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Sample records for maternal taurine supplementation

  1. Maternal taurine supplementation attenuates maternal fructose-induced metabolic and inflammatory dysregulation and partially reverses adverse metabolic programming in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M; Reynolds, C M; Sloboda, D M; Gray, C; Vickers, M H

    2015-03-01

    Excessive fructose consumption is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and high fructose intake during pregnancy can lead to compromised fetal development in the rat. Evidence suggests that the amino acid taurine can ameliorate fructose-induced IR and NAFLD in nonpregnant animals. This study investigated the efficacy of taurine supplementation on maternal fructose-induced metabolic dysfunction and neonatal health. Time-mated Wistar rats were randomized to four groups during pregnancy and lactation: (a) control diet (CON), (b) CON supplemented with 1.5% taurine in drinking water (CT), (c) CON supplemented with fructose solution (F) and (d) F supplemented with taurine (FT). Maternal and neonatal weights, plasma cytokines and hepatic gene expression were analyzed. Maternal hyperinsulinemia, increased homeostasis model assessment of IR indices and elevated proinflammatory cytokines were observed in F group and normalized in FT group. Maternal fructose-induced hepatic steatosis accompanied with increased liver weight was ameliorated with taurine supplementation. Maternal hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and fatty acid synthase expression was significantly increased in the F group compared to the CON, CT and FT groups. Neonatal hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expression was increased in male F neonates compared to the CON, CT and FT groups and was increased in female F and FT neonates compared to CON and CT. Interleukin-1β expression was decreased in male CT and FT neonates compared to other male groups. Hepatic tumour necrosis factor receptor-1 was lower in the male FT group than the F group. These results demonstrate that maternal taurine supplementation can partially reverse fructose-induced maternal metabolic dysfunction and may ameliorate adverse developmental programming effects in offspring in a sex-specific manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The intrauterine metabolic environment modulates the gene expression pattern in fetal rat islets: prevention by maternal taurine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusens, B; Sparre, T; Kalbe, L;

    2008-01-01

    is decreased at birth and metabolic perturbation lasts through adulthood even though a normal diet is given after birth or after weaning. Maternal and fetal plasma taurine levels are suboptimal. Maternal taurine supplementation prevents these induced abnormalities. In this study, we aimed to reveal changes...

  3. Effects of taurine supplementation on hepatic markers of inflammation and lipid metabolism in mothers and offspring in the setting of maternal obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minglan Li

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity is associated with obesity and metabolic disorders in offspring. However, intervention strategies to reverse or ameliorate the effects of maternal obesity on offspring health are limited. Following maternal undernutrition, taurine supplementation can improve outcomes in offspring, possibly via effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion. The effects of taurine in mediating inflammatory processes as a protective mechanism has not been investigated. Further, the efficacy of taurine supplementation in the setting of maternal obesity is not known. Using a model of maternal obesity, we examined the effects of maternal taurine supplementation on outcomes related to inflammation and lipid metabolism in mothers and neonates. Time-mated Wistar rats were randomised to either: 1 control : control diet during pregnancy and lactation (CON; 2 CON supplemented with 1.5% taurine in drinking water (CT; 3 maternal obesogenic diet (high fat, high fructose during pregnancy and lactation (MO; or 4 MO supplemented with taurine (MOT. Maternal and neonatal weights, plasma cytokines and hepatic gene expression were analysed. A MO diet resulted in maternal hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia and increased plasma glucose, glutamate and TNF-α concentrations. Taurine normalised maternal plasma TNF-α and glutamate concentrations in MOT animals. Both MO and MOT mothers displayed evidence of fatty liver accompanied by alterations in key markers of hepatic lipid metabolism. MO neonates displayed a pro-inflammatory hepatic profile which was partially rescued in MOT offspring. Conversely, a pro-inflammatory phenotype was observed in MOT mothers suggesting a possible maternal trade-off to protect the neonate. Despite protective effects of taurine in MOT offspring, neonatal mortality was increased in CT neonates, indicating possible adverse effects of taurine in the setting of normal pregnancy. These data suggest that maternal taurine supplementation

  4. Antenatal taurine supplementation increases taurine content in intrauterine growth restricted fetal rat brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Teng, Hui-Yun; Liu, Jing; Wang, Hua-Wei; Zeng, Li; Zhao, Li-Fang

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of antenatal taurine supplementation on taurine content in the brains of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Experiments were performed at the Central Laboratory of Bayi Children's Hospital Affiliated to Beijing Military General Hospital in China from January to June 2013. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal controls, an IUGR group and an IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement group (Taurine group) (n = 5). The IUGR model was induced using a low-protein diet throughout gestation. Rats in the taurine group were fed a diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine for 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Two fetal rats were randomly selected in every litter, and taurine levels in the brains of rats were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that (1) the mean body weight of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement groups was 6.619 ± 0.4132, 4.509 ± 0.454, and 5.176 ± 0.436 g (F = 429.818, P taurine levels in the brains of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and taurine groups were (2.399 ± 0.134) × 10(5), (1.881 ± 0.166) × 10(5) and (2.170 ± 0.191) × 10(5) μg/g (F = 24.828, P taurine levels in IUGR fetal rat brains were lower than in the control animals, and that antenatal taurine supplementation could significantly increase taurine levels in the brains of fetal rats with IUGR.

  5. Effects of periconceptional undernutrition on maternal taurine concentrations in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorstensen, Eric B; Derraik, José G B; Oliver, Mark H; Jaquiery, Anne L; Bloomfield, Frank H; Harding, Jane E

    2012-02-01

    Taurine has an important role in numerous physiological processes, including many aspects of fetal development such as development of the pancreas and brain, and requirements increase during pregnancy. Periconceptional undernutrition has long-term effects on pancreas and brain function of the offspring, but the effects on maternal taurine economy are unknown. We, therefore, studied the effects of different periods of periconceptional undernutrition on maternal plasma and urine taurine concentrations before and during pregnancy. Four groups of singleton-bearing ewes were studied (n 10-11): controls fed ad libitum, and groups undernourished from 60 d before until mating (PreC), from 2 d before mating until 30 d after mating (PostC) or from 60 d before until 30 d after mating (Pre+PostC). In PreC ewes, plasma taurine concentrations remained at control levels for the first 30 d, and then decreased through the remainder of undernutrition, but recovered by 30 d after mating; urinary taurine excretion was low at mating, but recovered similarly. In PostC ewes, plasma taurine concentrations recovered after 2 weeks despite ongoing undernutrition; urinary taurine excretion had recovered by 30 d after mating. Pre+PostC ewes followed the same pattern as PreC for the first 60 d, but plasma taurine concentrations and urinary excretion recovered slowly, and did not reach the control levels until 97 d. These data suggest that different periods of mild periconceptional undernutrition in sheep have different but substantial effects on maternal taurine homoeostasis. These effects may be one mechanism by which maternal periconceptional undernutrition alters development of the offspring with implications for adult health.

  6. Effect of supplemental taurine on juvenile channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurine is a beta-amino sulfur amino acid found in most animal tissues. It has many important biological functions in mammals including membrane stabilization, antioxidation, cellular osmoregulation, detoxification, neuromodulation, and brain and eye development. Taurine supplementation in juvenil...

  7. The effect of subacute supplementation of taurine on spatial learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Koichi; Arko, Matevz; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Tsubone, Hirokazu

    2009-04-01

    Although the effect of taurine on the heart and liver is well studied, there has been no direct observation concerning the effect of taurine on spatial learning and memory at the behavior level. In this study, we tested the effect of subacute taurine supplementation with evaluation by the Morris water maze method. Although swim distance to find the platform of taurine-supplemented rats was significantly longer than that of control rats due to increase of swimming velocity, escape latency and the efficacy of learning and memory was comparable in both groups. These results suggest that taurine supplemented orally does not affect the learning and memory function.

  8. A Novel Cysteine Sulfinic Acid Decarboxylase Knock-Out Mouse: Taurine Distribution in Various Tissues With and Without Taurine Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunkyue; Park, Seung Yong; Cho, In Soo; Kim, Bo Sook; Schuller-Levis, Georgia

    2017-01-01

    , compared to WT, indicating taurine in the brain and muscle from HO was replenished through taurine transporter and increased biosynthesis of taurine by up-regulated Gadl-1. The expression of glutathione peroxidase 3 was increased in the brain and peroxireductase 2 was increased in the liver and lung, suggesting taurine has anti-oxidant activity. In contrast to newborn and 1 month CSAD KO, Ltf and Prlr in the liver from CSAD KO at 2 M were increased more than two times and 52%, respectively, indicating these two proteins may be required for pregnancy of CSAD KO. Ltf in HOT1.0 was restored to WT, while Prlr in HOT1.0 was increased more than HO, explaining improvement of neonatal survival with taurine supplementation.These data are essential for investigating the role of taurine in development of the brain and eye, immune function, reproduction and glucose tolerance.

  9. Taurine Supplementation Improves Functional Capacity, Myocardial Oxygen Consumption, and Electrical Activity in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Mehdi; Dabidi Roshan, Valiollah; Ashourpore, Eadeh

    2017-07-04

    Taurine is an amino acid found abundantly in the heart in very high concentrations. It is assumed that taurine contributes to several physiological functions of mammalian cells, such as osmoregulation, anti-inflammation, membrane stabilization, ion transport modulation, and regulation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial protein synthesis. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of taurine supplementation on functional capacity, myocardial oxygen consumption, and electrical activity in patients with heart failure. In a double-blind and randomly designed study, 16 patients with heart failure were assigned to two groups: taurine (TG, n = 8) and placebo (PG, n = 8). TG received 500-mg taurine supplementation three times per day for two weeks. Significant decrease in the values of Q-T segments (p taurine concentration, T wave, Q-T segment, physical capacities, and lower values of cardiovascular capacities were detected post-supplementation in TG as compared with PG (all p values Taurine significantly enhanced the physical function and significantly reduced the cardiovascular function parameters following exercise. Our results also suggest that the short-term taurine supplementation is an effective strategy for improving some selected hemodynamic parameters in heart failure patients. Together, these findings support the view that taurine improves cardiac function and functional capacity in patients with heart failure. This idea warrants further study.

  10. Comparison of the developmental changes of the brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) in taurine-supplemented and taurine-deficient kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallecalle-Sandoval, M H; Heaney, G; Sersen, E; Sturman, J A

    1991-01-01

    A similar development of the brainstem auditory evoked response is present in taurine-supplemented and taurine-deficient kittens between the second postnatal week and the third month of life. Between birth and the second postnatal week kittens from mothers fed the 1% taurine diet showed earlier maturation of the brainstem auditory evoked response as indicated by lower threshold, shorter P1 latency and shorter central conduction time when compared to the kittens from mothers fed the 0.05% taurine diet. These results suggest an important role of taurine in the anatomical and functional development of the auditory system.

  11. Effect of supplemental taurine on juvenile channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus growth performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurine is a beta-amino sulfur amino acid found in most animal tissues that has many important biological functions including bile salt conjugation, cellular osmoregulation, neuromodulation, calcium signaling. The benefits of supplementing diets with taurine are just beginning to be realized in a n...

  12. Effects of periconceptional undernutrition on maternal taurine concentrations in sheep

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thorstensen, Eric B; Derraik, José G B; Oliver, Mark H; Jaquiery, Anne L; Bloomfield, Frank H; Harding, Jane E

    Taurine has an important role in numerous physiological processes, including many aspects of fetal development such as development of the pancreas and brain, and requirements increase during pregnancy...

  13. Downregulation of hepatic betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) expression in taurine-deficient mice is reversed by taurine supplementation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowska, Halina; Niewiadomski, Julie; Hirschberger, Lawrence L; Roman, Heather B; Mazor, Kevin M; Liu, Xiaojing; Locasale, Jason W; Park, Eunkyue; Stipanuk, Martha H

    2016-03-01

    The cysteine dioxygenase (Cdo1)-null and the cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (Csad)-null mouse are not able to synthesize hypotaurine/taurine by the cysteine/cysteine sulfinate pathway and have very low tissue taurine levels. These mice provide excellent models for studying the effects of taurine on biological processes. Using these mouse models, we identified betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) as a protein whose in vivo expression is robustly regulated by taurine. BHMT levels are low in liver of both Cdo1-null and Csad-null mice, but are restored to wild-type levels by dietary taurine supplementation. A lack of BHMT activity was indicated by an increase in the hepatic betaine level. In contrast to observations in liver of Cdo1-null and Csad-null mice, BHMT was not affected by taurine supplementation of primary hepatocytes from these mice. Likewise, CSAD abundance was not affected by taurine supplementation of primary hepatocytes, although it was robustly upregulated in liver of Cdo1-null and Csad-null mice and lowered to wild-type levels by dietary taurine supplementation. The mechanism by which taurine status affects hepatic CSAD and BHMT expression appears to be complex and to require factors outside of hepatocytes. Within the liver, mRNA abundance for both CSAD and BHMT was upregulated in parallel with protein levels, indicating regulation of BHMT and CSAD mRNA synthesis or degradation.

  14. Taurine supplementation in spontaneously hypertensive rats: Advantages and limitations for human applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanich, Atchariya; Wyss, J Michael; Roysommuti, Sanya

    2013-11-26

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is a β-amino acid found in many tissues particularly brain, myocardium, and kidney. It plays several physiological roles including cardiac contraction, antioxidation, and blunting of hypertension. Though several lines of evidence indicate that dietary taurine can reduce hypertension in humans and in animal models, evidence that taurine supplementation reduces hypertension in humans has not been conclusive. One reason for the inconclusive nature of past studies may be that taurine having both positive and negative effects on cardiovascular system depending on when it is assessed, some effects may occur early, while others only appear later. Further, other consideration may play a role, e.g., taurine supplementation improves hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats on a low salt diet but fails to attenuate hypertension on a high salt diet. In humans, some epidemiologic studies indicate that people with high taurine and low salt diets display lower arterial pressure than those with low taurine and high salt diets. Differences in techniques for measuring arterial pressure, duration of treatment, and animal models likely affect the response in different studies. This review considers both the positive and negative effects of taurine on blood pressure in animal models and their applications for human interventions.

  15. Taurine supplementation has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects before and after incremental exercise in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Mehdi; Roshan, Valiollah Dabidi; Aslani, Elaheh; Stannard, Stephen R

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effect of supplemental taurine prior to and following incremental exercise in patients with heart failure (HF). Patients with HF and left ventricle ejection fraction less than 50%, and placed in functional class II or III according to the New York Heart Association classification, were randomly assigned to two groups: (1) taurine supplementation; or (2) placebo. The taurine group received oral taurine (500 mg) 3 times a day for 2 weeks, and performed exercise before and after the supplementation period. The placebo group followed the same protocol, but with a starch supplement (500 mg) rather than taurine. The incremental multilevel treadmill test was done using a modified Bruce protocol. Our results indicate that inflammatory indices [C-reactive protein (CRP), platelets] decreased in the taurine group in pre-exercise, post-supplementation and post-exercise, post-supplementation as compared with pre-exercise, pre-supplementation ( p exercise, post-supplementation and post-exercise, post-supplementation as compared with pre-exercise, pre-supplementation in the placebo group ( p exercise, post-supplementation and post-exercise, post-supplementation as compared with pre-exercise, pre-supplementation ( p 0.05). our results suggest that 2 weeks of oral taurine supplementation increases the taurine levels and has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects prior to and following incremental exercise in HF patients.

  16. Effect of dietary taurine supplementation on growth, feed efficiency, and nutrient composition of juvenile sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile sablefish were fed a low taurine, basal feed with seven graded levels of supplemental taurine to determine taurine requirements for growth and feed efficiency. The basal feed was plant based, formulated primarily with soy and corn proteins with a minimal (9%) amount of fishmeal. The unsuppl...

  17. Protective and therapeutic effectiveness of taurine in diabetes mellitus: a rationale for antioxidant supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirdah, Mahmoud M

    2015-01-01

    Taurine, 2-amino ethanesulfonic acid, is a conditionally essential β amino acid which is not utilized in protein synthesis. Taurine is one of the most abundant free amino acids in mammals tissues and is one of the three well-known sulfur-containing amino acids; the others are methionine and cysteine which are considered as the precursors for taurine synthesis. Different scientific studies emphasize on the cytoprotective properties of taurine which included antioxidation, antiapoptosis, membrane stabilization, osmoregulation, and neurotransmission. Protective and therapeutic ameliorations of oxidative stress-induced pathologies were also attributed to taurine both in experimental and human models. Data demonstrating the beneficial effectiveness of taurine against type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and their complications are growing and providing a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Although the clinical studies are limited compared to the experimental ones, the present updated systematic review of the literature is set up to provide experimental and clinical evidences regarding the effectiveness of taurine in the context of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Gathering these scientific effects of taurine on diabetes mellitus could provide the physicians and specially the endocrinologists with a comprehensive overview on possible trends in the prevention and management of the disease and its complications through antioxidant supplementation. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of long-term taurine supplementation and fructose feeding on glucose and lipid homeostasis in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Lea Hüche; Orstrup, Laura Kofoed Hvidsten; Hansen, Svend Høime; Grunnet, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn; Mortensen, Ole Hartvig

    2013-01-01

    The nonprotein amino acid taurine has been shown to counteract the negative effects of a high-fructose diet in rats with regard to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Here we examined the long-term (26 weeks) effects of oral taurine supplementation (2% in the drinking water) in fructose-fed Wistar rats.The combination of fructose and taurine caused a significant increase in fasting glucose compared to the control diet without changing hepatic phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase mRNA levels. The combination of fructose and taurine also improved glucose tolerance compared to control. Neither a high-fructose diet nor taurine supplementation induced significant changes in body weight, body fat or total calorie intake, fasting insulin levels, HOMA-IR, or insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle.Fructose alone caused a decrease in liver triglyceride content, with taurine supplementation preventing this. There was no effect of long-term fructose diet and/or taurine supplementation on plasma triglycerides, plasma nonesterified fatty acids, as well as plasma HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol.In conclusion, the study suggests that long-term taurine supplementation improves glucose tolerance and normalize hepatic triglyceride content following long-term fructose feeding. However, as the combination of taurine and fructose also increased fasting glucose levels, the beneficial effect of taurine supplementation towards amelioration of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance may be questionable.

  19. Antenatal taurine supplementation for improving brain ultrastructure in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Liu, L; Chen, H

    2011-05-05

    Changes in brain ultrastructure of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were explored and the effects of antenatal taurine supplementation on their brain ultrastructure were determined. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group, IUGR model group and IUGR group given antenatal taurine supplements. Taurine was added to the diet of the taurine group at a dose of 300 mg/kg/d from 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe ultrastructural changes in the brains of the newborn rats. At the same time, brain cellular apoptosis was detected using TUNEL, and the changes in protein expression of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that: 1) The average body weight and cerebral weight were significantly lower in the IUGR group than in the control group (ptaurine was supplemented (ptaurine supplementation. 3) The results of TUNEL showed that the counts of apoptotic brain cells in IUGR groups were significantly increased from those in control groups and that taurine could significantly decrease brain cell apoptosis (ptaurine-supplementation could significantly increase the counts of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive cells in fetal rats with IUGR (ptaurine can significantly improve the IUGR fetal brain development.

  20. Two weeks taurine supplementation reverses endothelial dysfunction in young male type 1 diabetics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moloney, Michael A

    2010-10-01

    Type 1 diabetics have a well-recognised risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease. Even in the absence of clinical signs there are detectable abnormalities of conduit vessel function. Our group has previously reported reversal of endothelial dysfunction in diabetics with pravastatin. In young asymptomatic smokers, taurine supplementation has a beneficial impact on macrovascular function, assessed by FMD, and shows an up-regulation of nitric oxide from monocyte-endothelial cell interactions. We hypothesise that taurine supplementation reverses early endothelial abnormalities in young male type 1 diabetics, as assessed by applanation tonometry, brachial artery ultrasound and laser Doppler fluximetry. Asymptomatic, male diabetics (n=9) were scanned prior to treatment and then randomised in a double-blind cross-over fashion to receive either 2 weeks placebo or taurine. Control patients (n=10) underwent a baseline scan. Assessed diabetics had detectable, statistically significant abnormalities when compared with controls, in both arterial stiffness (augmentation index) and brachial artery reactivity (FMD). Both of these parameters were returned to control levels with 2 weeks taurine supplementation. In conclusion, 2 weeks taurine supplementation reverses early, detectable conduit vessel abnormalities in young male diabetics. This may have important implications in the long-term treatment of diabetic patients and their subsequent progression towards atherosclerotic disease.

  1. The effect of long-term taurine supplementation and fructose feeding on glucose and lipid homeostasis in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Hüche; Orstrup, Laura Kofoed Hvidsten; Hansen, Svend Høime

    2013-01-01

    The nonprotein amino acid taurine has been shown to counteract the negative effects of a high-fructose diet in rats with regard to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Here we examined the long-term (26 weeks) effects of oral taurine supplementation (2% in the drinking water) in fructose-fed Wistar...... rats.The combination of fructose and taurine caused a significant increase in fasting glucose compared to the control diet without changing hepatic phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase mRNA levels. The combination of fructose and taurine also improved glucose tolerance compared to control. Neither a high......-fructose diet nor taurine supplementation induced significant changes in body weight, body fat or total calorie intake, fasting insulin levels, HOMA-IR, or insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle.Fructose alone caused a decrease in liver triglyceride content, with taurine supplementation...

  2. Taurine Supplementation Lowers Blood Pressure and Improves Vascular Function in Prehypertension: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qianqian; Wang, Bin; Li, Yingsha; Sun, Fang; Li, Peng; Xia, Weijie; Zhou, Xunmei; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaojing; Chen, Jing; Zeng, Xiangru; Zhao, Zhigang; He, Hongbo; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2016-03-01

    Taurine, the most abundant, semiessential, sulfur-containing amino acid, is well known to lower blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive animal models. However, no rigorous clinical trial has validated whether this beneficial effect of taurine occurs in human hypertension or prehypertension, a key stage in the development of hypertension. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we assessed the effects of taurine intervention on BP and vascular function in prehypertension. We randomly assigned 120 eligible prehypertensive individuals to receive either taurine supplementation (1.6 g per day) or a placebo for 12 weeks. Taurine supplementation significantly decreased the clinic and 24-hour ambulatory BPs, especially in those with high-normal BP. Mean clinic systolic BP reduction for taurine/placebo was 7.2/2.6 mm Hg, and diastolic BP was 4.7/1.3 mm Hg. Mean ambulatory systolic BP reduction for taurine/placebo was 3.8/0.3 mm Hg, and diastolic BP was 3.5/0.6 mm Hg. In addition, taurine supplementation significantly improved endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation and increased plasma H2S and taurine concentrations. Furthermore, changes in BP were negatively correlated with both the plasma H2S and taurine levels in taurine-treated prehypertensive individuals. To further elucidate the hypotensive mechanism, experimental studies were performed both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that taurine treatment upregulated the expression of hydrogen sulfide-synthesizing enzymes and reduced agonist-induced vascular reactivity through the inhibition of transient receptor potential channel subtype 3-mediated calcium influx in human and mouse mesenteric arteries. In conclusion, the antihypertensive effect of chronic taurine supplementation shows promise in the treatment of prehypertension through improvement of vascular function. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Effects of taurine supplementation on bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Ja

    2009-01-01

    Taurine supplementation has been shown to have a beneficial effect on femur bone mineral content in ovariectomized rats. It therefore seemed desirable to find out whether the beneficial effect of taurine on ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet could also be reproduced. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. One group was OVX and the other group received sham operation (SHAM), and received either control diet or a taurine supplemented diet for 6 weeks. All rats were fed on calcium deficient diet (AIN-93: 50% level of calcium) and deionized water. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured in spine and femur. The serum and urine concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were determined. Bone formation was measured by serum osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations. Bone resorption rate was measured by deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks immunoassay and corrected for creatinine. Urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, osteocalcin in blood and cross link value were not significantly different among the groups. Within the OVX group, the taurine supplemented group had not higher femur bone mineral content than the control group. This study established the need for a study on the taurine effect on bone with different calcium levels.

  4. Taurine supplementation attenuates delayed increase in exercise-induced arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Song-Gyu; Choi, Youngju; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Ohmori, Hajime; Maeda, Seiji

    2016-06-01

    There is a delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise that is possibly mediated by the concurrent delayed increase in circulating oxidative stress. Taurine has anti-oxidant action, and taurine supplementation may be able to attenuate the increase in oxidative stress after exercise. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether taurine supplementation attenuates the delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise. In the present double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial, we divided 29 young, healthy men into 2 groups. Subjects received either 2.0 g of placebo (n = 14) or taurine (n = 15) 3 times per day for 14 days prior to the exercise, on the day of exercise, and the following 3 days. The exercise consisted of 2 sets of 20 maximal-effort eccentric repetitions with the nondominant arm only. On the morning of exercise and for 4 days thereafter, we measured serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) as indices of oxidative stress and arterial stiffness, respectively. On the third and fourth days after exercise, both MDA and cfPWV significantly increased in the placebo group. However, these elevations were significantly attenuated in the taurine group. The increase in MDA was associated with an increase in cfPWV from before exercise to 4 days after exercise (r = 0.597, p taurine group. Our results suggest that delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise was probably affected by the exercise-induced oxidative stress and was attenuated by the taurine supplementation.

  5. Superoxide dismutase and taurine supplementation improves in vitro blastocyst yield from poor-quality feline oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochota, Małgorzata; Pasieka, Anna; Niżański, Wojciech

    2016-03-15

    Blastocyst production in vitro seems to be crucial part of assisted reproduction techniques in feline species. However, the results of cats' oocyte maturation and embryo development are still lower than those in other species. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the supplementation with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and taurine during maturation or culture would improve the blastocyst yield obtained from lower grades of oocytes, that are usually discarded, as not suitable for further in vitro purposes. To investigate the effect of antioxidants' addition, the good- and poor-quality oocytes, were cultured with the addition of 10-mmol taurine and 600 UI/mL SOD. The nuclear maturity, embryo development, and blastocyst quality were subsequently assessed. In control group, without antioxidant supplementation, significantly less poor-quality oocytes matured (42% vs. 62%) and more degenerated (35% vs. 20%), comparing to the experimental group supplemented with SOD and taurine. The amount of obtained blastocyst was much higher, when poor quality oocytes were supplemented with SOD and taurine (supplementation to IVM-4%; supplementation to IVC-5.5%; supplementation to IVM and IVC-5.9% of blastocyst), comparing to not supplemented control group (1.3%). The best blastocysts were obtained when poor oocytes had antioxidants added only during embryo culture (185 ± 13.4 blastomeres vs. 100 ± 1.5 in control). In the present study, we reported that the lower grades of oocytes can better mature and form significantly more blastocysts with better quality, when cultured with addition of SOD and taurine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Taurine and magnesium supplementation enhances the function of endothelial progenitor cells through antioxidation in healthy men and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakawa, Mayumi; Fukuda, Noboru; Tsunemi, Akiko; Mori, Mari; Maruyama, Takashi; Matsumoto, Taro; Abe, Masanori; Yamori, Yukio

    2016-12-01

    Endothelial damage is repaired by endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which are pivotal in preventing cardiovascular diseases and prolonging lifespan. The WHO Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison Study demonstrated that dietary taurine and magnesium (Mg) intake suppresses cardiovascular diseases. We herein evaluate the effects of taurine and Mg supplementation on EPC function and oxidative stress in healthy men and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Healthy men received taurine (3 g per day) or Mg (340 mg per day) for 2 weeks. SHRs and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were housed with high-salt drinking water (1% NaCl). The SHRs received 3% taurine solution and/or a high-Mg (600 mg per 100 g) diet for 4 weeks. Their peripheral blood mononuclear cells were separated to quantify EPC colony formation. Oxidative stress markers in their peripheral blood were evaluated using a free radical analytical system and a thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assay. Taurine and Mg supplementation significantly increased EPC colony numbers and significantly decreased free radical levels and TBARS scores in healthy men. Taurine and Mg supplementation significantly increased EPC colony numbers and significantly decreased TBARS scores and free radical levels in SHRs. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase component mRNA expression was significantly higher in the renal cortex of salt-loaded SHRs than in WKY rats, in which it was suppressed by taurine and Mg supplementation. Taurine and Mg supplementation increased EPC colony formation in healthy men and improved impaired EPC function in SHRs through antioxidation, indicating that the dietary intake of taurine and Mg may prolong lifespan by preventing the progression of cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Functions of Maternally-Derived Taurine in Fetal and Neonatal Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochitani, Shiro

    2017-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is a sulfur-containing organic acid, which has various physiological functions, including membrane stabilization, cell-volume regulation, mitochondrial protein translocation, anti-oxidative activity, neuroprotection against neurotoxicity and modulation of intracellular calcium levels. Taurine also activates GABAA receptors and glycine receptors. Mammalian fetuses and infants are dependent on taurine delivered from their mothers via either the placenta or their mother's milk. Taurine is a molecule that links mother-fetus or mother-infant bonding.This review describes the functions of taurine and the mechanisms of action of taurine in fetal and brain development. Taurine is involved in regulating the proliferation of neural progenitors, migration of newly-generated neurons, and the synapse formation of neurons after migration during fetal and neonatal development. In this review, we also discuss the environmental factors that might influence the functional roles of taurine in neural development.

  8. Taurine supplementation to alternative dietary proteins used in fish meal replacement enhances growth of juvenile cobia (Rachycentron canadum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two separate 8 week feeding trials were conducted to examine the impacts of fish meal replacement with an organically certifiable yeast-based protein source with and without supplementation of methionine, tryptophan, and taurine to diets for juvenile cobia. In the first trial, diets were formulated ...

  9. Effect of taurine supplementation on hyperhomocysteinemia and markers of oxidative stress in high fructose diet induced insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mesallamy Hala O

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High intake of dietary fructose is accused of being responsible for the development of the insulin resistance (IR syndrome. Concern has arisen because of the realization that fructose, at elevated concentrations, can promote metabolic changes that are potentially deleterious. Among these changes is IR which manifests as a decreased biological response to normal levels of plasma insulin. Methods Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT were carried out, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA was calculated, homocysteine (Hcy, lipid concentrations and markers of oxidative stress were measured in male Wistar rats weighing 170-190 g. The rats were divided into four groups, kept on either control diet or high fructose diet (HFD, and simultaneously supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine via intra-peritoneal (i.p. route for 35 days. Results Fructose-fed rats showed significantly impaired glucose tolerance, impaired insulin sensitivity, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy, lower total antioxidant capacity (TAC, lower paraoxonase (PON activity, and higher nitric oxide metabolites (NOx concentration, when compared to rats fed on control diet. Supplementing the fructose-fed rats with taurine has ameliorated the rise in HOMA by 56%, triglycerides (TGs by 22.5%, total cholesterol (T-Chol by 11%, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C by 21.4%. Taurine also abolished any significant difference of TAC, PON activity and NOx concentration among treated and control groups. TAC positively correlated with PON in both rats fed on the HFD and those received taurine in addition to the HFD. Fructose-fed rats showed 34.7% increase in Hcy level. Taurine administration failed to prevent the observed HHcy in the current dosage and duration. Conclusion Our results indicate that HFD could induce IR which could further result in metabolic syndrome (MS, and that taurine has a protective role against

  10. Taurine and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Taurine is abundantly present in most mammalian tissues and plays a role in many important physiological functions. Atherosclerosis is the underlying mechanism of cardiovascular disease including myocardial infarctions, strokes and peripheral artery disease and remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Studies conducted in laboratory animal models using both genetic and dietary models of hyperlipidemia have demonstrated that taurine supplementation retards the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Epidemiological studies have also suggested that taurine exerts preventive effects on cardiovascular diseases. The present review focuses on the effects of taurine on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In addition, the potential mechanisms by which taurine suppress the development of atherosclerosis will be discussed.

