolic number comparison task. To investigate whether there is an association between math anxiety and ANS acuity, we employed both a symbolic number comparison task and a non-symbolic dot comparison task, which is currently the standard task to assess ANS acuity. We replicated previous findings regarding the association between math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect for response times. High math anxious individuals showed a larger distance effect than less math anxious individuals. However, our results revealed no association between math anxiety and ANS acuity assessed using a non-symbolic dot comparison task. Thus, our results did not provide evidence for the hypothesis that a deficient ANS underlies math anxiety. Therefore, we propose that a deficient ANS does not constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Moreover, our results suggest that previous interpretations regarding the interaction of math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect have to be updated. We suggest that impaired number comparison processes in high math anxious individuals might account for the results rather than deficient ANS representations. Finally, impaired number comparison processes might constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Implications for current models regarding the origins of math anxiety are discussed.
Math Education at a Crossroads
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Markvorsen, Steen
With an enrollment of 550 students once a year the first year course Math1 at the Technical University of Denmark is one of the largest courses at university level in Denmark. Since its re-formation 6 years ago a number of interesting valuable assets concerning undergraduate math education...
Eason, Sarah H.; Levine, Susan C.
2017-01-01
Children demonstrate gaps in the math knowledge that they possess by the time they begin school, and these gaps have been found to predict long-term outcomes not only in math but also in reading. Consequently, it is important to identify what accounts for these early differences and how they can be addressed to ensure that all children enter…
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Botha, Adèle
2013-02-01
Full Text Available In 2007, Laurie Butgereit, a researcher at the CSIR Meraka Institute, started to use Mxit as a communication channel to tutor her son in mathematics. Her son and a number of his friends logged in, and Dr Math was born. At the inception of Dr Math...
Nelson, Barbara Scott; Sassi, Annette
2007-01-01
The combination of new instructional methods and new accountability pressures puts many in a quandary in evaluating math instruction. There is much for principals to learn about how and under what conditions new instructional methods work in math classrooms, how to support teachers as they develop new instructional skills, and how to integrate a…
"Math Anxiety" Explored in Studies
Sparks, Sarah D.
2011-01-01
Math problems make more than a few students--and even teachers--sweat, but new brain research is providing insights into the earliest causes of the anxiety so often associated with mathematics. Experts argue that "math anxiety" can bring about widespread, intergenerational discomfort with the subject, which could lead to anything from fewer…
Math Fact Strategies Research Project
Boso, Annie
2011-01-01
An action research project was conducted in order to determine effective math fact strategies for first graders. The traditional way of teaching math facts included using timed tests and flashcards, with most students counting on their fingers or a number line. Six new research-based strategies were taught and analyzed to decide which methods…
Positive Feedback From Male Authority Figures Boosts Women's Math Outcomes.
Park, Lora E; Kondrak, Cheryl L; Ward, Deborah E; Streamer, Lindsey
2018-03-01
People often search for cues in the environment to determine whether or not they will be judged or treated negatively based on their social identities. Accordingly, feedback from gatekeepers-members of majority groups who hold authority and power in a field-may be an especially important cue for those at risk of experiencing social identity threat, such as women in math settings. Across a series of studies, women who received positive ("Good job!") versus objective (score only) feedback from a male (vs. female) authority figure in math reported greater confidence; belonging; self-efficacy; more favorable Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) attitudes/identification/interest; and greater implicit identification with math. Men were affected only by the type of math feedback they received, not by the source of feedback. A meta-analysis across studies confirmed results. Together, these findings suggest that positive feedback from gatekeepers is an important situational cue that can improve the outcomes of negatively stereotyped groups.
Threats and Supports to Female Students' Math Beliefs and Achievement.
McKellar, Sarah E; Marchand, Aixa D; Diemer, Matthew A; Malanchuk, Oksana; Eccles, Jacquelynne S
2018-03-23
This study examines how student perceptions of teacher practices contribute to female high school students' math beliefs and achievement. Guided by the expectancy-value framework, we hypothesized that students' motivation beliefs and achievement outcomes in mathematics are fostered by teachers' emphasis on the relevance of mathematics and constrained by gender-based differential treatment. To examine these questions, structural equation modeling was applied to a longitudinal panel of 518 female students from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study. While controlling for prior achievement and race, gendered differential treatment was negatively associated with math beliefs and achievement, whereas relevant math instruction was positively associated with these outcomes. These findings suggest inroads that may foster positive math motivational beliefs and achievement among young women. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.
9/11 and the War on Terror in Curricula and in State Standards Documents. CIRCLE Fact Sheet
Stoddard, Jeremy; Hess, Diana
2011-01-01
This Fact Sheet reports findings from an ongoing study of the representation of 9/11 and terrorism in curricula, textbooks, and state standards documents. The study was conducted in three stages. The first two stages focused on how supplemental curricula and best-selling social studies textbooks published between 2002-2010 present the events of…
Metacognitive awareness and math anxiety in gifted students
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hakan Sarıcam
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The basic purpose of this study has been to examine the relationships between metacognitive awareness and maths anxiety in gifted students. The second aim was to compare with gifted and non-gifted students’ metacognitive awareness and maths anxiety levels. The participants were 300 (150 gifted, 150 non-gifted volunteer secondary school students in Turkey. The mean age of the participants was 12.56 years ranging from 12 to 13 years. For gathering data, the Maths Anxiety Scale for Elementary School Students and The Metacognitive Awareness Inventory for Children were used. For analysing the data, Spearman correlation analysis, the Mann Whitney U test, and linear regression analysis were used. According to the findings: firstly, gifted students’ metacognitive awareness scores were higher than those of non-gifted students. On the other hand, non-gifted students’ maths anxiety levels were higher than those of gifted students. Secondly, there was negative correlation between metacognitive awareness and math anxiety. Finally, the findings of linear regression analysis indicated that metacognitive awareness is explained by 48% total variance of maths anxiety in gifted students.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lasser, Susan J.S.; Snelsire, Robert W.
1992-01-01
This paper describes the first two years of the Clemson University College of Engineering's Math Excellence Workshop, a program administered by Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Savannah River Site, and funded by the Department of Energy. The objective of the program is to prepare minority students for technical/scientific study, with the goal of increasing minority retention in the College of Engineering, Twenty-three African American students, all of whom had been accepted into the College of Engineering Fall 1990 freshman class, took part in the first year of the program. The contract paid for room, board, tuition, fees, books, and supplies for the students to live on campus and take a precalculus math course. In addition, the students attended a special honors workshop designed to prepare them to study technical material effectively. Twenty of the 23 students earned As or Bs in the precalculus class. All participants indicated that they felt confident of their ability to succeed academically at Clemson. At the end of the session, twenty of the students were still planning to major in engineering. The program was repeated the following summer with 24 students from the 1991 freshman class. Twelve of the students earned A's or B's in the precalculus class. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lasser, Susan J.S.; Snelsire, Robert W [College of Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States)
1992-07-01
This paper describes the first two years of the Clemson University College of Engineering's Math Excellence Workshop, a program administered by Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Savannah River Site, and funded by the Department of Energy. The objective of the program is to prepare minority students for technical/scientific study, with the goal of increasing minority retention in the College of Engineering, Twenty-three African American students, all of whom had been accepted into the College of Engineering Fall 1990 freshman class, took part in the first year of the program. The contract paid for room, board, tuition, fees, books, and supplies for the students to live on campus and take a precalculus math course. In addition, the students attended a special honors workshop designed to prepare them to study technical material effectively. Twenty of the 23 students earned As or Bs in the precalculus class. All participants indicated that they felt confident of their ability to succeed academically at Clemson. At the end of the session, twenty of the students were still planning to major in engineering. The program was repeated the following summer with 24 students from the 1991 freshman class. Twelve of the students earned A's or B's in the precalculus class. (author)
The Role of Parental Math Anxiety and Math Attitude in Their Children's Math Achievement
Soni, Akanksha; Kumari, Santha
2017-01-01
The present study investigated the antecedents and consequences of children's math anxiety and math attitude. A total of 595 students aged 10 to 15 years (5th to 10th grades) and 1 parent of each (mother or father) participated in the study. The study was conducted in India, with the study sample drawn from schools in South-West Punjab. Math…
Justicia-Galiano, M José; Martín-Puga, M Eva; Linares, Rocío; Pelegrina, Santiago
2017-12-01
Numerous studies, most of them involving adolescents and adults, have evidenced a moderate negative relationship between math anxiety and math performance. There are, however, a limited number of studies that have addressed the mechanisms underlying this relation. This study aimed to investigate the role of two possible mediational mechanisms between math anxiety and math performance. Specifically, we sought to test the simultaneous mediating role of working memory and math self-concept. A total of 167 children aged 8-12 years participated in this study. Children completed a set of questionnaires used to assess math and trait anxiety, math self-concept as well as measures of math fluency and math problem-solving. Teachers were asked to rate each student's math achievement. As measures of working memory, two backward span tasks were administered to the children. A series of multiple mediation analyses were conducted. Results indicated that both mediators (working memory and math self-concept) contributed to explaining the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement. Results suggest that working memory and self-concept could be worth considering when designing interventions aimed at helping students with math anxiety. Longitudinal designs could also be used to better understand the mediational mechanisms that may explain the relationship between math anxiety and math performance. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
The role of early language abilities on math skills among Chinese children.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan Zhang
Full Text Available The present study investigated the role of early language abilities in the development of math skills among Chinese K-3 students. About 2000 children in China, who were on average aged 6 years, were assessed for both informal math (e.g., basic number concepts such as counting objects and formal math (calculations including addition and subtraction skills, language abilities and nonverbal intelligence.Correlation analysis showed that language abilities were more strongly associated with informal than formal math skills, and regression analyses revealed that children's language abilities could uniquely predict both informal and formal math skills with age, gender, and nonverbal intelligence controlled. Mediation analyses demonstrated that the relationship between children's language abilities and formal math skills was partially mediated by informal math skills.The current findings indicate 1 Children's language abilities are of strong predictive values for both informal and formal math skills; 2 Language abilities impacts formal math skills partially through the mediation of informal math skills.
Klein, N A; Goodson, P; Serrins, D S; Edmundson, E; Evans, A
1994-10-01
Most sexuality education curricula developed the past 20 years were not thoroughly evaluated. This study provides results from a content analysis of 10 sexuality education curricula for junior and senior high school students. Nine nationally available sexuality education curricula and one curriculum guide comprised the sample. The basis for analysis was the Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality Education, developed by the Sex Information and Education Council of the U.S. (SIECUS) and an instrument developed to measure bias in the curricula. Trained coders found that Sex Respect and Teen Aid addressed less than half the topics suggested by the SIECUS guidelines. Several of the curricula contained gender and sexual orientation bias. Certain key concepts such as "Sexual Behavior" and "Society and Culture" were not adequately addressed by most of the curricula. Findings indicate that of 10 curricula, only six are considered acceptable for educating junior and senior high school students.
INFORMATION SYSTEMS AUDIT CURRICULA CONTENT MATCHING
Vasile-Daniel CARDOȘ; Ildikó Réka CARDOȘ
2014-01-01
Financial and internal auditors must cope with the challenge of performing their mission in technology enhanced environment. In this article we match the information technology description found in the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) and the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA) curricula against the Model Curriculum issued by the Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA). By reviewing these three curricula, we matched the content in the ISACA Model Curriculum wi...
Presentation of a Nanoelectronics Curricula Study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bruun, Erik; Nielsen, Ivan Ring
2008-01-01
Future developments in nanoelectronics call for major changes in university curricula within engineering. It is found that three major factors influence the curricula: technology development, development of industrial environment, and development of university structures. It is also found that na...... that nanoelectronics programs fall into one of three different categories: Physics and nanotechnology, electronics engineering, or computer science. References are given to selected current programs....
Addressing Math Anxiety in the Classroom
Finlayson, Maureen
2014-01-01
In today's educational systems, students of all levels of education experience math anxiety. Furthermore, math anxiety is frequently linked to poor achievement in mathematics. The purpose of this study is to examine the causes of math anxiety and to explore strategies which pre-service teachers have identified to overcome math anxiety. The…
Enhancing Mathematical Communication for Virtual Math Teams
Stahl, Gerry; Çakir, Murat Perit; Weimar, Stephen; Weusijana, Baba Kofi; Ou, Jimmy Xiantong
2010-01-01
The Math Forum is an online resource center for pre-algebra, algebra, geometry and pre-calculus. Its Virtual Math Teams (VMT) service provides an integrated web-based environment for small teams of people to discuss math and to work collaboratively on math problems or explore interesting mathematical micro-worlds together. The VMT Project studies…
Helping Students Get Past Math Anxiety
Scarpello, Gary
2007-01-01
Math anxiety can begin as early as the fourth grade and peaks in middle school and high school. It can be caused by past classroom experiences, parental influences, and remembering poor past math performance. Math anxiety can cause students to avoid challenging math courses and may limit their career choices. It is important for teachers, parents…
Training the approximate number system improves math proficiency.
Park, Joonkoo; Brannon, Elizabeth M
2013-10-01
Humans and nonhuman animals share an approximate number system (ANS) that permits estimation and rough calculation of quantities without symbols. Recent studies show a correlation between the acuity of the ANS and performance in symbolic math throughout development and into adulthood, which suggests that the ANS may serve as a cognitive foundation for the uniquely human capacity for symbolic math. Such a proposition leads to the untested prediction that training aimed at improving ANS performance will transfer to improvement in symbolic-math ability. In the two experiments reported here, we showed that ANS training on approximate addition and subtraction of arrays of dots selectively improved symbolic addition and subtraction. This finding strongly supports the hypothesis that complex math skills are fundamentally linked to rudimentary preverbal quantitative abilities and provides the first direct evidence that the ANS and symbolic math may be causally related. It also raises the possibility that interventions aimed at the ANS could benefit children and adults who struggle with math.
2015-01-01
Welcome to String-Math 2015 at Sanya. The conference will be opened in December 31, 2015- January 4, 2016. String theory plays a central role in theoretical physics as a candidate for the quantum theory unifying gravity with other interactions. It has profound connections with broad branches of modern mathematics ever since the birth. In the last decades, the prosperous interaction, built upon the joint efforts from both mathematicians and physicists, has given rise to marvelous deep results in supersymmetric gauge theory, topological string, M-theory and duality on the physics side as well as in algebraic geometry, differential geometry, algebraic topology, representation theory and number theory on the mathematics side. The interplay is two-fold. The mathematics has provided powerful tools to fulfill the physical interconnection of ideas and clarify physical structures to understand the nature of string theory. On the other hand, ideas from string theory and quantum field theory have been a source of sign...
Zegarelli, Mark
2015-01-01
Der schnelle Überblick für Schüler und jeden, den es sonst noch interessiert Müssen Sie sich in der Schule oder im Beruf mit Mathematik beschäftigen und es hapert schon an den Grundlagen? Frei nach dem Motto »Einst gelernt, doch längst vergessen« bereiten oft gerade die einfachen Fragestellungen Probleme. Wie viel Prozent sind das nochmal? Wie war das doch gleich mit der Bruchrechnung und wie berechnet man eigentlich den Flächeninhalt eines Dreiecks? Keine Sorge, Mark Zegarelli erklärt es Ihnen einfach, aber zugleich amüsant, und hilft Ihnen so, Ihre Wissenslücken zu schließen. Damit ist Mathe
Girls' math performance under stereotype threat: the moderating role of mothers' gender stereotypes.
Tomasetto, Carlo; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Cadinu, Mara
2011-07-01
Previous research on stereotype threat in children suggests that making gender identity salient disrupts girls' math performance at as early as 5 to 7 years of age. The present study (n = 124) tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderates girls' susceptibility to stereotype threat. Results confirmed that stereotype threat impaired girls' performance on math tasks among students from kindergarten through 2nd grade. Moreover, mothers' but not fathers' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderated girls' vulnerability to stereotype threat: performance of girls whose mothers strongly rejected the gender stereotype about math did not decrease under stereotype threat. These findings are important because they point to the role of mothers' beliefs in the development of girls' vulnerability to the negative effects of gender stereotypes about math. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Remediation of Childhood Math Anxiety and Associated Neural Circuits through Cognitive Tutoring.
Supekar, Kaustubh; Iuculano, Teresa; Chen, Lang; Menon, Vinod
2015-09-09
Math anxiety is a negative emotional reaction that is characterized by feelings of stress and anxiety in situations involving mathematical problem solving. High math-anxious individuals tend to avoid situations involving mathematics and are less likely to pursue science, technology, engineering, and math-related careers than those with low math anxiety. Math anxiety during childhood, in particular, has adverse long-term consequences for academic and professional success. Identifying cognitive interventions and brain mechanisms by which math anxiety can be ameliorated in children is therefore critical. Here we investigate whether an intensive 8 week one-to-one cognitive tutoring program designed to improve mathematical skills reduces childhood math anxiety, and we identify the neurobiological mechanisms by which math anxiety can be reduced in affected children. Forty-six children in grade 3, a critical early-onset period for math anxiety, participated in the cognitive tutoring program. High math-anxious children showed a significant reduction in math anxiety after tutoring. Remarkably, tutoring remediated aberrant functional responses and connectivity in emotion-related circuits anchored in the basolateral amygdala. Crucially, children with greater tutoring-induced decreases in amygdala reactivity had larger reductions in math anxiety. Our study demonstrates that sustained exposure to mathematical stimuli can reduce math anxiety and highlights the key role of the amygdala in this process. Our findings are consistent with models of exposure-based therapy for anxiety disorders and have the potential to inform the early treatment of a disability that, if left untreated in childhood, can lead to significant lifelong educational and socioeconomic consequences in affected individuals. Significance statement: Math anxiety during early childhood has adverse long-term consequences for academic and professional success. It is therefore important to identify ways to alleviate
Learning Math With My Father: A Memoir
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yolanda De La CRUZ
2012-07-01
Full Text Available If he is indeed wise he does not bid you enter the house of his wisdom, but rather leads you to the threshold of your own mind. Kahlil Gibran. We all build our own houses of wisdom, each of us; we cannot build them for each other. Teachers cannot simply invite students into their houses of wisdom, but can often find ways to help learners to enter and explore their own minds. While Constructivism has had a positive impact on the teaching and learning of literacy mathematics instruction continues to rely heavily on rote memorization and drills. As a young child, I learned to love math. My love of math stems from learning math with my father. He did not focus on rote memorization and drills. The primary emphasis was for a real purpose. My self-confidence was enforced when he started me out with problems that were less difficult and had many different solutions. These solutions were valued and respected, which allowed me to trust in my own problem solving abilities. How can we hope to lead children to the thresholds of their own minds when we remain intent on forcing them into our houses of wisdom? What alternative ways can we devise of interacting with children that respect their confidence and leave intact their levels of understanding, that lead them to the thresholds of their own minds excited about entering?
Timmerman, H.L.; Toll, S.W.M.; van Luit, J.E.H.
2017-01-01
:This study examines the relation between math self-concept, test and math anxiety, achievement motivation, and math achievement in typically developing 12 to 14-year-old adolescents (N = 108) from a school for secondary education in the Netherlands. Data was obtained using a math speed test, achievement motivation test, and the math experience questionnaire. A significant positive correlation was found between math self-concept and math achievement in all four math domains (measurement, rela...
Parents' Beliefs about Children's Math Development and Children's Participation in Math Activities
Susan Sonnenschein; Claudia Galindo; Shari R. Metzger; Joy A. Thompson; Hui Chih Huang; Heather Lewis
2012-01-01
This study explored associations between parents’ beliefs about children’s development and children’s reported math activities at home. Seventy-three parents were interviewed about the frequency of their children’s participation in a broad array of math activities, the importance of children doing math activities at home, how children learn math, parents’ role in their children’s math learning, and parents’ own math skills. Although the sample consisted of African Americans, Chinese, Latino, ...
Math Anxiety Is Related to Some, but Not All, Experiences with Math
Krystle O'Leary; Cheryll L. Fitzpatrick; Darcy Hallett
2017-01-01
Math anxiety has been defined as unpleasant feelings of tension and anxiety that hinder the ability to deal with numbers and math in a variety of situations. Although many studies have looked at situational and demographic factors associated with math anxiety, little research has looked at the self-reported experiences with math that are associated with math anxiety. The present study used a mixed-methods design and surveyed 131 undergraduate students about their experiences with math through...
Lee, Jihyun
2009-01-01
The overarching goal of the present study is to investigate the factorial structure of three closely related constructs: math self-concept, math self-efficacy, and math anxiety. The factorial structure consisting of three factors, each representing math self-concept, math self-efficacy, and math anxiety, is supported in all 41 countries employed…
The Labor Market Returns to Math Courses in Community College. A CAPSEE Working Paper
Belfield, Clive; Liu, Vivian Yuen Ting
2015-01-01
This paper examines the returns to math courses relative to courses in other subjects for students in community college. Using matched college transcript and earnings data on over 80,000 students entering community college during the 2000s, we find that college-level math coursework has an indirect positive effect on award completion that is…
Gender Similarities in Math Performance from Middle School through High School
Scafidi, Tony; Bui, Khanh
2010-01-01
Using data from 10 states, Hyde, Lindberg, Linn, Ellis, and Williams (2008) found gender similarities in performance on standardized math tests. The present study attempted to replicate this finding with national data and to extend it by examining whether gender similarities in math performance are moderated by race, socioeconomic status, or math…
Motivation and Math Skills as Determinants of First-Year Performance in Economics
Arnold, Ivo J. M.; Straten, Jerry T.
2012-01-01
The importance of math skills for study success in economics has been widely researched. This article adds to the literature by combining information on students' math skills and their motivation. The authors are thus able to present a rich picture of why students succeed in their study of economics and to confirm previous findings that deficient…
Variation in Content Coverage by Classroom Composition: An Analysis of Advanced Math Course Content
Covay, Elizabeth
2011-01-01
Everyone knows that there is racial inequality in achievement returns from advanced math; however, they do not know why black students and white students taking the same level of math courses are not leaving with the same or comparable skill levels. To find out, the author examines variation in course coverage by the racial composition of the…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LILIANA CIASCAI
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Romania occupied a back position in the international tests on Mathematics and Sciences. Teachers stress out that one possible cause of this situation could be finding on the Mathematics and Sciences curricula. This paper presents the results of the comparisons of the Romanian curricula with the curricula promoted by the international testing (PISA 2000, 2003 and 2006, and TIMSS 1995, 1999, 2003, 2007 and the curricula of the countries occupied the first places in these tests. The comparisons underline those curricula approaches, which insure success on these tests and realize the reasons of the lack of success of the Romanian pupils. These results will be presented to the curriculum makers, universities and schools, to identify the specific and transferable competencies of the pupils with success in the above-mentioned disciplines.
Necka, Elizabeth A.; Sokolowski, H. Moriah; Lyons, Ian M.
2015-01-01
Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap) to assess individual...
Kucian, Karin; Zuber, Isabelle; Kohn, Juliane; Poltz, Nadine; Wyschkon, Anne; Esser, Günter; von Aster, Michael
2018-01-01
Many children show negative emotions related to mathematics and some even develop mathematics anxiety. The present study focused on the relation between negative emotions and arithmetical performance in children with and without developmental dyscalculia (DD) using an affective priming task. Previous findings suggested that arithmetic performance is influenced if an affective prime precedes the presentation of an arithmetic problem. In children with DD specifically, responses to arithmetic operations are supposed to be facilitated by both negative and mathematics-related primes (= negative math priming effect ).We investigated mathematical performance, math anxiety, and the domain-general abilities of 172 primary school children (76 with DD and 96 controls). All participants also underwent an affective priming task which consisted of the decision whether a simple arithmetic operation (addition or subtraction) that was preceded by a prime (positive/negative/neutral or mathematics-related) was true or false. Our findings did not reveal a negative math priming effect in children with DD. Furthermore, when considering accuracy levels, gender, or math anxiety, the negative math priming effect could not be replicated. However, children with DD showed more math anxiety when explicitly assessed by a specific math anxiety interview and showed lower mathematical performance compared to controls. Moreover, math anxiety was equally present in boys and girls, even in the earliest stages of schooling, and interfered negatively with performance. In conclusion, mathematics is often associated with negative emotions that can be manifested in specific math anxiety, particularly in children with DD. Importantly, present findings suggest that in the assessed age group, it is more reliable to judge math anxiety and investigate its effects on mathematical performance explicitly by adequate questionnaires than by an affective math priming task.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karin Kucian
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Many children show negative emotions related to mathematics and some even develop mathematics anxiety. The present study focused on the relation between negative emotions and arithmetical performance in children with and without developmental dyscalculia (DD using an affective priming task. Previous findings suggested that arithmetic performance is influenced if an affective prime precedes the presentation of an arithmetic problem. In children with DD specifically, responses to arithmetic operations are supposed to be facilitated by both negative and mathematics-related primes (=negative math priming effect.We investigated mathematical performance, math anxiety, and the domain-general abilities of 172 primary school children (76 with DD and 96 controls. All participants also underwent an affective priming task which consisted of the decision whether a simple arithmetic operation (addition or subtraction that was preceded by a prime (positive/negative/neutral or mathematics-related was true or false. Our findings did not reveal a negative math priming effect in children with DD. Furthermore, when considering accuracy levels, gender, or math anxiety, the negative math priming effect could not be replicated. However, children with DD showed more math anxiety when explicitly assessed by a specific math anxiety interview and showed lower mathematical performance compared to controls. Moreover, math anxiety was equally present in boys and girls, even in the earliest stages of schooling, and interfered negatively with performance. In conclusion, mathematics is often associated with negative emotions that can be manifested in specific math anxiety, particularly in children with DD. Importantly, present findings suggest that in the assessed age group, it is more reliable to judge math anxiety and investigate its effects on mathematical performance explicitly by adequate questionnaires than by an affective math priming task.
Kucian, Karin; Zuber, Isabelle; Kohn, Juliane; Poltz, Nadine; Wyschkon, Anne; Esser, Günter; von Aster, Michael
2018-01-01
Many children show negative emotions related to mathematics and some even develop mathematics anxiety. The present study focused on the relation between negative emotions and arithmetical performance in children with and without developmental dyscalculia (DD) using an affective priming task. Previous findings suggested that arithmetic performance is influenced if an affective prime precedes the presentation of an arithmetic problem. In children with DD specifically, responses to arithmetic operations are supposed to be facilitated by both negative and mathematics-related primes (=negative math priming effect).We investigated mathematical performance, math anxiety, and the domain-general abilities of 172 primary school children (76 with DD and 96 controls). All participants also underwent an affective priming task which consisted of the decision whether a simple arithmetic operation (addition or subtraction) that was preceded by a prime (positive/negative/neutral or mathematics-related) was true or false. Our findings did not reveal a negative math priming effect in children with DD. Furthermore, when considering accuracy levels, gender, or math anxiety, the negative math priming effect could not be replicated. However, children with DD showed more math anxiety when explicitly assessed by a specific math anxiety interview and showed lower mathematical performance compared to controls. Moreover, math anxiety was equally present in boys and girls, even in the earliest stages of schooling, and interfered negatively with performance. In conclusion, mathematics is often associated with negative emotions that can be manifested in specific math anxiety, particularly in children with DD. Importantly, present findings suggest that in the assessed age group, it is more reliable to judge math anxiety and investigate its effects on mathematical performance explicitly by adequate questionnaires than by an affective math priming task.
Crowe, Elizabeth Coyne; Connor, Carol McDonald; Petscher, Yaacov
2009-06-01
Policy changes at the federal and state level are endeavoring to improve student achievement at schools serving children from lower-SES homes. One important strategy is the focus on using evidence-based core reading curricula to provide a consistent framework for instruction across schools. However, rarely have these curricula undergone rigorous comparative testing. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of six core reading curricula on oral reading fluency growth, while appraising whether these effects differ by grade level and for children living in lower socioeconomic (SES) households. Over 30,000 students in first through third grade Florida Reading First classrooms comprise this academically and economically diverse cross-sectional. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to model latent growth curves for students' reading fluency scores over the school year. Growth curves revealed differences across curricula as well as between students of lower and higher SES, suggesting that reading fluency growth trajectories for curricula varied depending on student SES and grade level. Findings indicate that while there are similarities among curricula, they sometimes differ in their ability to promote reading skill growth. Differences by grade level and SES were also detected. However, many of these differences were small. Implications for the use of curriculum as a conduit for improving reading instruction are discussed.
The role of social support in students' perceived abilities and attitudes toward math and science.
Rice, Lindsay; Barth, Joan M; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Smith, Gabrielle P A; McCallum, Debra M
2013-07-01
Social cognitive models examining academic and career outcomes emphasize constructs such as attitude, interest, and self-efficacy as key factors affecting students' pursuit of STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) courses and careers. The current research examines another under-researched component of social cognitive models: social support, and the relationship between this component and attitude and self-efficacy in math and science. A large cross-sectional design was used gathering data from 1,552 participants in four adolescent school settings from 5th grade to early college (41 % female, 80 % white). Students completed measures of perceived social support from parents, teachers and friends as well as their perceived ability and attitudes toward math and science. Fifth grade and college students reported higher levels of support from teachers and friends when compared to students at other grade levels. In addition, students who perceived greater social support for math and science from parents, teachers, and friends reported better attitudes and had higher perceptions of their abilities in math and science. Lastly, structural equation modeling revealed that social support had both a direct effect on math and science perceived abilities and an indirect effect mediated through math and science attitudes. Findings suggest that students who perceive greater social support for math and science from parents, teachers, and friends have more positive attitudes toward math and science and a higher sense of their own competence in these subjects.
Measurement of math beliefs and their associations with math behaviors in college students.
