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Sample records for maternity colonies monitored

  1. Honey Bee Colonies Remote Monitoring System

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    Sergio Gil-Lebrero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bees are very important for terrestrial ecosystems and, above all, for the subsistence of many crops, due to their ability to pollinate flowers. Currently, the honey bee populations are decreasing due to colony collapse disorder (CCD. The reasons for CCD are not fully known, and as a result, it is essential to obtain all possible information on the environmental conditions surrounding the beehives. On the other hand, it is important to carry out such information gathering as non-intrusively as possible to avoid modifying the bees’ work conditions and to obtain more reliable data. We designed a wireless-sensor networks meet these requirements. We designed a remote monitoring system (called WBee based on a hierarchical three-level model formed by the wireless node, a local data server, and a cloud data server. WBee is a low-cost, fully scalable, easily deployable system with regard to the number and types of sensors and the number of hives and their geographical distribution. WBee saves the data in each of the levels if there are failures in communication. In addition, the nodes include a backup battery, which allows for further data acquisition and storage in the event of a power outage. Unlike other systems that monitor a single point of a hive, the system we present monitors and stores the temperature and relative humidity of the beehive in three different spots. Additionally, the hive is continuously weighed on a weighing scale. Real-time weight measurement is an innovation in wireless beehive—monitoring systems. We designed an adaptation board to facilitate the connection of the sensors to the node. Through the Internet, researchers and beekeepers can access the cloud data server to find out the condition of their hives in real time.

  2. Effects of hierarchical roost removal on northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies

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    Silvis, Alexander; Ford, W. Mark; Britzke, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Forest roosting bats use a variety of ephemeral roosts such as snags and declining live trees. Although conservation of summer maternity habitat is considered critical for forest-roosting bats, bat response to roost loss still is poorly understood. To address this, we monitored 3 northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies on Fort Knox Military Reservation, Kentucky, USA, before and after targeted roost removal during the dormant season when bats were hibernating in caves. We used 2 treatments: removal of a single highly used (primary) roost and removal of 24% of less used (secondary) roosts, and an un-manipulated control. Neither treatment altered the number of roosts used by individual bats, but secondary roost removal doubled the distances moved between sequentially used roosts. However, overall space use by and location of colonies was similar pre- and post-treatment. Patterns of roost use before and after removal treatments also were similar but bats maintained closer social connections after our treatments. Roost height, diameter at breast height, percent canopy openness, and roost species composition were similar pre- and post-treatment. We detected differences in the distribution of roosts among decay stages and crown classes pre- and post-roost removal, but this may have been a result of temperature differences between treatment years. Our results suggest that loss of a primary roost or ≤ 20% of secondary roosts in the dormant season may not cause northern long-eared bats to abandon roosting areas or substantially alter some roosting behaviors in the following active season when tree-roosts are used. Critically, tolerance limits to roost loss may be dependent upon local forest conditions, and continued research on this topic will be necessary for conservation of the northern long-eared bat across its range.

  3. Who knew? First Myotis sodalis (Indiana Bat) maternity colony in the coastal plain of Virginia

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    St. Germain, Michael J.; Kniowski, Andrew B.; Silvis, Alexander; Ford, W. Mark

    2017-01-01

    We report the first confirmed Myotis sodalis (Indiana Bat) maternity colony in Virginia, discovered at Fort A.P. Hill Military Reservation in Caroline County along the Piedmont-Coastal Plain Fall Line. Acoustic surveys conducted in 2014 indicated likely presence of Indiana Bats on the installation. Subsequent focal mist-netting during May–June 2015 resulted in capture of 4 lactating females that we subsequently radio tracked to a maternity colony site containing at least 20 individuals. The core roosting-area was comprised of Pinus taeda (Loblolly Pine) snags with abundant exfoliating bark and high solar exposure. This forest patch was adjacent to a large emergentshrub wetland and within a larger matrix of mature, mid-Atlantic hardwood forests. The site where we found the colony location is 140 km east of the nearest known hibernaculum and is outside of the previously documented extent of this species' occurrence.

  4. Association, roost use and simulated disruption of Myotis septentrionalis maternity colonies

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    Silvis, Alexander; Ford, W. Mark; Britzke, Eric R.; Johnson, Joshua B.

    2014-01-01

    How wildlife social and resource networks are distributed on the landscape and how animals respond to resource loss are important aspects of behavioral ecology. For bats, understanding these responses may improve conservation efforts and provide insights into adaptations to environmental conditions. We tracked maternity colonies of northern bats (Myotis septentrionalis) at Fort Knox, Kentucky, USA to evaluate their social and resource networks and space use. Roost and social network structure differed between maternity colonies. Overall roost availability did not appear to be strongly related to network characteristics or space use. In simulations for our two largest networks, roost removal was related linearly to network fragmentation; despite this, networks were relatively robust, requiring removal of >20% of roosts to cause network fragmentation. Results from our analyses indicate that northern bat behavior and space use may differ among colonies and potentially across the maternity season. Simulation results suggest that colony social structure is robust to fragmentation caused by random loss of small numbers of roosts. Flexible social dynamics and tolerance of roost loss may be adaptive strategies for coping with ephemeral conditions in dynamic forest habitats.

  5. Colony mapping: A new technique for monitoring crevice-nesting seabirds

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    Renner, H.M.; Renner, M.; Reynolds, J.H.; Harping, A.M.A.; Jones, I.L.; Irons, D.B.; Byrd, G.V.

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring populations of auklets and other crevice-nesting seabirds remains problematic, although numerous methods have been attempted since the mid-1960s. Anecdotal evidence suggests several large auklet colonies have recently decreased in both abundance and extent, concurrently with vegetation encroachment and succession. Quantifying changes in the geographical extent of auklet colonies may be a useful alternative to monitoring population size directly. We propose a standardized method for colony mapping using a randomized systematic grid survey with two components: a simple presence/absence survey and an auklet evidence density survey. A quantitative auklet evidence density index was derived from the frequency of droppings and feathers. This new method was used to map the colony on St. George Island in the southeastern Bering Sea and results were compared to previous colony mapping efforts. Auklet presence was detected in 62 of 201 grid cells (each grid cell = 2500 m2) by sampling a randomly placed 16 m2 plot in each cell; estimated colony area = 155 000 m2. The auklet evidence density index varied by two orders of magnitude across the colony and was strongly correlated with means of replicated counts of birds socializing on the colony surface. Quantitatively mapping all large auklet colonies is logistically feasible using this method and would provide an important baseline for monitoring colony status. Regularly monitoring select colonies using this method may be the best means of detecting changes in distribution and population size of crevice-nesting seabirds. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  6. Rapid onset of maternal vocal recognition in a colonially breeding mammal, the Australian sea lion.

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    Benjamin J Pitcher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In many gregarious mammals, mothers and offspring have developed the abilities to recognise each other using acoustic signals. Such capacity may develop at different rates after birth/parturition, varying between species and between the participants, i.e., mothers and young. Differences in selective pressures between species, and between mothers and offspring, are likely to drive the timing of the onset of mother-young recognition. We tested the ability of Australian sea lion mothers to identify their offspring by vocalisation, and examined the onset of this behaviour in these females. We hypothesise that a rapid onset of recognition may reflect an adaptation to a colonial lifestyle. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a playback study maternal responses to own pup and non-filial vocalisations were compared at 12, 24 and every subsequent 24 hours until the females' first departure post-partum. Mothers showed a clear ability to recognise their pup's voice by 48 hours of age. At 24 hours mothers called more, at 48 hours they called sooner and at 72 hours they looked sooner in response to their own pup's vocalisations compared to those of non-filial pups. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that Australian sea lion females can vocally identify offspring within two days of birth and before mothers leave to forage post-partum. We suggest that this rapid onset is a result of selection pressures imposed by a colonial lifestyle and may be seen in other colonial vertebrates. This is the first demonstration of the timing of the onset of maternal vocal recognition in a pinniped species.

  7. Monitoring of colonies and provisioning of rooks with nest material as a potential tool for stabilizing colonies and increasing nesting opportunities in the countryside. Project report

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    Slobodník Roman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The rook is a species inhabiting open agricultural landscape whose non-active nests are also used by other bird species for nesting. It is the decline in rook colonies that has been posited as one of the reasons for decrease in the red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus population in Slovakia since the 1970s. During the period from 2012 till 2016, four monitorings of rook colonies were carried out in south-western Slovakia (Diakovce, Nitrianska Osada, Sokolce and Tvrdošovce. In the colony at Tvrdošovce, supporting activity involving provisioning of rooks with nest material was under way from 2014 until 2016. While the colonies at Diakovce and Nitrianska Osada have been showing a slight decrease in the number of nesting rooks, despite larger interannual differences the colony at Sokolce has been showing an upward trend. The size of the colony at Tvrdošovce has been stable since the beginning of the supporting activity. This activity had a statistically significant positive effect on the width of rook nests. In 74 cases in the studied rook colonies we have recorded nesting by three other bird species – Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus 43.8%, western jackdaw (Corvus monedula 39.7% and long-eared owl (Asio otus 16.4%. In 2015 two female redfooted falcons were observed in the colony at Tvrdošovce.

  8. Adolescent obesity and maternal and paternal sensitivity and monitoring.

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    Neal Davis, R; Ashba, Jacqueline; Appugliese, Danielle P; Kaciroti, Niko; Corwyn, Robert F; Bradley, Robert H; Lumeng, Julie C

    2011-06-01

    To determine if adolescent obesity is associated with parenting characterized by lower sensitivity and lower monitoring of adolescent activities. We used data from 744 adolescents in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Height and weight were measured at age 15½ years and obesity defined as body mass index ≥ 95th percentile for age and sex. Maternal and paternal sensitivity were assessed by direct observation of a parent-adolescent interaction task. Maternal and paternal monitoring were assessed by parent report. Lower sensitivity and lower monitoring were each defined as the lowest quartiles. Two separate multivariate logistic regression models were created to evaluate, individually for mothers and fathers, associations of sensitivity and monitoring with adolescent obesity, controlling for adolescent sex and race, family income-to-needs ratio, and parental obesity. Fourteen percent of the adolescents were obese. Lower sensitivity was associated with adolescent obesity in the maternal parenting model (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-3.86, n = 709), but not paternal parenting model (AOR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.38-1.63, n = 460). Neither maternal nor paternal monitoring was associated with adolescent obesity (AOR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.63-1.68; AOR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.52-2.22, respectively). Lower maternal sensitivity, measured by direct observation of parent-adolescent interactions, was associated with adolescent obesity. Efforts to prevent and treat childhood obesity, both at the practitioner level and the community level, may be enhanced by educating parents that their reactions to their children's behaviors may have consequences related to obesity.

  9. Ant colony optimization and neural networks applied to nuclear power plant monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gean Ribeiro dos; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de; Pereira, Iraci Martinez, E-mail: gean@usp.br, E-mail: delvonei@ipen.br, E-mail: martinez@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    A recurring challenge in production processes is the development of monitoring and diagnosis systems. Those systems help on detecting unexpected changes and interruptions, preventing losses and mitigating risks. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have been extensively used in creating monitoring systems. Usually the ANNs created to solve this kind of problem are created by taking into account only parameters as the number of inputs, outputs, and hidden layers. The result networks are generally fully connected and have no improvements in its topology. This work intends to use an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm to create a tuned neural network. The ACO search algorithm will use Back Error Propagation (BP) to optimize the network topology by suggesting the best neuron connections. The result ANN will be applied to monitoring the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN. (author)

  10. Ant colony optimization and neural networks applied to nuclear power plant monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gean Ribeiro dos; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de; Pereira, Iraci Martinez

    2015-01-01

    A recurring challenge in production processes is the development of monitoring and diagnosis systems. Those systems help on detecting unexpected changes and interruptions, preventing losses and mitigating risks. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have been extensively used in creating monitoring systems. Usually the ANNs created to solve this kind of problem are created by taking into account only parameters as the number of inputs, outputs, and hidden layers. The result networks are generally fully connected and have no improvements in its topology. This work intends to use an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm to create a tuned neural network. The ACO search algorithm will use Back Error Propagation (BP) to optimize the network topology by suggesting the best neuron connections. The result ANN will be applied to monitoring the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN. (author)

  11. Optimum Layout for Water Quality Monitoring Stations through Ant Colony Algorithm

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    Amin Afshar

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high cost of monitoring systems, budget limitations, and high priority given to water quality control in municipal networks, especially for unexpected events, optimum location of monitoring stations has received considerable attention during the last decade. An optimization model needs to be developed for the desirable location of monitoring stations. This research attempts to develop such a model using Ant Colony Optimization (ACO algorithm and tires to verify it through a bench-mark classical example used in previous researches. Selection of ACO as optimizer was fully justified due to discrete decision space and extensive number of binary variables in modeling system. Diversity of the policies derived from ACO may facilitate the process of decision making considering the social, physical, and economical conditions.

  12. Using Colony Monitoring Devices to Evaluate the Impacts of Land Use and Nutritional Value of Forage on Honey Bee Health

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    Matthew Smart

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Colony monitoring devices used to track and assess the health status of honey bees are becoming more widely available and used by both beekeepers and researchers. These devices monitor parameters relevant to colony health at frequent intervals, often approximating real time. The fine-scale record of hive condition can be further related to static or dynamic features of the landscape, such as weather, climate, colony density, land use, pesticide use, vegetation class, and forage quality. In this study, we fit commercial honey bee colonies in two apiaries with pollen traps and digital scales to monitor floral resource use, pollen quality, and honey production. One apiary was situated in low-intensity agriculture; the other in high-intensity agriculture. Pollen traps were open for 72 h every two weeks while scales recorded weight every 15 min throughout the growing season. From collected pollen, we determined forage quantity per day, species identity using DNA sequencing, pesticide residues, amino acid content, and total protein content. From scales, we determined the accumulated hive weight change over the growing season, relating to honey production and final colony weight going into winter. Hive scales may also be used to identify the occurrence of environmental pollen and nectar dearth, and track phenological changes in plant communities. We provide comparisons of device-derived data between two apiaries over the growing season and discuss the potential for employing apiary monitoring devices to infer colony health in the context of divergent agricultural land use conditions.

  13. Using colony monitoring devices to evaluate the impacts of land use and nutritional value of forage on honey bee health

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    Smart, Matthew; Otto, Clint R.; Cornman, Robert S.; Iwanowicz, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    Colony monitoring devices used to track and assess the health status of honey bees are becoming more widely available and used by both beekeepers and researchers. These devices monitor parameters relevant to colony health at frequent intervals, often approximating real time. The fine-scale record of hive condition can be further related to static or dynamic features of the landscape, such as weather, climate, colony density, land use, pesticide use, vegetation class, and forage quality. In this study, we fit commercial honey bee colonies in two apiaries with pollen traps and digital scales to monitor floral resource use, pollen quality, and honey production. One apiary was situated in low-intensity agriculture; the other in high-intensity agriculture. Pollen traps were open for 72 h every two weeks while scales recorded weight every 15 min throughout the growing season. From collected pollen, we determined forage quantity per day, species identity using DNA sequencing, pesticide residues, amino acid content, and total protein content. From scales, we determined the accumulated hive weight change over the growing season, relating to honey production and final colony weight going into winter. Hive scales may also be used to identify the occurrence of environmental pollen and nectar dearth, and track phenological changes in plant communities. We provide comparisons of device-derived data between two apiaries over the growing season and discuss the potential for employing apiary monitoring devices to infer colony health in the context of divergent agricultural land use conditions.

  14. Sibling teenage pregnancy and clinic-referred girls’ condom use: The protective role of maternal monitoring

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    Nichols, Sara; Javdani, Shabnam; Rodriguez, Erin; Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri

    2016-01-01

    Younger sisters of teenage parents have elevated rates of engaging in unprotected sex. This may result from changes in parenting behavior after a sibling becomes pregnant or impregnates a partner, and be particularly pronounced for girls seeking mental health treatment. The current study examines condom use over time in 211 African-American girls recruited from outpatient psychiatric clinics. Findings indicate that having a sibling with a teenage pregnancy history predicts less consistent condom use two years later. After accounting for earlier condom use and mental health problems, maternal monitoring moderates condom use such that for girls with a sibling with a pregnancy history, more vigilant maternal monitoring is associated with increased condom use, while for girls with no sibling pregnancy history, maternal monitoring is unrelated to adolescents’ condom use two years later. Findings suggest that targeted interventions to increase maternal monitoring of high-risk teens may be beneficial for girls with a sibling history of teenage pregnancy. PMID:27172111

  15. Monitoring colony-level effects of sublethal pesticide exposure on honey bees

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    The effects of sublethal pesticide exposure to honey bee colonies may be significant but difficult to detect in the field using standard visual assessment methods. Here we describe methods to measure the quantities of adult bees, brood and food resources by weighing hives and hive parts, by photogra...

  16. Maternal Territoriality Achieved Through Shaking and Lunging: An Investigation of Patterns in Associated Behaviors and Substrate Vibrations in a Colonial Embiopteran, Antipaluria urichi

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    Dejan, Khaaliq A.; Fresquez, John M.; Meyer, Annika M.; Edgerly, Janice S.

    2013-01-01

    Substrate vibration communication is displayed by a variety of insects that rely on silk for shelter. Such signaling is often associated with territoriality and social interactions. The goal in this study was to explore the use of substrate vibration by subsocial insects of the little-studied order Embioptera (also known as Embiidina). Antipaluria urichi (Saussure) (Embioptera: Clothodidae) from Trinidad and Tobago, a large embiopteran, exhibits maternal care and facultatively colonial behavior. Previous observations suggested that they were aggressive while guarding eggs but gregarious when not. Egg-guarders in particular have been observed shaking and lunging their bodies, but to date these putative signals have not been recorded nor were their contexts known. Staged interactions were conducted in the laboratory using residents that had established silk domiciles enveloping piezo-electric film used to detect vibrations. Predictions from two competing hypotheses, the maternal territoriality hypothesis and the group cohesion hypothesis, were erected to explain the occurrence of signaling. Experiments pitted pre-reproductive and egg-guarding residents against female and male intruders, representing social partners that ranged from potentially threatening to innocuous or even helpful. Behavioral acts were identified and scored along with associated substrate vibrations, which were measured for associated body movements, duration, and frequency spectra. Signals, sorted by the distinct actions used to generate them, were lunge, shake, push up, and snapback. Egg-guarding females produced most signals in response to female intruders, a result that supported the maternal territoriality hypothesis. Female intruders generally responded to such signaling by moving away from egg-guarding residents. In contrast, pre-reproductive residents did not signal much, and intruders settled beside them. Theme software was used to analyze the behavioral event recordings to seek patterns

  17. Assessing the living and dead proportions of cold-water coral colonies: implications for deep-water Marine Protected Area monitoring in a changing ocean

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    Johanne Vad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Coral growth patterns result from an interplay of coral biology and environmental conditions. In this study colony size and proportion of live and dead skeletons in the cold-water coral (CWC Lophelia pertusa (Linnaeus, 1758 were measured using video footage from Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV transects conducted at the inshore Mingulay Reef Complex (MRC and at the offshore PISCES site (Rockall Bank in the NE Atlantic. The main goal of this paper was to explore the development of a simple method to quantify coral growth and its potential application as an assessment tool of the health of these remote habitats. Eighteen colonies were selected and whole colony and dead/living layer size were measured. Live to dead layer ratios for each colony were then determined and analysed. The age of each colony was estimated using previously published data. Our paper shows that: (1 two distinct morphotypes can be described: at the MRC, colonies displayed a ‘cauliflower-shaped’ morphotype whereas at the PISCES site, colonies presented a more flattened ‘bush-shaped’ morphotype; (2 living layer size was positively correlated with whole colony size; (3 live to dead layer ratio was negatively correlated to whole colony size; (4 live to dead layer ratio never exceeded 0.27. These results suggest that as a colony develops and its growth rate slows down, the proportion of living polyps in the colony decreases. Furthermore, at least 73% of L. pertusa colonies are composed of exposed dead coral skeleton, vulnerable to ocean acidification and the associated shallowing of the aragonite saturation horizon, with significant implications for future deep-sea reef framework integrity. The clear visual contrast between white/pale living and grey/dark dead portions of the colonies also gives a new way by which they can be visually monitored over time. The increased use of marine autonomous survey vehicles offers an important new platform from which such a surveying

  18. Guam Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program Coral Colony Size and Condition Surveys since 2010

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Government of Guam's Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program, coordinated by the Guam Coastal Management Program until October 2013 and now coordinated by the...

  19. Maternal urogenital schistosomiasis; monitoring disease morbidity by simple reagent strips.

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    Oyetunde T Oyeyemi

    Full Text Available Urine analysis is one of the recommended antenatal guidelines for early diagnosis of pregnancy-associated complications. While in practice, urine analysis by dipstick had been used to provide useful information on other urinary tract infections, its applications for early detection of urogenital schistosomiasis in pregnant women is often times not given due attention in most endemic areas. Our study therefore assessed the performance of some common urinalysis parameters in the diagnosis of maternal urogenital schistosomiasis in endemic rural communities of Nigeria.The cross-sectional epidemiologic survey of urogenital schistosomiasis was conducted among pregnant women in Yewa North Local Government, Ogun State, Nigeria. The women were microscopically examined for infection with Schistosoma haematobium, visually observed for macrohematuria, and screened for microhematuria and proteinuria using standard urine chemical reagent strips. Of 261 volunteered participants, 19.9% tested positive for S. haematobium infection. The proportion of microhematuria (23.8% was significantly higher than that of macrohematuria (3.8% and proteinuria (16.8% (P<0.05. Microhematuria with sensitivity (82.7% and specificity (89.0% was the best diagnostic indicator of urogenital schistosomiasis. Macrohematuria with the least sensitivity (11.8% was however the most specific (98.1% for diagnosing urogenital schistosomiasis in pregnant women. Maximum microhematuria sensitivity (100.0% was observed in women between 15-19 years but sensitivity was consistently low in older age groups. Maximum sensitivity, specificity and predictive values (100.0% were recorded for microhematuria in first trimester women. Diagnostic efficiency of proteinuria and macrohematuria was also better in the first trimester women except the 25.0% specificity recorded for proteinuria. The overall diagnostic performance of microhematuria and proteinuria was better in secundigravidae.Microhematuria can be

  20. FELASA recommendations for the health monitoring of mouse, rat, hamster, guinea pig and rabbit colonies in breeding and experimental units.

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    Mähler Convenor, M; Berard, M; Feinstein, R; Gallagher, A; Illgen-Wilcke, B; Pritchett-Corning, K; Raspa, M

    2014-07-01

    The microbiological quality of experimental animals can critically influence animal welfare and the validity and reproducibility of research data. It is therefore important for breeding and experimental facilities to establish a laboratory animal health monitoring (HM) programme as an integrated part of any quality assurance system. FELASA has published recommendations for the HM of rodent and rabbit colonies in breeding and experimental units (Nicklas et al. Laboratory Animals, 2002), with the intention of harmonizing HM programmes. As stated in the preamble, these recommendations need to be adapted periodically to meet current developments in laboratory animal medicine. Accordingly, previous recommendations have been revised and shall be replaced by the present recommendations. These recommendations are aimed at all breeders and users of laboratory mice, rats, Syrian hamsters, guinea pigs and rabbits as well as diagnostic laboratories. They describe essential aspects of HM, such as the choice of agents, selection of animals and tissues for testing, frequency of sampling, commonly used test methods, interpretation of results and HM reporting. Compared with previous recommendations, more emphasis is put on the role of a person with sufficient understanding of the principles of HM, opportunistic agents, the use of sentinel animals (particularly under conditions of cage-level containment) and the interpretation and reporting of HM results. Relevant agents, testing frequencies and literature references are updated. Supplementary information on specific agents and the number of animals to be monitored and an example of a HM programme description is provided in the appendices. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Virus Status, Varroa Levels, and Survival of 20 Managed Honey Bee Colonies Monitored in Luxembourg Between the Summer of 2011 and the Spring of 2013

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    Clermont Antoine

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty managed honey bee colonies, split between 5 apiaries with 4 hives each, were monitored between the summer of 2011 and spring of 2013. Living bees were sampled in July 2011, July 2012, and August 2012. Twenty-five, medium-aged bees, free of varroa mites, were pooled per colony and date, to form one sample. Unlike in France and Belgium, Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus (CBPV has not been found in Luxembourg. Slow Bee Paralysis Virus (SBPV and Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV levels were below detection limits. Traces of Kashmir Bee Virus (KBV were amplified. Black Queen Cell Virus (BQCV, Varroa destructor Virus-1 (VDV-1, and SacBrood Virus (SBV were detected in all samples and are reported from Luxembourg for the first time. Varroa destructor Macula- Like Virus (VdMLV, Deformed Wing Virus (DWV, and Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (ABPV were detected at all locations, and in most but not all samples. There was a significant increase in VDV-1 and DWV levels within the observation period. A principal component analysis was unable to separate the bees of colonies that survived the following winter from bees that died, based on their virus contents in summer. The number of dead varroa mites found below colonies was elevated in colonies that died in the following winter. Significant positive relationships were found between the log-transformed virus levels of the bees and the log-transformed number of mites found below the colonies per week, for VDV-1 and DWV. Sacbrood virus levels were independent of varroa levels, suggesting a neutral or competitive relationship between this virus and varroa.

  2. Clinical application of maternal serum HPL and INS levels determination for fetal health monitoring during perinatal period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Xu; Tian Ying; Li Baoping; Luo Pengxiang; Wang Hong; Zhang Su'e; Chen Qiaozhi; Wang Xiaohua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible applicability of maternal serum human placental lactogen (HPL) and insulin levels determination for fetal health monitoring. Methods: Maternal serum HPL and insulin levels were determined with RIA in (1) 70 pregnant women clinically diagnosed as with gestational diabetes (2) 66 pregnant women with hypertension and (3) 110 normal pregnant women as controls. Results: Serum HPL and insulin levels in the women with gestational diabetes were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Detection of abnormally high or low levels of serum HPL and insulin in pregnant women suggested presence of maternal diseases which might affect fetal development (over weight or growth restriction). This approach was much more sensitive than conventional sonographic examination of fetus. (authors)

  3. Twenty-five years of monitoring a Townsend's Big-Eared Bat (Corynorhinus townsendii) maternity roost

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    Fellers, Gary M.; Halstead, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    A Corynorhinus townsendii maternity roost located in an abandoned ranch house in central California was monitored for 25 y. Prior to the discovery of the bats in 1987, the house was broken into regularly and disturbance levels were quite high. Upon discovery of the roost, the house was fortified and vandalism was greatly reduced. The number of females and the number of volant young greatly increased during our study and was directly correlated with the decline in vandalism. Bats emerged from the house 43.6 (± 10.9 SD) min after local sunset. Bats emerged later in the evening during spring and fall, when it was warmer, and when it was windier. We also evaluated duration of emergence (47.11 [45.0–49.7] min), and seasonal patterns of re-entry into the roost. Several factors suggested that potential predation, most likely by owls, influenced both the timing and duration of evening emergences.

  4. Real-time monitoring of non-viable airborne particles correlates with airborne colonies and represents an acceptable surrogate for daily assessment of cell-processing cleanroom performance.

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    Raval, Jay S; Koch, Eileen; Donnenberg, Albert D

    2012-10-01

    Airborne particulate monitoring is mandated as a component of good manufacturing practice. We present a procedure developed to monitor and interpret airborne particulates in an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) class 7 cleanroom used for the cell processing of Section 351 and Section 361 products. We collected paired viable and non-viable airborne particle data over a period of 1 year in locations chosen to provide a range of air quality. We used receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis to determine empirically the relationship between non-viable and viable airborne particle counts. Viable and non-viable particles were well-correlated (r(2) = 0.78), with outlier observations at the low end of the scale (non-viable particles without detectable airborne colonies). ROC analysis predicted viable counts ≥ 0.5/feet(3) (a limit set by the United States Pharmacopeia) at an action limit of ≥ 32 000 particles (≥ 0.5 µ)/feet(3), with 95.6% sensitivity and 50% specificity. This limit was exceeded 2.6 times during 18 months of retrospective daily cleanroom data (an expected false alarm rate of 1.3 times/year). After implementing this action limit, we were alerted in real time to an air-handling failure undetected by our hospital facilities management. A rational action limit for non-viable particles was determined based on the correlation with airborne colonies. Reaching or exceeding the action limit of 32 000 non-viable particles/feet(3) triggers suspension of cleanroom cell-processing activities, deep cleaning, investigation of air handling, and a deviation management process. Our full procedure for particle monitoring is available as an online supplement.

  5. Colonial Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura; Palmer, Russell

    2016-01-01

    and the USA which reveal that the study of colonial institutions should not be limited to the functional life of these institutions—or solely those that take the form of monumental architecture—but should include the long shadow of “imperial debris” (Stoler 2008) and immaterial institutions....

  6. Monitoring maternal, newborn, and child health interventions using lot quality assurance sampling in Sokoto State of northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dele Abegunde

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal mortality ratio and infant mortality rate are as high as 1,576 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births, respectively, in Nigeria's northwestern region, where Sokoto State is located. Using applicable monitoring indicators for tracking progress in the UN/WHO framework on continuum of maternal, newborn, and child health care, this study evaluated the progress of Sokoto toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs 4 and 5 by December 2015. The changes in outcomes in 2012–2013 associated with maternal and child health interventions were assessed. Design: We used baseline and follow-up lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS data obtained in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In each of the surveys, data were obtained from 437 households sampled from 19 LQAS locations in each of the 23 local government areas (LGAs. The composite state-level coverage estimates of the respective indicators were aggregated from estimated LGA coverage estimates. Results: None of the nine indicators associated with the continuum of maternal, neonatal, and child care satisfied the recommended 90% coverage target for achieving MDGs 4 and 5. Similarly, the average state coverage estimates were lower than national coverage estimates. Marginal improvements in coverage were obtained in the demand for family planning satisfied, antenatal care visits, postnatal care for mothers, and exclusive breast-feeding. Antibiotic treatment for acute pneumonia increased significantly by 12.8 percentage points. The majority of the LGAs were classifiable as low-performing, high-priority areas for intensified program intervention. Conclusions: Despite the limited time left in the countdown to December 2015, Sokoto State, Nigeria, is not on track to achieving the MDG 90% coverage of indicators tied to the continuum of maternal and child care, to reduce maternal and childhood mortality by a third by 2015. Targeted health system investments at the primary care

  7. Monitoring maternal, newborn, and child health interventions using lot quality assurance sampling in Sokoto State of northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa; Shoretire, Kamil; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Mohammed, Zainab; Abdulazeez, Jumare; Gwamzhi, Ringpon; Ganiyu, Akeem

    2015-01-01

    Maternal mortality ratio and infant mortality rate are as high as 1,576 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births, respectively, in Nigeria's northwestern region, where Sokoto State is located. Using applicable monitoring indicators for tracking progress in the UN/WHO framework on continuum of maternal, newborn, and child health care, this study evaluated the progress of Sokoto toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 by December 2015. The changes in outcomes in 2012-2013 associated with maternal and child health interventions were assessed. We used baseline and follow-up lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) data obtained in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In each of the surveys, data were obtained from 437 households sampled from 19 LQAS locations in each of the 23 local government areas (LGAs). The composite state-level coverage estimates of the respective indicators were aggregated from estimated LGA coverage estimates. None of the nine indicators associated with the continuum of maternal, neonatal, and child care satisfied the recommended 90% coverage target for achieving MDGs 4 and 5. Similarly, the average state coverage estimates were lower than national coverage estimates. Marginal improvements in coverage were obtained in the demand for family planning satisfied, antenatal care visits, postnatal care for mothers, and exclusive breast-feeding. Antibiotic treatment for acute pneumonia increased significantly by 12.8 percentage points. The majority of the LGAs were classifiable as low-performing, high-priority areas for intensified program intervention. Despite the limited time left in the countdown to December 2015, Sokoto State, Nigeria, is not on track to achieving the MDG 90% coverage of indicators tied to the continuum of maternal and child care, to reduce maternal and childhood mortality by a third by 2015. Targeted health system investments at the primary care level remain a priority, for intensive program scale-up to

  8. Monitoring Maternal Beta Carotene and Retinol Consumption May Decrease the Incidence of Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel S. Goldberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acids (13-cis and 13-trans are known teratogens, and their precursor is retinol, a form of vitamin A. In 1995, Rothman et al demonstrated an association between excessive vitamin A, > 10,000 IU/day, during the first trimester of pregnancy and teratogenic effects, particularly in the central nervous system. However, vitamin A deficiency has long been known to be deleterious to the mother and fetus. Therefore, there may be a narrow therapeutic ratio for vitamin A during pregnancy that has not previously been fully appreciated. Neurodevelopmental disorders may not be apparent by macroscopic brain examination or imaging, and proving the existence of a behavioral teratogen is not straightforward. However, an excess of retinoic acid and some neurodevelopmental disorders are both associated with abnormalities in cerebellar morphology. Physical and chemical evidence strongly supports the notion that beta carotene crosses the placenta and is metabolized to retinol. Only very limited amounts of beta carotene are stored in fetal fat cells as evidenced by the fact that maternal fat is yellow from beta carotene, whereas non-brown neonatal fat is white. Furthermore, newborns of carotenemic mothers do not share the yellow complexion of their mothers. The excess 13-trans retinoic acid derived from metabolized beta carotene in the fetus increases the concentration of the more teratogenic 13-cis retinoic acid since the isomerization equilibrium is shifted to the left. Therefore, this paper proposes that consideration be given to monitoring all potential sources of fetal 13-cis and 13-trans retinoic acid, including nutritional supplements, dietary retinol, and beta carotene, particularly in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  9. Longitudinal survey of two serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus maternity colonies exposed to EBLV-1 (European Bat Lyssavirus type 1: Assessment of survival and serological status variations using capture-recapture models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Robardet

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study describes two longitudinal serological surveys of European Bat Lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1 antibodies in serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus maternity colonies located in the North-East of France. This species is currently considered as the main EBLV-1 reservoir. Multievent capture-recapture models were used to determine the factors influencing bat rabies transmission as this method accounts for imperfect detection and uncertainty in disease states. Considering the period of study, analyses revealed that survival and recapture probabilities were not affected by the serological status of individuals, confirming the capacity of bats to be exposed to lyssaviruses without dying. Five bats have been found with EBLV-1 RNA in the saliva at the start of the study, suggesting they were caught during virus excretion period. Among these bats, one was interestingly recaptured one year later and harbored a seropositive status. Along the survey, some others bats have been observed to both seroconvert (i.e. move from a negative to a positive serological status and serorevert (i.e. move from a positive to a negative serological status. Peak of seroprevalence reached 34% and 70% in site A and B respectively. On one of the 2 sites, global decrease of seroprevalence was observed all along the study period nuanced by oscillation intervals of approximately 2-3 years supporting the oscillation infection dynamics hypothesized during a previous EBLV-1 study in a Myotis myotis colony. Seroprevalence were affected by significantly higher seroprevalence in summer than in spring. The maximum time observed between successive positive serological statuses of a bat demonstrated the potential persistence of neutralizing antibodies for at least 4 years. At last, EBLV-1 serological status transitions have been shown driven by age category with higher seroreversion frequencies in adults than in juvenile. Juveniles and female adults seemed indeed acting as distinct drivers

  10. Longitudinal survey of two serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) maternity colonies exposed to EBLV-1 (European Bat Lyssavirus type 1): Assessment of survival and serological status variations using capture-recapture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robardet, Emmanuelle; Borel, Christophe; Moinet, Marie; Jouan, Dorothée; Wasniewski, Marine; Barrat, Jacques; Boué, Franck; Montchâtre-Leroy, Elodie; Servat, Alexandre; Gimenez, Olivier; Cliquet, Florence; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne

    2017-11-01

    This study describes two longitudinal serological surveys of European Bat Lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) antibodies in serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) maternity colonies located in the North-East of France. This species is currently considered as the main EBLV-1 reservoir. Multievent capture-recapture models were used to determine the factors influencing bat rabies transmission as this method accounts for imperfect detection and uncertainty in disease states. Considering the period of study, analyses revealed that survival and recapture probabilities were not affected by the serological status of individuals, confirming the capacity of bats to be exposed to lyssaviruses without dying. Five bats have been found with EBLV-1 RNA in the saliva at the start of the study, suggesting they were caught during virus excretion period. Among these bats, one was interestingly recaptured one year later and harbored a seropositive status. Along the survey, some others bats have been observed to both seroconvert (i.e. move from a negative to a positive serological status) and serorevert (i.e. move from a positive to a negative serological status). Peak of seroprevalence reached 34% and 70% in site A and B respectively. On one of the 2 sites, global decrease of seroprevalence was observed all along the study period nuanced by oscillation intervals of approximately 2-3 years supporting the oscillation infection dynamics hypothesized during a previous EBLV-1 study in a Myotis myotis colony. Seroprevalence were affected by significantly higher seroprevalence in summer than in spring. The maximum time observed between successive positive serological statuses of a bat demonstrated the potential persistence of neutralizing antibodies for at least 4 years. At last, EBLV-1 serological status transitions have been shown driven by age category with higher seroreversion frequencies in adults than in juvenile. Juveniles and female adults seemed indeed acting as distinct drivers of the rabies

  11. Maternal health, antenatal and at 8 weeks after delivery, in home versus in-hospital fetal monitoring in high-risk pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monincx, W. M.; Birnie, E.; Zondervan, H. A.; Bleker, O. P.; Bonsel, G. J.

    2001-01-01

    To assess maternal health outcome, comparing high-risk pregnant women to either domiciliary monitoring or in-hospital monitoring, and a low risk pregnant group. Paper and pencil questionnaire, distributed antenatal and 8 weeks after the delivery. A university hospital. Three groups: 130 high-risk

  12. Maternal monitoring, adolescent disclosure, and adolescent adjustment among Palestinian refugee youth in Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmad, L.; Smetana, J.; Klimstra, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    The role of parenting (adolescent-perceived maternal solicitation of information and control), and child-driven processes (adolescent disclosure and secrecy) in parental knowledge of adolescents' activities, norm-breaking, and anxiety were examined among 498 poor Palestinian youth (M = 15 years)

  13. Serial hemodynamic monitoring to guide treatment of maternal hypertension leads to reduction in severe hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, D; Papastefanou, I; Paraschiv, D; Clark, K; Kametas, N A

    2017-01-01

    To examine whether treatment for hypertension in pregnancy that is guided by serial monitoring of maternal central hemodynamics leads to a reduction in the rate of severe hypertension, defined as blood pressure ≥ 160/110 mmHg; and to assess the distinct longitudinal hemodynamic profiles associated with beta-blocker monotherapy, vasodilator monotherapy and dual agent therapy, and their relationships with outcomes, including fetal growth restriction. This was a prospective observational study at a dedicated antenatal hypertension clinic in a tertiary UK hospital. Fifty-two untreated women presenting with hypertension were recruited consecutively and started on treatment, either with a beta-blocker or a vasodilator. The choice of initial antihypertensive agent was determined according to a model constructed previously to predict the response to the beta-blocker labetalol in pregnant women needing antihypertensive treatment. At presentation, the demographic and maternal hemodynamic variables associated with a therapeutic response to labetalol, defined as blood pressure control embarazo guiado por un seguimiento en serie de las principales constantes hemodinámicas de la madre conduce a una reducción en la tasa de hipertensión grave, definida como presión arterial ≥ 160/110 mmHg; y evaluar los diferentes perfiles hemodinámicos longitudinales asociados a la monoterapia con beta-bloqueantes, la monoterapia con vasodilatadores y la terapia dual, y su relación con los resultados, como la restricción del crecimiento fetal. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio observacional prospectivo en una clínica especializada en hipertensión prenatal de un hospital de atención terciaria del Reino Unido. Se reclutaron consecutivamente a cincuenta y dos mujeres no tratadas que presentaban hipertensión y se comenzó a tratarlas, bien con un beta-bloqueante o bien con un vasodilatador. La elección del agente antihipertensivo inicial se determinó de acuerdo con un modelo elaborado

  14. Developing a Reading Concentration Monitoring System by Applying an Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm to E-Books in an Intelligent Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Min Huang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of educational studies apply sensors to improve student learning in real classroom settings. However, how can sensors be integrated into classrooms to help instructors find out students’ reading concentration rates and thus better increase learning effectiveness? The aim of the current study was to develop a reading concentration monitoring system for use with e-books in an intelligent classroom and to help instructors find out the students’ reading concentration rates. The proposed system uses three types of sensor technologies, namely a webcam, heartbeat sensor, and blood oxygen sensor to detect the learning behaviors of students by capturing various physiological signals. An artificial bee colony (ABC optimization approach is applied to the data gathered from these sensors to help instructors understand their students’ reading concentration rates in a classroom learning environment. The results show that the use of the ABC algorithm in the proposed system can effectively obtain near-optimal solutions. The system has a user-friendly graphical interface, making it easy for instructors to clearly understand the reading status of their students.

  15. Developing a reading concentration monitoring system by applying an artificial bee colony algorithm to e-books in an intelligent classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-Cheng; Chen, Hsin-Chin; Su, Yen-Ning; Huang, Kuo-Kuang; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2012-10-22

    A growing number of educational studies apply sensors to improve student learning in real classroom settings. However, how can sensors be integrated into classrooms to help instructors find out students' reading concentration rates and thus better increase learning effectiveness? The aim of the current study was to develop a reading concentration monitoring system for use with e-books in an intelligent classroom and to help instructors find out the students' reading concentration rates. The proposed system uses three types of sensor technologies, namely a webcam, heartbeat sensor, and blood oxygen sensor to detect the learning behaviors of students by capturing various physiological signals. An artificial bee colony (ABC) optimization approach is applied to the data gathered from these sensors to help instructors understand their students' reading concentration rates in a classroom learning environment. The results show that the use of the ABC algorithm in the proposed system can effectively obtain near-optimal solutions. The system has a user-friendly graphical interface, making it easy for instructors to clearly understand the reading status of their students.

  16. Infant and maternal health monitoring using a combined Nordic database on ART and safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Anna-Karina A; Romundstad, Liv Bente; Gissler, Mika

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate infant and maternal health after assisted reproductive technology (ART), using data on over 90 000 ART children and their mothers in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, which have been combined and will be compared with a control group of spontaneously conceived children...... on the mothers of ART children can be used to study risks during pregnancy and obstetric complications after ART. Methods. A personal identification number given to all Nordic residents allows cross-linkage of the national health registers and enables long-term follow-up of ART children. The medical birth...

  17. An Assessment of LAC's Vital Statistics System : The Foundation of Maternal and Infant Mortality Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Danel, Isabella; Bortman, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    Vital records, the registration of births, deaths, marriages and divorces, and the vital statistics derived from these records serve two important purposes. Firstly, vital records are legal documents, but the focus of this review, is the role of vital records to create demographic and epidemiological statistics that are used in monitoring trends and developing health policies and programs....

  18. 24-Hour Fetal/Maternal Monitoring System Based on Phonocardiogram Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhdanov Dmitry

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes an engineering prototype of the Device for 24-hour monitoring over the functional state of the fetus and mother’s cardiovascular system in the antenatal period of pregnancy. The Device is a hardware and software system that ensures the registration and analysis of fetus and mother’s phonocardiograms with further processing and interpretation. The interpretation process is designed to timely detect conditions that constitute a threat to a fetus. The Device operates as part of a telemedicine network that allows obstetricians-gynecologists managing pregnant women to remotely control their state. The article describes the Device design concept and features of its specific components. The engineering prototype of the Device was used to carry out biomedical tests that confirmed its suitability for 24-hour monitoring over the functional state of fetus and mother’s cardiovascular system in home settings.

  19. 24-Hour Fetal/Maternal Monitoring System Based on Phonocardiogram Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhdanov Dmitry; Bureev Artem; Kosteley Yana

    2018-01-01

    The article describes an engineering prototype of the Device for 24-hour monitoring over the functional state of the fetus and mother’s cardiovascular system in the antenatal period of pregnancy. The Device is a hardware and software system that ensures the registration and analysis of fetus and mother’s phonocardiograms with further processing and interpretation. The interpretation process is designed to timely detect conditions that constitute a threat to a fetus. The Device operates as par...

  20. The Impact of Maternal Obesity and Excessive Gestational Weight Gain on Maternal and Infant Outcomes in Maine: Analysis of Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System Results from 2000 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Nancy; Harris, David E; Aboueissa, AbouEl-Makarim; Sarton, Cheryl; Lichter, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the relationships between prepregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system (PRAMS) data from Maine for 2000-2010 were used to determine associations between demographic, socioeconomic, and health behavioral variables and maternal and infant outcomes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed on the independent variables of age, race, smoking, previous live births, marital status, education, BMI, income, rurality, alcohol use, and GWG. Dependent variables included maternal hypertension, premature birth, birth weight, infant admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), and length of hospital stay of the infant. Excessive prepregnancy BMI and excessive GWG independently predicted maternal hypertension. A high prepregnancy BMI increased the risk of the infant being born prematurely, having a longer hospital stay, and having an excessive birth weight. Excessive GWG predicted a longer infant hospital stay and excessive birth weight. A low pregnancy BMI and a lower than recommended GWG were also associated with poor outcomes: prematurity, low birth weight, and an increased risk of the infant admitted to ICU. These findings support the importance of preconception care that promotes achievement of a healthy weight to enhance optimal reproductive outcomes.

  1. The Impact of Maternal Obesity and Excessive Gestational Weight Gain on Maternal and Infant Outcomes in Maine: Analysis of Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System Results from 2000 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Baugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to understand the relationships between prepregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG and adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system (PRAMS data from Maine for 2000–2010 were used to determine associations between demographic, socioeconomic, and health behavioral variables and maternal and infant outcomes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed on the independent variables of age, race, smoking, previous live births, marital status, education, BMI, income, rurality, alcohol use, and GWG. Dependent variables included maternal hypertension, premature birth, birth weight, infant admission to the intensive care unit (ICU, and length of hospital stay of the infant. Excessive prepregnancy BMI and excessive GWG independently predicted maternal hypertension. A high prepregnancy BMI increased the risk of the infant being born prematurely, having a longer hospital stay, and having an excessive birth weight. Excessive GWG predicted a longer infant hospital stay and excessive birth weight. A low pregnancy BMI and a lower than recommended GWG were also associated with poor outcomes: prematurity, low birth weight, and an increased risk of the infant admitted to ICU. These findings support the importance of preconception care that promotes achievement of a healthy weight to enhance optimal reproductive outcomes.

  2. On colonial grounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, Peter Alexander René van

    1998-01-01

    As a study of the colonial situations of first millennium BC Sardinia, this book is as much an investigation into colonialism as a sociological category, as it explores the specific historical conditions of a particular region. Taking a fresh look at colonialism in Mediterranean archaeology from a

  3. Maternity care practices and breastfeeding experiences of women in different racial and ethnic groups: Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Indu B; Morrow, Brian; D'Angelo, Denise; Li, Ruowei

    2012-11-01

    Research shows that maternity care practices are important to promoting breastfeeding in the early post partum period; however, little is known about the association between maternity care practices and breastfeeding among different racial and ethnic groups. We examined the association between maternity care practices and breastfeeding duration to ≥10 weeks overall and among various racial and ethnic groups using data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS). PRAMS is a state, population-based surveillance system that collects information on maternal behaviors. We used maternity care practices data from 11 states and New York City with response rates ≥70% from 2004 to 2006. Multiple maternity care practices were examined and the analysis adjusted for demographic characteristics, participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), lifestyle, and infant variables. The outcome variable for multivariable analysis was breastfeeding duration to ethnic groups. One practice, that of giving newborns breast milk only, was positively associated with breastfeeding duration of ≥10 weeks across all three groups. Maternity care practices associated with breastfeeding continuation to ≥10 weeks varied by race/ethnicity. For example: breastfeeding within the first hour, baby given a pacifier, and assistance from hospital staff, were significantly associated with breastfeeding duration among black and white women and not Hispanics. The practice of breastfeeding on demand was significantly associated with breastfeeding to ≥10 weeks for black and Hispanic women and not for whites. Hospitals may want to examine the implementation of specific practices in relation to the cultural backgrounds of women to promote breastfeeding.

  4. Participatory monitoring and evaluation approaches that influence decision-making: lessons from a maternal and newborn study in Eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananura, Rornald Muhumuza; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Paina, Ligia; Bumba, Ahmed; Mulekwa, Godfrey; Nakiganda-Busiku, Dinah; Oo, Htet Nay Lin; Kiwanuka, Suzanne Namusoke; George, Asha; Peters, David H

    2017-12-28

    The use of participatory monitoring and evaluation (M&E) approaches is important for guiding local decision-making, promoting the implementation of effective interventions and addressing emerging issues in the course of implementation. In this article, we explore how participatory M&E approaches helped to identify key design and implementation issues and how they influenced stakeholders' decision-making in eastern Uganda. The data for this paper is drawn from a retrospective reflection of various M&E approaches used in a maternal and newborn health project that was implemented in three districts in eastern Uganda. The methods included qualitative and quantitative M&E techniques such as  key informant interviews, formal surveys and supportive supervision, as well as participatory approaches, notably participatory impact pathway analysis. At the design stage, the M&E approaches were useful for identifying key local problems and feasible local solutions and informing the activities that were subsequently implemented. During the implementation phase, the M&E approaches provided evidence that informed decision-making and helped identify emerging issues, such as weak implementation by some village health teams, health facility constraints such as poor use of standard guidelines, lack of placenta disposal pits, inadequate fuel for the ambulance at some facilities, and poor care for low birth weight infants. Sharing this information with key stakeholders prompted them to take appropriate actions. For example, the sub-county leadership constructed placenta disposal pits, the district health officer provided fuel for ambulances, and health workers received refresher training and mentorship on how to care for newborns. Diverse sources of information and perspectives can help researchers and decision-makers understand and adapt evidence to contexts for more effective interventions. Supporting districts to have crosscutting, routine information generating and sharing platforms

  5. The importance of public sector health facility-level data for monitoring changes in maternal mortality risks among communities: the case of pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anrudh K; Sathar, Zeba; Salim, Momina; Shah, Zakir Hussain

    2013-09-01

    This paper illustrates the importance of monitoring health facility-level information to monitor changes in maternal mortality risks. The annual facility-level maternal mortality ratios (MMRs), complications to live births ratios and case fatality ratios (CFRs) were computed from data recorded during 2007 and 2009 in 31 upgraded public sector health facilities across Pakistan. The facility-level MMR declined by about 18%; both the number of Caesarean sections and the episodes of complications as a percentage of live births increased; and CFR based on Caesarean sections and episodes of complications declined by 29% and 37%, respectively. The observed increases in the proportion of women with complications among those who come to these facilities point to a reduction in the delay in reaching facilities (first and second delays; Thaddeus & Maine, 1994); the decrease in CFRs points to improvements in treating obstetric complications and a reduction in the delay in receiving treatment once at facilities (the third delay). These findings point to a decline in maternal mortality risks among communities served by these facilities. A system of woman-level data collection instituted at health facilities with comprehensive emergency obstetric care is essential to monitor changes in the effects of any reduction in the three delays and any improvement in quality of care or the effectiveness of treating pregnancy-related complications among women reaching these facilities. Such a system of information gathering at these health facilities would also help policymakers and programme mangers to measure and improve the effectiveness of safe-motherhood initiatives and to monitor progress being made toward achieving the fifth Millennium Development Goal.