  11. Effect of fishmeal replacement by soy protein concentrate with taurine supplementation on hepatic intermediary metabolism and antioxidant status of totoaba juveniles (Totoaba macdonaldi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos-Vargas, Isaura; López, Lus M; Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Peres, Helena

    2014-04-01

    The effect of dietary incorporation of soy protein concentrate (SPC) and the concomitant supplementation with taurine on hepatic intermediary metabolism and antioxidant status of totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) juveniles was assessed. Four isoproteic and isolipidic diets were formulated containing either 30 or 60% of SPC (diets SP30 and SP60), supplemented or not with 1% of taurine (diets SP30T and SP60T). A fish meal (FM) based diet, without SPC and taurine supplementation, was used as a control. Triplicate groups of 32 totoaba juveniles (average body mass=7.5g) were fed these diets over 45days. Results revealed that dietary FM replacement by SPC depressed the overall intermediary metabolism. Activity of key enzymes of amino acid catabolism and gluconeogenesis was significantly reduced and a trend to reduce glycolysis and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was observed. The incorporation of the highest level of SPC also significantly increased hepatic lipid peroxidation and the activity of superoxide dismutase. Concomitant taurine supplementation restored the activity of amino acid catabolic and gluconeogenic enzymes and hexokinase to levels similar of those of the control diet. Taurine supplementation also led to a significant increase of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase activity, as well as to a significant reduction of liver lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that taurine may play an important metabolic modulation action on totoaba fed SPC based diets, contributing to the enhancement of the overall metabolism and to the reduction of liver oxidative damage.

  12. Effect of fishmeal replacement by soy protein concentrate with taurine supplementation on growth performance, hematological and biochemical status, and liver histology of totoaba juveniles (Totoaba macdonaldi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Lus M; Flores-Ibarra, Maricela; Bañuelos-Vargas, Isaura; Galaviz, Mario A; True, Conal D

    2015-08-01

    The effect of dietary inclusion of soy protein concentrate (SPC) and simultaneous supplementation with taurine on the growth, hematology, blood biochemistry, and liver histology of totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) juveniles was assessed. Four isoproteic and isolipidic diets were formulated containing either 30 or 60% of SPC (diets S30 and S60), supplemented or not with 1% of taurine (diets S30T and S60T). A fishmeal-based diet formulated for totoaba nutritional requirements, without SPC and taurine supplementation, was used as a reference diet. Triplicate groups of 32 totoaba juveniles (average body weight 7.5 ± 0.6 g) were fed these diets for 45 days. Results showed that growth performance in fish fed S30, S30T, and S60T was similar to fish fed the reference diet. Red blood cells and hematocrit in fish fed with supplemented taurine in both levels of SPC (S30T and S60T) were similar to the fish fed the RD; the addition of taurine improved the state of hydration of totoaba. Plasmatic hemoglobin in fish fed the lower SPC level was similar to fish fed the RD. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in fish fed S30T was similar to fish fed the RD, taurine supplementation prevented the development of hypochromic anemia in this group of fish. Plasmatic albumin in fish fed S30 was similar to fish fed the RD. Plasmatic total protein and globulin concentration increased and AL:GLB (albumin:globulin ratio) decreased in fish fed the SPC-based diets despite taurine supplementation. The protein profile showed that taurine supplementation did not prevent a possible inflammatory process (increased globulins, decreased AL:GLB) in juvenile totoaba fed both levels of SPC. Glucose concentration was similar in fish fed S30, S30T, and S60T. The histological hepatic index was highest in fish fed S60. These results suggest that with an appropriate nutritional level, taurine may play an important modulatory role in the hematology and blood biochemistry status in totoaba fed SPC

  13. A taurine-supplemented vegan diet may blunt the contribution of neutrophil activation to acute coronary events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2004-01-01

    Neutrophils are activated in the coronary circulation during acute coronary events (unstable angina and myocardial infarction), often prior to the onset of ischemic damage. Moreover, neutrophils infiltrate coronary plaque in these circumstances, and may contribute to the rupture or erosion of this plaque, triggering thrombosis. Activated neutrophils secrete proteolytic enzymes in latent forms which are activated by the hypochlorous acid (HOCl) generated by myeloperoxidase. These phenomena may help to explain why an elevated white cell count has been found to be an independent coronary risk factor. Low-fat vegan diets can decrease circulating leukocytes--neutrophils and monocytes--possibly owing to down-regulation of systemic IGF-I activity. Thus, a relative neutropenia may contribute to the coronary protection afforded by such diets. However, vegetarian diets are devoid of taurine - the physiological antagonist of HOCl--and tissue levels of this nutrient are relatively low in vegetarians. Taurine has anti-atherosclerotic activity in animal models, possibly reflecting a role for macrophage-derived myeloperoxidase in the atherogenic process. Taurine also has platelet-stabilizing and anti-hypertensive effects that presumably could reduce coronary risk. Thus, it is proposed that a taurine-supplemented low-fat vegan diet represents a rational strategy for diminishing the contribution of activated neutrophils to acute coronary events; moreover, such a regimen would work in a number of other complementary ways to promote cardiovascular health. Moderate alcohol consumption, the well-tolerated drug pentoxifylline, and 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors--zileuton, boswellic acids, fish oil--may also have potential in this regard. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Dietary taurine supplementation ameliorates the lethal effect of phenanthrene but not the bioaccumulation in a marine teleost, red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hano, Takeshi; Ito, Mana; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kono, Kumiko; Ohkubo, Nobuyuki

    2017-03-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of dietary taurine on the hepatic metabolic profiles of red sea bream (Pagrus major) and on phenanthrene (a polyaromatic hydrocarbon) toxicity and bioaccumulation. The fish were fed a diet supplemented with 0% (TAU0%), 0.5% (TAU0.5%), or 5% (TAU5%) taurine for 40-55d and subjected to phenanthrene acute toxicity and bioaccumulation tests. Taurine deficiency in feed severely affected the hepatic metabolic profiles of fish, which indicated a complementary physiological response to taurine deficiency. For the acute toxicity test, fish were fed the test diets for 55d and were then exposed to 0-893µg/L phenanthrene for 96h. Tolerance to phenanthrene was significantly improved by 0.5% of taurine inclusion in feed relative to TAU0%, but not by 5.0% inclusion. Reduced glutathione in the liver, which acts as an oxygen-free radical scavenger, was associated with a reduction in the toxicity of phenanthrene. For the bioaccumulation test, fish were fed the test diets for 40d and were thereafter chronically exposed to 20µg/L phenanthrene for 13d followed by depuration for 3d. The activity of hepatic biomarker, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, was increased by phenanthrene exposure in the taurine inclusion groups. However, phenanthrene concentrations in the liver and muscle of fish fed TAU5.0% tended to be higher than those of fish fed TAU0% and TAU0.5% during the exposure period. These results indicate that 0.5% of taurine inclusion in feed plays an important role in the alleviation of phenanthrene toxicity but not bioaccumulation. Furthermore, larger amount of taurine inclusion (TAU5%) did not show marked beneficial effects against phenanthrene exposure. This study provides insight about a major concern of environmental contaminants into aquatic environment and can be effectively used for improvement of aquaculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Taurine Supplementation Improves Erectile Function in Rats with Streptozotocin-induced Type 1 Diabetes via Amelioration of Penile Fibrosis and Endothelial Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yajun; Li, Mingchao; Wang, Tao; Yang, Jun; Rao, Ke; Wang, Shaogang; Yang, Weiming; Liu, Jihong; Ye, Zhangqun

    2016-05-01

    For patients with diabetes, erectile dysfunction (ED) is common and greatly affects quality of life. However, these patients often exhibit a poor response to first-line oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. To investigate whether taurine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, affects diabetic ED (DED). Type 1 diabetes mellitus was induced in male rats by using streptozotocin. After 12 weeks, an apomorphine test was conducted to confirm DED. Only rats with DED were administered taurine or vehicle for 4 weeks. Age-matched nondiabetic rats were administered saline intraperitoneally for 4 weeks. Erectile function was evaluated by electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve. Histologic and molecular alterations of the corpus cavernosum also were analyzed. Erectile function was significantly reduced in the diabetic rats compared with in the nondiabetic rats, and was improved in the diabetic rats treated with taurine. The corpus cavernosum of the rats with DED exhibited severe fibrosis and decreased smooth muscle content. Deposition of extracellular matrix proteins was increased in the diabetic rats, while expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase/cyclic guanosine monophosphate/nitric oxide pathway-related proteins was reduced. Taurine supplementation ameliorated erectile response as well as histologic and molecular alterations. Taurine supplementation improves erectile function in rats with DED probably by potential antifibrotic activity. This finding provides evidence for a potential new therapy for DED. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Taurine supplementation of plant derived protein 1 and n-3 fatty acids are critical for optimal growth and development of cobia, rachycentron canadum

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined growth performance and lipid content in juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum, fed a taurine supplemented (1.5%), plant protein based diet with two fish oil replacements. The first fish oil replacement was a thraustochytrid meal (TM+SOY) plus soybean oil (~9% CL) and the second was a cano...

  17. Developing supplemental activities for primary health care maternity services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitz, E

    1990-12-01

    Supplemental health care activities are described in the context of the augmented product. The potential benefits of supplemental services to recipients and provider are discussed. The author describes a study that was the basis for (re)developing a supplemental maternity service. The implementation of the results in terms of changes in the marketing mix of this supplemental program is discussed. The effects of the marketing mix changes on program participation are presented.

  18. Taurine Growth Effects - Determining Optimum Taurine Supplementation Levels for Plant Proteins Incorporated into Marine Finfish Feeds using Juvenile Sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Taurine, an amino sulfonic acid, has important roles in osmoregulation, bile acid conjugation, membrane stabilization and calcium homeostasis in vertebrates. Though...

  19. Vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy for maternal and newborn outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Mary E; van den Broek, Nynke; Dou, Lixia; Othman, Mohammad

    2015-10-27

    The World Health Organization recommends routine vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy or lactation in areas with endemic vitamin A deficiency (where night blindness occurs), based on the expectation that supplementation will improve maternal and newborn outcomes including mortality, morbidity and prevention of anaemia or infection.   To review the effects of supplementation of vitamin A, or one of its derivatives, during pregnancy, alone or in combination with other vitamins and micronutrients, on maternal and newborn clinical outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised or quasi-randomised trials, including cluster-randomised trials, evaluating the effect of vitamin A supplementation in pregnant women. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We reviewed 106 reports of 35 trials, published between 1931 and 2015. We included 19 trials including over 310,000 women, excluded 15 trials and one is ongoing. Overall, seven trials were judged to be of low risk of bias, three were high risk of bias and for nine it was unclear. 1) Vitamin A alone versus placebo or no treatmentOverall, when trial results are pooled, vitamin A supplementation does not affect the risk of maternal mortality (risk ratio (RR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65 to 1.20; four trials Ghana, Nepal, Bangladesh, UK, high quality evidence), perinatal mortality (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.07; one study, high quality evidence), neonatal mortality, stillbirth, neonatal anaemia, preterm birth (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.01, five studies, high quality evidence), or the risk of having a low birthweight baby.Vitamin A supplementation reduces the risk of maternal night blindness (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.98; two trials). There is evidence that vitamin A supplements may reduce maternal clinical infection

  20. Is taurine a functional nutrient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouckenooghe, Thomas; Remacle, Claude; Reusens, Brigitte

    2006-11-01

    Taurine, a free amino acid, is found in millimolar concentrations in most mammalian tissues. Mammals are able to synthesize taurine endogenously, but some species such as humans are more dependent on dietary sources of taurine. A growing body of evidence suggests that taurine plays a preponderant role in many physiological processes, which will be summarized in this review. Evidence for the requirement of taurine in the human diet has been obtained in many studies involving animal models and a few clinical trials. Recent and past studies suggested that taurine might be a pertinent candidate for use as a nutritional supplement to protect against oxidative stress, neurodegenerative diseases or atherosclerosis. Taurine has demonstrated promising actions in vitro, and as a result clinical trials have begun to investigate its effects on various diseases. Taurine appears to have multiple functions and plays an important role in many physiological processes, such as osmoregulation, immunomodulation and bile salt formation. Taurine analogues/derivatives have recently been reported to have a marked activity on various disorders. Taken together, these observations actualize the old story of taurine.

  1. Maternal folic acid supplement intake and semen quality in Danish sons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kristoffer; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether maternal folic acid supplement intake during pregnancy is related to better semen quality in male offspring.......To examine whether maternal folic acid supplement intake during pregnancy is related to better semen quality in male offspring....

  2. [Effect of antepartum taurine supplementation in regulating the activity of Rho family factors and promoting the proliferation of neural stem cells in neonatal rats with fetal growth restriction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Wen; Li, Fang; Liu, Jing; Wang, Yan; Fu, Wei

    2016-11-01

    To study the possible effect of antepartum taurine supplementation in regulating the activity of Rho family factors and promoting the proliferation of neural stem cells in neonatal rats with fetal growth restriction (FGR), and to provide a basis for antepartum taurine supplementation to promote brain development in children with FGR. A total of 24 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, FGR, and taurine (n=8 each ). A rat model of FGR was established by food restriction throughout pregnancy. RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot were used to measure the expression of the specific intracellular markers for neural stem cells fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7), Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2 (ROCK2), ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA), and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate (Rac). The FGR group had significantly lower OD value of FABP7-positive cells and mRNA and protein expression of FABP7 than the control group, and the taurine group had significantly higher OD value of FABP7-positive cells and mRNA and protein expression of FABP7 than the FGR group (Ptaurine group had significantly higher mRNA expression of RhoA and ROCK2 than the control group and significantly lower expression than the FGR group (Ptaurine group had significantly higher mRNA expression of Rac than the FGR and control groups (Ptaurine group had significantly lower protein expression of RhoA and ROCK2 than the FGR group (Ptaurine supplementation can promote the proliferation of neural stem cells in rats with FGR, and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of the activity of Rho family factors.

  3. The Effect of L-Carnitine, Hypotaurine, and Taurine Supplementation on the Quality of Cryopreserved Chicken Semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partyka, Agnieszka; Rodak, Olga; Bajzert, Joanna; Kochan, Joanna; Niżański, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of L-carnitine (LC), hypotaurine (HT), and taurine (T) on the quality of frozen-thawed chicken semen. Pooled semen samples were divided into seven aliquots (control, 1 mM LC, 5 mM LC, 1 mM HT, 10 mM HT, 1 mM T, and 10 mM T) and subjected to cryopreservation. Postthaw sperm motility was determined by IVOS system and sperm characteristics were assessed with fluorochromes and flow cytometry. The highest sperm motility and the highest percentage of viable sperm were in the HT1 group (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05) following cryopreservation. After thawing, we observed a higher percentage of sperm without apoptosis and membrane reorganization changes in the LC1 and T1 group when compared to the control (P < 0.05). There was a higher percentage of live sperm without lipid peroxidation (LPO) in all treatments (P < 0.01; P < 0.05), when compared to the control group. The percentage of sperm with high mitochondrial potential significantly increased with LC1, T1, and T10 (P < 0.05). Supplementation of the diluent with LC1, LC5, and T1 significantly (P < 0.05) reduced DNA susceptibility to fragmentation, compared to the control and HT1 groups. These results indicate that the addition of examined antioxidants improves the quality of cryopreserved chicken semen.

  4. Taurine homeostasis requires de novo synthesis via cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase during zebrafish early embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yen-Chia; Ding, Shih-Torng; Lee, Yen-Hua; Wang, Ya-Ching; Huang, Ming-Feng; Liu, I-Hsuan

    2013-02-01

    Cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (Csad) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo biosynthesis of taurine. There are a number of physiological roles of taurine, such as bile salt synthesis, osmoregulation, lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress inhibition. To investigate the role of de novo synthesis of taurine during embryonic development, zebrafish csad was cloned and functionally analyzed. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that csad transcripts are maternally deposited, while whole-mount in situ hybridization demonstrated that csad is expressed in yolk syncytial layer and various embryonic tissues such as notochord, brain, retina, pronephric duct, liver, and pancreas. Knockdown of csad significantly reduced the embryonic taurine level, and the affected embryos had increased early mortality and cardiac anomalies. mRNA coinjection and taurine supplementation rescued the cardiac phenotypes suggesting that taurine originating from the de novo synthesis pathway plays a role in cardiac development. Our findings indicated that the de novo synthesis pathway via Csad plays a critical role in taurine homeostasis and cardiac development in zebrafish early embryos.

  5. Taurine and fish development: insights for the aquaculture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Wilson; Rønnestad, Ivar; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Aragão, Cláudia

    2013-01-01

    Expansion of the aquaculture industry is limited by incomplete knowledge on fish larval nutritional requirements. Nevertheless, it is believed that dietary taurine deficiencies may be particularly critical for fish larvae. The reasons include the high taurine levels found during egg and yolk-sac stages of fish, suggesting that taurine may be of pivotal importance for larval development. Moreover, unlike aquaculture feeds, natural preys of fish larvae contain high taurine levels, and dietary taurine supplementation has been shown to increase larval growth in several fish species. This study aimed to further explore the physiological role of taurine during fish development. Firstly, the effect of dietary taurine supplementation was assessed on growth of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) larvae and growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid metabolism of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae. Secondly, the expression of taurine transporter (TauT) was characterised by qPCR in sole larvae and juveniles. Results showed that dietary taurine supplementation did not increase sea bream growth. However, dietary taurine supplementation significantly increased sole larval growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid retention. Metamorphosis was also shown to be an important developmental trigger to promote taurine transport in sole tissues, while evidence for an enterohepatic recycling pathway for taurine was found in sole at least from juvenile stage. Taken together, our studies showed that the dependence of dietary taurine supplementation differs among fish species and that taurine has a vital role during the ontogenetic development of flatfish, an extremely valuable group targeted for aquaculture production.

  6. Effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk in the offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrauterine and early life exposure to folic acid has significantly increased in North America owing to folic acid fortification, widespread supplemental use and periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk ...

  7. Supplemental folic acid in pregnancy and maternal cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Mortensen, Jan Helge Seglem; Øyen, Nina; Fomina, Tatiana; Melbye, Mads; Tretli, Steinar; Vollset, Stein Emil; Bjørge, Tone

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that increased intake of folate protects against the development of several types of cancer. Some studies have, however, raised concern about the safety of folate in relation to cancer risk. Here we examined the risk of maternal cancer after intake of supplemental folic acid in pregnancy. Methods: This is a population-based cohort study comprising 429,004 women with data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, the Cancer Registry of Norway, and other nation...

  8. Antenatal taurine supplementation reduces cerebral cell apoptosis in fetal rats with growth restriction%孕鼠补充牛磺酸减少胎儿生长受限胎鼠脑细胞凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓凤; 滕慧云; 刘敬; 杨娜; 任晓暾

    2013-01-01

    were (0.46 ± 0.11),(14.76 ± 3.42) and (6.78 ± 1.93),respectively(H=429.80,P=0.000).(3)There were only small amount of GDNF positive cells in cerebral cortex in control group and more in model group.The amount of GDNF positive cells was further increased in taurine group.The amount of GDNF positive cells in cerebral cortex in the three groups were (93.56± 6.73),(120.36± 6.23)and(139.56± 5.28),respectively (H=715.17,P=0.000).(4) Few caspase-3 positive cells were found in cerebral cortex in control group.A large amount of positive cells were found in model group and less positive cells were found in taurine group,which was still more than those in control group.The amounts of caspase-3 positive cells in the three groups were (7.50±2.31),(151.32±24.43)and(37.28±11.21),respectively (F=132.54,P=0.000).Conclusions The number of apoptotic neural cells in brain tissue of baby rats with FGR were significantly increased,which can be significantly alleviated by maternal antenatal taurine supplementation through upregulation of GDNF and downregulation of caspase-3 expression.

  9. The Effect of L-Carnitine, Hypotaurine, and Taurine Supplementation on the Quality of Cryopreserved Chicken Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Partyka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of L-carnitine (LC, hypotaurine (HT, and taurine (T on the quality of frozen-thawed chicken semen. Pooled semen samples were divided into seven aliquots (control, 1 mM LC, 5 mM LC, 1 mM HT, 10 mM HT, 1 mM T, and 10 mM T and subjected to cryopreservation. Postthaw sperm motility was determined by IVOS system and sperm characteristics were assessed with fluorochromes and flow cytometry. The highest sperm motility and the highest percentage of viable sperm were in the HT1 group (P<0.01 and P<0.05 following cryopreservation. After thawing, we observed a higher percentage of sperm without apoptosis and membrane reorganization changes in the LC1 and T1 group when compared to the control (P<0.05. There was a higher percentage of live sperm without lipid peroxidation (LPO in all treatments (P<0.01; P<0.05, when compared to the control group. The percentage of sperm with high mitochondrial potential significantly increased with LC1, T1, and T10 (P<0.05. Supplementation of the diluent with LC1, LC5, and T1 significantly (P<0.05 reduced DNA susceptibility to fragmentation, compared to the control and HT1 groups. These results indicate that the addition of examined antioxidants improves the quality of cryopreserved chicken semen.

  10. Taurine Biosynthesis in a Fish Liver Cell Line (ZFL) Adapted to a Serum-Free Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chieh-Lun; Watson, Aaron M; Place, Allen R; Jagus, Rosemary

    2017-05-25

    Although taurine has been shown to play multiple important physiological roles in teleosts, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying dietary requirements. Cell lines can provide useful tools for deciphering biosynthetic pathways and their regulation. However, culture media and sera contain variable taurine levels. To provide a useful cell line for the investigation of taurine homeostasis, an adult zebrafish liver cell line (ZFL) has been adapted to a taurine-free medium by gradual accommodation to a commercially available synthetic medium, UltraMEM™-ITES. Here we show that ZFL cells are able to synthesize taurine and be maintained in medium without taurine. This has allowed for the investigation of the effects of taurine supplementation on cell growth, cellular amino acid pools, as well as the expression of the taurine biosynthetic pathway and taurine transporter genes in a defined fish cell type. After taurine supplementation, cellular taurine levels increase but hypotaurine levels stay constant, suggesting little suppression of taurine biosynthesis. Cellular methionine levels do not change after taurine addition, consistent with maintenance of taurine biosynthesis. The addition of taurine to cells grown in taurine-free medium has little effect on transcript levels of the biosynthetic pathway genes for cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSAD), or cysteamine dioxygenase (ADO). In contrast, supplementation with taurine causes a 30% reduction in transcript levels of the taurine transporter, TauT. This experimental approach can be tailored for the development of cell lines from aquaculture species for the elucidation of their taurine biosynthetic capacity.

  11. Taurine Biosynthesis in a Fish Liver Cell Line (ZFL Adapted to a Serum-Free Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Lun Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although taurine has been shown to play multiple important physiological roles in teleosts, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying dietary requirements. Cell lines can provide useful tools for deciphering biosynthetic pathways and their regulation. However, culture media and sera contain variable taurine levels. To provide a useful cell line for the investigation of taurine homeostasis, an adult zebrafish liver cell line (ZFL has been adapted to a taurine-free medium by gradual accommodation to a commercially available synthetic medium, UltraMEM™-ITES. Here we show that ZFL cells are able to synthesize taurine and be maintained in medium without taurine. This has allowed for the investigation of the effects of taurine supplementation on cell growth, cellular amino acid pools, as well as the expression of the taurine biosynthetic pathway and taurine transporter genes in a defined fish cell type. After taurine supplementation, cellular taurine levels increase but hypotaurine levels stay constant, suggesting little suppression of taurine biosynthesis. Cellular methionine levels do not change after taurine addition, consistent with maintenance of taurine biosynthesis. The addition of taurine to cells grown in taurine-free medium has little effect on transcript levels of the biosynthetic pathway genes for cysteine dioxygenase (CDO, cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSAD, or cysteamine dioxygenase (ADO. In contrast, supplementation with taurine causes a 30% reduction in transcript levels of the taurine transporter, TauT. This experimental approach can be tailored for the development of cell lines from aquaculture species for the elucidation of their taurine biosynthetic capacity.

  12. Gestational protein restriction in mice has pronounced effects on gene expression in newborn offspring's liver and skeletal muscle; protective effect of taurine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Olsen, Hanne Lodberg; Frandsen, Lis

    2010-01-01

    We examined gene expression changes in liver and skeletal muscle of newborn mice subjected to a maternal low protein (LP) or normal protein (NP) diet during pregnancy, with or without taurine supplementation in the drinking water. LP offspring had a 40% lower birthweight than NP offspring, whereas...... it was reduced by only 20% with taurine supplementation. Microarray gene expression analysis revealed significant changes in 2012 genes in liver and 967 genes in skeletal muscle of LP offspring. By unknown mechanisms, taurine partially or fully prevented 30 and 46% of these expression changes, respectively....... Mitochondrial genes, in particular genes associated with oxidative phosphorylation, were more abundantly changed in LP offspring, with primarily up-regulation in liver but down-regulation in skeletal muscle. In both tissues, citrate synthase activity remained unchanged. Taurine preferentially rescued changes...

  13. Taurine supplementation of plant derived protein and n-3 fatty acids are critical for optimal growth and development of cobia, Rachycentron canadum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Aaron M; Barrows, Frederic T; Place, Allen R

    2013-09-01

    We examined growth performance and the lipid content in juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum, fed a taurine supplemented (1.5 %), plant protein based diet with two fish oil replacements. The first fish oil replacement was a thraustochytrid meal (TM + SOY) plus soybean oil (~9 % CL) and the second was a canola oil supplemented with the essential fatty acids (EFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) (~8 % CL). The diet using the thraustochytrid meal plus soybean oil performed equivalently to the fish oil diet; both resulting in significantly higher growth rates, lower feed conversion ratios, and higher survival than the supplemented canola oil diet, even though all three diets were similar in overall energy and met known protein and lipid requirements for cobia. The poor performance of the canola oil diet was attributed to insufficient addition of EFA in the supplemented canola oil source. Increasing levels of EFA in the supplemented canola oil above 0.5 g EFA kg(-1) would likely improve results with cobia. When fish fed either of the fish oil replacement diets were switched to the fish oil control diet, fatty acid profiles of the fillets were observed to transition toward that of the fish oil diet and could be predicted based on a standard dilution model. Based on these findings, a formulated diet for cobia can be produced without fish products providing 100 % survivorship, specific growth rates greater than 2.45 and feed conversion ratios less than 1.5, as long as taurine is added and EFA levels are above 0.5 g EFA kg(-1).

  14. Effect of supplemental taurine on juvenile channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus growth and survival after challenge with Edwardsiella ictaluri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were fed a basal diet that contained major protein (soybean meal, cottonseed meal) and energy (ground corn grain) ingredients that were derived from plant sources. Plant-source ingredients are considered to be low (taurine content. In add...

  15. The low-AGE content of low-fat vegan diets could benefit diabetics - though concurrent taurine supplementation may be needed to minimize endogenous AGE production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2005-01-01

    Increased endogenous generation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) contributes importantly to the vascular complications of diabetes, in part owing to activation of the pro-inflammatory RAGE receptor. However, AGE-altered oligopeptides with RAGE-activating potential can also be absorbed from the diet, and indeed make a significant contribution to the plasma and tissue pool of AGEs; this contribution is especially prominent when compromised renal function impairs renal clearance of AGEs. Perhaps surprisingly, foods rich in both protein and fat, and cooked at high heat, tend to be the richest dietary sources of AGEs, whereas low-fat carbohydrate-rich foods tend to be relatively low in AGEs. Conceivably, this reflects the fact that the so-called "AGEs" in the diet are generated primarily, not by glycation reactions, but by interactions between oxidized lipids and protein; such reactions are known to give rise to certain prominent AGEs, such as epsilonN-carboxymethyl-lysine and methylglyoxal. Although roasted nuts and fried or broiled tofu are relatively high in AGEs, low-fat plant-derived foods, including boiled or baked beans, typically are low in AGEs. Thus, a low-AGE content may contribute to the many benefits conferred to diabetics by a genuinely low-fat vegan diet. Nonetheless, the plasma AGE content of healthy vegetarians has been reported to be higher than that of omnivores - suggesting that something about vegetarian diets may promote endogenous AGE production. Some researchers have proposed that the relatively high-fructose content of vegetarian diets may explain this phenomenon, but there so far is no clinical evidence that normal intakes of fructose have an important impact on AGE production. An alternative or additional possibility is that the relatively poor taurine status of vegetarians up-regulates the physiological role of myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants in the generation of AGEs - in which case, taurine supplementation might be expected to

  16. Maternal Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation Has Limited Impact on Micronutrient Status of Bangladeshi Infants Compared with Standard Iron Folic Acid Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the impact of type of maternal micronutrient supplement, time of introduction of a prenatal food supplement and the two interventions combined on micronutrient status of infants in rural Bangladesh. In a community trial, 4436 pregnant women were randomized to Early or Usual start of food...

  17. Effects of taurine supplementation and swimming, associated or not, on obesity and glucose homeostasis in mice - 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v34ispec.10433

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lucinei Balbo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies show that physical exercise (PE is associated with a reduced fat accumulation and increased insulin sensitivity, and taurine (TAU improves glucose homeostasis in lean rodents. The aim  in this work was evaluate the effects of supplementing TAU and practice of PE, associated or not, on obesity and glucose homeostasis on obese MSG-mice. Neonate male Swiss mice received injections of monosodium glutamate (MSG group or saline (CON group. From the 30th to the 90th day of life, one group of animals received TAU in drinking water (MSG TAU group, another was subjected to PE (MSG PE group and a third group underwent both procedures (MSG PE TAU group. Mice treated with MSG become obese, hypertriglyceridemic, glucose intolerant and insulin resistant. The supplementation with TAU and the PE, isolated or associated, reduced the triglycerides (38%, glucose intolerance (around 30% and KITT (79% in MSG-obese animals, but did not influence the accumulation of fat. Interestingly, the combination of both strategies significantly reduced the insulin resistance, compared to animals subjected to isolated strategies. In conclusion, the supplementation with TAU and PE, isolated or associated, did not influence the accumulation of fat in MSG-obese mice, however, reduce the triglycerides and insulin resistance.  

  18. The role of taurine in infant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesney, R W; Helms, R A; Christensen, M; Budreau, A M; Han, X; Sturman, J A

    1998-01-01

    The importance of taurine in the diet of pre-term and term infants has not always been clearly understood and is a topic of interest to students of infant nutrition. Recent evidence indicates that it should be considered one of the "conditionally essential" amino acids in infant nutrition. Plasma values for taurine will fall if infants are fed a taurine-free formula or do not have taurine provided in the TPN solution. Urine taurine values also fall, which is indicative of an attempt by the kidney to conserve taurine. The very-low-birth-weight infant, for a variety of reasons involving the maturation of tubular transport function, cannot maximally conserve taurine by enhancing renal reabsorption and, hence, is potentially at greater risk for taurine depletion than larger pre-term or term infants, and certainly more than older children who have taurine in their diet. Taurine has an important role in fat absorption in pre-term and possibly term infants and in children with cystic fibrosis. Because taurine-conjugated bile acids are better emulsifiers of fat than glycine-conjugated bile acids, the dietary (or TPN) intake has a direct influence on absorption of lipids. Taurine supplementation of formulas or TPN solutions could potentially serve to minimize the brain phospholipid fatty acid composition differences between formula-fed and human milk-fed infants. Taurine appears to have a role in infants, children, and even adults receiving most (> 75%) of their calories from TPN solutions in the prevention of granulation of the retina and electroencephalographic changes. Taurine has also been reported to improve maturation of auditory-evoked responses in pre-term infants, although this point is not fully established. Clearly, taurine is an important osmolyte in the brain and the renal medulla. At these locations, it is a primary factor in the cell volume regulatory process, in which brain or renal cells swell or shrink in response to osmolar changes, but return to their

  19. Taurine supplementation regulates Iκ-Bα protein expression in adipose tissue and serum IL-4 and TNF-α concentrations in MSG obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Luiz Carlos; Bonfleur, Maria Lúcia; Ribeiro, Rosane Aparecida; Nardelli, Tarlliza Romanna; Lubaczeuski, Camila; do Nascimento da Silva, Juliana; Carneiro, Everardo Magalhães; Balbo, Sandra Lucinei

    2017-03-01

    Obesity is usually associated with low-grade inflammation, which impairs insulin action. The amino acid, taurine (TAU), regulates glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism and presents anti-inflammatory actions. Here, we evaluated whether inflammatory markers are altered in the serum and retroperitoneal adipose tissue of monosodium glutamate (MSG) obese rats, supplemented or not with TAU. Male Wistar rats received subcutaneous injections of MSG (4 mg/kg body weight/day, MSG group) or hypertonic saline (CTL) during the first 5 days of life. From 21 to 120 days of age, half of each of the MSG and CTL groups received 2.5 % TAU in their drinking water (CTAU and MTAU). At 120 days of age, MSG rats were obese and hyperinsulinemic. TAU supplementation reduced fat deposition without affecting insulinemia in MTAU rats. MSG rats presented increased pIκ-Bα/Iκ-Bα protein expression in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue. TAU supplementation decreased the ratio of pIκ-Bα/Iκ-Bα protein, possibly contributing to the increased Iκ-Bα content in MTAU adipose tissue. Furthermore, MSG obesity or supplementation did not alter TNF-α, IL-1β or IL-6 content in adipose tissue. In contrast, MSG rats presented lower serum TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-10 concentrations, and these alterations were prevented by TAU treatment. MSG obesity in rats was not associated with alterations in pro-inflammatory markers in retroperitoneal fat stores; however, reductions in the serum concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines and of TNF-α were observed. TAU treatment decreased adiposity, and this effect was associated with the normalization of circulating TNF-α and IL-4 concentrations in MTAU rats.