Hendy, Helen M; Schorschinsky, Nancy; Wade, Barbara
2014-12-01
Our purpose in the present study was to expand understanding of math beliefs in college students by developing 3 new psychometrically tested scales as guided by expectancy-value theory, self-efficacy theory, and health belief model. Additionally, we identified which math beliefs (and which theory) best explained variance in math behaviors and performance by college students and which students were most likely to have problematic math beliefs. Study participants included 368 college math students who completed questionnaires to report math behaviors (attending class, doing homework, reading textbooks, asking for help) and used a 5-point rating scale to indicate a variety of math beliefs. For a subset of 84 students, math professors provided final math grades. Factor analyses produced a 10-item Math Value Scale with 2 subscales (Class Devaluation, No Future Value), a 7-item single-dimension Math Confidence Scale, and an 11-item Math Barriers Scale with 2 subscales (Math Anxiety, Discouraging Words). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that high levels of the newly discovered class devaluation belief (guided by expectancy-value theory) were most consistently associated with poor math behaviors in college students, with high math anxiety (guided by health belief model) and low math confidence (guided by self-efficacy theory) also found to be significant. Analyses of covariance revealed that younger and male students were at increased risk for class devaluation and older students were at increased risk for poor math confidence. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Incorporating sustainability into accounting curricula
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hazelton, James; Haigh, Matthew
2010-01-01
. The first author introduced sustainability-related material into a core technical accounting unit and created an elective unit. The second author participated with students to evaluate critically social reports of employers, current and potential. In terms of an objective of bringing reflexivity......This paper chronicles the journey of two projects that sought to incorporate principles of sustainable development into predominantly technical postgraduate accounting curricula. The design and delivery of the projects were informed by Freirian principles of praxis and critical empowerment...... as vocational skills) add to the difficulties for sustainability in penetrating already overcrowded curricula....
Effectiveness of school-based smoking prevention curricula: systematic review and meta-analysis.
Thomas, Roger E; McLellan, Julie; Perera, Rafael
2015-03-10
To assess effectiveness of school-based smoking prevention curricula keeping children never-smokers. Systematic review, meta-analysis. MEDLINE (1966+), EMBASE (1974+), Cinahl, PsycINFO (1967+), ERIC (1982+), Cochrane CENTRAL, Health Star, Dissertation Abstracts, conference proceedings. pooled analyses, fixed-effects models, adjusted ORs. Risk of bias assessed with Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. 50 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of school-based smoking curricula. Never-smokers age 5-18 (n=143,495); follow-up ≥6 months; all countries; no date/language limitations. Information, social influences, social competence, combined social influences/competence and multimodal curricula. Remaining a never-smoker at follow-up. Pooling all curricula, trials with follow-up ≤1 year showed no statistically significant differences compared with controls (OR 0.91 (0.82 to 1.01)), though trials of combined social competence/social influences curricula had a significant effect on smoking prevention (7 trials, OR 0.59 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.85)). Pooling all trials with longest follow-up showed an overall significant effect in favour of the interventions (OR 0.88 (0.82 to 0.95)), as did the social competence (OR 0.65 (0.43 to 0.96)) and combined social competence/social influences curricula (OR 0.60 (0.43 to 0.83)). No effect for information, social influences or multimodal curricula. Principal findings were not sensitive to inclusion of booster sessions in curricula or to whether they were peer-led or adult-led. Differentiation into tobacco-only or multifocal curricula had a similar effect on the primary findings. Few trials assessed outcomes by gender: there were significant effects for females at both follow-up periods, but not for males. RCTs of baseline never-smokers at longest follow-up found an overall significant effect with average 12% reduction in starting smoking compared with controls, but no effect for all trials pooled at ≤1 year. However, combined social
Preschool acuity of the approximate number system correlates with school math ability.
Libertus, Melissa E; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin
2011-11-01
Previous research shows a correlation between individual differences in people's school math abilities and the accuracy with which they rapidly and nonverbally approximate how many items are in a scene. This finding is surprising because the Approximate Number System (ANS) underlying numerical estimation is shared with infants and with non-human animals who never acquire formal mathematics. However, it remains unclear whether the link between individual differences in math ability and the ANS depends on formal mathematics instruction. Earlier studies demonstrating this link tested participants only after they had received many years of mathematics education, or assessed participants' ANS acuity using tasks that required additional symbolic or arithmetic processing similar to that required in standardized math tests. To ask whether the ANS and math ability are linked early in life, we measured the ANS acuity of 200 3- to 5-year-old children using a task that did not also require symbol use or arithmetic calculation. We also measured children's math ability and vocabulary size prior to the onset of formal math instruction. We found that children's ANS acuity correlated with their math ability, even when age and verbal skills were controlled for. These findings provide evidence for a relationship between the primitive sense of number and math ability starting early in life. 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Experiences of Visually Impaired Students in Community College Math Courses
Swan, S. Tomeka
Blind and visually impaired students who attend community colleges face challenges in learning mathematics (Forrest, 2010). Scoy, McLaughlin, Walls, and Zuppuhaur (2006) claim these students are at a disadvantage in studying mathematics due to the visual and interactive nature of the subject, and by the way mathematics is taught. In this qualitative study six blind and visually impaired students attended three community colleges in one Mid-Atlantic state. They shared their experiences inside the mathematics classroom. Five of the students were enrolled in developmental level math, and one student was enrolled in college level math. The conceptual framework used to explore how blind and visually impaired students persist and succeed in math courses was Piaget's theory on constructivism. The data from this qualitative study was obtained through personal interviews. Based on the findings of this study, blind and visually impaired students need the following accommodations in order to succeed in community college math courses: Accommodating instructors who help to keep blind and visually impaired students motivated and facilitate their academic progress towards math completion, tutorial support, assistive technology, and a positive and inclusive learning environment.
Representation of numerical magnitude in math-anxious individuals.
Colomé, Àngels
2018-01-01
Larger distance effects in high math-anxious individuals (HMA) performing comparison tasks have previously been interpreted as indicating less precise magnitude representation in this population. A recent study by Dietrich, Huber, Moeller, and Klein limited the effects of math anxiety to symbolic comparison, in which they found larger distance effects for HMA, despite equivalent size effects. However, the question of whether distance effects in symbolic comparison reflect the properties of the magnitude representation or decisional processes is currently under debate. This study was designed to further explore the relation between math anxiety and magnitude representation through three different tasks. HMA and low math-anxious individuals (LMA) performed a non-symbolic comparison, in which no group differences were found. Furthermore, we did not replicate previous findings in an Arabic digit comparison, in which HMA individuals showed equivalent distance effects to their LMA peers. Lastly, there were no group differences in a counting Stroop task. Altogether, an explanation of math anxiety differences in terms of less precise magnitude representation is not supported.
Identifying Maths Anxiety in Student Nurses and Focusing Remedial Work
Bull, Heather
2009-01-01
Maths anxiety interferes with maths cognition and thereby increases the risk of maths errors. To initiate strategies for preventing anxiety-related errors progressing into nursing practice, this study explored the hypothesis that student nurses experience high maths anxiety in association with poor maths performance, and that high maths anxiety is…
A Motivational Technique for Business Math
Voelker, Pamela
1977-01-01
The author suggests the use of simulation and role playing as a method of motivating students in business math. Examples of career-oriented business math simulation games are counting change, banking, payrolls, selling, and shopping. (MF)
Math Anxiety, Working Memory, and Math Achievement in Early Elementary School
Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Levine, Susan C.; Beilock, Sian L.
2013-01-01
Although math anxiety is associated with poor mathematical knowledge and low course grades (Ashcraft & Krause, 2007), research establishing a connection between math anxiety and math achievement has generally been conducted with young adults, ignoring the emergence of math anxiety in young children. In the current study, we explored whether…
A Latent Profile Analysis of Math Achievement, Numerosity, and Math Anxiety in Twins
Hart, Sara A.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Thompson, Lee; Kovas, Yulia; McLoughlin, Gráinne; Petrill, Stephen A.
2016-01-01
Underperformance in math is a problem with increasing prevalence, complex etiology, and severe repercussions. This study examined the etiological heterogeneity of math performance in a sample of 264 pairs of 12-year-old twins assessed on measures of math achievement, numerosity, and math anxiety. Latent profile analysis indicated 5 groupings of…
Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Park, Daeun; Maloney, Erin A.; Beilock, Sian L.; Levine, Susan C.
2018-01-01
School-entry math achievement is a strong predictor of math achievement through high school. We asked whether reciprocal relations among math achievement, math anxiety, and entity motivational frameworks (believing that ability is fixed and a focus on performance) can help explain these persistent individual differences. We assessed 1st and 2nd…
Adapting bioinformatics curricula for big data.
Greene, Anna C; Giffin, Kristine A; Greene, Casey S; Moore, Jason H
2016-01-01
Modern technologies are capable of generating enormous amounts of data that measure complex biological systems. Computational biologists and bioinformatics scientists are increasingly being asked to use these data to reveal key systems-level properties. We review the extent to which curricula are changing in the era of big data. We identify key competencies that scientists dealing with big data are expected to possess across fields, and we use this information to propose courses to meet these growing needs. While bioinformatics programs have traditionally trained students in data-intensive science, we identify areas of particular biological, computational and statistical emphasis important for this era that can be incorporated into existing curricula. For each area, we propose a course structured around these topics, which can be adapted in whole or in parts into existing curricula. In summary, specific challenges associated with big data provide an important opportunity to update existing curricula, but we do not foresee a wholesale redesign of bioinformatics training programs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.
Initiating Tobacco Curricula in Dental Hygiene Education
Boyd, Linda D.; Fun, Kay; Madden, Theresa E.
2006-01-01
Two hours of tobacco instructions were incorporated into the baccalaureate dental hygiene curricula in a university in the Northwestern United States. Prior to graduation, all senior students were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire surveying attitudes and clinical skills in providing tobacco services to their clinic patients. Twenty…
Introducing Cloud Computing Topics in Curricula
Chen, Ling; Liu, Yang; Gallagher, Marcus; Pailthorpe, Bernard; Sadiq, Shazia; Shen, Heng Tao; Li, Xue
2012-01-01
The demand for graduates with exposure in Cloud Computing is on the rise. For many educational institutions, the challenge is to decide on how to incorporate appropriate cloud-based technologies into their curricula. In this paper, we describe our design and experiences of integrating Cloud Computing components into seven third/fourth-year…
Communication Curricula in the Multicultural University.
Koester, Jolene; Lustig, Myron W.
1991-01-01
Argues in favor of developing and adapting curricula with a multicultural perspective. Presents typical problems facing students who are outside their cultural context. Describes the dominance of a United States Anglo perspective in communication skills, theory, and methods courses. Offers five suggestions for developing multicultural…
Political Ideology and Taiwanese School Curricula
Su, Ya-Chen
2006-01-01
Taiwanese textbooks play a central role in Taiwanese education. In the wake of the political reform and social protest movements of the 1970s and 1980s that prompted Taiwanese educational reform, critics have charged that traditional curricula tend to reinforce the dominant national Chinese cultural identity. The purpose of this article is to…
Embedding Multiple Literacies into STEM Curricula
Soules, Aline; Nielsen, Sarah; LeDuc, Danika; Inouye, Caron; Singley, Jason; Wildy, Erica; Seitz, Jeff
2014-01-01
In fall 2012, an interdisciplinary team of science, English, and library faculty embedded reading, writing, and information literacy strategies in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) curricula as a first step in improving student learning and retention in science courses and aligning them with the Next Generation Science and…
Recruitment of Hispanic Students into MIS Curricula
McHaney, Roger; Martin, Dawne
2007-01-01
This paper provides several suggestions Hispanic student recruitment and retention in MIS or other business curricula. Cultural considerations like allocentrism and familialism are discussed along with the situation at K-State. It is believed that the recruitment and retention of Hispanic students can be influenced positively by considering…
National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula
American Psychologist, 2013
2013-01-01
The "National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula" attempts to represent current knowledge in the field of psychology in developmentally appropriate ways. Psychology is a popular high school course, one that can introduce students to scientific ideas and engage students in the learning process. However, it is difficult for even the best…
Adapting bioinformatics curricula for big data
Greene, Anna C.; Giffin, Kristine A.; Greene, Casey S.
2016-01-01
Modern technologies are capable of generating enormous amounts of data that measure complex biological systems. Computational biologists and bioinformatics scientists are increasingly being asked to use these data to reveal key systems-level properties. We review the extent to which curricula are changing in the era of big data. We identify key competencies that scientists dealing with big data are expected to possess across fields, and we use this information to propose courses to meet these growing needs. While bioinformatics programs have traditionally trained students in data-intensive science, we identify areas of particular biological, computational and statistical emphasis important for this era that can be incorporated into existing curricula. For each area, we propose a course structured around these topics, which can be adapted in whole or in parts into existing curricula. In summary, specific challenges associated with big data provide an important opportunity to update existing curricula, but we do not foresee a wholesale redesign of bioinformatics training programs. PMID:25829469
Cultural Intelligence (CQ) in MBA Curricula
Ahn, Mark J.; Ettner, Larry
2013-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of cultural intelligence in MBA curricula. Shaping global corporate culture that manifests itself in powerful-shared values, group behavior, and persists despite changes in-group membership is decisive to organizational performance. In turn, cultural intelligence (CQ), defined, as an…
Preschool children's mathematical knowledge: The effect of teacher "math talk.".
Klibanoff, Raquel S; Levine, Susan C; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Vasilyeva, Marina; Hedges, Larry V
2006-01-01
This study examined the relation between the amount of mathematical input in the speech of preschool or day-care teachers and the growth of children's conventional mathematical knowledge over the school year. Three main findings emerged. First, there were marked individual differences in children's conventional mathematical knowledge by 4 years of age that were associated with socioeconomic status. Second, there were dramatic differences in the amount of math-related talk teachers provided. Third, and most important, the amount of teachers' math-related talk was significantly related to the growth of preschoolers' conventional mathematical knowledge over the school year but was unrelated to their math knowledge at the start of the school year. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.
Response to intervention in math
Riccomini, Paul J
2010-01-01
Boost academic achievement for all students in your mathematics classroom! This timely resource leads the way in applying RTI to mathematics instruction. The authors describe how the three tiers can be implemented in specific math areas and illustrate RTI procedures through case studies. Aligned with the NMAP final report and IES practice guide, this book includes: Intervention strategies for number sense, fractions, problem solving, and more Procedures for teaching math using systematic and explicit instruction for assessment, instructional planning, and evaluation Essential components to con
Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Wolter, Ilka; Hall, Nathan C
2015-01-01
Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary) math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait vs. state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain) was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2-3 weeks (N within = 6207). As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students' self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts). Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Madeleine eBieg
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait versus state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2-3 weeks (Nwithin = 6207. As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students’ self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts. Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.
Snipes, Jason; Huang, Chun-Wei; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal
2015-01-01
The Effects of the Elevate Math summer program on math achievement and algebra readiness: This randomized trial examined the effects of the Elevate Math summer program on math achievement and algebra readiness, as well as math interest and self-efficacy, among rising 8th grade students in California's Silicon Valley. The Elevate Math summer math…
Math Branding in a Community College Library
Brantz, Malcolm; Sadowski, Edward B.
2010-01-01
As a strategy to promote the Arapahoe Community College Library's collections and services, the Library undertook to brand itself as a math resource center. In promoting one area of expertise, math was selected to help address the problem of a large portion of high school graduates' inability to work at college-level math. A "Math…
Saxon Math. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report
What Works Clearinghouse, 2017
2017-01-01
"Saxon Math" is a curriculum for students in grades K-12. The amount of new math content students receive each day is limited and students practice concepts every day. New concepts are developed, reviewed, and practiced cumulatively rather than in discrete chapters or units. This review focuses on studies of "Saxon Math"'s…
University Curricula in Oceanography and Related Fields.
1986-01-01
hardware, and three potential ma- ( TOEFL ). rine technicians formally enrolled in a new and ex- perimental two-year curriculum. In May of 1971, the 1. M.A...the application fee, and in the case of and six credit hours of thesis research. General and foreign students, TOEFL results, are due by February
Math Game(s) - an alternative (approach) to teaching math?
Ruttkay, Z.M.; Eliens, A.P.W.; Breitlauch, L.
2009-01-01
Getting students to read, digest and practice material is diﬃcult in any discipline, but even more so for math, since many students have to cope with motivational problems and feelings of inadequacy, often due to prior unsuccesful training and teaching methods. In this paper we look at the
Taking Math Outside of the Classroom: Math in the City
Radu, Petronela
2013-01-01
Math in the City is an interdisciplinary mathematics course offered at University of Nebraska-Lincoln in which students engage in a real-world experience to understand current major societal issues of local and national interest. The course is run in collaboration with local businesses, research centers, and government organizations, that provide…
Americans Need Advanced Math to Stay Globally Competitive. Math Works
Achieve, Inc., 2013
2013-01-01
No student who hopes to compete in today's rapidly evolving global economy and job market can afford to graduate from high school with weak mathematical skills, which include the ability to use logic, reason, and solve problems. The benefits associated with improving the math performance of American students also extend to the larger U.S. economy.…
Lambert, Katharina; Spinath, Birgit
The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between elementary school children's mathematical achievement and their conservation abilities, visuospatial skills, and numerosity processing speed. We also assessed differences in these abilities between children with different types of learning problems. In Study 1 ( N = 229), we investigated second to fourth graders and in Study 2 ( N = 120), third and fourth graders. Analyses revealed significant contributions of numerosity processing speed and visuospatial skills to math achievement beyond IQ. Conservation abilities were predictive in Study 1 only. Children with math difficulties showed lower visuospatial skills and conservation abilities than children with typical achievement levels and children with reading and/or spelling difficulties, whereas children with combined difficulties explicitly showed low conservation abilities. These findings provide further evidence for the relations between children's math skills and their visuospatial skills, conservation abilities, and processing speed and contribute to the understanding of deficits that are specific to mathematical difficulties.
Mazzocco, Michele M. M.
2001-01-01
This study examined whether indicators of math learning disability were observed in 35 5- and 6-year-olds with either neurofibromatosis, Turner Syndrome, or fragile X syndrome and compared to controls. Findings indicate that girls with fragile X or Turner syndrome but not neurofibromatosis are significantly more likely to have specific math…
Secondary School Curricula Issues: Impact on Postsecondary Students with Disabilities.
Stodden, Robert A.; Galloway, L. M.; Stodden, Norma Jean
2003-01-01
This article examines the complex needs of students with disabilities in learning rigorous standards-based curricula, the need of educators to teach this population standards-based curricula effectively, and the contextual factors that affect teaching and learning standards-based curricula in secondary schools. Exemplary and promising practices…
Science Process Skills in Science Curricula Applied in Turkey
Yumusak, Güngör Keskinkiliç
2016-01-01
One of the most important objectives of the science curricula is to bring in science process skills. The science process skills are skills that lie under scientific thinking and decision-making. Thus it is important for a science curricula to be rationalized in such a way that it brings in science process skills. New science curricula were…
Jeffrey J. Green; Courtenay C. Stone; Abera Zegeye; Thomas A. Charles
2008-01-01
Because statistical analysis requires both familiarity with and the ability to use mathematics, students typically are required to take one or more prerequisite math courses prior to enrolling in the business statistics course. Despite these math prerequisites, however, students find it extremely difficult to learn business statistics. In this study, we use an ordered probit model to examine the effect of alternative prerequisite math course sequences on the grade performance of 1,684 busines...
See ya later calculator simple math tricks you can do in your head
Portable Press, Editors of
2017-01-01
See Ya Later Calculator demystifies numbers and math. With these simple, precise, and downright magical math tricks, readers can do everyday math faster than it takes to dig out their phone and find the calculator app. Clear, step-by-step, easily memorizable directions demonstrate more than 125 math operations anyone can do in their head. Plus, it features do-it-yourself math projects, puzzles, and even a bonus section for advanced mathophiles. Get ready to tackle fun problems such as How to easily square any number How to add three-digit numbers How to use a mirror to measure the height of a building. How to make a ruler out of a dollar bill How to use geometry to paint walls, cut floor tiling, and do other home renovations How to subtract numbers…by adding And lots more...no calculator required.
Hart, Sara A; Ganley, Colleen M; Purpura, David J
2016-01-01
There is a growing literature concerning the role of the home math environment in children's math development. In this study, we examined the relation between these constructs by specifically addressing three goals. The first goal was to identify the measurement structure of the home math environment through a series of confirmatory factor analyses. The second goal was to examine the role of the home math environment in predicting parent report of children's math skills. The third goal was to test a series of potential alternative explanations for the relation between the home math environment and parent report of children's skills, specifically the direct and indirect role of household income, parent math anxiety, and parent math ability as measured by their approximate number system performance. A final sample of 339 parents of children aged 3 through 8 drawn from Mechanical Turk answered a questionnaire online. The best fitting model of the home math environment was a bifactor model with a general factor representing the general home math environment, and three specific factors representing the direct numeracy environment, the indirect numeracy environment, and the spatial environment. When examining the association of the home math environment factors to parent report of child skills, the general home math environment factor and the spatial environment were the only significant predictors. Parents who reported doing more general math activities in the home reported having children with higher math skills, whereas parents who reported doing more spatial activities reported having children with lower math skills.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sara A Hart
Full Text Available There is a growing literature concerning the role of the home math environment in children's math development. In this study, we examined the relation between these constructs by specifically addressing three goals. The first goal was to identify the measurement structure of the home math environment through a series of confirmatory factor analyses. The second goal was to examine the role of the home math environment in predicting parent report of children's math skills. The third goal was to test a series of potential alternative explanations for the relation between the home math environment and parent report of children's skills, specifically the direct and indirect role of household income, parent math anxiety, and parent math ability as measured by their approximate number system performance. A final sample of 339 parents of children aged 3 through 8 drawn from Mechanical Turk answered a questionnaire online. The best fitting model of the home math environment was a bifactor model with a general factor representing the general home math environment, and three specific factors representing the direct numeracy environment, the indirect numeracy environment, and the spatial environment. When examining the association of the home math environment factors to parent report of child skills, the general home math environment factor and the spatial environment were the only significant predictors. Parents who reported doing more general math activities in the home reported having children with higher math skills, whereas parents who reported doing more spatial activities reported having children with lower math skills.
Language, reading, and math learning profiles in an epidemiological sample of school age children.
Archibald, Lisa M D; Oram Cardy, Janis; Joanisse, Marc F; Ansari, Daniel
2013-01-01
Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI) are relatively specific developmental learning disabilities in math, reading, and oral language, respectively, that occur in the context of average intellectual capacity and adequate environmental opportunities. Past research has been dominated by studies focused on single impairments despite the widespread recognition that overlapping and comorbid deficits are common. The present study took an epidemiological approach to study the learning profiles of a large school age sample in language, reading, and math. Both general learning profiles reflecting good or poor performance across measures and specific learning profiles involving either weak language, weak reading, weak math, or weak math and reading were observed. These latter four profiles characterized 70% of children with some evidence of a learning disability. Low scores in phonological short-term memory characterized clusters with a language-based weakness whereas low or variable phonological awareness was associated with the reading (but not language-based) weaknesses. The low math only group did not show these phonological deficits. These findings may suggest different etiologies for language-based deficits in language, reading, and math, reading-related impairments in reading and math, and isolated math disabilities.
Language, reading, and math learning profiles in an epidemiological sample of school age children.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lisa M D Archibald
Full Text Available Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI are relatively specific developmental learning disabilities in math, reading, and oral language, respectively, that occur in the context of average intellectual capacity and adequate environmental opportunities. Past research has been dominated by studies focused on single impairments despite the widespread recognition that overlapping and comorbid deficits are common. The present study took an epidemiological approach to study the learning profiles of a large school age sample in language, reading, and math. Both general learning profiles reflecting good or poor performance across measures and specific learning profiles involving either weak language, weak reading, weak math, or weak math and reading were observed. These latter four profiles characterized 70% of children with some evidence of a learning disability. Low scores in phonological short-term memory characterized clusters with a language-based weakness whereas low or variable phonological awareness was associated with the reading (but not language-based weaknesses. The low math only group did not show these phonological deficits. These findings may suggest different etiologies for language-based deficits in language, reading, and math, reading-related impairments in reading and math, and isolated math disabilities.
Leadership and management in UK medical school curricula.
Jefferies, Richard; Sheriff, Ibrahim H N; Matthews, Jacob H; Jagger, Olivia; Curtis, Sarah; Lees, Peter; Spurgeon, Peter C; Fountain, Daniel Mark; Oldman, Alex; Habib, Ali; Saied, Azam; Court, Jessica; Giannoudi, Marilena; Sayma, Meelad; Ward, Nicholas; Cork, Nick; Olatokun, Olamide; Devine, Oliver; O'Connell, Paul; Carr, Phoebe; Kotronias, Rafail Angelos; Gardiner, Rebecca; Buckle, Rory T; Thomson, Ross J; Williams, Sarah; Nicholson, Simon J; Goga, Usman
2016-10-10
Purpose Although medical leadership and management (MLM) is increasingly being recognised as important to improving healthcare outcomes, little is understood about current training of medical students in MLM skills and behaviours in the UK. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This qualitative study used validated structured interviews with expert faculty members from medical schools across the UK to ascertain MLM framework integration, teaching methods employed, evaluation methods and barriers to improvement. Findings Data were collected from 25 of the 33 UK medical schools (76 per cent response rate), with 23/25 reporting that MLM content is included in their curriculum. More medical schools assessed MLM competencies on admission than at any other time of the curriculum. Only 12 schools had evaluated MLM teaching at the time of data collection. The majority of medical schools reported barriers, including overfilled curricula and reluctance of staff to teach. Whilst 88 per cent of schools planned to increase MLM content over the next two years, there was a lack of consensus on proposed teaching content and methods. Research limitations/implications There is widespread inclusion of MLM in UK medical schools' curricula, despite the existence of barriers. This study identified substantial heterogeneity in MLM teaching and assessment methods which does not meet students' desired modes of delivery. Examples of national undergraduate MLM teaching exist worldwide, and lessons can be taken from these. Originality/value This is the first national evaluation of MLM in undergraduate medical school curricula in the UK, highlighting continuing challenges with executing MLM content despite numerous frameworks and international examples of successful execution.
van de Craats, J.; Bosch, R.
2014-01-01
All You Need in Maths! covers the basic mathematics you need to successfully embark on a university or college career in technology, natural sciences, computer and information science, economics, business and management studies, and related disciplines. By basic mathematics we mean elementary
Meeting a Math Achievement Crisis
Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori
2005-01-01
An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's…
Hanushek, Eric A.; Peterson, Paul E.; Woessmann, Ludger
2011-01-01
Maintaining America's productivity as a nation depends importantly on developing a highly qualified cadre of scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs, and other professionals. To realize that objective requires a system of schooling that produces students with advanced math and science skills. To see how well schools in the United States do at…
Greenes, Carole; Ginsburg, Herbert P.; Balfanz, Robert
2004-01-01
"Big Math for Little Kids," a comprehensive program for 4- and 5-year-olds, develops and expands on the mathematics that children know and are capable of doing. The program uses activities and stories to develop ideas about number, shape, pattern, logical reasoning, measurement, operations on numbers, and space. The activities introduce the…
Basic Maths Practice Problems For Dummies
Beveridge, Colin
2012-01-01
Fun, friendly coaching and all the practice you need to tackle maths problems with confidence and ease In his popular Basic Maths For Dummies, professional maths tutor Colin Beveridge proved that he could turn anyone - even the most maths-phobic person - into a natural-born number cruncher. In this book he supplies more of his unique brand of maths-made- easy coaching, plus 2,000 practice problems to help you master what you learn. Whether you're prepping for a numeracy test or an employability exam, thinking of returning to school, or you'd just like to be one of those know-it-alls who says
Solving math and science problems in the real world with a computational mind
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan Carlos Olabe
2014-07-01
Full Text Available This article presents a new paradigm for the study of Math and Sciences curriculum during primary and secondary education. A workshop for Education undergraduates at four different campuses (n=242 was designed to introduce participants to the new paradigm. In order to make a qualitative analysis of the current school methodologies in mathematics, participants were introduced to a taxonomic tool for the description of K-12 Math problems. The tool allows the identification, decomposition and description of Type-A problems, the characteristic ones in the traditional curriculum, and of Type-B problems in the new paradigm. The workshops culminated with a set of surveys where participants were asked to assess both the current and the new proposed paradigms. The surveys in this study revealed that according to the majority of participants: (i The K-12 Mathematics curricula are designed to teach students exclusively the resolution of Type-A problems; (ii real life Math problems respond to a paradigm of Type-B problems; and (iii the current Math curriculum should be modified to include this new paradigm.
Three brief assessments of math achievement.
Steiner, Eric T; Ashcraft, Mark H
2012-12-01
Because of wide disparities in college students' math knowledge-that is, their math achievement-studies of cognitive processing in math tasks also need to assess their individual level of math achievement. For many research settings, however, using existing math achievement tests is either too costly or too time consuming. To solve this dilemma, we present three brief tests of math achievement here, two drawn from the Wide Range Achievement Test and one composed of noncopyrighted items. All three correlated substantially with the full achievement test and with math anxiety, our original focus, and all show acceptable to excellent reliability. When lengthy testing is not feasible, one of these brief tests can be substituted.
Andrews, Sarah E.; Runyon, Christopher; Aikens, Melissa L.