  6. Varroa-Virus Interaction in Collapsing Honey Bee Colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Nielsen, Steen L.; Kryger, Per

    2013-01-01

    Varroa mites and viruses are the currently the high-profile suspects in collapsing bee colonies. Therefore, seasonal variation in varroa load and viruses (Acute-Kashmir-Israeli complex (AKI) and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV)) were monitored in a year-long study. We investigated the viral titres...... in honey bees and varroa mites from 23 colonies (15 apiaries) under three treatment conditions: Organic acids (11 colonies), pyrethroid (9 colonies) and untreated (3 colonies). Approximately 200 bees were sampled every month from April 2011 to October 2011, and April 2012. The 200 bees were split to 10...... subsamples of 20 bees and analysed separately, which allows us to determine the prevalence of virus-infected bees. The treatment efficacy was often low for both treatments. In colonies where varroa treatment reduced the mite load, colonies overwintered successfully, allowing the mites and viruses...

  7. Family Routines and Parental Monitoring as Protective Factors among Early and Middle Adolescents Affected by Maternal HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Debra A.; Marelich, William D.; Herbeck, Diane M.; Payne, Diana L.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of parenting skills on adolescent outcomes among children affected by maternal HIV/AIDS (N = 118, M age = 13) was investigated. Among families with more frequent family routines, over time adolescents showed lower rates of aggression, anxiety, worry, depression, conduct disorder, binge drinking, and increased self-concept. Among…

  8. Monitoring maternal and newborn health outcomes in Bauchi State, Nigeria: an evaluation of a standards-based quality improvement intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabo, Ibrahim; Otolorin, Emmanuel; Williams, Emma; Orobaton, Nosa; Abdullahi, Hannatu; Sadauki, Habib; Abdulkarim, Masduk; Abegunde, Dele

    2016-10-01

    This study assessed the correlation between compliance with set performance standards and maternal and neonatal deaths in health facilities. Baseline and three annual follow-up assessments were conducted, and each was followed by a quality improvement initiative using the Standards Based Management and Recognition (SBM-R) approach. Twenty-three secondary health facilities of Bauchi state, Nigeria. Health care workers and maternity unit patients. We examined trends in: (i) achievement of SBM-R set performance standards based on annual assessment data, (ii) the use of maternal and newborn health (MNH) service delivery practices based on data from health facility registers and supportive supervision and (iii) MNH outcomes based on routine service statistics. At the baseline assessment in 2010, the facilities achieved 4% of SBM-R standards for MNH, on average, and this increased to 86% in 2013. Over the same time period, the study measured an increase in the administration of uterotonic for active management of third stage of labor from 10% to 95% and a decline in the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage from 3.3% to 1.9%. Institutional neonatal mortality rate decreased from 9 to 2 deaths per 1000 live births, while the institutional maternal mortality ratio dropped from 4113 to 1317 deaths per 100 000 live births. Scaling up SBM-R for quality improvement has the potential to prevent maternal and neonatal deaths in Nigeria and similar settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care.

  9. Specters of Colonialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise; Azad, Salam

    2013-01-01

    at the same time they always are bound to fail to become ‘Swedish’ because of the same foreign origins. Although Swedish culture – partly by distancing itself from having a colonial past – has successfully built up an image of openness, we argue that without acknowledging and confronting the role...

  10. Nutritional aspects of honey bee-collected pollen and constraints on colony development in the eastern Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Shafir, S.; Avni, D.; Hendriksma, H.; Dag, A.; Uni, Z.; Avni, Dorit; Hendriksma, Harmen; Dag, Arnon; Uni, Zehava; Shafir, Sharoni

    2014-01-01

    Pollen is the main protein and lipid source for honey bees (Apis mellifera), and nutritionally impoverished landscapes pose a threat to colony development. To determine colony nutritional demands, we analyzed a yearly cycle of bee-collected pollen from colonies in the field and compared it to colony worker production and honey bee body composition, for the first time in social insects. We monitored monthly bee production in ten colonies at each of seven sites throughout Israel, and trapped po...

  11. Kant's Second Thoughts on Colonialism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleingeld, Pauline; Flikschuh, Katrin; Ypi, Lea

    2014-01-01

    Kant is widely regarded as a fierce critic of colonialism. In Toward Perpetual Peace and the Metaphysics of Morals, for example, he forcefully condemns European conduct in the colonies as a flagrant violation of the principles of right. His earlier views on colonialism have not yet received much

  12. "So Either You Have a Foetal Monitor or You Have Your Waters Broken, Basically Is It?": Articulating Maternity Care Policy at a Midwives' Ante-Natal Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Mary-Pat

    2010-01-01

    Maternity care in Ireland has been described as a "testament to the strength and influence of the medical profession" (Mc Kee 1986: 192). A review of maternity and gynaecology services in the Dublin area in 2004 revealed that "no participant...thought that the maternity services were women centred at the time" (Women's Health…

  13. HONEY BEE COLONY PHEROMONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dražić

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pheromones are chemicals produced as liquids by specialised cells or glands and transmitted into the environment as liquids or gases. In contrary to hormones, which are excreted in organism and have effect exclusively on organism that produced them, pheromones are excreted outside organism and effect on different individuals of the same species. Pheromones mediate nearly all aspects of honeybee colony life including social defence, brood care, mating, orientation, foraging and reproduction. Pheromone investigation has high economic importance. With use of pheromones it is possible to manipulate with pest insects on crops or to direct honeybees during pollination on target plants.

  14. Influence of feeding bee colonies on colony strenght and honey authenticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja KANDOLF BOROVŠAK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For the natural development of bee colonies, there is the need for appropriate nutrition. Lack of natural honey flow must be supplemented by feeding bee colonies with sugar syrups or candy paste. This supplementary feeding encourages brood breeding and forage activity, whereby stronger colonies collect more honey. Sugar syrups can cause honey adulteration, which is more frequent with the reversing of the brood combs with the bee food, with the combs moved from the brood chamber to the upper chamber. Authentication of honey from the standpoint of the presence of sugar syrup is very complex, because there is no single method by which honey adulteration can be reliably confirmed. Feeding the colonies in spring should result in stronger colonies and hence the collection of more honey in the brood chambers. The objective of the present study was to determine whether this has effects also on honey authenticity, and to discover a simple method for detection of honey adulteration. The colonies were fed with candy paste that had added yeast and blue dye, to provide markers for detection of honey adulteration. The strength of the colonies and quantity of honey in the brood chambers were monitored. The results of the analysis of stable isotope and activity of foreign enzymes were compared with the results of yeast quantity and colour of the honey (absorbance, L*, a*, b* parameters. Detection of yeast in the honey samples and presence of colour as a consequence of added dye appear to be appropriate methods to follow honey adulteration, and further studies are ongoing.

  15. Analysis of Colonial Currency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkowski, Michael; Cangany, Catherine; Jordan, Louis; Manukyan, Khachatur; Schultz, Zachary; Wiescher, Michael

    2017-09-01

    This project entailed studying the cellulose in paper, the ink, colorants, and other materials used to produce American colonial currency. The technique primarily used in this project was X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF). XRF mapping was used to provide both elemental analysis of large-scale objects as well as microscopic examination of individual pigment particles in ink, in addition to the inorganic additives used to prepare paper. The combination of elemental mapping with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Raman Spectroscopies permits an efficient analysis of the currency. These spectroscopic methods help identify the molecular composition of the pigments. This combination of atomic and molecular analytical techniques provided an in-depth characterization of the paper currency on the macro, micro, and molecular levels. We have identified several of pigments that were used in the preparation of inks and colorants. Also, different inorganic crystals, such as alumina-silicates, have been detected in different papers. The FTIR spectroscopy allowed us to determine the type of cellulose fiber used in the production of paper currency. Our future research will be directed toward revealing important historical relationships between currencies printed throughout the colonies. ISLA Da Vinci Grant.

  16. Seabird Colonies in Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.; Falk, K.

    About 1 million seabirds (indvs) breed in 1032 colonies distributed along the coasts of western Greenland (Fig. 1). However, this figure does not include the little auk colonies in Avanersuaq. These colonies are roughly estimated to hold about 20 mill. pairs. All the basic information on seabird...... colonies in Greenland is compiled in a database maintained by NERI-AE. This report presents data on distribution, population numbers and population trends of 19 species of breeding colonial seabirds in western Greenland. Distributions are depicted on maps in Fig. 18-39. It is apparent that the major...... colonies are found in the northern part of the region, viz. Upernavik and Avanersuaq. The numbers of birds recorded in the database for each species are presented in Tab. 4, and on the basis of these figures estimates of the populations in western Greenland are given (Tab. 5). The most numerous species...

  17. Colony Dimorphism in Bradyrhizobium Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester-Bradley, Rosemary; Thornton, Philip; Jones, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Ten isolates of Bradyrhizobium spp. which form two colony types were studied; the isolates originated from a range of legume species. The two colony types differed in the amount of gum formed or size or both, depending on the strain. Whole 7-day-old colonies of each type were subcultured to determine the proportion of cells which had changed to the other type. An iterative computerized procedure was used to determine the rate of switching per generation between the two types and to predict proportions reached at equilibrium for each strain. The predicted proportions of the wetter (more gummy) or larger colony type at equilibrium differed significantly between strains, ranging from 0.9999 (strain CIAT 2383) to 0.0216 (strain CIAT 2469), because some strains switched faster from dry to wet (or small to large) and others switched faster from wet to dry (or large to small). Predicted equilibrium was reached after about 140 generations in strain USDA 76. In all but one strain (CIAT 3030) the growth rate of the wetter colony type was greater than or similar to that of the drier type. The mean difference in generation time between the two colony types was 0.37 h. Doubling times calculated for either colony type after 7 days of growth on the agar surface ranged from 6.0 to 7.3 h. The formation of two persistent colony types by one strain (clonal or colony dimorphism) may be a common phenomenon among Bradyrhizobium strains. Images PMID:16347599

  18. [Maternal phenylketonuria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bókay, János; Kiss, Erika; Simon, Erika; Szőnyi, László

    2013-05-05

    Elevated maternal phenylalanine levels during pregnancy are teratogenic, and may result in embryo-foetopathy, which could lead to stillbirth, significant psychomotor handicaps and birth defects. This foetal damage is known as maternal phenylketonuria. Women of childbearing age with all forms of phenylketonuria, including mild variants such as hyperphenylalaninaemia, should receive detailed counselling regarding their risks for adverse foetal effects, optimally before contemplating pregnancy. The most assured way to prevent maternal phenylketonuria is to maintain the maternal phenylalanine levels within the optimal range already before conception and throughout the whole pregnancy. Authors review the comprehensive programme for prevention of maternal phenylketonuria at the Metabolic Center of Budapest, they survey the practical approach of the continuous maternal metabolic control and delineate the outcome of pregnancies of mothers with phenylketonuria from the introduction of newborn screening until most recently.

  19. Setting the stage for equity-sensitive monitoring of the maternal and child health Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Meg E.; Balk, Deborah; Delamonica, Enrique; Storeygard, Adam; Sacks, Emma; Minujin, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This analysis seeks to set the stage for equity-sensitive monitoring of the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). METHODS: We use data from international household-level surveys (Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS)) to demonstrate that establishing an equity baseline is necessary and feasible, even in low-income and data-poor countries. We assess data from six countries using 11 health indicators and six social stratifiers. Simple bivariate stratification is complemented by simultaneous stratification to expose the compound effect of multiple forms of vulnerability. FINDINGS: The data reveal that inequities are complex and interactive: inferences cannot be drawn about the nature or extent of inequities in health outcomes from a single stratifier or indicator. CONCLUSION: The MDGs and other development initiatives must become more comprehensive and explicit in their analysis and tracking of inequities. The design of policies to narrow health gaps must take into account country-specific inequities. PMID:16878225

  20. Growth Mechanism of Microbial Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Minhui; Martini, K. Michael; Kim, Neil H.; Sherer, Nicholas; Lee, Jia Gloria; Kuhlman, Thomas; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    Experiments on nutrient-limited E. coli colonies, growing on agar gel from single cells reveal a power-law distribution of sizes, both during the growth process and in the final stage when growth has ceased. We developed a Python simulation to study the growth mechanism of the bacterial population and thus understand the broad details of the experimental findings. The simulation takes into account nutrient uptake, metabolic function, growth and cell division. Bacteria are modeled in two dimensions as hard circle-capped cylinders with steric interactions and elastic stress dependent growth characteristics. Nutrient is able to diffuse within and between the colonies. The mechanism of microbial colony growth involves reproduction of cells within the colonies and the merging of different colonies. We report results on the dynamic scaling laws and final state size distribution, that capture in semi-quantitative detail the trends observed in experiment. Supported by NSF Grant 0822613.

  1. Attendance at prenatal care and adverse birth outcomes in China: A follow-up study based on Maternal and Newborn's Health Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Aiqun; Wu, Keye; Zhao, Wei; Hu, Huanqing; Yang, Qi; Chen, Dafang

    2018-02-01

    to evaluate the independent association between attendance at prenatal care and adverse birth outcomes in China, measured either as the occurrence of preterm birth or low birth weight. a follow-up study. the data was collected from maternal and newborn's health monitoring system at 6 provinces in China. all pregnant women registered in the system at their first prenatal care visit. We included 40152 registered pregnant women who had delivered between October 2013 and September 2014. attendance at prenatal care was evaluated using Kessner index. χ 2 tests were used to examine the correlations between demographic characteristics and preterm birth or low birth weight. The associations between attendance at prenatal care and birth outcomes were explored using multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression models. the prevalence for preterm birth and low birth weight was 3.31% and 2.55%. The null models showed region clustering on birth outcomes. Compared with women who received adequate prenatal care, those with intermediate prenatal care (adjusted OR 1.62, 95%CI 1.37-1.92) or inadequate prenatal care (adjusted OR 2.78, 95%CI 2.24-3.44) had significantly increased risks for preterm birth, and women with intermediate prenatal care (adjusted OR 1.31, 95%CI 1.10-1.55) or inadequate prenatal care (adjusted OR 1.70, 95%CI 1.32-2.19) had significantly increased risks for low birth weight. We found very significant dose-response patterns for both preterm birth (p-trendprenatal care in China has independent effects on both preterm birth and low birth weight. Appropriate timing and number of prenatal care visits can help to reduce the occurrence of preterm birth or low birth weight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic diversity affects colony survivorship in commercial honey bee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpy, David R.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Pettis, Jeffrey S.

    2013-08-01

    Honey bee ( Apis mellifera) queens mate with unusually high numbers of males (average of approximately 12 drones), although there is much variation among queens. One main consequence of such extreme polyandry is an increased diversity of worker genotypes within a colony, which has been shown empirically to confer significant adaptive advantages that result in higher colony productivity and survival. Moreover, honey bees are the primary insect pollinators used in modern commercial production agriculture, and their populations have been in decline worldwide. Here, we compare the mating frequencies of queens, and therefore, intracolony genetic diversity, in three commercial beekeeping operations to determine how they correlate with various measures of colony health and productivity, particularly the likelihood of queen supersedure and colony survival in functional, intensively managed beehives. We found the average effective paternity frequency ( m e ) of this population of honey bee queens to be 13.6 ± 6.76, which was not significantly different between colonies that superseded their queen and those that did not. However, colonies that were less genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e ≤ 7.0) were 2.86 times more likely to die by the end of the study when compared to colonies that were more genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e > 7.0). The stark contrast in colony survival based on increased genetic diversity suggests that there are important tangible benefits of increased queen mating number in managed honey bees, although the exact mechanism(s) that govern these benefits have not been fully elucidated.

  3. A plan for the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Susan C.; Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Ellison, Laura E.; Lausen, Cori L.; Reichard, Jonathan D.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Ingersoll, Thomas E.; Coleman, Jeremy; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Sauer, John R.; Francis, Charles M.; Bayless, Mylea L.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat) is to create a continent-wide program to monitor bats at local to rangewide scales that will provide reliable data to promote effective conservation decisionmaking and the long-term viability of bat populations across the continent. This is an international, multiagency program. Four approaches will be used to gather monitoring data to assess changes in bat distributions and abundances: winter hibernaculum counts, maternity colony counts, mobile acoustic surveys along road transects, and acoustic surveys at stationary points. These monitoring approaches are described along with methods for identifying species recorded by acoustic detectors. Other chapters describe the sampling design, the database management system (Bat Population Database), and statistical approaches that can be used to analyze data collected through this program.

  4. Colonial Figures: Memories of Street Traders in the Colonial and Early Post-colonial Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri Lynn Gibbings

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores post-colonial memories about street traders among individuals who lived in the former colony of the Dutch East Indies. It argues that these narratives romanticize the relationship between Europeans and indigenous peoples. Street vendors are also used to differentiate between periods within colonial and post-colonial history. The nostalgic representation of interracial contact between Europeans and traders is contrasted with representations of other figures such as the Japanese and the nationalist. A recurring feature of these representations is the ability of Europeans to speak with street traders and imagine what they wanted and needed. The traders are remembered as a social type that transgressed politics and represented the neutrality of the economic sphere as a place for shared communication. The article concludes that the figure of the street vendor contributes to the nostalgic reinvention of the colony but is also used in narratives to differentiate between and mark changes across the colonial and post-colonial periods.

  5. The Role of Non-Foraging Nests in Polydomous Wood Ant Colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Samuel; Robinson, Elva J H

    2015-01-01

    A colony of red wood ants can inhabit more than one spatially separated nest, in a strategy called polydomy. Some nests within these polydomous colonies have no foraging trails to aphid colonies in the canopy. In this study we identify and investigate the possible roles of non-foraging nests in polydomous colonies of the wood ant Formica lugubris. To investigate the role of non-foraging nests we: (i) monitored colonies for three years; (ii) observed the resources being transported between non-foraging nests and the rest of the colony; (iii) measured the amount of extra-nest activity around non-foraging and foraging nests. We used these datasets to investigate the extent to which non-foraging nests within polydomous colonies are acting as: part of the colony expansion process; hunting and scavenging specialists; brood-development specialists; seasonal foragers; or a selfish strategy exploiting the foraging effort of the rest of the colony. We found that, rather than having a specialised role, non-foraging nests are part of the process of colony expansion. Polydomous colonies expand by founding new nests in the area surrounding the existing nests. Nests founded near food begin foraging and become part of the colony; other nests are not founded near food sources and do not initially forage. Some of these non-foraging nests eventually begin foraging; others do not and are abandoned. This is a method of colony growth not available to colonies inhabiting a single nest, and may be an important advantage of the polydomous nesting strategy, allowing the colony to expand into profitable areas.

  6. The Future Lunar Flora Colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, E. G.; Guven, U. G.

    2017-10-01

    A constructional design for the primary establishment for a lunar colony using the micrometeorite rich soil is proposed. It highlights the potential of lunar regolith combined with Earth technology for water and oxygen for human outposts on the Moon.

  7. Medical Toxicology and Public Health-Update on Research and Activities at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry : Environmental Exposures among Arctic Populations: The Maternal Organics Monitoring Study in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Mehruba; Ridpath, Alison; Berner, James; Schier, Joshua G

    2016-09-01

    Evidence suggests that in-utero exposure to environmental chemicals, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), heavy metals, and radionuclides, that might bioaccumulate in the mother may increase a newborn's risk of adverse developmental, neurological, and immunologic effects. Chemical contamination of bodies of water and strong ocean currents worldwide can drive these chemicals from lower latitudes to Arctic waters where they accumulate in common traditional subsistence foods. In response to concerns of the people from Alaska of the effects of bio-accumulated chemicals on their children, the Maternal Organics Monitoring Study(MOMS) was developed. The objective of the study was to assess the risks and benefits associated with the population's subsistence diet. Data analysis of biological samples at the CDC's NCEH laboratory and maternal questionnaires is ongoing. Results will be provided to Alaska Native communities to help support public health actions and inform future interventions and research.

  8. Genetic diversity within honeybee colonies increases signal production by waggle-dancing foragers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Heather R; Burke, Kelly M; Seeley, Thomas D

    2008-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated considerable benefits of intracolonial genetic diversity for the productivity of honeybee colonies: single-patriline colonies have depressed foraging rates, smaller food stores and slower weight gain relative to multiple-patriline colonies. We explored whether differences in the use of foraging-related communication behaviour (waggle dances and shaking signals) underlie differences in foraging effort of genetically diverse and genetically uniform colonies. We created three pairs of colonies; each pair had one colony headed by a multiply mated queen (inseminated by 15 drones) and one colony headed by a singly mated queen. For each pair, we monitored the production of foraging-related signals over the course of 3 days. Foragers in genetically diverse colonies had substantially more information available to them about food resources than foragers in uniform colonies. On average, in genetically diverse colonies compared with genetically uniform colonies, 36% more waggle dances were identified daily, dancers performed 62% more waggle runs per dance, foragers reported food discoveries that were farther from the nest and 91% more shaking signals were exchanged among workers each morning prior to foraging. Extreme polyandry by honeybee queens enhances the production of worker–worker communication signals that facilitate the swift discovery and exploitation of food resources. PMID:18198143

  9. Underreporting of maternal mortality in Taiwan: A data linkage study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Pi Wu

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Approximately two-thirds of the maternal deaths in Taiwan were unreported in the officially published mortality data. Hence, routine nationwide data linkage is essential to monitor maternal mortality in Taiwan accurately.

  10. Rural maternity care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Katherine J; Couchie, Carol; Ehman, William; Graves, Lisa; Grzybowski, Stefan; Medves, Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    rural settings. Remuneration models should facilitate interprofessional collaboration. 9. Practitioners skilled in neonatal resuscitation and newborn care are essential to rural maternity care. 10. Training of rural maternity health care providers should include collaborative practice as well as the necessary clinical skills and competencies. Sites must be developed and supported to train midwives, nurses, and physicians and provide them with the skills necessary for rural maternity care. Training in rural and northern settings must be supported. 11. Generalist skills in maternity care, surgery, and anaesthesia are valued and should be supported in training programs in family medicine, surgery, and anaesthesia as well as nursing and midwifery. 12. All physicians and nurses should be exposed to maternity care in their training, and basic competencies should be met. 13. Quality improvement and outcome monitoring should be integral to all maternity care systems. 14. Support must be provided for ongoing, collaborative, interprofessional, and locally provided continuing education and patient safety programs.

  11. Factors of honeybee colony performances on sunflower at apiary scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretzschmar André

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An observatory of honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera, consisting of at least 200 colonies, divided into 10 apiaries of 20 colonies, was monitored for three years on sunflower honeyflow (2015–2017. The purpose of this observatory is to understand which factors control colony performance during sunflower honeyflow in south-western France. From the temporal dynamics of weight gain, statistical analysis reveals a hierarchy of factors. First, variability in apiary scale performance is an image of the effect of resource variability. But, in addition to this primordial factor, two other factors contribute very significantly to performance. On the one hand, the amount of capped brood and the number of bees at the time of the installation of the apiary: these two elements testify to the vitality of the colony. The second remarkable factor is the Varroa load, which strongly penalizes performance beyond a certain threshold. The negative effect of the Varroa load on the colony performance is minimized in case of abondant sunflower honey flow.

  12. Strengthening health systems capacity to monitor and evaluate programmes targeted at reducing abortion-related maternal mortality in Jessore district, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Fauzia Akhter; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Ford, Evelyn Rebecca; Johnston, Heidi Bart

    2015-09-28

    Abortion related deaths as a proportion of maternal mortality appears to have fallen dramatically in Bangladesh from 5 % in 2001 to 1 % in 2010. Yet complications from menstrual regulation (MR) and unsafe abortion continue to cause deleterious health, economic and social consequences for women in the country. This quasi experimental design study with a baseline (January to December 2008) and an endline survey (August to October 2009) was conducted in 69 public, private, and NGO sector health facilities in Jessore district of Bangladesh with the objective of adapting and implementing a set of process indicators, specifically to supplement the indicators for monitoring emergency obstetric care interventions. At the baseline, we collected retrospective data from all 69 health facilities that provided MR, legal abortion or post-abortion care (PAC), by reviewing their last one year's records. Three months after introducing the safe menstrual regulation and abortion care (SMRAC) model, endline data was collected. Signal function (critical services that facilities must perform in order to prevent and treat abortion complications) analysis was used to characterize facilities as providing basic care, comprehensive care, or neither. Facility mapping, and records on services provided and complications treated were used to further characterize service availability and to describe service use and quality. No facilities fulfilled criteria for 'comprehensive' care at either the baseline or end line while only one met the 'basic' criteria during the endline of the project. Recommended uterine evacuation technology, manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) was used for 100.0 % of MR clients but only for 8.0 % or fewer PAC patients. MR clients were 37.5 times more likely than PAC patients to leave facilities with a contraceptive method (75.0 % vs. 2.0 %). Persistent use of older uterine evacuation technologies was observed when recommended techniques were widely available in the facilities

  13. Colony Development and Density-Dependent Processes in Breeding Grey Herons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Shirai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The density-dependent processes that limit the colony size of colonially breeding birds such as herons and egrets remain unclear, because it is difficult to monitor colonies from the first year of their establishment, and the most previous studies have considered mixed-species colonies. In the present study, single-species colonies of the Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea were observed from the first year of their establishment for 16 years in suburban Tokyo. Colony size increased after establishment, illustrating a saturation curve. The breeding duration (days from nest building to fledging by a pair increased, but the number of fledglings per nest decreased, with colony size. The reproductive season in each year began earlier, and there was greater variation in the timing of individual breeding when the colony size was larger. The prolonged duration until nestling feeding by early breeders of the colony suggests that herons at the beginning of the new breeding season exist in an unsteady state with one another, likely owing to interactions with immigrant individuals. Such density-dependent interference may affect reproductive success and limit the colony size of Grey Herons.

  14. Colonie Interim Storage Site annual site environmental report for calendar year 1989, Colonie, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    IN 1984, Congress assigned the cleanup of the National Lead (NL) Industries site in Colonie, New York, to the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a decontamination research and development project under the 1984 Energy and Water Appropriations Act. DOE then included the site in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), an existing DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain for the early years of the nation's atomic energy program. DOE instituted an environmental monitoring program at the site in 1984. Results are presented annually in reports such as this. Under FUSRAP, the first environmental monitoring report for this site presented data for calendar year 1984. This report presents the findings of the environmental monitoring program conducted during calendar year 1989. 16 refs., 17 figs., 14 tabs

  15. Colonie Interim Storage Site annual site environmental report for calendar year 1989, Colonie, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    IN 1984, Congress assigned the cleanup of the National Lead (NL) Industries site in Colonie, New York, to the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a decontamination research and development project under the 1984 Energy and Water Appropriations Act. DOE then included the site in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), an existing DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain for the early years of the nation's atomic energy program. DOE instituted an environmental monitoring program at the site in 1984. Results are presented annually in reports such as this. Under FUSRAP, the first environmental monitoring report for this site presented data for calendar year 1984. This report presents the findings of the environmental monitoring program conducted during calendar year 1989. 16 refs., 17 figs., 14 tabs.

  16. Colonial army recruitment patterns and post-colonial Military Coups ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since time immemorial, societies, states and state builders have been challenged and transformed by the need and quest for military manpower. European states relied on conscript armies to 'pacify' and retain colonies in parts of the non-European world. These facts underscore the meticulous attention paid by the British to ...

  17. Colonial Bilingual Heritage and Post-Colonial Myths in Cameroon's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, the study traces and shows that an uncritical support of the existing school bilingualism, a aspect of the general political objective of national unity and integration, hinges on a fictitious collective post-colonial dream about using the bilingual heritage of French and English, and the cultures that lie behind them, ...

  18. Parent–offspring resemblance in colony-specific adult survival of cliff swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles R.; Roche, Erin A.; Brown, Mary Bomberger

    2015-01-01

    Survival is a key component of fitness. Species that occupy discrete breeding colonies with different characteristics are often exposed to varying costs and benefits associated with group size or environmental conditions, and survival is an integrative net measure of these effects. We investigated the extent to which survival probability of adult (≥1-year old) cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) occupying different colonies resembled that of their parental cohort and thus whether the natal colony had long-term effects on individuals. Individuals were cross-fostered between colonies soon after hatching and their presence as breeders monitored at colonies in the western Nebraska study area for the subsequent decade. Colony-specific adult survival probabilities of offspring born and reared in the same colony, and those cross-fostered away from their natal colony soon after birth, were positively and significantly related to subsequent adult survival of the parental cohort from the natal colony. This result held when controlling for the effect of natal colony size and the age composition of the parental cohort. In contrast, colony-specific adult survival of offspring cross-fostered to a site was unrelated to that of their foster parent cohort or to the cohort of non-fostered offspring with whom they were reared. Adult survival at a colony varied inversely with fecundity, as measured by mean brood size, providing evidence for a survival–fecundity trade-off in this species. The results suggest some heritable variation in adult survival, likely maintained by negative correlations between fitness components. The study provides additional evidence that colonies represent non-random collections of individuals.

  19. Dutch Colonial Nostalgia Across Decolonisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that nostalgia for colonialism in the Netherlands, the so called tempo doeloe culture, is not a specifically postcolonial phenomenon caused by the collapse of the Dutch empire in Asia. In fact, nostalgia for the Dutch East Indies can be traced back to the nineteenth century, when

  20. Colonial adventures in tropical agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buelens, Frans; Frankema, Ewout

    2016-01-01

    How profitable were foreign investments in plantation agriculture in the Netherlands Indies during the late colonial era? We use a new dataset of monthly quoted stock prices and dividends of international companies at the Brussels stock exchange to estimate the returns to investment in tropical

  1. Affective Politics and Colonial Heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Britta Timm; Andersen, Casper

    2017-01-01

    The article analyses the spatial entanglement of colonial heritage struggles through a study of the Rhodes Must Fall student movement at the University of Cape Town and the University of Oxford. We explore affective politics and the role heritage can play in the landscape of body politics. We aim...

  2. Ant Colony Optimization for Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ast, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The very basis of this thesis is the collective behavior of ants in colonies. Ants are an excellent example of how rather simple behavior on a local level can lead to complex behavior on a global level that is beneficial for the individuals. The key in the self-organization of ants is communication

  3. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colony health and pathogen composition in migratory beekeeping operations involved in California almond pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenny, William; Cavigli, Ian; Daughenbaugh, Katie F; Radford, Rosemarie; Kegley, Susan E; Flenniken, Michelle L

    2017-01-01

    Honey bees are important pollinators of agricultural crops. Pathogens and other factors have been implicated in high annual losses of honey bee colonies in North America and some European countries. To further investigate the relationship between multiple factors, including pathogen prevalence and abundance and colony health, we monitored commercially managed migratory honey bee colonies involved in California almond pollination in 2014. At each sampling event, honey bee colony health was assessed, using colony population size as a proxy for health, and the prevalence and abundance of seven honey bee pathogens was evaluated using PCR and quantitative PCR, respectively. In this sample cohort, pathogen prevalence and abundance did not correlate with colony health, but did correlate with the date of sampling. In general, pathogen prevalence (i.e., the number of specific pathogens harbored within a colony) was lower early in the year (January-March) and was greater in the summer, with peak prevalence occurring in June. Pathogen abundance in individual honey bee colonies varied throughout the year and was strongly associated with the sampling date, and was influenced by beekeeping operation, colony health, and mite infestation level. Together, data from this and other observational cohort studies that monitor individual honey bee colonies and precisely account for sampling date (i.e., day of year) will lead to a better understanding of the influence of pathogens on colony mortality and the effects of other factors on these associations.

  4. Honey bee (Apis mellifera colony health and pathogen composition in migratory beekeeping operations involved in California almond pollination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Glenny

    Full Text Available Honey bees are important pollinators of agricultural crops. Pathogens and other factors have been implicated in high annual losses of honey bee colonies in North America and some European countries. To further investigate the relationship between multiple factors, including pathogen prevalence and abundance and colony health, we monitored commercially managed migratory honey bee colonies involved in California almond pollination in 2014. At each sampling event, honey bee colony health was assessed, using colony population size as a proxy for health, and the prevalence and abundance of seven honey bee pathogens was evaluated using PCR and quantitative PCR, respectively. In this sample cohort, pathogen prevalence and abundance did not correlate with colony health, but did correlate with the date of sampling. In general, pathogen prevalence (i.e., the number of specific pathogens harbored within a colony was lower early in the year (January-March and was greater in the summer, with peak prevalence occurring in June. Pathogen abundance in individual honey bee colonies varied throughout the year and was strongly associated with the sampling date, and was influenced by beekeeping operation, colony health, and mite infestation level. Together, data from this and other observational cohort studies that monitor individual honey bee colonies and precisely account for sampling date (i.e., day of year will lead to a better understanding of the influence of pathogens on colony mortality and the effects of other factors on these associations.

  5. Estimation of maternal mortality using the indirect sisterhood method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FinePrint

    is also useful for monitoring the trends of maternal mortality and evaluating the impact of safe motherhood initiative and improving maternal survival and achieving the MDGs. REFERENCES. 1. Lech M and Zwane A. Survey on maternal mortality in Swaziland using the Sisterhood method. Paedr Perinat Epidemiol; 2002: 16:.

  6. Queen promiscuity lowers disease within honeybee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Thomas D; Tarpy, David R

    2006-01-01

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, but in some species each queen mates with numerous males to create a colony with a genetically diverse worker force. The adaptive significance of polyandry by social insect queens remains an evolutionary puzzle. Using the honeybee (Apis mellifera), we tested the hypothesis that polyandry improves a colony's resistance to disease. We established colonies headed by queens that had been artificially inseminated by either one or 10 drones. Later, we inoculated these colonies with spores of Paenibacillus larvae, the bacterium that causes a highly virulent disease of honeybee larvae (American foulbrood). We found that, on average, colonies headed by multiple-drone inseminated queens had markedly lower disease intensity and higher colony strength at the end of the summer relative to colonies headed by single-drone inseminated queens. These findings support the hypothesis that polyandry by social insect queens is an adaptation to counter disease within their colonies. PMID:17015336

  7. Effects of within-colony competition on body size asymmetries and reproductive skew in a social spider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Lena; Bilde, Trine

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive partitioning is a key component of social organization in groups of cooperative organisms. In colonies of permanently social spiders of the genus Stegodyphus less than half of the females reproduce, while all females, including nonreproducers, perform suicidal allo-maternal care. Some...... not increase over the course of the experiment, suggesting that body size variation is shaped at an early stage. This might facilitate task specialization within colonies and ensure colony-level reproductive output by early allocation of reproductive roles. We suggest that reproductive skew in social spiders...

  8. Maternal phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Štuikienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria is a hereditary metabolic disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Elevated phenylalanine levels in a pregnant woman with phenylketonuria result in phenylalanine embryopathy. Failure to follow special diets during gestation results in neonatal dysplasia. More favorable outcomes are observed when phenylalanine levels remain within normal ranges prior to conception, or at least when they reach normal levels by the 4th-10th weeks of gestation. We report the case of a newborn with maternal phenylketonuria.

  9. Colonie Interim Storage Site: Annual environmental report for calendar year 1990, Colonie, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    Environmental monitoring of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) and surrounding area began in 1984. CISS is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sties where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The routine environmental monitoring program at CISS includes sampling networks for external gamma radiation exposures and for radium-226, throium-232, an total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, the nonradiological parameters volatile and semivolatile organics, pesticides/polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), metals, total organic carbon (TOC), total organic halides (TOX), specific conductivity, and pH are measured in groundwater. 14 refs., 20 figs., 25 tabs

  10. Recent Honey Bee Colony Declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-20

    podcasts.psu.edu/taxonomy/term/62]. Staple crops such as wheat , corn, and rice do not rely on insect pollination and are mostly wind pollinated...are interacting to weaken bee colonies and are allowing stress-related pathogens, such as fungi , thus causing a final collapse.27 Others note the...possible role of miticide resistance in bees. High levels of bacteria, viruses, and fungi have been found in the guts of the recoverable dead bees

  11. Honeybee immunity and colony losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nazzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The decline of honeybee colonies and their eventual collapse is a widespread phenomenon in the Northern hemisphere of the globe, which severely limits the beekeeping industry. This dramatic event is associated with an enhanced impact of parasites and pathogens on honeybees, which is indicative of reduced immunocompetence. The parasitic mite Varroa destructor and the vectored viral pathogens appear to play a key-role in the induction of this complex syndrome. In particular, the Deformed Wing Virus (DWV is widespread and is now considered, along with Varroa, one of the major causes of bee colony losses. Several lines of evidence indicate that this mite/DWV association severely affects the immune system of honeybees and makes them more sensitive to the action of other stress factors. The molecular mechanisms underpinning these complex interactions are currently being investigated and the emerging information has allowed the development of a new functional model, describing how different stress factors may synergistically concur in the induction of bee immune alteration and health decline. This provides a new logical framework in which to interpret the proposed multifactorial origin of bee colony losses and sets the stage for a more comprehensive and integrated analysis of the effect that multiple stress agents may have on honeybees.

  12. Vocal activity as a low cost and scalable index of seabird colony size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borker, Abraham L; McKown, Matthew W; Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Tershy, Bernie R; Croll, Donald A

    2014-08-01

    Although wildlife conservation actions have increased globally in number and complexity, the lack of scalable, cost-effective monitoring methods limits adaptive management and the evaluation of conservation efficacy. Automated sensors and computer-aided analyses provide a scalable and increasingly cost-effective tool for conservation monitoring. A key assumption of automated acoustic monitoring of birds is that measures of acoustic activity at colony sites are correlated with the relative abundance of nesting birds. We tested this assumption for nesting Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) in San Francisco Bay for 2 breeding seasons. Sensors recorded ambient sound at 7 colonies that had 15-111 nests in 2009 and 2010. Colonies were spaced at least 250 m apart and ranged from 36 to 2,571 m(2) . We used spectrogram cross-correlation to automate the detection of tern calls from recordings. We calculated mean seasonal call rate and compared it with mean active nest count at each colony. Acoustic activity explained 71% of the variation in nest abundance between breeding sites and 88% of the change in colony size between years. These results validate a primary assumption of acoustic indices; that is, for terns, acoustic activity is correlated to relative abundance, a fundamental step toward designing rigorous and scalable acoustic monitoring programs to measure the effectiveness of conservation actions for colonial birds and other acoustically active wildlife. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Maternal immunocompetence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, M.R.

    1976-01-01

    The studies of distribution patterns of 51 Cr-labelled lymphocytes in pregnant mice were designed to explore the effect of pregnancy on the immunologic behaviour of the intact pregnant animal rather than on the isolated maternal lymphocyte. The distribution pattern of 51 Cr-labelled syngenic and semiallogenic lymphocytes was studied in intact primigravida mice, and there was no difference between interstrain and intrastrain pregnant mice, and there was no evidence of immunologically specific 'trapping' in the para-aortic lymph nodes draining the interstrain pregnant uterus. There is little evidence that the primigravida animal is even immunologically aware of the 'foreignness'of a semiallogenic fetus. (JIW)

  14. Automatic Evaluation of Colonies Growth rate of Yeasts incubated in Petri dishes using Mobile Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alecsander Pereira Martins

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an automatic method based on computer vision implemented in mobile platform capable of monitoring the growth of microbial colonies incubated in Petri dishes. The developed optimized image processing algorithm performs this task without human intervention from images of colonies of the microorganism in different evolution phases. The contribution of this paper is the development of a fast and robust mobile tool to assist bioprocess experts in monitoring the growth of colonies without using the conventional error prone evaluation techniques. The obtained results successfully demonstrated dimensional alterations in colonies in a faster and more precise fashion when compared with the conventional method, with the additional advantage of versatility in producing reliable estimation of the growth rates with higher statistical significance.

  15. Alternative Modernities for Colonial Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunyoung Park. The Proletarian Wave: Literature and Leftist Culture in Colonial Korea, 1910–1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 348 pp. $50 (cloth. Vladimir Tikhonov. Modern Korea and Its Others: Perceptions of the Neighbouring Countries and Korean Modernity. London: Routledge, 2016. 218 pp. $160 (cloth. It has become a global scholarly undertaking: how to rethink modernity so as to decouple it from Westernization (Chakrabarty 2000. Strategies have included foregrounding the plurality of history to disrupt linear progress; positing non-Western centers of modernity in, say, Moscow or Shanghai; and tracing anticolonial circuits connecting Asia to Africa to Latin America. The two recent books under review here add colonial-era Korea to such far-reaching discussions by situating the country across national boundaries. Interestingly, one connecting thread here is the alternative world system provided by the interwar, Soviet-oriented Left. The result is an unsettling of binaries that subsequently became entrenched during the Cold War: for example, north-south, socialist-nationalist, and, for literature, realist-modernist. But more broadly, pervading both books is the sense that history could have turned out differently—that revisiting northeast Asia’s porous borders in the early twentieth century reveals the Korean peninsula’s lost, internationalist potential...

  16. Escalated convergent artificial bee colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadon, Shimpi Singh; Bansal, Jagdish Chand; Tiwari, Ritu

    2016-03-01

    Artificial bee colony (ABC) optimisation algorithm is a recent, fast and easy-to-implement population-based meta heuristic for optimisation. ABC has been proved a rival algorithm with some popular swarm intelligence-based algorithms such as particle swarm optimisation, firefly algorithm and ant colony optimisation. The solution search equation of ABC is influenced by a random quantity which helps its search process in exploration at the cost of exploitation. In order to find a fast convergent behaviour of ABC while exploitation capability is maintained, in this paper basic ABC is modified in two ways. First, to improve exploitation capability, two local search strategies, namely classical unidimensional local search and levy flight random walk-based local search are incorporated with ABC. Furthermore, a new solution search strategy, namely stochastic diffusion scout search is proposed and incorporated into the scout bee phase to provide more chance to abandon solution to improve itself. Efficiency of the proposed algorithm is tested on 20 benchmark test functions of different complexities and characteristics. Results are very promising and they prove it to be a competitive algorithm in the field of swarm intelligence-based algorithms.

  17. The construction of a "population problem" in colonial India, 1919-1947.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the construction of a "population problem" among public health officials in India during the inter-war period. British colonial officials came to focus on India's population through their concern with high Indian infant and maternal mortality rates. They raised the problem of population as one way in which to highlight the importance of dealing with public health at an all-India basis, in a context of constitutional devolution of power to Indians where they feared such matters would be relegated to relative local unimportance. While they failed to significantly shape government policy, their arguments in support of India's 'population problem' nevertheless found a receptive audience in the colonial public sphere among Indian intellectuals, economists, eugenicists, women social reformers and birth controllers. The article contributes to the history of population control by situating its pre-history in British colonial public health and development policy and outside the logic of USA's Cold War strategic planning for Asia.

  18. Colonie Interim Storage Site annual environmental report for calendar year 1991, Colonie, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This document describes the environmental monitoring program at the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) and surrounding area, implementation of the program, and monitoring results for 1991. Environmental monitoring at CISS began in 1984 when Congress added the site to the US Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. CISS property and surrounding areas were radioactively contaminated by operations conducted by National Lead Industries, which manufactured various components from uranium and thorium from 1958 to 1984. The environmental monitoring program at CISS includes sampling networks for external gamma radiation exposure and for radium-226, thorium-232, and total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters are measured in groundwater. In 1992 the program will also include sampling networks for radioactive and chemical contaminants in stormwater to meet permit application requirements under the Clean Water Act. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other requirements in DOE.orders. Environmental standards are established to protect public health and the environment. Results of environmental monitoring during 1991 indicate that average concentrations of radioactive contaminants of concern were well below applicable standards and DCGS. Concentrations of some chemical contaminants in groundwater were above-the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (Class GA) and EPA guidelines for drinking water. The potential annual radiation exposure (excluding background) calculated for a hypothetical maximally exposed individual is 0.23 mrem (milliroentgen equivalent man), which is less than an individual would receive while traveling in an airplane at 12,000 meters (39,000 feet) for one hour

  19. Queen promiscuity lowers disease within honeybee colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Seeley, Thomas D; Tarpy, David R

    2006-01-01

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, but in some species each queen mates with numerous males to create a colony with a genetically diverse worker force. The adaptive significance of polyandry by social insect queens remains an evolutionary puzzle. Using the honeybee (Apis mellifera), we tested the hypothesis that polyandry improves a colony's resistance to disease. We established colonies headed by queens that had been artificially inseminated by either one or 10 drones. ...

  20. Spatial Distribution of Lactococcus lactis Colonies Modulates the Production of Major Metabolites during the Ripening of a Model Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Boucher, Clémentine; Gagnaire, Valérie; Briard-Bion, Valérie; Jardin, Julien; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Le Bizec, Bruno; Lortal, Sylvie; Jeanson, Sophie; Thierry, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In cheese, lactic acid bacteria are immobilized at the coagulation step and grow as colonies. The spatial distribution of bacterial colonies is characterized by the size and number of colonies for a given bacterial population within cheese. Our objective was to demonstrate that different spatial distributions, which lead to differences in the exchange surface between the colonies and the cheese matrix, can influence the ripening process. The strategy was to generate cheeses with the same growth and acidification of a Lactococcus lactis strain with two different spatial distributions, big and small colonies, to monitor the production of the major ripening metabolites, including sugars, organic acids, peptides, free amino acids, and volatile metabolites, over 1 month of ripening. The monitored metabolites were qualitatively the same for both cheeses, but many of them were more abundant in the small-colony cheeses than in the big-colony cheeses over 1 month of ripening. Therefore, the results obtained showed that two different spatial distributions of L. lactis modulated the ripening time course by generating moderate but significant differences in the rates of production or consumption for many of the metabolites commonly monitored throughout ripening. The present work further explores the immobilization of bacteria as colonies within cheese and highlights the consequences of this immobilization on cheese ripening. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Understanding Long-Run African Growth : Colonial Institutions or Colonial Education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, J.; Bezemer, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Long-term growth in developing countries has been explained in four frameworks: 'extractive colonial institutions' (Acemoglu et al., 2001), 'colonial legal origin' (La Porta et al., 2004), 'geography' (Gallup et al., 1998) and 'colonial human capital' (Glaeser et al., 2004). In this paper we test

  2. A Randomized Case-Controlled Study of Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor for the Treatment of Sepsis in Preterm Neutropenic Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Aktaş, Doğukan; Demirel, Bilge; Gürsoy, Tuğba; Ovalı, Fahri

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) to treat sepsis in neutropenic preterm infants. Methods: Fifty-six neutropenic preterm infants with suspected or culture-proven sepsis hospitalized in Zeynep Kamil Maternity and Children's Educational and Training Hospital, Kozyatağı/Istanbul, Turkey between January 2008 and January 2010 were enrolled. Patients were ...

  3. Post-Colonialism Perspectives on Educational Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chuan-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Educational competition has always been the puzzle issue of educational researches. In this article, I analyze several aspects of educational competition within the perspective of post-colonialism discourse. In the political aspect, Taiwanese education is linked with political power, to present the post-colonial spirit by continuing dynastic…

  4. [Notes about other epidemics in Colonial Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, Enrique

    2015-10-01

    In chronicles or in the historiography of the Colony in Chile there are few references about epidemics different to smallpox; like typhus, typhoid fever, dysentery, etc. Almost all, fast spreading in the country and some with high lethality, which led to overflowing the capacity of hospitals in the Chilean colonial period.

  5. Subsocial behaviour and brood adoption in mixed-species colonies of two theridiid spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinsted, Lena; Agnarsson, Ingi; Bilde, Trine

    2012-12-01

    Cooperation and group living often evolves through kin selection. However, associations between unrelated organisms, such as different species, can evolve if both parties benefit from the interaction. Group living is rare in spiders, but occurs in cooperative, permanently social spiders, as well as in territorial, colonial spiders. Mixed species spider colonies, involving closely related species, have rarely been documented. We examined social interactions in newly discovered mixed-species colonies of theridiid spiders on Bali, Indonesia. Our aim was to test the degree of intra- and interspecific tolerance, aggression and cooperation through behavioural experiments and examine the potential for adoption of foreign brood. Morphological and genetic analyses confirmed that colonies consisted of two related species Chikunia nigra (O.P. Cambridge, 1880) new combination (previously Chrysso nigra) and a yet undescribed Chikunia sp. Females defended territories and did not engage in cooperative prey capture, but interestingly, both species seemed to provide extended maternal care of young and indiscriminate care for foreign brood. Future studies may reveal whether these species adopt only intra-specific young, or also inter-specifically. We classify both Chikunia species subsocial and intra- and interspecifically colonial, and discuss the evolutionary significance of a system where one or both species may potentially benefit from mutual tolerance and brood adoption.