  20. Host defense--a role for the amino acid taurine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, P P; O'Flaherty, L; Redmond, H P; Bouchier-Hayes, D J

    1998-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethane sulphonic acid), a ubiquitous beta-amino acid is conditionally essential in man. It is not utilized in protein synthesis but found free or in some simple peptides. Derived from methionine and cysteine metabolism, taurine is known to play a pivotal role in numerous physiological functions. Some of the roles with which taurine has been associated include osmoregulation, antioxidation, detoxification and stimulation of glycolysis and glycogenesis. Intracellular taurine is maintained at high concentrations in a variety of cell types and alteration of cell taurine levels is difficult. The role of taurine within the cell appears to be determined by the cell type. Recent research has determined a regulatory role for taurinechloramine, the product formed by the reaction between taurine and neutrophil derived hypochlorous acid on macrophage function. Plasma taurine levels are also high, although decreases are observed in response to surgical injury and numerous pathological conditions including cancer and sepsis. Supplementary taurine replenishes decreased plasma taurine. Although commonly used as a dietary supplement in the Far East, the potential advantages of dietary taurine supplementation have not as yet been fully recognized in the Western World; this is an area which could prove to be beneficial in the clinical arena.

  1. Influence of seafood and vitamin supplementation on maternal and umbilical cord blood mercury concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hui Huang

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: High seafood consumption was an independent risk factor for high maternal Hg level, while vitamin supplementation was a protective factor. Further study is needed to investigate the specific effect of vitamins on Hg level.

  2. Maternal use of folic acid supplements during pregnancy, and childhood respiratory health and atopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. Bekkers (Marga); L.E.M. Elstgeest (Liset E.); S. Scholtens (Salome); A. Haveman-Nies (Annemien); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); M. Kerkhof (Marjan); G.H. Koppelman (Gerard); U. Gehring (Ulrike); H.A. Smit (Henriëtte); A.H. Wijga (Alet)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPrevious studies have suggested possible adverse side-effects of maternal use of folic acid-containing supplements (FACSs) during pregnancy on wheeze and asthma in early childhood. We investigated the association between maternal use of FACSs and childhood respiratory health and atopy in

  3. Maternal use of folic acid supplements during pregnancy, and childhood respiratory health and atopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Elstgeest, Liset E. M.; Soholtens, Salome; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Smit, Henriette A.; Wijga, Alet H.

    Previous studies have suggested possible adverse side-effects of maternal use of folic acid-containing supplements (FACSs) during pregnancy on wheeze and asthma in early childhood. We investigated the association between maternal use of FACSs and childhood respiratory health and atopy in the first 8

  4. Maternal use of folic acid supplements during pregnancy, and childhood respiratory health and atopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Elstgeest, Liset E. M.; Soholtens, Salome; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Smit, Henriette A.; Wijga, Alet H.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested possible adverse side-effects of maternal use of folic acid-containing supplements (FACSs) during pregnancy on wheeze and asthma in early childhood. We investigated the association between maternal use of FACSs and childhood respiratory health and atopy in the first 8

  5. Preventive effects of folic acid supplementation on adverse maternal and fetal outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Woo Kim

    Full Text Available Although there is accumulating evidence regarding the additional protective effect of folic acid against adverse pregnancy outcomes other than neural tube defects, these effects have not been elucidated in detail. We evaluated whether folic acid supplementation is associated with favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. This was a secondary analysis of 215 pregnant women who were enrolled in our prior study. With additional data from telephone interviews regarding prenatal folic acid supplementation, existing demographic, maternal and fetal data were statistically analyzed. The concentration of folic acid in maternal blood was significantly higher following folic acid supplementation (24.6 ng/mL vs.11.8 ng/mL. In contrast, homocysteine level in maternal blood decreased with folic acid supplementation (5.5 µmol/mL vs. 6.8 µmol/mL. The rates of both preeclampsia (odds ratio [OR], 0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.76 and small for gestational age (SGA; 9.2% vs. 20.0%; OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18-0.99 were lower in the folic acid supplementation group than those in the control group. Other pregnancy outcomes had no association with folic acid supplementation. The findings indicate that folic acid supplementation may help to prevent preeclampsia and SGA. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the favorable effects of folic acid supplementation on pregnancy outcomes.

  6. Preventive effects of folic acid supplementation on adverse maternal and fetal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Woo; Ahn, Ki Hoon; Ryu, Ki-Jin; Hong, Soon-Cheol; Lee, Ji Sung; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A; Oh, Min-Jeong; Kim, Hai-Joong

    2014-01-01

    Although there is accumulating evidence regarding the additional protective effect of folic acid against adverse pregnancy outcomes other than neural tube defects, these effects have not been elucidated in detail. We evaluated whether folic acid supplementation is associated with favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. This was a secondary analysis of 215 pregnant women who were enrolled in our prior study. With additional data from telephone interviews regarding prenatal folic acid supplementation, existing demographic, maternal and fetal data were statistically analyzed. The concentration of folic acid in maternal blood was significantly higher following folic acid supplementation (24.6 ng/mL vs.11.8 ng/mL). In contrast, homocysteine level in maternal blood decreased with folic acid supplementation (5.5 µmol/mL vs. 6.8 µmol/mL). The rates of both preeclampsia (odds ratio [OR], 0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.76) and small for gestational age (SGA; 9.2% vs. 20.0%; OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18-0.99) were lower in the folic acid supplementation group than those in the control group. Other pregnancy outcomes had no association with folic acid supplementation. The findings indicate that folic acid supplementation may help to prevent preeclampsia and SGA. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the favorable effects of folic acid supplementation on pregnancy outcomes.

  7. Effects of taurine on anxiety-like and locomotor behavior of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Idrissi, Abdeslem; Boukarrou, Latifa; Heany, Wally; Malliaros, George; Sangdee, Chaichan; Neuwirth, Lorenz

    2009-01-01

    Taurine is one of the most abundant free amino acids especially in excitable tissues, with wide physiological actions. We have previously reported that chronic supplementation of taurine in drinking water to mice increases brain excitability, mainly through alterations in the inhibitory GABAergic system. In this study we investigated the effects of chronic versus acute taurine treatment on anxiety-like and locomotor behaviors using two behavioral tests: elevated plus-maze and open-field. These two test conditions generated different levels of anxiety, and both anxiolytic and anxiogenic effects of taurine could be assessed. We used two paradigms for taurine treatment: Acute injection versus chronic supplementation. In the open field test, taurine supplementation increased whereas taurine injection suppressed locomotor activity. We found that taurine supplementation induced an increase in the total distance traveled, the overall movement speed, the time the animals spent mobile, the number of line crossings, and the time the animals entered the center zone. In the elevated arm maze, taurine injection suppressed anxiety whereas taurine supplementation was anxiogenic. The major findings of this are two folds: First these results suggest that taurine might play a role in the modulation of anxiety and locomotor activity. Second, taurine when injected acutely had opposite effects than when administered chronically.

  8. Opposite variations in maternal and neonatal thyroid function induced by iodine supplementation during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P

    2000-01-01

    of maternal iodine supplementation on thyroid function in the mother at term and in the fetus/neonate. Serum was collected consecutively from pregnant women at term (n = 144) and from cord blood (n = 139). Forty-nine women had a regular intake of vitamin and mineral tablets with iodine (150 microg/day) during...... pregnancy, and 95 took no artificial iodine supplementation. Iodine supplementation (+I) induced opposite variations in thyroid function in the mother and the fetus. In +I mothers, TSH was 7.6% lower than in mothers with no supplementation (P higher...

  9. Effect of taurine supplementation on hepatic metabolism and alleviation of cadmium toxicity and bioaccumulation in a marine teleost, red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hano, Takeshi; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kono, Kumiko; Ito, Mana; Ohkubo, Nobuyuki; Mochida, Kazuhiko

    2017-02-01

    This study was performed to unravel the mechanism of the beneficial action of taurine on marine teleost fish, red sea bream (Pagrus major), by analyzing the hepatic metabolism. Moreover, the ameliorative effects of the nutrient against cadmium toxicity and bioaccumulation were further evaluated. The fish were fed a diet containing 0 % (TAU0 %), 0.5 % (TAU0.5 %), or 5.0 % (TAU5.0 %) taurine for 40-55 days (d) and subjected to cadmium acute toxicity and bioaccumulation tests. Taurine deficiency in feed severely affected growth and the hepatic metabolic profiles of the fish, including a remarkable increase in myo-inositol, aspartate, and ß-alanine in the TAU0 % group, which indicates a complementary physiological response to taurine deficiency. For the acute toxicity test, fish were fed the test diets for 55 d and were then exposed to different dose of cadmium ranging from 0 to 5.6 mg/L for 96 h. Fish fed taurine had a higher tolerance to cadmium than those not fed taurine. For the bioaccumulation test, fish were fed the test diets for 40 d and then were chronically exposed to 0.2 mg/L of cadmium for 28 d followed by depuration for 21 d. Cadmium concentrations in the liver and muscle of fish fed TAU5.0 % were significantly lower than those of fish fed TAU0 % for the first 7 d of exposure and the first 7 d of elimination. Our findings suggest a possible mechanism for the beneficial role played by taurine and that the inclusion of taurine in fish aquaculture feed may reduce cadmium contamination of fish intended for human consumption.

  10. Regulation of taurine transport at the blood-placental barrier by calcium ion, PKC activator and oxidative stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background In the present study, we investigated the changes of uptake and efflux transport of taurine under various stress conditions using rat conditionally immortalized syncytiotrophoblast cell line (TR-TBT cells), as in vitro blood-placental barrier (BPB) model. Methods The transport of taurine in TR-TBT cells were characterized by cellular uptake study using radiolabeled taurine. The efflux of taurine was measured from the amount of radiolabeled taurine remaining in the cells after the uptake of radiolabeled taurine for 60 min. Results Taurine uptake was significantly decreased by phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC) activator in TR-TBT cells. Also, calcium ion (Ca2+) was involved in taurine transport in TR-TBT cells. Taurine uptake was inhibited and efflux was enhanced under calcium free conditions in the cells. In addition, oxidative stress induced the change of taurine transport in TR-TBT cells, but the changes were different depending on the types of oxidative stress inducing agents. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and diethyl maleate (DEM) significantly increased taurine uptake, but H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO) donor decreased taurine uptake in the cells. Taurine efflux was down-regulated by TNF-α in TR-TBT cells. Conclusion Taurine transport in TR-TBT cells were regulated diversely at extracellular Ca2+ level, PKC activator and oxidative stress conditions. It suggested that variable stresses affected the taurine supplies from maternal blood to fetus and taurine level of fetus. PMID:20804613

  11. Methyl donor supplementation blocks the adverse effects of maternal high fat diet on offspring physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesselea Carlin

    Full Text Available Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60% diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whether methyl donor supplementation could block or attenuate phenotypes associated with maternal consumption of a HF diet. Metabolic and behavioral (fat preference outcomes were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Expression of the mu-opioid receptor and dopamine transporter mRNA, as well as global DNA methylation were measured in the brain. Supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors attenuated the development of some of the adverse effects seen in offspring from dams fed a high fat diet; including weight gain, increased fat preference (males, changes in CNS gene expression and global hypomethylation in the prefrontal cortex. Notable sex differences were observed. These findings identify the importance of balanced methylation status during pregnancy, particularly in the context of a maternal high fat diet, for optimal offspring outcome.

  12. Preventive Effects of Folic Acid Supplementation on Adverse Maternal and Fetal Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Min Woo Kim; Ki Hoon Ahn; Ki-Jin Ryu; Soon-Cheol Hong; Ji Sung Lee; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A.; Min-Jeong Oh; Hai-Joong Kim

    2014-01-01

    Although there is accumulating evidence regarding the additional protective effect of folic acid against adverse pregnancy outcomes other than neural tube defects, these effects have not been elucidated in detail. We evaluated whether folic acid supplementation is associated with favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. This was a secondary analysis of 215 pregnant women who were enrolled in our prior study. With additional data from telephone interviews regarding prenatal folic acid supplement...

  13. Taurine Provides Neuroprotection against Retinal Ganglion Cell Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froger, Nicolas; Cadetti, Lucia; Lorach, Henri; Martins, Joao; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre; Dubus, Elisabeth; Degardin, Julie; Pain, Dorothée; Forster, Valérie; Chicaud, Laurent; Ivkovic, Ivana; Simonutti, Manuel; Fouquet, Stéphane; Jammoul, Firas; Léveillard, Thierry; Benosman, Ryad; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration occurs in numerous retinal diseases leading to blindness, either as a primary process like in glaucoma, or secondary to photoreceptor loss. However, no commercial drug is yet directly targeting RGCs for their neuroprotection. In the 70s, taurine, a small sulfonic acid provided by nutrition, was found to be essential for the survival of photoreceptors, but this dependence was not related to any retinal disease. More recently, taurine deprivation was incriminated in the retinal toxicity of an antiepileptic drug. We demonstrate here that taurine can improve RGC survival in culture or in different animal models of RGC degeneration. Taurine effect on RGC survival was assessed in vitro on primary pure RCG cultures under serum-deprivation conditions, and on NMDA-treated retinal explants from adult rats. In vivo, taurine was administered through the drinking water in two glaucomatous animal models (DBA/2J mice and rats with vein occlusion) and in a model of Retinitis pigmentosa with secondary RGC degeneration (P23H rats). After a 6-day incubation, 1 mM taurine significantly enhanced RGCs survival (+68%), whereas control RGCs were cultured in a taurine-free medium, containing all natural amino-acids. This effect was found to rely on taurine-uptake by RGCs. Furthermore taurine (1 mM) partly prevented NMDA-induced RGC excitotoxicity. Finally, taurine supplementation increased RGC densities both in DBA/2J mice, in rats with vein occlusion and in P23H rats by contrast to controls drinking taurine-free water. This study indicates that enriched taurine nutrition can directly promote RGC survival through RGC intracellular pathways. It provides evidence that taurine can positively interfere with retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:23115615

  14. Taurine provides neuroprotection against retinal ganglion cell degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Froger

    Full Text Available Retinal ganglion cell (RGC degeneration occurs in numerous retinal diseases leading to blindness, either as a primary process like in glaucoma, or secondary to photoreceptor loss. However, no commercial drug is yet directly targeting RGCs for their neuroprotection. In the 70s, taurine, a small sulfonic acid provided by nutrition, was found to be essential for the survival of photoreceptors, but this dependence was not related to any retinal disease. More recently, taurine deprivation was incriminated in the retinal toxicity of an antiepileptic drug. We demonstrate here that taurine can improve RGC survival in culture or in different animal models of RGC degeneration. Taurine effect on RGC survival was assessed in vitro on primary pure RCG cultures under serum-deprivation conditions, and on NMDA-treated retinal explants from adult rats. In vivo, taurine was administered through the drinking water in two glaucomatous animal models (DBA/2J mice and rats with vein occlusion and in a model of Retinitis pigmentosa with secondary RGC degeneration (P23H rats. After a 6-day incubation, 1 mM taurine significantly enhanced RGCs survival (+68%, whereas control RGCs were cultured in a taurine-free medium, containing all natural amino-acids. This effect was found to rely on taurine-uptake by RGCs. Furthermore taurine (1 mM partly prevented NMDA-induced RGC excitotoxicity. Finally, taurine supplementation increased RGC densities both in DBA/2J mice, in rats with vein occlusion and in P23H rats by contrast to controls drinking taurine-free water. This study indicates that enriched taurine nutrition can directly promote RGC survival through RGC intracellular pathways. It provides evidence that taurine can positively interfere with retinal degenerative diseases.

  15. Taurine provides neuroprotection against retinal ganglion cell degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froger, Nicolas; Cadetti, Lucia; Lorach, Henri; Martins, Joao; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre; Dubus, Elisabeth; Degardin, Julie; Pain, Dorothée; Forster, Valérie; Chicaud, Laurent; Ivkovic, Ivana; Simonutti, Manuel; Fouquet, Stéphane; Jammoul, Firas; Léveillard, Thierry; Benosman, Ryad; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration occurs in numerous retinal diseases leading to blindness, either as a primary process like in glaucoma, or secondary to photoreceptor loss. However, no commercial drug is yet directly targeting RGCs for their neuroprotection. In the 70s, taurine, a small sulfonic acid provided by nutrition, was found to be essential for the survival of photoreceptors, but this dependence was not related to any retinal disease. More recently, taurine deprivation was incriminated in the retinal toxicity of an antiepileptic drug. We demonstrate here that taurine can improve RGC survival in culture or in different animal models of RGC degeneration. Taurine effect on RGC survival was assessed in vitro on primary pure RCG cultures under serum-deprivation conditions, and on NMDA-treated retinal explants from adult rats. In vivo, taurine was administered through the drinking water in two glaucomatous animal models (DBA/2J mice and rats with vein occlusion) and in a model of Retinitis pigmentosa with secondary RGC degeneration (P23H rats). After a 6-day incubation, 1 mM taurine significantly enhanced RGCs survival (+68%), whereas control RGCs were cultured in a taurine-free medium, containing all natural amino-acids. This effect was found to rely on taurine-uptake by RGCs. Furthermore taurine (1 mM) partly prevented NMDA-induced RGC excitotoxicity. Finally, taurine supplementation increased RGC densities both in DBA/2J mice, in rats with vein occlusion and in P23H rats by contrast to controls drinking taurine-free water. This study indicates that enriched taurine nutrition can directly promote RGC survival through RGC intracellular pathways. It provides evidence that taurine can positively interfere with retinal degenerative diseases.

  16. The interaction between maternal and post-hatch n-3 fatty acid supplementation in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenol, A; Delezie, E; Buyse, J; Everaert, N

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated whether offspring from n-3-supplemented breeders have an enhanced performance and immune organ weight when fed a post-hatch n-3-enriched diet in comparison with their control-fed counterparts and the importance of timing of omega-3 supplementation. Therefore, 480 Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed one of four different diets (120/treatment). The control diet (CON) was a basal diet, rich in n-6 fatty acids (FA). The three other diets were enriched in n-3 FA, formulated to obtain a different EPA/DHA ratio of 1/1 (EPA = DHA), 1/2 (DHA) or 2/1 (EPA). At 33 weeks of age, eggs were incubated to obtain 1440 offspring. They were set up according to their maternal diet and sex in 48 pens of 30 chicks each (12 pens per maternal treatment: six male and six female). Half of the offspring were given a post-hatch control diet, whereas to other half received an n-3-supplemented diet. Zootechnical performance was followed for starter, grower and finisher phase, and at the end of each phase two, chicks per pen were sacrificed to determine the weight of the immune organs. No interaction was found between maternal and post-hatch n-3 treatment for zootechnical performance. An interaction arose between the maternal and post-hatch n-3 supplementation for proportional bursa weight at day 1 and day 14 and proportional liver weight at day 14, but effects on immune organ weight were rather limited. Offspring post-hatch n-3 supplementation did not enhance maternal n-3 supplementation.

  17. Supplementation with Phycocyanobilin, Citrulline, Taurine, and Supranutritional Doses of Folic Acid and Biotin—Potential for Preventing or Slowing the Progression of Diabetic Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark F. McCarty

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress, the resulting uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, and loss of nitric oxide (NO bioactivity, are key mediators of the vascular and microvascular complications of diabetes. Much of this oxidative stress arises from up-regulated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase activity. Phycocyanobilin (PhyCB, the light-harvesting chromophore in edible cyanobacteria such as spirulina, is a biliverdin derivative that shares the ability of free bilirubin to inhibit certain isoforms of NADPH oxidase. Epidemiological studies reveal that diabetics with relatively elevated serum bilirubin are less likely to develop coronary disease or microvascular complications; this may reflect the ability of bilirubin to ward off these complications via inhibition of NADPH oxidase. Oral PhyCB may likewise have potential in this regard, and has been shown to protect diabetic mice from glomerulosclerosis. With respect to oxidant-mediated uncoupling of eNOS, high-dose folate can help to reverse this by modulating the oxidation status of the eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4. Oxidation of BH4 yields dihydrobiopterin (BH2, which competes with BH4 for binding to eNOS and promotes its uncoupling. The reduced intracellular metabolites of folate have versatile oxidant-scavenging activity that can prevent oxidation of BH4; concurrently, these metabolites promote induction of dihydrofolate reductase, which functions to reconvert BH2 to BH4, and hence alleviate the uncoupling of eNOS. The arginine metabolite asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, typically elevated in diabetics, also uncouples eNOS by competitively inhibiting binding of arginine to eNOS; this effect is exacerbated by the increased expression of arginase that accompanies diabetes. These effects can be countered via supplementation with citrulline, which efficiently enhances tissue levels of arginine. With respect to the loss of NO bioactivity that contributes to

  18. Taurine concentrations in fetal, neonatal and pregnant rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akahori,Shuichiro

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of taurine in the fetal and neonatal organs, and the maternal organs, plasma and urine of rats between the 15th day of gestation and the 21st day after birth were determined using an automatic amino acid analyzer. In the fetal liver and brain and in the placenta, the taurine concentration was the highest of all ninhydrin positive compounds. In the fetal liver and placenta, the concentrations of taurine increased significantly with the gestational days. Concentrations of taurine in the brain were much higher in the fetus and neonate than that in the adult. Moreover, the total amount of taurine per fetus increased markedly after the 15th day of gestation, and near term, reached almost the same amount as in the adult rat liver. In contrast to this, a significant decrease was observed in the taurine concentration in the maternal liver and muscle near term. The concentration of taurine in the urine of pregnant rats decreased near term, but in the plasma of pregnant rats the concentration of taurine did not change during pregnancy.

  19. Magnesium supplement in pregnancy-induced hypertension: effects on maternal and neonatal magnesium and calcium homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, M; Frølich, A; Fischer-Rasmussen, W

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of low dose magnesium supplement upon maternal and fetal serum levels of mineral status in pregnancies complicated with hypertension (PIH). Twenty-five patients with PIH agreed to participate and were randomly allocated, in a double...

  20. Impact of maternal dietary fat supplementation during gestation upon skeletal muscle in neonnatal pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fainberg, H.P.; Almond, K.L.; Li DongFang Rauch, C.; Bikker, P.; Symonds, M.E.; Mostyn, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal diet during pregnancy can modulate skeletal muscle development of the offspring. Previous studies in pigs have indicated that a fat supplemented diet during pregnancy can improve piglet outcome, however, this is in contrast to human studies suggesting adverse effects of saturated

  1. Effects of maternal micronutrient supplementation on fetal loss and under-2-years child mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Friis, Henrik; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2010-01-01

    A number of trials on maternal multi-micronutrient supplementation (MMS) have found a benefical effect on birth weight, but few have demonstrated a beneficial effect on infant survival. We examined the effect of two different preparations of antenatal MMS on fetal loss and under-2-years child...

  2. High dose of maternal folic acid supplementation is associated to infant asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Jiang, Liwen; Bi, Meirong; Jia, Xiaodong; Wang, Youqing; He, Chuan; Yao, Yao; Wang, Jun; Wang, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Maternal folic acid supplementation had a positive effect on preventing neural tube defects (NTDs), but its effects in infant asthma remained unclear. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted with outpatients between March 2010 and March 2011 including 150 onset infant asthma cases and 212 controls, together with a meta-analysis involving 14,438 participants, was performed. The association between maternal folic acid supplementation and the risk of infant asthma was not significant either in the meta-analysis (OR = 1.06, 95% CI =0.99-1.14) or in the case-control study (OR = 0.72, 95% CI =0.37-1.39). However, quantitative analysis of the supplementation dose demonstrated that the risk of infant asthma significantly increased for the infants whose mother were with high-dose supplementation (>72,000 µg•d; OR = 3.16, 95% CI =1.15-8.71) after adjusting for confounding factors in the case-control study. Meanwhile, the risk of infant asthma significantly decreased for the infants whose mother were with low-dose supplementation (folic acid supplementation for mother during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of infant asthma, whereas supplementation with a relatively low-dose was associated with a decreased risk of infant asthma. These findings should be further investigated in a large population.

  3. A systematic review on the effects of maternal calcium supplementation on offspring′s blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Jamshidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence proposes that maternal calcium (Ca supplement during pregnancy may be inversely associated with the off spring′s blood pressure (BP level. It is suggested that increased maternal Ca intake during pregnancy may result in lower BP in the off spring. The reduction in the incidence of hypertension in mothers is documented but the effects on the off spring are uncertain. Materials and Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature to summarize the evidence supporting an association between maternal dietary Ca intake during pregnancy and the BP in the off spring. In this systematic review, relevant papers were selected in three phases. After quality assessment, a reviewer extracted the data while the other one checked the extracted data. We summarized the information regarding the association of maternal Ca intake either by food or supplements with BP in the off spring. Results: Four randomized trials and three observational studies were included in this review. The results were more consistent among the studies including older children (1-9 years where a higher maternal Ca intake was associated with a reduction in the off spring′s systolic BP. One large randomized trial found a clinically and statistically significant reduction in the incidence of elevated BP in 7-year-old children [relative risk (RR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.39-0.90]. Conclusion: Overall, our findings confirm the beneficial effects of maternal Ca intake during pregnancy for the off spring′s BP level.

  4. Maternal L-Carnitine Supplementation Improves Brain Health in Offspring from Cigarette Smoke Exposed Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yik Lung; Saad, Sonia; Al-Odat, Ibrahim; Oliver, Brian G; Pollock, Carol; Jones, Nicole M; Chen, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Maternal cigarette smoke exposure (SE) causes detrimental changes associated with the development of chronic neurological diseases in the offspring as a result of oxidative mitochondrial damage. Maternal L-Carnitine administration has been shown to reduce renal oxidative stress in SE offspring, but its effect in the brain is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of maternal L-Carnitine supplementation on brain markers of oxidative stress, autophagy, mitophagy and mitochondrial energy producing oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes in SE offspring. Female Balb/c mice (8 weeks) were exposed to cigarette smoke prior to mating, during gestation and lactation with or without L-Carnitine supplementation (1.5 mM in drinking water). In 1 day old male SE offspring, brain mitochondrial damage was suggested by increased mitochondrial fusion and reduced autophagosome markers; whereas at 13 weeks, enhanced brain cell damage was suggested by reduced fission and autophagosome markers, as well as increased apoptosis and DNA fragmentation markers, which were partially reversed by maternal L-Carnitine supplementation. In female SE offspring, enhanced mitochondrial regeneration was suggested by decreased fission and increased fusion markers at day 1. At 13 weeks, there was an increase in brain energy demand, oxidative stress and mitochondrial turnover, reflected by the protein changes of OXPHOS complex, fission and autophagosome markers, as well as the endogenous antioxidant, which were also partially normalized by maternal L-Carnitine supplementation. However, markers of apoptosis and DNA fragmentation were not significantly changed. Thus L-Carnitine supplementation may benefit the brain health of the offspring from smoking mothers.

  5. Maternal Obesity and Pre-Pregnancy Folic Acid Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Farah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this nested cohort study was to compare the rate of pre-pregnancy supplementation in obese women with that of women with a normal BMI. Methods: Pregnant women were enrolled at their convenience in a large university hospital. Weight and height were measured in the first trimester and BMI categorised. Results: Of the 288 women, 35.1% were in the normal, 29.5% in the overweight and 35.4% in the obese BMI categories. Only 45.1% (n = 46 of the obese women took pre-pregnancy folic acid compared with 60.4% (n = 61 of women with a normal BMI (p Conclusions: Obese women should take folate supplements whether they are planning to conceive or not.

  6. High expression of the taurine transporter TauT in primary cilia of NIH3T3 fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Tvorup; Voss, Jesper W.; Teilmann, Stefan C.

    2005-01-01

    Taurine, present in high concentrations in various mammalian cells, is essential for regulation of cell volume, cellular oxidative status as well as the cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Cellular taurine content is a balance between active uptake through the saturable, Na+-dependent taurine transporter...... TauT expression and (iii) long-term exposure to hypertonic taurine medium, i.e., growth medium supplemented with 100 mM taurine, reduces ciliary TauT expression. These results point to an important role of taurine in the regulation of physiological processes located to the primary cilium....

  7. Maternal citrulline supplementation prevents prenatal dexamethasone-induced programmed hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, Y L; Sheen, J M; Chen, C C; Yu, H R; Tiao, M M; Kuo, H C; Huang, L T

    2014-05-01

    Glucocorticoids are administered to premature infants to accelerate pulmonary maturation. In experimental model, prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) results in reduced nephron number and adulthood hypertension. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), can cause oxidative stress and is involved in the development of hypertension. L-citrulline can be converted to l-arginine (the substrate for NOS) in the body. Thus we intended to determine if maternal L-citrulline therapy can prevent prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension by restoration ADMA/nitric oxide (NO) balance, alterations of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and sodium transporters, and epigenetic regulation by histone deacetylases (HDACs). Male offspring were assigned to four groups: control, pregnancy rats received intraperitoneal DEX (0.2 mg/kg body weight) daily on gestational days 15 and 16 (DEX), pregnancy rats received 0.25% L-citrulline in drinking water during the entire pregnancy and lactation period (CIT), and DEX + CIT. We found DEX group developed hypertension at 16 weeks of age, which was prevented by maternal L-citrulline therapy. Prenatal DEX exposure increased plasma ADMA concentrations and reduced renal NO production. However, L-citrulline reduced plasma ADMA level and increased renal level of NO in DEX + CIT group. Next, prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension is related to increased mRNA expression of angiotensin and angiotensin II type 1 receptor, and class I HDACs in the kidney. Prenatal DEX exposure increased renal protein abundance of Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC), which was prevented by L-citrulline therapy. The beneficial effects of L-citrulline therapy include restoration of ADMA/NO balance and alteration of NCC, to prevent the prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension.