2017-01-01
In response to calls to improve the quantitative training of undergraduate biology students, there have been increased efforts to better integrate math into biology curricula. One challenge of such efforts is negative student attitudes toward math, which are thought to be particularly prevalent among biology students. According to theory, students’ personal values toward using math in a biological context will influence their achievement and behavioral outcomes, but a validated instrument is needed to determine this empirically. We developed the Math–Biology Values Instrument (MBVI), an 11-item college-level self-report instrument grounded in expectancy-value theory, to measure life science students’ interest in using math to understand biology, the perceived usefulness of math to their life science career, and the cost of using math in biology courses. We used a process that integrates multiple forms of validity evidence to show that scores from the MBVI can be used as a valid measure of a student’s value of math in the context of biology. The MBVI can be used by instructors and researchers to help identify instructional strategies that influence math–biology values and understand how math–biology values are related to students’ achievement and decisions to pursue more advanced quantitative-based courses. PMID:28747355
INFORMATION SYSTEMS AUDIT CURRICULA CONTENT MATCHING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vasile-Daniel CARDOȘ
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Financial and internal auditors must cope with the challenge of performing their mission in technology enhanced environment. In this article we match the information technology description found in the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC and the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA curricula against the Model Curriculum issued by the Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA. By reviewing these three curricula, we matched the content in the ISACA Model Curriculum with the IFAC International Education Practice Statement 2 and the IIAs’ Global Model Internal Audit Curriculum. In the IFAC and IIA Curriculum there are 16 content elements, out of 19 possible, which match, in their description, the ISACA Model Curriculum’s content. We noticed that a candidate who graduates an IFAC or IIA compliant program acquire IS auditing competences similar to the specific content of the ISACA model curriculum but less than the requirements for a professional information systems auditor.
Diagnostic imaging in pregraduate integrated curricula
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kainberger, F.; Kletter, K.
2007-01-01
Pregraduate medical curricula are currently undergoing a reform process that is moving away from a traditional discipline-related structure and towards problem-based integrated forms of teaching. Imaging sciences, with their inherently technical advances, are specifically influenced by the effects of paradigm shifts in medical education. The teaching of diagnostic radiology should be based on the definition of three core competencies: in vivo visualization of normal and abnormal morphology and function, diagnostic reasoning, and interventional treatment. On the basis of these goals, adequate teaching methods and e-learning tools should be implemented by focusing on case-based teaching. Teaching materials used in the fields of normal anatomy, pathology, and clinical diagnosis may help diagnostic radiology to play a central role in modern pregraduate curricula. (orig.)
[Diagnostic imaging in pregraduate integrated curricula].
Kainberger, F; Kletter, K
2007-11-01
Pregraduate medical curricula are currently undergoing a reform process that is moving away from a traditional discipline-related structure and towards problem-based integrated forms of teaching. Imaging sciences, with their inherently technical advances, are specifically influenced by the effects of paradigm shifts in medical education. The teaching of diagnostic radiology should be based on the definition of three core competencies: in vivo visualization of normal and abnormal morphology and function, diagnostic reasoning, and interventional treatment. On the basis of these goals, adequate teaching methods and e-learning tools should be implemented by focusing on case-based teaching. Teaching materials used in the fields of normal anatomy, pathology, and clinical diagnosis may help diagnostic radiology to play a central role in modern pregraduate curricula.
The evolution of global health teaching in undergraduate medical curricula
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rowson Mike
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the early 1990s there has been a burgeoning interest in global health teaching in undergraduate medical curricula. In this article we trace the evolution of this teaching and present recommendations for how the discipline might develop in future years. Discussion Undergraduate global health teaching has seen a marked growth over the past ten years, partly as a response to student demand and partly due to increasing globalization, cross-border movement of pathogens and international migration of health care workers. This teaching has many different strands and types in terms of topic focus, disciplinary background, the point in medical studies in which it is taught and whether it is compulsory or optional. We carried out a survey of medical schools across the world in an effort to analyse their teaching of global health. Results indicate that this teaching is rising in prominence, particularly through global health elective/exchange programmes and increasing teaching of subjects such as globalization and health and international comparison of health systems. Our findings indicate that global health teaching is moving away from its previous focus on tropical medicine towards issues of more global relevance. We suggest that there are three types of doctor who may wish to work in global health – the ‘globalised doctor’, ‘humanitarian doctor’ and ‘policy doctor’ – and that each of these three types will require different teaching in order to meet the required competencies. This teaching needs to be inserted into medical curricula in different ways, notably into core curricula, a special overseas doctor track, optional student selected components, elective programmes, optional intercalated degrees and postgraduate study. Summary We argue that teaching of global health in undergraduate medical curricula must respond to changing understandings of the term global health. In particular it must be taught from the
The evolution of global health teaching in undergraduate medical curricula.
Rowson, Mike; Smith, Abi; Hughes, Rob; Johnson, Oliver; Maini, Arti; Martin, Sophie; Martineau, Fred; Miranda, J Jaime; Pollit, Vicki; Wake, Rae; Willott, Chris; Yudkin, John S
2012-11-13
Since the early 1990s there has been a burgeoning interest in global health teaching in undergraduate medical curricula. In this article we trace the evolution of this teaching and present recommendations for how the discipline might develop in future years. Undergraduate global health teaching has seen a marked growth over the past ten years, partly as a response to student demand and partly due to increasing globalization, cross-border movement of pathogens and international migration of health care workers. This teaching has many different strands and types in terms of topic focus, disciplinary background, the point in medical studies in which it is taught and whether it is compulsory or optional. We carried out a survey of medical schools across the world in an effort to analyse their teaching of global health. Results indicate that this teaching is rising in prominence, particularly through global health elective/exchange programmes and increasing teaching of subjects such as globalization and health and international comparison of health systems. Our findings indicate that global health teaching is moving away from its previous focus on tropical medicine towards issues of more global relevance. We suggest that there are three types of doctor who may wish to work in global health - the 'globalised doctor', 'humanitarian doctor' and 'policy doctor' - and that each of these three types will require different teaching in order to meet the required competencies. This teaching needs to be inserted into medical curricula in different ways, notably into core curricula, a special overseas doctor track, optional student selected components, elective programmes, optional intercalated degrees and postgraduate study. We argue that teaching of global health in undergraduate medical curricula must respond to changing understandings of the term global health. In particular it must be taught from the perspective of more disciplines than just biomedicine, in order to reflect
Jansen, Brenda R. J.; Schmitz, Eva A.; van der Maas, Han L. J.
2016-01-01
This study focused on the use of math in everyday life (the propensity to recognize and solve quantitative issues in real life situations). Data from a Dutch nation-wide research on math among adults (N = 521) were used to investigate the question whether math anxiety and perceived math competence mediated the relationship between math skills and use of math in everyday life, taken gender differences into account. Results showed that women reported higher math anxiety, lower perceived math competence, and lower use of math in everyday life, compared to men. Women's skills were estimated at a lower level than men's. For both women and men, higher skills were associated with higher perceived math competence, which in turn was associated with more use of math in everyday life. Only for women, math anxiety also mediated the relation between math skills and use of math in everyday life. PMID:27148122
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brenda RJ Jansen
2016-04-01
Full Text Available This study focused on the use of math in everyday life (the propensity to recognize and solve quantitative issues in real life situations. Data from a Dutch nation-wide research on math among adults (N = 521 were used to investigate the question whether math anxiety and perceived math competence mediated the relationship between math skills and use of math in everyday life, taken gender differences into account. Results showed that women reported higher math anxiety, lower perceived math competence, and lower use of math in everyday life, compared to men. Women's skills were estimated at a lower level than men's. For both women and men, higher skills were associated with higher perceived math competence, which in turn was associated with more use of math in everyday life. Only for women, math anxiety also mediated the relation between math skills and use of math in everyday life.
Capacity building of skilled birth attendants: a review of pre-service education curricula.
Adegoke, Adetoro A; Mani, Safiyanu; Abubakar, Aisha; van den Broek, Nynke
2013-07-01
to assess the level, type and content of pre-service education curricula of health workers providing maternity services against the ICM global standards for Midwifery Education and Essential competencies for midwifery practice. We reviewed the quality and relevance of pre-service education curricula of four cadres of health-care providers of maternity care in Northern Nigeria. we adapted and used the ICM global standards for Midwifery Education and Essential competencies for midwifery practice to design a framework of criteria against which we assessed curricula for pre-service training. We reviewed the pre-service curricula for Nurses, Midwives, Community Health Extension Workers (CHEW) and Junior Community Health Extension Workers (JCHEW) in three states. Criteria against which the curricula were evaluated include: minimum entry requirement, the length of the programme, theory: practice ratio, curriculum model, minimum number of births conducted during training, clinical experience, competencies, maximum number of students allowable and proportion of Maternal, Newborn and Child Health components (MNCH) as part of the total curriculum. four pre-service education programmes were reviewed; the 3 year basic midwifery, 3 year basic nursing, 3 year Community Health Extension Worker (CHEW) and 2 year Junior Community Health Extension Worker (JCHEW) programme. Findings showed that, none of these four training curricula met all the standards. The basic midwifery curriculum most closely met the standards and competencies set out. The nursing curriculum showed a strong focus on foundations of nursing practice, theories of nursing, public health and maternal newborn and child health. This includes well-defined modules on family health which are undertaken from the first year to the third year of the programme. The CHEW and JCHEW curricula are currently inadequate with regard to training health-care workers to be skilled birth attendants. although the midwifery curriculum
Unexpected attitudinal growth in a course combining reformed curricula
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael M. Hull
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we show data from the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey that suggests that Georgetown physics majors become increasingly expert in their attitudes towards physics learning and knowing after taking a course that combines two reformed curricula, Matter and Interactions (M&I and Tutorials in Introductory Physics (TIPs. This occurs even though the two curricula do not send a consistent epistemological message to students. We analyze interview video data of two of these students to illustrate examples of this growth. We examine video data of one of these students in a tutorial session to describe a possible mechanism that may have contributed to the growth. Finally, we compare this qualitative video data with quantitative data from the newly developed Perceptions of Physics Classes survey and discuss aggregate responses to this survey in considering the ways in which other students developed more expertlike attitudes in this course. We conclude that the attitudinal growth observed cannot be explained simply “as the result of” either M&I or of TIPs but rather find the most plausible explanation to be that the growth is an emergent phenomena produced by M&I and TIPs working together in concert with other factors.
Strengthening maths learning dispositions through ‘math clubs’
Mellony Graven
2016-01-01
In this paper, I argue that the establishment of after-school mathematics clubs in early grades holds rich potential for supporting the development of increasingly participatory and sense-making maths learning dispositions. Within the South African Numeracy Chair project, lead by the author, multiple after-school mathematics clubs have been set up for learners in Grades 3-6 across Eastern Cape schools. These clubs are a complementary initiative to teacher development, aimed at improving low l...
Math Game(s) - an alternative (approach) to teaching math?
Ruttkay, Z.M.; Eliens, A.P.W.; Breitlauch, L.
2009-01-01
Getting students to read, digest and practice material is diﬃcult in any discipline, but even more so for math, since many students have to cope with motivational problems and feelings of inadequacy, often due to prior unsuccesful training and teaching methods. In this paper we look at the opportunities oﬀered by computer graphics, visual programming and game design as an alternative for traditional methods of teaching mathemathics. In particular, games may be deployed both as intruments to d...
Nurses' maths: researching a practical approach.
Wilson, Ann
To compare a new practical maths test with a written maths test. The tests were undertaken by qualified nurses training for intravenous drug administration, a skill dependent on maths accuracy. The literature showed that the higher education institutes (HEIs) that provide nurse training use traditional maths tests, a practical way of testing maths had not been described. Fifty five nurses undertook two maths tests based on intravenous drug calculations. One was a traditional written test. The second was a new type of test using a simulated clinical environment. All participants were also interviewed one week later to ascertain their thoughts and feelings about the tests. There was a significant improvement in maths test scores for those nurses who took the practical maths test first. It is suggested that this is because it improved their conceptualisation skills and thus helped them to achieve accuracy in their calculations. Written maths tests are not the best way to help and support nurses in acquiring and improving their maths skills and should be replaced by a more practical approach.
Green, Jeffrey J.; Stone, Courtenay C.; Zegeye, Abera; Charles, Thomas A.
2009-01-01
Because statistical analysis requires the ability to use mathematics, students typically are required to take one or more prerequisite math courses prior to enrolling in the business statistics course. Despite these math prerequisites, however, many students find it difficult to learn business statistics. In this study, we use an ordered probit…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alaa H. A . Aburedwan
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The study aimed at answering the following key question: Are academic standards of political sciences fulfilled in the curricula of political science programs at the Palestinian universities? Accordingly, the study included a theoretical section that explained the basic concepts of quality in education, and some international experiences adopted for quality assurance of political sciences programs. Then the study analyzed, according to the standard criteria, the curricula of four departments that grant a bachelor's degree in political sciences, based on information published on the departments’ sites on the internet, and according to the academic guidebook of each department. The study concluded that the mission and objectives of three departments are clear, while the findings of the analysis showed that there is mismatch of requirements in the Palestinian curricula with academic standards. Most programs are rich with major materials, but need a little adjustment to conform to the standards. The findings also showed a number of negative points in study plans, which do not contain enough credit hours for scientific research, computer applications, and field training, while they have extra credit hours for university requirements. The study made several recommendations to address the problems of the curricula, including: Inviting departments to form committees to ensure quality, to modify the curricula, and develop it in accordance with international standards. Keywords: Academic program, Academic standards, Curricula assessment, Political sciences.
Pierpont, Katherine
2006-01-01
Greg Tang has a resume that could get his foot in the door to a lot of places. A graduate of Harvard with both a B.A. and M.A. in economics, Tang has found success as a business executive, a speechwriter, a software designer and owner of a Tae Kwon Do school. After the publication of his first best-selling book for children, "The Grapes of Math"…
Gesturing Gives Children New Ideas About Math
Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Cook, Susan Wagner; Mitchell, Zachary A.
2009-01-01
How does gesturing help children learn? Gesturing might encourage children to extract meaning implicit in their hand movements. If so, children should be sensitive to the particular movements they produce and learn accordingly. Alternatively, all that may matter is that children move their hands. If so, they should learn regardless of which movements they produce. To investigate these alternatives, we manipulated gesturing during a math lesson. We found that children required to produce correct gestures learned more than children required to produce partially correct gestures, who learned more than children required to produce no gestures. This effect was mediated by whether children took information conveyed solely in their gestures and added it to their speech. The findings suggest that body movements are involved not only in processing old ideas, but also in creating new ones. We may be able to lay foundations for new knowledge simply by telling learners how to move their hands. PMID:19222810
Jeffrey J. Green; Courtenay C. Stone; Abera Zegeye; Thomas A. Charles
2007-01-01
We use a binary probit model to assess the impact of several changes in math prerequisites on student performance in an undergraduate business statistics course. While the initial prerequisites did not necessarily provide students with the necessary math skills, our study, the first to examine the effect of math prerequisite changes, shows that these changes were deleterious to student performance. Our results helped convince the College of Business to change the math prerequisite again begin...
Inhibition Performance in Children with Math Disabilities
Winegar, Kathryn Lileth
2013-01-01
This study examined the inhibition deficit hypothesis in children with math disabilities (MD). Children with and without MD were compared on two inhibition tasks that included the random generation of numbers and letters. The results addressed three hypotheses. Weak support was found for the first hypothesis which stated difficulties related to inhibition are significantly related to math performance. I found partial support for this hypothesis in that inhibition was related to math problem s...
Briefing paper for universities on Core Maths
Glaister, Paul
2015-01-01
This briefing paper outlines the rationale for and development of the new Core Maths qualifications, the characteristics of Core Maths, and why Core Maths is important for higher education. It is part of a communication to university vice-chancellors from the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) comprising this paper and a joint Ministerial letter from Jo Johnson, Minister of State for Universities and Science in BIS, and Nick Gibb, Minister of State for Schools in the Departm...
Teachers’ ability in using math learning media
Masniladevi; Prahmana, R. C. I.; Helsa, Y.; Dalais, M.
2017-12-01
The studies aim to enhance teachers’ knowledge and skill in making math instructional media, develop math instructional media, train and assist the use of instructional media in learning math in the classroom. The method used in the activities adopted the pattern of preventive implementation, planning stage, program implementation, observation and evaluation and reflection. The research results show that the evaluation of teachers’ ability is still in average category. The result required more intensive training.
Training in radiological protection: Curricula and programming
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1964-01-01
An important activity of the International Atomic Energy Agency is the promotion of training in radiological protection. Through its organized training courses, its fellowship training programme and its field experts, the Agency has assisted many Member States to train an essential group of scientists in radiological protection. Many Member States are now developing their own national training programmes in radiological protection and this report has been prepared to provide the guidance that may be required in this development. In the report the various types of training which are encountered in a radiological protection programme are fully discussed, curricula are suggested and examples of established training courses are annexed
Constructivism theory analysis and application to curricula.
Brandon, Amy F; All, Anita C
2010-01-01
Today's nursing programs are struggling to accommodate the changing needs of the health care environment and need to make changes in how students are taught. Using constructivism theory, whereby learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current or past knowledge, leaders in nursing education can make a paradigm shift toward concept-based curricula. This article presents a summary and analysis of constructivism and an innovative application of its active-learning principles to curriculum development, specifically for the education of nursing students.
Numbers and other math ideas come alive
Pappas, Theoni
2012-01-01
Most people don't think about numbers, or take them for granted. For the average person numbers are looked upon as cold, clinical, inanimate objects. Math ideas are viewed as something to get a job done or a problem solved. Get ready for a big surprise with Numbers and Other Math Ideas Come Alive. Pappas explores mathematical ideas by looking behind the scenes of what numbers, points, lines, and other concepts are saying and thinking. In each story, properties and characteristics of math ideas are entertainingly uncovered and explained through the dialogues and actions of its math
The Impact of MOVE IT Math(TM) and Traditional Textbook Instruction on Math Achievement Scores
Bennett, Angela Stephens
2010-01-01
One recommendation of government, education, and business leaders is an increased emphasis on math and science instruction in public schools. The purpose of this quantitative study using a posttest, quasi-experimental design was to determine if the Math Opportunities, Valuable Experiences, and Innovative Teaching (MOVE IT Math(TM)) program…
The Effectiveness of Using STAR Math to Improve PSSA Math Scores
Holub, Sherry L.
2017-01-01
This is a quantitative study examining whether STAR Math, a student monitoring system, can improve PSSA Math scores. The experimental school used STAR Math during the 2015-2016 school year in grouping students for remediation and intervention. The control school used traditional curriculum measures to group students for remediation and…
Using Brief Guided Imagery to Reduce Math Anxiety and Improve Math Performance: A Pilot Study
Henslee, Amber M.; Klein, Brandi A.
2017-01-01
The objective of this study was to investigate whether brief guided imagery could provide a short-term reduction in math anxiety and improve math performance. Undergraduates (N = 581) were screened for math anxiety, and the highest and lowest quartiles were recruited to participate in a lab-based study. Participants were assigned to a brief guided…
Advanced Math Course Taking: Effects on Math Achievement and College Enrollment
Byun, Soo-yong; Irvin, Matthew J.; Bell, Bethany A.
2015-01-01
Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002-2006, the authors investigated the effects of advanced math course taking on math achievement and college enrollment and how such effects varied by socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity. Results from propensity score matching and sensitivity analyses showed that advanced math course…
Using an Intelligent Tutor and Math Fluency Training to Improve Math Performance
Arroyo, Ivon; Royer, James M.; Woolf, Beverly P.
2011-01-01
This article integrates research in intelligent tutors with psychology studies of memory and math fluency (the speed to retrieve or calculate answers to basic math operations). It describes the impact of computer software designed to improve either strategic behavior or math fluency. Both competencies are key to improved performance and both…
Math Performance as a Function of Math Anxiety and Arousal Performance Theory
Farnsworth, Donald M., Jr.
2009-01-01
While research continues to link increased math anxiety with reduced working memory, the exact nature of the relationship remains elusive. In addition, research regarding the extent of the impact math anxiety has on working memory is contradictory. This research clarifies the directional nature of math anxiety as it pertains to working memory, and…
Experiencing the Implementation of New Inquiry Science Curricula
Ower, Peter S.
Using a phenomenological methodology, a cohort of four experienced science teachers was interviewed about their experience transitioning from traditional, teacher and fact-centered science curricula to inquiry-based curricula. Each teacher participated in two interviews that focused on their teaching backgrounds, their experience teaching the prior traditional curriculum, and their experience teaching the new inquiry-based curriculum. The findings are presented as a narrative of each teachers' experience with the new curriculum implementation. Analyzing the data revealed four key themes. 1) The teachers felt trapped by the old curriculum as it did not align with their positive views of teaching science through inquiry. 2) The teachers found a way to fit their beliefs and values into the old and new curriculum. This required changes to the curriculum. 3) The teachers attempted to make the science curriculum as meaningful as possible for their students. 4) The teachers experienced a balancing act between their beliefs and values and the various aspects of the curriculum. The revealed essence of the curriculum transition is one of freedom and reconciliation of their beliefs. The teachers experienced the implementation of the new curriculum as a way to ensure their values and beliefs of science education were embedded therein. They treated the new curriculum as a malleable structure to impart their grander ideas of science education (e.g. providing important skills for future careers, creating a sense of wonder, future problem solving) to the students. Their changes were aligned with the philosophy of the curriculum kits they were implementing. Thus, the fidelity of the curriculum's philosophy was not at risk even though the curriculum kits were not taught as written. This study showed that phenomenological methods are able to reveal the relationship between a teacher's prior experiences, values and beliefs and their current instructional philosophy in science
An Evaluation of Relevance of Computing Curricula to Industry Needs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ioana Chan Mow
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The research documented in this paper attempted to answer the question of how relevant the content of the Computing courses offered within programs of the Computing Department at the National University of Samoa (NUS were to meet the needs of industry and the workforce. The RINCCII study which was conducted in 2013 to 2014, surveyed 13 institutions and 19 graduates from the Computing programs. Findings from the survey indicated that the current course offerings within the Computing department are relevant to the needs of industry and the workplace. However there are aspects or topics which need inclusion or better coverage. The study also recommended regular surveys to gauge relevance of curricula to needs of industry.
Sturm, Alexandra; Rozenman, Michelle; Piacentini, John C; McGough, James J; Loo, Sandra K; McCracken, James T
2018-03-20
Predictors of math achievement in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are not well-known. To address this gap in the literature, we examined individual differences in neurocognitive functioning domains on math computation in a cross-sectional sample of youth with ADHD. Gender and anxiety symptoms were explored as potential moderators. The sample consisted of 281 youth (aged 8-15 years) diagnosed with ADHD. Neurocognitive tasks assessed auditory-verbal working memory, visuospatial working memory, and processing speed. Auditory-verbal working memory speed significantly predicted math computation. A three-way interaction revealed that at low levels of anxious perfectionism, slower processing speed predicted poorer math computation for boys compared to girls. These findings indicate the uniquely predictive values of auditory-verbal working memory and processing speed on math computation, and their differential moderation. These findings provide preliminary support that gender and anxious perfectionism may influence the relationship between neurocognitive functioning and academic achievement.
The Development and Validation of a Revised Version of the Math Anxiety Scale for Young Children
Ganley, Colleen M.; McGraw, Amanda L.
2016-01-01
Although there is an extensive amount of research that examines the relation between math anxiety and math performance in adolescents and adults, little work has focused on this relation in young children. Recently more attention has been paid to the early development of math anxiety, and new measures have been created for use with this age group. In the present study, we report on the development and validation of a revised version of the Math Anxiety Scale for Young Children (MASYC; Harari et al., 2013). We conducted cognitive interviews with the 12 MASYC items with nine children and then administered the MASYC and five newly-developed items to 296 first-, second- and third-grade children. Results from cognitive interviews show that three of the items from the original scale were being systematically misinterpreted by young children. We present a revised measure (the MASYC-R) consisting of 13 items (eight original, five newly-developed) that shows strong evidence for reliability and validity. Results also showed that a small, but meaningful, proportion of children at this age show signs of high math anxiety. Validity of the MASYC-R was supported through correlations with a number of other factors, including general anxiety, math performance, and math attitudes. In addition, results suggest that a substantial proportion of the variance in math anxiety can be explained from these other variables together. The findings suggest that the MASYC-R is appropriate for use with young children and can help researchers to answer important questions about the nature and development of math anxiety at this age. PMID:27605917
The Development and Validation of a Revised Version of the Math Anxiety Scale for Young Children
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Colleen M Ganley
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Although there is an extensive amount of research that examines the relation between math anxiety and math performance in adolescents and adults, little work has focused on this relation in young children. Recently more attention has been paid to the early development of math anxiety, and new measures have been created for use with this age group. In the present study, we report on the development and validation of a revised version of the Math Anxiety Scale for Young Children (MASYC; Harari, Vukovic, & Bailey, 2013. We conducted cognitive interviews with the 12 MASYC items with 9 children and then administered the MASYC and five newly-developed items to 296 first-, second- and third-grade children. Results from cognitive interviews show that three of the items from the original scale were being systematically misinterpreted by young children. We present a revised measure (the MASYC-R consisting of 13 items (eight original, five newly-developed that shows strong evidence for reliability and validity. Results also showed that a small, but meaningful, proportion of children at this age show signs of high math anxiety. Validity of the MASYC-R was supported through correlations with a number of other factors, including general anxiety, math performance, and math attitudes. In addition, results suggest that a substantial proportion of the variance in math anxiety can be explained from these other variables together. The findings suggest that the MASYC-R is appropriate for use with young children and can help researchers to answer important questions about the nature and development of math anxiety at this age.
The Development and Validation of a Revised Version of the Math Anxiety Scale for Young Children.
Ganley, Colleen M; McGraw, Amanda L
2016-01-01
Although there is an extensive amount of research that examines the relation between math anxiety and math performance in adolescents and adults, little work has focused on this relation in young children. Recently more attention has been paid to the early development of math anxiety, and new measures have been created for use with this age group. In the present study, we report on the development and validation of a revised version of the Math Anxiety Scale for Young Children (MASYC; Harari et al., 2013). We conducted cognitive interviews with the 12 MASYC items with nine children and then administered the MASYC and five newly-developed items to 296 first-, second- and third-grade children. Results from cognitive interviews show that three of the items from the original scale were being systematically misinterpreted by young children. We present a revised measure (the MASYC-R) consisting of 13 items (eight original, five newly-developed) that shows strong evidence for reliability and validity. Results also showed that a small, but meaningful, proportion of children at this age show signs of high math anxiety. Validity of the MASYC-R was supported through correlations with a number of other factors, including general anxiety, math performance, and math attitudes. In addition, results suggest that a substantial proportion of the variance in math anxiety can be explained from these other variables together. The findings suggest that the MASYC-R is appropriate for use with young children and can help researchers to answer important questions about the nature and development of math anxiety at this age.
Justicia-Galiano, M. José; Martín-Puga, M. Eva; Linares, Rocío; Pelegrina, Santiago
2017-01-01
Background: Numerous studies, most of them involving adolescents and adults, have evidenced a moderate negative relationship between math anxiety and math performance. There are, however, a limited number of studies that have addressed the mechanisms underlying this relation. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the role of two possible…
Timmerman, H.L.; Toll, S.W.M.; van Luit, J.E.H.
2017-01-01
:This study examines the relation between math self-concept, test and math anxiety, achievement motivation, and math achievement in typically developing 12 to 14-year-old adolescents (N = 108) from a school for secondary education in the Netherlands. Data was obtained using a math speed test,
Ramirez, Gerardo; Chang, Hyesang; Maloney, Erin A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L
2016-01-01
Even at young ages, children self-report experiencing math anxiety, which negatively relates to their math achievement. Leveraging a large dataset of first and second grade students' math achievement scores, math problem solving strategies, and math attitudes, we explored the possibility that children's math anxiety (i.e., a fear or apprehension about math) negatively relates to their use of more advanced problem solving strategies, which in turn relates to their math achievement. Our results confirm our hypothesis and, moreover, demonstrate that the relation between math anxiety and math problem solving strategies is strongest in children with the highest working memory capacity. Ironically, children who have the highest cognitive capacity avoid using advanced problem solving strategies when they are high in math anxiety and, as a result, underperform in math compared with their lower working memory peers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mathematics anxiety: separating the math from the anxiety.
Lyons, Ian M; Beilock, Sian L
2012-09-01
Anxiety about math is tied to low math grades and standardized test scores, yet not all math-anxious individuals perform equally poorly in math. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to separate neural activity during the anticipation of doing math from activity during math performance itself. For higher (but not lower) math-anxious individuals, increased activity in frontoparietal regions when simply anticipating doing math mitigated math-specific performance deficits. This network included bilateral inferior frontal junction, a region involved in cognitive control and reappraisal of negative emotional responses. Furthermore, the relation between frontoparietal anticipatory activity and highly math-anxious individuals' math deficits was fully mediated (or accounted for) by activity in caudate, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus during math performance. These subcortical regions are important for coordinating task demands and motivational factors during skill execution. Individual differences in how math-anxious individuals recruit cognitive control resources prior to doing math and motivational resources during math performance predict the extent of their math deficits. This work suggests that educational interventions emphasizing control of negative emotional responses to math stimuli (rather than merely additional math training) will be most effective in revealing a population of mathematically competent individuals, who might otherwise go undiscovered.
Girls Talk Math - Engaging Girls Through Math Media
Bernardi, Francesca; Morgan, Katrina
2017-11-01
``Girls Talk Math: Engaging Girls through Math Media'' is a free two-week long summer day camp for high-school girls in the Triangle area of NC. This past June the camp had its second run thanks to renewed funding from the Mathematical Association of America Tensor Women and Mathematics Grant. The camp involved 35 local high-school students who identify as female. Campers complete challenging problem sets and research the life of a female scientist who worked on similar problems. They report their work in a blog post and record a podcast about the scientist they researched. The curriculum has been developed by Mathematics graduate students at UNC from an inquiry based learning perspective; problem sets topics include some theoretical mathematics, but also more applied physics-based material. Campers worked on fluid dynamics, special relativity, and quantum mechanics problem sets which included experiments. The camp has received positive feedback from the local community and the second run saw a large increase in the number of participants. The program is evaluated using pre and post surveys, which measure campers' confidence and interest in pursuing higher level courses in STEM. The results from the past two summers have been encouraging. Mathematical Association of America Tensor Women and Mathematics Grant.