  6. Hegemony and Accommodation in the History Curriculum in Colonial Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafela, Lily

    2014-01-01

    A reanalysis of colonial education is necessary in order to highlight its multifaceted and hybrid nature in specific colonial contexts. Although in general, colonial education served the socio-political needs of the colonial machinery, the colonial government's hegemonic authority over the school curriculum did not operate as a totalising project.…

  7. Monitoring of piglets' open field activity and choice behaviour during the replay of maternal vocalization: a comparison between Observer and PID technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppe, B; Schön, P C; Wendland, K

    1999-07-01

    The paper presents a new system for the automatic monitoring of open field activity and choice behaviour of medium-sized animals. Passive infrared motion detectors (PID) were linked on-line via a digital I/O interface to a personal computer provided with self-developed analysis software based on LabVIEW (PID technique). The set up was used for testing 18 one-week-old piglets (Sus scrofa) for their approach to their mother's nursing vocalization replayed through loudspeakers. The results were validated by comparison with a conventional Observer technique, a computer-aided direct observation. In most of the cases, no differences were seen between the Observer and PID technique regarding the percentage of stay in previously defined open field segments, the locomotor open field activity, and the choice behaviour. The results revealed that piglets are clearly attracted by their mother's nursing vocalization. The monitoring system presented in this study is thus suitable for detailed behavioural investigations of individual acoustic recognition. In general, the PID technique is a useful tool for research into the behaviour of individual animals in a restricted open field which does not rely on subjective analysis by a human observer.

  8. Sublethal Effects of Imidacloprid on Honey Bee Colony Growth and Activity at Three Sites in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, William G; Adamczyk, John J; Weiss, Milagra; Gregorc, Ales; Johnson, Don R; Stewart, Scott D; Zawislak, Jon; Carroll, Mark J; Lorenz, Gus M

    2016-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid pesticide heavily used by the agricultural industry and shown to have negative impacts on honey bees above certain concentrations. We evaluated the effects of different imidacloprid concentrations in sugar syrup using cage and field studies, and across different environments. Honey bee colonies fed sublethal concentrations of imidicloprid (0, 5, 20 and 100 ppb) over 6 weeks in field trials at a desert site (Arizona), a site near intensive agriculture (Arkansas) and a site with little nearby agriculture but abundant natural forage (Mississippi) were monitored with respect to colony metrics, such as adult bee and brood population sizes, as well as pesticide residues. Hive weight and internal hive temperature were monitored continuously over two trials in Arizona. Colonies fed 100 ppb imidacloprid in Arizona had significantly lower adult bee populations, brood surface areas and average frame weights, and reduced temperature control, compared to colonies in one or more of the other treatment groups, and consumption rates of those colonies were lower compared to other colonies in Arizona and Arkansas, although no differences in capped brood or average frame weight were observed among treatments in Arkansas. At the Mississippi site, also rich in alternative forage, colonies fed 5 ppb imidacloprid had less capped brood than control colonies, but contamination of control colonies was detected. In contrast, significantly higher daily hive weight variability among colonies fed 5 ppb imidacloprid in Arizona suggested greater foraging activity during a nectar flow post treatment, than any other treatment group. Imidacloprid concentrations in stored honey corresponded well with the respective syrup concentrations fed to the colonies and remained stable within the hive for at least 7 months after the end of treatment.

  9. Infectious disease research investments follow colonial ties: questionable ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, Joseph R; Head, Michael G; Atun, Rifat

    2014-03-01

    International funding for global health research is not systematically documented. We have assessed the level of research funding awarded by UK funders of international research to low- and middle-income countries or research institutions in these countries. We analysed 6165 studies; from these we selected 522 that matched our criteria and used them to evaluate research funding by pathogen, disease, research and development value chain, funding organisation and country. Investment in infectious disease research in the countries studied totalled £264 million. Distribution of research investments closely mirrored that of the UK's former colonial territories; the top five countries, and eight of the top 10, have historical links with the UK, being current or former members of the Commonwealth of Nations. HIV, malaria and neglected tropical diseases attracted the greatest investment (£219 million; 82.8%), with most studies focussing on operational and epidemiological research (£109 million; 41.3%). International financing of infectious disease research by UK funding organisations follows former colonial ties. Funding institutions should review their funding policies to ensure that they also assist low- and middle-income countries without colonial ties to address their disease burden. A global investment surveillance system is needed to map and monitor funding for international research and guide the allocation of scarce resources to reduce the global disease burden.

  10. Colonie Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 1130 Central Avenue, Colonie, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) and provides the results for 1992. The site is located in eastern New York State, approximately 6.4 km (4.0 mi) northwest of downtown Albany. From 1958 to 1984, National Lead (NL) Industries used the facility to manufacture various components from depleted and enriched uranium natural thorium. Environmental monitoring of CISS began in 1984 when Congress added, the site to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP is a program established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The environmental surveillance program at CISS includes sampling networks for external gamma radiation exposure and for thorium-232 and total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Several chemical parameters are also measured in groundwater, including total metals, volatile organics, and water quality parameters. This surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses. Results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements

  11. Effects of Wintering Environment and Parasite-Pathogen Interactions on Honey Bee Colony Loss in North Temperate Regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh D Desai

    Full Text Available Extreme winter losses of honey bee colonies are a major threat to beekeeping but the combinations of factors underlying colony loss remain debatable. We monitored colonies in two environments (colonies wintered indoors or outdoors and characterized the effects of two parasitic mites, seven viruses, and Nosema on honey bee colony mortality and population loss over winter. Samples were collected from two locations within hives in fall, mid-winter and spring of 2009/2010. Although fall parasite and pathogen loads were similar in outdoor and indoor-wintered colonies, the outdoor-wintered colonies had greater relative reductions in bee population score over winter. Seasonal patterns in deformed wing virus (DWV, black queen cell virus (BQCV, and Nosema level also differed with the wintering environment. DWV and Nosema levels decreased over winter for indoor-wintered colonies but BQCV did not. Both BQCV and Nosema concentration increased over winter in outdoor-wintered colonies. The mean abundance of Varroa decreased and concentration of Sacbrood virus (SBV, Kashmir bee virus (KBV, and Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV increased over winter but seasonal patterns were not affected by wintering method. For most viruses, either entrance or brood area samples were reasonable predictors of colony virus load but there were significant season*sample location interactions for Nosema and BQCV, indicating that care must be taken when selecting samples from a single location. For Nosema spp., the fall entrance samples were better predictors of future infestation levels than were fall brood area samples. For indoor-wintered colonies, Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV concentration was negatively correlated with spring population size. For outdoor-wintered hives, spring Varroa abundance and DWV concentration were positively correlated with bee loss and negatively correlated with spring population size. Multivariate analyses for fall collected samples indicated

  12. Goodbye, Mandatory Maternity Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    In precedent-setting decrees, courts and federal and State authorities have branded compulsory maternity leaves either unconstitutional or illegal. School administrators are urged to prod boards of education to adopt more lenient maternity leave policies -- now. (Author)

  13. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, Joan; Chicot, Rebecca; Shouldice, Anne; Hinde, Camilla A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety

  14. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, J.; Chicot, R.; Schouldice, A.; Hinde, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels

  15. 21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2170 Automated colony counter. (a) Identification. An automated colony counter is a mechanical device intended for medical...

  16. Maternity Protection at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World of Work, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the need for maternity benefits for working women. Suggests that although most countries provide paid maternity leave by law, there is a gap between that law and practice. Includes a chart depicting maternity protection (length of leave, cash benefits, who pays) around the world. (JOW)

  17. Colonial Taxation, Corruption and Resistance in Igbominaland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colonial Taxation, Corruption and Resistance in Igbominaland. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... While taxation definitely stimulated economic activities in Igbominaland at ...

  18. Post-colonial identity in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2009-01-01

    could be furthered by bringing politics back in. Based on a discourse analysis of the Greenlandic debate on language, this paper makes three claims: First, the identity projects promoted in Greenland are based on an essentialist conception of identity. Secondly, Greenlandic identity discourse combines......In the gradual unravelling of Greenland’s colonial relationship to Denmark, an essentialist conceptualization of Greenlandic identity has played a significant role. However, both our scholarly understanding of post-colonial Greenlandic identity and the process towards independence for Greenland...... elements of traditional Inuit culture and elements of colonial modernity. Thirdly, monolingual Greenlanders are those with the most to gain from abandoning the dichotomy of essentialist identities. Strategically, the paper suggests a post-post-colonial Greenlandic identity as a means of avoiding...

  19. Post-Colonial Theory and Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Parsons

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores connections between post-colonial theory and action research. Post-colonial theory is committed to addressing the plague of colonialism. Action research, at its core, promises to problematize uncontested ‘colonial’ hegemonies of any form. Both post-colonial theory and action research engage dialogic, critically reflective and collaborative values to offer a fuller range of human wisdom. The authors contend that post-colonialism theory calls for justice and seeks to speak to social and psychological suffering, exploitation, violence and enslavement done to the powerless victims of colonization around the world by challenging the superiority of dominant perspectives and seeking to re-position and empower the marginalized and subordinated. In similar ways, action research works to eradicate oppression, powerlessness and worthlessness by affirming solidarity with the oppressed, helping humans move from passive to active and by fundamentally reshaping power. Because both post-colonial theory and action research position the insider or oppressed in an ethic of efficacy, it values community, relationships, communication and equality, and is committed to reciprocity, reflexivity and reflection. Thus, both hold the potential to help reconstruct conditions for a more democratic and just society

  20. Post-Colonial Theory and Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim B. Parsons

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores connections between post-colonial theory and action research. Post-colonial theory is committed to addressing the plague of colonialism. Action research, at its core, promises to problematize uncontested ‘colonial’ hegemonies of any form. Both post-colonial theory and action research engage dialogic, critically reflective and collaborative values to offer a fuller range of human wisdom. The authors contend that post-colonialism theory calls for justice and seeks to speak to social and psychological suffering, exploitation, violence and enslavement done to the powerless victims of colonization around the world by challenging the superiority of dominant perspectives and seeking to re-position and empower the marginalized and subordinated. In similar ways, action research works to eradicate oppression, powerlessness and worthlessness by affirming solidarity with the oppressed, helping humans move from passive to active and by fundamentally reshaping power. Because both post-colonial theory and action research position the insider or oppressed in an ethic of efficacy, it values community, relationships, communication and equality, and is committed to reciprocity, reflexivity and reflection. Thus, both hold the potential to help reconstruct conditions for a more democratic and just society.

  1. Safe motherhood : severe acute maternal morbidity: risk factors in the Netherlands and validation of the WHO Maternal Near Miss tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, T.

    2016-01-01

    Using the results from a two-year nationwide prospective study, this thesis shows numerous (risk) factors associated with severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM) in the Netherlands and validates the WHO Maternal Near Miss (MNM) tool to detect and monitor SAMM worldwide. The ratio behind the different

  2. Influences of maternal overprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G; Lipscombe, P

    1981-04-01

    While maternal overprotection appears associated with several neurotic and psychotic disorders, little is known about determinants of such a parental characteristic. Several hypotheses have been tested in a large nonclinical sample. Maternal and cultural factors seemed of greater relevance than characteristics in the child. Overprotective mothers gave evidence of marked maternal preoccupations before having children, of showing a capacity to be overprotective after the active stage of mothering, and of having personality characteristics of high anxiety, obsessionality and a need to control. Maternal overprotection appears associated with low, rather than with high maternal care. This has important primary prevention and treatment implications.

  3. Reconfiguring Maternity Care?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Nis

    This dissertation constitutes a reflection on two initiatives seeking to reconfigure maternity care. One initiative sought to digitalise maternity records and included a pilot run of an electronic maternity record in a Danish county. The other consisted of a collaboration between a maternity ward...... at a hospital and a group of researchers which included me. Both initiatives involved numerous seemingly different interests that were held together and related to reconfiguring maternity care. None of the initiatives can unequivocally be labelled a success, as neither managed to change maternity care, at least...... experimental designs are constructed. The consequences and the politics of the proposed changes are engaged with in laboratory manner through collaborative development of the designs and through exposing them to members of field of maternity care...

  4. Maternal Mortality in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeva, Sonia; Archer, Natalie P; Ruggiero, Karen; Hall, Manda; Stagg, Julie; Interis, Evelyn Coronado; Vega, Rachelle; Delgado, Evelyn; Hellerstedt, John; Hankins, Gary; Hollier, Lisa M

    2017-05-01

    A commentary on maternal mortality in Texas is provided in response to a 2016 article in Obstetrics & Gynecology by MacDorman et al. While the Texas Department of State Health Services and the Texas Maternal Mortality and Morbidity Task Force agree that maternal mortality increased sharply from 2010 to 2011, the percentage change or the magnitude of the increase in the maternal mortality rate in Texas differs depending on the statistical methods used to compute and display it. Methodologic challenges in identifying maternal death are also discussed, as well as risk factors and causes of maternal death in Texas. Finally, several state efforts currently underway to address maternal mortality in Texas are described. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. The Alliance for Innovation in Maternal Health Care: A Way Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Jeanne

    2018-06-01

    The Alliance for Innovation in Maternal Health is a program supported by the Health Services Resource Administration to reduce maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity in the United States. This program develops bundles of evidence based action steps for birth facilities to adapt. Progress is monitored at the facility, state and national levels to foster data-driven quality improvement efforts.

  6. Colony formation in the cyanobacterium Microcystis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Man; Li, Ming; Reynolds, Colin S

    2018-02-22

    Morphological evolution from a unicellular to multicellular state provides greater opportunities for organisms to attain larger and more complex living forms. As the most common freshwater cyanobacterial genus, Microcystis is a unicellular microorganism, with high phenotypic plasticity, which forms colonies and blooms in lakes and reservoirs worldwide. We conducted a systematic review of field studies from the 1990s to 2017 where Microcystis was dominant. Microcystis was detected as the dominant genus in waterbodies from temperate to subtropical and tropical zones. Unicellular Microcystis spp. can be induced to form colonies by adjusting biotic and abiotic factors in laboratory. Colony formation by cell division has been induced by zooplankton filtrate, high Pb 2+ concentration, the presence of another cyanobacterium (Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii), heterotrophic bacteria, and by low temperature and light intensity. Colony formation by cell adhesion can be induced by zooplankton grazing, high Ca 2+ concentration, and microcystins. We hypothesise that single cells of all Microcystis morphospecies initially form colonies with a similar morphology to those found in the early spring. These colonies gradually change their morphology to that of M. ichthyoblabe, M. wesenbergii and M. aeruginosa with changing environmental conditions. Colony formation provides Microcystis with many ecological advantages, including adaption to varying light, sustained growth under poor nutrient supply, protection from chemical stressors and protection from grazing. These benefits represent passive tactics responding to environmental stress. Microcystis colonies form at the cost of decreased specific growth rates compared with a unicellular habit. Large colony size allows Microcystis to attain rapid floating velocities (maximum recorded for a single colony, ∼ 10.08 m h -1 ) that enable them to develop and maintain a large biomass near the surface of eutrophic lakes, where they may shade

  7. Severe acute maternal morbidity and maternal death audit - a rapid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Severe acute maternal morbidity and maternal death audit - a rapid diagnostic tool for evaluating maternal care. L Cochet, R.C. Pattinson, A.P. Macdonald. Abstract. Objective. To analyse severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM) and maternal mortality in the Pretoria region over a 2-year period (2000 - 2001). Setting.

  8. Colonialism, customary law and the post-colonial state in Africa: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colonialism became a fact of life in many African countries. An effect of colonialism especially in the former British colonized countries was the transplantation of the British legal system, which led to recognition of both systems and the gradual relegation of the indigenous system otherwise called customary law. The use and ...

  9. Colonial Legal Reasoning in the Post-Colonial African State: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colonial Legal Reasoning in the Post-Colonial African State: A Critique and a Defense of the Argument from African Metaphysical Epistemology. ... Africa, as it has the advantageous result of helping in the search for truth concerning such offences, thereby promoting the delivery of effective legal justice, and thus contributing ...

  10. Review Essay A history of colonialism through post-colonial lenses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Essay A history of colonialism through post-colonial lenses: reading Mahmood Mamdani's citizen and subject. Sanya Osha. Abstract. No Abstract. The Nigerian Journal of Economic History Vol. 2, 1999: 155-161. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  11. Synthetic quorum sensing in model microcapsule colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, Henry; Balazs, Anna C.

    2017-08-01

    Biological quorum sensing refers to the ability of cells to gauge their population density and collectively initiate a new behavior once a critical density is reached. Designing synthetic materials systems that exhibit quorum sensing-like behavior could enable the fabrication of devices with both self-recognition and self-regulating functionality. Herein, we develop models for a colony of synthetic microcapsules that communicate by producing and releasing signaling molecules. Production of the chemicals is regulated by a biomimetic negative feedback loop, the “repressilator” network. Through theory and simulation, we show that the chemical behavior of such capsules is sensitive to both the density and number of capsules in the colony. For example, decreasing the spacing between a fixed number of capsules can trigger a transition in chemical activity from the steady, repressed state to large-amplitude oscillations in chemical production. Alternatively, for a fixed density, an increase in the number of capsules in the colony can also promote a transition into the oscillatory state. This configuration-dependent behavior of the capsule colony exemplifies quorum-sensing behavior. Using our theoretical model, we predict the transitions from the steady state to oscillatory behavior as a function of the colony size and capsule density.

  12. Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Vanengelsdorp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize CCD and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by CCD. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels, no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of CCD. Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co-infected with a greater number of pathogens than control populations, suggesting either an increased exposure to pathogens or a reduced resistance of bees toward pathogens. Levels of the synthetic acaricide coumaphos (used by beekeepers to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor were higher in control colonies than CCD-affected colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first comprehensive survey of CCD-affected bee populations that suggests CCD involves an interaction between pathogens and other stress factors. We present evidence that this condition is contagious or the result of exposure to a common risk factor. Potentially important areas for future hypothesis-driven research, including the possible legacy effect of mite parasitism and the role of honey bee resistance to pesticides, are highlighted.

  13. Maternal methadone dosing schedule and fetal neurobehavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Lauren M.; DiPietro, Janet A.; Velez, Martha; Elko, Andrea; Knauer, Heather; Kivlighan, Katie T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Daily methadone maintenance is the standard of care for opiate dependency during pregnancy. Previous research has indicated that single-dose maternal methadone administration significantly suppresses fetal neurobehaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine if split-dosing would have less impact on fetal neurobehavior than single-dose administration. Methods Forty methadone-maintained women were evaluated at peak and trough maternal methadone levels on single- and split-dosing schedules. Monitoring sessions occurred at 36 and 37 weeks gestation in a counterbalanced study design. Fetal measures included heart rate, variability, accelerations, motor activity and fetal movement-heart rate coupling (FM-FHR). Maternal measures included heart period, variability, skin conductance, respiration and vagal tone. Repeated measure analysis of variance was used to evaluate within-subject changes between split- and single-dosing regimens. Results All fetal neurobehavioral parameters were suppressed by maternal methadone administration, regardless of dosing regimen. Fetal parameters at peak were significantly lower during single vs. split methadone administration. FM-FHR coupling was less suppressed from trough to peak during split-dosing vs. single-dosing. Maternal physiologic parameters were generally unaffected by dosing condition. Conclusion Split- dosed fetuses displayed less neurobehavioral suppression from trough to peak maternal methadone levels as compared to single-dosed fetuses. Split-dosing may be beneficial for methadone-maintained pregnant women. PMID:19085624

  14. A First Standardized Swiss Electronic Maternity Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murbach, Michel; Martin, Sabine; Denecke, Kerstin; Nüssli, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    During the nine months of pregnancy, women have to regularly visit several physicians for continuous monitoring of the health and development of the fetus and mother. Comprehensive examination results of different types are generated in this process; documentation and data transmission standards are still unavailable or not in use. Relevant information is collected in a paper-based maternity record carried by the pregnant women. To improve availability and transmission of data, we aim at developing a first prototype for an electronic maternity record for Switzerland. By analyzing the documentation workflow during pregnancy, we determined a maternity record data set. Further, we collected requirements towards a digital maternity record. As data exchange format, the Swiss specific exchange format SMEEX (swiss medical data exchange) was exploited. Feedback from 27 potential users was collected to identify further improvements. The relevant data is extracted from the primary care information system as SMEEX file, stored in a database and made available in a web and a mobile application, developed as prototypes of an electronic maternity record. The user confirmed the usefulness of the system and provided multiple suggestions for an extension. An electronical maternity record as developed in this work could be in future linked to the electronic patient record.

  15. Is colonialism history? The declining impact of colonial legacies on African institutional and economic development : The declining impact of colonial legacies on African institutional and economic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the claim that colonial history has left an enduring imprint on Africa's institutional and economic development. The literature following Acemoglu, Johnson and Robinson (2001) and Sokoloff and Engerman (2000) maintains that different types of colonialism affected the

  16. Maternity roosts of bats at the Bosque Del Apache National Wildlife Refuge: A preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alice Chung-MacCoubrey

    1999-01-01

    Historic and recent changes in the structure, composition, and distribution of riparian forests have likely influenced populations of bats through their effects on habitat quality for reproductive females. This project seeks to identify natural structures used by maternity colonies, determine criteria used in the selection of these roosts, and interpret how historic...

  17. Maternity-care: measuring women's perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kim; Beatty, Shelley; Reibel, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Achieving maternity-care outcomes that align with women's needs, preferences and expectations is important but theoretically driven measures of women's satisfaction with their entire maternity-care experience do not appear to exist. The purpose of this paper is to outline the development of an instrument to assess women's perception of their entire maternity-care experience. A questionnaire was developed on the basis of previous research and informed by a framework of standard service quality categories covering the spectrum of typical consumer concerns. A pilot survey with a sample of 195 women who had recent experience of birth was undertaken to establish valid and reliable scales pertaining to different stages of maternity care. Exploratory factor analysis was used to interpret scales and convergent validity was assessed using a modified version of the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire. Nine theoretically informed, reliable and valid stand-alone scales measuring the achievement of different dimensions of women's expectancies of public maternity care were developed. The study scales are intended for use in identifying some potential areas of focus for quality improvement in the delivery of maternity care. Reliable and valid tools for monitoring the extent to which services respond to women's expectations of their entire maternity care form part of the broader toolkit required to adequately manage health-care quality. This study offers guidance on the make-up of such tools. The scales produced from this research offer a means to assess maternity care across the full continuum of care and are brief and easy to use.

  18. Abyssal fiction: common shares, colonial cleavages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Montaury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to develop a reflection on the interaction between the legacies of colonialism and traditional symbolic and cultural practices in African Portuguese-speaking spaces. From a preliminary analysis of fictional texts of wide circulation in Brazil, aims to examine the cleavages, or “abyssal lines” that constitute experiences printed in the daily life of the former Portuguese colony of Cape Verde, Mozambique and Angola.---DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21881/abriluff.2016n17a378

  19. Early Developmental Program Shapes Colony Morphology in Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Mamou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available When grown on a solid surface, bacteria form highly organized colonies, yet little is known about the earliest stages of colony establishment. Following Bacillus subtilis colony development from a single progenitor cell, a sequence of highly ordered spatiotemporal events was revealed. Colony was initiated by the formation of leading-cell chains, deriving from the colony center and extending in multiple directions, typically in a “Y-shaped” structure. By eradicating particular cells during these early stages, we could influence the shape of the resulting colony and demonstrate that Y-arm extension defines colony size. A mutant in ymdB encoding a phosphodiesterase displayed unordered developmental patterns, indicating a role in guiding these initial events. Finally, we provide evidence that intercellular nanotubes contribute to proper colony formation. In summary, we reveal a “construction plan” for building a colony and provide the initial molecular basis for this process.

  20. Behavioral Modulation of Infestation by Varroa destructor in Bee Colonies. Implications for Colony Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiró Santos, Joyce; Coelho, Flávio Codeço; Bliman, Pierre-Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) has become a global problem for beekeepers and for the crops that depend on bee pollination. While many factors are known to increase the risk of colony collapse, the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is considered to be the most serious one. Although this mite is unlikely to cause the collapse of hives itself, it is the vector for many viral diseases which are among the likely causes for Colony Collapse Disorder. The effects of V. destructor infestation differ from one part of the world to another, with greater morbidity and higher colony losses in European honey bees (EHB) in Europe, Asia and North America. Although this mite has been present in Brazil for many years, there have been no reports of colony losses amongst Africanized Honey Bees (AHB). Studies carried out in Mexico have highlighted different behavioral responses by the AHB to the presence of the mite, notably as far as grooming and hygienic behavior are concerned. Could these explain why the AHB are less susceptible to Colony Collapse Disorder? In order to answer this question, we have developed a mathematical model of the infestation dynamics to analyze the role of resistance behavior by bees in the overall health of the colony, and as a consequence, its ability to face epidemiological challenges.

  1. Behavioral Modulation of Infestation by Varroa destructor in Bee Colonies. Implications for Colony Stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce de Figueiró Santos

    Full Text Available Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD has become a global problem for beekeepers and for the crops that depend on bee pollination. While many factors are known to increase the risk of colony collapse, the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is considered to be the most serious one. Although this mite is unlikely to cause the collapse of hives itself, it is the vector for many viral diseases which are among the likely causes for Colony Collapse Disorder. The effects of V. destructor infestation differ from one part of the world to another, with greater morbidity and higher colony losses in European honey bees (EHB in Europe, Asia and North America. Although this mite has been present in Brazil for many years, there have been no reports of colony losses amongst Africanized Honey Bees (AHB. Studies carried out in Mexico have highlighted different behavioral responses by the AHB to the presence of the mite, notably as far as grooming and hygienic behavior are concerned. Could these explain why the AHB are less susceptible to Colony Collapse Disorder? In order to answer this question, we have developed a mathematical model of the infestation dynamics to analyze the role of resistance behavior by bees in the overall health of the colony, and as a consequence, its ability to face epidemiological challenges.

  2. Offspring Hormones Reflect the Maternal Prenatal Social Environment: Potential for Foetal Programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meise, Kristine; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Forcada, Jaume; Hoffman, Joseph Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Females of many species adaptively program their offspring to predictable environmental conditions, a process that is often mediated by hormones. Laboratory studies have shown, for instance, that social density affects levels of maternal cortisol and testosterone, leading to fitness-relevant changes in offspring physiology and behaviour. However, the effects of social density remain poorly understood in natural populations due to the difficulty of disentangling confounding influences such as climatic variation and food availability. Colonially breeding marine mammals offer a unique opportunity to study maternal effects in response to variable colony densities under similar ecological conditions. We therefore quantified maternal and offspring hormone levels in 84 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) from two closely neighbouring colonies of contrasting density. Hair samples were used as they integrate hormone levels over several weeks or months and therefore represent in utero conditions during foetal development. We found significantly higher levels of cortisol and testosterone (both P hormonally mediated maternal effects may depend more strongly on the maternal regulation of androgen rather than cortisol levels. PMID:26761814

  3. Project Final Report: HPC-Colony II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Terry R [ORNL; Kale, Laxmikant V [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Moreira, Jose [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center

    2013-11-01

    This report recounts the HPC Colony II Project which was a computer science effort funded by DOE's Advanced Scientific Computing Research office. The project included researchers from ORNL, IBM, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The topic of the effort was adaptive system software for extreme scale parallel machines. A description of findings is included.

  4. English Literatures in Post-Colonial Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Rozita

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of a vibrant literary, culture and arts scene promotes Singapore's claims as a hub for arts and culture in the Asian region, and as a global arts city by the 21st century. The richness and variety of Singapore literature from the early post-colonial years are evident in the evolution of a Singapore literary culture. The diaspora of…

  5. Latin America: Essays Interpretating Colonial Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pia López

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the Latin–American literature of the 19th and 20th century tried to deal with the national question intertwining different dimensions: the weight of colonial legacy, the cultural peculiarity of the nation and the inner relations between social classes and ethnic groups. Thinking the nation implied, in any case, to think the difference and the conflict with others, as well as the inner conflict and the logic of local colonialism. Analyzing some of these essays that played a central role in such process of recasting the origin of the nation, the author moves around three main axes: the formulation of dualist writings (colonial/national; white /indigenous; civilization/wilderness, the issue of language (the language inherited from the colonial experience versus the multilingual nature of indigenous Latin American societies, and the hypothesis about the birth of the nation – appointed to different groups – and its normal functioning as legitimization of the order sprung from independences.

  6. Teaching the History of Colonial Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Leon G.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a bibliographic review essay on the topic of colonial Peru organized according to the following topics: Pre-Columbian Peru, 5500 B.C.- 1532; the conquest of Peru, 1532-1572; Peru under the Hapsburgs, 1516-1700; Bourbon Peru, 1700-1808; and the coming of independence, 1808-1821. The essay is based on a bibliography composed largely of…

  7. PRE-COLONIAL TRANSPORT SYSTEMS: A VERITABLE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FBL

    ideas between places and over-time and mediate relationship and interactions between individuals and ... International Journal of Development and Management Review (INJODEMAR) Vol. 9, No 1 ..... Colonial Times, “Ahiajoku Lecture Series, Owerri: Ministry of Information, Youth and Sports Government Press. Afigbo A.E ...

  8. Policing native pleasures: a colonial history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Naheem

    2012-12-01

    The moral modality of colonial power is still with us when it comes to the recreation of sexual norms of traditional or feudal society. We can examine the emergent properties of colonial knowledge anew by exploring how the colonial regime's strategic attention of regulating brothels in India differed from the analytic of power Foucault described for sexuality in European society. It turns out that amongst other things, public anxieties about the failure of adaptation by South Asians are incapable of leaving sexuality aside as a key interpretive device for their culture. The British preoccupation with reproducing the dynamics of the bourgeois matrimonial market on foreign soil in the mid-nineteenth century similarly necessitated a sociological pretext for racial purity. However, the kind of knowledge a typical traveller and employee of the East India Company brought to the Victorian public from his own researches in the brothels and streets of colonial India, which revealed how popular prostitution was as a vice amongst the officer class, was also more than a welcome imaginary relief from Christian morality; it was an alternative vision of modernity. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.

  9. Hyphal growth and colony expansion (Forum Commentary)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Semenov, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Bailey et al. have used a quite simple but elegant experimental method and developed innovative concepts about phase transitions in colony behavior based on non-linearity of invasion probability with distance between substrate particles. This proves again the old adage that significant scientific

  10. 128 COLONIALISM: NEXUS FOR MYRIAD RELIGIOUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent times, the version of Christians we have, who also practice ATR is ... Colonialism is not a new concept in the history of Africa. .... of their kits and kin still living. ..... believe that God could be reached through different media. ..... Hornby, A.S., (2006), Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English, New York,.

  11. Buckling instability in ordered bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Denis; Mather, William; Mondragón-Palomino, Octavio; Orozco-Fuentes, Sirio; Danino, Tal; Hasty, Jeff; Tsimring, Lev S.

    2011-04-01

    Bacterial colonies often exhibit complex spatio-temporal organization. This collective behavior is affected by a multitude of factors ranging from the properties of individual cells (shape, motility, membrane structure) to chemotaxis and other means of cell-cell communication. One of the important but often overlooked mechanisms of spatio-temporal organization is direct mechanical contact among cells in dense colonies such as biofilms. While in natural habitats all these different mechanisms and factors act in concert, one can use laboratory cell cultures to study certain mechanisms in isolation. Recent work demonstrated that growth and ensuing expansion flow of rod-like bacteria Escherichia coli in confined environments leads to orientation of cells along the flow direction and thus to ordering of cells. However, the cell orientational ordering remained imperfect. In this paper we study one mechanism responsible for the persistence of disorder in growing cell populations. We demonstrate experimentally that a growing colony of nematically ordered cells is prone to the buckling instability. Our theoretical analysis and discrete-element simulations suggest that the nature of this instability is related to the anisotropy of the stress tensor in the ordered cell colony.

  12. Buckling instability in ordered bacterial colonies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, Denis; Mather, William; Mondragón-Palomino, Octavio; Danino, Tal; Hasty, Jeff; Orozco-Fuentes, Sirio; Tsimring, Lev S

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial colonies often exhibit complex spatio-temporal organization. This collective behavior is affected by a multitude of factors ranging from the properties of individual cells (shape, motility, membrane structure) to chemotaxis and other means of cell–cell communication. One of the important but often overlooked mechanisms of spatio-temporal organization is direct mechanical contact among cells in dense colonies such as biofilms. While in natural habitats all these different mechanisms and factors act in concert, one can use laboratory cell cultures to study certain mechanisms in isolation. Recent work demonstrated that growth and ensuing expansion flow of rod-like bacteria Escherichia coli in confined environments leads to orientation of cells along the flow direction and thus to ordering of cells. However, the cell orientational ordering remained imperfect. In this paper we study one mechanism responsible for the persistence of disorder in growing cell populations. We demonstrate experimentally that a growing colony of nematically ordered cells is prone to the buckling instability. Our theoretical analysis and discrete-element simulations suggest that the nature of this instability is related to the anisotropy of the stress tensor in the ordered cell colony

  13. A catalog of Louisiana's nesting seabird colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, William R.; Cardiff, Steve W.; DeMay, Richard A.; Dittmann, Donna L.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Jeske, Clinton W.; Lorenz, Nicole; Michot, Thomas C.; Purrington, Robert Dan; Seymour, Michael; Vermillion, William G.

    2012-01-01

    Summarizing his colonial nesting waterbird survey experiences along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico in a paper presented to the Colonial Waterbird Group of the Waterbird Society (Portnoy 1978), bird biologist John W. Portnoy stated, “This huge concentration of nesting waterbirds, restricted almost entirely to the wetlands and estuaries of southern Louisiana, is unmatched in all of North America; for example, a 1975 inventory of wading birds along the Atlantic Coast from Maine to Florida [Custer and Osborn, in press], tallied 250,000 breeding [waterbirds] of 14 species, in contrast with the 650,000 birds of 15 species just from Sabine Pass to Mobile Bay.” The “650,000 birds” to which Portnoy referred, were tallied by him in a 1976 survey of coastal Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama (see below, under “Major Surveys” section). According to the National Atlas of Coastal Waterbird Colonies in the Contiguous United States: 1976-82 (Spendelow and Patton 1988), the percentages of the total U.S. populations of Laughing Gull (11%), Forster's Tern (52%), Royal Tern (16%), Sandwich Tern (77%), and Black Skimmer (44%) which annually nest in Louisiana are significant – perhaps crucially so in the cases of Forster's Tern, Sandwich Tern, and Black Skimmer. Nearly three decades after Spendelow and Patton's determinations above, coastal Louisiana still stands out as the major center of colonial wading bird and seabird nesting in all of the United States. Within those three intervening decades, however, the

  14. 178 MULTIPLE COLONIALISM IN WESTERN SAHARA Macharia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Civil War, the colony had also been a possible bargaining chip with Adolph Hitler when ... Morocco gave rise to an Army of Liberation that inspired the Sahrawi to fight ..... or defense, matters, and promised the Sahrawi the right to vote for their ...

  15. Maternal Employment: 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Lois Wladis

    1979-01-01

    Maternal employment is a part of modern family life, a response to changes such as smaller families and more efficient household management. Not only does maternal employment meet parents' needs, but it is a pattern better suited for socializing the child for the adult role s/he will occupy. (Author/GC)

  16. Retraction of colonies and structures of Aspergillus Spp. as a possible high dose sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Valeria B.; Vital, Helio C.; Moraes, Aurea M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the length of macro-and microscopic structures of irradiated Aspergillus spp. colonies were investigated in this work in search for correlations with radiation dose. Effects related to growth and morphology produced by exposure to radiation doses ranging from 0.0 up to 8.0 kGy on strains of A. flavus (CMT 00079), A. parasiticus (CMT 00064) and A ochraceus (CMT 00145) were analyzed. Fungal colonies were inoculated on fresh peanut seeds and incubated for 5 days at 25°C. On the sixth day the samples were irradiated and moved to Petri dishes containing PDA culture medium where they remained incubated for 7 days at 25°C Post irradiation growth was periodically monitored by visual inspections and measurements of mycelial diameters. In addition, microscopic analyses were performed to determine the length of the major structures of the colonies. It has been found that irradiation causes a decrease in the diameter of colonies as well as in the length of microscopic structures of the fungus. The amount of retraction has been found to be strongly correlated to radiation dose. Such findings hint at the possibility of using in situ Aspergillus spp. colonies as high-dose living dosimeters in the event of massive radiation exposures. (author)

  17. Maternal sensitivity: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyunjeong; Park, Young-Joo; Ryu, Hosihn; Seomun, Gyeong-Ae

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to report a concept analysis of maternal sensitivity. Maternal sensitivity is a broad concept encompassing a variety of interrelated affective and behavioural caregiving attributes. It is used interchangeably with the terms maternal responsiveness or maternal competency, with no consistency of use. There is a need to clarify the concept of maternal sensitivity for research and practice. A search was performed on the CINAHL and Ovid MEDLINE databases using 'maternal sensitivity', 'maternal responsiveness' and 'sensitive mothering' as key words. The searches yielded 54 records for the years 1981-2007. Rodgers' method of evolutionary concept analysis was used to analyse the material. Four critical attributes of maternal sensitivity were identified: (a) dynamic process involving maternal abilities; (b) reciprocal give-and-take with the infant; (c) contingency on the infant's behaviour and (d) quality of maternal behaviours. Maternal identity and infant's needs and cues are antecedents for these attributes. The consequences are infant's comfort, mother-infant attachment and infant development. In addition, three positive affecting factors (social support, maternal-foetal attachment and high self-esteem) and three negative affecting factors (maternal depression, maternal stress and maternal anxiety) were identified. A clear understanding of the concept of maternal sensitivity could be useful for developing ways to enhance maternal sensitivity and to maximize the developmental potential of infants. Knowledge of the attributes of maternal sensitivity identified in this concept analysis may be helpful for constructing measuring items or dimensions.

  18. Possibly similar genetic basis of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein in 3 resistant colonies of the sugarcane borer collected from Louisiana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Chen, Mao; Gowda, Anilkumar; Kerns, David L; Huang, Fangneng

    2018-04-01

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is a major maize borer pest and a target of transgenic maize expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in South America and the mid-southern region of the United States. Evolution of resistance in target pest populations is a great threat to the long-term efficacy of Bt crops. In this study, we compared the genetic basis of resistance to Cry1Ab protein in 3 resistant colonies of sugarcane borer established from field populations in Louisiana, USA. Responses of larvae to the Cry1Ab protein for the parental and 10 other cross colonies were assayed in a diet-incorporated bioassay. All 3 resistant colonies were highly resistant to the Cry1Ab protein with a resistance ratio of >555.6 fold. No maternal effect or sex linkage was evident for the resistance in the 3 colonies; and the resistance was functionally nonrecessive at the Cry1Ab concentrations of ≤ 3.16 μg/g, but it became recessive at ≥10 μg/g. In an interstrain complementation test for allelism, the F 1 progeny from crosses between any 2 of the 3 resistant colonies exhibited the similar resistance levels as their parental colonies, indicating that the 3 colonies most likely shared a locus of Cry1Ab resistance. Results generated from this study should provide useful information in developing effective strategies for managing Bt resistance in the insect. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Modern approach to treating mental patients in colonial chosun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bang Hyun

    2013-08-01

    Literature produced by the government and the private sector in the colonial era was reviewed to determine the knowledge of the people of colonial Chosun of mental illness and mental patients and the mental patient management system that they implemented or intended to implement. The results of this study show that the people of Chosun realized the need to sterilize mental patients because they considered mental patients very violent, dangerous and eugenically inferior and they believed that mental patients would eventually impede the prosperity of Chosun. The people of colonial Chosun had learned about the lifelong mental hygiene movement, which had knowledge of mental illness prevention. However, they also recognized that people who developed mental illness despite efforts to prevent such condition needed help from the modern system, especially from modern Western psychiatry. The primary responsibility to attend to mental patients was imposed on their family. The family had to understand the symptoms of mental illness according to the modern medical classification and how to deal with them. When the family could not afford to take care of its mentally ill family member due to the increase in the member's risk behavior such as frenzied-convulsive excitement, paranoia and delusion of jealousy, the family was also responsible for isolating him and connecting him with a mental hospital. The police and social workers were also responsible for observing and monitoring mental patients in their community and for connecting them with a mental hospital. The police made a list of mental patients within their area of jurisdiction and prohibited them from wandering based on the law. It was also considered desirable for mental patients who could not identify their family members to be sent to a mental hospital. Social workers were responsible for managing mental patient sanatoriums, and district commissioners sent to the police mental patients who had no family to look after

  20. An American termite in Paris: temporal colony dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Guillaume; Dedeine, Franck; Bech, Nicolas; Bankhead-Dronnet, Stéphanie; Dupont, Simon; Bagnères, Anne-Geneviève

    2017-12-01

    Termites of the genus Reticulitermes are widespread invaders, particularly in urban habitats. Their cryptic and subterranean lifestyle makes them difficult to detect, and we know little about their colony dynamics over time. In this study we examined the persistence of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) colonies in the city of Paris over a period of 15 years. The aim was (1) to define the boundaries of colonies sampled within the same four areas over two sampling periods, (2) to determine whether the colonies identified during the first sampling period persisted to the second sampling period, and (3) to compare the results obtained when colonies were delineated using a standard population genetic approach versus a Bayesian clustering method that combined both spatial and genetic information. Herein, colony delineations were inferred from genetic differences at nine microsatellite loci and one mitochondrial locus. Four of the 18 identified colonies did not show significant differences in their genotype distributions between the two sampling periods. While allelic richness was low, making it hard to reliably distinguish colony family type, most colonies appeared to retain the same breeding structure over time. These large and expansive colonies showed an important ability to fuse (39% were mixed-family colonies), contained hundreds of reproductives and displayed evidence of isolation-by-distance, suggesting budding dispersal. These traits, which favor colony persistence over time, present a challenge for pest control efforts, which apply treatment locally. The other colonies showed significant differences, but we cannot exclude the possibility that their genotype distributions simply changed over time.

  1. Colonial Army Formats in Africa and Post-Colonial Military Coups:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSOS USER

    The centralised and autocratic features of Caliphate rule were .... latter's participation in the affairs of their respective societies, and leadership ..... deployment of the army by the NPC for internal colonial-style repression duties in the Middle Belt ...

  2. A Novel Spectrum Scheduling Scheme with Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio is a promising technology for improving spectrum utilization, which allows cognitive users access to the licensed spectrum while primary users are absent. In this paper, we design a resource allocation framework based on graph theory for spectrum assignment in cognitive radio networks. The framework takes into account the constraints that interference for primary users and possible collision among cognitive users. Based on the proposed model, we formulate a system utility function to maximize the system benefit. Based on the proposed model and objective problem, we design an improved ant colony optimization algorithm (IACO from two aspects: first, we introduce differential evolution (DE process to accelerate convergence speed by monitoring mechanism; then we design a variable neighborhood search (VNS process to avoid the algorithm falling into the local optimal. Simulation results demonstrate that the improved algorithm achieves better performance.

  3. JAX Colony Management System (JCMS): an extensible colony and phenotype data management system

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly, Chuck J.; McFarland, Mike; Ames, Abigail; Sundberg, Beth; Springer, Dave; Blauth, Peter; Bult, Carol J.

    2010-01-01

    The Jackson Laboratory Colony Management System (JCMS) is a software application for managing data and information related to research mouse colonies, associated biospecimens, and experimental protocols. JCMS runs directly on computers that run one of the PC Windows® operating systems, but can be accessed via web browser interfaces from any computer running a Windows, Macintosh®, or Linux® operating system. JCMS can be configured for a single user or multiple users in small- to medium-size wo...

  4. Ireland – a test case of Post-colonialism / Post colonialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Murray

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Contextualisation This review attempts to set the stage for post-colonial theorising, in the light of alternative representations of ‘whiteness’, on issues of gender, race and language within the discourse of equality. In this paper Ireland and the Irish provide a backdrop against which the nature and impact of colonialism on the colonised and the coloniser are explored. Many challenging questions emerge about the ideological basis of post colonial theory, not least when traditional paradigms of racism, as conveyed by the black / white dichotomy, are examined: Ireland presents a context, it is argued, where subjugation is of white on white. Linked to this is the language of the coloniser, a powerful hegemonic force which, in some situations, has been nurtured by the colonised and later developed into a text which is unique, producing a new literature which, it is asserted, truly invokes the ‘post colonial’. Abstract: Post-colonialism – essentially a critique of colonialism, is characterised by a process of disengagement from the colonial epoch and has taken many forms. In this article a set of phenomena are examined that have become inscribed in the cultures of the colonised with a view to identifying alternative cultural origins and dispositions recovered in this post-colonial era. Ireland and the Irish provide the background context of this exploration into perspectives generated by the peripheral or post-colonial nations. Globalisation, too, has had a role to play in the increasing de-territorialisation of communities as a result of cross-frontier mobility, increased intra-community mobility and new communication technologies. A critical reflection on the process of disengagement leads the author to conclude that we must come to recognise new cultural forms which are accepting of a heterogeneous and inclusive society: one which is not characterised by difference.

  5. Reducing Maternal Mortality by Strengthening Community Maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    translated from Hausa to English language. Using a pre-determined coding framework, coding and thematic analyses were carried out on the qualitative data collected from the baseline. LGA. Community. Estimated. Community. Population. Community maternal support systems established. Community savings. Emergency.

  6. 21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony counter. (a) Identification. A manual colony counter is a device intended for medical purposes that consists...

  7. Hybrid Bee Ant Colony Algorithm for Effective Load Balancing And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    Ant Colony algorithm is used in this hybrid Bee Ant Colony algorithm to solve load balancing issues ... Genetic Algorithm (MO-GA) for dynamic job scheduling that .... Information Networking and Applications Workshops. [7]. M. Dorigo & T.

  8. Conflict and conflict resolution in Africa: Engaging the colonial factor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maintaining colonial-style approaches to African conflicts at the expense of a ... Educational Leadership at the College of Education and Human Services, University of .... Colonial rule was the antithesis of democracy, because it was premised.

  9. Honeybee colony marketing and its implications for queen rearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honeybee colony marketing and its implications for queen rearing and beekeeping development in Werieleke ... Thus, colony marketing is an important venture in Werieleke district of Tigray region. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  10. Growth pattern of the surface of fungus Aspergillus colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Shu; Miyazima, Sasuke

    1992-05-01

    Aspergillus oryzae colonies were grown under various glucose concentrations, temperatures, and agar concentrations, and the effects on the pattern were investigated. Patterns of colony were found to vary from uniform to diffusion-limited aggregation type.

  11. The relevance of the Mediterranean Region to colonial waterbird conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.; Crivelli, Alain J.; Hafner, Heinz; Fasola, Mauro; Erwin, R. Michael; McCrimmon, Donald A.=

    1996-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is the largest partially enclosed sea in the world and provides habitat to more than 100 species of waterbirds from the Palearctic-North African-Middle Eastern regions. Even though the Mediterranean suffers from pollution, has little tidal influence, and is oligotrophic, more than half of the western Palearctic populations of numerous waterfowl species winter in the region. Thirty-three species of colonial waterbirds breed along the 46,000 km Mediterranean coastline with nine species considered threatened or endangered, mostly because of wetland loss and degradation. The long history of human activity and scientific investigations in the region has taught some valuable lessons. In the area of colonial waterbird biology and conservation, we have learned important lessons about the value of long-term monitoring and research on selected populations. From marking studies of Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus) and Little Egrets (Egretta garzetta) results have been used to derive useful information about metapopulation dynamics. Involvement of both African and European biologists allowed year-round Studies of these species that yielded valuable spin-offs for training in avian and wetland conservation. We have also learned the value of man-made wetlands as feeding and nesting sites for some colonial waterbirds. Careful evaluations of the habitat quality of different types of wetlands are required, as in contaminant levels such as lead shot and pesticides. Wetland conservationists have also learned from some instructive mistakes. Dam construction and agricultural incentive programs sponsored by the European Community, the World Bank, and others from the past have largely ignored impacts on wetlands and wildlife. In some areas, economic ventures such as aquaculture operations and salt mining have not involved waterbird habitat needs in their planning. Research and conservation needs include: (1) establishing regional monitoring programs and

  12. Kinship support and maternal and adolescent well-being in economically disadvantaged African-American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R D; Roberts, D

    1995-12-01

    This study tested a conceptual model developed to explain the link between kinship support and the psychological well-being of economically disadvantaged African-American adolescents. The relation of kinship support with maternal and adolescent well-being and mothers' child-rearing practices was assessed in 51 African-American families whose incomes placed them at or below the poverty threshold. Findings revealed that kinship social support to mothers/female guardians was positively associated with adolescent psychological well-being, maternal well-being, and more adequate maternal parenting practices (acceptance, firm control and monitoring of behavior, autonomy granting). Maternal well-being and more adequate maternal parenting practices were positively related to adolescent well-being. Evidence of the mediational role of maternal well-being and parenting practices was revealed. When the effects of maternal well-being and maternal parenting practices were controlled, significant relations between kinship support and adolescent well-being were no longer apparent.

  13. The importance of confronting a colonial, patriarchal and racist past ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of confronting a colonial, patriarchal and racist past in addressing post-apartheid sexual violence. ... It also needs to redress problems of social and economic inequality that exist in South Africa as hangovers from this country's colonial and apartheid-era past. Keywords: Zuma, rape, Kipling, colonialism, ...

  14. Military labour mobilisation in colonial Lesotho during World War II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1940, Great Britain's wartime exploitation of the human and material resources of its colonial empire was extended to colonial Lesotho (then known as Basutoland). The aim of this article, therefore, is to trace the four-year military labour mobilisation process in that colony, with special attention to the timing, number and ...

  15. Deconstructive Pedagogy and Ideological Demystification in Post-Colonial Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Asma; Malik, Samina

    2016-01-01

    With post-colonial Pakistan inheriting the British colonial ideological and governmental apparatus, the English literature curriculum implemented at the university level in Pakistan carried the interpellatory baggage of its colonial past. Our interdisciplinary exploration focuses on using deconstructive pedagogy to demystify and subvert the…

  16. The Genesis of Public Relations in British Colonial Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Rosaleen

    2001-01-01

    Demonstrates how the British Colonial Office employed public relations strategies as they administered the British colony of Northern Rhodesia before, during, and after World War II. Demonstrates how civil servants in London and colonial officials implemented public relations policies, strategies, and tactics on an ad hoc basis, covering political…

  17. Maternal singing during kangaroo care led to autonomic stability in preterm infants and reduced maternal anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Shmuel; Diamant, Chagit; Bauer, Sofia; Regev, Rivka; Sirota, Gisela; Litmanovitz, Ita

    2014-10-01

    Kangaroo care (KC) and maternal singing benefit preterm infants, and we investigated whether combining these benefitted infants and mothers. A prospective randomised, within-subject, crossover, repeated-measures study design was used, with participants acting as their own controls. We evaluated the heart rate variability (HRV) of stable preterm infants receiving KC, with and without maternal singing. This included low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and the LF/HF ratio during baseline (10 min), singing or quiet phases (20 min) and recovery (10 min). Physiological parameters, maternal anxiety and the infants' behavioural state were measured. We included 86 stable preterm infants, with a postmenstrual age of 32-36 weeks. A significant change in LF and HF, and lower LF/HF ratio, was observed during KC with maternal singing during the intervention and recovery phases, compared with just KC and baseline (all p-values singing than just KC (p = 0.04). No differences in the infants' behavioural states or physiological parameters were found, with or without singing. Maternal singing during KC reduces maternal anxiety and leads to autonomic stability in stable preterm infants. This effect is not detected in behavioural state or physiological parameters commonly used to monitor preterm infants. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Austin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews how colonial rule and African actions during the colonial period affected the resources and institutional settings for subsequent economic development south of the Sahara. The issue is seen from the perspective of the dynamics of development in what was in 1900 an overwhelmingly land-abundant region characterised by shortages of labour and capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market activities and by varying but often low levels of political centralisation. The differential impact of French and British rule is explored, but it is argued that a bigger determinant of the differential evolution of poverty, welfare and structural change was the contrast between “settler” and “peasant” economies.