  8. Opposite variations in maternal and neonatal thyroid function induced by iodine supplementation during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P

    2000-02-01

    Whereas the consequences of extremes in iodine intake are well described, much less is known about the effect of more moderate variations in maternal iodine intake on fetal thyroid function. The present study performed in Denmark with mild to moderate iodine deficiency dealt with the effect of maternal iodine supplementation on thyroid function in the mother at term and in the fetus/neonate. Serum was collected consecutively from pregnant women at term (n = 144) and from cord blood (n = 139). Forty-nine women had a regular intake of vitamin and mineral tablets with iodine (150 microg/day) during pregnancy, and 95 took no artificial iodine supplementation. Iodine supplementation (+I) induced opposite variations in thyroid function in the mother and the fetus. In +I mothers, TSH was 7.6% lower than in mothers with no supplementation (P iodine supplementation and high serum TSH in the neonates was further substantiated by an inverse correlation between thyroglobulin and TSH in cord blood (P iodine intake in both mothers and neonates. The results suggest that the fetal thyroid, at least in areas of mild iodine deficiency, is more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of iodine than hitherto anticipated.

  9. Maternal PUFA ω-3 Supplementation Prevents Neonatal Lung Injuries Induced by Hyperoxia in Newborn Rats

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    Dyuti Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is one of the most common complications of prematurity, occurring in 30% of very low birth weight infants. The benefits of dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 (PUFA ω-3 during pregnancy or the perinatal period have been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation on lung injuries in newborn rats exposed to prolonged hyperoxia. Pregnant female Wistar rats (n = 14 were fed a control diet (n = 2, a PUFA ω-6 diet (n = 6, or a PUFA ω-3 diet (n = 6, starting with the 14th gestation day. At Day 1, female and newborn rats (10 per female were exposed to hyperoxia (O2, n = 70 or to the ambient air (Air, n = 70. Six groups of newborns rats were obtained: PUFA ω-6/O2 (n = 30, PUFA ω-6/air (n = 30, PUFA ω-3/O2 (n = 30, PUFA ω-3/air (n = 30, control/O2 (n = 10, and control/air (n = 10. After 10 days, lungs were removed for analysis of alveolarization and pulmonary vascular development. Survival rate was 100%. Hyperoxia reduced alveolarization and increased pulmonary vascular wall thickness in both control (n = 20 and PUFA ω-6 groups (n = 60. Maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation prevented the decrease in alveolarization caused by hyperoxia (n = 30 compared to PUFA ω-6/O2 (n = 30 or to the control/O2 (n = 10, but did not significantly increase the thickness of the lung vascular wall. Therefore, maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation may protect newborn rats from lung injuries induced by hyperoxia. In clinical settings, maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation during pregnancy and during lactation may prevent BPD development after premature birth.

  10. Maternal butyrate supplementation induces insulin resistance associated with enhanced intramuscular fat deposition in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanping; Gao, Shixing; Chen, Jinglong; Albrecht, Elke; Zhao, Ruqian; Yang, Xiaojing

    2017-02-21

    Maternal nutrition is important for the risk of the offspring to develop insulin resistance and adiposity later in life. The study was undertaken to determine effects of maternal butyrate supplementation on lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in the offspring skeletal muscle. The offspring of rats, fed a control diet or a butyrate diet (1% sodium butyrate) throughout gestation and lactation, was studied at weaning and at 60 days of age. The offspring of dams fed a butyrate diet had higher HOMA-insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance. This was associated with elevated mRNA and protein expressions of lipogenic genes and decreased amounts of lipolytic enzyme. Simultaneously, enhanced acetylation of histone H3 lysine 9 and histone H3 lysine 27 modification on the lipogenic genes in skeletal muscle of adult offspring was observed. Higher concentration of serum insulin and intramuscular triglyceride in skeletal muscle of offspring from the butyrate group at weaning were accompanied by increasing levels of lipogenic genes and enrichment of acetylation of histone H3 lysine 27. Maternal butyrate supplementation leads to insulin resistance and ectopic lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle of offspring, indicating the importance of short chain fatty acids in the maternal diet on lipid metabolism.

  11. Betaine supplementation in maternal diet modulates the epigenetic regulation of hepatic gluconeogenic genes in neonatal piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Demin; Jia, Yimin; Song, Haogang; Sui, Shiyan; Lu, Jingyu; Jiang, Zheng; Zhao, Ruqian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, gestational sows were fed control or betaine-supplemented diets (3 g/kg) throughout the pregnancy, and the newborn piglets were used to elucidate whether maternal dietary betaine affected offspring hepatic gluconeogenic genes through epigenetic mechanisms. Neonatal piglets born to betaine-supplemented sows had significantly higher serum and hepatic betaine contents, together with significantly greater expression of methionine metabolic enzymes in the liver. Interestingly, significantly higher serum concentrations of lactic acid and glucogenic amino acids, including serine, glutamate, methionine and histidine, were detected in the piglets born to betaine-supplemented sows, which were coincident with higher hepatic glycogen content and PEPCK1 enzyme activity, as well as greater protein expression of gluconeogenic enzymes, pyruvate carboxylase (PC), cytoplasmic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK1), mitochondrional phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK2) and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase (FBP1). Moreover, maternal betaine significantly changed the methylation status of both CpGs and histones on the promoter of gluconeogenic genes. The lower PEPCK1 mRNA was associated with DNA hypermethylation and more enriched repression histone mark H3K27me3, while the up-regulated PEPCK2 and FBP1 mRNA was associated with DNA hypomethylation and more enriched activation histone mark H3K4me3. Furthermore, the expression of two miRNAs predicted to target PC and 6 miRNAs predicted to target PEPCK1 was dramatically suppressed in the liver of piglets born to betaine-supplemented sows. Our results provide the first evidence that maternal betaine supplementation affects hepatic gluconeogenic genes expression in newborn piglets through enhanced hepatic methionine metabolism and epigenetic regulations, which involve DNA and histone methylations, and possibly miRNAs-mediated post-transcriptional mechanism.

  12. Taurine ameliorates cholesterol metabolism by stimulating bile acid production in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeru; Fujita, Michiko; Nakamura, Masakazu; Sakono, Masanobu; Nishizono, Shoko; Sato, Masao; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Mori, Mari; Fukuda, Nobuhiro

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary taurine on cholesterol metabolism in high-cholesterol-fed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two dietary groups (n = 6 in each group): a high-cholesterol diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 0.15% sodium cholate, and a high-cholesterol diet with 5% (w/w) taurine. The experimental diets were given for 2 weeks. Taurine supplementation reduced the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels by 37% and 32%, respectively. Faecal excretion of bile acids was significantly increased in taurine-treated rats, compared with untreated rats. Biliary bile acid concentrations were also increased by taurine. Taurine supplementation increased taurine-conjugated bile acids by 61% and decreased glycine-conjugated bile acids by 53%, resulting in a significant decrease in the glycine/taurine (G/T) ratio. Among the taurine-conjugated bile acids, cholic acid and deoxycholic acid were significantly increased. In the liver, taurine supplementation increased the mRNA expression and enzymatic activity of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis, by three- and two-fold, respectively. Taurine also decreased the enzymatic activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). These observations suggest that taurine supplementation increases the synthesis and excretion of taurine-conjugated bile acids and stimulates the catabolism of cholesterol to bile acid by elevating the expression and activity of CYP7A1. This may reduce cholesterol esterification and lipoprotein assembly for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, leading to reductions in the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Pharmacology of taurine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oja, Simo S; Saransaari, Pirjo

    2007-01-01

    Taurine has a number of physiological functions, e.g., in cell volume regulation and inhibitory neuromodulation. Taurine and its derivatives have also been tested as potential pharmacological agents in many pathological states. We endeavor here to review the present status of this investigation. Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is a simple sulfur-containing amino acid present in virtually all cells throughout the animal kingdom. In particular, it is enriched in electrically excitable tissues such as brain, retina, heart and skeletal muscles. In the central nervous system, taurine has been implicated in two major phenomena; in cell volume regulation [1-3] and in inhibitory neuromodulation or neurotransmission [4-7]. Its function as a neurotransmitter implies the existence of specific taurine receptors and the neuromodulatory role, an interference with functions of other transmitter systems. There is scant evidence to corroborate the first assumption, but ample for the latter. In other tissues taurine has also been thought to act as an antioxidant in cell protection and to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular functions. These taurine properties are only partially explored so far but taurine and many of its derivatives have been tested as potential pharmaceutical agents in a number of pathological states.

  14. Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy and Childhood Allergic Disease Outcomes: A Question of Timing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McStay, Catrina L.; Prescott, Susan L.; Bower, Carol; Palmer, Debra J.

    2017-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, maternal folic acid supplementation has been recommended prior to and during the first trimester of pregnancy, to reduce the risk of infant neural tube defects. In addition, many countries have also implemented the folic acid fortification of staple foods, in order to promote sufficient intakes amongst women of a childbearing age, based on concerns surrounding variable dietary and supplementation practices. As many women continue to take folic acid supplements beyond the recommended first trimester, there has been an overall increase in folate intakes, particularly in countries with mandatory fortification. This has raised questions on the consequences for the developing fetus, given that folic acid, a methyl donor, has the potential to epigenetically modify gene expression. In animal studies, folic acid has been shown to promote an allergic phenotype in the offspring, through changes in DNA methylation. Human population studies have also described associations between folate status in pregnancy and the risk of subsequent childhood allergic disease. In this review, we address the question of whether ongoing maternal folic acid supplementation after neural tube closure, could be contributing to the rise in early life allergic diseases. PMID:28208798

  15. Obstructive heart defects associated with candidate genes, maternal obesity, and folic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xinyu; Cleves, Mario A; Nick, Todd G; Li, Ming; MacLeod, Stewart L; Erickson, Stephen W; Li, Jingyun; Shaw, Gary M; Mosley, Bridget S; Hobbs, Charlotte A

    2015-06-01

    Right-sided and left-sided obstructive heart defects (OHDs) are subtypes of congenital heart defects, in which the heart valves, arteries, or veins are abnormally narrow or blocked. Previous studies have suggested that the development of OHDs involved a complex interplay between genetic variants and maternal factors. Using the data from 569 OHD case families and 1,644 control families enrolled in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) between 1997 and 2008, we conducted an analysis to investigate the genetic effects of 877 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 60 candidate genes for association with the risk of OHDs, and their interactions with maternal use of folic acid supplements, and pre-pregnancy obesity. Applying log-linear models based on the hybrid design, we identified a SNP in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (C677T polymorphism) with a main genetic effect on the occurrence of OHDs. In addition, multiple SNPs in betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT and BHMT2) were also identified to be associated with the occurrence of OHDs through significant main infant genetic effects and interaction effects with maternal use of folic acid supplements. We also identified multiple SNPs in glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit (GCLC) and DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3 beta (DNMT3B) that were associated with elevated risk of OHDs among obese women. Our findings suggested that the risk of OHDs was closely related to a combined effect of variations in genes in the folate, homocysteine, or glutathione/transsulfuration pathways, maternal use of folic acid supplements and pre-pregnancy obesity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Determinants of the Maternal 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Response to Vitamin D Supplementation During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Rebecca J; Harvey, Nicholas C; Cooper, Cyrus; D'Angelo, Stefania; Crozier, Sarah R; Inskip, Hazel M; Schoenmakers, Inez; Prentice, Ann; Arden, Nigel K; Bishop, Nicholas J; Carr, Andrew; Dennison, Elaine M; Eastell, Richard; Fraser, Robert; Gandhi, Saurabh V; Godfrey, Keith M; Kennedy, Stephen; Mughal, M Zulf; Papageorghiou, Aris T; Reid, David M; Robinson, Sian M; Javaid, M Kassim

    2016-12-01

    Current approaches to antenatal vitamin D supplementation do not account for interindividual differences in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) response. We assessed which maternal and environmental characteristics were associated with 25(OH)D after supplementation with cholecalciferol. Within-randomization-group analysis of participants in the Maternal Vitamin D Osteoporosis Study trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy. Hospital antenatal clinics. A total of 829 pregnant women (422 placebo, 407 cholecalciferol). At 14 and 34 weeks of gestation, maternal anthropometry, health, and lifestyle were assessed and 25(OH)D measured. Compliance was determined using pill counts at 19 and 34 weeks. 1000 IU/d of cholecalciferol or matched placebo from 14 weeks of gestation until delivery. 25(OH)D at 34 weeks, measured in a single batch (Diasorin Liaison). 25(OH)D at 34 weeks of gestation was higher in the women randomized to vitamin D (mean [SD], 67.7 [21.3] nmol/L) compared with placebo (43.1 [22.5] nmol/L; P pregnancy weight gain from 14 to 34 weeks of gestation (kg) (β = -0.81 [95% confidence interval -1.39, -0.22]), lower compliance with study medication (%) (β = -0.28 [-0.072, -0.48]), lower early pregnancy 25(OH)D (nmol/L) (β = 0.28 [0.16, 0.40]), and delivery in the winter vs the summer (β = -10.5 [-6.4, -14.6]) were independently associated with lower 25(OH)D at 34 weeks of gestation. Women who gained more weight during pregnancy had lower 25(OH)D in early pregnancy and delivered in winter achieved a lower 25(OH)D in late pregnancy when supplemented with 1000 IU/d cholecalciferol. Future studies should aim to determine appropriate doses to enable consistent repletion of 25(OH)D during pregnancy.

  17. Maternal methyl donors supplementation during lactation prevents the hyperhomocysteinemia induced by a high-fat-sucrose intake by dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Paul; Milagro, Fermin I; Campion, Javier; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2013-12-16

    Maternal perinatal nutrition may program offspring metabolic features. Epigenetic regulation is one of the candidate mechanisms that may be affected by maternal dietary methyl donors intake as potential controllers of plasma homocysteine levels. Thirty-two Wistar pregnant rats were randomly assigned into four dietary groups during lactation: control, control supplemented with methyl donors, high-fat-sucrose and high-fat-sucrose supplemented with methyl donors. Physiological outcomes in the offspring were measured, including hepatic mRNA expression and global DNA methylation after weaning. The newborns whose mothers were fed the obesogenic diet were heavier longer and with a higher adiposity and intrahepatic fat content. Interestingly, increased levels of plasma homocysteine induced by the maternal high-fat-sucrose dietary intake were prevented in both sexes by maternal methyl donors supplementation. Total hepatic DNA methylation decreased in females due to maternal methyl donors administration, while Dnmt3a hepatic mRNA levels decreased accompanying the high-fat-sucrose consumption. Furthermore, a negative association between Dnmt3a liver mRNA levels and plasma homocysteine concentrations was found. Maternal high-fat-sucrose diet during lactation could program offspring obesity features, while methyl donors supplementation prevented the onset of high hyperhomocysteinemia. Maternal dietary intake also affected hepatic DNA methylation metabolism, which could be linked with the regulation of the methionine-homocysteine cycle.

  18. Maternal Methyl Donors Supplementation during Lactation Prevents the Hyperhomocysteinemia Induced by a High-Fat-Sucrose Intake by Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Cordero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Maternal perinatal nutrition may program offspring metabolic features. Epigenetic regulation is one of the candidate mechanisms that may be affected by maternal dietary methyl donors intake as potential controllers of plasma homocysteine levels. Thirty-two Wistar pregnant rats were randomly assigned into four dietary groups during lactation: control, control supplemented with methyl donors, high-fat-sucrose and high-fat-sucrose supplemented with methyl donors. Physiological outcomes in the offspring were measured, including hepatic mRNA expression and global DNA methylation after weaning. The newborns whose mothers were fed the obesogenic diet were heavier longer and with a higher adiposity and intrahepatic fat content. Interestingly, increased levels of plasma homocysteine induced by the maternal high-fat-sucrose dietary intake were prevented in both sexes by maternal methyl donors supplementation. Total hepatic DNA methylation decreased in females due to maternal methyl donors administration, while Dnmt3a hepatic mRNA levels decreased accompanying the high-fat-sucrose consumption. Furthermore, a negative association between Dnmt3a liver mRNA levels and plasma homocysteine concentrations was found. Maternal high-fat-sucrose diet during lactation could program offspring obesity features, while methyl donors supplementation prevented the onset of high hyperhomocysteinemia. Maternal dietary intake also affected hepatic DNA methylation metabolism, which could be linked with the regulation of the methionine-homocysteine cycle.

  19. Maternal and infant nutritional supplementation practices in Ireland: implications for clinicians and policymakers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2011-06-01

    This prospective Irish observational study examined maternal and infant nutritional supplement use. From an initial sample of 539 mothers recruited from the Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital in Dublin (during 2004-2006), 450 eligible mothers were followed up at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Only 200 women (44.4%) complied with peri-conceptional folic acid at the recommended time with strong social patterning associated with its uptake. Almost 10% of the sample (n = 44) consumed a combined multivitamin and mineral supplement during pregnancy. A vitamin D-containing supplement was provided to only 5 (1.1%) and 15 (3.3%) infants at 6 weeks and 6 months, respectively. A national guideline that advises on adequate and safe use of both vitamin and multivitamin supplements during pregnancy with particular reference to vitamin A and D is warranted. Given the re-emergence of rickets in Ireland, and the reported morbidities associated with vitamin D insufficiency, promoting and monitoring compliance with 200 IU [5 microg] daily vitamin D supplements to all infants particularly those from higher risk groups from birth to 1 year, should be a public health priority.

  20. Prevention of Treacher Collins syndrome craniofacial anomalies in mouse models via maternal antioxidant supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Daisuke; Dixon, Jill; Achilleos, Annita; Dixon, Michael; Trainor, Paul A

    2016-01-21

    Craniofacial anomalies account for approximately one-third of all birth defects and are a significant cause of infant mortality. Since the majority of the bones, cartilage and connective tissues that comprise the head and face are derived from a multipotent migratory progenitor cell population called the neural crest, craniofacial disorders are typically attributed to defects in neural crest cell development. Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a disorder of craniofacial development and although TCS arises primarily through autosomal dominant mutations in TCOF1, no clear genotype-phenotype correlation has been documented. Here we show that Tcof1 haploinsufficiency results in oxidative stress-induced DNA damage and neuroepithelial cell death. Consistent with this discovery, maternal treatment with antioxidants minimizes cell death in the neuroepithelium and substantially ameliorates or prevents the pathogenesis of craniofacial anomalies in Tcof1(+/-) mice. Thus maternal antioxidant dietary supplementation may provide an avenue for protection against the pathogenesis of TCS and similar neurocristopathies.

  1. Supplementation of vitamin D in pregnancy and its correlation with feto-maternal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablok, Aanchal; Batra, Aruna; Thariani, Karishma; Batra, Achla; Bharti, Rekha; Aggarwal, Abha Rani; Kabi, B C; Chellani, Harish

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is widely prevalent throughout the world. Pregnant women, neonates and infants form most vulnerable groups for vitamin D deficiency. (1) To find prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women. (2) To evaluate the effect of supplementation with cholecalciferol in improving vitamin D levels in pregnant women and evaluate its correlation with feto-maternal outcome. Randomized control trial from years 2010 to 2012. Tertiary care centre, Delhi, India. One-hundred and eighty pregnant women. Study population divided randomly into two groups: group A: nonintervention (60 women) and group B: intervention (120 women). The intervention group received supplementation of vitamin D in dosages depending upon 25(OH)-D levels. Risk of maternal complications such as preterm labour, pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes associated with vitamin D deficiency and risk of low birthweight and poor Apgar score in infants of mothers with vitamin D deficiency. Adjusted serum 25(OH)-D concentration was lower in group A as compared to group B (mean 46·11 ± 74·21 nmol/l vs 80 ± 51·53 nmol/l). Forty-four percent patients in group A and 20·3% patients in group B developed preterm labour/pre-eclampsia/gestational diabetes. Newborns of mothers in group A had lower cord blood levels of 25(OH)-D levels as compared to group B (mean 43·11 ± 81·32 nmol/l vs 56·8 ± 47·52 nmol/l). They also had lower birthweight of mean 2·4 ± 0·38 kg as compared to group B 2·6 ± 0·33 kg. Vitamin D supplementation reduces risk of maternal comorbidities and helps improve neonatal outcomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Development of a novel cysteine sulfinic Acid decarboxylase knockout mouse: dietary taurine reduces neonatal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunkyue; Park, Seung Yong; Dobkin, Carl; Schuller-Levis, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    We engineered a CSAD KO mouse to investigate the physiological roles of taurine. The disruption of the CSAD gene was verified by Southern, Northern, and Western blotting. HPLC indicated an 83% decrease of taurine concentration in the plasma of CSAD(-/-). Although CSAD(-/-) generation (G)1 and G2 survived, offspring from G2 CSAD(-/-) had low brain and liver taurine concentrations and most died within 24 hrs of birth. Taurine concentrations in G3 CSAD(-/-) born from G2 CSAD(-/-) treated with taurine in the drinking water were restored and survival rates of G3 CSAD(-/-) increased from 15% to 92%. The mRNA expression of CDO, ADO, and TauT was not different in CSAD(-/-) compared to WT and CSAD mRNA was not expressed in CSAD(-/-). Expression of Gpx 1 and 3 was increased significantly in CSAD(-/-) and restored to normal levels with taurine supplementation. Lactoferrin and the prolactin receptor were significantly decreased in CSAD(-/-). The prolactin receptor was restored with taurine supplementation. These data indicated that CSAD KO is a good model for studying the effects of taurine deficiency and its treatment with taurine supplementation.

  3. Development of a Novel Cysteine Sulfinic Acid Decarboxylase Knockout Mouse: Dietary Taurine Reduces Neonatal Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunkyue Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We engineered a CSAD KO mouse to investigate the physiological roles of taurine. The disruption of the CSAD gene was verified by Southern, Northern, and Western blotting. HPLC indicated an 83% decrease of taurine concentration in the plasma of CSAD-/-. Although CSAD-/- generation (G1 and G2 survived, offspring from G2 CSAD-/- had low brain and liver taurine concentrations and most died within 24 hrs of birth. Taurine concentrations in G3 CSAD-/- born from G2 CSAD-/- treated with taurine in the drinking water were restored and survival rates of G3 CSAD-/- increased from 15% to 92%. The mRNA expression of CDO, ADO, and TauT was not different in CSAD-/- compared to WT and CSAD mRNA was not expressed in CSAD-/-. Expression of Gpx 1 and 3 was increased significantly in CSAD-/- and restored to normal levels with taurine supplementation. Lactoferrin and the prolactin receptor were significantly decreased in CSAD-/-. The prolactin receptor was restored with taurine supplementation. These data indicated that CSAD KO is a good model for studying the effects of taurine deficiency and its treatment with taurine supplementation.

  4. Effects of Maternal Linseed Oil Supplementation on Metabolic Parameters in Cafeteria Diet-induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaissa, Nawel; Merzouk, Hafida; Merzouk, Sid Ahmed; Narce, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Because linseed oil may influence maternal and fetal metabolisms, we investigated its role in the modulation of lipid metabolism in cafeteria diet-induced obese rats and their offspring. Female Wistar rats were fed control or cafeteria food, which were either supplemented or not supplemented with linseed oil (5%) for 1 month before and during gestation. At parturition, serum and tissue lipids and enzyme activities were analyzed. Cafeteria diet induced adverse metabolic alterations in both mothers and offspring. Linseed oil improved metabolic status. In conclusion, linseed oil displayed health benefits by modulating tissue enzyme activities in both obese mothers and their newborns. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of maternal vitamin A supplementation on retinol concentration in colostrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evellyn C. Grilo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation on the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting and postprandial conditions. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study, with before and after assessments, conducted with 33 patients treated at a public maternity hospital. Blood and colostrum samples were collected under fasting conditions in the immediate postpartum period. A second colostrum collection occurred two hours after the first meal of the day, at which time a mega dose of 200,000 IU of retinyl palmitate was administered. On the following day, the colostrum was collected again under fasting and postprandial conditions. Serum and colostrum retinol concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The serum retinol concentration was 37.3 (16.8-62.2 µg/dL, indicating adequate nutritional status. The colostrum retinol concentration before supplementation was 46.8 (29.7-158.9 µg/dL in fasting and 67.3 (31.1-148.7 µg/dL in postprandial condition (p < 0.05, showing an increase of 43.8%. After supplementation, the values were 89.5 (32.9-264.2 µg/dL and 102.7 (37.3-378.3 µg/dL in fasting and postprandial conditions, respectively (p < 0.05, representing an increase of 14.7%. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that maternal supplementation with high doses of vitamin A in postpartum resulted in a significant increase of the retinol concentration in colostrum under fasting conditions, with an even greater increase after a meal.

  6. Effects of calcium supplementation during pregnancy on maternal, fetal and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imdad, Aamer; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2012-07-01

    Gestational hypertensive disorders are the second leading cause of maternal death worldwide. Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that an inverse relationship exists between calcium intake and development of hypertension in pregnancy. The purpose of this review was to evaluate preventive effect of calcium supplementation during pregnancy on gestational hypertensive disorders and related maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. A literature search was carried out on PubMed, WHOLIS, PAHO and Cochrane Library. Only randomised trials were included in the review. Data were extracted into a standardised Excel sheet. Primary outcomes were pre-eclampsia, preterm birth and birthweight. Other neonatal outcomes such as neonatal mortality, small-for-gestational age and low birthweight were also evaluated. A total of 15 randomised controlled trials were included in this review. Pooled analysis showed that calcium supplementation during pregnancy reduced risk of pre-eclampsia by 52% [relative risk (RR) 0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34, 0.67] and that of severe pre-eclampsia by 25% (RR 0.75 [95% CI 0.57, 0.98]). There was no effect on incidence of eclampsia (RR 0.73 [95% CI 0.41, 1.27]). There was a significant reduction for risk of maternal mortality/severe morbidity (RR 0.80 [95% CI 0.65, 0.97]). Calcium supplementation during pregnancy was also associated with a significant reduction in risk of pre-term birth (RR 0.76 [95% CI 0.60, 0.97]). There was an extra gain of 85 g in the intervention group compared with control (mean difference 85 g [95% CI 37, 133]). There was no effect of calcium supplementation on perinatal mortality (RR 0.90 [95% CI 0.74, 1.09]). There was a statistically non-significant increased risk of urolithiasis in the intervention group compared with control (RR 1.52 [95% CI 0.06, 40.67]). In conclusion, calcium supplementation during pregnancy is associated with a reduction in risk of gestational hypertensive disorders and pre

  7. Effects of L-glutamine supplementation on maternal and fetal hemodynamics in gestating ewes exposed to alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Onkar B.; Ramadoss, Jayanth; Hankins, Gary D.; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    Not much is known about effects of gestational alcohol exposure on maternal and fetal cardiovascular adaptations. This study determined whether maternal binge alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation could affect maternal-fetal hemodynamics and fetal regional brain blood flow during the brain growth spurt period. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to one of four groups: saline control, alcohol (1.75–2.5 g/kg body weight), glutamine (100 mg/kg body weight) or alcohol + glutamine. A chronic weekend binge drinking paradigm between gestational days (GD) 99 and 115 was utilized. Fetuses were surgically instrumented on GD 117 ± 1 and studied on GD 120 ± 1. Binge alcohol exposure caused maternal acidemia, hypercapnea, and hypoxemia. Fetuses were acidemic and hypercapnic, but not hypoxemic. Alcohol exposure increased fetal mean arterial pressure, whereas fetal heart rate was unaltered. Alcohol exposure resulted in ~40 % reduction in maternal uterine artery blood flow. Labeled microsphere analyses showed that alcohol induced >2-fold increases in fetal whole brain blood flow. The elevation in fetal brain blood flow was region-specific, particularly affecting the developing cerebellum, brain stem, and olfactory bulb. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation attenuated alcohol-induced maternal hypercapnea, fetal acidemia and increases in fetal brain blood flow. L-Glutamine supplementation did not affect uterine blood flow. Collectively, alcohol exposure alters maternal and fetal acid–base balance, decreases uterine blood flow, and alters fetal regional brain blood flow. Importantly, L-glutamine supplementation mitigates alcohol-induced acid–base imbalances and alterations in fetal regional brain blood flow. Further studies are warranted to elucidate mechanisms responsible for alcohol-induced programming of maternal uterine artery and fetal circulation adaptations in pregnancy. PMID:24810329

  8. Effects of L-glutamine supplementation on maternal and fetal hemodynamics in gestating ewes exposed to alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Onkar B; Ramadoss, Jayanth; Hankins, Gary D; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2014-08-01

    Not much is known about effects of gestational alcohol exposure on maternal and fetal cardiovascular adaptations. This study determined whether maternal binge alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation could affect maternal-fetal hemodynamics and fetal regional brain blood flow during the brain growth spurt period. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to one of four groups: saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg body weight), glutamine (100 mg/kg body weight) or alcohol + glutamine. A chronic weekend binge drinking paradigm between gestational days (GD) 99 and 115 was utilized. Fetuses were surgically instrumented on GD 117 ± 1 and studied on GD 120 ± 1. Binge alcohol exposure caused maternal acidemia, hypercapnea, and hypoxemia. Fetuses were acidemic and hypercapnic, but not hypoxemic. Alcohol exposure increased fetal mean arterial pressure, whereas fetal heart rate was unaltered. Alcohol exposure resulted in ~40 % reduction in maternal uterine artery blood flow. Labeled microsphere analyses showed that alcohol induced >2-fold increases in fetal whole brain blood flow. The elevation in fetal brain blood flow was region-specific, particularly affecting the developing cerebellum, brain stem, and olfactory bulb. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation attenuated alcohol-induced maternal hypercapnea, fetal acidemia and increases in fetal brain blood flow. L-Glutamine supplementation did not affect uterine blood flow. Collectively, alcohol exposure alters maternal and fetal acid-base balance, decreases uterine blood flow, and alters fetal regional brain blood flow. Importantly, L-glutamine supplementation mitigates alcohol-induced acid-base imbalances and alterations in fetal regional brain blood flow. Further studies are warranted to elucidate mechanisms responsible for alcohol-induced programming of maternal uterine artery and fetal circulation adaptations in pregnancy.

  9. Maternal micronutrient supplementation with zinc and beta-carotene affects morbidity and immune function of infants during the first 6 months of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, F.T.; Dijkhuizen, M.A.; Muhilal,; Meer, van der J.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent worldwide, and a major cause of infant death. Supplementation with multiple micronutrients during pregnancy might improve micronutrient status of the newborn, thereby reducing morbidity and death. Moreover, maternal supplementation migh

  10. Assessment of taurine bioavailability in pelleted and extruded diets with red drum Sciaenops ocellatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurine has been reported to be efficacious in supporting growth of carnivorous fish species, particularly when supplemented to diets primarily containing plant feedstuffs. Although taurine may become unavailable to some extent by heat and moisture, and is susceptible to the Maillard reaction with r...

  11. Taurine and the renal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Taurine participates in a number of different physiologic and biologic processes in the kidney, often reflected by urinary excretion patterns. The kidney is key to aspects of taurine body pool size and homeostasis. This review will examine the renal-taurine interactions relative to ion reabsorption; renal blood flow and renal vascular endothelial function; antioxidant properties, especially in the glomerulus; and the role of taurine in ischemia and reperfusion injury. In addition, taurine plays a role in the renal cell cycle and apoptosis, and functions as an osmolyte during the stress response. The role of the kidney in adaptation to variations in dietary taurine intake and the regulation of taurine body pool size are described. Finally, the protective function of taurine against several kidney diseases is reviewed. PMID:20804616

  12. Impact of maternal dietary fat supplementation during gestation upon skeletal muscle in neonatal pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainberg, Hernan P; Almond, Kayleigh L; Li, Dongfang; Rauch, Cyril; Bikker, Paul; Symonds, Michael E; Mostyn, Alison

    2014-08-27

    Maternal diet during pregnancy can modulate skeletal muscle development of the offspring. Previous studies in pigs have indicated that a fat supplemented diet during pregnancy can improve piglet outcome, however, this is in contrast to human studies suggesting adverse effects of saturated fats during pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate the impact of a fat supplemented (palm oil) "high fat" diet on skeletal muscle development in a porcine model. Histological and metabolic features of the biceps femoris muscle obtained from 7-day-old piglets born to sows assigned to either a commercial (C, n = 7) or to an isocaloric fat supplementation diet ("high fat" HF, n = 7) during pregnancy were assessed. Offspring exposed to a maternal HF diet demonstrated enhanced muscular development, reflected by an increase in fractional growth rate, rise in myofibre cross-sectional area, increased storage of glycogen and reduction in lipid staining of myofibres. Although both groups had similar intramuscular protein and triglyceride concentrations, the offspring born to HF mothers had a higher proportion of arachidonic acid (C20:4n6) and a reduction in α-linolenic acid (C18:3n3) compared to C group offspring. The HF group muscle also exhibited a higher ratio of C20:3n6 to C20:4n6 and total n-6 to n-3 in conjunction with up-regulation of genes associated with free fatty acid uptake and biogenesis. In conclusion, a HF gestational diet accelerates the maturation of offspring biceps femoris muscle, reflected in increased glycolytic metabolism and fibre cross sectional area, differences accompanied with a potential resetting of myofibre nutrient uptake.