Teschke, Olaf; Werner, Dirk
2011-01-01
Founded in 1931 by Otto Neugebauer as the printed documentation service "Zentralblatt fur Mathematik und ihre Grenzgebiete", Zentralblatt MATH (ZBMATH) celebrates its 80th anniversary in 2011. Today it is the most comprehensive and active reference database in pure and applied mathematics worldwide. Many prominent mathematicians have been involved in this service as reviewers or editors and have, like all mathematicians, left their footprints in ZBMATH, in a long list of entries describing all of their research publications in mathematics. This book provides one review from each of t
Kidd, Jim
2014-01-01
Maths for the Building Trades provides students of all ages with an easy-to-understand guide to the fundamental mathematics that is required in their area of study and beyond. It can be used as a learning programme on its own or in conjunction with the textbooks associated with their chosen trade. The book assumes only a minimum level of mathematical knowledge and thoroughly covers the basic rules. It then goes on to fully explain some of the more complex areas in which the student will be required to demonstrate competence.
Combining Basic Business Math and Electronic Calculators.
Merchant, Ronald
As a means of alleviating math anxiety among business students and of improving their business machine skills, Spokane Falls Community College offers a course in which basic business math skills are mastered through the use of desk top calculators. The self-paced course, which accommodates varying student skill levels, requires students to: (1)…
Explaining Math Achievement: Personality, Motivation, and Trust
Kilic-Bebek, Ebru
2009-01-01
This study investigated the statistical significance of student trust next to the well-tested constructs of personality and motivation to determine whether trust is a significant predictor of course achievement in college math courses. Participants were 175 students who were taking undergraduate math courses in an urban public university. The…
Childcare Quality and Preschoolers' Math Development
Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer
2014-01-01
This study examined the associations between four types of childcare quality (i.e. teacher-child closeness, frequency of math-related activities, and teacher education and experience) and preschoolers' residualised gain in math over the course of six months. Additionally, potential interactions between teacher-child closeness and other indicators…
Football to Improve Math and Reading Performance
Van Klaveren, Chris; De Witte, Kristof
2015-01-01
Schools frequently increase the instructional time to improve primary school children's math and reading skills. There is, however, little evidence that math and reading skills are effectively improved by these instruction-time increases. This study evaluates "Playing for Success" (PfS), an extended school day program for underachieving…
Five Keys for Teaching Mental Math
Olsen, James R.
2015-01-01
After studying the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) and brain-based learning research, James Olsen believes mental math instruction in secondary school mathematics (grades 7-12) and in teacher education programs needs increased attention. The purpose of this article is to share some keys for teaching mental math. Olsen also…
Mini-Portfolio on Math and Science.
Teaching PreK-8, 1996
1996-01-01
Presents six articles dealing with math and science education: "Sneaker Geometry" (Jack George), "Fairs with a Flair" (Diane McCarty), "Generating Excitement with Math Projects" (Jeffrey Kostecky and Louis Roe), "Playing with Numbers" (Diana Smith), "When Student Teachers Want to Do Hands-On Science" (Betsy Feldkamp-Price), and "Science ala Carte"…
Football to improve math and reading performance
Van Klaveren, Chris; De Witte, Kristof
2015-01-01
Schools frequently increase the instructional time to improve primary school children's math and reading skills. There is, however, little evidence that math and reading skills are effectively improved by these instruction-time increases. This study evaluates ‘Playing for Success’ (PfS), an extended
Decreasing Math Anxiety in College Students
Perry, Andrew B.
2004-01-01
This paper examines the phenomenon of mathematics anxiety in contemporary college and university students. Forms of math anxiety range from moderate test anxiety to extreme anxiety including physiological symptoms such as nausea. For each of several types of math anxiety, one or more case studies is analyzed. Selected strategies for coping with…
Early Math Trajectories: Low-Income Children's Mathematics Knowledge From Ages 4 to 11.
Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R; Hofer, Kerry G; Farran, Dale C
2017-09-01
Early mathematics knowledge is a strong predictor of later academic achievement, but children from low-income families enter school with weak mathematics knowledge. An early math trajectories model is proposed and evaluated within a longitudinal study of 517 low-income American children from ages 4 to 11. This model includes a broad range of math topics, as well as potential pathways from preschool to middle grades mathematics achievement. In preschool, nonsymbolic quantity, counting, and patterning knowledge predicted fifth-grade mathematics achievement. By the end of first grade, symbolic mapping, calculation, and patterning knowledge were the important predictors. Furthermore, the first-grade predictors mediated the relation between preschool math knowledge and fifth-grade mathematics achievement. Findings support the early math trajectories model among low-income children. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Mercer, Gary J.
This quantitative study examined the relationship between secondary students with math anxiety and physics performance in an inquiry-based constructivist classroom. The Revised Math Anxiety Rating Scale was used to evaluate math anxiety levels. The results were then compared to the performance on a physics standardized final examination. A simple correlation was performed, followed by a multivariate regression analysis to examine effects based on gender and prior math background. The correlation showed statistical significance between math anxiety and physics performance. The regression analysis showed statistical significance for math anxiety, physics performance, and prior math background, but did not show statistical significance for math anxiety, physics performance, and gender.
Phylogeny of the TRAF/MATH domain.
Zapata, Juan M; Martínez-García, Vanesa; Lefebvre, Sophie
2007-01-01
The TNF-receptor associated factor (TRAF) domain (TD), also known as the meprin and TRAF-C homology (MATH) domain is a fold of seven anti-parallel p-helices that participates in protein-protein interactions. This fold is broadly represented among eukaryotes, where it is found associated with a discrete set of protein-domains. Virtually all protein families encompassing a TRAF/MATH domain seem to be involved in the regulation of protein processing and ubiquitination, strongly suggesting a parallel evolution of the TRAF/MATH domain and certain proteolysis pathways in eukaryotes. The restricted number of living organisms for which we have information of their genetic and protein make-up limits the scope and analysis of the MATH domain in evolution. However, the available information allows us to get a glimpse on the origins, distribution and evolution of the TRAF/MATH domain, which will be overviewed in this chapter.
Engaging Math-Avoidant College Students
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Paul Latiolais
2009-07-01
Full Text Available This paper is an informal, personal account of how we, as two college teachers, became interested in math anxiety, decided to explore it amongst students at our institution in order to inform our teaching, and became convinced that the massive problem is math avoidance. We tried discussion groups, but few students attended, although those that did made useful suggestions. Thus informed, we designed an innovative course, Confronting College Mathematics as a Humanities course with the possibility of credit toward the math requirement, but it was undersubscribed in its first offering and had to be canceled. How can we get college students who avoid math to break through the barrier of math avoidance? We have now begun to explore a new approach: Second Life, where students can engage math—and quantitative literacy—virtually, and anonymously.
Quinn, Reginald
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine the confidence levels that community college students have in transferring basic math skills to science classes, as well as any factors that influence their confidence levels. This study was conducted with 196 students at a community college in central Mississippi. The study was conducted during the month of November after all of the students had taken their midterm exams and received midterm grades. The instrument used in this survey was developed and validated by the researcher. The instrument asks the students to rate how confident they were in working out specific math problems and how confident they were in working problems using those specific math skills in physics and chemistry. The instrument also provided an example problem for every confidence item. Results revealed that students' demographics were significant predictors in confidence scores. Students in the 18-22 year old range were less confident in solving math problems than others. Students who had retaken a math course were less confident than those who had not. Chemistry students were less confident in solving math problems than those in physics courses. Chemistry II students were less confident than those in Chemistry I and Principals of Chemistry. Students were least confident in solving problems involving logarithms and the most confident in solving algebra problems. In general, students felt that their math courses did not prepare them for the math problems encountered in science courses. There was no significant difference in confidence between students who had completed their math homework online and those who had completed their homework on paper. The researcher recommends that chemistry educators find ways of incorporating more mathematics in their courses especially logarithms and slope. Furthermore, math educators should incorporate more chemistry related applications to math class. Results of hypotheses testing, conclusions, discussions, and
Rolison, Jonathan J; Morsanyi, Kinga; O'Connor, Patrick A
2016-10-01
Lower numerical ability is associated with poorer understanding of health statistics, such as risk reductions of medical treatment. For many people, despite good numeracy skills, math provokes anxiety that impedes an ability to evaluate numerical information. Math-anxious individuals also report less confidence in their ability to perform math tasks. We hypothesized that, independent of objective numeracy, math anxiety would be associated with poorer responding and lower confidence when calculating risk reductions of medical treatments. Objective numeracy was assessed using an 11-item objective numeracy scale. A 13-item self-report scale was used to assess math anxiety. In experiment 1, participants were asked to interpret the baseline risk of disease and risk reductions associated with treatment options. Participants in experiment 2 were additionally provided a graphical display designed to facilitate the processing of math information and alleviate effects of math anxiety. Confidence ratings were provided on a 7-point scale. Individuals of higher objective numeracy were more likely to respond correctly to baseline risks and risk reductions associated with treatment options and were more confident in their interpretations. Individuals who scored high in math anxiety were instead less likely to correctly interpret the baseline risks and risk reductions and were less confident in their risk calculations as well as in their assessments of the effectiveness of treatment options. Math anxiety predicted confidence levels but not correct responding when controlling for objective numeracy. The graphical display was most effective in increasing confidence among math-anxious individuals. The findings suggest that math anxiety is associated with poorer medical risk interpretation but is more strongly related to confidence in interpretations. © The Author(s) 2015.
Math Attendees Find There's Life After Fermat Proof.
Cipra, B
1994-02-04
The uncertain status of the recent proof of Fermat's Last Theorem (Science, 24 December 1993, p. 1967) was the hot topic in the hallways at the joint meetings of the American Mathematical Society and the Mathematical Association of America, held 12-15 January in Cincinnati. But a few other topics did manage to get discussed. Among them: How gambling pays off in computing the volume of high-dimensional shapes; how a mathematical description of water dripping down a window pane might lead to the design of digital pulses that could race through the optical fibers of the future; and how one can be fooled infinitely often by another theorem of Fermat's.
Mathematical Content of Curricula and Beginning Salaries of Graduating Students
Lee, B. Brian; Lee, Jungsun
2009-01-01
The authors examined an association between mathematical content in college-level curricula and beginning salaries of graduating students on the basis of data collected from a public university in the southern region of the United States. The authors classified the mathematical content requirements of the curricula into the following 5 groups…
The Use and Misuse of Pleasure in Sex Education Curricula
Lamb, Sharon; Lustig, Kara; Graling, Kelly
2013-01-01
Since Michelle Fine's writing on the missing discourse of desire in sex education, there has been considerable prompting among sexuality educators and feminist scholars to incorporate talk of pleasure into sex education curricula. While the calls for inclusion continue, few have actually examined the curricula for a pleasure discourse or…
Mixed Images and Merging Semantics in European Curricula
Sivesind, Kirsten
2013-01-01
Due to European agreements and policy expectations, national authorities are revising their formal curricula in line with an evidence-oriented policy. The article explores how new trends in formulating curricula can be regarded as an outcome of experts' semantics and impact on education policy. The article reanalyses documentation from a project,…
Information Architecture in Library and Information Science Curricula.
Robins, David
2002-01-01
Discusses how information architecture is being handled in some library and information science (LIS) programs and suggests mappings between traditional LIS curricula and the marketplace for information architects. Topics include terminology used in LIS curricula; current job opportunities; and projections for the future. (LRW)
Educating Academic Staff to Reorient Curricula in ESD
Biasutti, Michele; Makrakis, Vassilios; Concina, Eleonora; Frate, Sara
2018-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a professional development experience for higher education academic staff within the framework of an international Tempus project focused on reorienting university curricula to address sustainability. The project included revising curricula to phase sustainable development principles into university…
National standards for high school psychology curricula.
2013-01-01
The National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula attempts to represent current knowledge in the field of psychology in developmentally appropriate ways. Psychology is a popular high school course, one that can introduce students to scientific ideas and engage students in the learning process. However, it is difficult for even the best of teachers to present all of psychology in a single course for students who begin with virtually no formal knowledge of psychology. The standards presented here constitute the first of two reports in this issue of the American Psychologist (January 2013) representing recent American Psychological Association (APA) policies that support high-quality instruction in the teaching of high school psychology. These standards provide curricular benchmarks for student learning in the high school course.
Gerontology course in the nursing undergraduate curricula
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samira AlSenany
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Objective To explores nursing faculty members’ attitudes towards older people, their thoughts about gerontological nursing education. Method Five focus groups and a survey were used with nursing faculty members 132 at the three nursing schools to explore their attitudes towards the care of older people and the perceived status of gerontological nursing education. The survey was given to 132 faculty members, including 76 clinical instructors, 40 associate professors and 16 professors. The nursing faculty in general had a positive attitude toward older people (M=3.36, SD 0.25, and teachers’ attitudes were higher than those of their nursing students (M=3.18, SD0.29. Results This study results suggests that Saudi nursing curricula should include more extensive gerontology content and clinical experience with older people. Conclusion This is the first time in Saudi Arabia that research has listened to their voices and examined their commitments toward gerontology education.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Srinivas Jangili
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The present study investigates the entropy generation in magnetized-micropolar fluid flow in between two vertical concentric rotating cylinders of infinite length. The surface of the inner cylinder is heated while the surface of the outer cylinder is cooled. Internal heat generation is incorporated. The Eringen thermo-micropolar fluid model is used to simulate the micro-structural rheological flow characteristics in the annulus region. The flow is subjected to a constant, static, axial magnetic field. The surface of the inner cylinder is prescribed to be isothermal whereas the surface of the outer cylinder was exposed to convection cooling. The conservation equations are normalized and closed-form solutions are obtained for the velocity, microrotation, temperature, entropy generation number, Bejan number and total entropy generation rate. The effects of the relevant parameters are displayed graphically. It is observed that the external magnetic force enhances the entropy production rate and it is maximum in the proximity of the inner cylinder. This causes more wear and tear at the surface of the inner cylinder. Greater Hartmann number also elevates microrotation values in the entire annulus region. The study is relevant to optimization of chemical engineering processes, nuclear engineering cooling systems and propulsion systems utilizing non-Newtonian fluids and magnetohydrodynamics.
Strengthening maths learning dispositions through ‘math clubs’
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mellony Graven
2016-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper, I argue that the establishment of after-school mathematics clubs in early grades holds rich potential for supporting the development of increasingly participatory and sensemaking maths learning dispositions. Within the South African Numeracy Chair project, lead by the author, multiple after-school mathematics clubs have been set up for learners in Grades 3–6 across Eastern Cape schools. These clubs are a complementary initiative to teacher development, aimed at improving low levels of numeracy learning across the majority of schools in the province. Two sources of data, learner interviews and teacher questionnaires, from one case study club, are shared in this article to illuminate the potential such clubs hold in developing increasingly participatory mathematics learning dispositions.
Libertus, Melissa E; Odic, Darko; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin
2016-10-01
Children can represent number in at least two ways: by using their non-verbal, intuitive approximate number system (ANS) and by using words and symbols to count and represent numbers exactly. Furthermore, by the time they are 5years old, children can map between the ANS and number words, as evidenced by their ability to verbally estimate numbers of items without counting. How does the quality of the mapping between approximate and exact numbers relate to children's math abilities? The role of the ANS-number word mapping in math competence remains controversial for at least two reasons. First, previous work has not examined the relation between verbal estimation and distinct subtypes of math abilities. Second, previous work has not addressed how distinct components of verbal estimation-mapping accuracy and variability-might each relate to math performance. Here, we addressed these gaps by measuring individual differences in ANS precision, verbal number estimation, and formal and informal math abilities in 5- to 7-year-old children. We found that verbal estimation variability, but not estimation accuracy, predicted formal math abilities, even when controlling for age, expressive vocabulary, and ANS precision, and that it mediated the link between ANS precision and overall math ability. These findings suggest that variability in the ANS-number word mapping may be especially important for formal math abilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Libertus, Melissa E.; Odic, Darko; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin
2016-01-01
Children can represent number in at least two ways: by using their non-verbal, intuitive Approximate Number System (ANS), and by using words and symbols to count and represent numbers exactly. Further, by the time they are five years old, children can map between the ANS and number words, as evidenced by their ability to verbally estimate numbers of items without counting. How does the quality of the mapping between approximate and exact numbers relate to children’s math abilities? The role of the ANS-number word mapping in math competence remains controversial for at least two reasons. First, previous work has not examined the relation between verbal estimation and distinct subtypes of math abilities. Second, previous work has not addressed how distinct components of verbal estimation – mapping accuracy and variability – might each relate to math performance. Here, we address these gaps by measuring individual differences in ANS precision, verbal number estimation, and formal and informal math abilities in 5- to 7-year-old children. We found that verbal estimation variability, but not estimation accuracy, predicted formal math abilities even when controlling for age, expressive vocabulary, and ANS precision, and that it mediated the link between ANS precision and overall math ability. These findings suggest that variability in the ANS-number word mapping may be especially important for formal math abilities. PMID:27348475
Mothers, Intrinsic Math Motivation, Arithmetic Skills, and Math Anxiety in Elementary School
Daches Cohen, Lital; Rubinsten, Orly
2017-01-01
Math anxiety is influenced by environmental, cognitive, and personal factors. Yet, the concurrent relationships between these factors have not been examined. To this end, the current study investigated how the math anxiety of 30 sixth graders is affected by: (a) mother’s math anxiety and maternal behaviors (environmental factors); (b) children’s arithmetic skills (cognitive factors); and (c) intrinsic math motivation (personal factor). A rigorous assessment of children’s math anxiety was made by using both explicit and implicit measures. The results indicated that accessible self-representations of math anxiety, as reflected by the explicit self-report questionnaire, were strongly affected by arithmetic skills. However, unconscious cognitive constructs of math anxiety, as reflected by the numerical dot-probe task, were strongly affected by environmental factors, such as maternal behaviors and mothers’ attitudes toward math. Furthermore, the present study provided preliminary evidence of intergenerational transmission of math anxiety. The conclusions are that in order to better understand the etiology of math anxiety, multiple facets of parenting and children’s skills should be taken into consideration. Implications for researchers, parents, and educators are discussed. PMID:29180973
Mothers, Intrinsic Math Motivation, Arithmetic Skills, and Math Anxiety in Elementary School.
Daches Cohen, Lital; Rubinsten, Orly
2017-01-01
Math anxiety is influenced by environmental, cognitive, and personal factors. Yet, the concurrent relationships between these factors have not been examined. To this end, the current study investigated how the math anxiety of 30 sixth graders is affected by: (a) mother's math anxiety and maternal behaviors (environmental factors); (b) children's arithmetic skills (cognitive factors); and (c) intrinsic math motivation (personal factor). A rigorous assessment of children's math anxiety was made by using both explicit and implicit measures. The results indicated that accessible self-representations of math anxiety, as reflected by the explicit self-report questionnaire, were strongly affected by arithmetic skills. However, unconscious cognitive constructs of math anxiety, as reflected by the numerical dot-probe task, were strongly affected by environmental factors, such as maternal behaviors and mothers' attitudes toward math. Furthermore, the present study provided preliminary evidence of intergenerational transmission of math anxiety. The conclusions are that in order to better understand the etiology of math anxiety, multiple facets of parenting and children's skills should be taken into consideration. Implications for researchers, parents, and educators are discussed.
Math Anxiety Is Related to Some, but Not All, Experiences with Math.
O'Leary, Krystle; Fitzpatrick, Cheryll L; Hallett, Darcy
2017-01-01
Math anxiety has been defined as unpleasant feelings of tension and anxiety that hinder the ability to deal with numbers and math in a variety of situations. Although many studies have looked at situational and demographic factors associated with math anxiety, little research has looked at the self-reported experiences with math that are associated with math anxiety. The present study used a mixed-methods design and surveyed 131 undergraduate students about their experiences with math through elementary school, junior high, and high school, while also assessing math anxiety, general anxiety, and test anxiety. Some reported experiences (e.g., support in high school, giving students plenty of examples) were significantly related to the level of math anxiety, even after controlling for general and test anxiety, but many other factors originally thought to be related to math anxiety did not demonstrate a relation in this study. Overall, this study addresses a gap in the literature and provides some suggestive specifics of the kinds of past experiences that are related to math anxiety and those that are not.
Math Anxiety Is Related to Some, but Not All, Experiences with Math
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krystle O'Leary
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Math anxiety has been defined as unpleasant feelings of tension and anxiety that hinder the ability to deal with numbers and math in a variety of situations. Although many studies have looked at situational and demographic factors associated with math anxiety, little research has looked at the self-reported experiences with math that are associated with math anxiety. The present study used a mixed-methods design and surveyed 131 undergraduate students about their experiences with math through elementary school, junior high, and high school, while also assessing math anxiety, general anxiety, and test anxiety. Some reported experiences (e.g., support in high school, giving students plenty of examples were significantly related to the level of math anxiety, even after controlling for general and test anxiety, but many other factors originally thought to be related to math anxiety did not demonstrate a relation in this study. Overall, this study addresses a gap in the literature and provides some suggestive specifics of the kinds of past experiences that are related to math anxiety and those that are not.
Mothers, Intrinsic Math Motivation, Arithmetic Skills, and Math Anxiety in Elementary School
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lital Daches Cohen
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Math anxiety is influenced by environmental, cognitive, and personal factors. Yet, the concurrent relationships between these factors have not been examined. To this end, the current study investigated how the math anxiety of 30 sixth graders is affected by: (a mother’s math anxiety and maternal behaviors (environmental factors; (b children’s arithmetic skills (cognitive factors; and (c intrinsic math motivation (personal factor. A rigorous assessment of children’s math anxiety was made by using both explicit and implicit measures. The results indicated that accessible self-representations of math anxiety, as reflected by the explicit self-report questionnaire, were strongly affected by arithmetic skills. However, unconscious cognitive constructs of math anxiety, as reflected by the numerical dot-probe task, were strongly affected by environmental factors, such as maternal behaviors and mothers’ attitudes toward math. Furthermore, the present study provided preliminary evidence of intergenerational transmission of math anxiety. The conclusions are that in order to better understand the etiology of math anxiety, multiple facets of parenting and children’s skills should be taken into consideration. Implications for researchers, parents, and educators are discussed.
Martin, Daniel P; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E
2015-10-01
This study examined (a) the contribution of math self-efficacy to students' perception of their emotional and social engagement in fifth grade math classes, and (b) the extent to which high quality teacher-student interactions compensated for students' low math self-efficacy in contributing to engagement. Teachers (n = 73) were observed three times during the year during math to measure the quality of teacher-student interactions (emotional, organizational, and instructional support). Fifth graders (n = 387) reported on their math self-efficacy at the beginning of the school year and then were surveyed about their feelings of engagement in math class three times during the year immediately after the lessons during which teachers were observed. Results of multi-level models indicated that students initially lower in math self-efficacy reported lower emotional and social engagement during math class than students with higher self-efficacy. However, in classrooms with high levels of teacher emotional support, students reported similar levels of both emotional and social engagement, regardless of their self-efficacy. No comparable findings emerged for organizational and instructional support. The discussion considers the significance of students' own feelings about math in relation to their engagement, as well as the ways in which teacher and classroom supports can compensate for students lack of agency. The work has implications for school psychologists and teachers eager to boost students' engagement in math class. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Villani, Cédric; Moncorgé, Vincent
2014-01-01
Comment travaillent les mathématiciens ? C'est peut-être en se promenant dans les couloirs de la première des " maisons des mathématiques " de France, l'institut Henri Poincaré, que l'on trouvera quelques réponses. Le mathématicien Cédric Villani et le physicien Jean-Philippe Uzan nous invitent à découvrir cette discipline et ses acteurs. Au fil des pages on suit, à travers de superbes images signées du photographe Vincent Moncorgé, la façon dont se fabrique cette science qui reste souvent mystérieuse. Toutes les dimensions, scientifique, esthétique et poétique, des mathématiques sont convoquées grâce à des regards croisés : la diversité des inspirations des chercheurs, la source de leur créativité, l'imaginaire littéraire et artistique des mathématiques, la drôle de tribu des mathématiciens. Un voyage au cœur de cette " auberge espagnole " des mathématiques, campus " à la française " accueillant des centaines de chercheurs du monde entier, devenu un lieu d'émulation et d'éc...
More than Counting: Whole Math Activities for Preschool and Kindergarten.
Moomaw, Sally; Hieronymus, Brenda
This book presents extensive sampling of a "whole math" curriculum for preschool and kindergarten children ages 3 and older. An introductory chapter is followed by seven curriculum chapters that discuss math manipulatives, collections, grid games, path games, graphing, math and gross-motor play, and the "math suitcase." Each chapter is divided…
Interdisciplinary Lessons in Musical Acoustics: The Science-Math-Music Connection
Rogers, George L.
2004-01-01
The National Standards for Arts Education encourages teachers to help students make connections between music and other disciplines. Many state curriculum guides likewise encourage educators to integrate curricula and find common ground between different subjects. Music--particularly vocal music--offers ample opportunities to find relationships…
Executive Function Buffers the Association between Early Math and Later Academic Skills
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew D. Ribner
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Extensive evidence has suggested that early academic skills are a robust indicator of later academic achievement; however, there is mixed evidence of the effectiveness of intervention on academic skills in early years to improve later outcomes. As such, it is clear there are other contributing factors to the development of academic skills. The present study tests the role of executive function (EF (a construct made up of skills complicit in the achievement of goal-directed tasks in predicting 5th grade math and reading ability above and beyond math and reading ability prior to school entry, and net of other cognitive covariates including processing speed, vocabulary, and IQ. Using a longitudinal dataset of N = 1292 participants representative of rural areas in two distinctive geographical parts of the United States, the present investigation finds EF at age 5 strongly predicts 5th grade academic skills, as do cognitive covariates. Additionally, investigation of an interaction between early math ability and EF reveals the magnitude of the association between early math and later math varies as a function of early EF, such that participants who have high levels of EF can “catch up” to peers who perform better on assessments of early math ability. These results suggest EF is pivotal to the development of academic skills throughout elementary school. Implications for further research and practice are discussed.
Wang, Jinjing (Jenny); Odic, Darko; Halberda, Justin; Feigenson, Lisa
2016-01-01
From early in life, humans have access to an Approximate Number System (ANS) that supports an intuitive sense of numerical quantity. Previous work in both children and adults suggests that individual differences in the precision of ANS representations correlate with symbolic math performance. However, this work has been almost entirely correlational in nature. Here we tested for a causal link between ANS precision and symbolic math performance by asking whether a temporary modulation of ANS precision changes symbolic math performance. First we replicated a recent finding that 5-year-old children make more precise ANS discriminations when starting with easier trials and gradually progressing to harder ones, compared to the reverse. Next, we show that this brief modulation of ANS precision influenced children’s performance on a subsequent symbolic math task, but not a vocabulary task. In a supplemental experiment we present evidence that children who performed ANS discriminations in a random trial order showed intermediate performance both on the ANS task and the symbolic math task, compared to the children who made ordered discriminations. Thus, our results point to a specific causal link from the ANS to symbolic math performance. PMID:27061668
Wang, Jinjing Jenny; Odic, Darko; Halberda, Justin; Feigenson, Lisa
2016-07-01
From early in life, humans have access to an approximate number system (ANS) that supports an intuitive sense of numerical quantity. Previous work in both children and adults suggests that individual differences in the precision of ANS representations correlate with symbolic math performance. However, this work has been almost entirely correlational in nature. Here we tested for a causal link between ANS precision and symbolic math performance by asking whether a temporary modulation of ANS precision changes symbolic math performance. First, we replicated a recent finding that 5-year-old children make more precise ANS discriminations when starting with easier trials and gradually progressing to harder ones, compared with the reverse. Next, we show that this brief modulation of ANS precision influenced children's performance on a subsequent symbolic math task but not a vocabulary task. In a supplemental experiment, we present evidence that children who performed ANS discriminations in a random trial order showed intermediate performance on both the ANS task and the symbolic math task, compared with children who made ordered discriminations. Thus, our results point to a specific causal link from the ANS to symbolic math performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Friedline, Terri; Masa, Rainier D; Chowa, Gina A N
2015-01-01
The natural log and categorical transformations commonly applied to wealth for meeting the statistical assumptions of research may not always be appropriate for adjusting for skewness given wealth's unique properties. Finding and applying appropriate transformations is becoming increasingly important as researchers consider wealth as a predictor of well-being. We present an alternative transformation-the inverse hyperbolic sine (IHS)-for simultaneously dealing with skewness and accounting for wealth's unique properties. Using the relationship between household wealth and youth's math achievement as an example, we apply the IHS transformation to wealth data from US and Ghanaian households. We also explore non-linearity and accumulation thresholds by combining IHS transformed wealth with splines. IHS transformed wealth relates to youth's math achievement similarly when compared to categorical and natural log transformations, indicating that it is a viable alternative to other transformations commonly used in research. Non-linear relationships and accumulation thresholds emerge that predict youth's math achievement when splines are incorporated. In US households, accumulating debt relates to decreases in math achievement whereas accumulating assets relates to increases in math achievement. In Ghanaian households, accumulating assets between the 25th and 50th percentiles relates to increases in youth's math achievement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Math and Gender: Is Math a Route to a High-Powered Career?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Joensen, Juanna Schrøter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt
There is a large gender gap in advanced math coursework in high school that many believe exists because girls are discouraged from taking math courses. In this paper, we exploit an institutional change that reduced the costs of acquiring advanced high school math to determine if access is, in fact......, the mechanism - in particular for girls at the top of the math ability distribution. By estimating marginal treatment effects of acquiring advanced math qualifications, we document substantial beneficial wage effects from encouraging even more females to opt for these qualifications. Our analysis suggests...... that the beneficial effect comes from accelerating graduation and attracting females to high-paid or traditionally male-dominated career tracks and to CEO positions. Our results may be reconciled with experimental and empirical evidence suggesting there is a pool of unexploited math talent among high ability girls...