  19. Teaching South Asia beyond Colonial Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Caton

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of the methodological innovations of Subaltern Studies in the 1980s and 1990s, most historians’ familiarity with South Asian history is limited to the colonial or modern period. While the subalternist view is undoubtedly useful, it does not provide much help in thinking about what came before or after the colonial period. This limited context may prove to be a problem for a non-specialist constructing a full course in South Asian history or adding South Asia content to a course that seeks to break down area studies or nation-state boundaries. This article provides a starting point for such an enterprise. It reviews the South Asian history textbooks available in the market and identifies some of the scholarship that would suit courses or units organized by theme or by a larger Asian geography. It also reviews some of the collections of primary sources that could be used in such coursework.

  20. Ant colony optimization and constraint programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solnon, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Ant colony optimization is a metaheuristic which has been successfully applied to a wide range of combinatorial optimization problems. The author describes this metaheuristic and studies its efficiency for solving some hard combinatorial problems, with a specific focus on constraint programming. The text is organized into three parts. The first part introduces constraint programming, which provides high level features to declaratively model problems by means of constraints. It describes the main existing approaches for solving constraint satisfaction problems, including complete tree search

  1. Review Essay: Governmentality in Late Colonial Korea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Em

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Takashi Fujitani, Race for Empire: Koreans as Japanese and Japanese as Americans during World War II. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011. 520 pp. $65 (cloth.Jun Uchida, Brokers of Empire: Japanese Settler Colonialism in Korea, 1876-1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011. 500 pp. $50 (cloth.In South Korea, more so than in most other postcolonial countries, the issue of sovereignty and the colonial past remains a central feature of politics. Most recently, during a televised presidential debate on December 4, 2012, Lee Jung-hee of the Unified Progressive Party said something that likely had never been said on South Korean television: “Takaki Masao signed an oath of loyalty [to the Emperor of Japan], in his own blood, to become an officer in the Japanese [Imperial] Army. You know who he is. His Korean name is Park Chung Hee.” Lee Jung-hee then made the connection between that colonial past and the willingness to sell out the nation’s sovereignty in the present. The conservative candidate Park Geun-hye, the daughter of the late President Park Chung Hee who ruled South Korea from 1961 through 1979, and members of Park’s Saenuri Party, remain true to their “roots”: these “descendants of pro-Japanese collaborators and dictators” (again sold out South Korea’s sovereignty (on November 22, 2011 when they rammed the US-ROK Free Trade Agreement through the National Assembly.

  2. Colony stimulating factors and their clinical implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Shigetaka

    1989-01-01

    Granulocytes and macrophage are dependent for their production and/or functional activation in vitro on the presence of a family of glycoproteins. They are generally called colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) because of their capacity to stimulate colony formation in semi-solid cultures, and are currently classified into four distinct subtypes, that is, Multi-CSF, GM-CSF, G-CSF and M-CSF, according to the cell type of colonies formed under their stimulation or their target cell specificity. All of the murine and human CSF subtypes and the genes for them have become available in a purified form and in a large scale, and now allow us to investigate their interactions, the mechanisms for their actions, the cell-cell interactions leading to their production and secretion, and their actions in vivo. Furthermore, the preclinical and/or clinical studies which were carried out using the purified CSFs strongly indicate that human CSFs will be effective strategies for preventing and treating opportunistic bacterial and fungal infection as a major cause of death in granulocytopenic patients. (author)

  3. [Maternal death: unequal risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defossez, A C; Fassin, D

    1989-01-01

    Nearly 99% of maternal deaths in the world each year occur in developing countries. New efforts have recently been undertaken to combat maternal mortality through research and action. The medical causes of such deaths are coming to be better understood, but the social mechanisms remain poorly grasped. Maternal mortality rates in developing countries are difficult to interpret because they tend to exclude all deaths not occurring in health care facilities. The countries of Europe and North America have an average maternal mortality rate of 30/100,000 live births, representing about 6000 deaths each year. The developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America have rates of 270-640/100,000, representing some 492,000 deaths annually. For a true comparison of the risks of maternal mortality in different countries, the risk itself and the average number of children per woman must both be considered. A Nigerian woman has 375 times greater risk of maternal death than a Swedish woman, but since she has about 4 times more children, her lifetime risk of maternal death is over 1500 times greater than that of the Swedish woman. The principal medical causes of maternal death are known: hemorrhages due to placenta previa or retroplacental hematoma, mechanical dystocias responsible for uterine rupture, toxemia with eclampsia, septicemia, and malaria. The exact weight of abortion in maternal mortality is not known but is probably large. The possible measures for improving such rates are of 3 types: control of fertility to avoid early, late, or closely spaced pregnancies; effective medical surveillance of the pregnancy to reduce the risk of malaria, toxemia, and hemorrhage, and delivery in an obstetrical facility, especially for high-risk pregnancies. Differential access to high quality health care explains much of the difference between mortality rates in urban and rural, wealthy and impoverished areas of the same country. The social determinants of high maternal mortality

  4. Morphological Diversity of the Colony Produced by Bacteria Proteus mirabilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Akio; Shimada, Yuji; Wakita, Jun-ichi; Matsushita, Mitsugu; Matsuyama, Tohey

    1996-08-01

    Morphological changes of colonies have been investigatedfor a bacterial strain of Proteus mirabilis, which is a famous speciesfor producing concentric-ring-like colonies. It was found that colony patterns can be classified into three types,i.e., cyclic spreading, diffusion-limited growth (DLA-like)and three-dimensional growth (inside the agar medium) patterns. Cyclic spreading patterns can further be classifiedinto three subgroups, i.e., concentric-ring, homogeneous and spatiotemporal patterns. These subgroups were classified by examining the development of colony structure after colonies spread all over petri-dishes. Comparison of the results with thoseof another bacterial species Bacillus subtilis is also discussed.

  5. Life in the colonies: learning the alien ways of colonial organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Judith E

    2010-12-01

    Who needs to go to outer space to study alien beings when the oceans of our own planet abound with bizarre and unknown creatures? Many of them belong to sessile clonal and colonial groups, including sponges, hydroids, corals, octocorals, ascidians, bryozoans, and some polychaetes. Their life histories, in many ways unlike our own, are a challenge for biologists. Studying their ecology, behavior, and taxonomy means trying to “think like a colony” to understand the factors important in their lives. Until the 1980s, most marine ecologists ignored these difficult modular organisms. Plant ecologists showed them ways to deal with the two levels of asexually produced modules and genetic individuals, leading to a surge in research on the ecology of clonal and colonial marine invertebrates. Bryozoans make excellent model colonial animals. Their life histories range from ephemeral to perennial. Aspects of their lives such as growth, reproduction, partial mortality due to predation or fouling, and the behavior of both autozooids and polymorphs can be studied at the level of the colony, as well as that of the individual module, in living colonies and over time.

  6. Engaging With Colonial Archives: Reflections Of An End-User

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji Olukoju

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Official and/or public archives were a byproduct of colonial rule in Africa. (Archives are a byproduct of administrative governance everywhere. Given the density and diversity of colonial archival records, historians have tended to rely on them for the study of the colonial period. Publications on the use of archives have not captured the perspective of end-users, who often face peculiar challenges in the use of colonial and metropolitan archives. This paper provides an end-user perspective on colonial archives in Nigeria and the United Kingdom. It highlights the challenges of data collection and prospects of optimal use of archival source material. The discussion is of general application to users of colonial archives especially in the former British colonies in Africa.

  7. Experimental Study for Automatic Colony Counting System Based Onimage Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Junlong; Li, Wenzhe; Wang, Guoxin

    Colony counting in many colony experiments is detected by manual method at present, therefore it is difficult for man to execute the method quickly and accurately .A new automatic colony counting system was developed. Making use of image-processing technology, a study was made on the feasibility of distinguishing objectively white bacterial colonies from clear plates according to the RGB color theory. An optimal chromatic value was obtained based upon a lot of experiments on the distribution of the chromatic value. It has been proved that the method greatly improves the accuracy and efficiency of the colony counting and the counting result is not affected by using inoculation, shape or size of the colony. It is revealed that automatic detection of colony quantity using image-processing technology could be an effective way.

  8. Infant and maternal health services in Ceylon, 1900-1948: imperialism or welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Margaret

    2002-08-01

    This article contests a dominant contemporary view that colonial medicine was oppressive and detrimental to welfare; in particular, that infant and maternal welfare services were culturally hegemonic in their imposition of western practices and values on indigenous women. It does so by studying the development of these services in just one British colony--the 'model colony' of Ceylon from 1900 until independence. It shows how, at both a practical and a theoretical level, there was a direct policy transfer from the metropolitan centre to the colony. Moreover, the main justifications for the development of health and welfare services for women and children ran parallel to those used earlier in Britain. By 1948, these services were extensive in Ceylon and contributed to the fall in infant and maternal mortality rates at the end of the colonial period. It concludes by arguing that, just as in the West, these services were contradictory: they could both help maintain the exploitative State and enhance welfare. However, it is ultimately on their ability to improve health and welfare that they should be judged.

  9. Colonie Interim Storage Site: Annual site environmental report, Colonie, New York, Calendar year 1986: Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    During 1986, the environmental monitoring program continued at the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS), a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in Colonie, New York. The CISS is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has mandated DOE to remedy. As part of the decontamination research and development project authorized by Congress under the 1984 Energy and Water Appropriations Act, remedial action is being conducted at the site and at vicinity properties by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI), Project Management Contractor for FUSRAP. The environmental monitoring program is also carried out by BNI. The monitoring program at the CISS measures external gamma radiation levels as well as uranium and radium-226 concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. To verify that the site is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard and to assess the potential effect of the site on public health, the radiation dose was calculated for the maximally exposed individual. Based on the conservative scenario described in the report, the maximally exposed individual would receive an annual external exposure approximately equivalent to 5% of the DOE radiation protection standard of 100 mrem/y. Results of 1986 monitoring show that the CISS is in compliance with the DOE radiation protection standard. 14 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  10. Maternity Care Update: Postpartum Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; Barr, Wendy B; Bassett-Novoa, Erin; LeFevre, Nicholas

    2018-04-01

    Family physicians are uniquely situated to play a major role in postpartum care. Postpartum issues that should be monitored and addressed include reproductive and contraceptive planning, breastfeeding counseling and support, and maternal mental health. All women should be screened for postpartum depression using a validated tool at the postpartum visit and/or at well-child visits. Patients with positive screening results should be offered support and treatment. Women are more likely to breastfeed if they are provided with breastfeeding support and counseling routinely during the prenatal and postpartum periods. All women should be asked about their reproductive life plans, counseled about potential risks associated with short and prolonged interpregnancy intervals, and offered contraception. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  11. Pollen foraging in colonies of Melipona bicolor (Apidae, Meliponini): effects of season, colony size and queen number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilário, S D; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V L

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the ratio between the number of pollen foragers and the total number of bees entering colonies of Melipona bicolor, a facultative polygynous species of stingless bees. The variables considered in our analysis were: seasonality, colony size and the number of physogastric queens in each colony. The pollen forager ratios varied significantly between seasons; the ratio was higher in winter than in summer. However, colony size and number of queens per colony had no significant effect. We conclude that seasonal differences in pollen harvest are related to the production of sexuals and to the number of individuals and their body size.

  12. National estimates for maternal mortality: an analysis based on the WHO systematic review of maternal mortality and morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülmezoglu A Metin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the worldwide commitment to improving maternal health, measuring, monitoring and comparing maternal mortality estimates remain a challenge. Due to lack of data, international agencies have to rely on mathematical models to assess its global burden. In order to assist in mapping the burden of reproductive ill-health, we conducted a systematic review of incidence/prevalence of maternal mortality and morbidity. Methods We followed the standard methodology for systematic reviews. This manuscript presents nationally representative estimates of maternal mortality derived from the systematic review. Using regression models, relationships between study-specific and country-specific variables with the maternal mortality estimates are explored in order to assist further modelling to predict maternal mortality. Results Maternal mortality estimates included 141 countries and represent 78.1% of the live births worldwide. As expected, large variability between countries, and within regions and subregions, is identified. Analysis of variability according to study characteristics did not yield useful results given the high correlation with each other, with development status and region. A regression model including selected country-specific variables was able to explain 90% of the variability of the maternal mortality estimates. Among all country-specific variables selected for the analysis, three had the strongest relationships with maternal mortality: proportion of deliveries assisted by a skilled birth attendant, infant mortality rate and health expenditure per capita. Conclusion With the exception of developed countries, variability of national maternal mortality estimates is large even within subregions. It seems more appropriate to study such variation through differentials in other national and subnational characteristics. Other than region, study of country-specific variables suggests infant mortality rate, skilled birth

  13. Viability of honeybee colonies exposed to sunflowers grown from seeds treated with the neonicotinoids thiamethoxam and clothianidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, M Dolores; Gámiz, Victoria; Gil-Lebrero, Sergio; Rodríguez, Inmaculada; García-Valcárcel, Ana I; Cutillas, V; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R; Flores, José M

    2018-07-01

    In this study, honeybee colonies were monitored in a field study conducted on sunflowers grown from seeds treated with the systemic neonicotinoids thiamethoxam or clothianidin. This field trial was carried out in different representative growing areas in Spain over a beekeeping season. The health and development of the colonies was assessed by measuring factors that have a significant influence on their strength and overwintering ability. The parameters assessed were: colony strength (adult bees), brood development, amount of pollen and honey stores and presence and status of the queen. The concentration of residues (clothianidin and thiamethoxam) in samples of beebread and in adult bees was at the level of ng.g -1 ; in the ranges of 0.10-2.89 ng g -1 and 0.05-0.12 ng g -1 ; 0.10-0.37 ng g -1 and 0.01-0.05 ng g -1 , respectively. Multivariate models were applied to evaluate the interaction among factors. No significant differences were found between the honeybee colonies of the different treatment groups, either exposed or not to the neonicotinoids. The seasonal development of the colonies was affected by the environmental conditions which, together with the initial strength of the bee colonies and the characteristics of the plots, had a significant effect on the different variables studied. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A queen pheromone induces workers to kill sexual larvae in colonies of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobuchar, Emily; Deslippe, Richard

    2002-05-01

    We conducted five bioassays to study how queens control the execution of sexual larvae by workers in colonies of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. In each assay, subset colonies were made from many large polygyne colonies, and the 20 sexual larvae they contained were monitored over time. Sexual larvae mostly survived in queenless colonies, but were mostly killed in colonies with a single dealated queen, regardless of whether or not the queen was fertilized. The larvae were also killed when fresh corpses of queens were added to queenless colonies. Whereas acetone extracts of queens did not produce a significant increase in killings, extracts in buffered saline induced workers to execute most sexual larvae, indicating successful extraction of an execution pheromone. We identified the probable storage location of the chemical as the poison sac, and found both fresh (1 day) and old (21 day) extracts of poison sacs to be equally effective in inducing executions. The pheromone is stable at room temperature, perhaps because venom alkaloids also present in the extracts keep the pheromone from degrading. It is apparently either proteinaceous or associated with a proteinaceous molecule, a novel finding, as no queen pheromone of a proteinaceous nature has been previously demonstrated in ants.

  15. Intraspecific Variation among Social Insect Colonies: Persistent Regional and Colony-Level Differences in Fire Ant Foraging Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison A Bockoven

    Full Text Available Individuals vary within a species in many ecologically important ways, but the causes and consequences of such variation are often poorly understood. Foraging behavior is among the most profitable and risky activities in which organisms engage and is expected to be under strong selection. Among social insects there is evidence that within-colony variation in traits such as foraging behavior can increase colony fitness, but variation between colonies and the potential consequences of such variation are poorly documented. In this study, we tested natural populations of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, for the existence of colony and regional variation in foraging behavior and tested the persistence of this variation over time and across foraging habitats. We also reared single-lineage colonies in standardized environments to explore the contribution of colony lineage. Fire ants from natural populations exhibited significant and persistent colony and regional-level variation in foraging behaviors such as extra-nest activity, exploration, and discovery of and recruitment to resources. Moreover, colony-level variation in extra-nest activity was significantly correlated with colony growth, suggesting that this variation has fitness consequences. Lineage of the colony had a significant effect on extra-nest activity and exploratory activity and explained approximately half of the variation observed in foraging behaviors, suggesting a heritable component to colony-level variation in behavior.

  16. Application of DNA-DNA colony hybridization to the detection of catabolic genotypes in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayler, G.S.; Shields, M.S.; Tedford, E.T.; Breen, A.; Hooper, S.W.; Sirotkin, K.M.; Davis, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The application of preexisting DNA hybridization techniques was investigated for potential in determining populations of specific gene sequences in environmental samples. Cross-hybridizations among two degradative plasmids, TOL and NAH, and two cloning vehicles, pLAFR1 and RSF1010, were determined. The detection limits for the TOL plasmid against a nonhomologous plasmid-bearing bacterial background was ascertained. The colony hybridization technique allowed detection of one colony containing TOL plasmid among 10(6) Escherichia coli colonies of nonhomologous DNA. Comparisons between population estimates derived from growth on selective substrates and from hybridizations were examined. Findings indicated that standard sole carbon source enumeration procedures for degradative populations lead to overestimations due to nonspecific growth of other bacteria on the microcontaminant carbon sources present in the media. Population estimates based on the selective growth of a microcosm population on two aromatic substrates (toluene and naphthalene) and estimates derived from DNA-DNA colony hybridizations, using the TOL or NAH plasmid as a probe, corresponded with estimates of substrate mineralization rates and past exposure to environmental contaminants. The applications of such techniques are hoped to eventually allow enumeration of any specific gene sequences in the environment, including both anabolic and catabolic genes. In addition, this procedure should prove useful in monitoring recombinant DNA clones released into environmental situations

  17. Globalization in the post - colonial world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikova Larisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new interpretation of globalization within the boundaries of the author’s concept of soft globalization, which exploits a normatively attractive alternative to the concept of the Empire. It is argued here that the conditions of development of contemporary post - colonial world communities do not require any unification in the form of the Empire, but instead the creation of a non repressive mechanism of social regulation - the implementation of a form of soft globalization, a globalization with a mental form are expedient here. Historically, globalization occurred in a strict material(i.e. economical and military form that prompted the conditions for the evolution of civilization as the Empire: a case in which the development of the world occurs under the power of a single dominating state. Imperialistic politics leads to colonial politics formation. The history of the phenomena of civilization shows many instances of Empire globalization. Globalization in the Empire form was already observed at the time of the Roman Empire. At this time processes of development inside the Empire were manifestations of globalization in its highest cultural shape. But ancient Rome was also a social and political experiment that acquired the attributes of a purely material globalization in the end, and historically brought about the irreversible crash of the Roman Empire itself. Contemporary fluctuations referring to the process of globalization can be registered in the US’s attempts of material domination inside this or that existing case of civilization, which causes colonialism appearance. The main idea stressed in the paper is that only a mental globalization could succeed in the end.

  18. Combined Final Report for Colony II Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, Laxmikant [University of Illinois; Jones, Terry [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Moreira, Jose [IBM Corp.

    2013-10-23

    (This report was originally submmited by the lead PI (Terry Jones, ORNL) on October 22, 2013 to the program manager, Lucy Nowell. It is being submitted from University of Illinois in accordance with instructions). HPC Colony II seeks to provide portable performance for leadership class machines. Our strategy is based on adaptive system software that aims to make the intelligent decisions necessary to allow domain scientists to safely focus on their task at hand and allow the system software stack to adapt their application to the underlying architecture. This report describes the research undertaken towards these objectives and the results obtained over the performance period of the project.

  19. Mamary neoplasia in a closed beagle colony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.N.; Shabestari, L.; Williams, J.; Mays, C.W.; Angus, W.; McFarland, S.

    1975-01-01

    The incidence rate of mammary neoplasia in a large colony of beagles and its relationship to internal skeletal and/or liver radiation, age, relatively late ovariectomy (4 years and older), endometritis, parity status, and adrenal weight was examined. Of these various factors, age was the only condition that was clearly correlated with changes in the mammary tumor incidence. The rate became significant at approximately eight years of age and increased progressively throughout the successively older age classes. Within the female dogs, the incidence of mammary cancer was higher that that of any other form of spontaneous malignancy

  20. Colonial Subjectification: Foucault, Christianity and Governmentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Petterson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Foucault’s concept of pastoral power is envisioned as a technique of power developed from the medieval period and carried through into modern political rationalities. As such, it is an old power technique – which originated in Christian institutions – in a new political shape, which he coined governmentality. This article uses Foucault’s genealogy of pastoral power and governmentality to discuss the intersection of domination and technology of self in the Greenlandic colonial context and to bring out the central role of religion in Foucault’s conceptualisation of governmentality.

  1. Image Edge Tracking via Ant Colony Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruowei; Wu, Hongkun; Liu, Shilong; Rahman, M. A.; Liu, Sanchi; Kwok, Ngai Ming

    2018-04-01

    A good edge plot should use continuous thin lines to describe the complete contour of the captured object. However, the detection of weak edges is a challenging task because of the associated low pixel intensities. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) has been employed by many researchers to address this problem. The algorithm is a meta-heuristic method developed by mimicking the natural behaviour of ants. It uses iterative searches to find the optimal solution that cannot be found via traditional optimization approaches. In this work, ACO is employed to track and repair broken edges obtained via conventional Sobel edge detector to produced a result with more connected edges.

  2. In the Post-Colonial Waiting Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca; Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2017-01-01

    ready for sovereignty. It explores a number of European overseas countries and territories. More specifically, it focuses on French dependencies in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and North Atlantic Greenland constitutionally connected to Denmark. The immediate aim of anti-colonial struggles was to make...... acknowledge. A number of overseas territories take alternative routes to agency; not by resisting the norm of sovereignty - but by creatively articulating it beyond its claim to represent an 'either/or' distinction. The chapter demonstrates that territories not formally decolonized may very well perform...

  3. CHRISTIANITY AND COLONIALISM IN SOME ENGLISH SHORT STORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatang Iskarna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Colonial and postcolonial studies are often linked to the power domination of the West upon the East in the way that the East economically, politically, and socially oppressed. Colonialism is often associated with three elements, the explorers dealing with geographical information, missionaries approaching the local people culturally, and the colonial administrators ruling the colony. Gold, glory, and gospel are the European’s concern. However, in representing the relation between Christianity and colonialism there is critical dialectic amongst historians, anthropologists, Christian missions, or cultural critics. Some propose that Christianity is considered to be the religious arm of colonialism. Others state that Christianity is spread without any secular interest as it is a great commandment of Jesus Christ. A few believe that Christianity give critical resistance against colonialism. The relation between Christianity and colonialism cannot be simplified as being neutral, in complicity, or in opposition. So, it is worth-discussing to understand how European writers construct the relation between Christianity and colonialism in their literary work. How Christianity is constructed and how Christianity is related to colonialism will be discussed in this paper. Using postcolonial paradigm, two English short stories will be analyzed in that way. They are Rudyard Kipling’s “Lispeth” and Doris Lessing’s “No Witchcraft for Sale”.

  4. Inbred or Outbred? Genetic Diversity in Laboratory Rodent Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, Thomas D.; Steele, Katherine A.; Mulley, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Nonmodel rodents are widely used as subjects for both basic and applied biological research, but the genetic diversity of the study individuals is rarely quantified. University-housed colonies tend to be small and subject to founder effects and genetic drift; so they may be highly inbred or show substantial genetic divergence from other colonies, even those derived from the same source. Disregard for the levels of genetic diversity in an animal colony may result in a failure to replicate results if a different colony is used to repeat an experiment, as different colonies may have fixed alternative variants. Here we use high throughput sequencing to demonstrate genetic divergence in three isolated colonies of Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) even though they were all established recently from the same source. We also show that genetic diversity in allegedly “outbred” colonies of nonmodel rodents (gerbils, hamsters, house mice, deer mice, and rats) varies considerably from nearly no segregating diversity to very high levels of polymorphism. We conclude that genetic divergence in isolated colonies may play an important role in the “replication crisis.” In a more positive light, divergent rodent colonies represent an opportunity to leverage genetically distinct individuals in genetic crossing experiments. In sum, awareness of the genetic diversity of an animal colony is paramount as it allows researchers to properly replicate experiments and also to capitalize on other genetically distinct individuals to explore the genetic basis of a trait. PMID:29242387

  5. Political instability and discontinuity in Nigeria: The pre-colonial past and public goods provision under colonial and post-colonial political orders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, K.I.; Dalrymple-Smith, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the relative importance of pre-colonial institutional capacity and the effects of periods of peace and stability on long-term development outcomes in Nigeria. We use data on education, health, and public works at a provincial level from a variety of colonial and Nigerian state

  6. Effect of fluid motion on colony formation in Microcystis aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcystis aeruginosa, generally occurring in large colonies under natural conditions, mainly exists as single cells in laboratory cultures. The mechanisms involved in colony formation in Microcystis aeruginosa and their roles in algal blooms remain unknown. In this study, based on previous research findings that fluid motion may stimulate the colony formation in green algae, culture experiments were conducted under axenic conditions in a circular water chamber where the flow rate, temperature, light, and nutrients were controlled. The number of cells of Microcystis aeruginosa, the number of cells per colony, and the colonial characteristics in various growth phases were observed and measured. The results indicated that the colony formation in Microcystis aeruginosa, which was not observed under stagnant conditions, was evident when there was fluid motion, with the number of cells per largest colony reaching 120 and the proportion of the number of cells in colonial form to the total number of cells and the mean number of cells per colony reaching their peak values at a flow rate of 35 cm/s. Based on the analysis of colony formation process, fluid motion stimulates the colony formation in Microcystis aeruginosa in the lag growth phase, while flushes and disaggregates the colonies in the exponential growth phase. The stimulation effect in the lag growth phase may be attributable to the involvement of fluid motion in a series of physiological processes, including the uptake of trace elements and the synthesis and secretion of polysaccharides. In addition, the experimental groups exhibiting typical colonial characteristics in the lag growth phase were found to have higher cell biomass in the later phase.

  7. Functional Differences Between Placental Micro- and Macrovascular Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Ioana; O’Reilly, Megan; Ionescu, Lavinia; Alphonse, Rajesh S.; Rajabali, Saima; Zhong, Shumei; Vadivel, Arul; Shelley, W. Chris; Yoder, Mervin C.

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in the development of the placental vasculature can lead to pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia. Currently, the cause of preeclampsia is unknown, and there are no specific prevention or treatment strategies. Further insight into the placental vasculature may aid in identifying causal factors. Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are a subset of endothelial progenitor cells capable of self-renewal and de novo vessel formation in vitro. We hypothesized that ECFCs exist in the micro- and macrovasculature of the normal, term human placenta. Human placentas were collected from term pregnancies delivered by cesarean section (n = 16). Placental micro- and macrovasculature was collected from the maternal and fetal side of the placenta, respectively, and ECFCs were isolated and characterized. ECFCs were CD31+, CD105+, CD144+, CD146+, CD14−, and CD45−, took up 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethyl-indocarbocyanine perchlorate-labeled acetylated low-density lipoprotein, and bound Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1. In vitro, macrovascular ECFCs had a greater potential to generate high-proliferative colonies and formed more complex capillary-like networks on Matrigel compared with microvascular ECFCs. In contrast, in vivo assessment demonstrated that microvascular ECFCs had a greater potential to form vessels. Macrovascular ECFCs were of fetal origin, whereas microvascular ECFCs were of maternal origin. ECFCs exist in the micro- and macrovasculature of the normal, term human placenta. Although macrovascular ECFCs demonstrated greater vessel and colony-forming potency in vitro, this did not translate in vivo, where microvascular ECFCs exhibited a greater vessel-forming ability. These important findings contribute to the current understanding of normal placental vascular development and may aid in identifying factors involved in preeclampsia and other pregnancy complications. Significance This research confirms that resident endothelial colony

  8. Behavior and demography in an urban colony of Tadarida brasiliensis (Chiroptera: Molossidae in Rosario, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C Romano

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Bat colonies were sampled in the city of Rosario to increase the understanding of bat ecology in urban areas of the southern cone of South America. Seven species were recorded, of which three are new records for Rosario. One representative colony was chosen for intensive ecological study. Approximately 64 000 Tadarida brasiliensis formed a maternity colony in the attic of an old building. Most of the bats were pregnant or lactating females and their young.. Adults arrive in the colony in mid-September and leave in February, no bats were present at this site from the beginning of March to mid-September. Births occur between mid-November and mid-December. Pups roosted in compact clusters in the nursery areas, spatially segregated from adults. Densities of these aggregations were 643 + 76 bats/m2 (p Con el objetivo de incrementar el conocimiento de la ecología de los murciélagos en áreas urbanas, se muestrearon colonias en la ciudad de Rosario. Fueron registradas siete especies, de las cuales tres son nuevos registros. Se seleccionó una colonia que se consideró más representativa, para realizar un intensivo estudio ecológico. Se realizaron conteos poblacionales, que arrojaron aproximadamente 64 000 Tadarida brasiliensis formando una colonia maternal en el ático de un antigüo edificio. Se hicieron registros de comportamiento (fechas de arribo y partida, patrones diarios de actividad, pariciones, etc.. Los adultos arrivan al refugio a mediados de septiembre y lo abandonan en febrero. Las pariciones ocurren entre mediados de noviembre y mediados de diciembre. Las crías se ubicaron en grupos compactos en áreas separadas de los adultos, siendo su densidad de 643 + 76 /m2 (p < 0.20. y la de los adultos de 161 + 21 /m2 (p < 0.20. 182 animales capturados fueron identificados, sexados y pesados. Los registros incluyeron patrones diarios de actividad.. Se detectó predación por "lechuza de campanario" (Tyto alba y gatos domésticos. La b

  9. Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health

    OpenAIRE

    Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

    2012-01-01

    While maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children’s future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse maternal physical and mental health outcomes. We hypothesize that poor child health may also increase the risk of poor maternal health outcomes through an interact...

  10. Disrupting the Coloniality of Being: Toward De-Colonial Ontologies in Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Troy A.

    2012-01-01

    This essay works to bridge conversations in philosophy of education with decolonial theory. The author considers Margonis' (1999, 2011a, b) use of Rousseau (1979) and Heidegger (1962) in developing an ontological attitude that counters social hierarchies and promotes anti-colonial relations. While affirming this effort, the essay outlines a…

  11. The regulation of British colonial lunatic asylums and the origins of colonial psychiatry, 1860-1864.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Sally

    2010-05-01

    In this paper I outline a brief period in the history of the British Empire, during which colonial lunatic asylum policy began to be formulated. I begin with a scandal that erupted in Jamaica and suggest that this set in motion processes that led to critical changes in asylum administration. The first of these processes was an audit of hospitals and asylums in the colonies. The results of the audit and the policy that emerged from it marked the beginning of systematic regulation of lunatic asylum practice across the British Empire. It revealed a formulation of policy that was intended to cut across the self-governing regimes that had up to this point been allowed to evolve. Drawing on the work of Michel Foucault and Nikolas Rose, I argue that the policy and the practices associated with it contribute to an understanding of the emergence of the psy-sciences in colonial settings. They illustrate the establishment of a panoptic gaze on previously neglected insane spaces. Systematic surveillance constituted government at a distance and made colonial lunacy administration a governable discursive space. The regulation of the medical officers, lunatic attendants, and hospital boards began the process of creating a professional psychiatric workforce. I conclude with a discussion of the implications and the mixed impact of this policy change for the mentally ill across the empire, over the ensuing decades.

  12. Economic mobility in a colonial and post-colonial economy: the case of Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Bas; Földvári, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Despite a consensus about the main factors influencing economic mobility in Indonesia, such as labor-market opportunities and childhood circumstances, virtually nothing is known about how these factors increased economic standing in the colonial and postcolonial periods. The use of height data as a

  13. JAX Colony Management System (JCMS): an extensible colony and phenotype data management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Chuck J; McFarland, Mike; Ames, Abigail; Sundberg, Beth; Springer, Dave; Blauth, Peter; Bult, Carol J

    2010-04-01

    The Jackson Laboratory Colony Management System (JCMS) is a software application for managing data and information related to research mouse colonies, associated biospecimens, and experimental protocols. JCMS runs directly on computers that run one of the PC Windows operating systems, but can be accessed via web browser interfaces from any computer running a Windows, Macintosh, or Linux operating system. JCMS can be configured for a single user or multiple users in small- to medium-size work groups. The target audience for JCMS includes laboratory technicians, animal colony managers, and principal investigators. The application provides operational support for colony management and experimental workflows, sample and data tracking through transaction-based data entry forms, and date-driven work reports. Flexible query forms allow researchers to retrieve database records based on user-defined criteria. Recent advances in handheld computers with integrated barcode readers, middleware technologies, web browsers, and wireless networks add to the utility of JCMS by allowing real-time access to the database from any networked computer.

  14. Stable isotope enrichment in laboratory ant colonies: effects of colony age, metamorphosis, diet, and fat storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecologists use stable isotopes to infer diets and trophic levels of animals in food webs, yet some assumptions underlying these inferences have not been thoroughly tested. We used laboratory-reared colonies of Solenopsis invicta Buren (Formicidae: Solenopsidini) to test the effects of metamorphosis,...

  15. Fish skin bacteria: Colonial and cellular hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, N; Rosenberg, E

    1987-05-01

    Bacteria were desorbed from the skin of healthy, fast-swimming fish by several procedures, including brief exposure to sonic oscillation and treatment with nontoxic surface active agents. The surface properties of these bacteria were studied by measuring their adhesion to hexadecane, as well as by a newly developed, simple method for studying the hydrophobicity of bacterial lawns. This method, referred to as the "Direction of Spreading" (DOS) method, consists of recording the direction to which a water drop spreads when introduced at the border between bacterial lawns and other surfaces. Of the 13 fish skin isolates examined, two strains were as hydrophobic as polystyrene by the DOS method. Suspended cells of one of these strains adhered strongly to hexadecane (84%), whereas cells of the other strain adhered poorly (13%). Another strain which was almost as hydrophobic as polystyrene by the DOS method did not adhere to hexadecane at all. Similarly, lawns of three other strains were more hydrophobic than glass by the DOS method, but cell suspensions prepared from these colonies showed little or no adhesion to hexadecane. The high colonial but relatively low cellular hydrophobicity could be due to a hydrophobic slime that is removed during the suspension and washing procedures. The possibility that specific bacteria assist in fish locomotion by changing the surface properties of the fish skin and by producing drag-reducing polymers is discussed.

  16. Maternal Mortality in a Nigerian Maternity Hospital | Olopade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite recent focus on maternal mortality in Nigeria, its rates remain unacceptably high in Nigeria. A retrospective case-control study was carried out at Adeoyo Maternity Hospital, Ibadan between January 2003 and December 2004. This was to determine the maternal mortality ratio in a secondary health facility, to identify ...

  17. The effects of maternal haemoglobin as an indicator of maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Maternal measles antibodies (MMA) are actively transferred through the placenta from mother to foetus. A relationship could exist between MMA of mother-infant pairs and maternal nutritional indicator (haemoglobin). Objectives: This study reviewed the effects of maternal haemoglobin (Hb) on MMA of ...

  18. First recorded loss of an emperor penguin colony in the recent period of Antarctic regional warming: implications for other colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip N Trathan

    Full Text Available In 1948, a small colony of emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri was discovered breeding on Emperor Island (67° 51' 52″ S, 68° 42' 20″ W, in the Dion Islands, close to the West Antarctic Peninsula (Stonehouse 1952. When discovered, the colony comprised approximately 150 breeding pairs; these numbers were maintained until 1970, after which time the colony showed a continuous decline. By 1999 there were fewer than 20 pairs, and in 2009 high-resolution aerial photography revealed no remaining trace of the colony. Here we relate the decline and loss of the Emperor Island colony to a well-documented rise in local mean annual air temperature and coincident decline in seasonal sea ice duration. The loss of this colony provides empirical support for recent studies (Barbraud & Weimerskirch 2001; Jenouvrier et al 2005, 2009; Ainley et al 2010; Barber-Meyer et al 2005 that have highlighted the vulnerability of emperor penguins to changes in sea ice duration and distribution. These studies suggest that continued climate change is likely to impact upon future breeding success and colony viability for this species. Furthermore, a recent circumpolar study by Fretwell & Trathan (2009 highlighted those Antarctic coastal regions where colonies appear most vulnerable to such changes. Here we examine which other colonies might be at risk, discussing various ecological factors, some previously unexplored, that may also contribute to future declines. The implications of this are important for future modelling work and for understanding which colonies actually are most vulnerable.

  19. Coalescing colony model: Mean-field, scaling, and geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, Giulia; Mallick, Kirone; Barthelemy, Marc

    2017-12-01

    We analyze the coalescing model where a `primary' colony grows and randomly emits secondary colonies that spread and eventually coalesce with it. This model describes population proliferation in theoretical ecology, tumor growth, and is also of great interest for modeling urban sprawl. Assuming the primary colony to be always circular of radius r (t ) and the emission rate proportional to r (t) θ , where θ >0 , we derive the mean-field equations governing the dynamics of the primary colony, calculate the scaling exponents versus θ , and compare our results with numerical simulations. We then critically test the validity of the circular approximation for the colony shape and show that it is sound for a constant emission rate (θ =0 ). However, when the emission rate is proportional to the perimeter, the circular approximation breaks down and the roughness of the primary colony cannot be discarded, thus modifying the scaling exponents.

  20. Exploratory behaviour modulates the relationship between colony familiarity and helping in a cooperative bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expósito-Granados, Mónica; De La Cruz, Carlos; Parejo, Deseada; Valencia, Juliana; Alarcos, Susana; Avilés, Jesús M

    2016-10-01

    Individuals within animal groups may differ in personality and degree of familiarity raising the question of how this influences their social interactions. In Iberian magpies Cyanopica cooki, a portion of first-year males engage in cooperative behaviours and dispersal, allowing addressing this question. In this study, we first investigate the relationship between colony familiarity (native versus foreign) and reproductive status (breeding versus helping) of males during 21 years. Secondly, we measure the exploratory behaviour and monitor reproductive status of a sample of individuals with different colony familiarity during 2 years. Long-term monitoring revealed that foreign individuals were more likely breeders. The analysis on the subset of individuals in which exploratory behaviour was measured revealed a mediatory effect of exploratory behaviour in the association between colony familiarity and helping behaviour. Specifically, among foreign individuals, higher explorative males were more frequently involved in helping behaviour than lower explorative ones. Conversely, among native males, breeders were more explorative than helpers. Our results suggest that aspects of personality may mediate the value of familiarity in reproductive tasks in social species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ant- and Ant-Colony-Inspired ALife Visual Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Gary; Machado, Penousal

    2015-01-01

    Ant- and ant-colony-inspired ALife art is characterized by the artistic exploration of the emerging collective behavior of computational agents, developed using ants as a metaphor. We present a chronology that documents the emergence and history of such visual art, contextualize ant- and ant-colony-inspired art within generative art practices, and consider how it relates to other ALife art. We survey many of the algorithms that artists have used in this genre, address some of their aims, and explore the relationships between ant- and ant-colony-inspired art and research on ant and ant colony behavior.

  2. Improved Ant Colony Clustering Algorithm and Its Performance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Clustering analysis is used in many disciplines and applications; it is an important tool that descriptively identifies homogeneous groups of objects based on attribute values. The ant colony clustering algorithm is a swarm-intelligent method used for clustering problems that is inspired by the behavior of ant colonies that cluster their corpses and sort their larvae. A new abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm using a data combination mechanism is proposed to improve the computational efficiency and accuracy of the ant colony clustering algorithm. The abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm is used to cluster benchmark problems, and its performance is compared with the ant colony clustering algorithm and other methods used in existing literature. Based on similar computational difficulties and complexities, the results show that the abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm produces results that are not only more accurate but also more efficiently determined than the ant colony clustering algorithm and the other methods. Thus, the abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm can be used for efficient multivariate data clustering. PMID:26839533

  3. Neonicotinoid pesticides can reduce honeybee colony genetic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Forfert

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid insecticides can cause a variety of adverse sub-lethal effects in bees. In social species such as the honeybee, Apis mellifera, queens are essential for reproduction and colony functioning. Therefore, any negative effect of these agricultural chemicals on the mating success of queens may have serious consequences for the fitness of the entire colony. Queens were exposed to the common neonicotinoid pesticides thiamethoxam and clothianidin during their developmental stage. After mating, their spermathecae were dissected to count the number of stored spermatozoa. Furthermore, their worker offspring were genotyped with DNA microsatellites to determine the number of matings and the genotypic composition of the colony. Colonies providing the male mating partners were also inferred. Both neonicotinoid and control queens mated with drones originating from the same drone source colonies, and stored similar number of spermatozoa. However, queens reared in colonies exposed to both neonicotinoids experienced fewer matings. This resulted in a reduction of the genetic diversity in their colonies (i.e. higher intracolonial relatedness. As decreased genetic diversity among worker bees is known to negatively affect colony vitality, neonicotinoids may have a cryptic effect on colony health by reducing the mating frequency of queens.

  4. Laser-induced speckle scatter patterns in Bacillus colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huisung eKim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Label-free bacterial colony phenotyping technology called BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology provided successful classification of several different bacteria at the genus, species, and serovar level. Recent experiments with colonies of Bacillus species provided strikingly different characteristics of elastic light scatter (ELS patterns, which were comprised of random speckles compared to other bacteria, which are dominated by concentric rings and spokes. Since this laser-based optical sensor interrogates the whole volume of the colony, 3-D information of micro- and macro-structures are all encoded in the far-field scatter patterns. Here, we present a theoretical model explaining the underlying mechanism of the speckle formation by the colonies from Bacillus species. Except for Bacillus polymyxa, all Bacillus spp. produced random bright spots on the imaging plane, which presumably dependent on the cellular and molecular organization and content within the colony. Our scatter model-based analysis revealed that colony spread resulting in variable surface roughness can modify the wavefront of the scatter field. As the center diameter of the Bacillus spp. colony grew from 500 μm to 900 μm, average speckles area decreased 2-fold and the number of small speckles increased 7-fold. In conclusion, as Bacillus colony grows, the average speckle size in the scatter pattern decreases and the number of smaller speckle increases due to the swarming growth characteristics of bacteria within the colony.

  5. Enhancement of erythroid colony growth in culture by hemin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, P.N.; Meints, R.H.; Mesner, K.

    1979-01-01

    Hemin was found to enhance the growth of murine erythroid colonies in culture. In the presence of 100 mU/ml erythropoietin (EPO), the addition of hemin (0.05-0.2 mM) resulted in the growth of twice as many colonies as were obtained with EPO alone. Hemin also significantly increased erythroid colony formation in culture in the absence of added EPO. Hemoblobin synthesis as measured by the incorporation of 59 Fe into cyclohexanone extractable heme was augmented in culture by hemin. Neither Δ-aminolevulinic acid, a hemin precursor, nor FeCl 3 increased colony number. (author)

  6. Rethinking the Colonial State: Configurations of Power, Violence, and Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rud, Søren; Ivarsson, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The main theme of this special volume is the colonial state and its governmental practices. This chapter introduces and contextualizes the contributions by providing a brief induction to recent developments within the study of the colonial state. It then presents the contributions under three per...... perspectives which represent separate yet interrelated themes relevant for the understanding of the colonial state: practices, violence, and agency. Hereby, we also accentuate the value of a non-state-centric approach to the analysis of the colonial state....

  7. Maternal health Indicators Signal Optimism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Maternal health Indicators Signal Optimism. Abraham Haileamlak, MD, Professor of Pediatrics and Child Health. Maternal health is a major health priority for international agencies and the Ethiopian. Government. Many low income countries including. Ethiopia, made substantial improvements in maternal health achieving ...

  8. Central Asia, Euro-centrism and Colonialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargis T. Nurulla-Khodzhaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article should not be dismissed as yet another attempt to construct a renewed round ofrevisionism in history. On the contrary, it aims to explore the possibility of scaling down the dominant Eurocentric epistemology that served as a basis for a stereotypical frame of knowledge about Central Asia. The majority of researchers of the region do not deem the need to review the scale of contradictory clashes created by the notion of Eurocentrism. The latter is reflected in numerous articles about the frozen (and sadly deadlock dilemma on why and how were the lands of Tajiks, Uzbeks and Kazakhs divided. By publishing conventional analyses on the region's "clumsy separation", experts illustrate their subaltern, narrowly framed by the colonial world, knowledge and hence, remain as gravestones of the Eurocentric methodology. In the process of such explication, the most important role is allocated to the modern culture, which encouraged the formation of the paradox, represented to us via the paraphrased Soviet aphorism: modernity and coloniality are twin brothers. The initiation of the process of decolonizing the mind within the five republics of the region is possible. One of the solutions involves recognizing the integrity of the pluralist-cycled culture and philosophy of the region. The proposed act will allow shrinking the focus on the knowledge within the limited national units and frames (thus, lessening the degree of'fetishism of the national identity', and rather creating conditions for designing the "bridge", linking different cultures, ideologies and institutional spaces in Central Asia, as a transnational intellectual matrix. The aforementioned theory will provide a basis and structure for empirical facts, and, therefore, drive the researchers from merely constituting to critically thinking, and consequently, inspire to come upon new approaches and fields of study, connecting them with the existing, colonial experiences. It is

  9. Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Alison

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

  10. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  11. Maternity Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society. PMID:28983432

  12. Artifact reduction in maternal abdominal ECG recordings for fetal ECG estimation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vullings, R.; Peters, C.H.L.; Mischi, M.; Sluijter, R.J.; Oei, S.G.; Bergmans, J.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring the fetal electrocardiogram (1ECG) is currently one of the most promising methods to assess fetal health. However, the main problem associated with this method is that the signals recorded from the maternal abdomen are affected by noise and interferences: the maternal electrocardiogram

  13. Maternal correlates of maternal child feeding practices: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Daniels, Lynne; Jansen, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Establishing healthy eating habits early in life is one important strategy to combat childhood obesity. Given that early maternal child feeding practices have been linked to child food intake and weight, identifying the maternal correlates of maternal child feeding practices is important in order to understand the determinants of childhood obesity; this was the overall aim of the current review. Academic databases were searched for studies examining the relationship between maternal child feeding practices and parenting, personal characteristics and psychopathology of mothers with preschoolers. Papers were limited to those published in English, between January 2000 and June 2012. Only studies with mothers of normally developing children between the ages of 2 and 6 years were included. There were no restrictions regarding the inclusion of maternal nationality or socioeconomic status (SES). Seventeen eligible studies were sourced. Information on the aim, sample, measures and findings of these was summarised into tables. The findings of this review support a relationship between maternal controlling parenting, general and eating psychopathology, and SES and maternal child feeding practices. The main methodological issues of the studies reviewed included inconsistency in measures of maternal variables across studies and cross-sectional designs. We conclude that the maternal correlates associated with maternal child feeding practices are complex, and the pathways by which maternal correlates impact these feeding practices require further investigation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Virtual Archaeology in an argentina colonial estancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Vázquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a first approach to the application of virtual reconstruction techniques of a colonial house. In Argentina it is still uncommon to perform 3D modeling of archaeological sites and especially in historical archeology. As a first step, we used the Google SketchUp to model the country house located on the banks of the Río de la Plata (Buenos Aires. It has historical significance because it belonged to a Spanish councilman, housed hundreds of slaves and was the place where stayed the troops that carried out the Second British Invasion of Buenos Aires. In this case, the 3D modeling was useful for evaluating the future excavationa and activities of preservation of cultural heritage.

  15. Optic disc detection using ant colony optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marcy A.; Monteiro, Fernando C.

    2012-09-01

    The retinal fundus images are used in the treatment and diagnosis of several eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. This paper proposes a new method to detect the optic disc (OD) automatically, due to the fact that the knowledge of the OD location is essential to the automatic analysis of retinal images. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is an optimization algorithm inspired by the foraging behaviour of some ant species that has been applied in image processing for edge detection. Recently, the ACO was used in fundus images to detect edges, and therefore, to segment the OD and other anatomical retinal structures. We present an algorithm for the detection of OD in the retina which takes advantage of the Gabor wavelet transform, entropy and ACO algorithm. Forty images of the retina from DRIVE database were used to evaluate the performance of our method.

  16. Modelling the morphology of migrating bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, A.; Tokihiro, T.; Badoual, M.; Grammaticos, B.

    2010-08-01

    We present a model which aims at describing the morphology of colonies of Proteus mirabilis and Bacillus subtilis. Our model is based on a cellular automaton which is obtained by the adequate discretisation of a diffusion-like equation, describing the migration of the bacteria, to which we have added rules simulating the consolidation process. Our basic assumption, following the findings of the group of Chuo University, is that the migration and consolidation processes are controlled by the local density of the bacteria. We show that it is possible within our model to reproduce the morphological diagrams of both bacteria species. Moreover, we model some detailed experiments done by the Chuo University group, obtaining a fine agreement.