  13. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: Updated meta-analysis on maternal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Cristina; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Lombardo, Lia K; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2016-11-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent during pregnancy. It has been suggested that vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy may reduce the risk of adverse gestational outcomes. To update a previous meta-analysis on the effects of oral vitamin D supplementation (alone or in combination with other vitamins and minerals) during pregnancy on maternal 25(OH)D levels and risk of developing pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm birth, impaired glucose tolerance, caesarean section, gestational hypertension and other adverse conditions. We searched for randomized and quasi-randomized trials through the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations, and direct communications with relevant organizations. Assessments of inclusion criteria, extraction of data from included studies, and risk of bias' assessments of the included studies were done independently by two review authors. We included 15 trials, excluded 27 trials and 23 trials are still ongoing/unpublished. Data from seven trials with 868 women suggest that pregnant women supplemented with vitamin D had significantly higher 25(OH)D levels compared to controls (mean difference: 54.7nmol/L; 95% CI 36.6, 72.9). Two trials found a lower risk of preeclampsia (8.9% versus 15.5%; average risk ratio 0.52; 95% CI 0.25, 1.05) and two other trials found no difference in the risk of gestational diabetes with vitamin D supplementation. Also, three trials found that supplementation with vitamin D plus calcium reduced the risk of pre-eclampsia (5% versus 9%; average risk ratio 0.51; 95% CI 0.32, 0.80). Supplementing pregnant women with vitamin D led to significantly higher levels of 25(OH)D at term compared to placebo/control but results were inconsistent. Vitamin D supplementation, with or without calcium, may be related to lower risk of preeclampsia but more studies are needed to confirm this

  14. Taurine content in different brain structures during ageing: effect on hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Luz M; Muñoz, María-Dolores; Martín Del Río, Rafael; Solís, José M

    2016-05-01

    A reduction in taurine content accompanies the ageing process in many tissues. In fact, the decline of brain taurine levels has been associated with cognitive deficits whereas chronic administration of taurine seems to ameliorate age-related deficits such as memory acquisition and retention. In the present study, using rats of three age groups (young, adult and aged) we determined whether the content of taurine and other amino acids (glutamate, serine, glutamine, glycine, alanine and GABA) was altered during ageing in different brain areas (cerebellum, cortex and hippocampus) as well non-brain tissues (heart, kidney, liver and plasma). Moreover, using hippocampal slices we tested whether ageing affects synaptic function and plasticity. These parameters were also determined in aged rats fed with either taurine-devoid or taurine-supplemented diets. With age, we found heterogeneous changes in amino acid content depending on the amino acid type and the tissue. In the case of taurine, its content was reduced in the cerebellum of adult and aged rats, but it remained unchanged in the hippocampus, cortex, heart and liver. The synaptic response amplitude decreased in aged rats, although the late phase of long-term synaptic potentiation (late-LTP), a taurine-dependent process, was not altered. Our study highlights the stability of taurine content in the hippocampus during ageing regardless of whether taurine was present in the diet, which is consistent with the lack of changes detected in late-LTP. These results indicate that the beneficial effects of taurine supplementation might be independent of the replenishment of taurine stores.

  15. Adiponectin supplementation in pregnant mice prevents the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Irving L M H; Rosario, Fredrick J; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2015-10-13

    Mothers with obesity or gestational diabetes mellitus have low circulating levels of adiponectin (ADN) and frequently deliver large babies with increased fat mass, who are susceptible to perinatal complications and to development of metabolic syndrome later in life. It is currently unknown if the inverse correlation between maternal ADN and fetal growth reflects a cause-and-effect relationship. We tested the hypothesis that ADN supplementation in obese pregnant dams improves maternal insulin sensitivity, restores normal placental insulin/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and nutrient transport, and prevents fetal overgrowth. Compared with dams on a control diet, female C57BL/6J mice fed an obesogenic diet before mating and throughout gestation had increased fasting serum leptin, insulin, and C-peptide, and reduced high-molecular-weight ADN at embryonic day (E) 18.5. Placental insulin and mTORC1 signaling was activated, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) phosphorylation was reduced, placental transport of glucose and amino acids in vivo was increased, and fetal weights were 29% higher in obese dams. Maternal ADN infusion in obese dams from E14.5 to E18.5 normalized maternal insulin sensitivity, placental insulin/mTORC1 and PPARα signaling, nutrient transport, and fetal growth without affecting maternal fat mass. Using a mouse model with striking similarities to obese pregnant women, we demonstrate that ADN functions as an endocrine link between maternal adipose tissue and fetal growth by regulating placental function. Importantly, maternal ADN supplementation reversed the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth. Improving maternal ADN levels may serve as an effective intervention strategy to prevent fetal overgrowth caused by maternal obesity.

  16. Effects of maternal vitamin B12 supplementation on early infant neurocognitive outcomes: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thomas, Tinku; Kapanee, Aruna Rose Mary; Ramthal, Asha; Bellinger, David C; Bosch, Ronald J; Kurpad, Anura V; Duggan, Christopher

    2016-06-29

    Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy impacts fetal brain development. Vitamin B12 plays a vital role in neuronal development. However, findings from studies on the association between maternal B12 status and child cognitive functions have been inconsistent. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of oral B12 supplementation (50 µg) beginning at B12 supplementation on cognitive development in infants at 9 months of age on Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III (BSID-III). One hundred eighty-three pregnant women received vitamin B12, and 183 received placebo. Nine-month BSID-III development score was available in 178 infants. There were no significant differences in maternal sociodemographic characteristics and baseline biochemical measures between infants who underwent BSID-III evaluation and infants who were not evaluated. There were no significant differences in any of the subscales of BSID-III between infants born to mothers who received B12 supplementation (n = 78) vs. placebo (n = 100). On multiple regression analysis, elevated maternal total homocysteine (tHcy) levels adjusted for treatment group, birthweight, parity, income and home environment at second trimester of pregnancy were significantly negatively associated with expressive language (β = 3.13 points, P B12 supplementation were seen on cognitive development in infants at 9 months of age, elevated maternal tHcy levels were associated with poorer cognitive performance in some of the subdomains of BSID-III. In pregnant women with elevated tHcy levels and or B12 deficiencies, it may be worthwhile to study the impact of longer term maternal supplementation on infant cognitive outcomes.

  17. Taurine ameliorates hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia by reducing insulin resistance and leptin level in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats with long-term diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Da Hee; Kim, Jung Yeon; Lee, Bong Gn; You, Jeong Soon; Chang, Kyung Ja; Chung, Hyunju; Yoo, Myung Chul; Yang, Hyung-In; Kang, Ja-Heon; Hwang, Yoo Chul; Ahn, Kue Jeong; Chung, Ho-Yeon

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether taurine supplementation improves metabolic disturbances and diabetic complications in an animal model for type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether taurine has therapeutic effects on glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and diabetic complications in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats with long-term duration of diabetes. Fourteen 50-week-old OLETF rats with chronic diabetes were fed a diet supplemented with taurine (2%) or a non-supplemented control diet for 12 weeks. Taurine reduced blood glucose levels over 12 weeks, and improved OGTT outcomes at 6 weeks after taurine supplementation, in OLETF rats. Taurine significantly reduced insulin resistance but did not improve β-cell function or islet mass. After 12 weeks, taurine significantly decreased serum levels of lipids such as triglyceride, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Taurine significantly reduced serum leptin, but not adiponectin levels. However, taurine had no therapeutic effect on damaged tissues. Taurine ameliorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, at least in part, by improving insulin sensitivity and leptin modulation in OLETF rats with long-term diabetes. Additional study is needed to investigate whether taurine has the same beneficial effects in human diabetic patients. PMID:23114424

  18. Effect of routine prenatal supplementation on vitamin concentrations in maternal serum and breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sânzio Gurgel, Cristiane Santos; Alves de Araújo Pereira, Larisa; de Assis Costa, Aldiane; Adja da Silva Souza, Mayara; Araújo de Brito, Poliana; Miranda de Melo, Larisse Rayanne; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of multivitamin supplements and their different vitamin A sources on retinol concentrations in serum and colostrum milk of postpartum women. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study composed of healthy postpartum women attending two Brazilian private maternity wards (N = 100). According to the type of multivitamin taken during pregnancy, the women were assigned to one of four groups: control group (CG; n = 25), formulation 1 (F1; n = 25), formulation 2 (F2; n = 25), and formulation 3 (F3; n = 25). Blood and colostrum samples were collected under fasting conditions and retinol was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Dietary vitamin A was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Retinol concentrations vitamin A deficiency. Of women in the control group, 12% (n = 3) presented serum retinol levels below the cut-off value for adequacy; this was not observed in the supplemented groups. Evaluating the retinol content in breast milk, supplemented groups F1 and F3 presented 4% (n = 1) of inadequacy cases, whereas F2 presented 40% (n = 10). The concentrations found in the F2 and F3 groups were statistically different (P vitamin A during pregnancy prevents vitamin A deficiency regardless of the source administered. In breast milk, supplementation with β-carotene provided a lower concentration of vitamin A compared with retinol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: effect on developmental outcome in breast-fed infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, L.; Jørgensen, M.H.; Olsen, S.F.

    2005-01-01

    with a habitual fish intake below the population median were randomized to 4.5 g center dot d(-1) of FO or olive oil (OO) for the first four months of lactation. Fifty-three mothers with habitual fish intake in the highest quartile were included as reference group. The effect of the resulting increase in infant......Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulates in the brain during the 1st and 2nd years of life. The objective of this study was to see if an increased content of DHA in breast-milk via maternal fish oil (FO)-supplementation affects mental development in term infants. one hundred twenty-two Danish mothers...

  20. Effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on maternal and birth outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakoob Mohammad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives/background Given the widespread prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries, supplementation with multiple micronutrients rather than iron-folate alone, could be of potential benefit to the mother and the fetus. These benefits could relate to prevention of maternal complications and reduction in other adverse pregnancy outcomes such as small-for-gestational age (SGA births, low birth weight, stillbirths, perinatal and neonatal mortality. This review evaluates the evidence of the impact of multiple micronutrient supplements during pregnancy, in comparison with standard iron-folate supplements, on specific maternal and pregnancy outcomes of relevance to the Lives Saved Tool (LiST. Data sources/review methods A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted. Search engines used were PubMed, the Cochrane Library, the WHO regional databases and hand search of bibliographies. A standardized data abstraction and Child Health Epidemiology Reference (CHERG adaptation of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE technique were used for data abstraction and overall quality of evidence. Meta-analyses were performed to calculate summary estimates of utility to the LiST model for the specified outcome of incidence of SGA births. We also evaluated the potential impact of multiple micronutrients on neonatal mortality according to the proportion of deliveries occurring in facilities (using a threshold of 60% to indicate functionality of health systems for skilled births. Results We included 17 studies for detailed data abstraction. There was no significant benefit of multiple micronutrients as compared to iron folate on maternal anemia in third trimester [Relative risk (RR = 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.87 – 1.22 (random model]. Our analysis, however, showed a significant reduction in SGA by 9% [RR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.86 – 0.96 (fixed model]. In the fixed model

  1. Enzymes of the taurine biosynthetic pathway are expressed in rat mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Iori; Stipanuk, Martha H

    2007-08-01

    Taurine is the most abundant free amino acid in the body and is present at high concentrations during development and in the early milk. It is synthesized from cysteine via oxidation of cysteine to cysteinesulfinate by the enzyme cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), followed by the decarboxylation of cysteinesulfinate to hypotaurine, catalyzed by cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD). To determine whether the taurine biosynthetic pathway is present in mammary gland and whether it is differentially expressed during pregnancy and lactation, and also to further explore the possible regulation of hepatic taurine synthesis during pregnancy and lactation, we measured mammary and hepatic CDO and CSAD mRNA and protein concentrations and tissue, plasma and milk taurine concentrations. CDO and CSAD mRNA and protein were expressed in mammary gland and liver regardless of physiological state. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the expression of CDO in ductal cells of pregnant rats, but not in other mammary epithelial cells or in ductal cells of nonpregnant rats. CDO was also present in stromal adipocytes in mammary glands of both pregnant and nonpregnant rats. Our findings support an upregulation of taurine synthetic capacity in the mammary gland of pregnant rats, based on mammary taurine and hypotaurine concentrations and the intense immunohistochemical staining for CDO in ductal cells of pregnant rats. Hepatic taurine synthetic capacity, particularly CSAD, and taurine concentrations were highest in rats during the early stages of lactation, suggesting the liver may also play a role in the synthesis of taurine to support lactation or repletion of maternal reserves.

  2. High maternal vitamin E intake by diet or supplements is associated with congenital heart defects in the offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smedts, H. P. M.; de Vries, J. H.; Rakhshandehroo, M.; Wildhagen, M. F.; Verkleij-Hagoort, A. C.; Steegers, E. A.; Steegers-Theunissen, R. P. M.

    2009-01-01

    To study associations between maternal dietary and supplement intake of antioxidants vitamin E, retinol and congenital heart defects (CHDs). Case-control study. Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Participants were 276 case mothers of a child with CHD and 324 control mo

  3. High maternal vitamin E intake by diet or supplements is associated with congenital heart defects in the offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smedts, H.P.M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Rakhshandehroo, M.; Wildhagen, M.F.; Verkleij-Hagoort, A.C.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study associations between maternal dietary and supplement intake of antioxidants vitamin E, retinol and congenital heart defects (CHDs). Design Case–control study. Setting Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Population Participants were 276 case mothers of

  4. High expression of the taurine transporter TauT in primary cilia of NIH3T3 fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Søren T; Voss, Jesper W; Teilmann, Stefan C; Lambert, Ian H

    2005-05-01

    Taurine, present in high concentrations in various mammalian cells, is essential for regulation of cell volume, cellular oxidative status as well as the cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Cellular taurine content is a balance between active uptake through the saturable, Na(+)-dependent taurine transporter TauT, and passive release via a volume-sensitive leak pathway. Here we demonstrate that: (i) TauT localizes to the primary cilium of growth-arrested NIH3T3 fibroblasts, (ii) long-term exposure to TNF(alpha) or hypertonic sucrose medium, i.e., growth medium supplemented with 100 mM sucrose, increases ciliary TauT expression and (iii) long-term exposure to hypertonic taurine medium, i.e., growth medium supplemented with 100 mM taurine, reduces ciliary TauT expression. These results point to an important role of taurine in the regulation of physiological processes located to the primary cilium.

  5. Ontogenetic taurine biosynthesis ability in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Huihui

    2015-07-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethane sulfonic acid) plays important roles in multiple physiological processes including osmoregulation, bile salt conjugation and membrane protection. It is known that taurine biosynthesis varies in different fish species. However, its ontogenetic regulation has not been clear. In the present study, we found that the hepatic concentrations of taurine increased marginally with rainbow trout growth. The mRNA expression, protein levels and enzyme activities of key enzymes involved in taurine biosynthesis, cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD), were analyzed. Our results showed that the mRNA levels and protein abundances of CSD increased dramatically with the development of rainbow trout stages while the enzyme activities showed a slight improvement. However, the expression and activities of CDO decreased with rainbow trout growth. These results provide valuable information on defining the exact supplementation of taurine in diets for different stages of rainbow trout and give new insights into elucidating the regulation of taurine metabolism in rainbow trout. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Inulin supplementation during gestation mitigates acrylamide-induced maternal and fetal brain oxidative dysfunctions and neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Gokul; Muralidhara

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the developing brain is more susceptible to a variety of chemicals. Recent studies have shown a link between the enteric microbiota and brain function. While supplementation of non-digestible oligosaccharides during pregnancy has been demonstrated to positively influence human health mediated through stimulation of beneficial microbiota, our understanding on their neuromodulatory propensity is limited. In the present study, our primary focus was to examine whether supplementation of inulin (a well known fructan) during gestation can abrogate acrylamide (ACR)-induced oxidative impairments and neurotoxicity in maternal and fetal brain of rats. Initially, in a dose-determinative study, we recapitulated the impact of ACR exposure during gestation days (GD 6-19) on gestational parameters, extent of oxidative impairments in brain (maternal/fetal), cholinergic function and neurotoxicity. Subsequently, pregnant rats orally (gavage) administered with inulin (IN, 2 g/kg/day in two equal installments) supplements during gestation days (GD 0-19) were exposed to ACR (200 ppm) in drinking water. IN supplements significantly attenuated ACR-induced changes in exploratory activity (reduced open field exploration) measured on GD 14. Further, IN restored the placental weights among ACR exposed dams. Analysis of biochemical markers revealed that IN supplements effectively offset ACR associated oxidative stress not only in the maternal brain, but in the fetal brain as well. Elevated levels of protein carbonyls in maternal brain regions were completely normalized with IN supplements. More importantly, IN supplements significantly augmented the number of Bifidobacteria in the cecum of ACR rats which correlated well with the neurorestorative effect as evidenced by restored dopamine levels in the maternal cortex and fetal brain acetylcholinesterase activity among ACR-exposed dams. Further, IN supplements also conferred significant protection against

  7. Taurine enhances the sexual response and mating ability in aged male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiancheng; Lin, Shumei; Feng, Ying; Wu, Gaofeng; Hu, Jianmin

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that taurine is abundant in male reproductive organs, and can be biosynthesized by testis, but the taurine concentration will reduce with aging. The levels of serum LH, T, NOS, and NO were found to be obviously increased by taurine supplementation in aged rats in our previous study. In addition, aging will result in a significant decline in sexual response and function, which may be attributed to the androgen deficiency. Furthermore, NO has been proposed as a crucial mediator of penile erection. That makes us hypothesize that there is potential relationship between taurine decline and erection dysfunction in aged males. So the primary aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of taurine on male sexuality in rats. Taurine was offered in water to male aged (20 months old) rats for 110 days. The effects of taurine on the sexual response, mating ability, levels of serum reproductive hormones, and penile NOS and NO levels were investigated. The results showed that taurine can significantly reduce the EL and ML; obviously increase the ERF, MF, IF, and EJF; stimulate the secretion of GnRH, LH, and T; and elevate penis NOS and NO level in aged rats. The results indicated that taurine can enhance the sexual response and mating ability in aged male rats by increasing the level of testosterone and NO, but the exact mechanism of which needs to be further investigated.

  8. The effect of maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation on cognition and mood during pregnancy and postpartum in Indonesia: a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L Prado

    Full Text Available Maternal caregiving capacity, which is affected in part by cognition and mood, is crucial for the health of mothers and infants. Few interventions aim to improve maternal and infant health through improving such capacity. Multiple micronutrient (MMN supplementation may improve maternal cognition and mood, since micronutrients are essential for brain function. We assessed mothers who participated in the Supplementation with Multiple Micronutrients Intervention Trial (SUMMIT, a double-blind cluster-randomized trial in Indonesia comparing MMN supplementation to iron and folic acid (IFA during pregnancy and until three months postpartum. We adapted a set of well-studied tests of cognition, motor dexterity, and mood to the local context and administered them to a random sample of 640 SUMMIT participants after an average of 25 weeks (SD = 9 of supplementation. Analysis was by intention to treat. Controlling for maternal age, education, and socio-economic status, MMN resulted in a benefit of 0.12 SD on overall cognition, compared to IFA (95%CI 0.03-0.22, p = .010, and a benefit of 0.18 SD on reading efficiency (95%CI 0.02-0.35, p = .031. Both effects were found particularly in anemic (hemoglobin<110 g/L; overall cognition: B = 0.20, 0.00-0.41, p = .055; reading: B = 0.40, 0.02-0.77, p = .039 and undernourished (mid-upper arm circumference<23.5 cm; overall cognition: B = 0.33, 0.07-0.59, p = .020; reading: B = 0.65, 0.19-1.12, p = .007 mothers. The benefit of MMN on overall cognition was equivalent to the benefit of one year of education for all mothers, to two years of education for anemic mothers, and to three years of education for undernourished mothers. No effects were found on maternal motor dexterity or mood. This is the first study demonstrating an improvement in maternal cognition with MMN supplementation. This improvement may increase the quality of care mothers provide for their infants, potentially partly mediating effects of maternal MMN

  9. Taurine protects cardiac contractility in killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, by enhancing sarcoplasmic reticular Ca(2+) cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Elenor F; MacCormack, Tyson J

    2017-05-23

    Intracellular taurine is abundant in many animals and it influences an array of physiological processes, including osmoregulation, metabolism, and cardiac contractility. Taurine is an important osmolyte in teleost hearts, but its role in stress tolerance, cardiac metabolism, and contractility has not been assessed. The goal of this study was to determine if ventricular taurine concentration changes in response to environmental stress and to characterize its influence on contractility. Cardiac taurine concentrations varied in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) but were generally maintained following acute environmental challenges. In isometrically contracting ventricular strips, supplemental taurine (40 mmol L(-1)) protected peak tension development (F max) at high stimulation frequencies, an effect abolished by treatment with ryanodine, a blocker of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release. In the presence of ryanodine, taurine-treated preparations were also better able to maintain F max at supraphysiological extracellular Ca(2+) levels, but a prior anoxia exposure abolished this effect. Taurine had no impact on basal F max during or after anoxia, but it provided additive protection to high-frequency contractility post-anoxia. Tissue oxygen consumption and extracellular glucose utilization were unaffected by taurine in non-contracting preparations, indicating that it does not impact energy metabolism. Overall, the results suggest that cardiac taurine levels are well maintained on acute time scales in this highly stress-tolerant species. Supplemental taurine has no effect on aerobic metabolism in vitro, but it significantly improved cardiac contractility in a manner dependent upon sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) cycling. The data indicate that taurine likely plays an important role in the regulation of cardiac performance in teleosts.

  10. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation prevents prenatal alcohol exposure-induced fetal growth restriction in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Onkar B; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause fetal growth restriction and disturbances in amino acid bioavailability. Alterations in these parameters can persist into adulthood and low birth weight can lead to altered fetal programming. Glutamine has been associated with the synthesis of other amino acids, an increase in protein synthesis and it is used clinically as a nutrient supplement for low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of repeated maternal alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation on fetal growth and amino acid bioavailability during the third trimester-equivalent period in an ovine model. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups, saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg), glutamine (100 mg/kg, three times daily) or alcohol + glutamine. In this study, a weekend binge drinking model was followed where treatment was done 3 days per week in succession from gestational day (GD) 109-132 (normal term ~147). Maternal alcohol exposure significantly reduced fetal body weight, height, length, thoracic girth and brain weight, and resulted in decreased amino acid bioavailability in fetal plasma and placental fluids. Maternal glutamine supplementation successfully mitigated alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction and improved the bioavailability of glutamine and glutamine-related amino acids such as glycine, arginine, and asparagine in the fetal compartment. All together, these findings show that L-glutamine supplementation enhances amino acid availability in the fetus and prevents alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction.

  11. Effects of taurine and housing density on renal function in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zi-Li; Gao, Yang; Ma, Hai-Tian; Zheng, Liu-Hai; Dai, Bin; Miao, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Yuan-Shu

    This study investigated the putative protective effects of supplemental 2-aminoethane sulfonic acid (taurine) and reduced housing density on renal function in laying hens. We randomly assigned fifteen thousand green-shell laying hens into three groups: a free range group, a low-density caged group, and a high-density caged group. Each group was further divided equally into a control group (C) and a taurine treatment group (T). After 15 d, we analyzed histological changes in kidney cells, inflammatory mediator levels, oxidation and anti-oxidation levels. Experimental data revealed taurine supplementation, and rearing free range or in low-density housing can lessen morphological renal damage, inflammatory mediator levels, and oxidation levels and increase anti-oxidation levels. Our data demonstrate that taurine supplementation and a reduction in housing density can ameliorate renal impairment, increase productivity, enhance health, and promote welfare in laying hens.

  12. Effects of taurine and housing density on renal function in laying hens*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zi-li; Gao, Yang; Ma, Hai-tian; Zheng, Liu-hai; Dai, Bin; Miao, Jin-feng; Zhang, Yuan-shu

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the putative protective effects of supplemental 2-aminoethane sulfonic acid (taurine) and reduced housing density on renal function in laying hens. We randomly assigned fifteen thousand green-shell laying hens into three groups: a free range group, a low-density caged group, and a high-density caged group. Each group was further divided equally into a control group (C) and a taurine treatment group (T). After 15 d, we analyzed histological changes in kidney cells, inflammatory mediator levels, oxidation and anti-oxidation levels. Experimental data revealed taurine supplementation, and rearing free range or in low-density housing can lessen morphological renal damage, inflammatory mediator levels, and oxidation levels and increase anti-oxidation levels. Our data demonstrate that taurine supplementation and a reduction in housing density can ameliorate renal impairment, increase productivity, enhance health, and promote welfare in laying hens. PMID:27921400

  13. Maternal prenatal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation attenuates hyperoxia-induced apoptosis in the developing rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzun, Funda; Kumral, Abdullah; Ozbal, Seda; Dilek, Mustafa; Tugyan, Kazım; Duman, Nuray; Ozkan, Hasan

    2012-06-01

    Supraphysiologic amounts of oxygen negatively influences brain maturation and development. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether maternal ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 FA) supplementation during pregnancy protects the developing brain against hyperoxic injury. Thirty-six rat pups from six different dams were divided into six groups according to the diet modifications and hyperoxia exposure. The groups were: a control group (standard diet+room air), a hyperoxia group (standard diet+80% O₂ exposure), a hyperoxia+high-dose ω-3 FA-supplemented group, a hyperoxia+low-dose ω-3 FA-supplemented group, a room air+low-dose ω-3 FA-supplemented+group, and a room air+high dose ω-3 FA-supplemented group. The ω-3 FA's were supplemented as a mixture of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from the second day of pregnancy until birth. Rat pups in the hyperoxic groups were exposed to 80% oxygen from birth until postnatal day 5 (P5). At P5, all animals were sacrificed. Neuronal cell death and apoptosis were evaluated by cell count, TUNEL, and active Caspase-3 immunohistochemistry. Histopathological examination showed that maternally ω-3 FA deficient diet and postnatal hyperoxia exposure were associated with significantly lower neuronal counts and significantly higher apoptotic cell death in the selected brain regions. Ω-3 FA treatment significantly diminished apoptosis, in the selected brain regions, in a dose dependent manner. Our results suggest that the maternal ω-3 FA supply may protect the developing brain against hyperoxic injury. Copyright © 2012 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of vitamin D supplementation on maternal and neonatal outcome: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Mojibian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been supposed to defend against adverse gestational outcomes. Objective: This randomized clinical trial study was conducted to assess the effects of 50,000 IU of vitamin D every two weeks supplementation on the incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and preterm labor, vitamin D status at term and neonatal outcomes contrasted with pregnant women that received 400 IU vitamin D daily. Materials and Methods: 500 women with gestational age 12-16 weeks and serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25 (OH D less than 30 ng/ml randomly categorized in two groups. Group A received 400 IU vitamin D daily and group B 50,000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks orally until delivery. Maternal and Neonatal outcomes were assessed in two groups. Results: The incidence of GDM in group B was significantly lower than group A (6.7% versus 13.4% and odds ratio (95% Confidence interval was 0.46 (0.24-0.87 (P=0.01. The mean ± SD level of 25 (OH D at the time of delivery in mothers in group B was significantly higher than A (37.9 ± 19.8 versus 27.2 ± 18.8 ng/ml, respectively (P=0.001. There were no differences in the incidence of preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, preterm labor, and low birth weight between two groups. The mean level of 25 (OH D in cord blood of group B was significantly higher than group A (37.9 ± 18 versus 29.7 ± 19ng/ml, respectively. Anthropometric measures between neonates were not significantly different. Conclusion: Our study showed 50,000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks decreased the incidence of GDM.

  15. Taurine protects DNA of lymphocytes against oxidative alteration in riding horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokól, Janusz Leszek; Sawosz, Ewa; Niemiec, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    . The addition of taurine to feed caused smaller oxidative stress, manifested by lower concentration of TBA-RS in plasma and of 8-oxo-dG in lymphocytes. The taurine lowered the lipid peroxidation intensity that occurred in horses due to the oxidative stress caused by physical effort. Furthermore, taurine......The study aimed at evaluation the effect of dietary supplement of taurine on the oxidation-reduction status in riding horses, and especially on the extent of oxidative DNA degradation in lymphocytes. Ten Thoroughbred and half-bred geldings aged 6-13 years were classified according to breed...... and amount of work done into two groups - control (C, n=5) and experimental (E, n=5), the latter fed the diet with addition of 40 g taurine/horse/day. Blood samples were withdrawn from the horses' jugular vein before commencing the riding season and then after 30 days of working. In the blood some selected...

  16. Taurine protects DNA of lymphocytes against oxidative alteration in riding horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokól, Janusz Leszek; Sawosz, Ewa; Niemiec, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluation the effect of dietary supplement of taurine on the oxidation-reduction status in riding horses, and especially on the extent of oxidative DNA degradation in lymphocytes. Ten Thoroughbred and half-bred geldings aged 6-13 years were classified according to breed...... and amount of work done into two groups - control (C, n=5) and experimental (E, n=5), the latter fed the diet with addition of 40 g taurine/horse/day. Blood samples were withdrawn from the horses' jugular vein before commencing the riding season and then after 30 days of working. In the blood some selected....... The addition of taurine to feed caused smaller oxidative stress, manifested by lower concentration of TBA-RS in plasma and of 8-oxo-dG in lymphocytes. The taurine lowered the lipid peroxidation intensity that occurred in horses due to the oxidative stress caused by physical effort. Furthermore, taurine...

  17. Effect of maternal Chlorella supplementation on carotenoid concentration in breast milk at early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Junya; Noda, Kiyoshi; Uchikawa, Takuya; Maruyama, Isao; Shimomura, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Michiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Breast milk carotenoids provide neonates with a source of vitamin A and potentially, oxidative stress protection and other health benefits. Chlorella, which has high levels of carotenoids such as lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene, is an effective dietary source of carotenoids for humans. In this study, the effect of maternal supplementation with Chlorella on carotenoid levels in breast milk at early lactation was investigated. Ten healthy, pregnant women received 6 g of Chlorella daily from gestational week 16-20 until the day of delivery (Chlorella group); ten others did not (control group). Among the carotenoids detected in breast milk, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations in the Chlorella group were 2.6-fold (p = 0.001), 2.7-fold (p = 0.001) and 1.7-fold (p = 0.049) higher, respectively, than those in the control group. Our study shows that Chlorella intake during pregnancy is effective in improving the carotenoid status of breast milk at early lactation.