Saad, Marissa Elizabeth
The United States must provide quality science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education in order to maintain a leading role in the global economy. Numerous initiatives have been established across the United States that promote and encourage STEM education within the middle school curriculum. Integrating active learning pedagogy into instructors' lesson plans will prepare the students to think critically - a necessary skill for the twenty first century. This study integrated a three-week long Near Space Balloon project into six eighth grade Earth Science classes from Valley Middle School in Grand Forks, North Dakota. It was hypothesized that after the students designed, constructed, launched, and analyzed their payload experiments, they would have an increased affinity for high school science and math classes. A pre- and post-survey was distributed to the students (n=124), before and after the project to analyze how effective this engineering and space mission was regarding high school STEM interests. The surveys were statistically analyzed, comparing means by the Student's t-Test, specifically the Welch-Satterthwaite test. Female students displayed a 57.1% increase in math and a 63.6% increase in science; male students displayed a 46.6% increase in science and 0% increase in math. Most Likert-scale survey questions experienced no statistically significant change, supporting the null hypothesis. The only survey question that supported the hypothesis was, "I Think Engineers Work Alone," which experienced a 0.24% decrease in student understanding. The results suggest that integrating a three-week long Near Space Balloon project into middle school curricula will not directly influence the students' excitement to pursue STEM subjects and careers. An extensive, yearlong ballooning mission is recommended so that it can be integrated with multiple core subjects. Using such an innovative pedagogy method as with this balloon launch will help students master the
Jansen, B.R.J.; Schmitz, E.A.; van der Maas, H.L.J.
2016-01-01
This study focused on the use of math in everyday life (the propensity to recognize and solve quantitative issues in real life situations). Data from a Dutch nation-wide research on math among adults (N = 521) were used to investigate the question whether math anxiety and perceived math competence
Looney, Lisa; Perry, David; Steck, Andy
2017-01-01
Teachers' beliefs about mathematics can play a role in their teaching effectiveness (Bandura, 1993). Negative attitudes toward math (e.g., math anxiety) or low self-efficacy beliefs for teaching math can act as barriers to the teaching process, impacting the achievement and math beliefs of students (Beilock, Gunderson, Ramirez, & Levine, 2010;…
Erturan, Selin; Jansen, Brenda
2015-01-01
Gender differences in children's emotional experience of math, their math performance, and the relation between these variables were investigated in two studies. In Study 1, test anxiety, math anxiety, and math performance (whole-number computation) were measured in 134 children in grades 3-8 (ages 7-15 years). In Study 2, perceived math…
Erturan, S; Jansen, B.
2015-01-01
GGender differences in children’s emotional experience of math, their math performance, and the relation between these variables were investigated in two studies. In Study 1, test anxiety, math anxiety, and math performance (whole-number computation) were measured in 134 children in grades 3-8 (ages
Jansen, Brenda R. J.; De Lange, Eva; Van der Molen, Mariet J.
2013-01-01
Adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) often complete schooling without mastering basic math skills, even though basic math is essential for math-related challenges in everyday life. Limited attention to cognitive skills and low executive functioning (EF) may cause this delay. We aimed to improve math skills in an…
Neural correlates of math anxiety – an overview and implications
Artemenko, Christina; Daroczy, Gabriella; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph
2015-01-01
Math anxiety is a common phenomenon which can have a negative impact on numerical and arithmetic performance. However, so far little is known about the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. This mini review provides an overview of studies investigating the neural correlates of math anxiety which provide several hints regarding its influence on math performance: while behavioral studies mostly observe an influence of math anxiety on difficult math tasks, neurophysiological studies show that pr...
Redesigning Curricula in Geology and Geophysics
Sparks, D. W.; Ewing, R. C.; Fowler, D.; Macik, M.; Marcantonio, F.; Miller, B.; Newman, J.; Olszewski, T.; Reece, R.; Rosser, S.
2015-12-01
In the summer of 2014, the Texas A&M Department of Geology and Geophysics partnered with the Texas A&M Center for Teaching Excellence to implement TAMU's curriculum revision process: a data-informed, faculty-driven, educational-developer-supported rebuilding of our degree programs and course offerings. The current curricula (B.S. and B.A. in Geology, B.S. in Geophysics) were put into place in 1997, following the merger of two separate departments. The needs and capabilities of the Department and the student body have changed significantly since that time: more than 50% turnover of the faculty, a rapidly-changing job climate for geologists and geophysicists, and a nearly five-fold increase in the undergraduate population to over 500 majors in Fall 2015. Surveys of former students, employers and faculty at other universities revealed more reasons to address the curriculum. Some of the most desired skills are also those at which our graduates feel and are perceived to be least prepared: oral communication and the ability to learn software packages (skills that are most challenging to teach with growing class sizes). The challenge facing the Department is to accommodate growing student numbers while maintaining strength in traditional instructor-intensive activities such as microscopy and field mapping, and also improving our graduates' non-geological skills (e.g., communication, software use, teamwork, problem-solving) to insulate them from volatility in the current job market. We formed the Curriculum Study Group, consisting of faculty, graduate students, advisors and curriculum experts, to gather and analyze data and define the knowledge and skill base a graduate of our department must have. In addition to conducting external surveys, this group interviewed current students and faculty to determine the strengths and weaknesses of our program. We developed program learning goals that were further specified into over fifty criteria. For each criteria we defined
Individual differences in nonverbal number skills predict math anxiety.
Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Poom, Leo
2017-02-01
Math anxiety (MA) involves negative affect and tension when solving mathematical problems, with potentially life-long consequences. MA has been hypothesized to be a consequence of negative learning experiences and cognitive predispositions. Recent research indicates genetic and neurophysiological links, suggesting that MA stems from a basic level deficiency in symbolic numerical processing. However, the contribution of evolutionary ancient purely nonverbal processes is not fully understood. Here we show that the roots of MA may go beyond symbolic numbers. We demonstrate that MA is correlated with precision of the Approximate Number System (ANS). Individuals high in MA have poorer ANS functioning than those low in MA. This correlation remains significant when controlling for other forms of anxiety and for cognitive variables. We show that MA mediates the documented correlation between ANS precision and math performance, both with ANS and with math performance as independent variable in the mediation model. In light of our results, we discuss the possibility that MA has deep roots, stemming from a non-verbal number processing deficiency. The findings provide new evidence advancing the theoretical understanding of the developmental etiology of MA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Reumann-Moore, Rebecca; Lawrence, Nancy; Sanders, Felicia; Shaw, Kate; Christman, Jolley Bruce
2011-01-01
This document summarizes the findings from the initial round of research on the development and piloting of two types of instructional tools designed to support teachers' integration of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in literacy and math. In this interim report, Research for Action (RFA) presents key findings from the first half of the…
Bonny, Justin W; Lourenco, Stella F
2013-03-01
Humans rely on two main systems of quantification; one is nonsymbolic and involves approximate number representations (known as the approximate number system or ANS), and the other is symbolic and allows for exact calculations of number. Despite the pervasiveness of the ANS across development, recent studies with adolescents and school-aged children point to individual differences in the precision of these representations that, importantly, have been shown to relate to symbolic math competence even after controlling for general aspects of intelligence. Such findings suggest that the ANS, which humans share with nonhuman animals, interfaces specifically with a uniquely human system of formal mathematics. Other findings, however, point to a less straightforward picture, leaving open questions about the nature and ontogenetic origins of the relation between these two systems. Testing children across the preschool period, we found that ANS precision correlated with early math achievement but, critically, that this relation was nonlinear. More specifically, the correlation between ANS precision and math competence was stronger for children with lower math scores than for children with higher math scores. Taken together, our findings suggest that early-developing connections between the ANS and mathematics may be fundamentally discontinuous. Possible mechanisms underlying such nonlinearity are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Symbolic math for computation of radiation shielding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suman, Vitisha; Datta, D.; Sarkar, P.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.
2010-01-01
Radiation transport calculations for shielding studies in the field of accelerator technology often involve intensive numerical computations. Traditionally, radiation transport equation is solved using finite difference scheme or advanced finite element method with respect to specific initial and boundary conditions suitable for the geometry of the problem. All these computations need CPU intensive computer codes for accurate calculation of scalar and angular fluxes. Computation using symbols of the analytical expression representing the transport equation as objects is an enhanced numerical technique in which the computation is completely algorithm and data oriented. Algorithm on the basis of symbolic math architecture is developed using Symbolic math toolbox of MATLAB software. Present paper describes the symbolic math algorithm and its application as a case study in which shielding calculation of rectangular slab geometry is studied for a line source of specific activity. Study of application of symbolic math in this domain evolves a new paradigm compared to the existing computer code such as DORT. (author)
Math: The Gateway to Great Careers
Ploutz-Snyder, Robert
2010-01-01
This slide presentation examines the role of mathematical proficiency and how it relates to advantages in careers. It emphasises the role of math in attaining entrance to college, graduate schools, and a career that is interesting and well paying.
Logic in the curricula of Computer Science
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Margareth Quindeless
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of the programs in Computer Science is to educate and train students to understand the problems and build systems that solve them. This process involves applying a special reasoning to model interactions, capabilities, and limitations of the components involved. A good curriculum must involve the use of tools to assist in these tasks, and one that could be considered as a fundamental is the logic, because with it students develop the necessary reasoning. Besides, software developers analyze the behavior of the program during the designed, the depuration, and testing; hardware designers perform minimization and equivalence verification of circuits; designers of operating systems validate routing protocols, programing, and synchronization; and formal logic underlying all these activities. Therefore, a strong background in applied logic would help students to develop or potentiate their ability to reason about complex systems. Unfortunately, few curricula formed and properly trained in logic. Most includes only one or two courses of Discrete Mathematics, which in a few weeks covered truth tables and the propositional calculus, and nothing more. This is not enough, and higher level courses in which they are applied and many other logical concepts are needed. In addition, students will not see the importance of logic in their careers and need to modify the curriculum committees or adapt the curriculum to reverse this situation.
Tagler, Michael J
2012-01-01
Choking under pressure occurs when an individual underperforms due to situational pressure. The present study examined whether being the target of a positive social stereotype regarding math ability causes choking among men. Gender identification and self-consciousness were hypothesized to moderate the effect of math-gender stereotypes on men's math test performance. Men high in self-consciousness but low in gender identification significantly underperformed when exposed to gender-relevant test instructions. No significant effects were found under a gender-irrelevant condition. These findings are discussed in the contexts of research on stereotype threat, stereotype lift, and choking under pressure.
Developing Mathematical Resilience of Prospective Math Teachers
Ariyanto, L.; Herman, T.; Sumarmo, U.; Suryadi, D.
2017-09-01
Prospective math teachers need to develop positive adaptive attitudes toward mathematics that will enable them to continue learning despite having to deal with obstacles and difficulties. This research focuses on the resilience improvement of the prospective mathematic teachers after being treated using problem-based learning based on their basic knowledge on mathematic and their overall knowledge on math. This research used only one group for pre-test and post-test. The result of this research shows that there is improvement on prospective teachers’ resilience after they were given treatment using problem-based learning. One of the factors causing the resilience improvement of the prospective mathematic teachers is the instructions on students’ work sheet. In the instructions, stud ents were asked to write difficulties in solving math problems as well as write down the solution they take to overcome them. This research can be used as a reference for other researchers who want to do the same research related on students’ resiliency o n math and or math lecturers to improve the resilience of prospective teachers to be resilient teachers on math in the future.
Ganley, Colleen M.; Purpura, David J.
2016-01-01
There is a growing literature concerning the role of the home math environment in children’s math development. In this study, we examined the relation between these constructs by specifically addressing three goals. The first goal was to identify the measurement structure of the home math environment through a series of confirmatory factor analyses. The second goal was to examine the role of the home math environment in predicting parent report of children’s math skills. The third goal was to test a series of potential alternative explanations for the relation between the home math environment and parent report of children’s skills, specifically the direct and indirect role of household income, parent math anxiety, and parent math ability as measured by their approximate number system performance. A final sample of 339 parents of children aged 3 through 8 drawn from Mechanical Turk answered a questionnaire online. The best fitting model of the home math environment was a bifactor model with a general factor representing the general home math environment, and three specific factors representing the direct numeracy environment, the indirect numeracy environment, and the spatial environment. When examining the association of the home math environment factors to parent report of child skills, the general home math environment factor and the spatial environment were the only significant predictors. Parents who reported doing more general math activities in the home reported having children with higher math skills, whereas parents who reported doing more spatial activities reported having children with lower math skills. PMID:28005925
Shea, John E.
The structure of engineering curricula currently in place at most colleges and universities has existed since the early 1950's, and reflects an historical emphasis on a solid foundation in math, science, and engineering science. However, there is often not a close match between elements of the traditional engineering education, and the skill sets that graduates need to possess for success in the industrial environment. Considerable progress has been made to restructure engineering courses and curricula. What is lacking, however, are tools and methodologies that incorporate the many dimensions of college courses, and how they are structured to form a curriculum. If curriculum changes are to be made, the first objective must be to determine what knowledge and skills engineering graduates need to possess. To accomplish this, a set of engineering competencies was developed from existing literature, and used in the development of a comprehensive mail survey of alumni, employers, students and faculty. Respondents proposed some changes to the topics in the curriculum and recommended that work to improve the curriculum be focused on communication, problem solving and people skills. The process of designing a curriculum is similar to engineering design, with requirements that must be met, and objectives that must be optimized. From this similarity came the idea for developing a linear, additive, multi-objective model that identifies the objectives that must be considered when designing a curriculum, and contains the mathematical relationships necessary to quantify the value of a specific alternative. The model incorporates the three primary objectives of engineering topics, skills, and curriculum design principles and uses data from the survey. It was used to design new courses, to evaluate various curricula alternatives, and to conduct sensitivity analysis to better understand their differences. Using the multi-objective model to identify the highest scoring curriculum
The Need and Curricula for Health Professions Education Graduate Programs
Cervero, Ronald M.; Daley, Barbara J.
2018-01-01
This chapter provides an overview of the emerging social and organizational contexts for health professions education and the rationale for foundational adult and continuing education concepts to be included in the curricula of HPE graduate programs.
Internationalizing curricula : Needs and wishes of alumni and employers with
Jos Walenkamp; Joyce den Heijer; Anneke Schuurmans-Brouwer; A. (Andreas) Funk
2014-01-01
Internationalizing curricula. Needs and wishes of alumni and employers with regard to international competencies. Internationalization has become of great importance for universities acrossthe globe. The labour market is becoming international, with internationalopportunities and international
A model for the development of university curricula in nanoelectronics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bruun, Erik; Nielsen, I
2010-01-01
Nanotechnology is having an increasing impact on university curricula in electrical engineering and in physics. Major influencers affecting developments in university programmes related to nanoelectronics are discussed and a model for university programme development is described. The model takes...... engineering. Examples of European curricula following this framework are identified and described. These examples may serve as sources of inspiration for future developments and the model...
Steffens, Melanie C.; Jelenec, Petra; Noack, Peter
2010-01-01
Many models assume that habitual human behavior is guided by spontaneous, automatic, or implicit processes rather than by deliberate, rule-based, or explicit processes. Thus, math-ability self-concepts and math performance could be related to implicit math-gender stereotypes in addition to explicit stereotypes. Two studies assessed at what age…
Child, Amanda E; Cirino, Paul T; Fletcher, Jack M; Willcutt, Erik G; Fuchs, Lynn S
2018-05-01
Disorders of reading, math, and attention frequently co-occur in children. However, it is not yet clear which cognitive factors contribute to comorbidities among multiple disorders and which uniquely relate to one, especially because they have rarely been studied as a triad. Thus, the present study considers how reading, math, and attention relate to phonological awareness, numerosity, working memory, and processing speed, all implicated as either unique or shared correlates of these disorders. In response to findings that the attributes of all three disorders exist on a continuum rather than representing qualitatively different groups, this study employed a dimensional approach. Furthermore, we used both timed and untimed academic variables in addition to attention and activity level variables. The results supported the role of working memory and phonological awareness in the overlap among reading, math, and attention, with a limited role of processing speed. Numerosity was related to the comorbidity between math and attention. The results from timed variables and activity level were similar to those from untimed and attention variables, although activity level was less strongly related to cognitive and academic/attention variables. These findings have implications for understanding cognitive deficits that contribute to comorbid reading disability, math disability, and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Tool-Based Curricula and Visual Learning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dragica Vasileska
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In the last twenty years nanotechnology hasrevolutionized the world of information theory, computers andother important disciplines, such as medicine, where it hascontributed significantly in the creation of more sophisticateddiagnostic tools. Therefore, it is important for people working innanotechnology to better understand basic concepts to be morecreative and productive. To further foster the progress onNanotechnology in the USA, the National Science Foundation hascreated the Network for Computational Nanotechnology (NCNand the dissemination of all the information from member andnon-member participants of the NCN is enabled by thecommunity website www.nanoHUB.org. nanoHUB’s signatureservices online simulation that enables the operation ofsophisticated research and educational simulation engines with acommon browser. No software installation or local computingpower is needed. The simulation tools as well as nano-conceptsare augmented by educational materials, assignments, and toolbasedcurricula, which are assemblies of tools that help studentsexcel in a particular area.As elaborated later in the text, it is the visual mode of learningthat we are exploiting in achieving faster and better results withstudents that go through simulation tool-based curricula. Thereare several tool based curricula already developed on thenanoHUB and undergoing further development, out of which fiveare directly related to nanoelectronics. They are: ABACUS –device simulation module; ACUTE – Computational Electronicsmodule; ANTSY – bending toolkit; and AQME – quantummechanics module. The methodology behind tool-based curriculais discussed in details. Then, the current status of each module ispresented, including user statistics and student learningindicatives. Particular simulation tool is explored further todemonstrate the ease by which students can grasp information.Representative of Abacus is PN-Junction Lab; representative ofAQME is PCPBT tool; and
Bahr, Peter Riley
2013-01-01
Nationally, a majority of community college students require remedial assistance with mathematics, but comparatively few students who begin the remedial math sequence ultimately complete it and achieve college-level math competency. The academic outcomes of students who begin the sequence but do not complete it are disproportionately unfavorable:…
Math Tracks: What Pace in Math Is Best for the Middle School Child?
Morrison, Michelle
2011-01-01
Mathematics is a critical part of academic preparation of the middle school child, or, as Dr. Maria Montessori would refer to them, children in the third plane of development. Montessori educators are sincere in their endeavors not only to prepare young students for further studies of math and the application of math in their world and careers,…
Investigating Validity of Math 105 as Prerequisite to Math 201 among Undergraduate Students, Nigeria
Zakariya, Yusuf F.
2016-01-01
In this study, the author examined the validity of MATH 105 as a prerequisite to MATH 201. The data for this study was extracted directly from the examination results logic of the university. Descriptive statistics in form of correlations and linear regressions were used to analyze the obtained data. Three research questions were formulated and…
Math and Movement: Practical Ways to Incorporate Math into Physical Education
Wade, Marcia
2016-01-01
Each year, physical educators are asked to incorporate even more math, language arts, science and social studies into their curriculum. The challenge is how to do this without sacrificing the essential health and life skills provided by a quality physical education program. One program, Math & Movement, is a great aid for physical educators to…
The Effects of the Elevate Math Summer Program on Math Achievement and Algebra Readiness
Snipes, Jason; Huang, Chun-Wei; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal
2016-01-01
To raise math success rates in middle school, many schools and districts have implemented summer math programs designed to improve student preparation for algebra content in grade 8. However, little is known about the effectiveness of these programs. While students who participate typically experience learning gains, there is little rigorous…
Gender compatibility, math-gender stereotypes, and self-concepts in math and physics
Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut
2016-12-01
[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] Positive self-assessment of ability in the quantitative domains is considered critical for student participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics field studies. The present study investigated associations of gender compatibility (gender typicality and contentedness) and math-gender stereotypes with self-concepts in math and physics. Statistical analysis of survey data was based on a sample of 170 male and female high school science students matched on propensity scores based on age and past GPA scores in math. Results of MANCOVA analyses indicated that the combination of high personal gender compatibility with low endorsement of math-gender stereotypes was associated with low gender differentials in math and physics self-concepts whereas the combination of high personal gender compatibility with high endorsement of math-gender stereotypes was associated with high gender differentials in math and physics self-concepts. These results contribute to the recent theoretical and empirical work on antecedents to the math and physics identities critical to achieving gender equity in STEM fields.
Evaluation of the MIND Research Institute's Spatial-Temporal Math (ST Math) Program in California
Wendt, Staci; Rice, John; Nakamoto, Jonathan
2014-01-01
The MIND Research Institute contracted with the Evaluation Research Program at WestEd to conduct an independent assessment of mathematics outcomes in elementary school grades across California that were provided with the ST Math program. Spatial-Temporal (ST) Math is a game-based instructional software designed to boost K-5 and secondary-level…
Literacy Specialists in Math Class! Closing the Achievement Gap on State Math Assessments
DiGisi, Lori L.; Fleming, Dianne
2005-01-01
Sixth and eighth grade students who are English language learners must be able to read and interpret 39 math word problems in order to successfully calculate the answers on the Massachusetts state math assessment (MCAS). The first year that MCAS was administered, many ELL students read the questions, found them confusing, and left them blank,…
Math Academy: Are You Game? Explorations in Probability. Supplemental Math Materials for Grades 3-6
Rimbey, Kimberly
2007-01-01
Created by teachers for teachers, the Math Academy tools and activities included in this booklet were designed to create hands-on activities and a fun learning environment for the teaching of mathematics to the students. This booklet contains the themed program "Are You Game? Math Academy--Explorations in Probability," which teachers can use to…
Gender Compatibility, Math-Gender Stereotypes, and Self-Concepts in Math and Physics
Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut
2016-01-01
Positive self-assessment of ability in the quantitative domains is considered critical for student participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics field studies. The present study investigated associations of gender compatibility (gender typicality and contentedness) and math-gender stereotypes with self-concepts in math and…
Math Is Like a Scary Movie? Helping Young People Overcome Math Anxiety
Kulkin, Margaret
2016-01-01
Afterschool teachers who tutor students or provide homework help have a unique opportunity to help students overcome the social or emotional barriers that so often block learning. They can embrace a creative and investigative approach to math learning. Margaret Kulkin's interest in being a math attitude "myth-buster" led her to apply to…
New undergraduate curricula in the UK and Australia.
Lumsden, M A; Symonds, I M
2010-12-01
There are many challenges facing undergraduate education in the smaller specialities such as obstetrics and gynaecology (O&G). These are similar throughout the world, although the emphasis may vary according to geography and the approach of those involved in medical education in general. The number of medical students has increased because of the greater number of doctors required, the gender balance and also because it provides revenue for the universities. This means that strategies must be developed to include more teaching units in both primary and secondary care as well as those at a distance from the main teaching provider. Australia and the UK both have this problem but, obviously, the distances involved in Australia are much greater. One of the drivers for the change in undergraduate medical education in the UK was factual overload and the need to teach basic competencies to the students. National curricula that take this into account are being developed and that in the UK has been taken up by a majority of the medical schools. The opportunities offered by O&G to provide basic skills and competencies difficult to find elsewhere in the curriculum are unparalleled. These include issues such as communication in situations where great sensitivity is required and also the impact of cultural beliefs and ethnicity on clinical practice. However, factual knowledge of medical science is also essential and ways of achieving a balance are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Improving Student Achievement in Math and Science
Sullivan, Nancy G.; Hamsa, Irene Schulz; Heath, Panagiota; Perry, Robert; White, Stacy J.
1998-01-01
As the new millennium approaches, a long anticipated reckoning for the education system of the United States is forthcoming, Years of school reform initiatives have not yielded the anticipated results. A particularly perplexing problem involves the lack of significant improvement of student achievement in math and science. Three "Partnership" projects represent collaborative efforts between Xavier University (XU) of Louisiana, Southern University of New Orleans (SUNO), Mississippi Valley State University (MVSU), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Stennis Space Center (SSC), to enhance student achievement in math and science. These "Partnerships" are focused on students and teachers in federally designated rural and urban empowerment zones and enterprise communities. The major goals of the "Partnerships" include: (1) The identification and dissemination of key indices of success that account for high performance in math and science; (2) The education of pre-service and in-service secondary teachers in knowledge, skills, and competencies that enhance the instruction of high school math and science; (3) The development of faculty to enhance the quality of math and science courses in institutions of higher education; and (4) The incorporation of technology-based instruction in institutions of higher education. These goals will be achieved by the accomplishment of the following objectives: (1) Delineate significant ?best practices? that are responsible for enhancing student outcomes in math and science; (2) Recruit and retain pre-service teachers with undergraduate degrees in Biology, Math, Chemistry, or Physics in a graduate program, culminating with a Master of Arts in Curriculum and Instruction; (3) Provide faculty workshops and opportunities for travel to professional meetings for dissemination of NASA resources information; (4) Implement methodologies and assessment procedures utilizing performance-based applications of higher order
The Language of Mathematics Utilizing Math in Practice
Baber, Robert L
2011-01-01
A new and unique way of understanding the translation of concepts and natural language into mathematical expressions Transforming a body of text into corresponding mathematical expressions and models is traditionally viewed and taught as a mathematical problem; it is also a task that most find difficult. The Language of Mathematics: Utilizing Math in Practice reveals a new way to view this process-not as a mathematical problem, but as a translation, or language, problem. By presenting the language of mathematics explicitly and systematically, this book helps readers to learn mathematics¿and i
The role of expressive writing in math anxiety.
Park, Daeun; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L
2014-06-01
Math anxiety is a negative affective reaction to situations involving math. Previous work demonstrates that math anxiety can negatively impact math problem solving by creating performance-related worries that disrupt the working memory needed for the task at hand. By leveraging knowledge about the mechanism underlying the math anxiety-performance relationship, we tested the effectiveness of a short expressive writing intervention that has been shown to reduce intrusive thoughts and improve working memory availability. Students (N = 80) varying in math anxiety were asked to sit quietly (control group) prior to completing difficulty-matched math and word problems or to write about their thoughts and feelings regarding the exam they were about to take (expressive writing group). For the control group, high math-anxious individuals (HMAs) performed significantly worse on the math problems than low math-anxious students (LMAs). In the expressive writing group, however, this difference in math performance across HMAs and LMAs was significantly reduced. Among HMAs, the use of words related to anxiety, cause, and insight in their writing was positively related to math performance. Expressive writing boosts the performance of anxious students in math-testing situations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Gross, B
1998-01-01
In 1994, when the software maker Knowledge Adventure decided to spin out a new venture--Worlds, Incorporated--founder Bill Gross expected the worst. He had argued with the board that it was in KA's best interests to maintain a controlling ownership stake in Worlds, whose powerful new software technology had enormous revenue potential. But the board prevailed, and KA took only a 20% ownership in the new company, giving the rest to Worlds' employees. Within a year, the company's performance had surpassed all expectations, and instead of owning 80% of a $5 million business, KA owned 20% of a $77 million business. The arithmetic may have been counterintuitive, but the lesson was clear. When KA let go of Worlds and gave its employees near total ownership, the company unleashed a new level of employee performance. That, in turn, led to the creation of economic value that more than made up for the equity KA had surrendered. So compelling was this "new math of ownership" that Gross founded a new company, Idealab, on this principle. The company, which develops ideas for Internet-based businesses and seeds the most promising ones, takes no more than a 49% equity stake in the new ventures and gives at least 1% of ownership to each employee. For Gross, this radical approach to ownership is the key to inspiring stellar performances. In part, employee-owners are motivated by their potential to earn great financial reward. But the drama of ownership, he argues, is even more important. In that drama, employees become personally involved in the struggle to outdo the competition and emerge victorious.
ASSURING QUALITY IN FARM ANIMAL WELFARE CURRICULA: THE CASE OF WELFOOD CURRICULA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
EVANGELIA N. SOSSIDOU
2009-10-01
Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to analyze virtual learning environments and to provide a framework for assuring quality in farm animal welfare curricula. The framework is constructed according to the experimental learning for a case study developed in the context of the Leonardo da Vinci Community Vocational Training Action Pilot Project entitled “WELFOOD-Promoting quality assurance in animal welfare-environment-food quality interaction studies through upgraded e-Learning”. WELFOOD addressed objectives such as improvement and competencies of the skills in vocational training to promote employability and facilitate integration and reintegration in terms of capabilities and knowledge, needed for improved technologies in animal husbandry and food industry.
Jansen, Brenda R J; De Lange, Eva; Van der Molen, Mariët J
2013-05-01
Adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) often complete schooling without mastering basic math skills, even though basic math is essential for math-related challenges in everyday life. Limited attention to cognitive skills and low executive functioning (EF) may cause this delay. We aimed to improve math skills in an MBID-sample using computerized math training. Also, it was investigated whether EF and math performance were related and whether computerized math training had beneficial effects on EF. The sample consisted of a total of 58 adolescents (12-15 years) from special education. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or a treatment as usual (TAU) group. In the experimental condition, participants received 5 weeks of training. Math performance and EF were assessed before and after the training period. Math performance improved equally in both groups. However, frequently practicing participants improved more than participants in the control group. Visuo-spatial memory skills were positively related to addition and subtraction skills. Transfer effects from math training to EF were absent. It is concluded that math skills may increase if a reasonable effort in practicing math skills is made. The relation between visuo-spatial memory skills provides opportunities for improving math performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Math at home adds up to achievement in school.