  17. Dynamics of the Presence of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus in Honey Bee Colonies with Colony Collapse Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunsheng Hou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, a particular case of collapse of honey bee colonies, are still unresolved. Viruses including the Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV were associated with CCD. We found an apiary with colonies showing typical CCD characteristics that bore high loads of IAPV, recovered some colonies from collapse and tested the hypothesis if IAPV was actively replicating in them and infectious to healthy bees. We found that IAPV was the dominant pathogen and it replicated actively in the colonies: viral titers decreased from April to September and increased from September to December. IAPV extracted from infected bees was highly infectious to healthy pupae: they showed several-fold amplification of the viral genome and synthesis of the virion protein VP3. The health of recovered colonies was seriously compromised. Interestingly, a rise of IAPV genomic copies in two colonies coincided with their subsequent collapse. Our results do not imply IAPV as the cause of CCD but indicate that once acquired and induced to replication it acts as an infectious factor that affects the health of the colonies and may determine their survival. This is the first follow up outside the US of CCD-colonies bearing IAPV under natural conditions.

  18. Nutritional aspects of honey bee-collected pollen and constraints on colony development in the eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Dorit; Hendriksma, Harmen P; Dag, Arnon; Uni, Zehava; Shafir, Sharoni

    2014-10-01

    Pollen is the main protein and lipid source for honey bees (Apis mellifera), and nutritionally impoverished landscapes pose a threat to colony development. To determine colony nutritional demands, we analyzed a yearly cycle of bee-collected pollen from colonies in the field and compared it to colony worker production and honey bee body composition, for the first time in social insects. We monitored monthly bee production in ten colonies at each of seven sites throughout Israel, and trapped pollen bi-monthly in five additional colonies at each of four of these sites. Pollen mixtures from each sampling date and site were analyzed for weight, total protein, total fatty acids (FAs), and FA composition. Compared to more temperate climates, the eastern Mediterranean allows a relatively high yearly colony growth of ca. 300,000-400,000 bees. Colonies at higher elevation above sea level showed lower growth rates. Queen egg-laying rate did not seem to limit growth, as peaks in capped brood areas showed that queens lay a prolific 2000 eggs a day on average, with up to 3300 eggs in individual cases. Pollen uptake varied significantly among sites and seasons, with an overall annual mean total 16.8kg per colony, containing 7.14kg protein and 677g fat. Overall mean pollen protein content was high (39.8%), and mean total FA content was 3.8%. Production cost, as expressed by the amount of nutrient used per bee, was least variable for linoleic acid and protein, suggesting these as the best descriptive variables for total number of bees produced. Linolenic acid levels in pollen during the autumn were relatively low, and supplementing colonies with this essential FA may mitigate potential nutritional deficiency. The essentiality of linoleic and linolenic acids was consistent with these FAs' tendency to be present at higher levels in collected pollen than in the expected nutrients in bee bodies, demonstrating a well-developed adjustment between pollinator nutritional demands and the

  19. Transgenerational plasticity in the sea: context-dependent maternal effects across the life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Dustin J

    2008-02-01

    Maternal effects can have dramatic influences on the phenotype of offspring. Maternal effects can act as a conduit by which the maternal environment negatively affects offspring fitness, but they can also buffer offspring from environmental change by altering the phenotype of offspring according to local environmental conditions and as such, are a form of transgenerational plasticity. The benefits of maternal effects can be highly context dependent, increasing performance in one life-history stage but reducing it in another. While maternal effects are increasingly well understood in terrestrial systems, studies in the marine environment are typically restricted to a single, early life-history stage. Here, I examine the role of maternal effects across the life history of the bryozoan Bugula neritina. I exposed maternal colonies to a common pollution stress (copper) in the laboratory and then placed them in the field for one week to brood offspring. I then examined the resistance of offspring to copper from toxicant-exposed and toxicant-naïve mothers and found that offspring from toxicant-exposed mothers were larger, more dispersive, and more resistant to copper stress than offspring from naïve mothers. However, maternal exposure history had pervasive, negative effects on the post-metamorphic performance (particularly survival) of offspring: offspring from toxicant-exposed mothers had poorer performance after six weeks in the field, especially when facing high levels of intraspecific competition. Maternal experience can have complex effects on offspring phenotype, enhancing performance in one life-history stage while decreasing performance in another. The context-dependent costs and benefits associated with maternally derived pollution resistance may account for why such resistance is induced rather than continually expressed: mothers must balance the benefits of producing pollution-resistant larvae with the costs of producing poorer performing adults (in the

  20. Maternal nutrition and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Saad, Kathleen; Fraser, Drora

    2010-01-01

    In this review, the authors summarize current knowledge on maternal nutritional requirements during pregnancy, with a focus on the nutrients that have been most commonly investigated in association with birth outcomes. Data sourcing and extraction included searches of the primary resources establishing maternal nutrient requirements during pregnancy (e.g., Dietary Reference Intakes), and searches of Medline for "maternal nutrition"/[specific nutrient of interest] and "birth/pregnancy outcomes," focusing mainly on the less extensively reviewed evidence from observational studies of maternal dietary intake and birth outcomes. The authors used a conceptual framework which took both primary and secondary factors (e.g., baseline maternal nutritional status, socioeconomic status of the study populations, timing and methods of assessing maternal nutritional variables) into account when interpreting study findings. The authors conclude that maternal nutrition is a modifiable risk factor of public health importance that can be integrated into efforts to prevent adverse birth outcomes, particularly among economically developing/low-income populations.

  1. Between Past and Present: The Sociopsychological Constructs of Colonialism, Coloniality and Postcolonialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomicic, Ana; Berardi, Filomena

    2018-03-01

    If one of the major aspirations of postcolonial theory is to re-establish a balance in the relationship between the (former) colonizer and the colonized by engaging the voices of the "subaltern", and on the other hand to illuminate how power relations of the present are embedded in history (Mills 2007), we argue that important theoretical insights might inform research by anchoring post-colonial theory within a sociopsychological framework. While there is a growing corpus of sociopsychological research articles focusing on how major geopolitical events and historical processes bear on people's lives, we aim to investigate the theoretical potential of postcolonial theory within the disciplines aiming at a sociopsychological approach. By focusing on the social dynamics of power imbalances, post-colonial theory finds its operational meaning: the feelings stemming from actions committed in the past are indeed crucial in determining reparatory attitudes and policies towards members of former colonized groups. Firstly, drawing from the sociopsychological scientific production related to consequences of colonial past, seen in recent years as a growing research interest in the field, we will explore patterns and trends through a thematic analysis of literature. Social Psychology as well as adjacent disciplines can greatly benefit from this theoretical fertilization, especially in the way post-colonial ideologies relate to the symbolic promotion versus exclusion of indigenous culture (Sengupta et al., International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36(4), 506-517, 2012). Furthermore, by comparing and contrasting the ideological cosmologies relating to this particular topic, this study aims to establish the state of knowledge in the field, to identify how research methods and thematic fields are paired, to find "gaps" and create spaces for research that become integrative of postcolonial theory. While focusing on academic production, we also hope to contribute to develop

  2. Disadvantaged populations in maternal health in China who and why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Yuan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: China has made impressive progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG for maternal and reproductive health, but ensuring that progress reaches all segments of the population remains a challenge for policy makers. The aim of this review is to map disadvantaged populations in terms of maternal health in China, and to explain the causes of these inequities to promote policy action. Methods: We searched PUBMED, Popline, Proquest and WanFang and included primary studies conducted in mainland China. Experts were also contacted to identify additional studies. Disadvantaged populations in terms of MDG 5 and the reasons for this disadvantage explored by authors were identified and coded based on the conceptual framework developed by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. Results: In China, differences in maternal health service utilization and the maternal mortality ratio among different income groups, and among regions with different socio-economic development still exist, although these differences are narrowing. Groups with low levels of education and ethnic minorities utilize maternal health care less frequently and experience higher maternal mortality, although we could not determine whether these differences have changed in the last decade. Rural-to-urban migrants use maternal health care and contraception to a lower extent than permanent residents of cities, and differential maternal mortality shows a widening trend among these groups. Gender inequity also contributes to the disadvantaged position of women. Intermediary factors that explain these inequities include material circumstances such as long distances to health facilities for women living in remote areas, behavioral factors such as traditional beliefs that result in reduced care seeking among ethnic minorities, and health system determinants such as out-of-pocket payments posing financial barriers for the poor. Conclusions: Inequity in maternal

  3. Disadvantaged populations in maternal health in China who and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Beibei; Qian, Xu; Thomsen, Sarah

    2013-04-03

    China has made impressive progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for maternal and reproductive health, but ensuring that progress reaches all segments of the population remains a challenge for policy makers. The aim of this review is to map disadvantaged populations in terms of maternal health in China, and to explain the causes of these inequities to promote policy action. We searched PUBMED, Popline, Proquest and WanFang and included primary studies conducted in mainland China. Experts were also contacted to identify additional studies. Disadvantaged populations in terms of MDG 5 and the reasons for this disadvantage explored by authors were identified and coded based on the conceptual framework developed by the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. In China, differences in maternal health service utilization and the maternal mortality ratio among different income groups, and among regions with different socio-economic development still exist, although these differences are narrowing. Groups with low levels of education and ethnic minorities utilize maternal health care less frequently and experience higher maternal mortality, although we could not determine whether these differences have changed in the last decade. Rural-to-urban migrants use maternal health care and contraception to a lower extent than permanent residents of cities, and differential maternal mortality shows a widening trend among these groups. Gender inequity also contributes to the disadvantaged position of women. Intermediary factors that explain these inequities include material circumstances such as long distances to health facilities for women living in remote areas, behavioral factors such as traditional beliefs that result in reduced care seeking among ethnic minorities, and health system determinants such as out-of-pocket payments posing financial barriers for the poor. Inequity in maternal health continues to be an issue worthy of greater programmatic and

  4. Colonial Modernity and the African Worldview: Theorising and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    concept of hegemony and Jean and John Comaroff's concept of cultural and colonial encounters are used to assist in teasing out deeper meaning in the encounter between the Ndebele and the early Christian missionaries prior to inscription of settler colonialism in the area lying between the Limpopo and Zambezi Rivers.

  5. Embodying colonial photography: remembering violence in Tabee Toean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, P.

    2011-01-01

    This article is about bodily interactions with photographs. Taking an interview with a veteran from the Dutch colonial army filmed for the documentary Tabee Toean (1995) as its case study, it focuses on the ways in which this man frames these images of colonial warfare through three types of bodily

  6. Mass spectral molecular networking of living microbial colonies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watrous, J.; Roach, P.; Alexandrov, T.; Heath, B.S.; Yang, J.Y.; Kersten, R.D.; Voort, van der M.; Pogliano, K.; Gross, H.; Raaijmakers, J.; Moore, B.S.; Laskin, J.; Bandeira, N.; Dorrestein, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Integrating the governing chemistry with the genomics and phenotypes of microbial colonies has been a “holy grail” in microbiology. This work describes a highly sensitive, broadly applicable, and cost-effective approach that allows metabolic profiling of live microbial colonies directly from a Petri

  7. Colony differences in termiticide transfer studies, a role for behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Shelton

    2010-01-01

    Donor-recipient termiticide transfer laboratory tests were performed by using destructive sampling with two delayed-action non-repellent (DANR) termiticides against each of three colonies of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar). Two of the three colonies showed no response to indoxacarb, but all three showed a response to chlorantraniliprole. These results indicate that...

  8. Occurrence of Nosema species in honey bee colonies in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While honey bee colonies in North America and Europe are in decline due to parasites and ... Infections levels were higher in the coastal region than in the interior. ... of the impact of this pathogen to the Kenyan honey bee colonies with a view of ... Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3) ...

  9. Colony strength and queen replacement in Melipona marginata (Apidae: Meliponini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de M. P. Kleinert

    Full Text Available Physogastric queens of Melipona marginata were removed from their colonies in order to verify the acceptance of a new queen by workers. Colony strength was evaluated according to queen oviposition rate and comb diameters. Replacement was observed seven times. Its occurrence and speed related positively to colony strength, independently of queen's age. In weak colonies, queen replacement was observed only once, following colony population increase that occurred after introduction of combs from another colony. Worker oviposition after queen removal was observed three times: in a strong colony with virgin queens and males, and in two of the weak colonies. In the first two or three days of new queen oviposition, during which most of the eggs were eaten by the queen, worker oviposition preceded almost all provisioning and oviposition processes (POPs. After this period, worker oviposition decreased until it reached around 25% of the POPs. Daily oviposition rate of young queens decreased or was even interrupted by hatching of their first brood.

  10. Cormorants as visitors in the Vorsø colony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Thomas; Vinas, Marta Mas; Gregersen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Like other seabirds Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis are known to prospect in potential breeding colonies during their first years of life before they settle to breed. Based on daily resightings of colour-ringed cormorants in the old Vorsø colony we examined the difference between...

  11. Colonial Military Intelligence in the Zulu Rebellion, 1906 | Thompson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the Zulu Rebellion of 1906, the Natal Militia defeated the Zulu rebels without British imperial forces having to intervene in the conflict. The colonial forces were well adapted to the local circumstances, but in one important respect they drew heavily on imperial experience, namely military field intelligence. Colonial military ...

  12. Colonial conquest in central Madagascar : who resisted what?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.; Abbink, G.J.; Bruijn, M.E. de.; Walraven, van K.

    2003-01-01

    A rising against French colonial rule in central Madagascar (1895-1898) appeared in the 1970s as a good example of resistance to colonialism, sparked by France's occupation of Madagascar. Like many similar episodes in other parts of Africa, it was a history that appeared, in the light of later

  13. Breeding site selection by colonial waterbirds given various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The number of active colonial waterbird nests at a series of four small constructed wetlands in Cape Town was counted monthly from 1999 to 2008. In total 491 pairs belonging to 11 waterbird species were involved. Between 1997 and 2004 a number of different artificial structures were used to attract colonial waterbirds to ...

  14. Indian Education in the American Colonies, 1607-1783.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Margaret Connell

    Indian schooling in colonial America was continuously immersed in the exchange between cultures that involved religion, land ownership, disease, alcohol, and warfare, and was molded by trade in furs and hides, and Indian slaves. In the past two decades American scholars have begun to reinterpret colonial North American Indian history and the…

  15. Generation of mutation hotspots in ageing bacterial colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekowska, Agnieszka; Wendel, Sofie; Nørholm, Morten

    How do ageing bacterial colonies generate adaptive mutants? Over a period of two months, we isolated on ageing colonies outgrowing mutants able to use a new carbon source, and sequenced their genomes. This allowed us to uncover exquisite details on the molecular mechanism behind their adaptation:...

  16. 'Mill's Liberal Project and Defence of Colonialism from a Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It aims to show that Mill's views on colonial rule were largely informed by his principle of liberty which, in turn, was based on his qualitative utilitarianism. The driving force behind his colonialism, as with his work in general, was his unwavering belief in the importance of human progress and development. Mill never believed ...

  17. Heralding the Other: Sousa, Simulacra, and Settler Colonialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of music and music education in the perpetuation of settler colonialism (a particular colonial configuration predicated on the expulsion of indigenous people and occupation of indigenous land) within the United States. Using Baudrillard's notion of simulacra, or "false truths," to look at racialized…

  18. Countering Coloniality in Educational Research: From Ownership to Answerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    In this theoretical article, I argue for a relational stance on learning as a way of reckoning with educational research as part of the settler colonial structure of the United States. Because of my geopolitical location to the United States as a settler colony, I begin by contrasting the stances of anticolonial and decolonial. I then analyze the…

  19. Toxoplasmosis in a colony of New World monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, H.H.; Henriksen, P.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1997-01-01

    In a colony of New World monkeys five tamarins (Saguinus oedipus, Saguinus labiatus and Leontopithecus rosal. rosal.), three marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix pygmaea) and one saki (Pithecia pithecia) died suddenly. The colony comprised 16 marmosets, 10 tamarins and three sakis. The ma...

  20. The challenges of sustainable development in post-colonial African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenges of sustainable development in post-colonial African states: a review of Adamu Usman's Sieged. ... This paper discusses and contributes to debates on the critical governance challenges faced by post-colonial African states such as bribery and corruption, lack of democratic and participatory governance, ...

  1. Infant feeding-related maternity care practices and maternal report of breastfeeding outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jennifer M; Perrine, Cria G; Freedman, David S; Williams, Letitia; Morrow, Brian; Smith, Ruben A; Dee, Deborah L

    2018-02-07

    Evidence-based maternity practices and policies can improve breastfeeding duration and exclusivity. Maternity facilities report practices through the Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC) survey, but individual outcomes, such as breastfeeding duration and exclusivity, are not collected. mPINC data on maternity care practices for 2009 were linked to data from the 2009 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), which collects information on mothers' behaviors and experiences around pregnancy. We calculated total mPINC scores (range 0-100). PRAMS data on any and exclusive breastfeeding at 8 weeks were examined by total mPINC score quartile. Of 15 715 women in our sample, 53.7% were breastfeeding any at 8 weeks, and 29.3% were breastfeeding exclusively. They gave birth at 1016 facilities that had a mean total mPINC score of 65/100 (range 19-99). Care dimension subscores ranged from 41 for facility discharge care to 81 for breastfeeding assistance. In multivariable analysis adjusting for covariates, a positive relationship was found between total mPINC score quartile and both any breastfeeding (quartile 2: odds ratio [OR] 1.40 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.08-1.83], quartile 3: OR 1.50 [95% CI 1.15-1.96], quartile 4: OR 2.12 [95% CI 1.61-2.78] vs quartile 1) and exclusive breastfeeding (quartile 3: OR 1.41 [95% CI 1.04-1.90], quartile 4: OR 1.89 [95% CI 1.41-2.55] vs quartile 1) at 8 weeks. These data demonstrate that evidence-based maternity care practices and policies are associated with better breastfeeding outcomes. Maternity facilities may evaluate their practices and policies to ensure they are helping mothers achieve their breastfeeding goals. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Colonial Situation: Complicities and Distinctions from the Surrealist Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pablo Gómez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, taking as baseline the thought of Aimé Césaire and Franz Fanon —keeping in mind the closeness of the Negritude movement with surrealism—, we propose to approach the modernity/coloniality problem, appealing to the denominated surrealist image of beauty. In the first part the colonial situation is approached, in the second the colonial situation from the logic of surrealist image, and in the third the possibility of a decolonial universal or pluriversal is raised. In general terms, exploring the existent link between the “surrealist image” and the colonial structure of modernity —that generates the denominated colonial situation—, we aspire to approach what could be a decolonial aesthetic that, as general problem, will be tackled in later works.

  3. Leisure, economy and colonial urbanism: Darjeeling, 1835–1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    BHATTACHARYA, NANDINI

    2013-01-01

    This article posits that the hill station of Darjeeling was a unique form of colonial urbanism. It shifts historiographical interest from major urban centres in colonial India (such as Bombay or Calcutta) and instead attempts a greater understanding of smaller urban centres. In the process, it also interrogates the category of hill stations, which have been understood as exotic and scenic sites rather than as towns that were integral to the colonial economy. In arguing that hill stations, particularly Darjeeling, were not merely the scenic and healthy ‘other’ of the clamorous, dirty and diseased plains of India, it refutes suggestions that the ‘despoiling’ or overcrowding of Darjeeling was incremental to the purposes of its establishment. Instead, it suggests that Darjeeling was part of the colonial mainstream; its urbanization and inclusion into the greater colonial economy was effected from the time of its establishment. Therefore, a constant tension between its exotic and its functional elements persisted throughout. PMID:24273391

  4. Leisure, economy and colonial urbanism: Darjeeling, 1835-1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Nandini

    2013-08-01

    This article posits that the hill station of Darjeeling was a unique form of colonial urbanism. It shifts historiographical interest from major urban centres in colonial India (such as Bombay or Calcutta) and instead attempts a greater understanding of smaller urban centres. In the process, it also interrogates the category of hill stations, which have been understood as exotic and scenic sites rather than as towns that were integral to the colonial economy. In arguing that hill stations, particularly Darjeeling, were not merely the scenic and healthy 'other' of the clamorous, dirty and diseased plains of India, it refutes suggestions that the 'despoiling' or overcrowding of Darjeeling was incremental to the purposes of its establishment. Instead, it suggests that Darjeeling was part of the colonial mainstream; its urbanization and inclusion into the greater colonial economy was effected from the time of its establishment. Therefore, a constant tension between its exotic and its functional elements persisted throughout.

  5. Accuracy of maternal recall of birth weight and selected delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mr. faki

    obtained from maternal antenatal clinic and child's growth monitoring cards. ... There was strong correlation between recall and recorded birth weight (r2=0.79; p<0.01). ... The sample size was determined under the assumption that most women .... Other studies elsewhere showed high correlation between recalled and.

  6. Good maternal nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breda, Joao; Robertson, Aileen

    This publication has three parts: •a summary of the results of a systematic review of the most recent evidence on maternal nutrition, the prevention of obesity and noncommunicable diseases; •a review of existing recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy...... in European countries; and •lists of possible opportunities for action in European countries. The overview and exploration of the national recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy are based on the results of a survey in which 51 of the 53 Member States in the WHO....... These are opportunities to promote nutrition and health throughout the life-course, ensure optimal diet-related fetal development and reduce the impact of morbidity and risk factors for noncommunicable diseases by improving maternal nutrition....

  7. Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromenshenk, Jerry J; Henderson, Colin B; Wick, Charles H; Stanford, Michael F; Zulich, Alan W; Jabbour, Rabih E; Deshpande, Samir V; McCubbin, Patrick E; Seccomb, Robert A; Welch, Phillip M; Williams, Trevor; Firth, David R; Skowronski, Evan; Lehmann, Margaret M; Bilimoria, Shan L; Gress, Joanna; Wanner, Kevin W; Cramer, Robert A

    2010-10-06

    In 2010 Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), again devastated honey bee colonies in the USA, indicating that the problem is neither diminishing nor has it been resolved. Many CCD investigations, using sensitive genome-based methods, have found small RNA bee viruses and the microsporidia, Nosema apis and N. ceranae in healthy and collapsing colonies alike with no single pathogen firmly linked to honey bee losses. We used Mass spectrometry-based proteomics (MSP) to identify and quantify thousands of proteins from healthy and collapsing bee colonies. MSP revealed two unreported RNA viruses in North American honey bees, Varroa destructor-1 virus and Kakugo virus, and identified an invertebrate iridescent virus (IIV) (Iridoviridae) associated with CCD colonies. Prevalence of IIV significantly discriminated among strong, failing, and collapsed colonies. In addition, bees in failing colonies contained not only IIV, but also Nosema. Co-occurrence of these microbes consistently marked CCD in (1) bees from commercial apiaries sampled across the U.S. in 2006-2007, (2) bees sequentially sampled as the disorder progressed in an observation hive colony in 2008, and (3) bees from a recurrence of CCD in Florida in 2009. The pathogen pairing was not observed in samples from colonies with no history of CCD, namely bees from Australia and a large, non-migratory beekeeping business in Montana. Laboratory cage trials with a strain of IIV type 6 and Nosema ceranae confirmed that co-infection with these two pathogens was more lethal to bees than either pathogen alone. These findings implicate co-infection by IIV and Nosema with honey bee colony decline, giving credence to older research pointing to IIV, interacting with Nosema and mites, as probable cause of bee losses in the USA, Europe, and Asia. We next need to characterize the IIV and Nosema that we detected and develop management practices to reduce honey bee losses.

  8. For the youth : juvenile delinquency, colonial civil society and the late colonial state in the Netherlands Indies, 1872-1942

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirks, Annelieke

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation project focuses on forced re-education policies for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands Indies (now Indonesia) and uses this topic to show the interaction between a 'modernizing' Dutch colonial state and the growth of a colonial civil society, between approximately 1872 and

  9. Collective Memories of Portuguese Colonial Action in Africa: Representations of the Colonial Past among Mozambicans and Portuguese Youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Feijó

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Social representations of the colonization and decolonization processes among young people from a former European colonial power (Portugal and from an African ex-colony (Mozambique were investigated through surveys using open- and closed-ended questions about national history, focusing on the identity functions of collective memories. Hegemonic and contested representations were found of the most prominent events related to Portuguese colonization of Mozambique, arousing a range of collective emotions. A central place is occupied by memories of the Colonial War, which ended with the Carnation Revolution in Portugal and the subsequent independence of the Portuguese African colonies. Overall, the depiction of colonialism was more negative for Mozambican than for Portuguese participants. The violent effects of colonial action were very salient in Mozambican memories, which stressed the most oppressive aspects of the colonial period, associated with slave trade and brutal repression. On the Portuguese side, the idealization of the voyages of discovery persisted, obscuring the most violent effects of colonial expansion. However, collective memories of colonization of former colonizer and former colonized do not simply stand opposed. Both Mozambican and Portuguese participants reported ambivalent feelings towards the colonization process.

  10. [What is "normal"? Maternal parenting behavior as risk and protective factor for psychopathology and identity diffusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Escher, Fabian J

    2018-06-01

    What is "normal"? Maternal parenting behavior as risk and protective factor for psychopathology and identity diffusion Objectives: This study analyzes the implications of today's highly altered maternal parenting behaviors on children's development and psychological health. The relationship between maternal parenting behaviors (support, psychological control, and anxious monitoring) and delayed identity development or identity diffusion as well as internalizing or externalizing symptomatology was investigated in a sample of 732 youths (301 adolescents, 351 young adults, and 80 patients). Cluster analysis identified two types of maternal parenting behaviors: authoritative maternal behavior and dysfunctionalmaternal behavior. As expected, patients exhibited a high degree of dysfunctional maternal parenting behavior (low support, high psychological control), delayed identity development as well as elevated identity diffusion and symptomatology.Authoritative maternal parenting emerged as a protective factor in the prediction of identity diffusion and symptomatology.All three groups described a high degree of anxious maternal monitoring. The implications of changed maternal parenting behaviors on identity diffusion and symptomatology are discussed in light of societal changes and changing criteria of personality disorders in the new DSM-5.

  11. AN AUDIT OF MATERNAL DEATHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavana Gowda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A study of maternal death conducted to evaluate various factors responsible for maternal deaths. To identify complications in pregnancy, a childbirth which result in maternal death, and to identify opportunities for preventive intervention and understand the events leading to death; so that improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality rate significantly. To analyze the causes and epidemiological amounts maternal mortality e.g. age parity, socioeconomic status and literacy. In order to reduce maternal mortality and to implement safe motherhood program and complications of pregnancy and to find out safe motherhood program. METHODS: The data collected was a retrograde by a proforma containing particulars of the diseased, detailed history and relatives were interviewed for additional information. The data collected was analysed. RESULTS: Maternal mortality rate in our own institution is 200/ 100,000 live births. Among 30 maternal deaths, 56% deaths (17 were among low socio - economic status, groups 60% deaths among unbooked 53.5% deaths more along illiterates evidenced by direct and indirect deaths about 25% of deaths were preventable. CONCLUSION: Maternal death is a great tragedy in the family life. It is crusade to know not just the medical cause of the death but the circumstances what makes these continued tragic death even more unacceptable is that deaths are largely preventable

  12. Mem and Cookie: The Colonial Kitchen in Malaysia and Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Leong-Salobir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the emergence of a distinctive colonial cuisine in the British colonies of Malaysia and Singapore beginning in the late nineteenth century. This colonial cuisine evolved over time and was a combination of culinary practices derived from European and Asian foodways, much of which came from colonial India. As in India, this acculturation developed through the reliance of colonizers on their domestic servants for food preparation. While domestic servants (as cooks, or known locally as “cookie” were generally represented as dirty, dishonest and lacking in intelligence according to colonial narratives, they were responsible for the preparation of food for the family. Asian cooks in the colonial home played a much more crucial role than the negative image painted of them by British colonizers and other historians. While the mem (short for memsahib, meaning mistress held the supervisory role of the household, it was the physical contribution of the domestic servants that enabled her to fulfill this function. The large number of servants employed enabled the mem to make the colonial home move seamlessly between the private domain of the home and the official venue for the empire’s tasks. The mem as the head of the household decided on the rituals and tasks that defined the colonial space as home, and as a bastion of white imperialism. In contrast, it was the cooks’ local knowledge that procured food. Most kitchens were fashioned according to the requirements of the servants and the cooks did all the cooking, usually preparing local dishes. The argument is that, had it not been for the servants’ input, the mems would have had to work harder. As it was, the work of the servants not only saved white labour, it helped shape colonial culture, despite the Britons’ best efforts to keep themselves socially distant. Colonial cuisine would not have developed with such distinctive features without the skills and local knowledge of

  13. Maternally acquired runt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, A E; Billingham, R E

    1973-01-19

    Without altering the structural integrity of the placenta by irradiation or drugs, we have shown that it is possible to immunize females both adoptively and actively against the paternally inherited transplantation antigens of their fetuses. Such immunization causes a high incidence of runt disease among the litters. Although the putative chimeric status of the affected offspring has yet to be confirmed, the results of our experiments support the thesis that runt disease is caused by the activities of "unwanted" immigrant lymphocytes from the maternal circulation. Our results suggest that immunologically activated cells are more likely to cross the placenta than normal cells and that this greater mobility may not be related to the immunologic specificity of the activated cells. Two factors may have contributed to the apparent failure of numerous previous attempts to demonstrate the capacity of transplantation immunity to affect the well-being of a fetus or, more correctly, its placenta, in the way that might be expected of a homograft. (i) Investigators were preoccupied with obtaining a classic type of rejection, in utero, analogous to the rejection of an orthotopic skin homograft. The birth of consistently healthy-looking litters, interpreted as a failure of the experiment, convinced the investigators of the efficacy of nature's solution of the homograft problem and there was no reason for them to suspect its possible limitations. Observation of the litters for several weeks might have uncovered the phenomenon of maternally induced runt disease. (ii) Most investigators resorted to hyperimmunization of the mothers. This would have facilitated the synthesis of protective isoantibodies capable of interfering with the expression of the potentially harmful cellular immune response (6). Ever since the abnormalities of runt disease were first described they have repeatedly been compared to those observed in patients with certain lymphomas (17). Various theories have been

  14. Colony form variation of Bacillus pumilus E601 after cultured and neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoming; Wei Baoli; Zhang Jianguo

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of two colony forms of Bacillus pumilus E601 and the effect of neutron irradiation on the colony form were reported. The translucent and opaque colonies were cultured several generations to observe the proportion of two form colonies. The spores of opaque colony were irradiated at 80, 800 and 2000 Gy of fast neutron from CFBR-II pulse pile, and the survivors of opaque colony were irradiated again at the same doses. The results showed that: (1) Bacillus pumilus E601 observed two types of colony form: translucent and opaque colony; (2) the translucent colony could produce both translucent and opaque colonies in equal, while the opaque colony couldn't produce translucent colony generally; (3) neutron irradiation could affect the colony form distribution. The ratio of survival translucent colony was increased with the increase of the first neutron irradiation doses, and the second neutron irradiation also increased the ratio of translucent colony. It was concluded that the instability of translucent colony was the main reason to produce two colony forms of Bacillus pumilus E601. The strain of translucent colony had a stronger ability to resist neutron irradiation than the opaque colony. (authors)

  15. Loading pattern optimization using ant colony algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoareau, Fabrice

    2008-01-01

    Electricite de France (EDF) operates 58 nuclear power plants (NPP), of the Pressurized Water Reactor type. The loading pattern optimization of these NPP is currently done by EDF expert engineers. Within this framework, EDF R and D has developed automatic optimization tools that assist the experts. LOOP is an industrial tool, developed by EDF R and D and based on a simulated annealing algorithm. In order to improve the results of such automatic tools, new optimization methods have to be tested. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithms are recent methods that have given very good results on combinatorial optimization problems. In order to evaluate the performance of such methods on loading pattern optimization, direct comparisons between LOOP and a mock-up based on the Max-Min Ant System algorithm (a particular variant of ACO algorithms) were made on realistic test-cases. It is shown that the results obtained by the ACO mock-up are very similar to those of LOOP. Future research will consist in improving these encouraging results by using parallelization and by hybridizing the ACO algorithm with local search procedures. (author)

  16. ESTUDIOS (INTERCULTURALES EN CLAVE DE-COLONIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Walsh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los «estudios culturales» en América Latina forman parte de una política de nombrar inscrita en legados y cartografiados frecuentemente como totalidad, ocultando o dejando pasar por alto las diferencias a su interior. Este articula examina desde dónde nacen los estudios culturales en América Latina en general y en la Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar en Quito en particular, con qué política de nombramiento, qué proyecto(s y qué bases y perspectivas de conocimiento. Considera qué implica concebir y construir los estudios culturales como proyecto político-intelectual, inter-cultural, inter-epistémico y de orientación de-colonial y los desafíos y obstáculos al respecto, incluyendo dentro de la problemática misma de la «uni»-versidad.

  17. Selective sweeps in growing microbial colonies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolev, Kirill S; Müller, Melanie J I; Murray, Andrew W; Nelson, David R; Karahan, Nilay; Hallatschek, Oskar

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary experiments with microbes are a powerful tool to study mutations and natural selection. These experiments, however, are often limited to the well-mixed environments of a test tube or a chemostat. Since spatial organization can significantly affect evolutionary dynamics, the need is growing for evolutionary experiments in spatially structured environments. The surface of a Petri dish provides such an environment, but a more detailed understanding of microbial growth on Petri dishes is necessary to interpret such experiments. We formulate a simple deterministic reaction–diffusion model, which successfully predicts the spatial patterns created by two competing species during colony expansion. We also derive the shape of these patterns analytically without relying on microscopic details of the model. In particular, we find that the relative fitness of two microbial strains can be estimated from the logarithmic spirals created by selective sweeps. The theory is tested with strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for spatial competitions with different initial conditions and for a range of relative fitnesses. The reaction–diffusion model also connects the microscopic parameters like growth rates and diffusion constants with macroscopic spatial patterns and predicts the relationship between fitness in liquid cultures and on Petri dishes, which we confirmed experimentally. Spatial sector patterns therefore provide an alternative fitness assay to the commonly used liquid culture fitness assays. (paper)

  18. Image steganalysis using Artificial Bee Colony algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajedi, Hedieh

    2017-09-01

    Steganography is the science of secure communication where the presence of the communication cannot be detected while steganalysis is the art of discovering the existence of the secret communication. Processing a huge amount of information takes extensive execution time and computational sources most of the time. As a result, it is needed to employ a phase of preprocessing, which can moderate the execution time and computational sources. In this paper, we propose a new feature-based blind steganalysis method for detecting stego images from the cover (clean) images with JPEG format. In this regard, we present a feature selection technique based on an improved Artificial Bee Colony (ABC). ABC algorithm is inspired by honeybees' social behaviour in their search for perfect food sources. In the proposed method, classifier performance and the dimension of the selected feature vector depend on using wrapper-based methods. The experiments are performed using two large data-sets of JPEG images. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed steganalysis technique compared to the other existing techniques.

  19. Selective sweeps in growing microbial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Kirill S.; Müller, Melanie J. I.; Karahan, Nilay; Murray, Andrew W.; Hallatschek, Oskar; Nelson, David R.

    2012-04-01

    Evolutionary experiments with microbes are a powerful tool to study mutations and natural selection. These experiments, however, are often limited to the well-mixed environments of a test tube or a chemostat. Since spatial organization can significantly affect evolutionary dynamics, the need is growing for evolutionary experiments in spatially structured environments. The surface of a Petri dish provides such an environment, but a more detailed understanding of microbial growth on Petri dishes is necessary to interpret such experiments. We formulate a simple deterministic reaction-diffusion model, which successfully predicts the spatial patterns created by two competing species during colony expansion. We also derive the shape of these patterns analytically without relying on microscopic details of the model. In particular, we find that the relative fitness of two microbial strains can be estimated from the logarithmic spirals created by selective sweeps. The theory is tested with strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for spatial competitions with different initial conditions and for a range of relative fitnesses. The reaction-diffusion model also connects the microscopic parameters like growth rates and diffusion constants with macroscopic spatial patterns and predicts the relationship between fitness in liquid cultures and on Petri dishes, which we confirmed experimentally. Spatial sector patterns therefore provide an alternative fitness assay to the commonly used liquid culture fitness assays.

  20. How can bee colony algorithm serve medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehahmadi, Zeinab; Manafi, Amir

    2014-07-01

    Healthcare professionals usually should make complex decisions with far reaching consequences and associated risks in health care fields. As it was demonstrated in other industries, the ability to drill down into pertinent data to explore knowledge behind the data can greatly facilitate superior, informed decisions to ensue the facts. Nature has always inspired researchers to develop models of solving the problems. Bee colony algorithm (BCA), based on the self-organized behavior of social insects is one of the most popular member of the family of population oriented, nature inspired meta-heuristic swarm intelligence method which has been proved its superiority over some other nature inspired algorithms. The objective of this model was to identify valid novel, potentially useful, and understandable correlations and patterns in existing data. This review employs a thematic analysis of online series of academic papers to outline BCA in medical hive, reducing the response and computational time and optimizing the problems. To illustrate the benefits of this model, the cases of disease diagnose system are presented.

  1. Artificial bee colony in neuro - Symbolic integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasihmuddin, Mohd Shareduwan Mohd; Sathasivam, Saratha; Mansor, Mohd. Asyraf

    2017-08-01

    Swarm intelligence is a research area that models the population of the swarm based on natural computation. Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is a swarm based metaheuristic algorithm introduced by Karaboga to optimize numerical problem. Pattern-SAT is a pattern reconstruction paradigm that utilized 2SAT logical rule in representing the behavior of the desired pattern. The information of the desired pattern in terms of 2SAT logic is embedded to Hopfield neural network (HNN-P2SAT) and the desired pattern is reconstructed during the retrieval phase. Since the performance of HNN-P2SAT in Pattern-SAT deteriorates when the number of 2SAT clause increased, newly improved ABC is used to reduce the computation burden during the learning phase of HNN-P2SAT (HNN-P2SATABC). The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of Pattern-SAT produced by ABC incorporated with HNN-P2SAT and compare it with conventional standalone HNN. The comparison is examined by using Microsoft Visual Basic C++ 2013 software. The detailed comparison in doing Pattern-SAT is discussed based on global Pattern-SAT, ratio of activated clauses and computation time. The result obtained from computer simulation indicates the beneficial features of HNN-P2SATABC in doing Pattern-SAT. This finding is expected to result in a significant implication on the choice of searching method used to do Pattern-SAT.

  2. First report of sacbrood virus in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiberg, M; De Jong, D; Message, D; Cox-Foster, D

    2012-09-13

    Sacbrood disease, an affliction of honey bees (Apis mellifera) characterized by brood that fails to pupate and subsequently dies, is an important threat to honey bee health. The disease is caused by the sacbrood virus (SBV), a positive-, single-stranded RNA virus in the order Picornavirales. Because of the economic importance of honey bees for both pollination and honey production, it is vital to understand and monitor the spread of viruses such as SBV. This virus has been found in many places across the globe, including recently in some South American countries, and it is likely that it will continue to spread. We performed a preliminary study to search for SBV in two apiaries of Africanized honey bees in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, using RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing and found the first evidence of SBV in honey bee colonies in Brazil. The virus was detected in larvae, foraging and nurse bees from two colonies, one of which had symptoms of sacbrood disease, at the beginning of the winter season in June 2011. No SBV was found in samples from nine other nearby colonies.

  3. Study of hantavirus infection in captive breed colonies of wild rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RC Oliveira

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild sigmondontine rodents are known to be the reservoir of several serotypes of New World hantaviruses. The mechanism of viral transmission is by aerosol inhalation of the excreta from infected rodents. Considering that the captive breed colonies of various wild mammals may present a potencial risk for hantaviral transmission, we examined 85 speciemens of Thrichomys spp. (Echimyidae and 17 speciemens of Nectomys squamipes (Sigmodontinae from our colony for the presence of hantavirus infections. Blood samples were assayed for the presence of antibodies to Andes nucleocapsid antigen using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Additionally, serum samples from workers previously exposed to wild rodents, in the laboratories where the study was conducted, were also tested by ELISA to investigate prevalence of anti-hantavirus IgG antibodies. All blood samples were negative for hantavirus antibodies. Although these results suggest that those rodent's colonies are hantavirus free, the work emphasizes the need for hantavirus serological monitoring in wild colonized rodents and secure handling potentially infected rodents as important biosafety measures.

  4. Maternal obesity in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onubi, Ojochenemi J; Marais, Debbi; Aucott, Lorna; Okonofua, Friday; Poobalan, Amudha S

    2016-09-01

    Maternal obesity is emerging as a public health problem, recently highlighted together with maternal under-nutrition as a 'double burden', especially in African countries undergoing social and economic transition. This systematic review was conducted to investigate the current evidence on maternal obesity in Africa. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, CINAHL and PsycINFO were searched (up to August 2014) and identified 29 studies. Prevalence, associations with socio-demographic factors, labour, child and maternal consequences of maternal obesity were assessed. Pooled risk ratios comparing obese and non-obese groups were calculated. Prevalence of maternal obesity across Africa ranged from 6.5 to 50.7%, with older and multiparous mothers more likely to be obese. Obese mothers had increased risks of adverse labour, child and maternal outcomes. However, non-obese mothers were more likely to have low-birthweight babies. The differences in measurement and timing of assessment of maternal obesity were found across studies. No studies were identified either on the knowledge or attitudes of pregnant women towards maternal obesity; or on interventions for obese pregnant women. These results show that Africa's levels of maternal obesity are already having significant adverse effects. Culturally adaptable/sensitive interventions should be developed while monitoring to avoid undesired side effects. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  5. An improved method for staining cell colonies in clonogenic assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guda, Kishore; Natale, Leanna; Markowitz, Sanford D

    2007-06-01

    Clonogenic assay is a widely used experimental approach to test for the effects of drugs/genes on the growth and proliferative characteristics of cells in vitro. Accurate quantitation of treatment effects in clonogeneic assays depends on the ability to visualize and count cell colonies precisely. We report a novel method (referred as ETeB) for staining cell colonies grown on plastic and specially coated substrates like collagen. Using colon cancer cell lines grown on plastic and collagen, we compared the colony staining efficiencies of the widely used methylene blue, and Ethidium bromide (ETeB) stains. Results show that the ETeB protocol works well on plastic and is extremely effective for staining colonies on collagen when compared to methylene blue. The key features and advantages of ETeB technique are; (a) reduction in background for colonies grown on collagen and possibly other substrates, (b) the whole procedure takes less than a minute, (c) no post-stain washing step is required which eliminates colony losses for cell lines that are loosely adherent, (d) colony visualization and counting can be done immediately following the staining procedure using a standard UV illuminator and software, and (e) the method works across a wide variety of cell lines. The simplicity and robustness of this procedure should warrant its usage in both small and large-scale clonogenic experiments.

  6. The colonial context of Filipino American immigrants' psychological experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, E J R; Nadal, Kevin L

    2013-07-01

    Because of the long colonial history of Filipinos and the highly Americanized climate of postcolonial Philippines, many scholars from various disciplines have speculated that colonialism and its legacies may play major roles in Filipino emigration to the United States. However, there are no known empirical studies in psychology that specifically investigate whether colonialism and its effects have influenced the psychological experiences of Filipino American immigrants prior to their arrival in the United States. Further, there is no existing empirical study that specifically investigates the extent to which colonialism and its legacies continue to influence Filipino American immigrants' mental health. Thus, using interviews (N = 6) and surveys (N = 219) with Filipino American immigrants, two studies found that colonialism and its consequences are important factors to consider when conceptualizing the psychological experiences of Filipino American immigrants. Specifically, the findings suggest that (a) Filipino American immigrants experienced ethnic and cultural denigration in the Philippines prior to their U.S. arrival, (b) ethnic and cultural denigration in the Philippines and in the United States may lead to the development of colonial mentality (CM), and (c) that CM may have negative mental health consequences among Filipino American immigrants. The two studies' findings suggest that the Filipino American immigration experience cannot be completely captured by the voluntary immigrant narrative, as they provide empirical support to the notion that the Filipino American immigration experience needs to be understood in the context of colonialism and its most insidious psychological legacy- CM. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. [Precautionary maternity leave in Tirol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludescher, K; Baumgartner, E; Roner, A; Brezinka, C

    1998-01-01

    Under Austrian law, precautionary maternity leave is a decree issued by the district public health physician. It forbids a pregnant woman to work and mandates immediate maternity leave. Regular maternity leave for all women employed in all jobs begins at 32 weeks of gestation. Women who work in workplaces deemed dangerous and women with a history of obstetric problems such as premature or growth-retarded babies from previous pregnancies are regularly 'sent' into precautionary maternity leave. The public health physicians of Tirol's nine administrative districts were interviewed and supplied data on precautionary maternity leave from their districts. In 100 women who attended the clinic for pregnancies at risk of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of Innsbruck University Hospital and who had already obtained precautionary maternity leave, the medical/administrative procedure was studied in each case and correlated with pregnancy outcome. The town district of Innsbruck and the district that comprises the suburbs of the provincial capital had the highest rates of precautionary maternity leave. The town district of Innsbruck had a rate of 24.3% of all pregnant women (employed and not employed) in precautionary maternity leave in 1997, whereas the whole province of Tirol had 13.4%. More than 80% of decrees for precautionary maternity leave are issued by district public health physicians on the basis of written recommendations from gynecologists. One third of women who are sent into precautionary maternity leave are issued the decree prior to 12 weeks of gestation - mostly cases of multiple pregnancies and women with previous miscarriages. The present system of precautionary maternity leave appears to work in the sense that most working pregnant women with risk factors are correctly identified - with most errors on the side of caution. As the system also helps employers - the employee's pay is paid from the federal family support fund and state insurance once she is in

  8. Maternal cardiac metabolism in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Laura X.; Arany, Zolt

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy causes dramatic physiological changes in the expectant mother. The placenta, mostly foetal in origin, invades maternal uterine tissue early in pregnancy and unleashes a barrage of hormones and other factors. This foetal ‘invasion’ profoundly reprogrammes maternal physiology, affecting nearly every organ, including the heart and its metabolism. We briefly review here maternal systemic metabolic changes during pregnancy and cardiac metabolism in general. We then discuss changes in cardiac haemodynamic during pregnancy and review what is known about maternal cardiac metabolism during pregnancy. Lastly, we discuss cardiac diseases during pregnancy, including peripartum cardiomyopathy, and the potential contribution of aberrant cardiac metabolism to disease aetiology. PMID:24448314

  9. Colonial Networks of Power: The Far Reaches of Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, Gabrielle

    2004-01-01

    Thomas Hughes has shown the links which existed between politics and technological and economic changes. From this point of view, the relationship between colonialism and the development of nuclear systems is interesting. There is a significant continuity from the colonial Empires to the uranium supply networks. Americans and the British worked together to prospect and to exploit uranium deposits, in particular in South Africa. On their side, the French had similar activities in Madagascar, Gabon and Niger. In both cases, important post-colonial ties have been maintained based on techno-politics

  10. 'Goodwill Ambassador': the Legacy of Dutch Colonial Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Jansen Hendriks

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article looks back at the films commissioned and produced by the Dutch governments about their colony in teh East-Indies between 1912 and 1962. The main focus is on the newsreels and documentaries about the colonial war between the Netherlands and Indonesia  from 1945 to 1949. The article reviews these films and the re-use of their footage in later television programs. The programs often look back at the colonial war in ways that go beyond the purpose of the original films and the article aims to show the methods that are used to do this.

  11. Warehouse stocking optimization based on dynamic ant colony genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaoxu

    2018-04-01

    In view of the various orders of FAW (First Automotive Works) International Logistics Co., Ltd., the SLP method is used to optimize the layout of the warehousing units in the enterprise, thus the warehouse logistics is optimized and the external processing speed of the order is improved. In addition, the relevant intelligent algorithms for optimizing the stocking route problem are analyzed. The ant colony algorithm and genetic algorithm which have good applicability are emphatically studied. The parameters of ant colony algorithm are optimized by genetic algorithm, which improves the performance of ant colony algorithm. A typical path optimization problem model is taken as an example to prove the effectiveness of parameter optimization.

  12. Ant colony algorithm for clustering in portfolio optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subekti, R.; Sari, E. R.; Kusumawati, R.

    2018-03-01

    This research aims to describe portfolio optimization using clustering methods with ant colony approach. Two stock portfolios of LQ45 Indonesia is proposed based on the cluster results obtained from ant colony optimization (ACO). The first portfolio consists of assets with ant colony displacement opportunities beyond the defined probability limits of the researcher, where the weight of each asset is determined by mean-variance method. The second portfolio consists of two assets with the assumption that each asset is a cluster formed from ACO. The first portfolio has a better performance compared to the second portfolio seen from the Sharpe index.

  13. Mathematical Modeling the Geometric Regularity in Proteus Mirabilis Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Jiang, Yi; Minsu Kim Collaboration

    Proteus Mirabilis colony exhibits striking spatiotemporal regularity, with concentric ring patterns with alternative high and low bacteria density in space, and periodicity for repetition process of growth and swarm in time. We present a simple mathematical model to explain the spatiotemporal regularity of P. Mirabilis colonies. We study a one-dimensional system. Using a reaction-diffusion model with thresholds in cell density and nutrient concentration, we recreated periodic growth and spread patterns, suggesting that the nutrient constraint and cell density regulation might be sufficient to explain the spatiotemporal periodicity in P. Mirabilis colonies. We further verify this result using a cell based model.

  14. Mem y cookie: la cocina colonial en Malasia y Singapur

    OpenAIRE

    Leong-Salobir, Cecilia; Arriola, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Resumen Este trabajo examina el surgimiento de una cocina colonial distintiva en las colonias británicas de Malasia y Singapur desde finales del siglo XIX. La cocina colonial evolucionó con el tiempo y fue una combinación de prácticas culinarias derivadas de costumbres alimentarias europeas y asiáticas, muchas de las cuales llegaron de la India colonial. Al igual que en India, esta aculturación se desarrolló debido a la dependencia de los colonizadores de sus sirvientes domésticos para la pre...