  18. Maternal supplementation with LGG reduces vaccine-specific immune responses in infants at high-risk of developing allergic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul V Licciardi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are defined as live micro-organisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Among their pleiotropic effects, inhibition of pathogen colonisation at the mucosal surface as well as modulation of immune responses are widely recognised as the principal biological activities of probiotic bacteria. In recent times, the immune effects of probiotics have led to their application as vaccine adjuvants, offering a novel strategy for enhancing the efficacy of current vaccines. Such an approach is particularly relevant in regions where infectious disease burden is greatest and where access to complete vaccination programs is limited. In this study, we report the effects of the probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG on immune responses to tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib and pneumococcal conjugate (PCV7 vaccines in infants. This study was conducted as part of a larger clinical trial assessing the impact of maternal LGG supplementation in preventing the development of atopic eczema in infants at high-risk for developing allergic disease. Maternal LGG supplementation was associated with reduced antibody responses against tetanus, Hib and pneumococcal serotypes contained in PCV7 (N=31 compared to placebo-treatment (N=30 but not total IgG levels. Maternal LGG supplementation was also associated with a trend to increased number of tetanus toxoid-specific Treg in the peripheral blood compared to placebo-treated infants. These findings suggest that maternal LGG supplementation may not be beneficial in terms of improving vaccine-specific immunity in infants. Further clinical studies are needed to confirm these findings. As probiotic immune effects can be species/strain specific, our findings do not exclude the potential use of other probiotic bacteria to modulate infant immune responses to vaccines.

  19. Taurine in neonatal nutrition - revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) was isolated from ox (Bos Taurus) bile in 1827 but, until the mid to late 1970, it was thought to be merely a by-product of sulfur amino and metabolism. In 1975, it was noted that taurine deficiency in cats was associated with retinal degeneration which was reve...

  20. Taurine Homeostasis and Volume Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasantes-Morales, Herminia

    2017-01-01

    Taurine content is high (mM) in mammalian brain. By its major role as an osmolyte, taurine contributes to the cell volume control, which is particularly critical in the brain. Taurine participates in osmotic adjustments required to maintain the organization and size of intracellular compartments. It counteracts volume fluctuations in unbalanced transmembrane fluxes of ions and neurotransmitters, preserving the functional synaptic contacts. Taurine has a key role in the long-term adaptation to chronic hyponatremia as well as in other pathologies leading to brain edema. Together with other osmolytes, taurine corrects cell shrinkage, preventing mysfunction of organelles and apoptosis. Swelling corrective taurine efflux occurs through a leak pathway, likely formed by LCRR8 protein isoforms. Shrinkage-activated influx comes largely by the increased activity of the Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent transporter. The brain taurine pool results from the equilibrium between (i) dietary intake and active transport into the cell, (ii) synthesis in the brain itself or import of that synthesized elsewhere, and (iii) leak and posterior excretion. The interplay between these elements preserves brain taurine homeostasis in physiological conditions and permits the proper adjustments upon deviations of normal in the internal/external environment.

  1. Perinatal taurine exposure affects adult arterial pressure control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roysommuti, Sanya; Wyss, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Taurine is an abundant free amino acid found in mammalian cells that contributes to many physiologic functions from that of a simple cell osmolyte to a programmer of adult health and disease. Taurine’s contribution extends from conception throughout life, but its most critical exposure period is during perinatal life. In adults, taurine supplementation prevents or alleviates cardiovascular disease and related complications. In contrast, low taurine consumption coincides with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity and type II diabetes. This review focuses on the effects that altered perinatal taurine exposure has on long-term mechanisms that control adult arterial blood pressure and could thereby contribute to arterial hypertension through its ability to program these cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms very early in life. The modifications of these mechanisms can last a lifetime and transfer to the next generation, suggesting that epigenetic mechanisms underlie the changes. The ability of perinatal taurine exposure to influence arterial pressure control mechanisms and hypertension in adult life appears to involve the regulation of growth and development, the central and autonomic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin system, glucose-insulin interaction and changes to heart, blood vessels and kidney function. PMID:23070226

  2. Plasma taurine levels are not affected by vigabatrin in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelbrink, Emily M; Mabud, Tarub S; Reimer, Richard; Porter, Brenda E

    2016-08-01

    Vigabatrin is a highly effective antiseizure medication, but its use is limited due to concerns about retinal toxicity. One proposed mechanism for this toxicity is vigabatrin-mediated reduction of taurine. Herein we assess plasma taurine levels in a retrospective cohort of children with epilepsy, including a subset receiving vigabatrin. All children who underwent a plasma amino acid analysis as part of their clinical evaluation between 2006 and 2015 at Stanford Children's Health were included in the analysis. There were no significant differences in plasma taurine levels between children taking vigabatrin (n = 16), children taking other anti-seizure medications, and children not taking any anti-seizure medication (n = 556) (analysis of variance [ANOVA] p = 0.841). There were, however, age-dependent decreases in plasma taurine levels. Multiple linear regression revealed no significant association between vigabatrin use and plasma taurine level (p = 0.87) when controlling for age. These results suggest that children taking vigabatrin maintain normal plasma taurine levels, although they leave unanswered whether taurine supplementation is necessary or sufficient to prevent vigabatrin-associated visual field loss. They also indicate that age should be taken into consideration when evaluating taurine levels in young children. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  3. Taurine depresses cardiac contractility and enhances systemic heart glucose utilization in the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCormack, Tyson J; Callaghan, N I; Sykes, A V; Driedzic, W R

    2016-02-01

    Taurine is the most abundant amino acid in the blood of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, where levels can exceed 200 mmol L(-1). In mammals, intracellular taurine modulates cardiac Ca(2+) handling and carbohydrate metabolism at much lower concentrations but it is not clear if it exerts similar actions in cephalopods. Blood Ca(2+) levels are high in cephalopods and we hypothesized that taurine would depress cardiac Ca(2+) flux and modulate contractility in systemic and branchial hearts of cuttlefish. Heart performance was assessed with an in situ perfused systemic heart preparation and contractility was evaluated using isometrically contracting systemic and branchial heart muscle rings. Stroke volume, cardiac output, and Ca(2+) sensitivity were significantly lower in systemic hearts perfused with supplemental taurine (100 mmol L(-1)) than in controls. In muscle ring preparations, taurine impaired relaxation at high contraction frequencies, an effect abolished by supra-physiological Ca(2+) levels. Taurine did not affect oxygen consumption in non-contracting systemic heart muscle, but extracellular glucose utilization was twice that of control preparations. Collectively, our results suggest that extracellular taurine depresses cardiac Ca(2+) flux and potentiates glucose utilization in cuttlefish. Variations in taurine levels may represent an important mechanism for regulating cardiovascular function and metabolism in cephalopods.

  4. The physiological and pathophysiological roles of taurine in adipose tissue in relation to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeru

    2017-10-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. It is established that obesity is a state of low-grade chronic inflammation, which is characterized by enlarged hypertrophied adipocytes, increased infiltration by macrophages and marked changes in the secretion of adipokines and free fatty acids. The effects of taurine on the pathogenesis of obesity have been reported in animals and humans. Although the mechanisms underlying the anti-obesity action of taurine remain to be defined, taurine seems to ameliorate obesity through stimulation of energy expenditure, modulation of lipid metabolism, anorexic effect, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. Recent studies revealed that taurine supplementation reduces the infiltration of macrophages and modulates the polarization of adipose tissue macrophages in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. In addition, taurine downregulates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by adipocytes, suggesting that taurine plays an anti-inflammatory role in adipose tissue. This article reviews the effects and mechanisms of taurine on the development of obesity, focusing on the role of taurine in white adipose tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Physiological roles of taurine in heart and muscle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schaffer, Stephen W; Jong, Chian Ju; Ramila, K C; Azuma, Junichi

    2010-01-01

    .... The present review discusses several physiological functions of taurine. First, the observation that taurine depletion leads to the development of a cardiomyopathy indicates a role for taurine...

  6. Adequacy of maternal pyridoxine supplementation during pregnancy in relation to the vitamin B6 status and growth of neonates at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S J

    1999-08-01

    To evaluate the adequacy of maternal pyridoxine supplementation during pregnancy for both maternal and neonatal status at birth, vitamin B6 status, assessed by plasma pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), pyridoxal (PL) and total aldehyde vitamer (PLP + PL) concentrations, and the growth of neonates, including weight, length, head and chest circumferences, were examined for 209 neonates whose mothers were supplemented with 0, 1, 2 or 3 mg pyridoxine.HCl (PN.HCl)/d during pregnancy. Maternal PN.HCl supplementations were positively correlated to both maternal (r = 0.62) and cord (r = 0.78) plasma PLP concentrations (p neonates whose mothers had maternal and cord plasma PLP concentrations > or = 40 nM was revealed by the maternal supplementation of 2 mg PN.HCl/d during pregnancy. Thus, in healthy pregnant women, according to our study, a daily supplement of 2 mg PN.HCl provides the adequacy of maternal and neonatal vitamin B6 status and the satisfactory growth of neonates at birth.

  7. 21 CFR 573.980 - Taurine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taurine. 573.980 Section 573.980 Food and Drugs... Listing § 573.980 Taurine. The food additive taurine (2-amino-ethanesulfonic acid) may be safely used in... in the feed of growing chickens. (b) It is added to complete feeds so that the total taurine content...

  8. The influence of dietary taurine and reduced housing density on hepatic functions in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zili; Zhang, Jinqiu; Ma, Haitian; Dai, Bin; Zheng, Liuhai; Miao, Jinfeng; Zhang, Yuanshu

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the influence of dietary taurine and reduced housing density on hepatic functions in laying hens, green-shell laying hens were randomly assigned to 3 groups: a free-range group, a caged group with low-density, and a caged group with high-density. Each group was further divided into the control (C) and taurine-treatment (T) groups. All the test birds were fed the same basic diet, except that the T groups were supplemented with 0.1% taurine. After 15 d, sera and liver were aseptically collected. The results show that dietary taurine supplementation and reduced housing density significantly attenuated physiopathological changes in the liver. When compared with the free-range group, serum alanine aminotransterase and aspartate aminotransterase in the caged hens were significantly higher and were deceased by taurine (P caged hens was higher than that in free-range hens, and taurine reduced serum inducible nitric oxide synthase activities in the low-density group (P < 0.05). Nuclear factor-κB DNA-binding activity increased significantly in the high-density housing group when compared with the other 2 housing patterns and was decreased by taurine (P < 0.05). Taurine reduced the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA in all 3 rearing patterns, IL-4 mRNA expression in the high-density group, and IL-10 in the low-density group (P < 0.05). Malondialdehyde levels decreased in serum and liver from T groups and serum total antioxidation capability levels increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the low-density group. Dietary taurine supplementation decreased acetyl-CoA and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c mRNA expression in the high-density groups (P < 0.05). Taurine significantly increased lipoprotein lipase mRNA expression in the high-density group and peroxisome proliferator receptor mRNA expression both in the low- and high-density groups (P < 0.05). Taurine supplementation reduced total cholesterol levels in the low- and high-density groups

  9. Positive correlation between serum taurine and adiponectin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Zhao, Xu; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum taurine level and serum adiponectin or leptin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups for a period of 8 weeks (normal diet, N group; high-fat diet, HF group; high-fat diet + taurine, HFT group). Taurine was supplemented by dissolving in feed water (3% w/v), and the same amount of distilled water was orally administrated to N and HF groups. In serum, adiponectin level was higher in HFT group compared to HF group. The serum taurine level was negatively correlated with serum total cholesterol (TC) level and positively correlated with serum adiponectin level. These results suggest that dietary taurine supplementation has beneficial effects on total cholesterol and adiponectin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats.

  10. Taurine, glutathione and bioenergetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Svend Høime; Grunnet, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Biochemistry textbook presentations of bioenergetics and mitochondrial function normally focus on the chemiosmotic theory with introduction of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the electron transport chain, the proton and electrical gradients and subsequent oxidative phosphorylation and ATP...... to be independent of the matrix pH. Finally a simplified model for mitochondrial oxidation is presented with introduction of GSH as redox buffer to stabilise the electrical gradient, and taurine as pH buffer stabilising the pH gradient, but simultaneously establishing the equilibrium between the NADH/NAD(+) redox...

  11. Maternal Dietary Supplementation with Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin in Gestating/Lactating Rats Preserves Maternal Bone and Improves Bone Microarchitecture in Their Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno-Vargas, Pilar; Manzano, Manuel; Diaz-Castro, Javier; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada; Rueda, Ricardo; López-Pedrosa, Jose María

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition during pregnancy and lactation could exert a key role not only on maternal bone, but also could influence the skeletal development of the offspring. This study was performed in rats to assess the relationship between maternal dietary intake of prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin and its role in bone turnover during gestation and lactation, as well as its effect on offspring peak bone mass/architecture during early adulthood. Rat dams were fed either with standard rodent diet (CC group), calcium-fortified diet (Ca group), or prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin supplemented diet (Pre group), during the second half of gestation and lactation. Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), as well as micro-structure of dams and offspring at different stages were analysed. Dams in the Pre group had significantly higher trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and smaller specific bone surface (BS/BV) of the tibia in comparison with CC dams. The Pre group offspring during early adulthood had an increase of the lumbar vertebra BMD when compared with offspring of CC and Ca groups. The Pre group offspring also showed significant increase versus CC in cancellous and cortical structural parameters of the lumbar vertebra 4 such as Tb.Th, cortical BMD and decreased BS/BV. The results indicate that oligofructose-enriched inulin supplementation can be considered as a plausible nutritional option for protecting against maternal bone loss during gestation and lactation preventing bone fragility and for optimizing peak bone mass and architecture of the offspring in order to increase bone strength.

  12. The persistence of maternal vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency during pregnancy and lactation irrespective of season and supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Caroline K; Ye, Chang; Swaminathan, Balakumar; Hanley, Anthony J; Connelly, Philip W; Sermer, Mathew; Zinman, Bernard; Retnakaran, Ravi

    2016-05-01

    Pregnancy and lactation comprise a critical window spanning all seasons during which maternal vitamin D status potentially may influence the long-term health of the newborn. Women typically receive calcium/vitamin D supplementation through antenatal vitamins, but there has been limited serial evaluation of maternal vitamin D status across this critical window. In this prospective observational cohort study, 467 women in Toronto, Canada, underwent measurement of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH-D) at mean 29·7 ± 2·9 weeks' gestation, 3 months postpartum and 12 months postpartum, enabling serial assessment across 3 seasons. At each assessment, vitamin D status was classified as deficiency (25-OH-Dvitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were 31·5% and 35·1% in pregnancy, 33·4% and 35·3% at 3 months, and 35·6% and 33·8% at 12 months postpartum, respectively. These high rates remained stable over time (P = 0·49) despite declining usage of antenatal calcium/vitamin D supplementation from pregnancy to 3 months to 12 months postpartum (P vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in pregnancy were independently associated with decrements in average 25-OH-D over time of 49·6 nmol/l and 26·4 nmol/l, respectively (both P vitamin D supplements were independently associated with changes in 25-OH-D in the range of 3-5 nmol/l (both P vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency during pregnancy and lactation, irrespective of season and supplementation, supports the emerging concept that current vitamin D supplementation in antenatal care is likely inadequate. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effects of maternal mild zinc deficiency and different ways of zinc supplementation for offspring on learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of different ways of zinc supplementation on spatial learning and memory remains unclear. Objectives: This study aims to assess the effectiveness of two ways of zinc supplementation – oral use and intravenous transfusion – in zinc-deficient offspring rats on learning and memory. Design: Rats were randomly divided into six groups on the first day of pregnancy (n=12: control (CO, pair fed (PF, zinc deprived (ZD, oral zinc supplementation (OZS, injection zinc supplementation (IZS, and injection control. The offspring's spatial learning and memory were tested at postnatal day 35 using Morris water maze (MWM. Maternal rats’ serum zinc was measured at postnatal day 21, while pups’ serum zinc was measured at postnatal day 35. Results: Compared with the CO and PF groups, pups in ZD group spent more time finding the latent platform and swam longer distances (p0.05. However, compared with ZD groups, pups in IZS did not show any improvement in the indexes of MWM (p>0.05 although their zinc serum concentration increased significantly (p<0.05. Conclusions: These results indicate that mild zinc deficiency during pregnancy and lactation leads to the impairment of learning and memory function in offspring, and that OZS, instead of intravenous transfusion zinc supplementation, can recover the impairment of spatial learning and memory function.

  14. Taurine protects methamphetamine-induced developmental angiogenesis defect through antioxidant mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Xue; Hu, Zhengtao; Hu, Chunyan; Bu, Qian; Yan, Guangyan [National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Lab of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Deng, Pengchi [Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Lv, Lei [National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Lab of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wu, Dan [College of Basic and Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Deng, Yi; Zhao, Jinxuan; Zhu, Ruiming; Li, Yan; Li, Hongyu; Xu, Youzhi; Yang, Hanshuo; Zhao, Yinglan [National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Lab of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Cen, Xiaobo, E-mail: xbcenalan@vip.sina.com [National Chengdu Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, State Key Lab of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2012-05-01

    Investigations have characterized addictive drug-induced developmental cardiovascular malformation in human, non-human primate and rodent. However, the underlying mechanism of malformation caused by drugs during pregnancy is still largely unknown, and preventive and therapeutic measures have been lacking. Using {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, we profiled the metabolites from human embryo endothelial cells exposed to methamphetamine (METH) and quantified a total of 226 peaks. We identified 11 metabolites modified robustly and found that taurine markedly increased. We then validated the hypothesis that this dramatic increase in taurine could attribute to its effect in inhibiting METH-induced developmental angiogenesis defect. Taurine supplement showed a more significant potential than other metabolites in protecting against METH-induced injury in endothelial cells. Taurine strongly attenuated METH-induced inhibition of proliferation and migration in endothelial cells. Furthermore, death rate and vessel abnormality of zebrafish embryos treated with METH were greatly reversed by taurine. In addition, taurine supplement caused a rapid decrease in reactive oxygen species generation and strongly attenuated the excitable arise of antioxidase activities in the beginning of METH exposure prophase. Dysregulations of NF-κB, p-ERK as well as Bax, which reflect apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and oxidative stress in vascular endothelium, were blocked by taurine. Our results provide the first evidence that taurine prevents METH-caused developmental angiogenesis defect through antioxidant mechanism. Taurine could serve as a potential therapeutic or preventive intervention of developmental vascular malformation for the pregnant women with drug use. Highlights: ► Metabonomics findings. ► Abnormal development. ► Dysregulations of key proteins.

  15. Cerebral Taurine Levels are Associated with Brain Edema and Delayed Cerebral Infarction in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Mario; Schiefecker, Alois; Ferger, Boris; Beer, Ronny; Sohm, Florian; Broessner, Gregor; Hackl, Werner; Rhomberg, Paul; Lackner, Peter; Pfausler, Bettina; Thomé, Claudius; Schmutzhard, Erich; Helbok, Raimund

    2015-12-01

    Cerebral edema and delayed cerebral infarction (DCI) are common complications after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and associated with poor functional outcome. Experimental data suggest that the amino acid taurine is released into the brain extracellular space secondary to cytotoxic edema and brain tissue hypoxia, and therefore may serve as a biomarker for secondary brain injury after aSAH. On the other hand, neuroprotective mechanisms of taurine treatment have been described in the experimental setting. We analyzed cerebral taurine levels using high-performance liquid chromatography in the brain extracellular fluid of 25 consecutive aSAH patients with multimodal neuromonitoring including cerebral microdialysis (CMD). Patient characteristics and clinical course were prospectively recorded. Associations with CMD-taurine levels were analyzed using generalized estimating equations with an autoregressive process to handle repeated observations within subjects. CMD-taurine levels were highest in the first days after aSAH (11.2 ± 3.2 µM/l) and significantly decreased over time (p taurine levels compared to those without (Wald = 7.3, df = 1, p taurine supplementation and brain extracellular taurine (p = 0.6). Moreover, a significant correlation with brain extracellular glutamate (r = 0.82, p taurine levels were found in patients with brain edema or DCI after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Its value as a potential biomarker deserves further investigation.

  16. Protective effects of maternal methyl donor supplementation on adult offspring of high fat diet-fed dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Fei; Yan, Xiaoshuang; Yu, Yuan; Zhu, Xiao; Ma, Ying; Yue, Zhen; Ou, Hailong; Yan, Zhonghai

    2016-08-01

    Obesity has become a global public health problem associated with metabolic dysfunction and chronic disorders. It has been shown that the risk of obesity and the DNA methylation profiles of the offspring can be affected by maternal nutrition, such as high-fat diet (HFD) consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate whether metabolic dysregulation and physiological abnormalities in offspring caused by maternal HFD can be alleviated by the treatment of methyl donors during pregnancy and lactation of dams. Female C57BL/6 mice were assigned to specific groups and given different nutrients (control diet, Control+Met, HFD and HFD+Met) throughout gestation and lactation. Offspring of each group were weaned onto a control diet at 3 weeks of age. Physiological (weight gain and adipose composition) and metabolic (plasma biochemical analyses) outcomes were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Expression and DNA methylation profiles of obesogenic-related genes including PPAR γ, fatty acid synthase, leptin and adiponectin were also detected in visceral fat of offspring. The results showed that dietary supplementation with methyl donors can prevent the adverse effects of maternal HFD on offspring. Changes in the expression and DNA methylation of obesogenic-related genes indicated that epigenetic regulation may contribute to the effects of maternal dietary factors on offspring outcomes.

  17. Maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation interact to influence body weight, insulin resistance, and food intake regulatory gene expression in rat offspring in a sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huot, Pedro S P; Ly, Anna; Szeto, Ignatius M Y; Reza-López, Sandra A; Cho, Daniel; Kim, Young-In; Anderson, G Harvey

    2016-04-01

    Maternal intake of multivitamins or folic acid above the basal dietary requirement alters the growth and metabolic trajectory of rat offspring. We hypothesized that a modest increase in the folic acid content of maternal diets would alter the offspring's metabolic phenotype, and that these effects could be corrected by matching the folic acid content of the offspring's diet with that of the maternal diet. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a control or a 2.5× folic acid-supplemented diet prior to mating and during pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, pups from each maternal diet group were randomized to the control or to the 2.5× folic acid-supplemented diet for 25 weeks. Male pups from dams fed the folic acid-supplemented diet were 3.7% heavier than those from control-fed dams and had lower mRNA expression for leptin receptor Obrb isoform (Lepr) (11%) and Agouti-related protein (Agrp) (14%). In contrast, female pups from folic acid-supplemented dams were 5% lighter than those from control-fed dams and had lower proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) (42%), Lepr (32%), and Agrp (13%), but higher neuropeptide Y (Npy) (18%) mRNA expression. Folic acid supplementation ameliorated the alterations induced by maternal folic acid supplementation in male pups and led to the lowest insulin resistance, but the effects were smaller in female pups and led to the highest insulin resistance. In conclusion, maternal folic acid supplementation at 2.5× the control level was associated with alterations in body weight and hypothalamic gene expression in rat offspring in a sex-specific manner, and some of these effects were attenuated by postweaning folic acid supplementation.

  18. Maternal folic acid supplementation modulates DNA methylation and gene expression in the rat offspring in a gestation period-dependent and organ-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Anna; Ishiguro, Lisa; Kim, Denise; Im, David; Kim, Sung-Eun; Sohn, Kyoung-Jin; Croxford, Ruth; Kim, Young-In

    2016-07-01

    Maternal folic acid supplementation can alter DNA methylation and gene expression in the developing fetus, which may confer disease susceptibility later in life. We determined which gestation period and organ were most sensitive to the modifying effect of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy on DNA methylation and gene expression in the offspring. Pregnant rats were randomized to a control diet throughout pregnancy; folic acid supplementation at 2.5× the control during the 1st, 2nd or 3rd week of gestation only; or folic acid supplementation throughout pregnancy. The brain, liver, kidney and colon from newborn pups were analyzed for folate concentrations, global DNA methylation and gene expression of the Igf2, Er-α, Gr, Ppar-α and Ppar-γ genes. Folic acid supplementation during the 2nd or 3rd week gestation or throughout pregnancy significantly increased brain folate concentrations (Pfolic acid supplementation throughout pregnancy significantly increased liver folate concentrations (P=.005), in newborn pups. Brain global DNA methylation incrementally decreased from early to late gestational folic acid supplementation and was the lowest with folic acid supplementation throughout pregnancy (P=.026). Folic acid supplementation in late gestation or throughout pregnancy significantly decreased Er-α, Gr and Ppar-α gene expression in the liver (Pfolic acid supplementation. Maternal folic acid supplementation affects tissue folate concentrations, DNA methylation and gene expression in the offspring in a gestation-period-dependent and organ-specific manner.

  19. Maternal Omega-3 Supplement Improves Dopaminergic System in Pre- and Postnatal Inflammation-Induced Neurotoxicity in Parkinson's Disease Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delattre, Ana Marcia; Carabelli, Bruno; Mori, Marco Aurélio; Kempe, Paula G; Rizzo de Souza, Luiz E; Zanata, Silvio M; Machado, Ricardo B; Suchecki, Deborah; Andrade da Costa, Belmira L S; Lima, Marcelo M S; Ferraz, Anete C

    2017-04-01

    Evidence suggests that idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) is the consequence of a neurodevelopmental disruption, rather than strictly a consequence of aging. Thus, we hypothesized that maternal supplement of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) may be associated with neuroprotection mechanisms in a self-sustaining cycle of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-model of PD. To test this hypothesis, behavioral and neurochemical assay were performed in prenatally LPS-exposed offspring at postnatal day 21. To further determine whether prenatal LPS exposure and maternal ω-3 PUFAs supplementation had persisting effects, brain injury was induced on PN 90 rats, following bilateral intranigral LPS injection. Pre- and postnatal inflammation damage not only affected dopaminergic neurons directly, but it also modified critical features, such as activated microglia and astrocyte cells, disrupting the support provided by the microenvironment. Unexpectedly, our results failed to show any involvement of caspase-dependent and independent apoptosis pathway in neuronal death mechanisms. On the other hand, learning and memory deficits detected with a second toxic exposure were significantly attenuated in maternal ω-3 PUFAs supplementation group. In addition, ω-3 PUFAs promote beneficial effect on synaptic function, maintaining the neurochemical integrity in remaining neurons, without necessarily protect them from neuronal death. Thus, our results suggest that ω-3 PUFAs affect the functional ability of the central nervous system in a complex way in a multiple inflammation-induced neurotoxicity animal model of PD and they disclose new ways of understanding how these fatty acids control responses of the brain to different challenges.

  20. Maternal supplementation with folic acid and other vitamins and risk of leukemia in offspring: a Childhood Leukemia International Consortium study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metayer, Catherine; Milne, Elizabeth; Dockerty, John D; Clavel, Jacqueline; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; Wesseling, Catharina; Spector, Logan G; Schüz, Joachim; Petridou, Eleni; Ezzat, Sameera; Armstrong, Bruce K; Rudant, Jérémie; Koifman, Sergio; Kaatsch, Peter; Moschovi, Maria; Rashed, Wafaa M; Selvin, Steve; McCauley, Kathryn; Hung, Rayjean J; Kang, Alice Y; Infante-Rivard, Claire

    2014-11-01

    Maternal prenatal supplementation with folic acid and other vitamins has been inconsistently associated with a reduced risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Little is known regarding the association with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a rarer subtype. We obtained original data on prenatal use of folic acid and vitamins from 12 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (enrollment period: 1980-2012), including 6,963 cases of ALL, 585 cases of AML, and 11,635 controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for child's age, sex, ethnicity, parental education, and study center. Maternal supplements taken any time before conception or during pregnancy were associated with a reduced risk of childhood ALL; odds ratios were 0.85 (95% CI = 0.78-0.92) for vitamin use and 0.80 (0.71-0.89) for folic acid use. The reduced risk was more pronounced in children whose parents' education was below the highest category. The analyses for AML led to somewhat unstable estimates; ORs were 0.92 (0.75-1.14) and 0.68 (0.48-0.96) for prenatal vitamins and folic acid, respectively. There was no strong evidence that risks of either types of leukemia varied by period of supplementation (preconception, pregnancy, or trimester). Our results, based on the largest number of childhood leukemia cases to date, suggest that maternal prenatal use of vitamins and folic acid reduces the risk of both ALL and AML and that the observed association with ALL varied by parental education, a surrogate for lifestyle and sociodemographic characteristics.

  1. Immunonutrition: the role of taurine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Redmond, H P

    2012-02-03

    Taurine is a sulfonated beta amino acid derived from methionine and cysteine metabolism. It is present in high concentrations in most tissues and in particular in proinflammatory cells such as polymorphonuclear phagocytes. Initial investigation into the multifaceted properties of this non-toxic physiologic amino acid revealed a link between retinal dysfunction and dietary deficiency. Since then a role for this amino acid has been found in membrane stabilization, bile salt formation, antioxidation, calcium homeostasis, growth modulation, and osmoregulation. Our own group has demonstrated a key role for taurine in modulation of apoptosis in a variety of cell types. This review summarizes our current knowledge of taurine in nutrition, host proinflammatory cell homeostasis, therapeutic applications, and its potential immunoregulatory properties. It is our belief that taurine, similar to arginine and glutamine, is now more than worthy of critical clinical analysis.

  2. Ovarian and uterine characteristics and onset of puberty in adolescent offspring: effects of maternal diet and selenium supplementation in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazul-Bilska, Anna T; Neville, Tammi L; Borowczyk, Ewa; Sharma, Akanksha; Reynolds, Lawrence P; Caton, Joel S; Redmer, Dale A; Vonnahme, Kimberly A

    2014-04-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of maternal diet with adequate (A) or high (H) selenium (Se) supplementation on ovarian and uterine characteristics, and onset of puberty in adolescent offspring. Sheep were fed a maintenance (M) diet with ASe or HSe levels from breeding to parturition. From Day 50 to parturition, a portion of the ewes from ASe and HSe groups was fed restricted (R, 60% of M) or excess (E, 140% of M) diet. Immediately after birth, lambs were separated from their dams and given artificial colostrum for 20 hours, followed by milk replacer. From Day 57.3 ± 0.6, ewe lambs were fed a pelleted grower diet until Day 116.3 ± 0.6 when they were transitioned to a finisher diet. From Day 99 to 180, serum samples were collected weekly from jugular vein for progesterone analysis to determine onset of puberty. Reproductive tissues were collected on Day 180.1 ± 0.4 of age. Maternal diet or Se supplementation did not affect uterine or ovarian weight and onset of puberty. However, area under the curve for progesterone was greater (P = 0.05) in ASe compared with HSe groups, and was greater in ASeM than HSeM group. In CLs, labeling index (LI; a proportion of proliferating cells) was less (P < 0.04) in HSeM than ASeM group, and in stroma was less (P < 0.05) in R and E groups than M group. Maternal diet did not affect the LI of any follicle types. For all groups combined, LI was the greatest (P < 0.001) in antral, less in early antral and secondary, and the least in atretic follicles. Our results demonstrate that maternal diet influenced ovarian but not uterine characteristics or onset of puberty. These results indicate that maternal plane of nutrition and/or Se supplementation may have specific effects on reproductive function in offspring.

  3. Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Observational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu; Wang, Song; Chen, Runsen; Tong, Xing; Wu, Zeyu; Mo, Xuming

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results regarding the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, a meta-analysis of the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and CHDs in offspring has not been conducted. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for articles cataloged between their inceptions and October 10, 2014 and identified relevant published studies that assessed the association between maternal folate supplementation and the risk of CHDs. Study-specific relative risk estimates were pooled using random-effects or fixed-effects models. Out of the 1,606 articles found in our initial literature searches, a total of 1 randomized controlled trial, 1 cohort study, and 16 case-control studies were included in our final meta-analysis. The overall results of this meta-analysis provide evidence that maternal folate supplementation is associated with a significantly decreased risk of CHDs (RR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63-0.82). Statistically significant heterogeneity was detected (Q = 82.48, P < 0.001, I2 = 79.4%). We conducted stratified and meta-regression analyses to identify the origin of the heterogeneity among the studies, and a Galbraith plot was generated to graphically assess the sources of heterogeneity. This meta-analysis provides a robust estimate of the positive association between maternal folate supplementation and a decreased risk of CHDs.