Berkowitz, Talia; Schaeffer, Marjorie W; Maloney, Erin A; Peterson, Lori; Gregor, Courtney; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L
2015-10-09
With a randomized field experiment of 587 first-graders, we tested an educational intervention designed to promote interactions between children and parents relating to math. We predicted that increasing math activities at home would increase children's math achievement at school. We tested this prediction by having children engage in math story time with their parents. The intervention, short numerical story problems delivered through an iPad app, significantly increased children's math achievement across the school year compared to a reading (control) group, especially for children whose parents are habitually anxious about math. Brief, high-quality parent-child interactions about math at home help break the intergenerational cycle of low math achievement. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Elementary School Math Instruction: Can Reading Specialists Assist?
Heinrichs, Audrey S.
1987-01-01
Discusses the contradictions found in recommendations for direction instruction or informal math language development, and some suggestions for practical resolution of disagreements, to enable school reading specialists to provide both background and practical help to classroom instructors teaching math. (HTH)
Minimum-complexity helicopter simulation math model
Heffley, Robert K.; Mnich, Marc A.
1988-01-01
An example of a minimal complexity simulation helicopter math model is presented. Motivating factors are the computational delays, cost, and inflexibility of the very sophisticated math models now in common use. A helicopter model form is given which addresses each of these factors and provides better engineering understanding of the specific handling qualities features which are apparent to the simulator pilot. The technical approach begins with specification of features which are to be modeled, followed by a build up of individual vehicle components and definition of equations. Model matching and estimation procedures are given which enable the modeling of specific helicopters from basic data sources such as flight manuals. Checkout procedures are given which provide for total model validation. A number of possible model extensions and refinement are discussed. Math model computer programs are defined and listed.
Weidinger, Anne F; Steinmayr, Ricarda; Spinath, Birgit
2018-03-01
Math competence beliefs and achievement are important outcomes of school-based learning. Previous studies yielded inconsistent results on whether skill development, self-enhancement, or reciprocal effects account for the interplay among them. A development-related change in the direction of their relation in the early school years might explain the inconsistency. To test this, 542 German elementary school students (M = 7.95 years, SD = 0.58) were repeatedly investigated over 24 months from Grade 2 to Grade 4. Math competence beliefs declined and had a growing influence on subsequent math grades. This suggests changes in the dominant direction of the relation from a skill development to a reciprocal effects model during elementary school. Findings are discussed with regard to their theoretical and practical implications. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition during Math Examinations.
Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F; Englert, Chris
2016-01-01
We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158) completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition 5 months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests.
Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition During Math Examinations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alex eBertrams
2016-03-01
Full Text Available We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158 completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition five months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests.
Math Shelf: A Randomized Trial of a Prekindergarten Tablet Number Sense Curriculum
Schacter, John; Shih, Jeff; Allen, Charles M.; DeVaul, Lina; Adkins, Amy B.; Ito, Taro; Jo, Booil
2016-01-01
Research Findings: Effective preschool mathematics instruction is especially important for low-income children. Previous research demonstrates that low-income children enter kindergarten behind their middle-income peers. They receive less mathematics support at home and from public preschools. The aim of this study was to test Math Shelf, a tablet…
Transmitting Success: Comprehensive Peer Mentoring for At-Risk Students in Developmental Math
Morales, Erik E.; Ambrose-Roman, Sarah; Perez-Maldonado, Rosa
2016-01-01
This study presents and assesses a developmental math focused peer mentoring program at a public urban university. Over three semesters 45 mentees participated in the program. Results include substantive increases in developmental pass rates as well as increases in self-efficacy and social integration. Other noteworthy findings include the…
Zadeh, Zohreh Yaghoub; Farnia, Fataneh; Ungerleider, Charles
2010-01-01
Research Findings: This article addresses the mediating role of early childhood home enrichment in the association between maternal education and academic achievement in the reading and math of 1,093 children aged 7 (Grade 1). Data were extracted from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development database. We used the bootstrapping…
On the Money: Math Activities to Build Financial Literacy, Grades 6-8
Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.; Bush, Sarah B.; Peters, Susan A.; McGatha, Maggie B.
2015-01-01
To succeed in college, career, and life, students need to become financially literate. But understanding the basics of a long-term investment or a short-term loan is not enough without the math skills to make financially sound choices. In the already full curriculum of middle schools today, how can teachers find room to include financial literacy?…
A Quantitative and Qualitative Study of Math Anxiety among Preservice Teachers
Sloan, Tina Rye
2010-01-01
This project investigated the effects of a standards-based mathematics methods course on the mathematics anxiety levels of preservice teachers. The qualitative portion of the study examined aspects of a math methods course that affected mathematics anxiety levels and the antecedents of mathematics anxiety. Findings revealed a significant…
Gender Differences in Factors Pertaining to Math Anxiety among College Students
Wilder, Sandra
2012-01-01
Math anxiety has been seen as one of the biggest obstacles to student success in mathematics. The nature of this condition, as well as its relationships with numerous predictors, has been investigated for decades. However, there is still a significant lack of agreement among the findings of these research studies. The current study examines gender…
Problems in the Pipeline: Stereotype Threat and Women's Achievement in High-Level Math Courses
Good, Catherine; Aronson, Joshua; Harder, Jayne Ann
2008-01-01
It is well established that negative stereotypes can undermine women's performance on mathematics tests. Despite considerable laboratory evidence for the role of "stereotype threat" in girls' and women's math test performance, the relevance of such findings for the "real world" gender test-score gap remains unclear and debates about causes focus…
Hofstadter-Duke, Kristi L; Daly, Edward J
2015-03-01
This study investigated a method for conducting experimental analyses of academic responding. In the experimental analyses, academic responding (math computation), rather than problem behavior, was reinforced across conditions. Two separate experimental analyses (one with fluent math computation problems and one with non-fluent math computation problems) were conducted with three elementary school children using identical contingencies while math computation rate was measured. Results indicate that the experimental analysis with non-fluent problems produced undifferentiated responding across participants; however, differentiated responding was achieved for all participants in the experimental analysis with fluent problems. A subsequent comparison of the single-most effective condition from the experimental analyses replicated the findings with novel computation problems. Results are discussed in terms of the critical role of stimulus control in identifying controlling consequences for academic deficits, and recommendations for future research refining and extending experimental analysis to academic responding are made. © The Author(s) 2014.
Martins Pereira, Sandra; Hernández-Marrero, Pablo
2016-10-01
Making palliative care accessible to all citizens who are in need of this type of care requires effective policies and education. Moreover, healthcare professionals have an ethical and legal responsibility to ensure quality palliative care. Nevertheless, palliative care has had traditionally a limited emphasis in healthcare professionals' undergraduate education. To study the current status of palliative care education in nursing undergraduate curricula and compare 2005 and 2015 findings. An online survey was sent to all state schools providing nursing undergraduate education in Portugal (N = 21). The survey assessed if and how palliative care was included in the curricula, and whether or not national and international recommendations for palliative care nursing education were followed. Further analysis included the content of available curricula/syllabi. A total of 19 schools completed the survey (90% of response rate). These institutions are geographically dispersed and representative of state nursing educational institutions in Portugal. In 2015, all participant schools integrated palliative care in their curricula; nine schools had palliative care as an independent curricular unit (an 800% increase compared to 2005). While in 2005, only 14 out of 23 (61%) schools included palliative care explicitly in their curricula; in 2015, all 19 participant schools did so. National and international recommendations were followed. The inclusion of palliative care within nursing undergraduate curricula strongly increased from 2005 to 2015. Further research is needed to understand the contribution of education in the access, care provision, quality and development of palliative care in this country. © The Author(s) 2016.
Solving Math Problems Approximately: A Developmental Perspective.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dana Ganor-Stern
Full Text Available Although solving arithmetic problems approximately is an important skill in everyday life, little is known about the development of this skill. Past research has shown that when children are asked to solve multi-digit multiplication problems approximately, they provide estimates that are often very far from the exact answer. This is unfortunate as computation estimation is needed in many circumstances in daily life. The present study examined 4th graders, 6th graders and adults' ability to estimate the results of arithmetic problems relative to a reference number. A developmental pattern was observed in accuracy, speed and strategy use. With age there was a general increase in speed, and an increase in accuracy mainly for trials in which the reference number was close to the exact answer. The children tended to use the sense of magnitude strategy, which does not involve any calculation but relies mainly on an intuitive coarse sense of magnitude, while the adults used the approximated calculation strategy which involves rounding and multiplication procedures, and relies to a greater extent on calculation skills and working memory resources. Importantly, the children were less accurate than the adults, but were well above chance level. In all age groups performance was enhanced when the reference number was smaller (vs. larger than the exact answer and when it was far (vs. close from it, suggesting the involvement of an approximate number system. The results suggest the existence of an intuitive sense of magnitude for the results of arithmetic problems that might help children and even adults with difficulties in math. The present findings are discussed in the context of past research reporting poor estimation skills among children, and the conditions that might allow using children estimation skills in an effective manner.
Essential math and calculations for pharmacy technicians
Reddy, Indra K
2003-01-01
Working with Roman and Arabic NumeralsUsing Fractions and Decimals in Pharmacy MathUsing Ratios, Proportions and Percentages in Dosage CalculationsApplying Systems of MeasurementsInterpreting Medication OrdersIdentifying Prescription Errors and OmissionsWorking with Liquid Dosage FormsWorking with Solid Dosage FormsAdjusting IsotonicityWorking with Buffer and Ionization ValuesDealing with ReconstitutionsDetermining Milliequivalent StrengthsCalculating Caloric Values Determining IV Flow RatesWorking with Insulin and Heparin ProductsAppendices: A: Working with Temperature ConversionsB: Working with Capsule Dosage FormsC: Dealing with Pediatric Dosages D: Understanding Essential Business Math.
The "Parrot Math" Attack on Memorization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bill Quirk
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Constructivist math educators regularly cite Parrot Math by Thomas C. O'Brien. Although this paper promotes constructivist "activity-based" learning over direct instruction, it's primary claim to fame is the open hostility to memorization. Professor O'Brien rejects "memorization and parrot-like drill " in favor of "children's invented strategies." He references a paper by Kamii and Dominick as evidence of "considerable research" showing that mastery of the standard algorithms of arithmetic is harmful for children. [See The Bogus Research in Kamii and Dominick's Harmful Algorithms Papers
Odic, Darko; Lisboa, Juan Valle; Eisinger, Robert; Olivera, Magdalena Gonzalez; Maiche, Alejandro; Halberda, Justin
2016-01-01
What is the relationship between our intuitive sense of number (e.g., when estimating how many marbles are in a jar), and our intuitive sense of other quantities, including time (e.g., when estimating how long it has been since we last ate breakfast)? Recent work in cognitive, developmental, comparative psychology, and computational neuroscience has suggested that our representations of approximate number, time, and spatial extent are fundamentally linked and constitute a "generalized magnitude system". But, the shared behavioral and neural signatures between number, time, and space may alternatively be due to similar encoding and decision-making processes, rather than due to shared domain-general representations. In this study, we investigate the relationship between approximate number and time in a large sample of 6-8 year-old children in Uruguay by examining how individual differences in the precision of number and time estimation correlate with school mathematics performance. Over four testing days, each child completed an approximate number discrimination task, an approximate time discrimination task, a digit span task, and a large battery of symbolic math tests. We replicate previous reports showing that symbolic math abilities correlate with approximate number precision and extend those findings by showing that math abilities also correlate with approximate time precision. But, contrary to approximate number and time sharing common representations, we find that each of these dimensions uniquely correlates with formal math: approximate number correlates more strongly with formal math compared to time and continues to correlate with math even when precision in time and individual differences in working memory are controlled for. These results suggest that there are important differences in the mental representations of approximate number and approximate time and further clarify the relationship between quantity representations and mathematics. Copyright
Strategies for Reducing Math Anxiety. Information Capsule. Volume 1102
Blazer, Christie
2011-01-01
Approximately 93 percent of Americans indicate that they experience some level of math anxiety. Math anxiety is defined as negative emotions that interfere with the solving of mathematical problems. Studies have found that some students who perform poorly on math assessments actually have a full understanding of the concepts being tested; however,…
Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades K-2
Bresser, Rusty; Melanese, Kathy; Sphar, Christine
2009-01-01
More than 10 percent of the students in our nation's public schools are English language learners, and this number grows each year. Many of these students are falling behind in math. "Supporting English Language Learners in Math Class, Grades K-2" outlines the challenges ELL students face when learning math and provides a wealth of specific…
Firefighter Math - a web-based learning tool
Dan Jimenez
2010-01-01
Firefighter Math is a web based interactive resource that was developed to help prepare wildland fire personnel for math based training courses. The website can also be used as a refresher for fire calculations including slope, flame length, relative humidity, flow rates, unit conversion, etc. The website is designed to start with basic math refresher skills and...
Specific Cognitive Predictors of Early Math Problem Solving
Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.
2015-01-01
Development of early math skill depends on a prerequisite level of cognitive development. Identification of specific cognitive skills that are important for math development may not only inform instructional approaches but also inform assessment approaches to identifying children with specific learning problems in math. This study investigated the…
Mathematizing: An Emergent Math Curriculum Approach for Young Children
Rosales, Allen C.
2015-01-01
Based on years of research with early childhood teachers, author Allen Rosales provides an approach to create an emergent math curriculum that integrates children's interests with math concepts. The mathematizing approach is different from traditional math curriculums, as it immerses children in a process that is designed to develop their…
Learning to Be a Math Teacher: What Knowledge Is Essential?
Reid, Mary; Reid, Steven
2017-01-01
This study critically examined the math content knowledge (MCK) of teacher candidates (TCs) enrolled in a two-year Master of Teaching (MT) degree. Teachers require a solid math knowledge base in order to support students' achievement. Provincial and international math assessments have been of major concern in Ontario, Canada, due to declining…
Formula for Success: Engaging Families in Early Math Learning
Global Family Research Project, 2017
2017-01-01
Early math ability is one of the best predictors of children's later success in school. Because children's learning begins in the home, families are fundamental in shaping children's interest and skills in math. The experience of learning and doing math, however, looks different from the instruction that was offered when most adults were in…
How to Make the Most of Math Manipulatives.
Burns, Marilyn
1996-01-01
A discussion of how to use math manipulatives to teach elementary students focuses on essential program elements: what math manipulatives are and why they are used, common questions about math manipulatives, how one teacher introduced the geoboard into the classroom, and pattern block activities. (SM)
Impact of Math Snacks Games on Students' Conceptual Understanding
Winburg, Karin; Chamberlain, Barbara; Valdez, Alfred; Trujillo, Karen; Stanford, Theodore B.
2016-01-01
This "Math Snacks" intervention measured 741 fifth grade students' gains in conceptual understanding of core math concepts after game-based learning activities. Teachers integrated four "Math Snacks" games and related activities into instruction on ratios, coordinate plane, number systems, fractions and decimals. Using a…
Ruff, Sarah E.; Boes, Susan R.
2014-01-01
Low math achievement is a recurring weakness in many students. Math anxiety is a persistent and significant theme to math avoidance and low achievement. Causes for math anxiety include social, cognitive, and academic factors. Interventions to reduce math anxiety are limited as they exclude the expert skills of professional school counselors to…
Jansen, B.R.J.; Lange, E.; van der Molen, M.J.
2013-01-01
Adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) often complete schooling without mastering basic math skills, even though basic math is essential for math-related challenges in everyday life. Limited attention to cognitive skills and low executive functioning (EF) may cause this
Bachman, Heather J.; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; El Nokali, Nermeen E.; Castle Heatly, Melissa
2015-01-01
The present study examined whether multiple opportunities to learn math were associated with smaller socioeconomic status (SES) disparities in fifth-grade math achievement using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD; N = 1,364). High amounts of procedural math instruction were associated with higher…
Powell, Torence J.
2017-01-01
The California Community College system, as an open access institution, is tasked with helping students who possess math skills far below college-level complete math course requirements for obtaining an associate degree or transfer to a university. Colleges have created various developmental math programs to achieve this mission; this paper…
Smeding, Annique; Dumas, Florence; Loose, Florence; Régner, Isabelle
2013-01-01
In 2 field experiments, we relied on the very features of real testing situations--where both math and verbal tests are administered--to examine whether order of test administration can, by itself, create vs. alleviate stereotype threat (ST) effects on girls' math performance. We predicted that taking the math test before the verbal test would be…
Tsui, Joanne M.; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.
2006-01-01
This study was designed to examine the effects of math anxiety and perfectionism on math performance, under timed testing conditions, among mathematically gifted sixth graders. We found that participants had worse math performance during timed versus untimed testing, but this difference was statistically significant only when the timed condition…
Individual class evaluation and effective teaching characteristics in integrated curricula.
Hwang, Jung Eun; Kim, Na Jin; Song, Meiying; Cui, Yinji; Kim, Eun Ju; Park, In Ae; Lee, Hye In; Gong, Hye Jin; Kim, Su Young
2017-12-12
In an integrated curriculum, multiple instructors take part in a course in the form of team teaching. Accordingly, medical schools strive to manage each course run by numerous instructors. As part of the curriculum management, course evaluation is conducted, but a single, retrospective course evaluation does not comprehensively capture student perception of classes by different instructors. This study aimed to demonstrate the need for individual class evaluation, and further to identify teaching characteristics that instructors need to keep in mind when preparing classes. From 2014 to 2015, students at one medical school left comments on evaluation forms after each class. Courses were also assessed after each course. Their comments were categorized by connotation (positive or negative) and by subject. Within each subject category, test scores were compared between positively and negatively mentioned classes. The Mann-Whitney U test was performed to test group differences in scores. The same method was applied to the course evaluation data. Test results for course evaluation showed group difference only in the practice/participation category. However, test results for individual class evaluation showed group differences in six categories: difficulty, main points, attitude, media/contents, interest, and materials. That is, the test scores of classes positively mentioned in six domains were significantly higher than those of negatively mentioned classes. It was proved that individual class evaluation is needed to manage multi-instructor courses in integrated curricula of medical schools. Based on the students' extensive feedback, we identified teaching characteristics statistically related to academic achievement. School authorities can utilize these findings to encourage instructors to develop effective teaching characteristics in class preparation.
Upward Bound: An Untapped Fountain Of Youth Wanting To Learn About Math And Science
Gillis-Davis, J. J.; Sherman, S. B.; Gillis-Davis, L. C.; Svelling, K. L.
2009-12-01
We developed a two-phased curricula aimed at high school students in Hawaii’s Upward Bound (UB) programs. The course, called “Tour Through the Solar System”, was tested in the summer 2008-2009 programs of two of the four Hawaii UB programs. Authorized by Congress in 1965, UB is a federal program funded by the U.S. Department of Education to serve students underrepresented in higher education. Students enrolled in UB are predominantly low income, or from families in which neither parent holds a bachelor’s degree. UB programs make a measurable improvement in retaining high school students in the education pipeline in part by using innovative educational and outreach programs to spark students’ interest in learning while building academic self-confidence. Curricula developed for UB are sustainable because there are 964 programs in the United States, and U territories. Education and outreach products can be presented at regional and national meetings, which directors of the UB programs attend. Broad regulations and varied instruction formats allow curriculum developers a flexible and creative framework for developing classes. For instance, regulations stipulate that programs must provide participants with academic instruction in mathematics, laboratory sciences, composition, literature, and foreign languages in preparation for college entrance. UB meets these guidelines through school-year academic activities and a six-week summer school program. In designing our curricula the primary goals were to help students learn how to learn and encourage them to develop an interest in the fields of science, technology, engineering and math using NASA planetary data sets in a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) environment. Our focus on planetary science stems from our familiarity with the data sets, our view that NASA data sets are a naturally inspirational tool to engage high school students, and its cross-disciplinary character: encompassing geology, chemistry, astronomy
Meehan, Casey R.
Despite the scientific consensus supporting the theory of anthropogenic (human-induced) global warming, whether global warming is a serious problem, whether human activity is the primary cause of it, and whether scientific consensus exists at all are controversial questions among the U.S. lay-public. The cultural theory of risk perception (Schwarz and Thompson, 1990) serves as the theoretical framework for this qualitative analysis in which I ask the question how do U.S. secondary school curricula and teachers deal with the disparity between the overwhelming scientific consensus and the lay-public's skepticism regarding global warming? I analyzed nine widely used social studies and science textbooks, eight sets of supplemental materials about global warming produced by a range of not-for-profit and governmental organizations, and interviewed fourteen high school teachers who had experience teaching formal lessons about global warming in their content area. Findings suggest: 1) the range of global warming content within social studies and science textbooks and supplemental curricula reflects the spectrum of conceptualizations found among members of the U.S. public; 2) global warming curricula communicate only a narrow range of strategies for dealing with global warming and its associated threats; and 3) social studies and science teachers report taking a range of stances about global warming in their classroom, but sometimes the stance they put forth to their students does not align with their personal beliefs about global warming. The findings pose a troubling conundrum. Some of the global warming curricula treat the cause of global warming--a question that is not scientifically controversial--as a question with multiple and competing "right" answers. At the same time, much of curricula position how we should address global warming--a question that is legitimately controversial--as a question with one correct answer despite there being many reasonable responses
Kesler, Shelli R; Sheau, Kristen; Koovakkattu, Della; Reiss, Allan L
2011-08-01
Number sense is believed to be critical for math development. It is putatively an implicitly learned skill and may therefore have limitations in terms of being explicitly trained, particularly in individuals with altered neurodevelopment. A case series study was conducted using an adaptive, computerised programme that focused on number sense and general problem-solving skills. The study was designed to investigate training effects on performance as well as brain function in a group of children with Turner syndrome who are at risk for math difficulties and altered development of math-related brain networks. Standardised measurements of math and math-related cognitive skills as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used to assess behavioural and neurobiological outcomes following training. Participants demonstrated significantly increased basic math skills, including number sense, and calculation as well as processing speed, cognitive flexibility and visual-spatial processing skills. With the exception of calculation, increased scores also were clinically significant (i.e., recovered) based on reliable change analysis. Participants additionally demonstrated significantly increased bilateral parietal lobe activation and decreased frontal-striatal and mesial temporal activation following the training programme. These findings show proof of concept for an accessible training approach that may be potentially associated with improved number sense, math and related skills, as well as functional changes in math-related neural systems, even among individuals at risk for altered brain development.
Zimbardi, Kirsten; Bugarcic, Andrea; Colthorpe, Kay; Good, Jonathan P; Lluka, Lesley J
2013-12-01
Science graduates require critical thinking skills to deal with the complex problems they will face in their 21st century workplaces. Inquiry-based curricula can provide students with the opportunities to develop such critical thinking skills; however, evidence suggests that an inappropriate level of autonomy provided to underprepared students may not only be daunting to students but also detrimental to their learning. After a major review of the Bachelor of Science, we developed, implemented, and evaluated a series of three vertically integrated courses with inquiry-style laboratory practicals for early-stage undergraduate students in biomedical science. These practical curricula were designed so that students would work with increasing autonomy and ownership of their research projects to develop increasingly advanced scientific thinking and communication skills. Students undertaking the first iteration of these three vertically integrated courses reported learning gains in course content as well as skills in scientific writing, hypothesis construction, experimental design, data analysis, and interpreting results. Students also demonstrated increasing skills in both hypothesis formulation and communication of findings as a result of participating in the inquiry-based curricula and completing the associated practical assessment tasks. Here, we report the specific aspects of the curricula that students reported as having the greatest impact on their learning and the particular elements of hypothesis formulation and communication of findings that were more challenging for students to master. These findings provide important implications for science educators concerned with designing curricula to promote scientific thinking and communication skills alongside content acquisition.
Interactive geometry inside MathDox
Cuypers, H.; Hendriks, M.; Knopper, J.W.
2010-01-01
In this paper we describe how we envision using interactive geometry inside MathDox pages. In particular, by some examples we discuss how users and mathematical services (offered by various mathematical software packages) can interact with the geometric objects available. This not only includes
What Adds Up?: Math Enrollment and Graduation
Utah System of Higher Education, 2015
2015-01-01
College students struggling to pass a college level math course required for Quantitative Literacy (QL) credit1 has been a common issue facing many institutions in higher education. In the fall of 2014, the Utah State Board of Regents solidified a statewide initiative that set goals for each of the Utah System of Higher Education institutions (UU,…
ADP Security Plan, Math Building, Room 1139
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Melton, R.
1985-08-27
This document provides the draft copy of an updated (ADP) Security Plan for an IBM Personal Computer to be used in the Math Building at PNL for classified data base management. Using the equipment specified in this document and implementing the administrative and physical procedures as outlined will provide the secure environment necessary for this work to proceed.
Confessions of a Dr Math tutor
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Butgereit, L
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Mathematics look different on a small 3-inch screen of an inexpensive cell phone when compared to a 3-meter whiteboard in a mathematics classroom. Dr Math uses cell phone or mobile data "chat" technologies to assist primary and secondary school...
Early math intervention for marginalized students
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Overgaard, Steffen; Tonnesen, Pia Beck
2016-01-01
This study is one of more substudies in the project Early Math Intervention for Marginalized Students (TMTM2014). The paper presents the initial process of this substudy that will be carried out fall 2015. In the TMTM2014 project, 80 teachers, who completed a one week course in the idea of TMTM...
Fold in Origami and Unfold Math
Georgeson, Joseph
2011-01-01
Students enjoy origami and like making everything from paper cranes to footballs out of small, colorful squares of paper. They can invent their own shapes and are intrigued by the polyhedrons that they can construct. Paper folding is fun, but where is the math? Unless teachers develop lessons that address mathematical objectives, origami could be…
Math on the Job. Metal Product Assembler.
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.
This booklet is intended to help mainstreamed mentally retarded, emotionally disturbed, or learning disabled high school students acquire a basic understanding of the responsibilities and working conditions of metal product assemblers and to practice basic math skills necessary in the occupation. The first section provides a brief introduction to…
Ideas on Manipulative Math for Young Children.
Murray, Anne
2001-01-01
Presents a case study of one kindergarten class in which the mathematics center is the popular area in the room. Focuses on how math is best understood if activities follow the five-C formula: collaborative, concrete, comprehensive, connecting, and cavorting. Describes how children used manipulatives to construct mathematics concepts…
The Demise of the Asian Math Gene.
Bracey, Gerald W.
1999-01-01
The 1996 National Assessment of Educational Progress math scores for eighth-graders show that when socioeconomic status is considered, English-proficient Asian students have no achievement advantage over other ethnic groups. However, Chinese sixth-graders, using abstract reasoning skills, outperformed American students on 12 open-ended math…
MIT professor wins major international math prize
Allen, S
2004-01-01
Mathematicians Isadore Singer of MIT and Sir Michael Francis Atiyah of the University of Edinburgh will share an $875,000 award as winners of the second Abel Prize, which some hope will come to be seen as a Nobel Prize for math.
Online Options for Math-Advanced Students
Wessling, Suki
2012-01-01
Once upon a time, a student well advanced past grade level in math would have had few choices. Advanced students would invariably outpace the skills of their elementary teachers, and due to age wouldn't have options such as going to the middle school or community college for classes. Soon thereafter, students would enter middle school only to find…
Relationship between Affective Dimension and Math Learning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ronny Gamboa Araya
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Math has become an obstacle to achieve educational goals for a large number of students; thus it has transcended the academic world and has become a cognitive and emotional impairment. What students feel, perceive, believe, and how they act directly influences this. In addition, what teachers feel and perceive, their expectations, beliefs and attitudes towards the discipline also play an important role in how they teach and in the affective dimension of their students. Based on theoretical aspects from various authors, this paper is aimed at addressing some elements regarding the affective dimension, and at showing elements pertaining to teachers and students, and their relationship with math learning and teaching. It was concluded that the role of the affective dimension in math learning must be addressed by math educators in order to understand the process from the perspective of the actors associated with it, both students and teachers, as well as to achieve a change in the discipline by improving the beliefs and attitudes of students and teachers.
New Mexico Math Pathways Taskforce Report
New Mexico Higher Education Department, 2016
2016-01-01
In April 2015 New Mexico faculty, Dana Center staff, and New Mexico Higher Education (NMHED) co-presented the need for better math pathways statewide. Faculty from 6 institutions (New Mexico State University, New Mexico Highlands University, Dine College, Eastern New Mexico University, El Paso Community College, and San Juan College) participated…
Tic Tac Toe Math. Train the Trainer.
Center for Alternative Learning, Bryn Mawr, PA.
This report describes a project that developed a "Train the Trainer" program that would enable individuals to learn and teach the alternative instructional technique, Tic Tac Toe Math, developed by Richard Cooper for adult basic education students. The pilot workshop conducted as part of the project identified problems that traditional…
Basic math and pre-algebra practice problems for dummies
Zegarelli, Mark
2013-01-01
1001 Basic Math & Pre- Algebra Practice Problems For Dummies Practice makes perfect-and helps deepen your understanding of basic math and pre-algebra 1001 Basic Math & Pre-Algebra Practice Problems For Dummies, with free access to online practice problems, takes you beyond the instruction and guidance offered in Basic Math & Pre-Algebra For Dummies, giving you 1,001 opportunities to practice solving problems from the major topics in your math course. You begin with some basic arithmetic practice, move on to fractions, decimals, and per
Neural correlates of math anxiety – an overview and implications
Artemenko, Christina; Daroczy, Gabriella; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph
2015-01-01
Math anxiety is a common phenomenon which can have a negative impact on numerical and arithmetic performance. However, so far little is known about the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. This mini review provides an overview of studies investigating the neural correlates of math anxiety which provide several hints regarding its influence on math performance: while behavioral studies mostly observe an influence of math anxiety on difficult math tasks, neurophysiological studies show that processing efficiency is already affected in basic number processing. Overall, the neurocognitive literature suggests that (i) math anxiety elicits emotion- and pain-related activation during and before math activities, (ii) that the negative emotional response to math anxiety impairs processing efficiency, and (iii) that math deficits triggered by math anxiety may be compensated for by modulating the cognitive control or emotional regulation network. However, activation differs strongly between studies, depending on tasks, paradigms, and samples. We conclude that neural correlates can help to understand and explore the processes underlying math anxiety, but the data are not very consistent yet. PMID:26388824
Neural correlates of math anxiety - an overview and implications.