  15. Long term trends in PBDE concentrations in gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from two UK colonies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosse, John D.; Shore, Richard F.; Jones, Kevin C.; Pereira, M. Glória

    2012-01-01

    We used the eggs of an avian sentinel, the Northern gannet (Morus bassanus), to determine long-term (1977–2007) trends in PBDE contamination in Western Atlantic (Ailsa Craig colony) and North Sea (Bass Rock colony) waters around the UK. BDEs 47, 49, 99, 100, 153, 154 were the most abundant and were found in all eggs. Individual congener and ΣPBDE concentrations in eggs from both colonies increased mainly from the late 1980s, peaked in 1994, and then rapidly declined so that concentrations in 2002 were similar to or lower than those in the 1970s and 1980s. The PBDE congener profile and temporal variation in PBDE concentrations suggests that the Penta-BDE technical formula was the main source of PBDE contamination. However, contributions of heavier BDE congeners to ΣPBDE concentrations have increased over time, suggesting other sources are becoming more important. PBDEs had no measurable effect on egg volume or eggshell index. - Highlights: ► Detailed long-term (1977–2007) PBDE trends are presented in gannet eggs from the UK. ► Temporal trends mirror consumption of PeBDE technical products. ► In recent years the PBDE profile heavier BDEs became increasingly more important. ► BDE35 concentrations decreased linearly throughout the monitoring period. ► ΣPBDE levels in gannet eggs are below levels linked to impaired reproductive output. - PBDE levels in gannet eggs from two UK colonies mirrored patterns of PBDE consumption, but sources other than PeBDE became more prevalent in recent years.

  16. Nest survival is influenced by parental behaviour and heterospecifics in a mixed-species colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussee, Brianne E.; Coates, Peter S.; Hothem, Roger L.; Howe, Kristy; Casazza, Michael L.; Eadie, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of avian nest success often focus on examining influences of variation in environmental and seasonal factors. However, in-depth evaluations can also incorporate variation in individual incubation behaviour to further advance our understanding of avian reproductive ecology. We examined these relationships in colonially nesting Black-crowned Night-Herons Nycticorax nycticorax using intensive video-monitoring methods to quantify incubation behaviours. We modelled nest survival as a function of both extrinsic factors and incubation behaviours over a 3-year period (2010–12) on Alcatraz Island, USA. Model-averaged parameter estimates indicated that nest survival increased as a function of greater incubation constancy (% of time spent incubating eggs within a 24-h period), and average daily precipitation throughout the nesting stage. Common Ravens Corvus corax are the only known nest predator of Night-Herons on Alcatraz Island, as on many other coastal Pacific islands. We also investigated the effects of heterospecific nesting of California Gulls Larus californicus and Western Gulls Larus occidentalis in a mixed-species colony with Night-Herons, based on nesting proximity data collected over a 2-year period (2011–12). This second analysis indicated that, in addition to incubation behaviours, nesting heterospecifics are an important factor for explaining variation in Night-Heron nest survival. However, contrary to our original expectation, we found that Night-Herons experienced increased nest survival with increasing distance from gull colony boundaries. These results may apply to other areas with multiple colonial nesting species and similar predator communities and climatic patterns.

  17. Public Heath in Colonial and Post-Colonial Ghana: Lesson-Drawing for The Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Samuel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Public health in twenty-first century Ghana is mired with several issues ranging from the inadequacy of public health facilities, improper settlement planning, insanitary conditions, and the inadequacy of laws and their implementation. This situation compared to the colonial era is a direct contradiction. Development in the pre-colonial era to the colonial era sought to make the prevention of diseases a priority in the colonial administration. This was begun with the establishment of the health branch in 1909 as a response to the bubonic plague that was fast spreading in the colony. From here public health policies and strategies were enacted to help the diseases prevention cause. Various public health boards, the medical research institute or the laboratory branch, the waste management department, the use of preventive medicine and maintenance of good settlement planning and sanitation were public health measures in the colonial era. This research seeks to analyse the public health system in the colonial era so as to draw basic lessons for twenty-first century Ghana. Archival data and other secondary sources are reviewed and analysed to help draw these lessons. Richard Rose’s lesson-drawing approach was used to draw the lessons.

  18. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and leukemogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Lobo de Figueiredo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available THE granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF plays an important role in normal granulopoiesis. Its functions are mediated by specific receptors on the surface of responsive cells and, upon ligand binding, several cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases are activated. The cytoplasmic region proximal to the membrane of the G-CSF receptor (G-CSF-R transduces proliferative and survival signals, whereas the distal carboxy-terminal region transduces maturation signals and suppresses the receptor's proliferative signals. Mutations in the G-CSF-R gene resulting in truncation of the carboxy-terminal region have been detected in a subset of patients with severe congenital neutropenia who developed acute myelogenous leukemia (AML. In addition, the AML1-ETO fusion protein, expressed in leukemic cells harboring the t(8;21, disrupt the physiological function of transcription factors such as C/EBPα and C/EBPε, which in turn deregulate G-CSF-R expression. The resulting high levels of G-CSF-R and G-CSF-dependent cell proliferation may be associated with pathogenesis of AML with t(8;21. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that G-CSF may act as a co-stimulus augmenting the response of PML-RARα acute promyelocytic leukemia cells to all-trans-retinoic acid treatment. Finally, in the PLZF-RARα acute promyelocytic leukemia transgenic model, G-CSF deficiency suppressed leukemia development. Altogether, these data suggest that the G-CSF signaling pathway may play a role in leukemogenesis.

  19. Transits of Venus and Colonial India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, Rajesh

    2012-09-01

    Astronomical expeditions during the colonial period had a political and national significance also. Measuring the earth and mapping the sky were activities worthy of powerful and power- seeking nations. Such was the sanctity of global astronomical activity that many other agendas could be hidden under it. An early astronomy-related expedition turned out to be extremely beneficial, to botany. The expedition sent by the French Government in 1735 to South America under the leadership of Charles Marie de la Condamine (1701--1774) ostensibly for the measurement of an arc of the meridian at Quito in Ecuador surreptitiously collected data that enabled Linnaeus to describe the genus cinchona in 1742. When the pair of transits of Venus occurred in 1761 and 1769, France and England were engaged in a bitter rivalry for control of India. The observation of the transits became a part of the rivalry. A telescope presented by the British to a South Indian King as a decorative toy was borrowed back for actual use. Scientifically the transit observations were a wash out, but the exercise introduced Europe to details of living Indian tradition of eclipse calculations. More significantly, it led to the institutionalization of modern astronomy in India under the auspices of the English East India Company (1787). The transits of Venus of 1874 and 1882 were important not so much for the study of the events as for initiating systematic photography of the Sun. By this, Britain owned most of the world's sunshine, and was expected to help European solar physicists get data from its vast Empire on a regular basis. This and the then genuinely held belief that a study of the sun would help predict failure of monsoons led to the institutionalization of solar physics studies in India (1899). Of course, when the solar physicists learnt that solar activity did not quite determine rainfall in India, they forgot to inform the Government.

  20. Metatranscriptomic analyses of honey bee colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozkar, Cansu Ö; Kence, Meral; Kence, Aykut; Huang, Qiang; Evans, Jay D

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees face numerous biotic threats from viruses to bacteria, fungi, protists, and mites. Here we describe a thorough analysis of microbes harbored by worker honey bees collected from field colonies in geographically distinct regions of Turkey. Turkey is one of the World's most important centers of apiculture, harboring five subspecies of Apis mellifera L., approximately 20% of the honey bee subspecies in the world. We use deep ILLUMINA-based RNA sequencing to capture RNA species for the honey bee and a sampling of all non-endogenous species carried by bees. After trimming and mapping these reads to the honey bee genome, approximately 10% of the sequences (9-10 million reads per library) remained. These were then mapped to a curated set of public sequences containing ca. Sixty megabase-pairs of sequence representing known microbial species associated with honey bees. Levels of key honey bee pathogens were confirmed using quantitative PCR screens. We contrast microbial matches across different sites in Turkey, showing new country recordings of Lake Sinai virus, two Spiroplasma bacterium species, symbionts Candidatus Schmidhempelia bombi, Frischella perrara, Snodgrassella alvi, Gilliamella apicola, Lactobacillus spp.), neogregarines, and a trypanosome species. By using metagenomic analysis, this study also reveals deep molecular evidence for the presence of bacterial pathogens (Melissococcus plutonius, Paenibacillus larvae), Varroa destructor-1 virus, Sacbrood virus, and fungi. Despite this effort we did not detect KBV, SBPV, Tobacco ringspot virus, VdMLV (Varroa Macula like virus), Acarapis spp., Tropilaeleps spp. and Apocephalus (phorid fly). We discuss possible impacts of management practices and honey bee subspecies on microbial retinues. The described workflow and curated microbial database will be generally useful for microbial surveys of healthy and declining honey bees.

  1. Embryo-maternal communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Hyttel, Poul; Østrup, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms dire...... directing the placentation. An increasing knowledge of the embryo-maternal communication might not only help to improve the fertility of our farm animals but also our understanding of human health and reproduction.......Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms...

  2. Maternal obesity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devlieger, Roland; Benhalima, Katrien; Damm, Peter

    2016-01-01

    and offspring. These effects are often aggravated by the high incidence of abnormal glucose tolerance and excessive gestational weight gain found in this group. The main controversies around the management of the obese pregnant women are related to (1) the value of repeated weighing during pregnancy, (2......, the prevalence of maternal obesity varies from 7 to 25% and seems strongly related to social and educational inequalities. Obesity during pregnancy represents an important preventable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes and is associated with negative long-term health outcomes for both mothers...

  3. Maternal ethanol ingestion: effect on maternal and neonatal glucose balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witek-Janusek, L.

    1986-01-01

    Liver glycogen availability in the newborn is of major importance for the maintenance of postnatal blood glucose levels. This study examined the effect of maternal ethanol ingestion on maternal and neonatal glucose balance in the rate. Female rats were placed on 1) the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet, 2) an isocaloric liquid pair-diet, or 3) an ad libitum rat chow diet at 3 wk before mating and throughout gestation. Blood and livers were obtained from dams and rat pups on gestational days 21 and 22. The pups were studied up to 6 h in the fasted state and up to 24 h in the fed state. Maternal ethanol ingestion significantly decreased litter size, birth weight, and growth. A significantly higher mortality during the early postnatal period was seen in the prenatal ethanol exposed pups. Ethanol significantly decreased fed maternal liver glycogen stores but not maternal plasma glucose levels. The newborn rats from ethanol ingesting dams also had significantly decreased liver glycogen stores. Despite mobilizing their available glycogen, these prenatal ethanol exposed pups became hypoglycemic by 6 h postnatal. This was more marked in the fasted pups. Ethanol did not affect maternal nor neonatal plasma insulin levels. Thus maternal ethanol ingestion reduces maternal and neonatal liver glycogen stores and leads to postnatal hypoglycemia in the newborn rat

  4. Maternal Depression, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Youth Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompson, Martha C.; Pierre, Claudette B.; Boger, Kathryn Dingman; McKowen, James W.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Freed, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    Across development, maternal depression has been found to be a risk factor for youth psychopathology generally and youth depression specifically. Maternal Expressed Emotion (EE) has been examined as a predictor of outcome among youth with depression. The present study explored the associations between youth psychopathology and two…

  5. The effects of maternal haemoglobin as an indicator of maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    relationship could exist between MMA of mother-infant pairs and maternal nutritional indicator (haemoglobin). Objectives: This study reviewed the effects of maternal haemoglobin (Hb) on MMA of mother-infant pairs at birth. Methods: One hundred and fifty three mother-infant pairs were enrolled in this study using the ...

  6. New data on Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii colonies: A genetic analysis of a top predator from the Ross Sea, Antarctica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ighor Antunes Zappes

    Full Text Available In this paper, we studied the genetic variability in Weddell seal from colonies in Terra Nova Bay and Wood Bay, both sites located in the Ross Sea area, Antarctica. Two mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene, with different mutation rates, were sequenced to investigate the haplotype diversity of the colonies and to test for a possible recent expansion. Fifteen microsatellites were used to analyze their genetic structure. Sequenced genes and microsatellites were also used to estimate the effective population size of the studied colonies and the Ross Sea seal population. The Ross Sea has a high density population of Weddel seals, with an estimated effective number of 50,000 females, and 1,341 individuals for the sampling area, possibly due to its high primary production. The colonies showed high diversity (Hd > 0.90 and many exclusive haplotypes (> 75%, likely a consequence of the surprisingly high site fidelity of Weddell seals, despite the proximity of the colonies. Nevertheless, there was low microsatellite differentiation between colonies, suggesting that they are part of a single larger population. Their expansion seemed to have started during the last glacial cycle (around 58,000 years ago, indicating that the Ross Sea seal populations have been present in the area for long time, probably due to the lack of hunting by humans and terrestrial predation. As a top predator, the role of Weddell seals in the Ross Sea ecology is crucial, and its demographic dynamics should be monitored to follow the future changes of such an important ecosystem.

  7. Maternal Concern for Child Undereating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Callie L; Pesch, Megan H; Perrin, Eliana M; Appugliese, Danielle P; Miller, Alison L; Rosenblum, Katherine; Lumeng, Julie C

    To describe features of maternal concern for her child undereating; examine maternal and child correlates of maternal concern for undereating; and determine whether maternal concern for undereating is associated with feeding practices. This was a cross-sectional analysis of an observational study with 286 mother-child dyads (mean child age, 71 months). Maternal concern for undereating was assessed using a semistructured interview. Mothers completed questionnaires to assess picky eating, food neophobia, and feeding practices. Feeding practices were further assessed using videotaped mealtime observations. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of maternal and child characteristics with maternal concern for undereating. Regression was used to assess the association of maternal concern for undereating with feeding practices, controlling for covariates. Over a third of mothers (36.5%) expressed concern that their child does not eat enough. Correlates of concern for undereating included child body mass index z-score (BMIz; odds ratio [OR] = 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.77) and picky eating (OR = 2.41; 95% CI, 1.26-4.59). Maternal concern for undereating was associated with greater reported pressure to eat (relative risk [RR] = 1.97; 95% CI, 1.55-2.50), greater observed bribery (OR = 2.63; 95% CI, 1.50-4.60), and higher observed pressure (OR = 1.90; 95% CI, 1.08-3.36) during mealtimes. Mothers of children who are picky eaters and have a lower BMIz are more likely to be concerned that their children do not eat enough, and maternal concern for undereating is associated with pressuring and bribing children to eat. Pediatricians might address maternal concern for undereating by advising feeding practices that do not involve pressure and bribery, particularly among healthy weight children. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Revisiting the effect of colonial institutions on comparative economic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina A Assenova

    Full Text Available European settler mortality has been proposed as an instrument to predict the causal effect of colonial institutions on differences in economic development. We examine the relationship between mortality, temperature, and economic development in former European colonies in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. We find that (i European settler mortality rates increased with regional temperatures and (ii economic output decreased with regional temperatures. Conditioning on the continent of settlement and accounting for colonies that were not independent as of 1900 undermines the causal effect of colonial institutions on comparative economic development. Our findings run counter to the institutions hypothesis of economic development, showing instead that geography affected both historic mortality rates and present-day economic output.

  9. Counter-Insurgency in the Cape Colony, 1872 - 1882

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unrest and internal conflict were almost endemic in the Cape Colony's area of interest during ... security and defence policy, the policy of direct control of the adjacent tribal territories as well as ...... latter refused to sign the treasury documents.

  10. A Reading of Kwame Nkrumah's Towards Colonial Freedom Atta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trajectory that Kwame Nkrumah, in this work, traces towards colonial freedom. ... propelled against their colonising oppressors also seen as wearing a single classless ... political economy: 'It is not the consciousness of men [and women] that ...

  11. The impact of colonial legacies and globalization processes on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of colonial legacies and globalization processes on forced migration in modern Africa. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... On its part, globalization is about pauperizing and victimizing more and more people ...

  12. Post-Colonial Nation Building, Global Governance, Globalisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-Colonial Nation Building, Global Governance, Globalisation and Development in Nigeria and Africa. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... A common route that nations take is that of nation building, especially within the ...

  13. Pidgin in the Colonial Governance of Northern Nigeria Philip Atsu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANDCORPgh changing the world

    2015-03-15

    Mar 15, 2015 ... 7Arabic literacy for political agents was essential because the language ... Other elements are 'kuku boy' (steward), 'kuku meti' (cook meat), 'ruge' (rogue), ..... The colonized as child: British and French colonial rule in Africa.

  14. Energy Colonialism Powers the Ongoing Unnatural Disaster in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina M. de Onís

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available On September 20, 2017, Hurricane María made landfall in Puerto Rico. Blasting the Caribbean archipelago with 155-mile/h winds, this, in many ways, unnatural disaster exposed the brutal consequences of energy colonialism and an extractivist economy, as well as ongoing and increasing advocacy for decentralized solar infrastructure by many local residents and other renewables supporters. This paper argues that acknowledging colonial power relations and their consequences is essential for studying the interplay of energy systems, environments, and actors. To support this claim, this essay outlines Puerto Rico’s history as a US colony by focusing on key policies and their implications; examines openings for and barriers to decentralized, community solar in Puerto Rico; and concludes by discussing future research directions on just energy transitions and the imperative of uprooting colonialism and agitating for community self-determination and energy justice in these transformations.

  15. Seabird colonies in the Melville Bay, Northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, David; Huffeldt, Nicholas Per

    This report describes the results of a survey for breeding and colonial seabirds in a hitherto un-surveyed area of Northwest Greenland - the Melville Bay. The results shall be included as background data for oil spill sensitivity mapping, preparation of environmental impact assessments of petroleum...... activities in Baffin Bay and for the regulation (by the Greenland government) of petroleum activities. The survey showed, that compared to other coasts of West Greenland, the Melville Bay holds only few breeding colonies and low numbers of breeding seabirds. The most widespread and numerous species...... is the black guillemot followed by the glaucous gull. However, one colony is of national significance – Sabine Øer, with high numbers of breeding Arctic terns and Sabine’s gulls. Other noteworthy observations were puffins on Thom Ø and many new Iceland gull colonies that extended the known northern breeding...

  16. Colonialism as a Broader Social Determinant of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Czyzewski

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A proposed broader or Indigenized social determinants of health framework includes "colonialism" along with other global processes. What does it mean to understand Canadian colonialism as a distal determinant of Indigenous health? This paper reviews pertinent discourses surrounding Indigenous mental health in Canada.With an emphasis on the notion of intergenerational trauma, there are real health effects of social, political, and economic marginalization embodied within individuals, which can collectively affect entire communities. Colonialism can also be enacted and reinforced within Indigenous mental health discourse, thus influencing scholarly and popular perceptions. Addressing this distal determinant through policy work necessitates that improving Indigenous health is inherently related to improving these relationships, i.e. eliminating colonial relations, and increasing self-determination.

  17. application of ant colony optimisation in distribution transformer sizing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Keywords: ant colony, optimization, transformer sizing, distribution transformer. 1. INTRODUCTION ... more intensive pheromone and higher probability to be chosen [12]. ..... pp.29-41, 1996. [7] EC global market place, “Technical Parameters”,.

  18. The Historical Taboo: Colonial Discourses and Postcolonial Identities in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobineau Julien

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines so-called colonial discourses in Belgium related to the former Sub-Saharan colony owned by Leopold II of Belgium which today is known as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo or the Congo-Kinshasa. Having introduced the colonial history of the DR Congo from the 15th century until 1910, the study starts with a discussion of Van den Braembussche’s concept of a ‘historical taboo’ and four ways of engaging with such implicit interdictions. Finally, an empirical analysis of colonial discourses in Belgium from the 1890s until today will be presented in conjunction with Belgium’s linguistic-cultural division, taking into account age-related divergence.

  19. An Improved Ant Colony Matching by Using Discrete Curve Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Saadi, Younes; Sari, Eka,; Herawan, Tutut

    2014-01-01

    Part 1: Information & Communication Technology-EurAsia Conference 2014, ICT-EurAsia 2014; International audience; In this paper we present an improved Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) for contour matching, which can be used to match 2D shapes. Discrete Curve Evolution (DCE) technique is used to simplify the extracted contour. In order to find the best correspondence between shapes, the match process is formulated as a Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP) and resolved by using Ant Colony Optimizati...

  20. An improved method for staining cell colonies in clonogenic assays

    OpenAIRE

    Guda, Kishore; Natale, Leanna; Markowitz, Sanford D.

    2007-01-01

    Clonogenic assay is a widely used experimental approach to test for the effects of drugs/genes on the growth and proliferative characteristics of cells in vitro. Accurate quantitation of treatment effects in clonogeneic assays depends on the ability to visualize and count cell colonies precisely. We report a novel method (referred as ETeB) for staining cell colonies grown on plastic and specially coated substrates like collagen. Using colon cancer cell lines grown on plastic and collagen, we ...

  1. The Psycho-Affective Echoes of Colonialism in Fieldwork Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Garot

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the varieties of relations with African immigrant interviewees in Tuscany as experienced by a white male interviewer from the United States. Franz FANON's discussion of the psycho-affective consequences of colonialism is vital for understanding how naïve and romantic notions of fieldwork relations are disingenuous, counter-productive and perhaps destructive in a neo-colonial landscape. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1401125

  2. Video Bioinformatics Analysis of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Colony Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sabrina; Fonteno, Shawn; Satish, Shruthi; Bhanu, Bir; Talbot, Prue

    2010-01-01

    Because video data are complex and are comprised of many images, mining information from video material is difficult to do without the aid of computer software. Video bioinformatics is a powerful quantitative approach for extracting spatio-temporal data from video images using computer software to perform dating mining and analysis. In this article, we introduce a video bioinformatics method for quantifying the growth of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) by analyzing time-lapse videos collected in a Nikon BioStation CT incubator equipped with a camera for video imaging. In our experiments, hESC colonies that were attached to Matrigel were filmed for 48 hours in the BioStation CT. To determine the rate of growth of these colonies, recipes were developed using CL-Quant software which enables users to extract various types of data from video images. To accurately evaluate colony growth, three recipes were created. The first segmented the image into the colony and background, the second enhanced the image to define colonies throughout the video sequence accurately, and the third measured the number of pixels in the colony over time. The three recipes were run in sequence on video data collected in a BioStation CT to analyze the rate of growth of individual hESC colonies over 48 hours. To verify the truthfulness of the CL-Quant recipes, the same data were analyzed manually using Adobe Photoshop software. When the data obtained using the CL-Quant recipes and Photoshop were compared, results were virtually identical, indicating the CL-Quant recipes were truthful. The method described here could be applied to any video data to measure growth rates of hESC or other cells that grow in colonies. In addition, other video bioinformatics recipes can be developed in the future for other cell processes such as migration, apoptosis, and cell adhesion. PMID:20495527

  3. Colonial Connections: A Review of Redrawing French Empire in Comics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Tannahill

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of France's colonial past and wars in Algeria and Indochina are still very relevant in modern, multicultural France. 'Redrawing French Empire In Comics '(2013 examines how this colonial history is depicted in the francophone comic or 'bande dessinée', by authors with links to both the colonised population and the French colonisers and military forces, and how their depictions of events reinforces or diminishes barriers between those on both sides.

  4. National level maternal health decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koduah, A.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal deaths and morbidity still pose an enormous challenge for health authorities in Ghana, a lower middle income country. Despite massive investments in maternal and neonatal health and special attention through Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 4

  5. Maternal Involvement and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Linda C.; Holmes, William M.

    The potential impact of several maternal involvement behaviors on teachers' ratings of children's academic skills was examined through statistical analyses. Data, based on mothers' responses to selected questions concerning maternal involvement and on teachers' ratings on the Classroom Behavior Inventory, were obtained for 115 kindergarten…

  6. Maternal Employment and Adolescent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, Raymond; Clayton, Mark D.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between maternal employment and adolescent development is enormously complex, and no simple generalizations are possible. Many intervening variables alter the impact that maternal employment has on adolescent development. There is an urgent need to discover what impact this arrangement has on adolescent development. (CJ)

  7. Structural organisation and dynamics in king penguin colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerum, Richard; Richter, Sebastian; Fabry, Ben; Le Bohec, Céline; Bonadonna, Francesco; Nesterova, Anna; Zitterbart, Daniel P.

    2018-04-01

    During breeding, king penguins do not build nests, however they show strong territorial behaviour and keep a pecking distance to neighbouring penguins. Penguin positions in breeding colonies are highly stable over weeks and appear regularly spaced, but thus far no quantitative analysis of the structural order inside a colony has been performed. In this study, we use the radial distribution function to analyse the spatial coordinates of penguin positions. Coordinates are obtained from aerial images of two colonies that were observed for several years. Our data demonstrate that the structural order in king penguin colonies resembles a 2D liquid of particles with a Lennard-Jones-type interaction potential. We verify this using a molecular dynamics simulation with thermally driven particles, whereby temperature corresponds to penguin movements, the energy well depth ɛ of the attractive potential corresponds to the strength of the colony-forming behaviour, and the repulsive zone corresponds to the pecking radius. We can recapitulate the liquid disorder of the colony, as measured by the radial distribution function, when the particles have a temperature of several (1.4–10) \

  8. No intracolonial nepotism during colony fissioning in honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Juliana; Mattila, Heather R.; Seeley, Thomas D.

    2009-01-01

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, but in some species each queen mates with numerous males to create a colony whose workers belong to multiple patrilines. This colony genetic structure creates a potential for intracolonial nepotism. One context with great potential for such nepotism arises in species, like honey bees, whose colonies reproduce by fissioning. During fissioning, workers might nepotistically choose between serving a young (sister) queen or the old (mother) queen, preferring the former if she is a full-sister but the latter if the young queen is only a half-sister. We examined three honeybee colonies that swarmed, and performed paternity analyses on the young (immature) queens and samples of workers who either stayed with the young queens in the nest or left with the mother queen in the swarm. For each colony, we checked whether patrilines represented by immature queens had higher proportions of staying workers than patrilines not represented by immature queens. We found no evidence of this. The absence of intracolonial nepotism during colony fissioning could be because the workers cannot discriminate between full-sister and half-sister queens when they are immature, or because the costs of behaving nepotistically outweigh the benefits. PMID:19692398

  9. Relationship of colony-stimulating activity to apparent kill of human colony-forming cells by irradiation and hydroxyurea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broxmeyer, H.E.; Galbraith, P.R.; Baker, F.L.

    1976-01-01

    Suspensions of human bone marrow cells were subjected to 137 Cs irradiation in vitro and then cultured in semisolid agar medium. Cultures of irradiated cells were stimulated with colony-stimulating activity (CSA) of different potencies, and it was found that the amount of stimulation applied to cultures influenced the apparent kill of colony-forming cells (CFC). It was also found that the effects of irradiation on colony formation were not confined to CFC kill since medium conditioned by cells during irradiation exhibited stimulatory and inhibitory properties after treatment by 600 and 1000 rads, respectively. Studies in which irradiated cells were pretreated with hydroxyurea indicated that CFC in the DNA synthetic phase of the cell cycle were particularly sensitive to low doses of irradiation. The proliferative capacity of CFC surviving 1000 rads was undiminished as judged by their ability to form large colonies. Estimates of CFC kill by hydroxyurea were also affected by the level of CSA

  10. Risk factors associated with the presence of Varroa destructor in honey bee colonies from east-central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobino, A; Bulacio Cagnolo, N; Merke, J; Orellano, E; Bertozzi, E; Masciangelo, G; Pietronave, H; Salto, C; Signorini, M

    2014-08-01

    Varroa destructor is considered one of the major threats for worldwide apiculture. Damage caused by varroa mite includes body weight loss, malformation and weakening of the bees. It was also suggested as the main cause associated with colony winter mortality and as an important vector for several honey bee viruses. Little is known about multiple factors and their interaction affecting V. destructor prevalence in apiaries from South America. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with V. destructor prevalence in east-central Argentina. Parasitic mite infestation level and colony strength measures were evaluated in 63 apiaries distributed in 4 different regions in east-central Argentina in a cross sectional study. Data regarding management practices in each apiary were collected by means of a questionnaire. A mixed-effects logistic regression model was constructed to associate management variables with the risk of achieving mite infestation higher than 3%. Colonies owned by beekeepers who indicated that they did not monitor colonies after mite treatment (OR=2.305; 95% CI: 0.944-5.629) nor disinfect hives woodenware material (OR=2.722; 95% CI: 1.380-5.565) were associated with an increased risk of presenting high intensity infestation with V. destructor (>3%). On the other hand, beekeepers who reported replacing more than 50% of the queens in their operation (OR=0.305; 95% CI: 0.107-0.872), feeding colonies protein substitute containing natural pollen (OR=0.348; 95% CI: 0.129-0.941) and feeding colonies High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) (OR=0.108; 95% CI: 0.032-0.364), had colonies that were less likely to have V. destructor infestations above 3%, than beekeepers who did not report using these management practices. Further research should be conducted considering that certain management practices were associated to mite infestation level in order to improve the sanitary condition in the colonies. Epidemiological studies provide key information to

  11. Microbiome of Trichodesmium Colonies from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary R. Gradoville

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous diazotrophic Cyanobacteria of the genus Trichodesmium, often found in colonial form, provide an important source of new nitrogen to tropical and subtropical marine ecosystems. Colonies are composed of several clades of Trichodesmium in association with a diverse community of bacterial and eukaryotic epibionts. We used high-throughput 16S rRNA and nifH gene sequencing, carbon (C and dinitrogen (N2 fixation assays, and metagenomics to describe the diversity and functional potential of the microbiome associated with Trichodesmium colonies collected from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG. The 16S rRNA and nifH gene sequences from hand-picked colonies were predominantly (>99% from Trichodesmium Clade I (i.e., T. thiebautii, which is phylogenetically and ecologically distinct from the Clade III IMS101 isolate used in most laboratory studies. The bacterial epibiont communities were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Alphaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria, including several taxa with a known preference for surface attachment, and were relatively depleted in the unicellular Cyanobacteria and small photoheterotrophic bacteria that dominate NPSG surface waters. Sequencing the nifH gene (encoding a subcomponent of the nitrogenase enzyme identified non-Trichodesmium diazotrophs that clustered predominantly among the Cluster III nifH sequence-types that includes putative anaerobic diazotrophs. Trichodesmium colonies may represent an important habitat for these Cluster III diazotrophs, which were relatively rare in the surrounding seawater. Sequence analyses of nifH gene transcripts revealed several cyanobacterial groups, including heterocystous Richelia, associated with the colonies. Both the 16S rRNA and nifH datasets indicated strong differences between Trichodesmium epibionts and picoplankton in the surrounding seawater, and also between the epibionts inhabiting Trichodesmium puff and tuft colony morphologies. Metagenomic and 16S r

  12. What about the mothers? An analysis of maternal mortality and morbidity in perinatal health surveillance systems in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouvier-Colle, M.-H.; Mohangoo, A.D.; Gissler, M.; Novak-Antolic, Z.; Vutuc, C.; Szamotulska, K.; Zeitlin, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess capacity to develop routine monitoring of maternal health in the European Union using indicators of maternal mortality and severe morbidity. Design Analysis of aggregate data from routine statistical systems compiled by the EURO-PERISTAT project and comparison with data from

  13. Aggressive cutaneous vasculitis in a patient with chronic lymphatic leukemia following granulocyte colony stimulating factor injection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Husseiny Noha M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Vasculitis has been reported in a few cases of chronic lymphatic leukemia and with granulocytic colony-stimulating factor therapy. Those with granulocytic colony-stimulating factor occurred after prolonged therapy and there was a rise in total leukocyte count unlike that in our patient who received just a single injection for the first time. Case presentation We report the case of a 64-year-old Egyptian man with chronic lymphatic leukemia who developed progressive cutaneous vasculitic lesions following injection of a single dose of a granulocytic colony stimulating factor before a third cycle of chemotherapy to improve neutropenia. This is an unusual case and the pathogenesis is not fully understood. Our patient was not on any medical treatment except for bisoprolol for ischemic heart disease. Although aggressive management with steroids, anticoagulation and plasmapheresis had been carried out, the condition was aggressive and the patient's consciousness deteriorated. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of his brain revealed multiple ischemic foci that could be attributed to vasculitis of the brain. Conclusion The aim of this case report is to highlight the importance of monitoring patients on granulocytic colony-stimulating factor therapy, especially in the context of other conditions (such as a hematological malignancy that may lead to an adverse outcome.

  14. Maternal employment, breastfeeding, and health: evidence from maternity leave mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2008-07-01

    Public health agencies around the world have renewed efforts to increase the incidence and duration of breastfeeding. Maternity leave mandates present an economic policy that could help achieve these goals. We study their efficacy, focusing on a significant increase in maternity leave mandates in Canada. We find very large increases in mothers' time away from work post-birth and in the attainment of critical breastfeeding duration thresholds. We also look for impacts of the reform on self-reported indicators of maternal and child health captured in our data. For most indicators we find no effect.

  15. Radionuclides and maternal lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    The increase in the number of nuclear medicine centers, both official and private in the country, as well as the increase in the number of patients, due to the effectiveness of their diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, brings out new situations that must be studied from the point of view of radioprotection. This work makes a revision in the medical literature about procedures with radioisotopes during the maternal nursing period. In general, it is recommended to stop nursing for 24 hours for 99mtc test, and to resume it after the draining of the milky content. This can be done in spite of the sensitivity of the target organ of the baby, because the dosage will be below permissible limits accepted by international agencies with respect to diagnostic test and I-131 treatment, and if continuing nursing is desired, it is recommended to use other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures before discontinuing the most important nutritional resource at this age

  16. Fortification of maternal milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Di Natale

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of human milk (HM, well recognized for the term infant, extend to the feeding of premature infants, because their nutrition support must be designed to compensate for metabolic and gastrointestinal immaturity, immunologic compromise, and maternal psycosocial conditions. Studies show that preterm milk contains higher protein levels and more fat than term human milk. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that preterm neonates should receive sufficient nutrients to enable them to grow at a rate similar to that of fetuses of the same gestational age. There are no doubts about the fact that maternal milk is the best food for all neonates, but unfortified human breast milk may not meet the recommended nutritional needs of growing preterm infants. Human milk must therefore be supplemented (fortified with the nutrients in short supply. The objective of fortification is to increase the concentration of nutrients to such levels that at the customary feeding volumes infants receive amounts of all nutrients that meet the requirements. The are two different forms of fortification of human milk: standard and individualized. The new concepts and recommendations for optimization of human milk fortification is the “individualized fortification”. Actually, two methods have been proposed for individualization: the “targeted/tailored fortification” and the “adjustable fortification”. In summary, the use of fortified human milk produces adequate growth in premature infants and satisfies the specific nutritional requirements of these infants. The use of individualized fortification is recommended. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  17. Spread of plague among black-tailed prairie dogs is associated with colony spatial characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T.L.; Cully, J.F.; Collinge, S.K.; Ray, C.; Frey, C.M.; Sandercock, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    Sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) is an exotic pathogen that is highly virulent in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and causes widespread colony losses and individual mortality rates >95%. We investigated colony spatial characteristics that may influence inter-colony transmission of plague at 3 prairie dog colony complexes in the Great Plains. The 4 spatial characteristics we considered include: colony size, Euclidean distance to nearest neighboring colony, colony proximity index, and distance to nearest drainage (dispersal) corridor. We used multi-state mark-recapture models to determine the relationship between these colony characteristics and probability of plague transmission among prairie dog colonies. Annual mapping of colonies and mark-recapture analyses of disease dynamics in natural colonies led to 4 main results: 1) plague outbreaks exhibited high spatial and temporal variation, 2) the site of initiation of epizootic plague may have substantially influenced the subsequent inter-colony spread of plague, 3) the long-term effect of plague on individual colonies differed among sites because of how individuals and colonies were distributed, and 4) colony spatial characteristics were related to the probability of infection at all sites although the relative importance and direction of relationships varied among sites. Our findings suggest that conventional prairie dog conservation management strategies, including promoting large, highly connected colonies, may need to be altered in the presence of plague. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  18. Social interactions in the central nest of Coptotermes formosanus juvenile colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile colonies of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were investigated to determine the social interactions among all individuals near the central nest of a colony. The behavioral repertoire of whole colonies of subterranean termites has yet to be identified because of their cryptic nests. Colonies w...

  19. Variation in Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages among coral colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stat, Michael; Bird, Christopher E; Pochon, Xavier; Chasqui, Luis; Chauka, Leonard J; Concepcion, Gregory T; Logan, Dan; Takabayashi, Misaki; Toonen, Robert J; Gates, Ruth D

    2011-01-05

    Endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are fundamentally important to the biology of scleractinian corals, as well as to a variety of other marine organisms. The genus Symbiodinium is genetically and functionally diverse and the taxonomic nature of the union between Symbiodinium and corals is implicated as a key trait determining the environmental tolerance of the symbiosis. Surprisingly, the question of how Symbiodinium diversity partitions within a species across spatial scales of meters to kilometers has received little attention, but is important to understanding the intrinsic biological scope of a given coral population and adaptations to the local environment. Here we address this gap by describing the Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages recovered from colonies of the reef building coral Montipora capitata sampled across Kāne'ohe Bay, Hawai'i. A total of 52 corals were sampled in a nested design of Coral Colony(Site(Region)) reflecting spatial scales of meters to kilometers. A diversity of Symbiodinium ITS2 sequences was recovered with the majority of variance partitioning at the level of the Coral Colony. To confirm this result, the Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence diversity in six M. capitata colonies were analyzed in much greater depth with 35 to 55 clones per colony. The ITS2 sequences and quantitative composition recovered from these colonies varied significantly, indicating that each coral hosted a different assemblage of Symbiodinium. The diversity of Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages retrieved from individual colonies of M. capitata here highlights the problems inherent in interpreting multi-copy and intra-genomically variable molecular markers, and serves as a context for discussing the utility and biological relevance of assigning species names based on Symbiodinium ITS2 genotyping.

  20. Neuroendocrine Regulation of Maternal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The expression of maternal behavior in mammals is regulated by the developmental and experiential events over a female’s lifetime. In this review the relationships between the endocrine and neural systems that play key roles in these developmental and experiential that affect both the establishment and maintenance of maternal care are presented. The involvement of the hormones estrogen, progesterone, and lactogens are discussed in the context of ligand, receptor, and gene activity in rodents and to a lesser extent in higher mammals. The roles of neuroendocrine factors, including oxytocin, vasopressin, classical neurotransmitters, and other neural gene products that regulate aspects of maternal care are set forth, and the interactions of hormones with central nervous system mediators of maternal behavior are discussed. The impact of prior developmental factors, including epigenetic events, and maternal experience on subsequent maternal care are assessed over the course of the female’s lifespan. It is proposed that common neuroendocrine mechanisms underlie the regulation of maternal care in mammals. PMID:25500107

  1. Are there fetal stem cells in the maternal brain?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osman Demirhan; Necmi (C)ekin; Deniz Ta(s)temir; Erdal Tun(c); Ali irfan Güzel; Demet Meral; Bülent Demirbek

    2013-01-01

    Fetal cells can enter maternal blood during pregnancy but whether they can also cross the blood-brain barrier to enter the maternal brain remains poorly understood. Previous results suggest that fetal cells are summoned to repair damage to the mother's brain. If this is confirmed, it would open up new and safer avenues of treatment for brain damage caused by strokes and neural diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether a baby's stem cells can enter the maternal brain during pregnancy. Deceased patients who had at least one male offspring and no history of abortion and blood transfusion were included in this study. DNA was extracted from brain tissue samples of deceased women using standard phenol-chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation methods. Genomic DNA was screened by quantitative fluorescent-polymerase chain reaction amplification together with short tandem repeat markers specific to the Y chromosome, and 13, 18, 21 and X. Any foreign DNA residues that could be used to interpret the presence of fetal stem cells in the maternal brain were monitored. Results indicated that fetal stem cells can not cross the blood-brain barrier to enter the maternal brain.

  2. The role of maternal affect attunement in dyadic and triadic communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legerstee, Maria; Markova, Gabriela; Fisher, Tamara

    2007-05-01

    The influence of maternal affect attunement on the relationship between gaze monitoring during dyadic communication at 3 months and coordinated attention during triadic communication at 5, 7 and 10 months was examined in a longitudinal study. Although most infants engaged in gaze monitoring at 3 months and in coordinated attention at 5, 7 and 10 months, a regression analysis revealed that gaze monitoring at 3 months significantly predicted coordinated attention at 10 months only when maternal affect attunement was high. These findings are discussed in terms of theories that emphasize the role of social interaction in the development of meaningful communication and continuity in mental state awareness during the first year of life.

  3. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2011-01-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

  4. Risk factors of maternal mortality in Sistan region: 10-year report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sarani

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Based on our findings, some factors including multiparity, pregnancy his-tory more than 4 times, short interval between pregnancies lower than 2 years and ma-ternal age more than 35 years were some risk factors for maternal death. Maternal mortality in the postpartum period was more than pre-delivery period. Bleeding was the main cause of maternal mortality. Therefore monitoring of vital signs in the post-partum period and the proper management of bleeding are very important. It is sug-gested that risk assessment should be done for pregnant women in delivery ward for detecting high risk pregnant women. Suitable management for these women especially for patients with postpartum hemorrhage plays an important role to decrease the ma-ternal mortality.

  5. PPO.02 Severe maternal morbidity in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manning, E.; Lutomski, J.E.; O'Connor, L.; Corcoran, P.; Greene, R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and examine associated factors in Ireland. METHODS: In 2011, 67,806 maternities were reported from 19 maternity units, representing 93% of maternities in Ireland. SMM was classified as the presence of one or more of 15 categories

  6. Regional differences in Dutch maternal mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, J.P.; Schutte, J.M.; Poeran, J.J.; van Roosmalen, J.; Bonsel, G.J.; Steegers, E.A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study regional differences in maternal mortality in the Netherlands. Design Confidential inquiry into the causes of maternal mortality. Setting Nationwide. Population A total of 3 108 235 live births and 337 maternal deaths. Methods Data analysis of all maternal deaths in the period

  7. Rise in maternal mortality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, J. M.; Steegers, E. A. P.; Schuitemaker, N. W. E.; Santema, J. G.; de Boer, K.; Pel, M.; Vermeulen, G.; Visser, W.; van Roosmalen, J.

    2010-01-01

    To assess causes, trends and substandard care factors in maternal mortality in the Netherlands. Design Confidential enquiry into the causes of maternal mortality. Nationwide in the Netherlands. 2,557,208 live births. Data analysis of all maternal deaths in the period 1993-2005. Maternal mortality.

  8. Thermally adapted design strategy of colonial houses in Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antaryama, I. G. N.; Ekasiwi, S. N. N.; Mappajaya, A.; Ulum, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    Colonial buildings, including houses, have been considered as a representation of climate-responsive architecture. The design was thought to be a hybrid model of Dutch and tropical architecture. It was created by way of reinventing tropical and Dutch architecture design principles, and expressed in a new form, i.e. neither resembling Dutch nor tropical building. Aside from this new image, colonial house does show good climatic responses. Previous researches on colonial house generally focus on qualitative assessment of climate performance of the building. Yet this kind of study tends to concentrate on building elements, e.g. wall, window, etc. The present study is designed to give more complete picture of architecture design strategy of the house by exploring and analysing thermal performance of colonial buildings and their related architecture design strategies. Field measurements are conducted during the dry season in several colonial building in Surabaya. Air temperature and humidity are both taken, representing internal and external thermal conditions of the building. These data are then evaluated to determine thermal performance of the house. Finally, various design strategies are examined in order to reveal their significant contributions to its thermal performance. Results of the study in Surabaya confirm findings of the previous researches that are conducted in other locations, which stated that thermal performance of the house is generally good. Passive design strategies such as mass effect and ventilation play an important role in determining performance of the building.

  9. Combating Varroa destructor in Honeybee Colonies Using Flumethrin or Fluvalinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gregorc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mite mortality in two apiaries, one with 32 and the other with 15 honeybee (Apis mellifera carnica colonies, was recorded prior to and after flumethrin or fluvalinate treatments and after a control, oxalic-acid application. During the 42- and 51-day pre-treatment periods, the average daily natural mite drop was 0.04 (± 0.04 and 2.82 (± 2.19, respectively, which represents 1.09% (± 1.06 and 3.84% (± 3.04 of the total number of mites found during the experiment. The flumethrin or fluvalinate applications resulted in an average mite mortality at the two apiaries of 214.46 (± 260.02 and 4,098.64 (± 2,508.31. The treatments resulted in a 19.11% (± 14.62 and a 39.28% (± 10.47 reduction in the number of mites in slightly infested colonies and 94.30% (± 4.26 and 96.24% (± 3.14 in highly infested colonies. The difference in treatment efficacy between both apiaries was significant (P < 0.001 and indicates that fluvalinate and flumethrin are highly efficacious in dealing with highly infested honeybee colonies with sealed brood. The importance of effective mite control in colonies with a high level of natural mite mortality is discussed in this study.

  10. Food preparation in colonial America. A Bicentennial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, M

    1976-07-01

    Both regional and national influences have pervaded America's culinary arts from colonial times until the present. In the South, for instance, indigenous foods, such as sweet potatoes--as well as an abundance of fruits and fowl--were commonly served. In the North, maple sirup was a New England product, as was codfish. Throughout the colonies, corn was easily grown and became a staple. Immigrants from the Old World brought their recipes to meld or adapt to conditions they met here. Recounted also is the unfolding of an American cuisine, especially in the southern colonies as it evolved from European food preparation practices. Cooking was done in great fireplaces, with equipment designed to fit. Meat was generally boiled or stewed in pots hung in the fireplace, although it might be slow-roasted on a hand-turned spit. Hot breads, the hallmark of southern cooking, date from colonial days. In the Noth, the Dutch farmer's wife developed real skill in using flour from home-grown wheat and rye, creating pancakes, waffles, doughnuts, crullers, and so on. After the first hard winter, food in New England became more plentiful. Boston brown bread was made from corn, wheat, or rye and probably sweetened with maple sirup. Imports of coffee, tea, and spices from the Orient and fruit from the tropics were later added to the cuisine. Colonial Americans understood well the art of food preparation and appreciated the taste of well prepared, well seasoned dishes.

  11. Creating Central Sulawesi. Mission Intervention, Colonialism and ‘Multiculturality’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Coté

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Creating Central Sulawesi: Mission Intervention, Colonialism and ‘Multiculturality’Central Sulawesi provides an example of how, under colonialism, non-state bodies contributed to the creation of new political identities in the Indonesian archipelago, and how the modern Indonesian state came to be based on these. Arguably, at the beginning of the twentieth century, the region was poised to be incorporated into the structure of one or other of the existing powerful Central and Southern Sulawesi political entities. As such, as just another ‘region’ in the sprawling archipelagic colony subjected to standard colonial policy, it should have been readily incorporated into the Indonesian state, albeit through the ‘Sulawesi Permesta’. Instead, in seeking to establish what one writer has described as a ‘volkskerk’ [people’s church], the ‘Poso mission’ established with colonial support by the Nederlandsche Zendinggenootschap [Netherlands Missionary Society] in 1892, was instrumental in defining new religious, cultural and linguistic boundaries. These acted to effectively isolate the Pamona people from adjacent Christian communities established by other missionary endeavours; from their Islamic neighbours and, arguably, from the ‘nation’. As elsewhere in the archipelago, the subsequent process of this region’s reintegration has formed part of the difficult postcolonial legacy inherited by the Indonesian nation.

  12. Remedial action work plan for the Colonie site. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    The Colonie site is a DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) site located in the Town of Colonie, New York, and consisting of an interim storage site and several vicinity properties. The Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) is the former National Lead (NL) Industries plant located at 1130 Central Avenue. There are 11 vicinity properties that received remedial action in 1984: 7 located south of the site on Yardboro and Palmer Avenues just across the Colonie-Albany town limits in Albany, and 4 located northwest of the site along Central Avenue in Colonie. Of these properties, nine are residences and two are commercial properties. This document describes the engineering design, construction, and associated plans for remedial action on the vicinity properties and the interim storage site. These plans include both radiological and chemical work. Radiological work includes: excavating the above-guideline radioactive wastes on the vicinity properties; designing required facilities for the interim storage site; preparing the interim storage site to receive these contaminated materials; transporting the contaminated materials to the interim waste storage stockpile; and preparing necessary schedules for accomplishing the remedial actions. Chemical work involves: developing the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure plans; neutralizing chemical hazards associated with plating solutions; inventorying on-site chemicals; and disposal of chemicals and/or residues. 17 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  13. Maternal steroids and contaminants in common tern eggs: A mechanism of endocrine disruption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, J.B.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Schwabl, H.

    2001-01-01

    We looked for evidence for the hypothesis that exposure of female birds to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) results in alteration of blood steroid hormone concentrations and alters subsequent hormone transfer of steroids to eggs. Eggs of three-egg clutches were collected from a PCB-exposed common tern (Sterna hirundo) colony (Ram Island, Buzzards Bay, MA, USA) and from a relatively clean colony (Bodkin Island, Chesapeake Bay, MD, USA), and were analyzed for concentrations of organochlorine contaminants and steroid hormones (17β-estradiol, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone and androstenedione). There was no relationship between total PCBs and steroid concentrations considering all eggs together, considering eggs of different laying order or considering differences between sequentially laid eggs in a clutch. Similarly, concentrations of di- and tri-chlorinated biphenyls and steroids in eggs were not related. The concentrations of PCBs, mercury and selenium were below estimated thresholds for toxicity to embryos. Maternal steroids, except estradiol, were present in yolk of all eggs, with increasing concentrations in the second and third eggs laid. Our data provided no evidence for a maternal toxicological event that might alter the amount of maternal steroid hormone transferred to eggs.

  14. Hepatitis E and Maternal Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Alain Labrique, assistant professor in the Department of International Health and Department of Epidemiology at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, gives us his perspective on hepatitis E and maternal deaths.

  15. Maternity leave in normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Dean

    2011-08-01

    To assist maternity care providers in recognizing and discussing health- and illness-related issues in pregnancy and their relationship to maternity benefits. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in 2009 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., maternity benefits) and key words (e.g., maternity, benefits, pregnancy). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2009. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the web sites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies.

  16. Between Two Empires. Histoire des deux Indes And Modern Colonialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Pandolfi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article critically analyses the late eighteenth century process of crisis and transformation of the concept of empire. By considering Raynal’s Histoire des deux Indes and the Enlightenment’s critique of the different imperial models, Pandolfi reconstructs the transit from classic colonialism – built around the relations between settlers, savages and slaves – to another phase characterized by the indirect exploitation of the labour force. The text underlines the ambivalence of Enlightenment towards the question of the empire by demonstrating how Raynal’s work reflects the constitutive tension of the second half of the 1700s. Therefore, through Diderot’s analysis, the author demonstrates how the moral advancement of humanity is the product of a constant interaction between the colonial rhetoric of commerce and those revolutions, which, – in different moments and places – have crossed the colonial space.