  4. Taurine drinking ameliorates hepatic granuloma and fibrosis in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan-Rong; Ni, Xian-Qiang; Huang, Jie; Zhu, Yong-Hong; Qi, Yong-Fen

    2016-04-01

    In schistosomiasis, egg-induced hepatic granuloma formation is a cytokine-mediated, predominantly CD4(+) Th2 immune response that can give rise to hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis is the main cause of increased morbidity and mortality in humans with schistosome infection. Taurine has various physiological functions and hepatoprotective properties as well as anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity. However, little is known about the role of taurine in schistosome egg-induced granuloma formation and fibrosis. We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of taurine as preventative treatment for Schistosoma japonicum infection. Mice infected with S. japonicum cercariae were supplied with taurine drinking water (1% w/v) for 4 weeks starting at 4 weeks post-infection. Taurine supplementation significantly improved the liver pathologic findings, reduced the serum levels of aminotransferases and area of hepatic granuloma, and prevented fibrosis progression. In addition, taurine decreased the expression of the granulomatous and fibrogenic mediators transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor α, monocyte chemotactic protein 1α and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α as well as the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker glucose-regulated protein 78. Thus, taurine can significantly attenuate S. japonicum egg-induced hepatic granuloma and fibrosis, which may depend in part on the downregulation of some relevant cytokine/chemokines and reducing the endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

  5. Taurine drinking ameliorates hepatic granuloma and fibrosis in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Rong Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In schistosomiasis, egg-induced hepatic granuloma formation is a cytokine-mediated, predominantly CD4+ Th2 immune response that can give rise to hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis is the main cause of increased morbidity and mortality in humans with schistosome infection. Taurine has various physiological functions and hepatoprotective properties as well as anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity. However, little is known about the role of taurine in schistosome egg-induced granuloma formation and fibrosis. We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of taurine as preventative treatment for Schistosoma japonicum infection. Mice infected with S. japonicum cercariae were supplied with taurine drinking water (1% w/v for 4 weeks starting at 4 weeks post-infection. Taurine supplementation significantly improved the liver pathologic findings, reduced the serum levels of aminotransferases and area of hepatic granuloma, and prevented fibrosis progression. In addition, taurine decreased the expression of the granulomatous and fibrogenic mediators transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor α, monocyte chemotactic protein 1α and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α as well as the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker glucose-regulated protein 78. Thus, taurine can significantly attenuate S. japonicum egg-induced hepatic granuloma and fibrosis, which may depend in part on the downregulation of some relevant cytokine/chemokines and reducing the endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

  6. Taurine: the appeal of a safe amino acid for skeletal muscle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Annamaria; Pierno, Sabata; Camerino, Diana Conte

    2015-07-25

    Taurine is a natural amino acid present as free form in many mammalian tissues and in particular in skeletal muscle. Taurine exerts many physiological functions, including membrane stabilization, osmoregulation and cytoprotective effects, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions as well as modulation of intracellular calcium concentration and ion channel function. In addition taurine may control muscle metabolism and gene expression, through yet unclear mechanisms. This review summarizes the effects of taurine on specific muscle targets and pathways as well as its therapeutic potential to restore skeletal muscle function and performance in various pathological conditions. Evidences support the link between alteration of intracellular taurine level in skeletal muscle and different pathophysiological conditions, such as disuse-induced muscle atrophy, muscular dystrophy and/or senescence, reinforcing the interest towards its exogenous supplementation. In addition, taurine treatment can be beneficial to reduce sarcolemmal hyper-excitability in myotonia-related syndromes. Although further studies are necessary to fill the gaps between animals and humans, the benefit of the amino acid appears to be due to its multiple actions on cellular functions while toxicity seems relatively low. Human clinical trials using taurine in various pathologies such as diabetes, cardiovascular and neurological disorders have been performed and may represent a guide-line for designing specific studies in patients of neuromuscular diseases.

  7. Maternal dietary betaine supplementation modifies hepatic expression of cholesterol metabolic genes via epigenetic mechanisms in newborn piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Demin; Jia, Yimin; Lu, Jingyu; Yuan, Mengjie; Sui, Shiyan; Song, Haogang; Zhao, Ruqian

    2014-11-14

    To elucidate the effects of maternal dietary betaine supplementation on hepatic expression of cholesterol metabolic genes in newborn piglets and the involved epigenetic mechanisms, we fed gestational sows with control or betaine-supplemented diets (3 g/kg) throughout pregnancy. Neonatal piglets born to betaine-supplemented sows had higher serum methionine concentration and hepatic content of betaine, which was associated with significantly up-regulated hepatic expression of glycine N-methyltransferase. Prenatal betaine exposure increased hepatic cholesterol content and modified the hepatic expression of cholesterol metabolic genes in neonatal piglets. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 was down-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels, while 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR) was down-regulated at the mRNA level, but up-regulated at the protein level, in betaine-exposed piglets. The transcriptional repression of HMGCR was associated with CpG island hypermethylation and higher repressive histone mark H3K27me3 (histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation) on the promoter, whereas increased HMGCR protein content was associated with significantly decreased expression of miR-497. Furthermore, LDL receptor was significantly down-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels in the liver of betaine-exposed piglets, which was associated with promoter CpG hypermethylation. In addition, the expression of cholesterol-27α-hydroxylase (CYP27α1) was up-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels, while the expression of cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7α1) was increased at the mRNA level, but unchanged at the protein level associated with increased expression of miR-181. These results indicate that maternal betaine supplementation increases hepatic cholesterol content in neonatal piglets through epigenetic regulations of cholesterol metabolic genes, which involve alterations in DNA and histone methylation and in the expression of microRNA targeting these genes.

  8. Influence of dietary taurine and housing density on oviduct function in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Bin; Zhang, Yuan-shu; Ma, Zi-li; Zheng, Liu-hai; Li, Shuang-jie; Dou, Xin-hong; Gong, Jian-sen; Miao, Jin-feng

    2015-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the effects of dietary taurine and housing density on oviduct function in laying hens. Green-shell laying hens were randomly assigned to a free range group and two caged groups, one with low-density and the other with high-density housing. Each group was further divided into control (C) and taurine treatment (T) groups. All hens were fed the same basic diet except that the T groups' diet was supplemented with 0.1% taurine. The experiment lasted 15 d. Survival rates, laying rates, daily feed consumption, and daily weight gain were recorded. Histological changes, inflammatory mediator levels, and oxidation and anti-oxidation levels were determined. The results show that dietary taurine supplementation and reduced housing density significantly attenuated pathophysiological changes in the oviduct. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) DNA binding activity increased significantly in the high-density housing group compared with the two other housing groups and was reduced by taurine supplementation. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA expression in the high-density and low-density C and T groups increased significantly. In the free range and low-density groups, dietary taurine significantly reduced the expression of TNF-α mRNA. Supplementation with taurine decreased interferon-γ (IFN-γ) mRNA expression significantly in the low-density groups. Interleukin 4 (IL-4) mRNA expression was significantly higher in caged hens. IL-10 mRNA expression was higher in the high-density C group than in the free range and low-density C groups. Supplementation with taurine decreased IL-10 mRNA expression significantly in the high-density group and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the free range hens. We conclude that taurine has important protective effects against oviduct damage. Reducing housing density also results in less oxidative stress, less inflammatory cell infiltration, and lower levels of inflammatory mediators in the oviduct

  9. Maternal Betaine Supplementation during Gestation Enhances Expression of mtDNA-Encoded Genes through D-Loop DNA Hypomethylation in the Skeletal Muscle of Newborn Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yimin; Song, Haogang; Gao, Guichao; Cai, Demin; Yang, Xiaojing; Zhao, Ruqian

    2015-11-25

    Betaine has been widely used in animal and human nutrition to promote muscle growth and performance, yet it remains unknown whether maternal betaine supplementation during gestation affects the metabolic characteristics of neonatal skeletal muscles. In the present study, feeding sows with betaine-supplemented diets throughout gestation significantly upregulated the expression of mtDNA-encoded OXPHOS genes (p betaine supplementation increased the plasma betaine concentration and muscle expression of methyl transfer enzymes (p betaine supplementation during gestation enhances expression of mtDNA-encoded genes through D-loop DNA hypomethylation in the skeletal muscle of newborn piglets.

  10. Effect of oral taurine on morbidity and mortality in elderly hip fracture patients: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stijn, Mireille F M; Bruins, Arnoud A; Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Witlox, Joost; Teerlink, Tom; Schoorl, Margreet G; De Bandt, Jean Pascal; Twisk, Jos W R; Van Leeuwen, Paul A M; Houdijk, Alexander P J

    2015-05-29

    Hip fracture patients represent a large part of the elderly surgical population and face severe postoperative morbidity and excessive mortality compared to adult surgical hip fracture patients. Low antioxidant status and taurine deficiency is common in the elderly, and may negatively affect postoperative outcome. We hypothesized that taurine, an antioxidant, could improve clinical outcome in the elderly hip fracture patient. A double blind randomized, placebo controlled, clinical trial was conducted on elderly hip fracture patients. Supplementation started after admission and before surgery up to the sixth postoperative day. Markers of oxidative status were measured during hospitalization, and postoperative outcome was monitored for one year after surgery. Taurine supplementation did not improve in-hospital morbidity, medical comorbidities during the first year, or mortality during the first year. Taurine supplementation lowered postoperative oxidative stress, as shown by lower urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels (Generalized estimating equations (GEE) analysis average difference over time; regression coefficient (Beta): -0.54; 95% CI: -1.08--0.01; p = 0.04), blunted plasma malondialdehyde response (Beta: 1.58; 95% CI: 0.00-3.15; p = 0.05) and a trend towards lower lactate to pyruvate ratio (Beta: -1.10; 95% CI: -2.33-0.12; p = 0.08). We concluded that peri-operative taurine supplementation attenuated postoperative oxidative stress in elderly hip fracture patients, but did not improve postoperative morbidity and mortality.

  11. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Gebara

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a free amino acid found in numerous diets, with anti-inflammatory properties. Although abundant in the young brain, the decrease in taurine concentration with age may underlie reduced neurogenesis. Here, we assessed the effect of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged mice. We found that taurine increased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus through the activation of quiescent stem cells, resulting in increased number of stem cells and intermediate neural progenitors. Taurine had a direct effect on stem/progenitor cells proliferation, as observed in vitro, and also reduced activated microglia. Furthermore, taurine increased the survival of newborn neurons, resulting in a net increase in adult neurogenesis. Together, these results show that taurine increases several steps of adult neurogenesis and support a beneficial role of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in the context of brain aging.

  12. Experimental evidence for therapeutic potential of taurine in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Christopher L.; Nivala, Angela M.; Gonzales, Jon C.; Pfaffenbach, Kyle T.; Wang, Dong; Wei, Yuren; Jiang, Hua; Orlicky, David J.; Petersen, Dennis R.; Maclean, Kenneth N.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of obesity is now at epidemic proportions and has resulted in the emergence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as a common metabolic disorder that can lead to liver injury and cirrhosis. Excess sucrose and long-chain saturated fatty acids in the diet may play a role in the development and progression of NAFLD. One factor linking sucrose and saturated fatty acids to liver damage is dysfunction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Although there is currently no proven, effective therapy for NAFLD, the amino sulfonic acid taurine is protective against various metabolic disturbances, including alcohol-induced liver damage. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic potential of taurine to serve as a preventative treatment for diet-induced NAFLD. We report that taurine significantly mitigated palmitate-mediated caspase-3 activity, cell death, ER stress, and oxidative stress in H4IIE liver cells and primary hepatocytes. In rats fed a high-sucrose diet, dietary taurine supplementation significantly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation, liver injury, inflammation, plasma triglycerides, and insulin levels. The high-sucrose diet resulted in an induction of multiple components of the unfolded protein response in the liver consistent with ER stress, which was ameliorated by taurine supplementation. Treatment of mice with the ER stress-inducing agent tunicamycin resulted in liver injury, unfolded protein response induction, and hepatic lipid accumulation that was significantly ameliorated by dietary supplementation with taurine. Our results indicate that dietary supplementation with taurine offers significant potential as a preventative treatment for NAFLD. PMID:21957160

  13. Effects of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol supplementation in maternal diets on milk quality and serum bone status markers of sows and bone quality of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Chen, Yuling; Zhuo, Yong; Lv, Gang; Lin, Yan; Feng, Bin; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Li, Jian; Xu, Shengyu; Wu, De

    2017-03-01

    Twenty primiparous sows were allocated to two treatments to evaluate the effects of maternal 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD3 ) supplementation during gestation and lactation on milk quality and serum bone status markers of sows and bone quality of piglets. Immediately after mating, sows were randomly allotted to one of two diets supplemented with 50 µg/kg 25OHD3 or basal diets without 25OHD3 . Blood and milk samples were obtained. At birth and weaning, 10 piglets from each treatment were killed for bone quality analysis. 25OHD3 -fed sows provided one more piglet at farrowing and 1.17 more piglets at weaning than sows fed basal diets. The contents of solids not-fat, protein, fat or lactose were increased in milk from days 7 and 14 of lactation in 25OHD3 -supplemented sows and 25OHD3 concentrations in milk were increased by dietary 25OHD3 supplementation. Dietary 25OHD3 supplementation increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity but had no effect on serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity of sows. Maternal 25OHD3 supplementation improved bone strength, density and ash content of newborn piglets rather than those of weaning piglets. In conclusion, 25OHD3 supplementation in maternal diets improved reproductive performance, milk quality and bone status of sows as well as bone quality of newborn piglets. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Maternal Creatine Supplementation during Pregnancy Prevents Long-Term Changes in Diaphragm Muscle Structure and Function after Birth Asphyxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenic A LaRosa

    Full Text Available Using a model of birth asphyxia, we previously reported significant structural and functional deficits in the diaphragm muscle in spiny mice, deficits that are prevented by supplementing the maternal diet with 5% creatine from mid-pregnancy. The long-term effects of this exposure are unknown. Pregnant spiny mice were fed control or 5% creatine-supplemented diet for the second half of pregnancy, and fetuses were delivered by caesarean section with or without 7.5 min of in-utero asphyxia. Surviving pups were raised by a cross-foster dam until 33±2 days of age when they were euthanized to obtain the diaphragm muscle for ex-vivo study of twitch tension and muscle fatigue, and for structural and enzymatic analyses. Functional analysis of the diaphragm revealed no differences in single twitch contractile parameters between any groups. However, muscle fatigue, induced by stimulation of diaphragm strips with a train of pulses (330 ms train/sec, 40 Hz for 300 sec, was significantly greater for asphyxia pups compared with controls (p<0.05, and this did not occur in diaphragms of creatine + asphyxia pups. Birth asphyxia resulted in a significant increase in the proportion of glycolytic, fast-twitch fibres and a reduction in oxidative capacity of Type I and IIb fibres in male offspring, as well as reduced cross-sectional area of all muscle fibre types (Type I, IIa, IIb/d in both males and females at 33 days of age. None of these changes were observed in creatine + asphyxia animals. Thus, the changes in diaphragm fatigue and structure induced by birth asphyxia persist long-term but are prevented by maternal creatine supplementation.

  15. Advances in Drug Design Based on the Amino Acid Approach: Taurine Analogues for the Treatment of CNS Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Renato Yamasaki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are well known to be an important class of compounds for the maintenance of body homeostasis and their deficit, even for the polar neuroactive aminoacids, can be controlled by supplementation. However, for the amino acid taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid this is not true. Due its special physicochemical properties, taurine is unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. In addition of injured taurine transport systems under pathological conditions, CNS supplementation of taurine is almost null. Taurine is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory semi-essential amino acid extensively involved in neurological activities, acting as neurotrophic factor, binding to GABA A/glycine receptors and blocking the excitotoxicity glutamate-induced pathway leading to be a neuroprotective effect and neuromodulation. Taurine deficits have been implicated in several CNS diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, epilepsy and in the damage of retinal neurons. This review describes the  CNS physiological functions of taurine and the development of new derivatives based on its structure useful in CNS disease treatment.

  16. Physiological significance of taurine and the taurine transporter in intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M; Satsu, H

    2000-01-01

    Taurine transport in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells was down-regulated by culturing the cells in taurine-containing media and was up-regulated in a taurine-free medium. This adaptive regulation was associated with changes in both the Vmax and Km values of taurine transport. A change in the mRNA level of the taurine transporter (TAUT) in this regulation was also observed. The presence of such a regulatory mechanism for maintaining the intracellular taurine content at a certain level suggests that taurine plays an important role in the intestinal cell functions. The intracellular taurine content was increased when Caco-2 cells were exposed to a hypertonic stress. TAUT was up-regulated via the increased expression of TAUT mRNA in the hypertonic cells, suggesting that taurine serves as an osmolyte and protects the cells from osmotic stress. Similar up-regulation of TAUT was observed in the small intestine of water-deprived rats.

  17. The Taurine Content of Japanese Seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Azusa; Ono, Ayuko; Mizuta, Shoshi; Kamiya, Mitsunobu; Takenaga, Takaaki; Murakami, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    Japanese and South Koreans have a dietary habit of eating seaweed. Although it is known that some seaweed contains taurine, there have been few detailed analyses on the taurine content of seaweed other than the major types of edible seaweed. In the present study, we determined the content of free amino acids, including taurine, in seaweed obtained along the Sea of Japan coast. The taurine content in the seaweed varied according to the species. Among the 29 different types of seaweed that were studied, red algae contained relatively high concentrations of taurine. In contrast, the taurine content was low or undetectable in brown and green algae. The algal alanine level was relatively higher in brown sea algae, which was in sharp contrast to its taurine level. No clear trends were observed with regards to the distribution of the other free amino acids, including aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and phenylalanine. Considering the physiological role of taurine in cellular homeostasis, the algal taurine content may be associated with the growing environment. Taurine-rich red edible algae such as mafunori (Gloiopeltis tenax)/fukurofunori (Gloiopeltis furcata), kabanori (Gracilaria textorii), and ogonori (Gracilaria vermiculophylla) may be used to create functional foods that are rich in naturally occurring taurine.

  18. Maternal vitamin A supplementation and immunity to malaria in pregnancy in Ghanaian primigravids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Sharon E; Staalsoe, Trine; Arthur, Paul

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin A supplementation is believed to enhance immune responses to infection but few studies have assessed its effects on anti-malarial immunity, especially during pregnancy when women are at increased risk from both vitamin A deficiency and pregnancy-associated malaria....... The pathological effects of malaria in pregnancy are believed to be due to the sequestration of parasites in the placenta mediated via binding of variant surface antigens (VSA) expressed on the surface of P. falciparum infected red blood cells to placental chondroitin sulphate A (CSA). METHODS: We conducted...... a randomized double-blind controlled trial of vitamin A supplementation in 98 primigravid Ghanaian women to investigate the effects of vitamin A supplementation on levels of IgG antibodies binding to VSA of a clinical, P. falciparum placental isolate and to two isolates selected (or not) for adherence to CSA...

  19. Long-term effects of maternal arginine supplementation and colostrum intake on pre- and postweaning growth in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Oksbjerg, Niels; Ramaekers, Peter

    2016-01-01

    /d (ARG; n = 11) or isonitrogenous amounts of alanine (CON; n = 10) from d 30 of gestation to d 28 of lactation (weaning). Colostrum intake of individual piglets was determined based on piglet birth weight, weight gain (0–24 h), and duration of suckling in the colostrum period (0–24 h). At weaning, all...... procedure of SAS was used to estimate effects of dietary treatment, sex, piglet colostrum intake, and birth weight on pre- and postweaning growth. Piglet birth weight and preweaning growth were not affected by dietary treatment (P > 0.10). Postweaning ADG of ARG pigs was increased compared with that of CON....... In conclusion, long-term growth performance was related to maternal arginine supplementation and piglet colostrum intake....

  20. Associations of maternal folic acid supplementation and folate concentrations during pregnancy with foetal and child head growth: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.J. Steenweg-de Graaff (Jolien); S.J. Roza (Sabine); A.N. Walstra (Alette N.); H. El Marroun (Hanan); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent W. V.); A. Hofman (Albert); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); T.J.H. White (Tonya)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy has been associated with a reduced risk of common neurodevelopmental delays in the offspring. However, it is unclear whether low folate status has effects on the developing brain. We evaluated the associations of maternal folic acid su

  1. Role of taurine in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R C; Seki, Y; Yosida, J

    2006-08-01

    Taurine is a sulfur amino acid. It is found endogenously in human and several others tissues. It is significantly in high concentration in mammals. Human body contains about 0.1% of body weight as taurine. It has a number of physiological and pharmacological actions. It is also used in the therapy of important organs dysfunctions. In spinal cord it has inhibitory effects; like antiepileptic and anti-nociceptive. Taurine also inhibits substance p induced biting and scratching behavior. In spinal cord injury elevated level of taurine has been observed. Higher level of taurine has been also recorded in SCI therapy using, known clinical agent methyl prednisolone (MP). The increased taurine concentration seems to be involved in protection and regeneration of tissues following injury. In SCI along with physical injury secondary activities also takes place which are complex in nature. Secondary activity includes vascular events and activation of neutrophils, resulting endothelial damage. Activated neutrophils; release a variety of inflammatory mediators such as myeloperoxidase (MPO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and some others. It is believed that taurine exert its protective action through scavenging of ROS and down regulating several other inflammatory mediators like tumor necrosis factors (TNFalpha). The inside of mechanism reveals toxic substance HOCl is produced by MPO is converted to less toxic substances through scavenging action of taurine. Amino acid therapy has its own limitations and to over come such situation there is a need to develop small, simple lipophilic analogs of taurine. Use of taurine analogs has provided better results; for example, N- chloro taurine (NCT) which is a taurine derivative has exhibited therapeutic advances over taurine. Taurine and its analogs with sound experimental and clinical support may constitute a new class of therapeutic agents for SCI., and perhaps this review may provide enough material to think of this.

  2. Cholesterol-lowing effect of taurine in HepG2 cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junxia; Gao, Ya; Cao, Xuelian; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Wen

    2017-03-16

    A number of studies indicate that taurine promotes cholesterol conversion to bile acids by upregulating CYP7A1 gene expression. Few in vitro studies are concerned the concentration change of cholesterol and its product of bile acids, and the molecular mechanism of CYP7A1 induction by taurine. The levels of intracellular total cholesterol (TC), free cholesterol (FC), cholesterol ester (EC), total bile acids (TBA) and medium TBA were determined after HepG2 cells were cultured for 24/48 h in DMEM supplemented with taurine at the final concentrations of 1/10/20 mM respectively. The protein expressions of CYP7A1, MEK1/2, c-Jun, p-c-Jun and HNF-4α were detected. Taurine significantly reduced cellular TC and FC in dose -and time-dependent ways, and obviously increased intracellular/medium TBA and CYP7A1 expressions. There was no change in c-Jun expression, but the protein expressions of MEK1/2 and p-c-Jun were increased at 24 h and inhibited at 48 h by 20 mM taurine while HNF4α was induced after both of the 24 h and 48 h treatment. Taurine could enhance CYP7A1 expression by inducing HNF4α and inhibiting MEK1/2 and p-c-Jun expressions to promote intracellular cholesterol metabolism.

  3. Effects of Maternal Supplementation With Omega-3 Precursors on Human Milk Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurier, Evelyne; Rigourd, Virginie; Perez, Paul; Buffin, Rachel; Couedelo, Leslie; Vaysse, Carole; Belcadi, Wafae; Sitta, Rémi; Nacka, Fabienne; Lamireau, Delphine; Cambonie, Gilles; Picaud, Jean-Charles; Billeaud, Claude

    2017-05-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are important for newborn neurosensory development. Supplementation of breastfeeding mothers' diets with omega-3 PUFAs, such as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), may increase their concentration in human milk. Research aim: This study aimed to assess human milk composition after 15-day supplementation regimens containing either omega-3 PUFAs or olive oil, which does not provide ALA. A multicenter factorial randomized trial was conducted with four groups of breastfeeding women, with each group containing 19 to 22 women. After a 15-day ALA washout period, three groups received supplementation with omega-3 precursors for 15 days: an enriched margarine (M), a rapeseed oil (R), and a margarine and rapeseed oil (MR). The fourth was unexposed to omega-3 precursors (olive oil control diet, O). After 15 days, blind determination of human milk fatty acid (FA) composition was assessed by gas chromatography, and the FA composition was compared among groups using variance analyses. Alpha-linolenic acid content, expressed as the mean (standard deviation) total human milk FA percentage, was significantly higher after diet supplementation with omega-3 PUFAs, with values of 2.2% (0.7%) (MR), 1.3% (0.5%) (R), 1.1% (0.4%) (M), and 0.8% (0.3%) (O at D30) ( p milk and generated the most favorable LA-ALA ratio for LC-PUFA synthesis.

  4. Potential benefits of taurine in the prevention of skeletal muscle impairment induced by disuse in the hindlimb-unloaded rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierno, Sabata; Liantonio, Antonella; Camerino, Giulia M; De Bellis, Michela; Cannone, Maria; Gramegna, Gianluca; Scaramuzzi, Antonia; Simonetti, Simonetta; Nicchia, Grazia Paola; Basco, Davide; Svelto, Maria; Desaphy, Jean-François; Camerino, Diana Conte

    2012-07-01

    Hindlimb unloading (HU) in rats induces severe atrophy and a slow-to-fast phenotype transition in postural slow-twitch muscles, as occurs in human disuse conditions, such as spaceflight or bed rest. In rats, a reduction of soleus muscle weight and a decrease of cross-sectional area (CSA) were observed as signs of atrophy. An increased expression of the fast-isoform of myosin heavy chain (MHC) showed the phenotype transition. In parallel the resting cytosolic calcium concentration (restCa) was decreased and the resting chloride conductance (gCl), which regulates muscle excitability, was increased toward the values of the fast-twitch muscles. Here, we investigated the possible role of taurine, which is known to modulate calcium homeostasis and gCl, in the restoration of muscle impairment due to 14-days-HU. We found elevated taurine content and higher expression of the taurine transporter TauT in the soleus muscle as compared to the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of control rats. Taurine level was reduced in the HU soleus muscle, although, TauT expression was not modified. Taurine oral supplementation (5 g/kg) fully prevented this loss, and preserved resting gCl and restCa together with the slow MHC phenotype. Taurine supplementation did not prevent the HU-induced drop of muscle weight or fiber CSA, but it restored the expression of MURF-1, an atrophy-related gene, suggesting a possible early protective effect of taurine. In conclusion, taurine prevented the HU-induced phenotypic transition of soleus muscle and might attenuate the atrophic process. These findings argue for the beneficial use of taurine in the treatment of disuse-induced muscle dysfunction.

  5. Taurine uptake across the human intestinal brush-border membrane is via two transporters: H+-coupled PAT1 (SLC36A1) and Na+- and Cl−-dependent TauT (SLC6A6)

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Catriona M. H.; Howard, Alison; Walters, Julian R F; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Thwaites, David T.

    2008-01-01

    Taurine is an essential amino acid in some mammals and is conditionally essential in humans. Taurine is an abundant component of meat and fish-based foods and has been used as an oral supplement in the treatment of disorders such as cystic fibrosis and hypertension. The purpose of this investigation was to identity the relative contributions of the solute transporters involved in taurine uptake across the luminal membrane of human enterocytes. Distinct transport characteristics were revealed ...

  6. Taurine Biosynthesis by Neurons and Astrocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitvitsky, Victor; Garg, Sanjay K.; Banerjee, Ruma

    2011-01-01

    The physiological roles of taurine, a product of cysteine degradation and one of the most abundant amino acids in the body, remain elusive. Taurine deficiency leads to heart dysfunction, brain development abnormalities, retinal degradation, and other pathologies. The taurine synthetic pathway is proposed to be incomplete in astrocytes and neurons, and metabolic cooperation between these cell types is reportedly needed to complete the pathway. In this study, we analyzed taurine synthesis capability as reported by incorporation of radioactivity from [35S]cysteine into taurine, in primary murine astrocytes and neurons, and in several transformed cell lines (human (SH-SY5Y) and murine (N1E-115) neuroblastoma, human astrocytoma (U-87MG and 1321 N1), and rat glioma (C6)). Extensive incorporation of radioactivity from [35S]cysteine into taurine was observed in rat glioma cells as well as in primary mouse astrocytes and neurons, establishing the presence of an intact taurine synthesis pathway in these cells. Interestingly, exposure of cells to cysteine or cysteamine resulted in elevated intracellular hypotaurine without a corresponding increase in taurine levels, suggesting that oxidation of hypotaurine limits taurine synthesis in cells. Consistent with its role as an organic osmolyte, taurine synthesis was stimulated under hypertonic conditions in neurons. PMID:21778230

  7. Taurine biosynthesis by neurons and astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitvitsky, Victor; Garg, Sanjay K; Banerjee, Ruma

    2011-09-16

    The physiological roles of taurine, a product of cysteine degradation and one of the most abundant amino acids in the body, remain elusive. Taurine deficiency leads to heart dysfunction, brain development abnormalities, retinal degradation, and other pathologies. The taurine synthetic pathway is proposed to be incomplete in astrocytes and neurons, and metabolic cooperation between these cell types is reportedly needed to complete the pathway. In this study, we analyzed taurine synthesis capability as reported by incorporation of radioactivity from [(35)S]cysteine into taurine, in primary murine astrocytes and neurons, and in several transformed cell lines (human (SH-SY5Y) and murine (N1E-115) neuroblastoma, human astrocytoma (U-87 MG and 1321 N1), and rat glioma (C6)). Extensive incorporation of radioactivity from [(35)S]cysteine into taurine was observed in rat glioma cells as well as in primary mouse astrocytes and neurons, establishing the presence of an intact taurine synthesis pathway in these cells. Interestingly, exposure of cells to cysteine or cysteamine resulted in elevated intracellular hypotaurine without a corresponding increase in taurine levels, suggesting that oxidation of hypotaurine limits taurine synthesis in cells. Consistent with its role as an organic osmolyte, taurine synthesis was stimulated under hypertonic conditions in neurons.

  8. Substantia nigra osmoregulation: taurine and ATP involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Ingrid; Dopico, Jose G; Sabate, Magdalena; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Tomas; Rodriguez, Manuel

    2007-05-01

    An extracellular nonsynaptic taurine pool of glial origin was recently reported in the substantia nigra (SN). There is previous evidence showing taurine as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the SN, but the physiological role of this nonsynaptic pool of taurine has not been explored. By using microdialysis methods, we studied the action of local osmolarity on the nonsynaptic taurine pool in the SN of the rat. Hypoosmolar pulses (285-80 mosM) administered in the SN by the microdialysis probe increased extrasynaptic taurine in a dose-dependent way, a response that was counteracted by compensating osmolarity with choline. The opposite effect (taurine decrease) was observed when osmolarity was increased. Under basal conditions, the blockade of either the AMPA-kainate glutamate receptors with 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dionine disodium or the purinergic receptors with pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid modified the taurine concentration, suggesting that both receptors modulate the extrasynaptic pool of taurine. In addition, these drugs decreased the taurine response to hypoosmolar pulses, suggesting roles for glutamatergic and purinergic receptors in the taurine response to osmolarity. The participation of purinergic receptors was also supported by the fact that ATP (which, under basal conditions, increased the extrasynaptic taurine in a dose-dependent way) administered in doses saturating purinergic receptors also decreased the taurine response to hypoosmolarity. Taken together, present data suggest osmoregulation as a role of the nonsynaptic taurine pool of the SN, a function that also involves glutamate and ATP and that could influence the nigral cell vulnerability in Parkinson's disease.

  9. Nutrient supplementation may adversely affect maternal oral health--a randomised controlled trial in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjunmaa, Ulla; Järnstedt, Jorma; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ashorn, Ulla; Maleta, Kenneth; Vosti, Stephen A; Ashorn, Per

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation during pregnancy is increasingly recommended especially in low-resource settings, but its oral health impacts have not been studied. Our aim was to examine whether supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) or small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements affects dental caries development or periodontal health in a rural Malawian population. The study was embedded in a controlled iLiNS-DYAD trial that enrolled 1391 pregnant women groups were similar at baseline in average socio-economic, nutritional and health status. At the end of the intervention, the prevalence of caries was 56.7%, 69.1% and 63.3% (P = 0.004), and periodontitis 34.9%, 29.8% and 31.2% (P = 0.338) in the IFA, MMN and LNS groups, respectively. Compared with the IFA group, women in the MMN group had 0.60 (0.18-1.02) and in the LNS group 0.59 (0.17-1.01) higher mean number of caries lesions. In the absence of baseline oral health data, firm conclusions on causality cannot be drawn. However, although not confirmatory, the findings are consistent with a possibility that provision of MMN or LNS may have increased the caries incidence in this target population. Because of the potential public health impacts, further research on the association between gestational nutrient interventions and oral health in low-income settings is needed.