Artemenko, Christina; Daroczy, Gabriella; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph
2015-01-01
Math anxiety is a common phenomenon which can have a negative impact on numerical and arithmetic performance. However, so far little is known about the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. This mini review provides an overview of studies investigating the neural correlates of math anxiety which provide several hints regarding its influence on math performance: while behavioral studies mostly observe an influence of math anxiety on difficult math tasks, neurophysiological studies show that processing efficiency is already affected in basic number processing. Overall, the neurocognitive literature suggests that (i) math anxiety elicits emotion- and pain-related activation during and before math activities, (ii) that the negative emotional response to math anxiety impairs processing efficiency, and (iii) that math deficits triggered by math anxiety may be compensated for by modulating the cognitive control or emotional regulation network. However, activation differs strongly between studies, depending on tasks, paradigms, and samples. We conclude that neural correlates can help to understand and explore the processes underlying math anxiety, but the data are not very consistent yet.
Neural correlates of math anxiety – An overview and implications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christina eArtemenko
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Math anxiety is a common phenomenon which can have a negative impact on numerical and arithmetic performance. However, so far little is known about the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. This mini review provides an overview of studies investigating the neural correlates of math anxiety which provide several hints regarding its influence on math performance: while behavioral studies mostly observe an influence of math anxiety on difficult math tasks, neurophysiological studies show that processing efficiency is already affected in basic number processing. Overall, the neurocognitive literature suggests that (i math anxiety elicits emotion- and pain-related activation during and before math activities, (ii that the negative emotional response to math anxiety impairs processing efficiency, and (iii that math deficits triggered by math anxiety may be compensated for by modulating the cognitive control or emotional regulation network. However, activation differs strongly between studies, depending on tasks, paradigms and samples. We conclude that neural correlates can help to understand and explore the processes underlying math anxiety, but the data are not very consistent yet.
Flanagan, K M; Einarson, J
2017-01-01
In a world filled with big data, mathematical models, and statistics, the development of strong quantitative skills is becoming increasingly critical for modern biologists. Teachers in this field must understand how students acquire quantitative skills and explore barriers experienced by students when developing these skills. In this study, we examine the interrelationships among gender, grit, and math confidence for student performance on a pre-post quantitative skills assessment and overall performance in an undergraduate biology course. Here, we show that females significantly underperformed relative to males on a quantitative skills assessment at the start of term. However, females showed significantly higher gains over the semester, such that the gender gap in performance was nearly eliminated by the end of the semester. Math confidence plays an important role in the performance on both the pre and post quantitative skills assessments and overall performance in the course. The effect of grit on student performance, however, is mediated by a student's math confidence; as math confidence increases, the positive effect of grit decreases. Consequently, the positive impact of a student's grittiness is observed most strongly for those students with low math confidence. We also found grit to be positively associated with the midterm score and the final grade in the course. Given the relationships established in this study among gender, grit, and math confidence, we provide "instructor actions" from the literature that can be applied in the classroom to promote the development of quantitative skills in light of our findings. © 2017 K. M. Flanagan and J. Einarson. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http
Tan, Tony Xing; Kim, Eun Sook; Baggerly, Jennifer; Mahoney, E Emily; Rice, Jessica
2017-01-01
In this study, we went beyond adoption status to examine the associations between postadoption parental involvement and children's reading and math performance from kindergarten to first grade. Secondary data on a sample of adopted children and nonadopted children were drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998 to 1999 (ECLS-K). Weighted data on the children's reading performance were available for 13,900 children (181 were adopted); weighted data on the children's math performance were available for 14,128 children (184 were adopted). Descriptive data showed no group difference in reading scores at all 3 Waves but adopted children scored lower than nonadopted children in math at Wave 2 (Spring of kindergarten) and Wave 3 (Spring of first grade). However, controlling for 6 covariates, latent growth modeling showed that adoption status was unrelated to Wave 1 reading and math scores or subsequent growth rate. Rather, parents' beliefs on skills needed to succeed in kindergarten were a significant predictor of reading and math performance at Wave 1 and subsequent growth rates, and parents' educational expectation was a significant predictor of growth rate in reading and math. Our findings highlight the importance of parental involvement in adopted children's learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Curriculum: Integrating Health and Safety Into Engineering Curricula.
Talty, John T.
1985-01-01
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health instituted a project in 1980 to encourage engineering educators to focus on occupational safety and health issues in engineering curricula. Progress to date is outlined, considering specific results in curriculum development, engineering society interaction, and formation of a teaching…
Visual and Plastic Arts in Teaching Literacy: Null Curricula?
Wakeland, Robin Gay
2010-01-01
Visual and plastic arts in contemporary literacy instruction equal null curricula. Studies show that painting and sculpture facilitate teaching reading and writing (literacy), yet such pedagogy has not been formally adopted into USA curriculum. An example of null curriculum can be found in late 19th - early 20th century education the USA…
The benefit of introducing audit software into curricula for computer ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The benefit of introducing audit software into curricula for computer auditing students: a student perspective from the University of Pretoria. ... willing to sacrifice more of their time for practical computer classes because they are aware of the beneficial impact on their understanding of the subject as well as their future careers.
Success factors of master of science curricula in business administration
Bijker, Monique; Van der Klink, Marcel; Boshuizen, Els
2010-01-01
Bijker, M. M., Van der Klink, M. R., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2010, 25-27 August). Success factors of master of science curricula in business administration. Paper presented at the 5th EARLI-SIG14, Learning and Professional Development, Munich, Germany.
Teaching the Culturally Different: A Multicultural Framework for School Curricula.
Whalon, Constance; Karr-Kidwell, PJ
A multicultural framework for school curricula directed toward the culturally different was developed for implementation of court ordered multicultural education goals at the H. S. Thompson Learning Center of the Dallas (Texas) Independent School District. The philosophy of multicultural education suggests that ethnic diversity and cultural…
Algebraic Concepts: What's Really New in New Curricula?
Star, Jon R.; Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth A.; Smith, John P., III
2000-01-01
Examines 8th grade units from the Connected Mathematics Project (CMP). Identifies differences in older and newer conceptions, fundamental objects of study, typical problems, and typical solution methods in algebra. Also discusses where the issue of what is new in algebra is relevant to many other innovative middle school curricula. (KHR)
Patient safety in undergraduate radiography curricula: A European perspective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
England, A.; Azevedo, K.B.; Bezzina, P.; Henner, A.; McNulty, J.P.
2016-01-01
Purpose: To establish an understanding of patient safety within radiography education across Europe by surveying higher education institutions registered as affiliate members of the European Federation of Radiographer Societies (EFRS). Method: An online survey was developed to ascertain data on: programme type, patient safety definitions, relevant safety topics, specific areas taught, teaching and assessment methods, levels of teaching and curriculum drivers. Responses were identifiable in terms of educational institution and country. All 54 affiliated educational institutions were invited to participate. Descriptive and thematic analyses are reported. Results: A response rate of 61.1% (n = 33) was achieved from educational institutions representing 19 countries. Patient safety topics appear to be extremely well covered across curricula, however, topics including radiation protection and optimisation were not reported as being taught at an ‘advanced level’ by five and twelve respondents, respectively. Respondents identified the clinical department as the location of most patient safety-related teaching. Conclusions: Patient safety topics are deeply embedded within radiography curricula across Europe. Variations exist in terms of individual safety topics including, teaching and assessment methods, and the depth in which subjects are taught. Results from this study provide a baseline for assessing developments in curricula and can also serve as a benchmark for comparisons. - Highlights: • First European report on patient safety (PS). • PS deeply embedded within training curricula. • Terms and definitions largely consistent. • Some variety in the delivery and assessment methods. • Report provides baseline and opportunities for comparisons.
The Status of Fluid Mechanics in Bioengineering Curricula.
Miller, Gerald E.; Hyman, William A.
1981-01-01
Describes the status of fluid mechanics courses in bioengineering curricula. A survey of institutions offering bioengineering degrees indicates that over half do not require fluid mechanics courses. Suggests increasing number of mechanics courses to increase the quality of bioengineering students and to prepare students for graduate work and more…
Matrices to Revise Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Curricula
Savin, Mary C.; Longer, David; Miller, David M.
2005-01-01
Undergraduate curricula for natural resource and agronomic programs have been introduced and revised during the past several decades with a desire to stay current with emerging issues and technologies relevant to constituents. For the past decade, the Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences (CSES) faculty at the University of Arkansas…
Assessment of a Bioinformatics across Life Science Curricula Initiative
Howard, David R.; Miskowski, Jennifer A.; Grunwald, Sandra K.; Abler, Michael L.
2007-01-01
At the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, we have undertaken a program to integrate the study of bioinformatics across the undergraduate life science curricula. Our efforts have included incorporating bioinformatics exercises into courses in the biology, microbiology, and chemistry departments, as well as coordinating the efforts of faculty within…
Chinese Curricula of Medical Science in the Context of Globalization
Zeng, Jinyuan
2018-01-01
As China runs towards the forefront of global economic power, people begin to pay growing attention to the quality of life and medical education that play a significant role in sustaining the development by providing healthier labor force. It is evident that in the process of globalization new curricula in line with international standards top…
A Model for the Development of University Curricula in Nanoelectronics
Bruun, E.; Nielsen, I.
2010-01-01
Nanotechnology is having an increasing impact on university curricula in electrical engineering and in physics. Major influencers affecting developments in university programmes related to nanoelectronics are discussed and a model for university programme development is described. The model takes into account that nanotechnology affects not only…
Curricula and Organization of Primary Care Residencies in Internal Medicine.
Eisenberg, John M.
1980-01-01
The organization and curricula of internal medicine residencies programs that emphasize primary care are described and compared with traditional residencies in internal medicine. It is noted that primary care residents spend more time in ambulatory care and are allowed more electives in specialties outside of internal medicine. Out-of-hospital…
Honors Thesis Preparation: Evidence of the Benefits of Structured Curricula
Engel, Steven
2016-01-01
A recent study of honors curricula across the nation indicates that 75.6% of honors programs and colleges at four-year institutions have thesis or capstone requirements (Savage and Cognard-Black). In addition to institutions with thesis requirements, many more also have the option for students to complete theses. For example, an earlier study…
Importance of Cross-Cultural Counseling in Rehabilitation Counseling Curricula.
Watson, Albert L.
1988-01-01
Ninety-one members of the National Council on Rehabilitation Education were surveyed concerning the level of importance placed on cross-cultural content in rehabilitation counselor education curricula. Respondents rated 27 of 32 cross-cultural educational offerings as important, and identified seven additional offerings. Respondents' demographic…
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, or intersexed content for nursing curricula.
Brennan, Ann Marie Walsh; Barnsteiner, Jane; Siantz, Mary Lou de Leon; Cotter, Valeri T; Everett, Janine
2012-01-01
There has been limited identification of core lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, or intersexed (LGBTI) experience concepts that should be included in the nursing curricula. This article addresses the gap in the literature. To move nursing toward the goals of health equity and cultural humility in practice, education, and research, nursing curricula must integrate core LGBTI concepts, experiences, and needs related to health and illness. This article reviews LGBTI health care literature to address the attitudes, knowledge, and skills needed to address curricular gaps and provide content suggestions for inclusion in nursing curricula. Also considered is the need to expand nursing students' definition of diversity before discussing the interplay between nurses' attitudes and culturally competent care provided to persons who are LGBTI. Knowledge needed includes a life span perspective that addresses developmental needs and their impact on health concerns throughout the life course; health promotion and disease prevention with an articulation of unique health issues for this population; mental health concerns; specific health needs of transgender and intersex individuals; barriers to health care; interventions and resources including Internet sites; and legal and policy issues. Particular assessment and communication skills for LGBTI patients are identified. Finally, there is a discussion of didactic, simulation, and clinical strategies for incorporating this content into nursing curricula at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Inclusion of disability-related content in nurse practitioner curricula.
Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Blunt, Elizabeth; Marozsan, Heather; Wetzel-Effinger, Lisa
2015-04-01
To examine the integration of disability-content in a national sample of nurse practitioner curricula. Responses of National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties (NONPF) members to an online 34-item survey designed to assess disability-related content included in nurse practitioner (NP) curricula; populations of people with disabilities addressed; models of disability; and resources used to teach about disability, facilitators and barriers to inclusion of disability, and respondents' assessment of the adequacy of coverage of disability in their programs. A survey used previously to assess integration of disability content in undergraduate nursing programs was modified to make it relevant to NP curricula. Nursing faculty and people with disability validated the survey to ensure its completeness and sensitivity to the disability community. Participating programs represent 111 (33.6%) NP programs. Lack of disability-related content reported by NP faculty in the majority of programs suggests that there is considerable room for improvement in efforts to address this often vulnerable population. Because people with disabilities can be found in any setting where health care is provided, all NPs need to be prepared to care for people with disabilities across the life span. Strategies need to be developed and implemented to increase the awareness of NP faculty about the health issues of people with disabilities and integration of disability-related content without disrupting existing overloaded NP curricula. © 2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Developing Holocaust Curricula: The Content Decision-Making Process
Lindquist, David H.
2008-01-01
The content decision-making process involved in developing Holocaust curricula is unusually complex and problematic. Educators must consider factors such as historical accuracy, selection of topics covered, potential teaching materials (such as textbooks and literary texts), and graphic materials (such as films and photographs) as they plan their…
Engineering Faculty Attitudes to General Chemistry Courses in Engineering Curricula
Garip, Mehmet; Erdil, Erzat; Bilsel, Ayhan
2006-01-01
A survey on the attitudes of engineering faculty to chemistry, physics, and mathematics was conducted with the aim of clarifying the attitudes of engineering faculty to chemistry courses in relation to engineering education or curricula and assessing their expectations. The results confirm that on the whole chemistry is perceived as having a…
Sustainability Champions? Academic Identities and Sustainability Curricula in Higher Education
Wood, Bronwyn E.; Cornforth, Sue; Beals, Fiona; Taylor, Mike; Tallon, Rachel
2016-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of academic staff who are committed to embedding sustainability within tertiary curricula and pedagogy. Design/Methodology/Approach: The focus of this paper is on a New Zealand university. A survey of staff was undertaken and in-depth interviews conducted with 11 sustainability…
The Current Landscape of the School Librarianship Curricula in USA
Yi, Kwan; Turner, Ralph
2014-01-01
The current landscape of the School Librarianship educational programs and curricula of master's degrees in the USA has been explored. The master's programs are currently offered in the following four venues: (1) programs that are American Library Association (ALA) accredited but not American Association of School Librarians (AASL) recognized,…
The Use of Virtual Patients in Medical School Curricula
Cendan, Juan; Lok, Benjamin
2012-01-01
The demonstration of patient-based cases using automated technology [virtual patients (VPs)] has been available to health science educators for a number of decades. Despite the promise of VPs as an easily accessible and moldable platform, their widespread acceptance and integration into medical curricula have been slow. Here, the authors review…
Teaching intellectual production of the math institute/ufgrs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniela Gralha de Caneda Queiroz
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Introduction: The present study is a bibliometric research whose purpose is the evaluation of teaching production of the Statistics Department (DEST and the Pure and Applied Math Department (DMPA of the Math Institute (IM of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, concerning of the articles published only in web journals between 2007 and 2011. Objective: The specific goals of this study are: an individual analysis of productivity of the articles by author, a verification of the Qualis and the origin of the journal and an evaluation of the level of collaboration among authors and institutions. Methodology: It’s a study of bibliometrics with a qualitative approach using a questionnaire, and the answers were analyzed in the form of graphics, tables and others. Results: The results show 177 articles, and DEST (64,4% has a bigger production than DMPA (35,6%. Most of the Qualis of the articles are B1 (27,11%, B2 (16,38% e A2 (15,81%. Foreign journals (62% appears more than Brazilian (38%. Conclusion: The study shows that IM/UFRGS teachers are part of an impressive academic network. There’s a good level of collaboration, most of the part with national institutions. The results also suggests new studies to find unanswered questions.
Copywriting, Internships Lead Ad Curricula Changes.
Agee, Warren K.
1979-01-01
Findings from a national study of 113 schools show that more copywriting and internship courses have been added to advertising school programs than courses in any other subject areas. Among supporting courses, marketing has been most frequently added as a requirement. (RL)
Enhancing Sustainability Curricula through Faculty Learning Communities
Natkin, L. W.; Kolbe, Tammy
2016-01-01
Purpose: Although the number of higher education institutions adopting sustainability-focused faculty learning communities (FLCs) has grown, very few of these programs have published evaluation research. This paper aims to report findings from an evaluation of the University of Vermont's (UVM's) sustainability faculty fellows (SFF) program. It…
Tsui, Joanne M.; Mazzocco, Michèle M. M.
2009-01-01
This study was designed to examine the effects of math anxiety and perfectionism on math performance, under timed testing conditions, among mathematically gifted sixth graders. We found that participants had worse math performance during timed versus untimed testing, but this difference was statistically significant only when the timed condition preceded the untimed condition. We also found that children with higher levels of either math anxiety or perfectionism had a smaller performance discrepancy during timed versus untimed testing, relative to children with lower levels of math anxiety or perfectionism. There were no statistically significant gender differences in overall test performance, nor in levels of math anxiety or perfectionism; however, the difference between performance on timed and untimed math testing was statistically significant for girls, but not for boys. Implications for educators are discussed. PMID:20084180
Jakku-Sihvonen, Ritva; Tissari, Varpu; Ots, Aivar; Uusiautti, Satu
2012-01-01
During the Bologna process, from 2003 to 2006, degree programmes, including teacher education curricula, were developed in line with the two-tier system--the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) and modularization. The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the development of teacher education profiling measures by…
Arnold, Ivo J. M.; Rowaan, Wietske
2014-01-01
In this study, the authors investigate the relationships among gender, math skills, motivation, and study success in economics and econometrics. They find that female students have stronger intrinsic motivation, yet lower study confidence than their male counterparts. They also find weak evidence for a gender gap over the entire first-year…
Kanter, David E.
2010-01-01
Project-based science curricula can improve students' usable or meaningful understanding of the science content underlying a project. However, such curricula designed around "performances" wherein students design or make something do not always do this. We researched ways to design performance project-based science curricula (pPBSc) to better…
Chowthi-Williams, Annette
2018-02-01
Curricula change in nurse education is of international importance. The pace of such change has been continuous and has triggered criticisms of inadequate preparation of practitioners. There are no change formulae for managing curricula change and despite a raft of change methods, globally change success remains low. A lack of a unified voice, undue focus on cognition, and arguably no existing models for academia and a literature gap contribute to change challenge. A new Change Management Model designed from research with emotion as its underpinning philosophy is evaluated. Evaluation of a newly designed Change Management Model through a real time pre-registration health care curricula change. A qualitative case study was adopted. The single case study was the new pre-registration health care curricula. This study took place in a Faculty of Health and Social care in one HEI in the UK. Four senior academics and fifteen academics across professions and specialisms involved in the curricula change took part in the study. The findings suggested that leadership operated differently throughout the organisation. Distributive and collective leadership created a critical mass of people to help deliver the new curricula but academics felt excluded at the strategic level. Emotion at the strategic level inhibited innovation but boosted engagement, emotional relationships and creativity at the operational level. Face to face communication was favoured for its emotional connection. A top down approach created an emotional disconnect and impacted inclusiveness, engagement, empowerment, vision and readiness for change. Testing the new model widely not only in organisations, practice and team changes but personal change in improving health and wellbeing could be beneficial. The continuing gap in knowledge on the link between emotion and curricula change, practice and organisational change and therapeutic value of the model also warrants further research. Crown Copyright © 2017
Consumerism 2: preregistration nursing and midwifery curricula.
Fox, Jane
This article, the second of two parts, presents findings from a four-stage study exploring the extent to which consumerism and its related aspects have been incorporated into the preregistration nursing and midwifery curriculum. The study was undertaken in recognition that NHS policy (as considered in the first article: Vol 12(5): 321-6) increasingly gave emphasis to the development of a health service that was more consumer and user focused. The study involved use of a Delphi panel, postal questionnaire, review of curriculum documentation, and timetables, together with a small focused group discussion. Findings indicate some aspects relevant to consumerism in health care, e.g. communication and ethical principles were included in the curriculum. Other aspects, such as advocacy, quality assurance, and lay health beliefs, were viewed logically from the perspective of the professional role. In essence, no curriculum transparently addressed consumerism in a central and focused way, although midwifery--and to some extent mental health, learning disabilities, and child branches--gave more overt attention to consumerism than adult branches.
Deacon, Mary M.
2011-01-01
Despite initiatives to increase and broaden participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, women remain underrepresented in STEM. While U.S. girls and women perform as well as, if not better, than boys and men in math, research results indicate that there are significant declines in girls' math self-efficacy,…
Math Description Engine Software Development Kit
Shelton, Robert O.; Smith, Stephanie L.; Dexter, Dan E.; Hodgson, Terry R.
2010-01-01
The Math Description Engine Software Development Kit (MDE SDK) can be used by software developers to make computer-rendered graphs more accessible to blind and visually-impaired users. The MDE SDK generates alternative graph descriptions in two forms: textual descriptions and non-verbal sound renderings, or sonification. It also enables display of an animated trace of a graph sonification on a visual graph component, with color and line-thickness options for users having low vision or color-related impairments. A set of accessible graphical user interface widgets is provided for operation by end users and for control of accessible graph displays. Version 1.0 of the MDE SDK generates text descriptions for 2D graphs commonly seen in math and science curriculum (and practice). The mathematically rich text descriptions can also serve as a virtual math and science assistant for blind and sighted users, making graphs more accessible for everyone. The MDE SDK has a simple application programming interface (API) that makes it easy for programmers and Web-site developers to make graphs accessible with just a few lines of code. The source code is written in Java for cross-platform compatibility and to take advantage of Java s built-in support for building accessible software application interfaces. Compiled-library and NASA Open Source versions are available with API documentation and Programmer s Guide at http:/ / prim e.jsc.n asa. gov.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Georgios Fesakis
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Seeking a systematic combination of the pedagogical model of m-learning with the Realistic Mathematics Education (RME approach, this study concerns the use of math trail as a learning activity model that can take the advantages of mobile computing devices for the design of effective learning experiences in an authentic context. The paper presents the design and the case study of the first pilot implementation of a math trail, using mobile devices for primary school students. In this math trail, the students are guided, through a digital map, to a sequence of preselected sites of a park where they solve specially designed math problems using data from the environmental context. The students measure real objects’ dimensions either with conventional instruments or by measurement applications of their tablet. According to the findings of the study, students solved the puzzles by applying mathematical knowledge, discussion and collaboration. The students applied and reinforced their knowledge through an effective and engaging learning activity. Moreover, the students were puzzled about the differences of the measurements by conventional and digital instruments and this confusion triggered social negotiation. Further research is needed for a grounded theory development about m-learning design for RME.
Hands-On Math and Art Exhibition Promoting Science Attitudes and Educational Plans
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Helena Thuneberg
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The current science, technology, engineering, art, math education (STEAM approach emphasizes integration of abstract science and mathematical ideas for concrete solutions by art. The main aim was to find out how experience of learning mathematics differed between the contexts of school and an informal Math and Art Exhibition. The study participants (N=256 were 12-13 years old from Finland. Several valid questionnaires and tests were applied (e.g., SRQ-A, RAVEN in pre- and postdesign showing a good reliability. The results based on General Linear Modeling and Structural Equation Path Modeling underline the motivational effects. The experience of the effectiveness of hands-on learning at school and at the exhibition was not consistent across the subgroups. The lowest achieving group appreciated the exhibition alternative for math learning compared to learning math at school. The boys considered the exhibition to be more useful than the girls as it fostered their science and technology attitudes. However, for the girls, the attractiveness of the exhibition, the experienced situation motivation, was much more strongly connected to the attitudes on science and technology and the worthiness of mathematics. Interestingly, the pupils experienced that even this short informal learning intervention affected their science and technology attitudes and educational plans.
Häfner, Isabelle; Flunger, Barbara; Dicke, Anna-Lena; Gaspard, Hanna; Brisson, Brigitte M; Nagengast, Benjamin; Trautwein, Ulrich
2017-08-01
Using a cluster randomized field trial, the present study tested whether 2 relevance interventions affected students' value beliefs, self-concept, and effort in math differently depending on family background (socioeconomic status, family interest (FI), and parental utility value). Eighty-two classrooms were randomly assigned to either 1 of 2 intervention conditions or a control group. Data from 1,916 students (M age = 14.62, SD age = 0.47) and their predominantly Caucasian middle-class parents were obtained via separate questionnaires. Multilevel regression analyses with cross-level interactions were used to investigate differential intervention effects on students' motivational beliefs 6 weeks and 5 months after the intervention. Socioeconomic status, FI, and parental utility values were investigated as moderators of the intervention effects. The intervention conditions were especially effective in promoting students' utility, attainment, intrinsic value beliefs, and effort 5 months after the intervention for students whose parents reported lower levels of math interest. Furthermore, students whose parents reported low math utility values especially profited in terms of their utility and attainment math values 5 months after the intervention. No systematic differential intervention effects were found for socioeconomic status. These results highlight the effectiveness of relevance interventions in decreasing motivational gaps between students from families with fewer or more motivational resources. Findings point to the substantial importance of motivational family resources, which have been neglected in previous research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Does breastfeeding contribute to the racial gap in reading and math test scores?
Peters, Kristen E; Huang, Jin; Vaughn, Michael G; Witko, Christopher
2013-10-01
The aim of this study was to examine the impact of divergent breastfeeding practices between Caucasian and African American mothers on the lingering achievement test gap between Caucasian and African American children. The Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, beginning in 1997, followed a cohort of 3563 children aged 0-12 years. Reading and math test scores from 2002 for 1928 children were linked with breastfeeding history. Regression analysis was used to examine associations between ever having been breastfed and duration of breastfeeding and test scores, controlling for characteristics of child, mother, and household. African American students scored significantly lower than Caucasian children by 10.6 and 10.9 points on reading and math tests, respectively. After accounting for the impact of having been breastfed during infancy, the racial test gap decreased by 17% for reading scores and 9% for math scores. Study findings indicate that breastfeeding explains 17% and 9% of the observed gaps in reading and math scores, respectively, between African Americans and Caucasians, an effect larger than most recent educational policy interventions. Renewed efforts around policies and clinical practices that promote and remove barriers for African American mothers to breastfeed should be implemented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The impact of metacognitive strategies and self-regulating processes of solving math word problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eda Vula
2017-09-01
Full Text Available This empirical study investigates the impact of metacognitive strategies and self-regulating processes in learners’ achievement on solving math word problems. It specifically analyzes the impact of the linguistic factor and the number of steps and arithmetical operations that learners need to apply during the process of solving math word problems. Two hundred sixty-three learners, of three classes of third graders (N=130 and four classes of fifth graders (N=133 of the elementary cycle from two urban schools of Kosovo, participated in the study. Almost half of the total number of the third and fifth-graderswere exposed to metacognitive instruction. The rest of the learners were included in control classes in which they performed tasks without having been given any specific guidance, based exclusively on traditional methods and respective textbooks. All the learners were tested in math word problems twice, before the intervention and after it. Research findings have shown that metacognitive strategies and self-regulating processes that learners use to control their actions, to reason, and to reflect, are one of the main resources that influence their success in solving a math word problem. Although the difference between the pre-test and the post-test resultswas statistically significant solely with the fifth-grade experimental classes, yet an improved performance was observed in third-grade experimental learners’ classes compared to control classes. Theoretical and practical implications of the research are discussed in the end of the study.
Degol, Jessica L; Wang, Ming-Te; Zhang, Ya; Allerton, Julie
2018-05-01
Despite efforts to increase female representation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), females continue to be less motivated to pursue STEM careers than males. A short-term longitudinal study used a sample of 1449 high school students (grades 9-12; 49% females) to examine pathways from gender and mindset onto STEM outcomes via motivational beliefs (i.e., expectancy beliefs, task value, and cost). Mindset, motivational beliefs, and STEM career aspirations were assessed between the fall and winter months of the 2014-2015 school year and math grades were obtained at the conclusion of the same year. Student growth mindset beliefs predicted higher task values in math. Task values also mediated the pathway from a growth mindset to higher STEM career aspirations. Expectancy beliefs mediated the pathway between gender and math achievement. This mediated pathway was stronger for females than for males, such that females had higher math achievement than males when they endorsed a growth mindset. Findings suggest possible avenues for improving female's interest in STEM.
The Deubiquitylase MATH-33 Controls DAF-16 Stability and Function in Metabolism and Longevity.