  17. Trichuris trichiura in a post-Colonial Brazilian mummy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Bianucci

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Trichuris trichiura is a soil-transmitted helminth which is prevalent in warm, moist, tropical and subtropical regions of the world with poor sanitation. Heavy whipworm can result either in Trichuris dysenteric syndrome - especially in children - or in a chronic colitis. In heavy infections, worms can spread proximally and may cause ileitis. Here we provide first microscopic evidence for a T. trichiura adult worm embedded in the rectum of a post-Colonial Brazilian adult mummy. During Colonial and post-Colonial times, many European chroniclers described a parasitic disease named Maculo whose symptomatology coincides with heavy helminthiasis. Based on our findings and on comparison of ancient textual evidence with modern description of heavy whipworm, we feel confident in considering that the two syndromes are expressions of the same pathological condition.

  18. Queen introduction into the queenright honey bee colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonín Přidal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the actual elementary biologic principles of the introduction of queen is that the recipient co­lo­ny has to be queenless. We accidentally found that a queen can be accepted also in queenright co­lo­ny with using of the queen excluder. Therefore, we conducted two experiments with the introduction of queen in queenright colony.Under defined conditions of the experiment and with application of the queen excluder as a separator of queens we successfully introduced queen in the queenright colony. This result is discussed in relation to the general principle that a queen should be introduced only in a queenless colony. It is possible that there are some exceptions advert to the existence of some unknown biologic patterns in the honey bee biology and pheromones.

  19. Alexander von Humboldt's perceptions of colonial Spanish America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebok, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    This study presents an in-depth analysis of Alexander von Humboldt's descriptions and critical comments on the colonial society of the different regions he visited during his well-known expedition through the Americas (1799-1804). The criticisms of colonialism that he expressed, reflecting his personal convictions, have already been the focal point of many studies, but Humboldt also was able to offer a more differentiated assessment through comparisons of regional and local traditions and developments. This essay focuses on his personal diaries, which offer many interesting comments on colonial societies. These considerations and impressions made during the expedition are of particular scholarly value since they were not subject to censorship of any kind.

  20. Parachemistries: Colonial chemopolitics in a zone of contest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukharji, Projit Bihari

    2016-12-01

    The globalization of modern chemistry through European colonialism resulted, by the end of the nineteenth century, in the emergence of a number of parachemical knowledges. Parachemistries were bodies of non-European knowledge which came to be related to modern chemistry within particular historical milieux. Their relationship with modern chemistry was not necessarily epistemic and structural, but historical and performative. Actual historically located intellectuals posited their relationship. Such relationships were not merely abstract intellectual exercises; at a time when the practical uses of modern chemistry in statecraft were growing, the existence of these rival, competing parachemical knowledges challenged modern chemistry's regulatory deployments. Colonial locations emerged then not as mere 'contact zones', but as 'zones of conflict' where colonial chemopolitics was interrupted by the continued legitimacy and practice of parachemistries such as rasayana, kimiya, and neidan.

  1. Neonicotinoid pesticide reduces bumble bee colony growth and queen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehorn, Penelope R; O'Connor, Stephanie; Wackers, Felix L; Goulson, Dave

    2012-04-20

    Growing evidence for declines in bee populations has caused great concern because of the valuable ecosystem services they provide. Neonicotinoid insecticides have been implicated in these declines because they occur at trace levels in the nectar and pollen of crop plants. We exposed colonies of the bumble bee Bombus terrestris in the laboratory to field-realistic levels of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, then allowed them to develop naturally under field conditions. Treated colonies had a significantly reduced growth rate and suffered an 85% reduction in production of new queens compared with control colonies. Given the scale of use of neonicotinoids, we suggest that they may be having a considerable negative impact on wild bumble bee populations across the developed world.

  2. Taino and African maternal heritage in the Greater Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Areej; Luis, Javier Rodriguez; Alfonso-Sanchez, Miguel A; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Herrera, Rene J

    2017-12-30

    Notwithstanding the general interest and the geopolitical importance of the island countries in the Greater Antilles, little is known about the specific ancestral Native American and African populations that settled them. In an effort to alleviate this lacuna of information on the genetic constituents of the Greater Antilles, we comprehensively compared the mtDNA compositions of Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica and Puerto Rico. To accomplish this, the mtDNA HVRI and HVRII regions, as well as coding diagnostic sites, were assessed in the Haitian general population and compared to data from reference populations. The Taino maternal DNA is prominent in the ex-Spanish colonies (61.3%-22.0%) while it is basically non-existent in the ex-French and ex-English colonies of Haiti (0.0%) and Jamaica (0.5%), respectively. The most abundant Native American mtDNA haplogroups in the Greater Antilles are A2, B2 and C1. The African mtDNA component is almost fixed in Haiti (98.2%) and Jamaica (98.5%), and the frequencies of specific African haplogroups vary considerably among the five island nations. The strong persistence of Taino mtDNA in the ex-Spanish colonies (and especially in Puerto Rico), and its absence in the French and English excolonies is likely the result of different social norms regarding mixed marriages with Taino women during the early years after the first contact with Europeans. In addition, this article reports on the results of an integrative approach based on mtDNA analysis and demographic data that tests the hypothesis of a southward shift in raiding zones along the African west coast during the period encompassing the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  4. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  5. An Observational Study of Honey Bee Colony Winter Losses and Their Association with Varroa destructor, Neonicotinoids and Other Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zee, Romée; Gray, Alison; Pisa, Lennard; de Rijk, Theo

    2015-01-01

    This article presents results of an analysis of honey bee losses over the winter of 2011-2012 in the Netherlands, from a sample of 86 colonies, located at 43 apiaries. The apiaries were selected using spatially stratified random sampling. Colony winter loss data were collected and related to various measures of colony strength recorded in summer, as well as data from laboratory analysis of sample material taken from two selected colonies in each of the 43 apiaries. The logistic regression model which best explained the risk of winter loss included, in order of statistical importance, the variables (1) Varroa destructor mite infestation rate in October 2011, (2) presence of the cyano-substituted neonicotinoids acetamiprid or thiacloprid in the first 2 weeks of August 2011 in at least one of the honey bee matrices honey, bees or bee bread (pollen), (3) presence of Brassica napus (oilseed rape) or Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard) pollen in bee bread in early August 2011, and (4) a measure of the unexplained winter losses for the postal code area where the colonies were located, obtained from a different dataset. We consider in the discussion that reduced opportunities for foraging in July and August because of bad weather may have added substantially to the adverse effects of acetamiprid and thiacloprid. A novel feature of this work is its use of postal code random effects from two other independent datasets collected in the annual national monitoring by questionnaires of winter losses of honey bees in the Netherlands. These were used to plan the sample selection and also in the model fitting of the data in this study. It should however be noted that the results of the present pilot study are based on limited data, which may consequently reveal strong factors but fail to demonstrate possible interaction effects. PMID:26154346

  6. Charles River altered Schaedler flora (CRASF) remained stable for four years in a mouse colony housed in individually ventilated cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehr, Matthias; Greweling, Marina C; Tischer, Sabine; Singh, Mahavir; Blöcker, Helmut; Monner, David A; Müller, Werner

    2009-10-01

    As recommendations for specific pathogen-free housing change, mouse facilities need to re-derive their colonies repeatedly in order to eliminate specified bacteria or viruses. This paper describes the establishment of a new mouse facility using as starting point a small colony of CD-1 mice colonized with the Charles River altered Schaedler flora (CRASF) housed in individually ventilated cages (IVCs). The import of new strains was performed exclusively via embryo transfer using CD-1 mice as recipients. The integrity of the CRASF in caecum samples of the original CD-1 colony and of three inbred mouse lines imported into the colony was proven by a quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction approach. Furthermore, we searched for bacterial contaminants in the gut flora using non-specific 16S rRNA primers. The bacterial sequences found were closely related to but not exclusively sequences of altered Schaedler flora (ASF) members, suggesting that the ASF is heterogeneous rather than restricted to the eight defined bacteria. Moreover, no pathogens were found, neither using the non-specific 16S rRNA primers nor in routine quarterly health monitoring. As one effect of this defined gut flora, interleukin-10 knockout mice are devoid of colitis in our facility. In conclusion, our approach building up a mouse facility using foster mothers and embryo transfer as well as a strict barrier system and IVCs is suitable to maintain a colony free from contaminating bacteria over the long term. CRASF remained stable for seven mouse generations and was efficiently transferred to the imported mouse strains.

  7. An Observational Study of Honey Bee Colony Winter Losses and Their Association with Varroa destructor, Neonicotinoids and Other Risk Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romée van der Zee

    Full Text Available This article presents results of an analysis of honey bee losses over the winter of 2011-2012 in the Netherlands, from a sample of 86 colonies, located at 43 apiaries. The apiaries were selected using spatially stratified random sampling. Colony winter loss data were collected and related to various measures of colony strength recorded in summer, as well as data from laboratory analysis of sample material taken from two selected colonies in each of the 43 apiaries. The logistic regression model which best explained the risk of winter loss included, in order of statistical importance, the variables (1 Varroa destructor mite infestation rate in October 2011, (2 presence of the cyano-substituted neonicotinoids acetamiprid or thiacloprid in the first 2 weeks of August 2011 in at least one of the honey bee matrices honey, bees or bee bread (pollen, (3 presence of Brassica napus (oilseed rape or Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard pollen in bee bread in early August 2011, and (4 a measure of the unexplained winter losses for the postal code area where the colonies were located, obtained from a different dataset. We consider in the discussion that reduced opportunities for foraging in July and August because of bad weather may have added substantially to the adverse effects of acetamiprid and thiacloprid. A novel feature of this work is its use of postal code random effects from two other independent datasets collected in the annual national monitoring by questionnaires of winter losses of honey bees in the Netherlands. These were used to plan the sample selection and also in the model fitting of the data in this study. It should however be noted that the results of the present pilot study are based on limited data, which may consequently reveal strong factors but fail to demonstrate possible interaction effects.

  8. An Observational Study of Honey Bee Colony Winter Losses and Their Association with Varroa destructor, Neonicotinoids and Other Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zee, Romée; Gray, Alison; Pisa, Lennard; de Rijk, Theo

    2015-01-01

    This article presents results of an analysis of honey bee losses over the winter of 2011-2012 in the Netherlands, from a sample of 86 colonies, located at 43 apiaries. The apiaries were selected using spatially stratified random sampling. Colony winter loss data were collected and related to various measures of colony strength recorded in summer, as well as data from laboratory analysis of sample material taken from two selected colonies in each of the 43 apiaries. The logistic regression model which best explained the risk of winter loss included, in order of statistical importance, the variables (1) Varroa destructor mite infestation rate in October 2011, (2) presence of the cyano-substituted neonicotinoids acetamiprid or thiacloprid in the first 2 weeks of August 2011 in at least one of the honey bee matrices honey, bees or bee bread (pollen), (3) presence of Brassica napus (oilseed rape) or Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard) pollen in bee bread in early August 2011, and (4) a measure of the unexplained winter losses for the postal code area where the colonies were located, obtained from a different dataset. We consider in the discussion that reduced opportunities for foraging in July and August because of bad weather may have added substantially to the adverse effects of acetamiprid and thiacloprid. A novel feature of this work is its use of postal code random effects from two other independent datasets collected in the annual national monitoring by questionnaires of winter losses of honey bees in the Netherlands. These were used to plan the sample selection and also in the model fitting of the data in this study. It should however be noted that the results of the present pilot study are based on limited data, which may consequently reveal strong factors but fail to demonstrate possible interaction effects.

  9. Social and health behavioural determinants of maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Isabel; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Durão, Catarina; Moreira, Pedro; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Parental child-feeding attitudes and practices may compromise the development of healthy eating habits and adequate weight status in children. This study aimed to identify maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children and to evaluate their association with maternal social and health behavioural characteristics. Trained interviewers evaluated 4724 dyads of mothers and their 4-5-year-old child from the Generation XXI cohort. Maternal child-feeding attitudes and practices were assessed through the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Overt/Covert Control scale. Associations were estimated using linear regression [adjusted for maternal education, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake and child's BMI z-score]. Principal component analysis defined a three-factor structure explaining 58% of the total variance of maternal child-feeding patterns: perceived monitoring - representing mothers with higher levels of monitoring, perceived responsibility and overt control; restriction - characterizing mothers with higher covert control, restriction and concerns about child's weight; pressure to eat - identifying mothers with higher levels of pressure to eat and overt control. Lower socioeconomic status, better health perception, higher F&V intake and offspring cohabitation were associated with more 'perceived monitoring' mothers. Higher maternal F&V intake and depression were associated with more 'restrictive' mothers. Younger mothers, less educated, with poorer health perception and offspring cohabiting, were associated with higher use of 'pressure to eat'. Maternal socioeconomic indicators and family environment were more associated with perceived monitoring and pressure to eat, whereas maternal health behavioural characteristics were mainly associated with restriction. These findings will be helpful in future research and public health programmes on child-feeding patterns. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The regulation of ant colony foraging activity without spatial information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Prabhakar

    Full Text Available Many dynamical networks, such as the ones that produce the collective behavior of social insects, operate without any central control, instead arising from local interactions among individuals. A well-studied example is the formation of recruitment trails in ant colonies, but many ant species do not use pheromone trails. We present a model of the regulation of foraging by harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex barbatus colonies. This species forages for scattered seeds that one ant can retrieve on its own, so there is no need for spatial information such as pheromone trails that lead ants to specific locations. Previous work shows that colony foraging activity, the rate at which ants go out to search individually for seeds, is regulated in response to current food availability throughout the colony's foraging area. Ants use the rate of brief antennal contacts inside the nest between foragers returning with food and outgoing foragers available to leave the nest on the next foraging trip. Here we present a feedback-based algorithm that captures the main features of data from field experiments in which the rate of returning foragers was manipulated. The algorithm draws on our finding that the distribution of intervals between successive ants returning to the nest is a Poisson process. We fitted the parameter that estimates the effect of each returning forager on the rate at which outgoing foragers leave the nest. We found that correlations between observed rates of returning foragers and simulated rates of outgoing foragers, using our model, were similar to those in the data. Our simple stochastic model shows how the regulation of ant colony foraging can operate without spatial information, describing a process at the level of individual ants that predicts the overall foraging activity of the colony.

  11. Technology use, cesarean section rates, and perinatal mortality at Danish maternity wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, O; Jensen, L M; Weber, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Fifty-eight Danish maternity units, managing 99% of Danish deliveries, participated in a cross sectional study to assess the relationship between use of birth-related technologies, cesarean section rates and perinatal mortality for births after 35 completed weeks of gestation. A regional technology...... index (0-10) was calculated for each maternity unit according to its use of ante and intra partum fetal heart rate monitoring (FHM), hormone analysis (human placental lactogen (HPL) and/or estriol (O3)), fetal blood samples (scalp-pH), intrauterine catheter and umbilical cord-pH. Maternity units using...

  12. Maternal Factors Influencing Perinatal Transmission of HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Hypertension 37. *38. Infections *38. *a. cystitis *a. *b. pyelonephritis *b. *c. herpes *c. *d. vaginal candidiasis *d. *e. gonorrhea *e. *f. syphilis...after delivery and at 6 weeks and 6 months after the baby is born. Periodic blood tests, urine tests and vaginal cultures will be done to monitor...Maternal hemorrhage *32. *33. Other *33. DELIVERY *34. Type of Delivery (may choose only one) *34. 1 = Vertex Vaginal 2 = C-Section indication 3 = Breech

  13. Paradoxes of maternal mourning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, C W

    1991-02-01

    It has been customary to conceptualize mourning as a phasic or stage phenomenon (Lindemann 1944; Parkes 1972; Bowlby 1980; Knapp 1986). Such a conceptualization has proved to be of tremendous didactic value, especially in terms of succinctly organizing and communicating the major affects, behaviors, and reactions of mourning. It is, however, my belief, based upon clinical experience with many forms of bereavement, that the phenomenon of mourning is not comprised of clearly delineated stages and phases. I have come to conceptualize the phenomenon of mourning the death of a loved person as involving the bereaved's struggle with a series of more or less unresolvable paradoxes rather than as a progression through stages that possess relatively distinct and predictable beginning and ending points. The specific paradoxes encountered by a bereaved person differ, of course, in accordance with the relationship that was lost (mother, father, spouse, child, or sibling), the developmental stage of the bereaved (childhood, adolescence, adulthood, or maturity), the type of death (sudden or prolonged), and the cause of death (illness, murder, suicide, or accident). In this paper, I will address those paradoxes that seem specific to maternal mourning - that is, to mothers who are mourning the death of a child.

  14. Core Business Selection Based on Ant Colony Clustering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Core business is the most important business to the enterprise in diversified business. In this paper, we first introduce the definition and characteristics of the core business and then descript the ant colony clustering algorithm. In order to test the effectiveness of the proposed method, Tianjin Port Logistics Development Co., Ltd. is selected as the research object. Based on the current situation of the development of the company, the core business of the company can be acquired by ant colony clustering algorithm. Thus, the results indicate that the proposed method is an effective way to determine the core business for company.

  15. Redox signaling in the growth and development of colonial hydroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Neil W

    2003-02-01

    Redox signaling provides a quick and efficient mechanism for clonal or colonial organisms to adapt their growth and development to aspects of the environment, e.g. the food supply. A 'signature' of mitochondrial redox signaling, particularly as mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), can be elucidated by experimental manipulation of the electron transport chain. The major sites of ROS formation are found at NADH dehydrogenase of complex I and at the interface between coenzyme Q and complex III. Inhibitors of complex III should thus upregulate ROS from both sites; inhibitors of complex I should upregulate ROS from the first but not the second site, while uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation should downregulate ROS from both sites. To investigate the possibility of such redox signaling, perturbations of colony growth and development were carried out using the hydroid Podocoryna carnea. Oxygen uptake of colonies was measured to determine comparable physiological doses of antimycin A(1) (an inhibitor of complex III), rotenone (an inhibitor of complex I) and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP; an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation). Using these doses, clear effects on colony growth and development were obtained. Treatment with antimycin A(1) results in 'runner-like' colony growth, with widely spaced polyps and stolon branches, while treatment with CCCP results in 'sheet-like' growth, with closely spaced polyps and stolon branches. Parallel results have been obtained previously with azide, an inhibitor of complex IV, and dinitrophenol, another uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. Perhaps surprisingly, rotenone produced effects on colony development similar to those of CCCP. Assays of peroxides using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and fluorescent microscopy suggest a moderate difference in ROS formation between the antimycin and rotenone treatments. The second site of ROS formation (the interface between coenzyme Q and complex III) may thus

  16. Application of ant colony optimization in NPP classification fault location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Chunli; Liu Yongkuo; Xia Hong

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant is a highly complex structural system with high safety requirements. Fault location appears to be particularly important to enhance its safety. Ant Colony Optimization is a new type of optimization algorithm, which is used in the fault location and classification of nuclear power plants in this paper. Taking the main coolant system of the first loop as the study object, using VB6.0 programming technology, the NPP fault location system is designed, and is tested against the related data in the literature. Test results show that the ant colony optimization can be used in the accurate classification fault location in the nuclear power plants. (authors)

  17. Detection of fungi colony growth on bones by dynamic speckle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincitorio, F. M.; Budini, N.; Mulone, C.; Spector, M.; Freyre, C.; López Díaz, A. J.; Ramil, A.

    2013-11-01

    In this work we have studied the dynamic speckle patterns of mucor fungi colonies, which were inoculated on different samples. We were interested in analyzing the development of fungi colonies in bones, since during the last two years, a series of infections by mucor fungi have been reported on patients from different hospitals in Argentina. Coincidentally, all of these infections appeared on patients that were subjected to a surgical intervention for implantation of a titanium prosthesis. Apparently, the reason of the infection was a deficient sterilization process in conjunction with an accidental contamination. We observed that fungi growth, activity and death can be distinguished by means of the dynamic speckle technique.

  18. Generic model of morphological changes in growing colonies of fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Juan M.; Jensen, Henrik J.

    2002-02-01

    Fungal colonies are able to exhibit different morphologies depending on the environmental conditions. This allows them to cope with and adapt to external changes. When grown in solid or semisolid media the bulk of the colony is compact and several morphological transitions have been reported to occur as the external conditions are varied. Here we show how a unified simple mathematical model, which includes the effect of the accumulation of toxic metabolites, can account for the morphological changes observed. Our numerical results are in excellent agreement with experiments carried out with the fungus Aspergillus oryzae on solid agar.

  19. Edge detection in digital images using Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Kuchaki Rafsanjani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ant Colony Optimization (ACO is an optimization algorithm inspired by the behavior of real ant colonies to approximate the solutions of difficult optimization problems. In this paper, ACO is introduced to tackle the image edge detection problem. The proposed approach is based on the distribution of ants on an image; ants try to find possible edges by using a state transition function. Experimental results show that the proposed method compared to standard edge detectors is less sensitive to Gaussian noise and gives finer details and thinner edges when compared to earlier ant-based approaches.

  20. Testing the Temporal Relationship Between Maternal and Adolescent Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in a Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ruth C.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Dahne, Jennifer; Stratton, Kelcey J.; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C. W.; Amstadter, Ananda B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Transactional models have been used to explain the relationship between maternal depression and child behavioral problems; however, few studies have examined transactional models for maternal depression and adolescent depression and anxiety. Method Using an autoregressive cross-lagged analysis, we examined the longitudinal association between maternal and adolescent depression to determine the extent to which maternal depression influences adolescent depression and anxiety, and vice versa, over the course of a four-year period. Participants were a community sample of 277 mother-adolescent dyads with offspring aged 10–14 at the first year used in the analyses (43.7% female; 35% African American, 2.9% Hispanic/Latino). Depressive symptoms were assessed using maternal self-report (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale [CESD]; Radloff, 1977), and adolescent depression and anxiety were assessed by self-report (Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale [RCADS]; Chorpita, Yim, Moffitt, Umemoto, & Francis, 2000). Results The final model, χ2 (14) = 23.74, p= .05; TLI= .97; CFI= .98; RMSEA= .05, indicated that maternal depression was significantly associated with adolescent depression two years later. Interestingly, adolescent depression did not significantly predict maternal depression, and the association between maternal and adolescent depression was not moderated by gender, age, or ethnicity. The association between maternal depression and adolescent anxiety was weaker than that observed for adolescent depression. Conclusions Results suggest that the transaction model of maternal depression may not extend to adolescent depression and anxiety. Furthermore, maternal depression can have an enduring effect on adolescent depression and continued research and clinical monitoring over extended periods of time is warranted. PMID:24702257

  1. Maternal and pregnancy related predictors of cardiometabolic traits in newborns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Morrison

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influence of multiple maternal and pregnancy characteristics on offspring cardiometabolic traits at birth is not well understood and was evaluated in this study. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life (FAMILY Study prospectively evaluated 11 cardiometabolic traits in 901 babies born to 857 mothers. The influence of maternal age, health (pre-pregnancy weight, blood pressure, glycemic status, lipids, health behaviors (diet, activity, smoking and pregnancy characteristics (gestational age at birth, gestational weight gain and placental-fetal ratio were examined. Greater gestational age influenced multiple newborn cardiometabolic traits including cord blood lipids, glucose and insulin, body fat and blood pressure. In a subset of 442 singleton mother/infant pairs, principal component analysis grouped 11 newborn cardiometabolic traits into 5 components (anthropometry/insulin, 2 lipid components, blood pressure and glycemia, accounting for 74% of the variance of the 11 outcome variables. Determinants of these components, corrected for sex and gestational age, were examined. Baby anthropometry/insulin was independently predicted by higher maternal pre-pregnancy weight (standardized estimate 0.30 and gestational weight gain (0.30; both p<0.0001 and was inversely related to smoking during pregnancy (-0.144; p = 0.01 and maternal polyunsaturated to saturated fat intake (-0.135;p = 0.01. Component 2 (HDL-C/Apo Apolipoprotein1 was inversely associated with maternal age. Component 3 (blood pressure was not clustered with any other newborn cardiometabolic trait and no associations with maternal pregnancy characteristics were identified. Component 4 (triglycerides was positively associated with maternal hypertension and triglycerides, and inversely associated with maternal HDL and age. Component 5 (glycemia was inversely associated with placental/fetal ratio (-0.141; p = 0.005. LDL-C was a bridging

  2. Traditional vocations and modern professions among Tamil Brahmans in colonial and post-colonial south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C J; Narasimhan, Haripriya

    2010-01-01

    Since the nineteenth century, Tamil Brahmans have been very well represented in the educated professions, especially law and administration, medicine, engineering and nowadays, information technology. This is partly a continuation of the Brahmans' role as literate service people, owing to their traditions of education, learning and literacy, but the range of professions shows that any direct continuity is more apparent than real. Genealogical data are particularly used as evidence about changing patterns of employment, education and migration. Caste traditionalism was not a determining constraint, for Tamil Brahmans were predominant in medicine and engineering as well as law and administration in the colonial period, even though medicine is ritually polluting and engineering resembles low-status artisans' work. Crucially though, as modern, English-language, credential-based professions that are wellpaid and prestigious, law, medicine and engineering were and are all deemed eminently suitable for Tamil Brahmans, who typically regard their professional success as a sign of their caste superiority in the modern world. In reality, though, it is mainly a product of how their old social and cultural capital and their economic capital in land were transformed as they seized new educational and employment opportunities by flexibly deploying their traditional, inherited skills and advantages.

  3. Maternal scaffolding in a disadvantaged global context: The influence of working memory and cognitive capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obradović, Jelena; Portilla, Ximena A; Tirado-Strayer, Nicole; Siyal, Saima; Rasheed, Muneera A; Yousafzai, Aisha K

    2017-03-01

    The current study focuses on maternal cognitive capacities as determinants of parenting in a highly disadvantaged global context, where children's experiences at home are often the 1st and only opportunity for learning and intellectual growth. In a large sample of 1,291 biological mothers of preschool-aged children in rural Pakistan, we examined the unique association of maternal working memory skills (independent of related cognitive capacities) with cognitively stimulating parenting behaviors. Path analysis revealed that directly assessed working memory, short-term memory, and verbal intelligence independently predicted greater levels of observed maternal scaffolding behaviors. Mothers from poorer families demonstrated lower levels of working memory, short-term memory, and verbal intelligence. However, mothers' participation in an early childhood parenting intervention that ended 2 years prior to this study contributed to greater levels of working memory skills and verbal intelligence. Further, all 3 domains of maternal cognitive capacity mediated the effect of family economic resources on maternal scaffolding, and verbal intelligence also mediated the effect of early parenting intervention exposure on maternal scaffolding. The study demonstrates the unique relevance of maternal working memory for scaffolding behaviors that required continuously monitoring the child's engagement, providing assistance, and minimizing external distractions. These results highlight the importance of directly targeting maternal cognitive capacities in poor women with little or no formal education, using a 2-generation intervention approach that includes activities known to promote parental executive functioning and literacy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Nocturnal activity patterns of northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) during the maternity season in West Virginia (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.B.; Edwards, J.W.; Ford, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Nocturnal activity patterns of northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) at diurnal roost trees remain largely uninvestigated. For example, the influence of reproductive status, weather, and roost tree and surrounding habitat characteristics on timing of emergence, intra-night activity, and entrance at their roost trees is poorly known. We examined nocturnal activity patterns of northern myotis maternity colonies during pregnancy and lactation at diurnal roost trees situated in areas that were and were not subjected to recent prescribed fires at the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia from 2007 to 2009. According to exit counts and acoustic data, northern myotis colony sizes were similar between reproductive periods and roost tree settings. However, intra-night activity patterns differed slightly between reproductive periods and roost trees in burned and non-burned areas. Weather variables poorly explained variation in activity patterns during pregnancy, but precipitation and temperature were negatively associated with activity patterns during lactation. ?? Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS.

  5. Workers' Extra-Nest Behavioral Changes During Colony Fission in Dinoponera quadriceps (Santschi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, J; Araújo, A

    2014-04-01

    Ant colonies can reproduce by two strategies: independent foundation, wherein the queen starts a new colony alone, and dependent foundation, in which workers assist the queen. In the queenless species Dinoponera quadriceps (Santschi), the colony reproduces obligatorily by fission, a type of dependent foundation, but this process is not well understood. This study describes a colony fission event of D. quadriceps in the field and analyzes the influence of the fission process on workers' extra-nest behavior. Based on observations of workers outside the nest, five distinct stages were identified: monodomic stage, polydomic stage, split stage, conflict stage, and post-conflict stage. The colony was initially monodomic and then occupied a second nest before it split into two independent colonies, indicating a gradual and opportunistic dependent foundation. After the fission event, the daughter colony had aggressive conflicts with the parental colony, resulting in the latter's disappearance. Colony fission affected workers' extra-nest behavior by increasing the frequency of rubbing the gaster against the substrate (which probably has a chemical marking function) and by decreasing the frequency of foraging during the split stage. After the fission event, the number of foragers was halved and foragers remained nearer to the nest during extra-nest activity. The spatial closeness of the parental and daughter colonies led to competition that caused the extinction or migration of the parental colony. Intraspecific competition was indicated by foraging directionality at the colony level, whereby areas of neighbor colonies were avoided; this directionality was stronger while both colonies coexisted.

  6. Is there a Space for Post-Colonial Theory in the Socio-Psychological Research on Consequences of Colonial Past?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Giovanna

    2018-04-26

    The focus of my commentary is two-fold. First, I discuss what appeared to me as the central theoretical focus of the article; the possibility to create a space, if at all, for integrating post-colonial theory into the broader research field of social and psychological studies of the consequences of colonial past. Second, I intend to show why, in my opinion, the methodological choices of the authors and the criteria adopted for corpus construction allowed for data that, although too thin to establishing the state of knowledge in the field of study on consequences of colonial past, is nevertheless very informative and thoughts-provoking. My conclusions suggest that this study is an innovative attempt at describing and grasping the results of a search guided by two among the more consolidated electronic datasets currently available for English-speaking scholars. However, this study may not easily understand which can be the space to integrate post-colonial theory in the field of research on consequences of colonial past. To better reach this aim, it is perhaps necessary to build another kind of corpus, open to other languages (starting from French) and focused also on other scientific products, as books or proceedings of congress. In addition, disciplinary boundaries have to be even more explored, starting from interdisciplinary studies on education and historical culture. In spite of these limitations, I am convinced that this innovative study by Tomicic and Berardi tackles issues of relevance to any serious effort towards reflecting on long-term consequences of colonial violence and opens up to valuable new research questions and methods, to be taken into serious account and further explored in future works.

  7. Maternal scaffolding behavior: links with parenting style and maternal education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Amanda; Pike, Alison

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to specify the relationship between positive and harsh parenting and maternal scaffolding behavior. A 2nd aim was to disentangle the effects of maternal education and parenting quality, and a 3rd aim was to test whether parenting quality mediated the association between maternal education and scaffolding practices. We examined associations between positive and harsh parenting practices and contingent and noncontingent tutoring strategies. Ninety-six mother-child dyads (49 boys, 47 girls) from working- and middle-class English families participated. Mothers reported on parenting quality at Time 1 when children were 5 years old and again approximately 5 years later at Time 2. Mother-child pairs were observed working together on a block design task at Time 2, and interactions were coded for contingent (contingent shifting) and noncontingent (fixed failure feedback) dimensions of maternal scaffolding behavior. Positive and harsh parenting accounted for variance in contingent behavior over and above maternal education, whereas only harsh parenting accounted for unique variance in noncontingent scaffolding practices. Our findings provide new evidence for a more differentiated model of the relation between general parenting quality and specific scaffolding behaviors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Pigments identification in Havana Colonial wall painting by portable XRF System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazca, J.; Mendoza, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Rodriguez, T.

    2001-01-01

    The Havana City historical center is being recuperated in the las years. Numerous are the colonial houses with values typical wall painting as internal decoration that need to be investigated and restored. The pigment identification is essential to have knowledge about pictorial technique and to help and monitor the restoration process. The identification of inorganic pigments in the Havana colonial wall painting has been not almost studied. The opportunity to have a new Portable XRF system in the Archaeometry laboratory of the Conservation and Restoration Gabinet of Havana Historitian Office allows to investigate the wall painting, samples that because of its more of this nature it would be impossible to move to the laboratory for non destructive analysis. The most of the pigment are made of inorganic elements and they can be identified property by XRF technique. All complete archaeometric investigation has to use several technique and to work in a multidisciplinary research team to give a fundamental answer about the past, The suitable techniques selection to employ depends of the art Historitian and archaeologist's questions. The pictorial technique are traditionally investigated using stratigraphical information obtained by Optical Microscopy and organic compound determination by Gas Chromatography. The global analysis of the results from the different employed techniques and the discussion from the restaurateur point of view is presented

  9. Application of ant colony optimisation in distribution transformer sizing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study proposes an optimisation method for transformer sizing in power system using ant colony optimisation and a verification of the process by MATLAB software. The aim is to address the issue of transformer sizing which is a major challenge affecting its effective performance, longevity, huge capital cost and power ...

  10. Colonial Conflicts in Contemporary Northern Ghana: A Historical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-12

    Feb 12, 2016 ... Wars and conflicts in African history during the Cold War were generally seen by .... Gonja was destroyed by the German and British colonial enterprise .... illustrated the position of the sub-chiefs as he expressed the optimism ...

  11. Representation of Mozambicans in the work domain in the colonial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fact that all three collocates bancários, altos and públicos are contained in category funcionários ...... Gênero e Trabalho Doméstico numa Sociedade Colonial: Lourenço. Marques .... 17 elos caminhos pouco honrosos de uma política anti-.

  12. Language of power: Pidgin in the colonial governance of Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notably, British colonial authorities adopted pidgin as a language of government in Northern Nigeria, as they lacked a wider medium for inter-ethnic communication. African political agents were employed as intermediaries, based on their knowledge of pidgin and other local languages, enabling them bridge communication ...

  13. Specialty in Colonial Governance: the Place of Political Agents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Political agents were special among African employees who were directly employed in the British colonial administration of northern Nigeria, as distinct from traditional ruling officials. Political agents were unique, as they commanded knowledge of local languages and cultures as well as some knowledge of English and ...

  14. Conquest, Colonial Education and Cultural Uprootedness in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notwithstanding the benefits of Western education to the Africans it had the major negative effect on the Africans of culturally uprooting the Africans from their autochthonous culture consciously or otherwise, into a foreign and alien Western culture.. The argument of this paper is that colonial education was and is still ...

  15. Post-Colonial Practice in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie's Purple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper concludes therefore, that it is only when African people's culture and identity are respected by especially those who are non-Africans, that there can be true termination of the colonial process in African continent, as this is the main gamut of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie's writing in Purple Hibiscus.

  16. Genealogies of Coloniality and Implications for Africa's Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African people who subsisted under Walter D. Mignolo (2000, 2011) termed ... Historically speaking, the reality of a long interaction of Africa with the outside world even prior to ... of direct colonialism to exist as a global power structure underpinning the ...... the superpowers in such places Angola and Mozambique. Both the ...

  17. Morphological Instabilities in a Growing Yeast Colony: Experiment and Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sams, Thomas; Sneppen, Kim; Jensen, Mogens

    1997-01-01

    We study the growth of colonies of the yeast Pichia membranaefaciens on agarose film. The growth conditions are controlled in a setup where nutrients are supplied through an agarose film suspended over a solution of nutrients. As the thickness of the agarose film is varied, the morphology of the ...

  18. Ukubhinya : Gender and Sexual Violence in Bulawayo, Colonial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Ukubhinya: Gender and Sexual Violence in Bulawayo, Colonial Zimbabwe, 1946-1956. Koni Benson, Joyce Chadya. Abstract. No Abstract Available Zambezia (2003), XXX (i): 108-133. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...

  19. PARAMETER ESTIMATION OF VALVE STICTION USING ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kalaivani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a procedure for quantifying valve stiction in control loops based on ant colony optimization has been proposed. Pneumatic control valves are widely used in the process industry. The control valve contains non-linearities such as stiction, backlash, and deadband that in turn cause oscillations in the process output. Stiction is one of the long-standing problems and it is the most severe problem in the control valves. Thus the measurement data from an oscillating control loop can be used as a possible diagnostic signal to provide an estimate of the stiction magnitude. Quantification of control valve stiction is still a challenging issue. Prior to doing stiction detection and quantification, it is necessary to choose a suitable model structure to describe control-valve stiction. To understand the stiction phenomenon, the Stenman model is used. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO, an intelligent swarm algorithm, proves effective in various fields. The ACO algorithm is inspired from the natural trail following behaviour of ants. The parameters of the Stenman model are estimated using ant colony optimization, from the input-output data by minimizing the error between the actual stiction model output and the simulated stiction model output. Using ant colony optimization, Stenman model with known nonlinear structure and unknown parameters can be estimated.

  20. Sensitivity analyses for simulating pesticide impacts on honey bee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    We employ Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis techniques to describe the population dynamics of pesticide exposure to a honey bee colony using the VarroaPop + Pesticide model. Simulations are performed of hive population trajectories with and without pesti...

  1. Sensitivity analysis for simulating pesticide impacts on honey bee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Regulatory agencies assess risks to honey bees from pesticides through a tiered process that includes predictive modeling with empirical toxicity and chemical data of pesticides as a line of evidence. We evaluate the Varroapop colony model, proposed by...

  2. Honeybee Colony Vibrational Measurements to Highlight the Brood Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bencsik

    Full Text Available Insect pollination is of great importance to crop production worldwide and honey bees are amongst its chief facilitators. Because of the decline of managed colonies, the use of sensor technology is growing in popularity and it is of interest to develop new methods which can more accurately and less invasively assess honey bee colony status. Our approach is to use accelerometers to measure vibrations in order to provide information on colony activity and development. The accelerometers provide amplitude and frequency information which is recorded every three minutes and analysed for night time only. Vibrational data were validated by comparison to visual inspection data, particularly the brood development. We show a strong correlation between vibrational amplitude data and the brood cycle in the vicinity of the sensor. We have further explored the minimum data that is required, when frequency information is also included, to accurately predict the current point in the brood cycle. Such a technique should enable beekeepers to reduce the frequency with which visual inspections are required, reducing the stress this places on the colony and saving the beekeeper time.

  3. Okaholo: Contract labour system and lessons for post colonial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These aspects are relevant when exploring the exploitation and attempts at totalitarian control by the colonial administration that nurtured class consciousness and political militancy. The exploitative and repressive conditions entrenched in the contract labour system persisted since the inception of Kavango and Ovambo ...

  4. Recruitment strategies and colony size in social insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planque, R.; van den Berg, G.J.B.; Franks, N.R.

    2010-01-01

    Ants use a great variety of recruitment methods to forage for food or find new nests, including tandem running, group recruitment and scent trails. It has been known for some time that there is a loose correlation across many taxa between species-specific mature colony size and recruitment method.

  5. Conflict and conflict resolution in Africa: Engaging the colonial factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By engaging the colonial factor in African confl icts, this article seeks to understand the ineffectiveness of efforts at confl ict management in overcoming the disasters that brought the confl icts to the African continent. It claims that confl ict in Africa does not always stem primarily from crises of national governance and the ...

  6. Education of the Peasantry in Zimbabwe as Internal Colonialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munyaradzi Hwami

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article utilizes internal colonial analyses to explore and understand the difficult educational conditions students from peasantry background experience in Zimbabwe’s universities. The article proposes that the subordinate position and related educational experiences of peasantry students since the year 2000 are exploitative and to the advantage of the elite to such an extent that peasants are an internal colony. The analysis is informed by critical anti-colonial perspectives that observe the hegemonic tendencies of global and local capital in collusion with dictatorial elite nationalists. By use of a critical interpretive case study of purposefully sampled students and other relevant members of the university community from one public university, disturbing student experiences were excavated. Student narratives and experiences were analyzed using the constant comparative method and led to the conclusion that there is internal colonialism in Zimbabwe where an alliance of the state and the local and global corporate world are colluding to maintain their economic and political dominance. The article challenges those in education and academics that there is need for the decolonization of education by first identifying contemporary hegemonic forces and recognizing students from the peasantry as victims of the emerging kleptocratic capitalism.

  7. Counter-Insurgency in the Cape Colony, 1872 - 1882 | Kotze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acceptance of responsible government in 1872 entailed that the Cape Colony had to provide its own security arrangements. The two British regiments that were still deployed at ... The Molteno as well as the Sprigg ministry eventually paid the highest political price for the failure of their respective defence schemes not ...

  8. Building a repository on European colonial architecture and town planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijker, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    During the past two years the TU Delft Library has developed a repository to store data about architecture and town planning in the former Dutch colonies. Historical images, books, journals and archives coming from libraries and museums are scanned and stored into the repository. Information about

  9. Reflected scatterometry for noninvasive interrogation of bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A phenotyping of bacterial colonies on agar plates using forward-scattering diffraction-pattern analysis provided promising classification of several different bacteria such as Salmonella, Vibrio, Listeria, and E. coli. Since the technique is based on forward-scattering phenomena, light transmittanc...

  10. Remembering colonial violence: Inter/textual strategies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intertextuality with the colonial archive as well as oral African narrations is a recurrent feature of these texts. The short stories of Lomami Tchibamba, of the first generation of Congolese authors writing in French, are analysed as examples for a dominantly allegorical narration. Mythical creatures taken from the context of oral ...

  11. colonial military intelligence in the zulu rebellion, 1906

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The colonial forces were well adapted to the local circumstances, but in one important respect they drew heavily on imperial experience, namely military field intelligence. .... There was a militia library, and for a while, militia orders listed new ..... intelligence called the questioning of women “a very difficult matter” in which a.

  12. Ant Colony Optimization and the Minimum Cut Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kötzing, Timo; Lehre, Per Kristian; Neumann, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a powerful metaheuristic for solving combinatorial optimization problems. With this paper we contribute to the theoretical understanding of this kind of algorithm by investigating the classical minimum cut problem. An ACO algorithm similar to the one that was prov...

  13. Lessons in modularity: the evolutionary ecology of colonial invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger N. Hughes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Benthic colonial invertebrates share with higher plants a modular construction and a sessile adult life. Both types of organism show parallel evolutionary responses to common selective forces, but in contrast to the long-established focus on plants, comparable study of colonial invertebrates has developed relatively recently, largely owing to the application of new techniques in image processing and molecular biology. Species whose life cycles are readily completed under laboratory conditions and whose colonies are easily propagated from cuttings provide powerful models for experimentally investigating fundamental evolutionary problems, including metabolic allometry, the manifestation of ageing and the origin of allorecognition systems. Free of the confounding influences of behavioural manipulation and costs of copulation, colonial invertebrates whose water-borne sperm fertilize retained eggs lend themselves well to the experimental study of cryptic female choice, sperm competition and sexual conflict. In these respects, it will be productive to adopt and extend theoretical frameworks developed for flowering plants to guide experimental investigation of modular animals. Since mate choice occurs at the cellular level in modular animals, reproductive isolation is uncorrelated with morphology and cryptic speciation is likely to be widespread.

  14. Development of Colonial Medical and Health Services in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of History and Diplomatic Studies ... There is no doubt that medicine is important in the history of any society. ... This limitation of colonial medical intervention coupled with age old medical ideas in Ibadan consequently occasioned the continuity of indigenous medical culture and adaptation of Western medicine in ...

  15. Characterisation of bovine epiblast-derived outgrowth colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Gjørret, Jakob; Schauser, Kirsten Hallundbæk

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterise bovine epiblast-derived outgrowth colonies (OCs) with respect to the embryonic origin of their cellular components. Epiblasts were isolated mechanically from bovine Day 12 embryos. Epiblasts were cultured on feeder layers of SNL cells (neomycin...

  16. Trial by fire: Social spider colony demographics in periodically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have shown significant negative effects of burning on the abundance, species diversity and community composition of smaller vertebrates and invertebrates. Social arthropods are likely to suffer from repeated burning, as destruction of the colony means a permanent loss of the entire reproductive unit. Nests of social ...

  17. Art Education in Colonial India: Implementation and Imposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantawala, Ami

    2012-01-01

    Historical inquiry in art education forms the basis of any research undertaken in the field. It is on this path that we discover ignored moments and personalities and clarify challenging ideas, thus approaching history from multiple perspectives. This historical study attempts to reframe the past of colonial Indian art education within the broader…

  18. Disruptive colonial boundaries and attempts to resolve land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    villages because the former used the treaty to encroach on land that belonged to the latter. .... The taxation policies of the Germans, and later the British colonial administration, also introduced boundary disputes in the region. German ..... Second, use of the principle of effective occupation was unreasonable; for example, it ...

  19. Climate Shocks and Conflict: Evidence from colonial Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, K.I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a historical micro-level analysis of the impact of climatic shocks on the incidence of conflict in colonial Nigeria (1912–1945). Primary historical sources on court cases, prisoners and homicides are used to construct an index of socio-political conflict using principal component

  20. Climate Shocks and Conflict: Evidence from colonial Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, Kostadis

    This paper offers a historical micro-level analysis of the impact of climatic shocks on the incidence of conflict in colonial Nigeria (1912–1945). Primary historical sources on court cases, prisoners and homicides are used to construct an index of socio-political conflict using principal component

  1. The Nigerian Marine Department contribution to British colonial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the contributions of the Marine Department to the development of the colonial economy and its impact on the maritime development of ... paper finds out that the activities of the Marine Department opened up the littoral routes through the dredging of Nigeria's maritime environment for trade between the ...

  2. The bleaching syndrome: manifestation of a post-colonial pathology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The post-colonial root of African problems is directly related to skin color. Under the cloak of personal preference, light skin among African women has replaced dark skin as the native ideal. The aftermath is manifestation of the Bleaching Syndrome. Social Work professionals have overlooked the Bleaching Syndrome as ...

  3. Itinerary in Kenya colony and the union of South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas Geesteranus, R.A.

    1952-01-01

    In 1949 a trip was made to Kenya Colony, British East Africa, with the aim of collecting Phanerogamic plants and Ferns. The intention was to collect 12 sets of each number which I managed to do for about 70 %. Except for the first set which will be incorporated in the Rijksherbarium, the plants will

  4. The Impacts of Slavery and Colonialism on African Traditional Music ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fact that slavery and colonialism are two inhuman policies that plagued the African people's culture with indelible and irreparable consequences is not a debatable issue. While reparations are being demanded by African nationalists from the Western European and United States of America, with focus on labour, man ...

  5. Objects of English Colonial Discourse: The Irish and Native Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harding, David

    2005-01-01

    Upon embarking on the colonial project of the First British Empire, it was necessary to develop a discourse of empire. This discourse served the purpose of legitimizing imperial conquest by demonizing peoples targeted for colonization. The demonization was accomplished by caricaturing colonized...

  6. Counter-Insurgency in the Cape Colony, 1872 - 1882

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and those of the Western Province regarding the prospect of war with the Xhosa. ... out, would be so limited in nature that a well organised police force would be able to ...... and way of life that followed in the wake of colonial rule, intolerable.

  7. British colonial administration, development of Islam and lslamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    British policy towards religion in colonial Africa was influenced by its intrinsic value to the maintenance of a very strong administration over the continent and achieving the socio-economic objectives Britain set itself at the beginning of its colonization. The Benin Kingdom had been largely untouched by any world religion ...

  8. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of honey bees (Apis mellifera) from unmanaged colonies and swarms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Roxane M; Tripodi, Amber D; Szalanski, Allen L

    2014-06-01

    To study the genetic diversity of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) from unmanaged colonies in the United States, we sequenced a portion of the mitochondrial DNA COI-COII region. From the 530 to 1,230 bp amplicon, we observed 23 haplotypes from 247 samples collected from 12 states, representing three of the four A. mellifera lineages known to have been imported into the United States (C, M, and O). Six of the 13 C lineage haplotypes were not found in previous queen breeder studies in the United States. The O lineage accounted for 9% of unmanaged colonies which have not yet been reported in queen breeder studies. The M lineage accounted for a larger portion of unmanaged samples (7%) than queen breeder samples (3%). Based on our mitochondrial DNA data, the genetic diversity of unmanaged honey bees in the United States differs significantly from that of queen breeder populations (p < 0.00001). The detection of genetically distinct maternal lineages of unmanaged honey bees suggests that these haplotypes may have existed outside the managed honey bee population for a long period.

  9. Queen-worker caste ratio depends on colony size in the pharaoh ant (Monomorium pharaonis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anna Mosegaard; Linksvayer, Timothy Arnold; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2011-01-01

    The success of an ant colony depends on the simultaneous presence of reproducing queens and nonreproducing workers in a ratio that will maximize colony growth and reproduction. Despite its presumably crucial role, queen–worker caste ratios (the ratio of adult queens to workers) and the factors...... affecting this variable remain scarcely studied. Maintaining polygynous pharaoh ant (Monomorium pharaonis) colonies in the laboratory has provided us with the opportunity to experimentally manipulate colony size, one of the key factors that can be expected to affect colony level queen–worker caste ratios...... species with budding colonies may adaptively adjust caste ratios to ensure rapid growth....

  10. A Burkholderia pseudomallei colony variant necessary for gastric colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, C R; Goodyear, A W; Bartek, I L; Stewart, A; Sutherland, M D; Silva, E B; Zweifel, A; Vitko, N P; Tuanyok, A; Highnam, G; Mittelman, D; Keim, P; Schweizer, H P; Vázquez-Torres, A; Dow, S W C; Voskuil, M I

    2015-02-03

    Diverse colony morphologies are a hallmark of Burkholderia pseudomallei recovered from infected patients. We observed that stresses that inhibit aerobic respiration shifted populations of B. pseudomallei from the canonical white colony morphotype toward two distinct, reversible, yet relatively stable yellow colony variants (YA and YB). As accumulating evidence supports the importance of B. pseudomallei enteric infection and gastric colonization, we tested the response of yellow variants to hypoxia, acidity, and stomach colonization. Yellow variants exhibited a competitive advantage under hypoxic and acidic conditions and alkalized culture media. The YB variant, although highly attenuated in acute virulence, was the only form capable of colonization and persistence in the murine stomach. The accumulation of extracellular DNA (eDNA) was a characteristic of YB as observed by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining of gastric tissues, as well as in an in vitro stomach model where large amounts of eDNA were produced without cell lysis. Transposon mutagenesis identified a transcriptional regulator (BPSL1887, designated YelR) that when overexpressed produced the yellow phenotype. Deletion of yelR blocked a shift from white to the yellow forms. These data demonstrate that YB is a unique B. pseudomallei pathovariant controlled by YelR that is specifically adapted to the harsh gastric environment and necessary for persistent stomach colonization. Seemingly uniform populations of bacteria often contain subpopulations that are genetically identical but display unique characteristics which offer advantages when the population is faced with infrequent but predictable stresses. The pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei is capable of forming several reversible colony types, and it interconverted between one white type and two yellow types under certain environmental stresses. The two yellow forms exhibited distinct advantages in low-oxygen and acidic environments. One yellow

  11. Sudden deaths and colony population decline in Greek honey bee colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacandritsos, N; Granato, A; Budge, G; Papanastasiou, I; Roinioti, E; Caldon, M; Falcaro, C; Gallina, A; Mutinelli, F

    2010-11-01

    During June and July of 2009, sudden deaths, tremulous movements and population declines of adult honey bees were reported by the beekeepers in the region of Peloponnesus (Mt. Mainalo), Greece. A preliminary study was carried out to investigate these unexplained phenomena in this region. In total, 37 bee samples, two brood frames containing honey bee brood of various ages, eight sugar samples and four sugar patties were collected from the affected colonies. The samples were tested for a range of pests, pathogens and pesticides. Symptomatic adult honey bees tested positive for Varroa destructor, Nosema ceranae, Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), Acute paralysis virus (ABPV), Deformed wing virus (DWV), Sacbrood virus (SBV) and Black queen cell virus (BQCV), but negative for Acarapis woodi. American Foulbrood was absent from the brood samples. Chemical analysis revealed that amitraz, thiametoxan, clothianidin and acetamiprid were all absent from symptomatic adult bees, sugar and sugar patty samples. However, some bee samples, were contaminated with imidacloprid in concentrations between 14 ng/g and 39 ng/g tissue. We present: the infection of Greek honey bees by multiple viruses; the presence of N. ceranae in Greek honey bees and the first record of imidacloprid (neonicotonoid) residues in Greek honey bee tissues. The presence of multiple pathogens and pesticides made it difficult to associate a single specific cause to the depopulation phenomena observed in Greece, although we believe that viruses and N. ceranae synergistically played the most important role. A follow-up in-depth survey across all Greek regions is required to provide context to these preliminary findings. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. From conquest to independence: the nigerian colonial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunde Oduwobi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este documento es un análisis panorámico de la imposición y el carácter de la administración colonial británica en Nigeria. Comienza por examinar los factores y circunstancias que facilitó la intrusión de los británicos en el área de nigeriano. El evento más importante en este desarrollo fue la conquista de los Lagos en 1851 y su incorporación formal como una colonia diez años más tarde en 1861. Simultáneamente, influencia británica propagación en el interior de Lagos y de la parte inferior del Níger. Tal, sin embargo, fue el personaje de la penetración británica que cuando en 1900 control político fue formalmente establecido sobre el área de nigeriano tomó forma tripartita de tres administraciones autónomas. Estos tres posteriormente se convirtió en amalgamados en 1914 para formar el estado de Nigeria; Sin embargo, no se borraron las tradiciones administrativas tripartitas y permanecieron como fuerzas latentes modificar el desarrollo histórico del país. Así, en el ocaso de la época colonial, nacionalismo nigeriano, desarrollando como lo fue terminar el colonialismo británico, se convirtió en adulterado negativamente por el nacionalismo étnico en los fuertes pilares de las tradiciones tripartitas fomentadas por el gobierno colonial británico. Por lo tanto el estado nigeriano surgió del colonialismo con el problema de forjar la unidad política.Palabras clave: Nigeria, colonialismo, independencia___________________________Abstract:This paper is a panoramic discussion of the imposition and character of colonial British administration in Nigeria. It begins by examining the factors and circumstances which facilitated the intrusion of the British in the Nigerian area. The most important event in this development was the conquest of the Lagos in 1851 and its formal incorporation as a colony ten years later in 1861. Concomitantly, British influence spread into the hinterland from Lagos and from the lower reaches of the

  13. Colonie Interim Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 1130 Central Avenue, Colonie, New York. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) and provides the results for 1992. The site is located in eastern New York State, approximately 6.4 km (4.0 mi) northwest of downtown Albany. From 1958 to 1984, National Lead (NL) Industries used the facility to manufacture various components from depleted and enriched uranium natural thorium. Environmental monitoring of CISS began in 1984 when Congress added, the site to the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). FUSRAP is a program established to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation`s atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The environmental surveillance program at CISS includes sampling networks for external gamma radiation exposure and for thorium-232 and total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Several chemical parameters are also measured in groundwater, including total metals, volatile organics, and water quality parameters. This surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses. Results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements.

  14. Prehospital maternity care in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenberg, Signe; Puntervoll, Stein Atle; Øian, Pål

    2011-11-29

    Out-of-hospital maternity care in Norway is randomly organised and not properly formalized. We wished to examine the extent, organisation and quality of this service. We obtained information from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry on all unplanned out-of-hospital births in 2008. A questionnaire was sent to all maternity institutions, municipalities and emergency dispatch centres, with questions regarding the practical and formal organisation of the service using figures from 2008. 430 children, all above 22 weeks gestation, were born unplanned outside of hospitals in Norway in 2008. Of these, 194 were born unplanned at home, 189 while being transported and 47 in other locations (doctor's offices, infirmaries, unknown). Five out of 53 maternity institutions (9 %) confirmed they had a formal midwife service agreement for out-of-hospital births. 247 municipalities (79 %) claimed to have no such assistance. Of these, 33 are located at least 90 minutes away from the nearest maternity ward. Half of the emergency dispatch centres had no registration identifying formal agreements on assistance by midwives for out-of-hospital births. There is an urgent need to put in place formal agreements between the regional health authorities and the municipalities on out-of-hospital midwife services. A distance of 90 minutes' journey time to a maternity ward to fulfil the right to qualified assistance is not well-founded.

  15. FluG affects secretion in colonies of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengfeng; Krijgsheld, Pauline; Hulsman, Marc; de Bekker, Charissa; Müller, Wally H; Reinders, Marcel; de Vries, Ronald P; Wösten, Han A B

    2015-01-01

    Colonies of Aspergillus niger are characterized by zonal heterogeneity in growth, sporulation, gene expression and secretion. For instance, the glucoamylase gene glaA is more highly expressed at the periphery of colonies when compared to the center. As a consequence, its encoded protein GlaA is mainly secreted at the outer part of the colony. Here, multiple copies of amyR were introduced in A. niger. Most transformants over-expressing this regulatory gene of amylolytic genes still displayed heterogeneous glaA expression and GlaA secretion. However, heterogeneity was abolished in transformant UU-A001.13 by expressing glaA and secreting GlaA throughout the mycelium. Sequencing the genome of UU-A001.13 revealed that transformation had been accompanied by deletion of part of the fluG gene and disrupting its 3' end by integration of a transformation vector. Inactivation of fluG in the wild-type background of A. niger also resulted in breakdown of starch under the whole colony. Asexual development of the ∆fluG strain was not affected, unlike what was previously shown in Aspergillus nidulans. Genes encoding proteins with a signal sequence for secretion, including part of the amylolytic genes, were more often downregulated in the central zone of maltose-grown ∆fluG colonies and upregulated in the intermediate part and periphery when compared to the wild-type. Together, these data indicate that FluG of A. niger is a repressor of secretion.

  16. The global distribution of ammonia emissions from seabird colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, S. N.; Dragosits, U.; Blackall, T. D.; Daunt, F.; Wanless, S.; Sutton, M. A.

    2012-08-01

    Seabird colonies represent a significant source of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) in remote maritime systems, producing a source of nitrogen that may encourage plant growth, alter terrestrial plant community composition and affect the surrounding marine ecosystem. To investigate seabird NH3 emissions on a global scale, we developed a contemporary seabird database including a total seabird population of 261 million breeding pairs. We used this in conjunction with a bioenergetics model to estimate the mass of nitrogen excreted by all seabirds at each breeding colony. The results combined with the findings of mid-latitude field studies of volatilization rates estimate the global distribution of NH3 emissions from seabird colonies on an annual basis. The largest uncertainty in our emission estimate concerns the potential temperature dependence of NH3 emission. To investigate this we calculated and compared temperature independent emission estimates with a maximum feasible temperature dependent emission, based on the thermodynamic dissociation and solubility equilibria. Using the temperature independent approach, we estimate global NH3 emissions from seabird colonies at 404 Gg NH3 per year. By comparison, since most seabirds are located in relatively cold circumpolar locations, the thermodynamically dependent estimate is 136 Gg NH3 per year. Actual global emissions are expected to be within these bounds, as other factors, such as non-linear interactions with water availability and surface infiltration, moderate the theoretical temperature response. Combining sources of error from temperature (±49%), seabird population estimates (±36%), variation in diet composition (±23%) and non-breeder attendance (±13%), gives a mid estimate with an overall uncertainty range of NH3 emission from seabird colonies of 270 [97-442] Gg NH3 per year. These emissions are environmentally relevant as they primarily occur as "hot-spots" in otherwise pristine environments with low anthropogenic

  17. Ant Larval Demand Reduces Aphid Colony Growth Rates in an Ant-Aphid Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Cook

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ants often form mutualistic interactions with aphids, soliciting honeydew in return for protective services. Under certain circumstances, however, ants will prey upon aphids. In addition, in the presence of ants aphids may increase the quantity or quality of honeydew produced, which is costly. Through these mechanisms, ant attendance can reduce aphid colony growth rates. However, it is unknown whether demand from within the ant colony can affect the ant-aphid interaction. In a factorial experiment, we tested whether the presence of larvae in Lasius niger ant colonies affected the growth rate of Aphis fabae colonies. Other explanatory variables tested were the origin of ant colonies (two separate colonies were used and previous diet (sugar only or sugar and protein. We found that the presence of larvae in the ant colony significantly reduced the growth rate of aphid colonies. Previous diet and colony origin did not affect aphid colony growth rates. Our results suggest that ant colonies balance the flow of two separate resources from aphid colonies- renewable sugars or a protein-rich meal, depending on demand from ant larvae within the nest. Aphid payoffs from the ant-aphid interaction may change on a seasonal basis, as the demand from larvae within the ant colony waxes and wanes.

  18. The fraction haemolymph vitellogenin of a honey bee colony, derived from a pooled haemolymph sample, a colony vitality parameter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.; Martel, Anne Claire; Hendrickx, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The number of bees, amount of brood and haemolymph vitellogenin titre are parameters to establish the vitality of a honey bee colony. Increasing numbers of bees during summer until autumn; increasing amounts of brood in spring towards summer followed by a decrease; and low haemolymph vitellogenin

  19. Autoradiography of the bacterial colony. Application to the effects of polymyxin on the colony of Ps. aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyrolle, Jean; Letellier, Francois; Kauffmann, Jacques

    1975-01-01

    The autoradiography of a colony of Ps.a. which has been transferred, during growth, on a medium added with polymyxin and tritiate leucin makes it possible to locate an upper zone with a high metabolic activity and a basal zone with no metabolic activity. The latter, which consist of lysed cells, acts probably as a selective filter against the drug [fr

  20. Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the Colonie Site, Colonie, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, D.

    1996-05-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the Colonie site located in Colonie, New York. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The site became contaminated with radioactive material as a result of operations conducted by National Lead (NL) Industries from 1958 to 1984; these activities included brass foundry operations, electroplating of metal products, machining of various components using depleted uranium, and limited work with small amounts of enriched uranium and thorium. The Colonie site comprises the former NL Industries property, now designated the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS), and 56 vicinity properties contaminated by fallout from airborne emissions; 53 of the vicinity properties were previously remediated between 1984 and 1988. In 1984, DOE accepted ownership of the CISS property from NL Industries. Residual radioactive material guidelines for individual radionuclides and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines

  1. Infection and transmission of Nosema bombi in Bombus terrestris colonies and its effect on hibernation, mating and colony founding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of the microsporidium Nosema bombi on Bombus terrestris was studied by recording mating, hibernation success, protein titre in haemolymph, weight change during hibernation, and colony founding of queens that were inoculated with N. bombi in the larval phase. Infection with N. bombi was

  2. West African colonial civil servants in the nineteenth century : African participation in British colonial expansion in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arhin, K.

    1985-01-01

    From the 1850's to mid 1890's Africans were employed in top positions in the embryonic West African colonial services. This book contains the biographies of three of them: Ferguson on the Gold Coast, Lawson in Sierra Leone and Payne in Nigeria. All three had in common that they believed in British

  3. A simple agar plate preparation for effective transfer of Ureaplasma colonies onto nitrocellulose membranes for colony immunoblotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Carl-Ulrich R; Stiedl, Thomas; Spergser, Joachim; Rosengarten, Renate

    2014-09-01

    A simple method for preparing agar plates is presented, which allows an efficient transfer of Ureaplasma colonies to nitrocellulose membranes for subsequent immunological detection. This simple and reproducible procedure was used to demonstrate antigenic variation in the phase-variable mba-locus of Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Activation of the SOS response increases the frequency of small colony variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Paulander, Wilhelm Erik Axel; Ingmer, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Staphylococcus aureus sub-populations of slow-growing cells forming small colony variants (SCVs) are associated with persistent and recurrent infections that are difficult to eradicate with antibiotic therapies. In SCVs that are resistant towards aminoglycosides, mutations have been...... with different mechanism of action influence the formation of SCVs that are resistant to otherwise lethal concentrations of the aminoglycoside, gentamicin. We found that exposure of S. aureus to fluoroquinolones and mitomycin C increased the frequency of gentamicin resistant SCVs, while other antibiotic classes...... failed to do so. The higher proportion of SCVs in cultures exposed to fluoroquinolones and mitomycin C compared to un-exposed cultures correlate with an increased mutation rate monitored by rifampicin resistance and followed induction of the SOS DNA damage response. CONCLUSION: Our observations suggest...

  5. Back Analysis of Geomechanical Parameters in Underground Engineering Using Artificial Bee Colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changxing Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate geomechanical parameters are critical in tunneling excavation, design, and supporting. In this paper, a displacements back analysis based on artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm is proposed to identify geomechanical parameters from monitored displacements. ABC was used as global optimal algorithm to search the unknown geomechanical parameters for the problem with analytical solution. To the problem without analytical solution, optimal back analysis is time-consuming, and least square support vector machine (LSSVM was used to build the relationship between unknown geomechanical parameters and displacement and improve the efficiency of back analysis. The proposed method was applied to a tunnel with analytical solution and a tunnel without analytical solution. The results show the proposed method is feasible.

  6. Materno-infantilism, feminism and maternal health policy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Simone

    2012-06-01

    In the last days of 2011, President of Brazil Dilma Rousseff issued a provisional measure (or draft law) entitled "National Surveillance and Monitoring Registration System for the Prevention of Maternal Mortality" (MP 557), as part of a new maternal health programme. It was supposed to address the pressing issue of maternal morbidity and mortality in Brazil, but instead it caused an explosive controversy because it used terms such as nascituro (unborn child) and proposed the compulsory registration of every pregnancy. After intense protests by feminist and human rights groups that this law was unconstitutional, violated women's right to privacy and threatened our already limited reproductive rights, the measure was revised in January 2012, omitting "the unborn child" but not the mandatory registration of pregnancy. Unfortunately, neither version of the draft law addresses the two main problems with maternal health in Brazil: the over-medicalisation of childbirth and its adverse effects, and the need for safe, legal abortion. The content of this measure itself reflects the conflictive nature of public policies on reproductive health in Brazil and how they are shaped by close links between different levels of government and political parties, and religious and professional sectors. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reverse innovation in maternal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoz, Tabassum; Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Nathan, Hannah L; Payne, Beth; Magee, Laura A

    2017-09-01

    Reverse innovation, defined as the flow of ideas from low- to high-income settings, is gaining traction in healthcare. With an increasing focus on value, investing in low-cost but effective and innovative solutions can be of mutual benefit to both high- and low-income countries. Reverse innovation has a role in addressing maternal health challenges in high-income countries by harnessing these innovative solutions for vulnerable populations especially in rural and remote regions. In this paper, we present three examples of 'reverse innovation' for maternal health: a low-cost, easy-to-use blood pressure device (CRADLE), a diagnostic algorithm (mini PIERS) and accompanying mobile app (PIERS on the Move), and a novel method for mapping maternal outcomes (MOM).

  8. Classification differences and maternal mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salanave, B; Bouvier-Colle, M H; Varnoux, N

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the ways maternal deaths are classified in national statistical offices in Europe and to evaluate the ways classification affects published rates. METHODS: Data on pregnancy-associated deaths were collected in 13 European countries. Cases were classified by a European panel....... This change was substantial in three countries (P statistical offices appeared to attribute fewer deaths to obstetric causes. In the other countries, no differences were detected. According to official published data, the aggregated maternal mortality rate for participating countries was 7.7 per...... of experts into obstetric or non-obstetric causes. An ICD-9 code (International Classification of Diseases) was attributed to each case. These were compared to the codes given in each country. Correction indices were calculated, giving new estimates of maternal mortality rates. SUBJECTS: There were...

  9. Maternal employment and birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    selection of mothers between pregnancies drives the results, I focus on mothers whose change in employment status is likely not to be driven by underlying health (unemployed mothers and students). Given generous welfare bene ts and strict workplace regulations in Denmark, my findings support a residual......I use Danish survey and administrative data to examine the impact of maternal employment during pregnancy on birth outcomes. As healthier mothers are more likely to work and health shocks to mothers may impact employment and birth outcomes, I combine two strategies: First, I control extensively...... for time-varying factors that may correlate with employment and birth outcomes, such as pre-pregnancy family income and maternal occupation, pregnancy-related health shocks, maternal sick listing, and health behaviors (smoking and alcohol consumption). Second, to account for remaining time...

  10. Investigation of multimodal forward scatter phenotyping from bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Huisung

    A rapid, label-free, and elastic light scattering (ELS) based bacterial colony phenotyping technology, bacterial rapid detection using optical scattering technology (BARDOT) provides a successful classification of several bacterial genus and species. For a thorough understanding of the phenomena and overcoming the limitations of the previous design, five additional modalities from a bacterial colony: 3D morphology, spatial optical density (OD) distribution, spectral forward scattering pattern, spectral OD, and surface backward reflection pattern are proposed to enhance the classification/identification ratio, and the feasibilities of each modality are verified. For the verification, three different instruments: integrated colony morphology analyzer (ICMA), multi-spectral BARDOT (MS-BARDOT) , and multi-modal BARDOT (MM-BARDOT) are proposed and developed. The ICMA can measure 3D morphology and spatial OD distribution of the colony simultaneously. A commercialized confocal displacement meter is used to measure the profiles of the bacterial colonies, together with a custom built optical density measurement unit to interrogate the biophysics behind the collective behavior of a bacterial colony. The system delivers essential information related to the quantitative growth dynamics (height, diameter, aspect ratio, optical density) of the bacterial colony, as well as, a relationship in between the morphological characteristics of the bacterial colony and its forward scattering pattern. Two different genera: Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL933, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 are selected for the analysis of the spatially resolved growth dynamics, while, Bacillus spp. such as B. subtilis ATCC 6633, B. cereus ATCC 14579, B. thuringiensis DUP6044, B. polymyxa B719W, and B. megaterium DSP 81319, are interrogated since some of the Bacillus spp. provides strikingly different characteristics of ELS patterns, and the origin of the speckle patterns are successfully correlated with

  11. Maternal Depression and Youth Internalizing and Externalizing Symptomatology: Severity and Chronicity of Past Maternal Depression and Current Maternal Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Erin E.; Langer, David A.; Tompson, Martha C.

    2017-01-01

    Maternal depression is a well-documented risk factor for youth depression, and taking into account its severity and chronicity may provide important insight into the degree of risk conferred. This study explored the degree to which the severity/chronicity of maternal depression history explained variance in youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms above and beyond current maternal depressive symptoms among 171 youth (58% male) ages 8 to 12 over a span of three years. Severity and chronicity of past maternal depression and current maternal depressive symptoms were examined as predictors of parent-reported youth internalizing and externalizing symptomatology, as well as youth self-reported depressive symptoms. Severity and chronicity of past maternal depression did not account for additional variance in youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms at Time 1 beyond what was accounted for by maternal depressive symptoms at Time 1. Longitudinal growth curve modeling indicated that prior severity/chronicity of maternal depression predicted levels of youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms at each time point when controlling for current maternal depressive symptoms at each time point. Chronicity of maternal depression, apart from severity, also predicted rate of change in youth externalizing symptoms over time. These findings highlight the importance of screening and assessing for current maternal depressive symptoms, as well as the nature of past depressive episodes. Possible mechanisms underlying the association between severity/chronicity of maternal depression and youth outcomes, such as residual effects from depressive history on mother–child interactions, are discussed. PMID:27401880

  12. Maternal Mortality – A Challenge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital G. Sonone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The current maternal mortality rate (MMR in Maharashtra is 104/100000 live births, ranking 3rd in India. There is scope for reducing it as majority of the causes of MMR are preventable and curable. Aims and Objectives: To study the sociodemographic profile and causes of maternal deaths at Dr. V. M. Govt. Medical College, Solapur. Material and Methods: The study population included all deliveries i.e. women admitted in the hospital during pregnancy, child-birth or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy from any cause related to or aggravated due to pregnancy during the period of 2 years from 1st August 2009 to 31st July 2011. IPD case records and autopsy reports of all maternal deaths were taken and various variables were studied. The present study is prospective study of maternal mortality conducted in Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Dr. V. M. Medical College Solapur. Cases were distributed ac-cording to their age, literacy rate, residence,socioeconomic status, ante-natal care, gestational age, gravida/parity, place of referral, pregnancy outcome, and place of delivery, perinatal outcome and etiological factors. This study also suggests the measures to reduce maternal mortality. Results: The total number of live births during the study period were 13,188 and total number of maternal deaths were 63 and MMR was 477 per 1, 00,000 live births. In the maternal deaths studied, 1/3rd of the women were illiterate, half of the women belonged to urban slum areas and of lower socioeconomic class.1/3rd of the deaths occurred in primigravida,within 24 hrs from admission, 58.73% of the patients were referred from outside. Out of that 86.49% of women were sent from private hospital and died in post partum period, having poor perinatal outcome. Haemorrhage (28.57% and hypertension (12.69% are two direct causes and severe anemia (33.33% is most common in direct cause of maternal death in our study.

  13. Diversity and abundance of invertebrate epifaunal assemblages associated with gorgonians are driven by colony attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Curdia, Joao; Carvalho, Susana; Pereira, Fá bio R.; Guerra-Garcí a, José Manuel; Santos, Miguel Neves Dos; Cunha, Marina R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to explicitly quantify the link between the attributes of shallow-water gorgonian colonies (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) and the ecological patterns of associated non-colonial epifaunal invertebrates. Based on multiple

  14. Breeding colonies of least terns (Sternula antillarum) in northern Sonora, Mexico, 2006-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemartin, Alyssa; van Riper, Charles

    2012-01-01

    We document distribution of breeding least terns (Sternula antillarum) in northern Sonora, Mexico, 2006-2008. We report breeding activity at six sites with active colonies, including three previously undocumented colonies.

  15. A child of the empire: British sociology and colonialism, 1940s-1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, George

    2013-01-01

    British sociology was established as an academic discipline between 1945 and 1965, just as the British Empire was gearing up for a new phase of developmental colonialism backed by the social and other sciences. Many parts of the emerging sociological discipline became entangled with colonialism. Key themes and methods in sociology and the staff of sociology departments emerged from this colonial context. Historians have tended to place postwar British sociology in the context of expanding higher education and the welfare state, and have overlooked this colonial constellation. The article reconstructs this forgotten moment of disciplinary founding and explores three of the factors that promoted colonial sociology: the Colonial Social Science Research Council, the so-called Asquith universities, and the social research institutes in the colonies; and the involvement of sociologists from the London School of Economics in training colonial officials. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services KidsHealth / For Parents / Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services What's in this article? Giving Birth at ...

  17. Maternal death and near miss measurement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    2008-05-26

    May 26, 2008 ... Maternal health services need to be accountable more than ever ... of maternal death and near miss audit, surveillance and review is ..... (d) A fundamental principle of these ..... quality assurance in obstetrics in Nigeria - a.

  18. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeltoft, Teresa Ajslev; Andersen, Camilla S; Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted

    2010-01-01

    We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight.......We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight....

  19. Negotiating Rights : Building Coalitions for Improving Maternal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Negotiating Rights : Building Coalitions for Improving Maternal Health Services ... the state of maternal health in the country reflects poorly on public health priorities. ... A number of international agencies and civil society organizations are ...

  20. Maternity waiting homes: A panacea for maternal/neonatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    women to inadequately equipped delivery settings 4,5. Eritrea has made some ... Maternity waiting homes were introduced in Eritrea in 2007 as a strategy to mitigate .... 24(4):472-8. 5. Chandramohan D, Cutts F, Millard P The effect of stay in.

  1. Colonie Interim Storage Site environmental surveillance report for calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of environmental surveillance activities conducted at the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) during calendar year 1993. It includes an overview of site operations, the basis for radiological and nonradiological monitoring, dose to the offsite population, and summaries of environmental programs at CISS. Environmental surveillance activities were conducted in accordance with the site environmental monitoring plan, which describes the rationale and design criteria for the surveillance program, the frequency of sampling and analysis, specific sampling and analysis procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Appendix A contains a discussion of the nature of radiation, the way it is measured, and common sources of it. The primary environmental guidelines and limits applicable to CISS are given in US Department of Energy (DOE) orders and mandated by six federal acts: the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); the Toxic Substances Control Act; the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). DOE began environmental monitoring of CISS in 1984 when DOE was authorized by Congress through the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act to conduct a decontamination research and development program at the site. The site was subsequently assigned to DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

  2. Effects of maternal confidence and competence on maternal parenting stress in newborn care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Chi; Chen, Yueh-Chih; Yeh, Yen-Po; Hsieh, Yeu-Sheng

    2012-04-01

    This paper is a report of a correlational study of the relations of maternal confidence and maternal competence to maternal parenting stress during newborn care. Maternal role development is a cognitive and social process influenced by cultural and family contexts and mother and child characteristics. Most knowledge about maternal role development comes from western society. However, perceptions of the maternal role in contemporary Taiwanese society may be affected by contextual and environmental factors. A prospective correlational design was used to recruit 372 postpartum Taiwanese women and their infants from well-child clinics at 16 health centres in central Taiwan. Inclusion criteria for mothers were gestational age >37 weeks, ≥18 years old, and healthy, with infants maternal confidence, maternal competence and self-perceived maternal parenting stress. After controlling for maternal parity and infant temperament, high maternal confidence and competence were associated with low maternal parenting stress. Maternal confidence influenced maternal parenting stress both directly and indirectly via maternal competence. To assist postpartum women in infant care programmes achieve positive outcomes, nurses should evaluate and bolster mothers' belief in their own abilities. Likewise, nurses should not only consider mothers' infant care skills, but also mothers' parity and infant temperament. Finally, it is crucial for nurses and researchers to recognize that infant care programmes should be tailored to mothers' specific maternal characteristics. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity from acute fatty liver of pregnancy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Ruth R.; Schutte, Joke M.; Stekelenburg, Jelle; Zwart, Joost J.; van Roosmalen, Jos

    Objective: To assess maternal death and severe maternal morbidity from acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) in the Netherlands. Study design: A retrospective study of all cases of maternal mortality in the Netherlands between 1983 and 2006 and all cases of severe maternal morbidity in the

  4. Saranno Rispettati Come Per il Passato. Italian Colonial Policy towards Libyan Religious Endowments

    OpenAIRE

    GAZZINI, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers a survey of Italian colonial policy towards Muslim religious endowments (waqf, pl. awqaf) in Libya from 1911 to 1943. Through an analysis of 41 lawsuits presented to the colonial Court of Appeals and a detailed survey of the laws promulgated to reform the administration of the awqaf in Libya, this study reveals the legal mechanisms adopted by Italian jurists to regulate awqaf matters in their only North African colony. It demonstrates that, unlike other colonial powers in th...

  5. All you can eat: is food supply unlimited in a colonially breeding bird?

    OpenAIRE

    Hoi, Herbert; Kri?tof?k, J?n; Darolov?, Al?beta

    2015-01-01

    Food availability is generally considered to determine breeding site selection and therefore plays an important role in hypotheses explaining the evolution of colony formation. Hypotheses trying to explain why birds join a colony usually assume that food is not limited, whereas those explaining variation in colony size suggest that food is under constraint. In this study, we investigate the composition and amount of food items not eaten by the nestlings and found in nest burrows of colonially...

  6. Sanitary and nutritional characterization of honeybee colonies in Eucalyptus grandis plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Invernizzi, C.; Santos, E.; García, E.; Daners, G.; Di Landro, R.; Saadoun, A.; Cabrera, C.

    2011-01-01

    In Uruguay, many beekeepers transport their colonies to Eucalyptus grandis plantations at the end of the summer and autumn, obtaining important honey harvests. However, at the end of the flowering period the colonies become extremely weakened undergoing high levels of mortality. Nutritional and health problems could explain the weakening of colonies. In order to find out the causes for this weakening, colonies of the same size were taken to an E. grandis plantation, split up in three groups d...

  7. Problems of contemporary maternity: psychological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Puz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problems of modern motherhood and studies the phenomenon of deviant maternal behavior. Based on the literature, present study analyzes such forms of violation of maternal behavior as mother's refusal from a baby; mother's cruel treatment of a baby; frequent abortions; maternity in the early reproductive age; conscious maternity postponement for a later reproductive age. Also the factors that contribute to various manifestations of deviant motherhood are described.

  8. Maternal capital and the metabolic ghetto: An evolutionary perspective on the transgenerational basis of health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan C K

    2010-01-01

    There is particular interest in understanding socioeconomic and ethnic variability in health status. The developmental origins of disease hypothesis emphasize the importance of growth patterns across the life-course in relation to noncommunicable disease risk. The physiological components of cardiovascular risk, collectively termed the metabolic syndrome, derive in part from a disparity between the homeostatic "metabolic capacity" of vital organs and the "metabolic load" induced by large tissue masses, a rich diet and sedentary behavior. From an evolutionary perspective, the risk of such disparity is decreased by maternal physiology regulating offspring growth trajectory during gestation and lactation. Maternal capital, defined as phenotypic resources enabling investment in the offspring, allows effective buffering of the offspring from nutritional perturbations and represents the environmental niche initially occupied by the offspring. Offspring growth patterns are sensitive to the magnitude of maternal capital during early windows of plasticity. Offspring life-history strategy can then respond adaptively to further factors across the life-course, but only within the context of this initial maternal influence on growth. Maternal somatic capital is primarily gained or lost across generations, through variable rates of fetal and infant growth. I argue that the poor nutritional experience of populations subjected to colonialism resulted in a systematic loss of maternal capital, reflected in downward secular trends in stature. Accelerating the recovery of somatic capital within generations overloads metabolic capacity and exacerbates cardiovascular risk, reflected in increased disease rates in urbanizing and emigrant populations. Public health policies need to benefit metabolic capacity without exacerbating metabolic load. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. [Maternal and perinatal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    After a year-long diagnosis of Chile's health situation, the Ministry of Health in 1991 formulated a new maternal-child health program designed to assure that all pregnancies would be desired and would occur under optimal conditions. Orientation for responsible parenthood will be an important part of the process. Other objectives include reducing the incidence of adolescent pregnancy and of sexually transmitted diseases. The pregnancy rate for young women 15-19 changed very little in Chile between 1952-82, because of the lack of sex education and family planning services. Family planning programs designed especially for adolescents would help to combat unwanted pregnancies and could offer the methods most suitable for young women. The well-known longitudinal study in Czechoslovakia which followed the development of children whose mothers were denied legal abortions in the 1960s showed the children to be at increased risk of unsatisfactory social adjustment in later life and suggested some consequences of unwanted pregnancy. A study of unwanted pregnancy in Chile was initiated in 4 prenatal care centers in a working class area of Santiago in 1984. 2485 women in the 6th or 7th month of pregnancy were classified according to their existing family sizes. Only 33.1% of the women desired the pregnancy at that time and 38.4% desired it but at a later time. 28.5% did not desire it at all. Women who did not desire the pregnancy waited significantly longer to obtain prenatal care than women who desired it. Age, economic problems, being single, family conflicts, already having the desired number of children, and short intervals since the most recent birth were associated with not desiring the current pregnancy. Of the 1663 women who did not desire the pregnancy, only 13.1% of those single, 35.8% of those in union, and 44.0% of those married used a contraceptive method. 2133 of the mothers were interviewed 6 months and 1977 12 months after delivery. Birth weights did not vary

  10. National data system on near miss and maternal death: shifting from maternal risk to public health impact in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladapo Olufemi T

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of reliable and up-to-date statistics on maternal deaths and disabilities remains a major challenge to the implementation of Nigeria's Road Map to Accelerate the Millennium Development Goal related to Maternal Health (MDG-5. There are currently no functioning national data sources on maternal deaths and disabilities that could serve as reference points for programme managers, health advocates and policy makers. While awaiting the success of efforts targeted at overcoming the barriers facing establishment of population-based data systems, referral institutions in Nigeria can contribute their quota in the quest towards MDG-5 by providing good quality and reliable information on maternal deaths and disabilities on a continuous basis. This project represents the first opportunity to initiate a scientifically sound and reliable quantitative system of data gathering on maternal health profile in Nigeria. Objective The primary objective is to create a national data system on maternal near miss (MNM and maternal mortality in Nigerian public tertiary institutions. This system will conduct periodically, both regionally and at country level, a review of the magnitude of MNM and maternal deaths, nature of events responsible for MNM and maternal deaths, indices for the quality of care for direct obstetric complications and the health service events surrounding these complications, in an attempt to collectively define and monitor the standard of comprehensive emergency obstetric care in the country. Methods This will be a nationwide cohort study of all women who experience MNM and those who die from pregnancy, childbirth and puerperal complications using uniform criteria among women admitted in tertiary healthcare facilities in the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria. This will be accomplished by establishing a network of all public tertiary obstetric referral institutions that will prospectively collect specific information on

  11. Enzyme activities and antibiotic susceptibility of colonial variants of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis.

    OpenAIRE

    Carlisle, G E; Falkinham, J O

    1989-01-01

    A nonmucoid colonial variant of a mucoid Bacillus subtilis strain produced less amylase activity and a transparent colonial variant of a B. licheniformis strain produced less protease activity compared with their parents. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the colonial variants differed, and increased resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics was correlated with increased production of extracellular beta-lactamase.

  12. Reproductive performance in three neighbouring Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) colonies in sw Kattegat, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Thomas; Gregersen, Jens; Hénaux, Viviane

    of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis in the old Danish Vorsø colony as it quadrupled in number of breeding pairs and later declined markedly. Some of these parameters were also studied in two neighbouring colonies. We found marked declines in breeding success in the old colony while breeding...

  13. Wintering Map for Honey Bee Colonies in El-Behera Governorate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The geographical information system (GIS) has been used successfully in many studies to solve apicultural problems. The winter season is considered as a challenge for honey bee colonies due to the cold weather which cause the forfeiture of many colonies. The good wintering of honey bee colonies depends mainly on ...

  14. Parasites and Pathogens of the Honeybee (Apis mellifera and Their Influence on Inter-Colonial Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Forfert

    Full Text Available Pathogens and parasites may facilitate their transmission by manipulating host behavior. Honeybee pathogens and pests need to be transferred from one colony to another if they are to maintain themselves in a host population. Inter-colony transmission occurs typically through honeybee workers not returning to their home colony but entering a foreign colony ("drifting". Pathogens might enhance drifting to enhance transmission to new colonies. We here report on the effects infection by ten honeybee viruses and Nosema spp., and Varroa mite infestation on honeybee drifting. Genotyping of workers collected from colonies allowed us to identify genuine drifted workers as well as source colonies sending out drifters in addition to sink colonies accepting them. We then used network analysis to determine patterns of drifting. Distance between colonies in the apiary was the major factor explaining 79% of drifting. None of the tested viruses or Nosema spp. were associated with the frequency of drifting. Only colony infestation with Varroa was associated with significantly enhanced drifting. More specifically, colonies with high Varroa infestation had a significantly enhanced acceptance of drifters, although they did not send out more drifting workers. Since Varroa-infested colonies show an enhanced attraction of drifting workers, and not only those infected with Varroa and its associated pathogens, infestation by Varroa may also facilitate the uptake of other pests and parasites.

  15. Globalization as Continuing Colonialism: Critical Global Citizenship Education in an Unequal World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikander, Pia

    2016-01-01

    In an unequal world, education about global inequality can be seen as a controversial but necessary topic for social science to deal with. Even though the world no longer consists of colonies and colonial powers, many aspects of the global economy follow the same patterns as during colonial times, with widening gaps between the world's richest and…

  16. Effect of a home-made pollen substitute on honey bee colony development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    In 2001 and 2002, studies were conducted on a pollen substitute formulated for easy home preparation. Tests were done with free flying honey bee colonies. In 2001, pollen supply was restricted with pollen traps in 9 experimental colonies. Colonies were then equally divided among three treatments:

  17. Maternal inflammation during pregnancy and childhood adiposity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gaillard (Romy); S.L. Rifas-Shiman (Sheryl); W. Perng (Wei); E. Oken (Emily); M.W. Gillman (Matthew W.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is associated with offspring obesity. Underlying mechanisms may involve a maternal obesity-mediated proinflammatory state during pregnancy. Maternal C-reactive protein (CRP) level during pregnancy is a biomarker of low-grade systemic

  18. Epidemiology of Maternal Mortality in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    live births. Causes and determinants of maternal mortal- ity. Global causes of maternal mortality. Across the globe the causes of maternal deaths are strik- ..... at home”. Findings from Thyolo, Mangochi and Chik- wawa were similar". Perceived qua/ity of care. Like anywhere in the world, the perceived quality of care in ...

  19. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  20. Management strategy in pregnancies with elevated second-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein based on a second assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaggiari, Emmanuel; Ruas, Marie; Dreux, Sophie; Valat, Anne-Sylvie; Czerkiewicz, Isabelle; Guimiot, Fabien; Schmitz, Thomas; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Muller, Françoise

    2013-04-01

    To assess maternal-fetal outcomes in pregnancies associated with persistently elevated second-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein. A retrospective cohort study in 658 patients with maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein ≥2.5 multiple of median, performed at routine Down syndrome screening. Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein was assayed a second time in 341 of them. Outcomes were recorded in all cases. The group with unexplained maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein persistently ≥2.5 multiple of median was associated with more pregnancy complications 37 of 92 (40.2%) as fetal death, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, and congenital nephrotic syndrome, compared with the group with maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein that returned to a normal level 37 of 226 (16.4%) (P alpha-fetoprotein returns to a normal level on a second assay, the risk of adverse outcome significantly decreases, but these pregnancies are still at risk of complications and therefore need close surveillance. Repeat maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein assay allows identification of patients who should be offered amniocentesis to evaluate the risk of nephrotic syndrome and epidermolysis bullosa. Alpha-fetoprotein should be monitored in pregnancies associated with unexplained high maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein. A management strategy based on ultrasound examination, second maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein assay and amniocentesis is proposed to improve prenatal counseling and management of such pregnancies. However, a prospective study remains necessary to evaluate it. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Simple and Efficient Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial bee colony (ABC is a new population-based stochastic algorithm which has shown good search abilities on many optimization problems. However, the original ABC shows slow convergence speed during the search process. In order to enhance the performance of ABC, this paper proposes a new artificial bee colony (NABC algorithm, which modifies the search pattern of both employed and onlooker bees. A solution pool is constructed by storing some best solutions of the current swarm. New candidate solutions are generated by searching the neighborhood of solutions randomly chosen from the solution pool. Experiments are conducted on a set of twelve benchmark functions. Simulation results show that our approach is significantly better or at least comparable to the original ABC and seven other stochastic algorithms.

  2. Enrique Barba and the Rioplatense Colonial World. Balances and Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Reitano

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Universidad Nacional de La Plata and the history studies at the Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educación were shaped by Ricardo Levene, who left his wake for years in many of his disciples. The figure of Enrique Barba, one of the outstanding members of that school of history, developed and shined in the city of la Plata and its university. In his fifty-five years of work, Barba wrote more than fifty books, articles and contributions. However, in the lines that follow, we will refer to his least known streak, his contribution to the Rioplatense colonial past. In addition, we will study his followers in the study of the colonial period.

  3. Pirate Alterity and Mimesis in Colonial Epic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier de Navascués

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pirate representation is studied in a series of Epic poems in the late sixteenth century and early seventeenth century. The ambiguous image of the English enemy is read in texts by Juan de Miramontes, Pedro de Oña, Martín del Barco Centenera and Juan de Castellanos, among others. On the one hand, Colonial Epic ignores some important differences between privateers and pirates since the privateering had been legally accepted by all European nations, including Spain. Besides, Pirate is always called «Lutheran» and revealing its absolute otherness with respect to the Catholic model. On the other hand, it proposes a laudatory epics enemy painting from the imitation of the values accepted by the colonial society. The relationship between the Spanish hero and the privateer is represented not in a vertical direction, as could happen between colonizer and colonized subject, but on a level of rivalry.

  4. Water extraction on Mars for an expanding human colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralphs, M; Franz, B; Baker, T; Howe, S

    2015-11-01

    In-situ water extraction is necessary for an extended human presence on Mars. This study looks at the water requirements of an expanding human colony on Mars and the general systems needed to supply that water from the martian atmosphere and regolith. The proposed combination of systems in order to supply the necessary water includes a system similar to Honeybee Robotics' Mobile In-Situ Water Extractor (MISWE) that uses convection, a system similar to MISWE but that directs microwave energy down a borehole, a greenhouse or hothouse type system, and a system similar to the Mars Atmospheric Resource Recovery System (MARRS). It is demonstrated that a large water extraction system that can take advantage of large deposits of water ice at site specific locations is necessary to keep up with the demands of a growing colony. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Response Ant Colony Optimization of End Milling Surface Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed N. Abd Alla

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Metal cutting processes are important due to increased consumer demands for quality metal cutting related products (more precise tolerances and better product surface roughness that has driven the metal cutting industry to continuously improve quality control of metal cutting processes. This paper presents optimum surface roughness by using milling mould aluminium alloys (AA6061-T6 with Response Ant Colony Optimization (RACO. The approach is based on Response Surface Method (RSM and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO. The main objectives to find the optimized parameters and the most dominant variables (cutting speed, feedrate, axial depth and radial depth. The first order model indicates that the feedrate is the most significant factor affecting surface roughness.

  6. Imagining the Twentieth Century: Retrospective, Myth, and the Colonial Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B MacDonald

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrospectives on the twentieth century often portray it as the most atrocious century in human history, in terms of totalising ideologies, moral abandonment, technological horror, and mass death. The nineteenth and earlier centuries, by contrast, emerge as progressive and enlightened eras, characterised by morality, rationalism, and the absence of war. Creating a dramatic contrast between old and new centuries ignores the historical reality of colonialism and violence outside Europe’s borders. This article problematises twentieth century retrospectives and their nostalgia for the past, comparing these with recent histories of colonialism and genocide. Rather than see the twentieth century as a decisive break from the past, there are important elements of continuity and evolution which should not be ignored.

  7. A Clustering Approach Using Cooperative Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping Zou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Bee Colony (ABC is one of the most recently introduced algorithms based on the intelligent foraging behavior of a honey bee swarm. This paper presents an extended ABC algorithm, namely, the Cooperative Article Bee Colony (CABC, which significantly improves the original ABC in solving complex optimization problems. Clustering is a popular data analysis and data mining technique; therefore, the CABC could be used for solving clustering problems. In this work, first the CABC algorithm is used for optimizing six widely used benchmark functions and the comparative results produced by ABC, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, and its cooperative version (CPSO are studied. Second, the CABC algorithm is used for data clustering on several benchmark data sets. The performance of CABC algorithm is compared with PSO, CPSO, and ABC algorithms on clustering problems. The simulation results show that the proposed CABC outperforms the other three algorithms in terms of accuracy, robustness, and convergence speed.

  8. Ant colony search algorithm for optimal reactive power optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin K.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an (ACSA Ant colony search Algorithm for Optimal Reactive Power Optimization and voltage control of power systems. ACSA is a new co-operative agents’ approach, which is inspired by the observation of the behavior of real ant colonies on the topic of ant trial formation and foraging methods. Hence, in the ACSA a set of co-operative agents called "Ants" co-operates to find good solution for Reactive Power Optimization problem. The ACSA is applied for optimal reactive power optimization is evaluated on standard IEEE, 30, 57, 191 (practical test bus system. The proposed approach is tested and compared to genetic algorithm (GA, Adaptive Genetic Algorithm (AGA.

  9. Plotting Maternity in Three Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Amber E.

    2012-01-01

    This performance text examines complexities of personal and maternal identity in family life. Speaking in first, second, and third person voices, the author offers autoethnographic accounts of the tensions between separateness and connectedness, normative and subjective motherhood, and novice and seasoned perspectives. The piece functions as a…

  10. Intergenerational Attitudes toward Maternal Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaven, Catherine P.; McCluskey-Fawcett, Kathleen

    Intergenerational attitudes toward child care were examined among college-age students and their parents through the use of questionnaires, the Beliefs About the Consequences of Maternal Employment Scale (BACMEC), and the Bias in Attitudes toward Women Scale (BIAS). Findings indicated that traditional attitudes were more prevalent in males of both…

  11. Multigenerational effects of maternal undernutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Francine H.

    2014-01-01

    Intrauterine exposure to reduced nutrient availability can have major effects in determining susceptibility to chronic disease later in life. Martínez et al. (2014) demonstrate multigenerational effects of poor maternal nutrition and evidence of germ-line transmission through alterations in DNA methylation. PMID:24896533

  12. Poisoned reign: French nuclear colonialism in the Pacific. Revised ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielsson, Bengt; Danielsson, Marie-Therese.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1966, France has used Moruroa, a small atoll in the Pacific, as the testing site for its nuclear bombs - despite opposition from both the Polynesian people and nations throughout the world. Levels of radioactive fallout and sea contamination, and the extent of damage to Moruroa itself have remained a closely-guarded military secret. This book traces the history of French nuclear involvement in the Pacific and shows how the tests have been used to strengthen colonial rule in French Polynesia

  13. Runtime analysis of the 1-ANT ant colony optimizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Benjamin; Neumann, Frank; Sudholt, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The runtime analysis of randomized search heuristics is a growing field where, in the last two decades, many rigorous results have been obtained. First runtime analyses of ant colony optimization (ACO) have been conducted only recently. In these studies simple ACO algorithms such as the 1-ANT...... that give us a more detailed impression of the 1-ANT’s performance. Furthermore, the experiments also deal with the question whether using many ant solutions in one iteration can decrease the total runtime....

  14. Optimal Grid Scheduling Using Improved Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    T. Vigneswari; M. A. Maluk Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Job Scheduling plays an important role for efficient utilization of grid resources available across different domains and geographical zones. Scheduling of jobs is challenging and NPcomplete. Evolutionary / Swarm Intelligence algorithms have been extensively used to address the NP problem in grid scheduling. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) has been proposed for optimization problems based on foraging behaviour of bees. This work proposes a modified ABC algorithm, Cluster Hete...

  15. Forms of Memory in Post-colonial Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn McCredden

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available there are many forms of memory in post-colonial Australia, and many kinds of haunting. This paper investigates the poetry of contemporary Indigenous poets Sam Wagan Watson and Tony Birch, and reads the script of the Federal Government’s February 2008 Apology to the Stolen Generations, asking how and why the nation should be haunted – historically and imaginatively - into the future.

  16. Looking for new emperor penguin colonies? Filling the gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ancel

    2017-01-01

    Our analysis highlights a fundamental requirement, that in order to predict how species might respond to regional climate change, we must better understand their biogeography and the factors that lead to their occupation of particular sites. Regarding emperor penguins, remote sensing should target the identified gaps apparently devoid of penguins in order to update the total number of colonies, to re-evaluate both the regional and global population of emperor penguins, and to gain a better understanding of their biogeography.

  17. Commercial bacterial colony counter for semiautomatic track counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.; McMahon, T.A.; Espinosa, G.

    1983-01-01

    Bacterial colony counters have not been widely used for track counting. However, they do provide an economical alternative to sophisticated optical analyzers for applications that require reproducible track density measurements for large numbers of samples. Simple measurements of size characteristics can be made when there is little need for high resolutions. Such systems are particularly well suited for neutron and alpha dosimetry work, particularly if electrochemical etching or some other track enhancement method has been used. 5 refs., 3 figs

  18. Memorializing colonial genocide in Britain: the case of Tasmania

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Britain is a post-genocidal state, although it (not surprisingly) has no official means for the memorialization of its colonial genocides. Britain cannot however be simply considered amnesiac about its genocidal past, which it has informally memorialized across various cultural genres. This article explores this observation through a case study of the ways in which the genocide of Indigenous Tasmanians has been remembered and indeed memorialized. Accounts of the genocide of Indigenous Tasmani...

  19. Bullfighting at Santiago de Chile during the Colonial Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escardiel González Estévez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that in Chile there is no bullfighting and that people have forgotten it, bulls existed in this territory as in any other Spanish colony, with critical social implications. Although follow the Iberian trend, from ritual to a spectacle, some local factors made that bullfighting had special features in Chile, as is the case of the permanence of chivalrous bullfighting in the context of military training at the frontier with mapuche people.

  20. Enterococcus faecium small colony variant endocarditis in an immunocompetent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hernández Egido

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Small colony variants (SCV are slow-growing subpopulations of bacteria usually associated with auxotrophism, causing persistent or recurrent infections. Enterococcus faecalis SCV have been seldom described, and only one case of Enterococcus faecium SCV has been reported, associated with sepsis in a leukaemia patient. Here we report the first case described of bacteraemia and endocarditis by SCV E. faecium in an immunocompetent patient.