Heimbucher, Thomas; Liu, Zheng; Bossard, Carine; McCloskey, Richard; Carrano, Andrea C; Riedel, Christian G; Tanasa, Bogdan; Klammt, Christian; Fonslow, Bryan R; Riera, Celine E; Lillemeier, Bjorn F; Kemphues, Kenneth; Yates, John R; O'Shea, Clodagh; Hunter, Tony; Dillin, Andrew
2015-07-07
FOXO family transcription factors are downstream effectors of Insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) and major determinants of aging in organisms ranging from worms to man. The molecular mechanisms that actively promote DAF16/FOXO stability and function are unknown. Here we identify the deubiquitylating enzyme MATH-33 as an essential DAF-16 regulator in IIS, which stabilizes active DAF-16 protein levels and, as a consequence, influences DAF-16 functions, such as metabolism, stress response, and longevity in C. elegans. MATH-33 associates with DAF-16 in cellulo and in vitro. MATH-33 functions as a deubiquitylase by actively removing ubiquitin moieties from DAF-16, thus counteracting the action of the RLE-1 E3-ubiquitin ligase. Our findings support a model in which MATH-33 promotes DAF-16 stability in response to decreased IIS by directly modulating its ubiquitylation state, suggesting that regulated oscillations in the stability of DAF-16 protein play an integral role in controlling processes such as metabolism and longevity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hoepner, Cynthia Colon
President Obama has recently raised awareness on the need for our nation to grow a larger pool of students with knowledge in science mathematics, engineering, and technology (STEM). Currently, while the number of women pursuing college degrees continues to rise, there remains an under-representation of women in STEM majors across the country. Although research studies offer several contributing factors that point to a higher attrition rate of women in STEM than their male counterparts, no study has investigated the role that high school advanced placement (AP) math and science courses play in preparing students for the challenges of college STEM courses. The purpose of this study was to discover which AP math and science courses and/or influential factors could encourage more students, particularly females, to consider pursuing STEM fields in college. Further, this study examined which, if any, AP math or science courses positively contribute to a student's overall preparation for college STEM courses. This retrospective study combined quantitative and qualitative research methods. The survey sample consisted of 881 UCLA female and male students pursuing STEM majors. Qualitative data was gathered from four single-gender student focus groups, two female groups (15 females) and two male groups (16 males). This study examined which AP math and science courses students took in high school, who or what influenced them to take those courses, and which particular courses influenced student's choice of STEM major and/or best prepared her/him for the challenges of STEM courses. Findings reveal that while AP math and science course-taking patterns are similar of female and male STEM students, a significant gender-gap remains in five of the eleven AP courses. Students report four main influences on their choice of AP courses; self, desire for math/science major, higher grade point average or class rank, and college admissions. Further, three AP math and science courses were
Primary maths anyone can feed skittles to sharks
Tiley-Nunn, Nick
2014-01-01
Primary maths is stereotypically loved by a few hairy oddballs, tolerated by most sane primary practitioners; loathed by many. With the right approach, however; the right mindset and sense of the impossible being achievable, maths can be moulded into the diamond in the rough of the primary curriculum. Enter Nick Tiley-Nunn: Britain's most imaginative, most exciting primary maths specialist. Over years of practice he has generated ideas about the teaching of maths that are so distinct, so far out and so utterly brilliant that any primary teacher struggling to grasp the nettle of teaching long division will emerge from communing with his ideas not just with some clichéd sense that maths can be fun', but that it can be brilliant, life-enhancing and truly hilarious. This book presents ideas for primary maths teaching so wildly creative and so full of the joy of life that any classroom of kids will be grateful you read it.
Metacognition and Confidence: Comparing Math to Other Academic Subjects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shanna eErickson
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Two studies addressed student metacognition in math, measuring confidence accuracy about math performance. Underconfidence would be expected in light of pervasive math anxiety. However, one might alternatively expect overconfidence based on previous results showing overconfidence in other subject domains. Metacognitive judgments and performance were assessed for biology, literature, and mathematics tests. In Study 1, high school students took three different tests and provided estimates of their performance both before and after taking each test. In Study 2, undergraduates similarly took three shortened SAT II Subject Tests. Students were overconfident in predicting math performance, indeed showing greater overconfidence compared to other academic subjects. It appears that both overconfidence and anxiety can adversely affect metacognitive ability and can lead to math avoidance. The results have implications for educational practice and other environments that require extensive use of math.
Bozick, Robert; Malchiodi, Alessandro; Miller, Trey
2016-10-01
Using a nationally representative sample of 1,189 immigrant youth in American high schools, we examine whether the quality of education in their country of origin is related to post-migration math achievement in the 9th grade. To measure the quality of their education in the country of origin, we use country-specific average test scores from two international assessments: the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). We find that the average PISA or TIMSS scores for immigrant youth's country of origin are positively associated with their performance on the 9th grade post-migration math assessment. We also find that each year spent in the United States is positively associated with performance on the 9th grade post-migration math assessment, but this effect is strongest for immigrants from countries with low PISA/TIMSS scores.
Torabi, Mohammad R; Tao, Ran; Jay, Stephen J; Olcott, Courtney
2011-05-01
Chronic diseases are currently the major cause of death and disability worldwide. Addressing the main causes of chronic diseases from a preventive perspective is imperative for half ing a continual increase in premature deaths. Physicians occupy a unique position to assist individuals with chronic disease prevention. Hence, medical school is an opportunity to prepare physicians for preventive interventions with patients at risk for developing chronic diseases. This study asserts that education on chronic disease prevention that targets tobacco cessation/prevention, nutrition/ diet, and exercise physiology/fitness is a key aspect of medical school curricula. However, many US medical schools do not include all 3 components in their curricula. This study investigates the extent to which medical school curricula include the above 3 areas. Two methods were utilized for the study: (1) a cross-sectional survey was given to the associate dean of academic affairs of 129 US medical schools and (2) relevant data were retrieved from the Association of American Medical Colleges. Findings support the notion that medical schools are in need of increased curricula covering tobacco prevention/cessation, nutrition/diet, and exercise physiology/fitness. Results indicate that exercise physiology/fitness was the area receiving the least attention in medical schools. Ultimately, this study's purpose was to provide a basis for determining whether inclusion of these 3 subjects in medical school curricula has any significant effect on training future doctors to meet the needs of growing numbers of individuals with chronic disease.
Cancer: Implications for pre-registration radiography curricula
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paterson, Audrey
2012-01-01
The aim of this paper is to discuss pre-registration radiography education curricula in the context of cancer, changing healthcare delivery in the UK, and the considerable interaction of radiographers with people with cancer. The fitness for purpose of the long-standing curriculum model of alternating academic and clinical learning experiences is questioned and a view expressed that it is no longer sufficient to prepare student radiographers for practice and as professionals. A suggestion is made that curricula should be aligned with cancer (and other) care pathways although it is recognised that such a change would be difficult. It is concluded that the profession should explore what is the appropriate curriculum model given the development of the care pathway approach to healthcare delivery, and, if appropriate, make changes based on research evidence.
Concept-Based Curricula: A National Study of Critical Concepts.
Brussow, Jennifer A; Roberts, Karin; Scaruto, Matthew; Sommer, Sheryl; Mills, Christine
2018-02-22
As nursing education struggles to address a rapidly changing health care system, overcrowded curricula, and an increased focus on clinical reasoning skills, many programs have adopted or transitioned to concept-based curricula (CBCs), which are structured around key concepts and exemplars. Despite CBC's promised benefits, the process of developing a CBC framework may pose a challenge to programs. To address this barrier, a national study was conducted to develop a representative list of concepts and exemplars. This initiative expands on prior work by suggesting a leveled approach to positioning exemplars within a curricular sequence.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.
Metacognitive awareness and math anxiety in gifted students
Hakan Sarıcam; Üzeyir Ogurlu
2015-01-01
The basic purpose of this study has been to examine the relationships between metacognitive awareness and maths anxiety in gifted students. The second aim was to compare with gifted and non-gifted students’ metacognitive awareness and maths anxiety levels. The participants were 300 (150 gifted, 150 non-gifted) volunteer secondary school students in Turkey. The mean age of the participants was 12.56 years ranging from 12 to 13 years. For gathering data, the Maths Anxiety Scale for Elementary S...
Insecure attachment is associated with math anxiety in middle childhood
Bosmans, Guy; De Smedt, Bert
2015-01-01
Children?s anxiety for situations requiring mathematical problem solving, a concept referred to as math anxiety, has a unique and detrimental impact on concurrent and long-term mathematics achievement and life success. Little is known about the factors that contribute to the emergence of math anxiety. The current study builds on the hypothesis that math anxiety might reflect a maladaptive affect regulation mechanism that is characteristic for insecure attachment relationships. To test this hy...
What to Do About Canada's Declining Math Scores?
Anna Stokke
2015-01-01
The declining performance of Canadian students on international math assessments should worry Canadians and their provincial governments. Strong mathematics knowledge is required for success in the workforce, and early achievement in math is one of the best predictors of later academic success and future career options. Between 2003 and 2012, all but two Canadian provinces showed statistically significant declines in math scores on international exams administered by the Organization for Econ...
Rodriguez Flecha, Samuel
The purpose of this study was to examine high school students' math values, perceived math achievement, and STEM career choice. Participants (N=515) were rural high school students from the U.S. Northwest. Data was collected by administering the "To Do or Not to Do:" STEM pilot survey. Most participants (n=294) were Latinos, followed by Caucasians (n=142). Fifty-three percent of the students rated their math achievement as C or below. Of high math students, 57% were male. Females were 53% of low math students. Caucasians (61%) rated themselves as high in math in a greater proportion than Latinos (39%). Latinos (58%) rated themselves as low in math in a greater proportion than Caucasians (39%). Math Values play a significant role in students' perceived math achievement. Internal math values (r =.68, R2 =.46, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.70, R2 =.49, p =.001; females: r =.65, R2 =.43, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.66, R2 =.44, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.72, R2 =.51, p =.001). External math values (r =.53, R2 =.28, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.54, R2 =.30, p =.001; females: r =.49, R2 =.24, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.47, R2 =.22, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.58, R2 =.33, p =.001). Most high-math students indicated an awareness of being good at math at around 11 years old. Low-math students said that they realized that math was difficult for them at approximately 13 years of age. The influence of parents, teachers, and peers may vary at different academic stages. Approximately half of the participants said there was not a person who had significantly impacted their career choice; only a minority said their parents and teachers were influencing them to a STEM career. Parents and teachers are the most influential relationships in students' career choice. More exposure to STEM role models and in a variety of professions is needed. Possible strategies to impact students
Thoughts About Nursing Curricula: Dark Clouds and Bright Lights.
Turkel, Marian C; Fawcett, Jacqueline; Amankwaa, Linda; Clarke, Pamela N; Dee, Vivien; Eustace, Rosemary; Hansell, Phyllis Shanley; Jones, Dorothy A; Smith, Marlaine C; Zahourek, Rothlyn
2018-04-01
In this essay, several nurse scholars who are particularly concerned about the contemporary state of nursing science present their concerns about the inclusion of nursing conceptual models and theories in the curricula of nursing programs (dark clouds) and ways in which the concerns have been addressed (bright lights). This essay is the second of two essays that were catalyzed by Barrett's paper, "Again, What Is Nursing Science?" The first essay was published in the previous issue of Nursing Science Quarterly.
Financial Education Through Mathematics and IT Curricula: Pocket Money Management
Gortcheva, Iordanka
2013-01-01
Report published in the Proceedings of the National Conference on "Education in the Information Society", Plovdiv, May, 2013 Mathematics and IT classes in the Bulgarian school provide various opportunities for developing students’ logical, mathematical, and technological thinking. Being an important part of mathematical literacy, financial literacy can be systematically built in the frame of national mathematics and IT curricula. Following that objective, exemplary word problems ...
Simulation in Occupational Therapy Curricula: A literature review.
Bennett, Sally; Rodger, Sylvia; Fitzgerald, Cate; Gibson, Libby
2017-08-01
Simulated learning experiences are increasingly being used in health-care education to enhance student engagement and provide experiences that reflect clinical practice; however, simulation has not been widely investigated in occupational therapy curricula. The aim of this paper was to: (i) describe the existing research about the use and evaluation of simulation over the last three decades in occupational therapy curricula and (ii) consider how simulation has been used to develop competence in students. A literature review was undertaken with searches of MEDLINE, CINAHL and ERIC to locate articles that described or evaluated the use of simulation in occupational therapy curricula. Fifty-seven papers were identified. Occupational therapy educators have used the full scope of simulation modalities, including written case studies (22), standardised patients (13), video case studies (15), computer-based and virtual reality cases (7), role-play (8) and mannequins and part-task trainers (4). Ten studies used combinations of these modalities and two papers compared modalities. Most papers described the use of simulation for foundational courses, as for preparation for fieldwork, and to address competencies necessary for newly graduating therapists. The majority of studies were descriptive, used pre-post design, or were student's perceptions of the value of simulation. Simulation-based education has been used for a wide range of purposes in occupational therapy curricula and appears to be well received. Randomised controlled trials are needed to more accurately understand the effects of simulation not just for occupational therapy students but for longer term outcomes in clinical practice. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Cognitive consistency and math-gender stereotypes in Singaporean children.
Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Kapur, Manu
2014-01-01
In social psychology, cognitive consistency is a powerful principle for organizing psychological concepts. There have been few tests of cognitive consistency in children and no research about cognitive consistency in children from Asian cultures, who pose an interesting developmental case. A sample of 172 Singaporean elementary school children completed implicit and explicit measures of math-gender stereotype (male=math), gender identity (me=male), and math self-concept (me=math). Results showed strong evidence for cognitive consistency; the strength of children's math-gender stereotypes, together with their gender identity, significantly predicted their math self-concepts. Cognitive consistency may be culturally universal and a key mechanism for developmental change in social cognition. We also discovered that Singaporean children's math-gender stereotypes increased as a function of age and that boys identified with math more strongly than did girls despite Singaporean girls' excelling in math. The results reveal both cultural universals and cultural variation in developing social cognition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A Correlation of Community College Math Readiness and Student Success
Brown, Jayna Nicole
Although traditional college students are more prepared for college-level math based on college admissions tests, little data have been collected on nontraditional adult learners. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between math placement tests and community college students' success in math courses and persistence to degree or certificate completion. Guided by Tinto's theory of departure and student retention, the research questions addressed relationships and predictability of math Computer-adaptive Placement Assessment and Support System (COMPASS) test scores and students' performance in math courses, persistence in college, and degree completion. After conducting correlation and regression analyses, no significant relationships were identified between COMPASS Math test scores and students' performance (n = 234) in math courses, persistence in college, or degree completion. However, independent t test and chi-squared analyses of the achievements of college students who tested into Basic Math (n = 138) vs. Introduction to Algebra (n = 96) yielded statistically significant differences in persistence (p = .039), degree completion (p college students' math competencies and degree achievement.
Networked curricula: fostering transnational partnership in open and distance learning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
María Luz Cacheiro-González
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Transnational Networked Curricula (TNC provides many benefits to the institutions that offer them as well as to the different stakeholders involved, not only the students but also the academics, the institutions as a whole, and the wider society. Supporting Higher Education Institutions in enhancing and implementing international networked practices in virtual campus building is the main aim of the NetCU project, which has been developed by the EADTU, in partnership with 14 member organizations, from 2009 to 2012. The project outcomes intend to facilitate the future set-up of networked curricula in Higher Education institutions and potentially lead to more transnational partnerships in Open and Distance Education (ODE and blended learning, showing challenges, obstacles and ways to overcome them. This paper presents the main products developed in the project, assesses its completeness and usage, and discusses on the challenges of curricula networking starting from the ideas and opinions shared in different stakeholders workshops organized under the NetCU project.
Anchoring interprofessional education in undergraduate curricula: The Heidelberg story.
Berger, Sarah; Goetz, Katja; Leowardi-Bauer, Christina; Schultz, Jobst-Hendrik; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Mahler, Cornelia
2017-03-01
The ability of health professionals to collaborate effectively has significant potential impact on patient safety and quality-care outcomes, especially given the increasingly complex and dynamic clinical practice environments of today. Educators of the health professions are faced with an immediate challenge to adapt curricula and traditional teaching methods to ensure graduates are equipped with the necessary interprofessional competencies and (inter)professional values for their future practice. The World Health Organization's "Framework for action in interprofessional education (IPE) and collaborative practice" promotes IPE as a key strategy to enhance patient outcomes by preparing a "collaborative practice-ready health workforce." Logistical and attitudinal barriers can hinder integration of IPE into curricula. Lessons learned through the implementation of a planned change to establish four interprofessional seminars (team communication, medical error communication, healthcare English, and small business management) at Heidelberg University Medical Faculty, Germany, are described. A key factor in successfully anchoring IPE seminars in the undergraduate curricula was the structured approach drawing on change management concepts.
Block, Shannon S; Tooley, Trevor R; Nagy, Matthew R; O'Sullivan, Molly P; Robinson, Leah E; Colabianchi, Natalie; Hasson, Rebecca E
2018-02-27
The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of video game breaks and intermittent exercise breaks, performed at varying intensities, on math performance in preadolescent children. A total of 39 children (18 males and 21 females; aged 7-11 y) completed 4 experimental conditions in random order: 8 hours of sitting interrupted with 20 two-minute low-, moderate-, or high-intensity exercise breaks or 20 two-minute sedentary computer game breaks. The intensity of exercise breaks for the low-, moderate-, and high-intensity conditions corresponded with 25%, 50%, and 75% of heart rate reserve, respectively. Math performance was assessed 3 times throughout each condition day using a 90-second math test consisting of 40 single-digit addition and subtraction questions. There were no significant differences in percent change in math scores (correct answers out of attempted) by condition [low: -1.3 (0.8), moderate: 0.1 (1.3), high: -1.8 (0.7), and computer: -2.5 (0.8); P > .05]. There were significant differences in percent change in math scores over the course of the condition days with lower math scores reported at end-of-day test compared with midday test [-2.4 (0.5) vs -0.4 (0.3); P = .01]. There were no significant condition × time, time × age, condition × age, or condition × time × age interactions (all Ps > .05). Action-based video game and exercise breaks elicit the same level of math performance in children; however, time of day may impact this relationship. These findings may have important implications for instructional time in elementary classrooms.
Chingos, Matthew M.; Griffiths, Rebecca J.; Mulhern, Christine
2017-01-01
Every year many students enter college without the math preparation needed to succeed in their desired programs of study. Many of these students struggle to catch up, especially those who are required to take remedial math courses before entering college-level math. Increasing the number of students who begin at the appropriate level of math has…
Petersen, Jennifer Lee; Hyde, Janet Shibley
2017-01-01
Although many studies have documented developmental change in mathematics motivation, little is known about how these trends predict math performance. A sample of 288 participants from the United States reported their perceived math ability, math utility value and math interest in 5th, 7th and 9th grades. Latent growth curve models estimated…
International Appraisal of Nursing Culture and Curricula: A Qualitative Study of Erasmus Students
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jose Siles Gonzalez
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction. Globalization of knowledge has emphasized the need to promote the adoption of international exchange programs in nursing. Nevertheless, the differences in cultural, educational, and structural schemes have challenged the mutual appraisal and understanding of the nursing curricula between countries. Research on nursing curricula should allow performing an analysis of different cultural idiosyncrasies in which educational and health institutions are found. These studies would contribute valuable information to the educative and organizational systems and their cultural variability. Objective. To examine the experiences of nursing students on international exchange programs. Methods. Comparative Education was taken as theoretical background. The clinical practice diaries of seven Spanish Nursing Erasmus students (a European international exchange program were used as field journals. These students undertook their placements in the United Kingdom. A content analysis was carried out to find major themes. Results. Data extracted from the students clinical practice diaries indicated cultural, educational, and structural differences between countries. Most students reflected the hidden curriculum in their diaries, writing about affective, ideological, personal, and social elements and beliefs. Conclusions. The students’ experiences on international exchange programs were found to be sources of interest to clarify the ideological and cultural connections that underlie educational and health systems.
Taplay, Karyn; Jack, Susan M; Baxter, Pamela; Eva, Kevin; Martin, Lynn
2014-01-01
Purpose. To create a substantive mid-range theory explaining how the organizational cultures of undergraduate nursing programs shape the adoption and incorporation of mid-to high-level technical fidelity simulators as a teaching strategy within curricula. Method. A constructivist grounded theory was used to guide this study which was conducted in Ontario, Canada, during 2011-12. Semistructured interviews (n = 43) with participants that included nursing administrators, nursing faculty, and simulation leaders across multiple programs (n = 13) informed this study. Additionally, key documents (n = 67) were reviewed. Purposeful and theoretical sampling was used and data were collected and analyzed simultaneously. Data were compared among and between sites. Findings. The organizational elements that shape simulation in nursing (OESSN) model depicts five key organizational factors at the nursing program level that shaped the adoption and incorporation of simulation: (1) leaders working in tandem, (2) information exchange, (3) physical locale, (4) shared motivators, and (5) scaffolding to manage change. Conclusions. The OESSN model provides an explanation of the organizational factors that contributed to the adoption and incorporation of simulation into nursing curricula. Nursing programs that use the OESSN model may experience a more rapid or broad uptake of simulation when organizational factors that impact adoption and incorporation are considered and planned for.
International Appraisal of Nursing Culture and Curricula: A Qualitative Study of Erasmus Students.
Siles Gonzalez, Jose; Solano Ruiz, Carmen; Gaban Gutierrez, Angela
2016-01-01
Introduction. Globalization of knowledge has emphasized the need to promote the adoption of international exchange programs in nursing. Nevertheless, the differences in cultural, educational, and structural schemes have challenged the mutual appraisal and understanding of the nursing curricula between countries. Research on nursing curricula should allow performing an analysis of different cultural idiosyncrasies in which educational and health institutions are found. These studies would contribute valuable information to the educative and organizational systems and their cultural variability. Objective. To examine the experiences of nursing students on international exchange programs. Methods. Comparative Education was taken as theoretical background. The clinical practice diaries of seven Spanish Nursing Erasmus students (a European international exchange program) were used as field journals. These students undertook their placements in the United Kingdom. A content analysis was carried out to find major themes. Results. Data extracted from the students clinical practice diaries indicated cultural, educational, and structural differences between countries. Most students reflected the hidden curriculum in their diaries, writing about affective, ideological, personal, and social elements and beliefs. Conclusions. The students' experiences on international exchange programs were found to be sources of interest to clarify the ideological and cultural connections that underlie educational and health systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krzysztof eCipora
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS, known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations.We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857 was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety.The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS.
Math starters 5- to 10-minute activities aligned with the common core math standards, grades 6-12
Muschla, Judith A; Muschla, Erin
2013-01-01
A revised edition of the bestselling activities guide for math teachers Now updated with new math activities for computers and mobile devices-and now organized by the Common Core State Standards-this book includes more than 650 ready-to-use math starter activities that get kids quickly focused and working as soon as they enter the classroom. Ideally suited for any math curriculum, these high-interest problems spark involvement in the day's lesson, help students build skills, and allow teachers to handle daily management tasks without wasting valuable instructional time. A newly updated edit
Cipora, Krzysztof; Szczygieł, Monika; Willmes, Klaus; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph
2015-01-01
Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS), known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations. We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857) was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance, and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety. The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS.
Regueiro, Patricia Digón; García, Rosa María Méndez; DePalma, Renée; Matos, Silvana Longueira
2017-01-01
Development education has a long and well-established trajectory in terms of initiatives promoted by international organizations, national governments and civil associations, accompanied by a growing awareness of the significance of global issues. Nevertheless, an analysis of the education policy reflected in the official Spanish and English…
Let the Girls Learn! It is not Only about Math It's about Gender Social Norms
Nollenberger, Natalia; Rodríguez-Planas, Núria
2017-01-01
Using PISA test scores from 11,527 second-generation immigrants coming from 35 different countries of ancestry and living in 9 host countries, we find that the positive effects of country-of-ancestry gender social norms on girls' math test scores relative to those of boys: (1) expand to other subjects (namely reading and science); (2) are shaped by beliefs on women's political empowerment and economic opportunity; and (3) are driven by parents' influencing their children's (especially their g...
Exposing the Myth: Advanced Math Does Not Increase Drop out Rates. Math Works
Achieve, Inc., 2013
2013-01-01
A common argument against raising math course-taking requirements for all students is that it will cause more students to drop out of high school. But most students who drop out for academic reasons do so not because they are being "too challenged," but rather because they are not being challenged enough. It is important to raise the rigor and…
How Effective Are Community College Remedial Math Courses for Students with the Lowest Math Skills?
Xu, Di; Dadgar, Mina
2018-01-01
Objective: This article examines the effectiveness of remediation for community college students who are identified as having the lowest skills in math. Method: We use transcript data from a state community college system and take advantage of a regression discontinuity design that compares statistically identical students who are assigned to the…
Placing Math Reform: Locating Latino English Learners in Math Classrooms and Communities
Erbstein, Nancy
2015-01-01
This article explores how place matters in public school reform efforts intended to promote more equitable opportunities and outcomes. Qualitative case studies of three California middle schools' eighth grade math reforms and the resulting opportunities for Latino English learners are presented, using the conceptual frameworks of critical human…
Pitchford, Nicola J.; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A.; Gulliford, Anthea
2016-01-01
Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills. PMID:27303342
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicola J. Pitchford
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Fine motor skills have long been recognised as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the U.K. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first two years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the U.K. that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills.
Pitchford, Nicola J; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A; Gulliford, Anthea
2016-01-01
Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills.
Kranjac, Ashley Wendell
2015-03-01
Increased body weight is associated with decreased cognitive function in school-aged children. The role of self-efficacy in shaping the connection between children's educational achievement and obesity-related comorbidities has not been examined to date. Evidence of the predictive ability of self-efficacy in children is demonstrated in cognitive tasks, including math achievement scores. This study examined the relationship between self-efficacy and math achievement in normal weight, overweight, and obese children. I hypothesized that overweight and obese children with higher self-efficacy will be less affected in math achievement than otherwise comparable children with lower self-efficacy. I tested this prediction with multilevel growth modeling techniques using the ECLS-K 1998-1999 survey data, a nationally representative sample of children. Increased self-efficacy moderates the link between body weight and children's math achievement by buffering the risks that increased weight status poses to children's cognitive function. My findings indicate that self-efficacy moderates math outcomes in overweight, but not obese, children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Essential maths for geoscientists an introduction
Palmer, Paul I
2014-01-01
Maths for Geoscientists is an accessible, student-friendly introduction to the essential mathematics required by those students taking degree courses within the Geosciences. Clearly structured throughout, this book carefully guides the student step by step through the mathematics they will encounter and will provide numerous applied examples throughout to enhance students understanding and to place each technique into context. Opening with a chapter explaining the need for studying mathematics within geosciences the book then moves on to cover algebra, equations, solutions, logarithms and ex
Thornton, Liam
2016-01-01
This is a feminist re-imagining of the Supreme Court decision MhicMathúna v Ireland [1995] 1 I.R. 454. The actual Supreme Court decision in this case continues to have a profound impact upon how the Irish superior courts view constitutional socio-economic rights claims. This feminist judgment seeks to re-situate the legal analysis of constitutionalised socio-economic rights claims. However, this, as is seen from the feminist judgment, has not been an easy task. The plaintiffs' in this case at...
Alexander, Lori L.
Math and science is the core of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education. It is the staying power of economic growth, job opportunities, new technology, innovation and emerging research on a global spectrum in the 21st century. Data reports that African American women are underrepresented in the STEM career field. The focus of this project was to specifically address African American middle school girls achievement gap, awareness and interests in the STEM pipeline. Data for this research was gathered by using Action Research Methodology approach using journals, questionnaire survey and dialogue. Five parents/educators participated in this empirical research study by sharing their personal, lived and unapologetic experiences through eight weeks of action/reflection inquiry. The finding of this research is that parents need to be engaged about STEM and the importance for girls to do well academically early in school with math and science.
Evaluating Number Sense in Community College Developmental Math Students
Steinke, Dorothea A.
2017-01-01
Community college developmental math students (N = 657) from three math levels were asked to place five whole numbers on a line that had only endpoints 0 and 20 marked. How the students placed the numbers revealed the same three stages of behavior that Steffe and Cobb (1988) documented in determining young children's number sense. 23% of the…
Do the Math: Course Redesign's Impact on Learning and Scheduling
Squires, John; Faulkner, Jerry; Hite, Carl
2009-01-01
The math department at Cleveland State Community College embarked upon course redesign in 2008. As a result of this project, student engagement, learning, and success rates have increased dramatically. By including both developmental and college level math courses in the redesign, the department has been able to implement innovative scheduling and…
Classroom Environment, Achievement Goals and Maths Performance: Gender Differences
Gherasim, Loredana Ruxandra; Butnaru, Simona; Mairean, Cornelia
2013-01-01
This study investigated how gender shapes the relationships between classroom environment, achievement goals and maths performance. Seventh-grade students ("N"?=?498) from five urban secondary schools filled in achievement goal orientations and classroom environment scales at the beginning of the second semester. Maths performance was…
Math and Economics: Implementing Authentic Instruction in Grades K-5
Althauser, Krista; Harter, Cynthia
2016-01-01
The purpose of this study is to outline a partnership program that involved a local elementary school district, an institution of higher education, the local business community, and a state economic education advocacy group to integrate economics into math in grades K-5. The "Economics: Math in Real Life" program was provided in…
Math on MXit: the medium is the message
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Butgereit, L
2007-07-01
Full Text Available Homework is a necessary evil in the path of learning mathematics at school. Mathematics homework is traditionally seen as difficult and boring. In the case of difficult homework, “math clubs” and “math extra lessons” are often perceived as even more...
Determinants of Grades in Maths for Students in Economics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cappellari, Lorenzo; Lucifora, Claudio; Pozzoli, Dario
attended are signi cantly associated with maths grades. Ceteris paribus, females typically do better than males. Since students can postpone the exam or repeat it when they fail, we also analyze the determinants of the elapsed time to pass the exam using survival analysis. Modeling simultaneously maths...