  10. Vitamin B12–dependent taurine synthesis regulates growth and bone mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Garcia, Pablo; Quiros-Gonzalez, Isabel; Mottram, Lynda; Lieben, Liesbet; Sharan, Kunal; Wangwiwatsin, Arporn; Tubio, Jose; Lewis, Kirsty; Wilkinson, Debbie; Santhanam, Balaji; Sarper, Nazan; Clare, Simon; Vassiliou, George S.; Velagapudi, Vidya R.; Dougan, Gordon; Yadav, Vijay K.

    2014-01-01

    Both maternal and offspring-derived factors contribute to lifelong growth and bone mass accrual, although the specific role of maternal deficiencies in the growth and bone mass of offspring is poorly understood. In the present study, we have shown that vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency in a murine genetic model results in severe postweaning growth retardation and osteoporosis, and the severity and time of onset of this phenotype in the offspring depends on the maternal genotype. Using integrated physiological and metabolomic analysis, we determined that B12 deficiency in the offspring decreases liver taurine production and associates with abrogation of a growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF1) axis. Taurine increased GH-dependent IGF1 synthesis in the liver, which subsequently enhanced osteoblast function, and in B12-deficient offspring, oral administration of taurine rescued their growth retardation and osteoporosis phenotypes. These results identify B12 as an essential vitamin that positively regulates postweaning growth and bone formation through taurine synthesis and suggests potential therapies to increase bone mass. PMID:24911144

  11. Vitamin B₁₂-dependent taurine synthesis regulates growth and bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Garcia, Pablo; Quiros-Gonzalez, Isabel; Mottram, Lynda; Lieben, Liesbet; Sharan, Kunal; Wangwiwatsin, Arporn; Tubio, Jose; Lewis, Kirsty; Wilkinson, Debbie; Santhanam, Balaji; Sarper, Nazan; Clare, Simon; Vassiliou, George S; Velagapudi, Vidya R; Dougan, Gordon; Yadav, Vijay K

    2014-07-01

    Both maternal and offspring-derived factors contribute to lifelong growth and bone mass accrual, although the specific role of maternal deficiencies in the growth and bone mass of offspring is poorly understood. In the present study, we have shown that vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency in a murine genetic model results in severe postweaning growth retardation and osteoporosis, and the severity and time of onset of this phenotype in the offspring depends on the maternal genotype. Using integrated physiological and metabolomic analysis, we determined that B12 deficiency in the offspring decreases liver taurine production and associates with abrogation of a growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF1) axis. Taurine increased GH-dependent IGF1 synthesis in the liver, which subsequently enhanced osteoblast function, and in B12-deficient offspring, oral administration of taurine rescued their growth retardation and osteoporosis phenotypes. These results identify B12 as an essential vitamin that positively regulates postweaning growth and bone formation through taurine synthesis and suggests potential therapies to increase bone mass.

  12. A maternal high fat diet programmes endothelial function and cardiovascular status in adult male offspring independent of body weight, which is reversed by maternal conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Clint; Vickers, Mark H; Segovia, Stephanie A; Zhang, Xiaohuan D; Reynolds, Clare M

    2015-01-01

    Maternal high fat intake during pregnancy and lactation can result in obesity and adverse cardio-metabolic status in offspring independent of postnatal diet. While it is clear that maternal high fat intake can cause hypertension in adult offspring, there is little evidence regarding the role of dietary interventions in terms of reversing these adverse effects. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is an omega 6 fatty acid with beneficial effects in obesity and metabolic status. However, the impact of CLA supplementation in the context of pregnancy disorders and high fat diet-induced developmental programming of offspring cardio-metabolic dysfunction has not been investigated. We have utilised a model of maternal overnutrition to examine the effects of CLA supplementation on programmed endothelial dysfunction during adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a purified control diet (CON) or purified control diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat), a purified high fat (HF) diet (45%kcal from fat) and a purified HF diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat) (HFCLA). All dams were fed ad libitum throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were fed a standard chow diet from weaning (day 21) until the end of the study (day 150). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured at day 85 and 130 by tail cuff plethysmography. At day 150, offspring mesenteric vessels were mounted on a pressure myograph and vascular responses to agonist-induced constriction and endothelium-dependent vasodilators were investigated. SBP was increased at day 85 and 130 in HF and HFCLA adult male offspring compared to CON and CLA groups with no effect of CLA supplementation. An overall effect of a maternal HF diet was observed in adult male vessels with a reduced vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine and blunted vasodilatory response to acetylcholine (ACh). Furthermore, HF and HFCLA offspring displayed a reduction in nitric oxide pathway function and an increased compensatory EDHF

  13. A maternal high fat diet programmes endothelial function and cardiovascular status in adult male offspring independent of body weight, which is reversed by maternal conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint Gray

    Full Text Available Maternal high fat intake during pregnancy and lactation can result in obesity and adverse cardio-metabolic status in offspring independent of postnatal diet. While it is clear that maternal high fat intake can cause hypertension in adult offspring, there is little evidence regarding the role of dietary interventions in terms of reversing these adverse effects. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is an omega 6 fatty acid with beneficial effects in obesity and metabolic status. However, the impact of CLA supplementation in the context of pregnancy disorders and high fat diet-induced developmental programming of offspring cardio-metabolic dysfunction has not been investigated. We have utilised a model of maternal overnutrition to examine the effects of CLA supplementation on programmed endothelial dysfunction during adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a purified control diet (CON or purified control diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat, a purified high fat (HF diet (45%kcal from fat and a purified HF diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat (HFCLA. All dams were fed ad libitum throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were fed a standard chow diet from weaning (day 21 until the end of the study (day 150. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was measured at day 85 and 130 by tail cuff plethysmography. At day 150, offspring mesenteric vessels were mounted on a pressure myograph and vascular responses to agonist-induced constriction and endothelium-dependent vasodilators were investigated. SBP was increased at day 85 and 130 in HF and HFCLA adult male offspring compared to CON and CLA groups with no effect of CLA supplementation. An overall effect of a maternal HF diet was observed in adult male vessels with a reduced vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine and blunted vasodilatory response to acetylcholine (ACh. Furthermore, HF and HFCLA offspring displayed a reduction in nitric oxide pathway function and an increased compensatory

  14. A Prenatal Multiple Micronutrient Supplement Produces Higher Maternal Vitamin B-12 Concentrations and Similar Folate, Ferritin, and Zinc Concentrations as the Standard 60-mg Iron Plus 400-μg Folic Acid Supplement in Rural Bangladeshi Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Shirin; Rahman, Anisur; Raqib, Rubhana; Lönnerdal, Bo; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2016-12-01

    The effects of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on maternal micronutrient status are not well known. We compared the efficacy and effectiveness of 3 different micronutrient supplements on maternal micronutrient status when combined with food supplementation. In the MINIMat (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention, Matlab) trial in Bangladesh, 4436 pregnant women were randomly assigned to daily intake of 3 types of micronutrient capsules: 30 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe30F), 60 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe60F), or multiple micronutrient supplements (MMNs) combined with early (week 9 of pregnancy) or usual (week 20 of pregnancy) food supplementation in a 2 by 3 factorial design. Plasma concentrations of vitamin B-12, folate, ferritin, and zinc were analyzed before the start of micronutrient supplementation (week 14) and at week 30 of pregnancy in 641 randomly selected women. An electronic monitoring device was used to measure the number of capsules taken. The effectiveness of food and micronutrient regimens as well as efficacy per capsule in maternal micronutrient status were analyzed by ANOVA and general linear models. At week 30 of pregnancy, women in the MMN group had higher geometric mean concentrations of vitamin B-12 than women in the Fe60F group (119 compared with 101 pmol/L, respectively); no other differences in effectiveness of micronutrient and food regimens were observed. A dose-response relation between the number of capsules taken and concentrations of folate and ferritin was observed for all micronutrient supplements. Fe30F had lower efficacy per capsule in increasing ferritin concentrations within the first tertile of capsule intake than did Fe60F and MMNs. Because ferritin reached a plateau for all types of micronutrient supplements, there was no difference between the regimens in their effectiveness. Compared with Fe60F, MMNs produced higher maternal vitamin B-12 and similar ferritin and folate concentrations in Bangladeshi

  15. A Prenatal Multiple Micronutrient Supplement Produces Higher Maternal Vitamin B-12 Concentrations and Similar Folate, Ferritin, and Zinc Concentrations as the Standard 60-mg Iron Plus 400-μg Folic Acid Supplement in Rural Bangladeshi Women12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Anisur; Raqib, Rubhana; Lönnerdal, Bo; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on maternal micronutrient status are not well known. Objective: We compared the efficacy and effectiveness of 3 different micronutrient supplements on maternal micronutrient status when combined with food supplementation. Methods: In the MINIMat (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention, Matlab) trial in Bangladesh, 4436 pregnant women were randomly assigned to daily intake of 3 types of micronutrient capsules: 30 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe30F), 60 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe60F), or multiple micronutrient supplements (MMNs) combined with early (week 9 of pregnancy) or usual (week 20 of pregnancy) food supplementation in a 2 by 3 factorial design. Plasma concentrations of vitamin B-12, folate, ferritin, and zinc were analyzed before the start of micronutrient supplementation (week 14) and at week 30 of pregnancy in 641 randomly selected women. An electronic monitoring device was used to measure the number of capsules taken. The effectiveness of food and micronutrient regimens as well as efficacy per capsule in maternal micronutrient status were analyzed by ANOVA and general linear models. Results: At week 30 of pregnancy, women in the MMN group had higher geometric mean concentrations of vitamin B-12 than women in the Fe60F group (119 compared with 101 pmol/L, respectively); no other differences in effectiveness of micronutrient and food regimens were observed. A dose-response relation between the number of capsules taken and concentrations of folate and ferritin was observed for all micronutrient supplements. Fe30F had lower efficacy per capsule in increasing ferritin concentrations within the first tertile of capsule intake than did Fe60F and MMNs. Because ferritin reached a plateau for all types of micronutrient supplements, there was no difference between the regimens in their effectiveness. Conclusion: Compared with Fe60F, MMNs produced higher maternal vitamin B-12 and

  16. Antenatal taurine reduces cerebral cell apoptosis in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Liu; Xiaofeng Wang; Ying Liu; Na Yang; Jing Xu; Xiaotun Ren

    2013-01-01

    From pregnancy to parturition, Sprague-Dawley rats were daily administered a low protein diet to establish a model of intrauterine growth restriction. From the 12th day of pregnancy, 300 mg/kg rine was daily added to food until spontaneous delivery occurred. Brain tissues from normal neo-natal rats at 6 hours after delivery, neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction, and neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction undergoing taurine supplement were obtained for further experiments. The terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated biotin-16-dUTP nick-end labeling assay revealed that the number of apoptotic cel s in the brain tissue of neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction significantly increased. Taurine supplement in pregnant rats reduced cel apoptosis in brain tissue from neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction. nohistochemical staining revealed that taurine supplement increased glial cel line-derived neuro-trophic factor expression and decreased caspase-3 expression in the cerebral cortex of intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rats. These results indicate that taurine supplement reduces cel apoptosis through the glial cel line-derived neurotrophic factor-caspase-3 signaling pathway, resulting in a protective effect on the intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rat brain.

  17. Effects of nutrient restriction and melatonin supplementation on maternal and foetal hepatic and small intestinal energy utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezotto, L D; Lemley, C O; Camacho, L E; Doscher, F E; Meyer, A M; Caton, J S; Awda, B J; Vonnahme, K A; Swanson, K C

    2014-08-01

    To determine how nutrient restriction and melatonin supplementation influence ewe and foetal hepatic and small intestinal energy use, 32 primiparous ewes on d 50 of gestation were fed 60% (RES) or 100% (ADQ) of NRC recommendations with 0 (CON) or 5 mg/d (MEL) of dietary melatonin. On d 130 of gestation, small intestine and liver were weighed and collected. Data were analysed as a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Liver weight (g/kg EBW) decreased (p = 0.02) in RES ewes. Jejunum weight (g/kg BW) increased (interaction p = 0.04) in ADQ-MEL ewes compared with all other treatments. Total in vitro O2 consumption (mol/min/tissue) and total citrate synthase activity (mol/min/tissue and mol/min/kg EBW) in liver decreased (p ≤ 0.03) in RES ewes. Oxygen consumption (mol/min/kg EBW) increased (interaction p = 0.02) in jejunum of ADQ-CON versus RES-MEL and ADQ-CON. Citrate synthase activity (mol/min/kg of EBW) increased (interaction p = 0.03) in jejunum of ADQ-MEL compared with RES-MEL and ADQ-CON. Foetal liver weight (g/kg BW) decreased (p = 0.02) in RES versus ADQ. Foetal small intestine weight (g/kg BW) decreased (interaction p = 0.05) in RES-MEL versus ADQ-MEL. Total O2 consumption (mol/min/tissue) and total citrate synthase activity (mol/min/kg of BW) in foetal liver decreased (p ≤ 0.05) in RES versus ADQ. Foetal small intestinal O2 consumption (mol/min/kg of BW) was greater (interaction p = 0.03) in RES-CON and ADQ-MEL than RES-MEL and ADQ-CON. Maternal nutrient restriction had a greater effect than melatonin supplementation on liver and jejunum mass and energy utilization in dams and foetuses. Because intestinal mass and energy utilization were more responsive to melatonin supplementation in ewes fed adequate nutrition compared with restricted ewes, melatonin may have limited use as a therapeutic supplement to help overcome potential negative effects of nutrient restriction.

  18. Sulfoacetate generated by Rhodopseudomonas palustris from taurine

    OpenAIRE

    Denger, Karin; Weinitschke, Sonja; Hollemeyer, Klaus; Cook, Alasdair M.

    2004-01-01

    Genes thought to encode (a) the regulator of taurine catabolism under carbon-limiting or nitrogen-limiting conditions and (b) taurine dehydrogenase were found in the genome of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The organism utilized taurine quantitatively as a sole source of nitrogen (but not of carbon) for aerobic and photoheterotrophic growth. No sulfate was released, and the C-sulfonate bond was recovered stoichiometrically as sulfoacetate, which was identified by mass spectrometry. An inducible ...

  19. Suplementação de taurina em dietas com duas concentrações proteicas para pós-larvas de camarão-branco-do-pacífico Taurine supplementation of diets with two protein concentrations to Pacific white shrimp post-larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plínio Schmidt Furtado

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a possibilidade de reduzir a concentração proteica da dieta para pós-larvas de camarão-branco-do-pacífico (Litopenaeus vannamei por meio da suplementação do aminoácido taurina. Seis dietas práticas, isoenergéticas (15,48 kJ EM/g, foram formuladas para conter duas concentrações de proteína (35% e 45% proteína bruta, PB, com três níveis de suplementação de taurina (0, 5 e 10 g/kg, em arranjo fatorial 2 × 3, com quatro repetições. Cem pós-larvas (peso inicial de 0,14 ± 0,01 g foram estocadas em cada um dos 24 tanques de 45 litros conectados a um sistema de recirculação de água marinha. As dietas experimentais foram distribuídas aos camarões (10% da biomassa três vezes ao dia, durante 30 dias. A concentração proteica da dieta não influenciou o crescimento nem a utilização alimentar das pós-larvas, mas o efeito benéfico da suplementação das dietas com taurina foi evidente em ambos os níveis proteicos testados. As pós-larvas alimentadas com as dietas com maior concentração de taurina (10 g/kg alcançaram maior peso final, ganho em peso e taxa de crescimento específico e melhor conversão alimentar em comparação àquelas alimentadas com as demais dietas. A taxa de sobrevivência média foi superior a 92% e não foi afetada pelas dietas experimentais. O nível de 35% de PB na dieta (22,58 mg PB/kJ EM é suficiente para promover o crescimento adequado de pós-larvas de L. vannamei, e o desempenho dos camarões pode ser melhorado com a suplementação de 10 g taurina/kg de ração.The present study aimed to evaluate the possibility of reducing the dietary protein content for post-larvae of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei through diet supplementation with taurine amino acid. Six practical isoenergetic (15.48 kJ ME/g diets were formulated to contain two protein concentrations (35% and 45% crude protein, CP and 3 levels of taurine supplementation (0, 5

  20. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-08-15

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma'anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma'anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn's gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these findings, additional investigations or trials with a large sample and the tracking of folate status throughout pregnancy are recommended.

  1. Iodine status in neonates in Denmark: regional variations and dependency on maternal iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P; Børlum, K G;

    1994-01-01

    in breast milk and urinary iodine concentrations of the neonates at day 5 were low. The median values (milk/urine) were 33.6/31.7 micrograms/l (Randers 22/26, Ringkøbing 29/16, Aalborg 36/31. Arhus 54/41 and Copenhagen 55/59 micrograms/l). Higher values were found in the group where tablets containing...... iodine had been taken (milk/urine: 57.0/61.0 micrograms/l). In general, the values are low compared with internationally recommended levels. We suggest that mothers without autoimmune thyroid disease should receive iodine supplementation in the form of vitamin/mineral tablets containing iodine (150...... micrograms per tablet). Udgivelsesdato: 1994-Jun...

  2. Maternal fish oil supplementation during lactation is associated with reduced height at 13 years of age and higher blood pressure in boys only

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Eriksen, S E; Hjorth, Mads Fiil

    2016-01-01

    between boys and girls. Mother-infant pairs (n 103) completed a randomised controlled trial with FO (1·5 g/d n-3 LCPUFA) or olive oil (OO) supplements during the first 4 months of lactation; forty-seven mother-infant pairs with high fish intake were followed-up for 4 months as the reference group. We also......Dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) in infancy may have long-term effects on lifestyle disease risk. The present follow-up study investigated whether maternal fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affected growth and blood pressure in adolescents and whether the effects differed...

  3. Effect of maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation on fetal loss and infant death in Indonesia: a double-blind cluster-randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, A H; Jahari, A B; Sebayang, S K; Aditiawarman; Apriatni, M; Harefa, B; Muadz, H; Soesbandoro, S D A; Tjiong, R; Fachry, A; Shankar, A V; Atmarita; Prihatini, S; Sofia, G

    2008-01-19

    Maternal nutrient supplementation in developing countries is generally restricted to provision of iron and folic acid (IFA). Change in practice toward supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) has been hindered by little evidence of the effects of MMN on fetal loss and infant death. We assessed the effect of maternal supplementation with MMN, compared with IFA, on fetal loss and infant death in the setting of routine prenatal care services. In a double-blind cluster-randomised trial in Lombok, Indonesia, we randomly assigned 262 midwives to distribute IFA (n=15 ,86) or MMN (n=15,804) supplements to 31 290 pregnant women through government prenatal care services that were strengthened by training and community-based advocacy. Women obtained supplements, to be taken daily, every month from enrolment to 90 days post partum. The primary outcome was early infant mortality (deaths until 90 days post partum). Secondary outcomes were neonatal mortality, fetal loss (abortions and stillbirths), and low birthweight. Analysis was by intention to treat. The study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN34151616. Infants of women consuming MMN supplements had an 18% reduction in early infant mortality compared with those of women given IFA (35.5 deaths per 1000 livebirths vs 43 per 1000; relative risk [RR] 0.82, 95% CI 0.70-0.95, p=0.010). Infants whose mothers were undernourished (mid upper arm circumference <23.5 cm) or anaemic (haemoglobin <110 g/L) at enrolment had a reduction in early infant mortality of 25% (RR 0.75, 0.62-0.90, p=0.0021) and 38% (RR 0.62, 0.49-0.78, p<0.0001), respectively. Combined fetal loss and neonatal deaths were reduced by 11% (RR 0.89, 0.81-1.00, p=0.045), with significant effects in undernourished (RR 0.85, 0.73-0.98, p=0.022) or anaemic (RR 0.71, 0.58-0.87, p=0.0010) women. A cohort of 11 101 infants weighed within 1 h of birth showed a 14% (RR 0.86, 0.73-1.01, p=0.060) decreased risk of low

  4. Maternal betaine supplementation during gestation modifies hippocampal expression of GR and its regulatory miRNAs in neonatal piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qinwei; Li, Xi; Jia, Yimin; Pan, Shifeng; Li, Runsheng; Yang, Xiaojing; Zhao, Ruqian

    2016-07-01

    Methyl donor nutrients are critical for embryonic development of brain. Hippocampus is the most susceptible brain region to various factors including prenatal supply of methyl donors. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expressed in hippocampus is involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis and stress sensitivity. Hippocampal GR expression is highly susceptible to epigenetic regulation, yet the effect of maternal methyl donor supplementation on epigenetic regulation of GR transcription in offspring hippocampus remains unclear. In this study, we fed sows with betaine (3 g/kg) throughout the gestation and analyzed the hippocampal expression of GR mRNA and its variants, as well as the CpG methylation status of the promoter and the microRNAs predicted to target 3' UTR of porcine GR gene in neonatal piglets. Total GR mRNA (PGR 1-4 (PGR protein was not significantly changed. The CpGs located in the -1650 ~ -1515 segment of GR gene were hypermethylated (PGR mRNA expression in offspring hippocampus, which involves alterations in miRNAs expression.

  5. Benefits of Docosahexaenoic Acid, Folic Acid, Vitamin D and Iodine on Foetal and Infant Brain Development and Function Following Maternal Supplementation during Pregnancy and Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy L. Morse

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientific literature is increasingly reporting on dietary deficiencies in many populations of some nutrients critical for foetal and infant brain development and function. Purpose: To highlight the potential benefits of maternal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and other important complimentary nutrients, including vitamin D, folic acid and iodine during pregnancy and/or breast feeding for foetal and/or infant brain development and/or function. Methods: English language systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional and case-control studies were obtained through searches on MEDLINE and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials from January 2000 through to February 2012 and reference lists of retrieved articles. Reports were selected if they included benefits and harms of maternal supplementation of DHA, vitamin D, folic acid or iodine supplementation during pregnancy and/or lactation. Results: Maternal DHA intake during pregnancy and/or lactation can prolong high risk pregnancies, increase birth weight, head circumference and birth length, and can enhance visual acuity, hand and eye co-ordination, attention, problem solving and information processing. Vitamin D helps maintain pregnancy and promotes normal skeletal and brain development. Folic acid is necessary for normal foetal spine, brain and skull development. Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone production necessary for normal brain and nervous system development during gestation that impacts childhood function. Conclusion: Maternal supplementation within recommended safe intakes in populations with dietary deficiencies may prevent many brain and central nervous system malfunctions and even enhance brain development and function in their offspring.

  6. Evaluating the role of maternal folic acid supplementation in modifying the effects of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (C677T and A1298C) gene polymorphisms in oral cleft children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadifar, Asghar; Ameli, Nazila; KhorramKhorshid, Hamid Reza; Kamali, Koorosh; Zeinabadi, Mehdi Salehi

    2016-01-01

    Background: We studied the role of maternal folic acid supplementation in modifying the effects of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T and A1298C) gene polymorphisms in Iranian children with oral clefts. Materials and Methods: Forty-seven newborn infants with orofacial cleft and their mothers were selected randomly. Mothers were matched regarding dietary folate intake. The genotyping on venous blood was carried out. Consistency between maternal and child genotypes was analyzed. Results: Genotype consistency was not statistically significant in both C677T and A1298C gene variants (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Maternal folic acid consumption may not have any significant effect on modifying C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in children. PMID:27904604

  7. Maternal High Folic Acid Supplement Promotes Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance in Male Mouse Offspring Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maternal nutrition may influence metabolic profiles in offspring. We aimed to investigate the effect of maternal folic acid supplement on glucose metabolism in mouse offspring fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Sixty C57BL/6 female mice were randomly assigned into three dietary groups and fed the AIN-93G diet containing 2 (control, 5 (recommended folic acid supplement, RFolS or 40 (high folic acid supplement, HFolS mg folic acid/kg of diet. All male offspring were fed HFD for eight weeks. Physiological, biochemical and genetic variables were measured. Before HFD feeding, developmental variables and metabolic profiles were comparable among each offspring group. However, after eight weeks of HFD feeding, the offspring of HFolS dams (Off-HFolS were more vulnerable to suffer from obesity (p = 0.009, glucose intolerance (p < 0.001 and insulin resistance (p < 0.001, compared with the controls. Off-HFolS had reduced serum adiponectin concentration, accompanied with decreased adiponectin mRNA level but increased global DNA methylation level in white adipose tissue. In conclusion, our results suggest maternal HFolS exacerbates the detrimental effect of HFD on glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in male offspring, implying that HFolS during pregnancy should be adopted cautiously in the general population of pregnant women to avoid potential deleterious effect on the metabolic diseases in their offspring.

  8. Islet cryopreservation: improved recovery following taurine pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardikar, A A; Risbud, M V; Remacle, C; Reusens, B; Hoet, J J; Bhonde, R R

    2001-01-01

    Simple and efficient freezing methods with maximal postthawing recovery form the basis of ideal cryopreservation. Taurine (2-amino ethanesulfonic acid), an end-product of sulphur amino acid metabolism, is one of the most abundant free amino acids in the body. The membrane stabilizing, free radical scavenging, and osmoregulatory roles of taurine have been well documented. We studied the effect of physiological and supra-physiological concentrations (0.3 and 3.0 mM) of taurine on islet cryopreservation. Islet viability on cryopreservation was significantly improved in both the taurine-treated groups (91.9 +/- 2.3% in 0.3 mM and 94.6 +/- 1.58% in 3.0 mM group, p taurine group, as examined under phase contrast and quantified by islet morphometric analysis (p Taurine-treated islets showed significant reduction in lipid peroxidation (0.905 and 0.848 nM MDA/microg protein for 0.3 and 3.0 mM taurine, respectively, p 200 mg/dl) following removal of the graft. Suboptimal islet transplantation using 250 IE suggests that the grafted islet mass was inadequate for diabetes reversal. In addition, no significant differences were observed in the islet insulin content between the three groups following cryopreservation of the islets at -196 degrees C. Our studies indicate that taurine pretreatment and its continued presence during islet cryopreservation improves the postthawing viable recovery of islets.

  9. The role of taurine in diabetes and the development of diabetic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, S H

    2001-01-01

    The ubiquitously found beta-amino acid taurine has several physiological functions, e.g. in bile acid formation, as an osmolyte by cell volume regulation, in the heart, in the retina, in the formation of N-chlorotaurine by reaction with hypochlorous acid in leucocytes, and possibly for intracellular scavenging of carbonyl groups. Some animals, such as the cat and the C57BL/6 mouse, have disturbances in taurine homeostasis. The C57BL/6 mouse strain is widely used in diabetic and atherosclerotic animal models. In diabetes, the high extracellular levels of glucose disturb the cellular osmoregulation and sorbitol is formed intracellularly due to the intracellular polyol pathway, which is suspected to be one of the key processes in the development of diabetic late complications and associated cellular dysfunctions. Intracellular accumulation of sorbitol is most likely to cause depletion of other intracellular compounds including osmolytes such as myo-inositol and taurine. When considering the clinical complications in diabetes, several links can be established between altered taurine metabolism and the development of cellular dysfunctions in diabetes which cause the clinical complications observed in diabetes, e.g. retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, cardiomyopathy, platelet aggregation, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Possible therapeutic perspectives could be a supplementation with taurine and other osmolytes and low-molecular compounds, perhaps in a combinational therapy with aldose reductase inhibitors. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The effect of combined inositol supplementation on maternal metabolic profile in pregnancies complicated by metabolic syndrome and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Francesca; Facchinetti, Fabio; Ontiveros, Alejandra E; Roberts, Robyn P; Saade, Mia M; Blackwell, Sean C; Sibai, Baha M; Refuerzo, Jerrie S; Longo, Monica

    2016-10-01

    Myoinositol and D-chiroinositol improve insulin resistance in women with obesity and gestational diabetes and in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. We previously reported that offspring born to hypertensive dams lacking endothelial nitric oxide synthase and fed a high-fat diet develop metabolic-like syndrome phenotype. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of a mixture of myoinositol/D-chiroinositol supplementation during pregnancy on the maternal metabolic profile in pregnancies complicated by the metabolic-like syndrome and obesity using a pregnant mouse model. Female heterozygous endothelial nitric oxide synthase(-/+) mice with moderate hypertension were placed on a high-fat diet for 4 weeks to induce a metabolic-like syndrome phenotype. Similarly, wild-type C57BL/6 mice were placed on a high-fat diet for 4 weeks to induce a murine obesity model. Mice were then bred with wild-type males. On gestational day 1, dams were randomly allocated to receive either a mixture of myoinositol/D-chiroinositol in water (7.2/0.18 mg/mL, respectively) or water as control (placebo). At term (gestational day 18), maternal weights, systolic blood pressure, and a glucose tolerance test were obtained. Dams were then killed; pups and placentas were weighed and maternal blood collected. Serum levels of metabolic biomarkers relevant to diabetes and obesity (ghrelin, gastric inhibitory peptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon, insulin, leptin, resistin) were measured by a multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Analysis was done comparing metabolic-like syndrome-myoinositol/D-chiroinositol-treated vs metabolic-like syndrome-nontreated mice and obese-myoinositol/D-chiroinositol-treated vs obese nontreated mice. Mean systolic blood pressure was lower in metabolic-like syndrome pregnant mice treated with myoinositol/D-chiroinositol compared with placebo (P = .04), whereas there was no difference in systolic blood pressure between treated and placebo

  11. n -- 3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy in women with allergic disease: effects on blood pressure, and maternal and fetal lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Anne E; Dunstan, Janet A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Prescott, Susan L; Mori, Trevor A

    2006-10-01

    n--3 Fatty acids derived from fish oil reduce plasma triacylglycerols (triglycerides) and increase HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol); however, the effect of n--3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy, a hyperlipidaemic state, remains unknown. We took the opportunity to investigate maternal lipid levels and blood pressure during and after pregnancy, and fetal lipid levels at birth, in a study that aimed primarily to examine the effect of fish oil supplementation during pregnancy on immune function in infants born to women with allergic disease. Eighty-three pregnant women who had allergic disease, but were otherwise healthy, completed the study. They were randomly allocated to receive fish oil or olive oil capsules, taken as 4 g/day, from 20 weeks of pregnancy until delivery. Compared with olive oil, fish oil supplementation did not alter triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) or HDL-C during or after pregnancy. There was also no effect of fish oil on cord blood triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, LDL-C or HDL-C. Fish oil supplementation during pregnancy did not alter maternal blood pressure during or after pregnancy. The effects of fish oil on lipids and blood pressure in non-pregnant individuals appear to be lost when it is administered during pregnancy.

  12. Human Breast Milk miRNA, Maternal Probiotic Supplementation and Atopic Dermatitis in Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Rae Simpson

    Full Text Available Perinatal probiotic ingestion has been shown to prevent atopic dermatitis (AD in infancy in a number of randomised trials. The Probiotics in the Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim (ProPACT trial involved a probiotic supplementation regime given solely to mothers in the perinatal period and demonstrated a ~40% relative risk reduction in the cumulative incidence of AD at 2 years of age. However, the mechanisms behind this effect are incompletely understood. Micro-RNAs (miRNA are abundant in mammalian milk and may influence the developing gastrointestinal and immune systems of newborn infants. The objectives of this study were to describe the miRNA profile of human breast milk, and to investigate breast milk miRNAs as possible mediators of the observed preventative effect of probiotics.Small RNA sequencing was conducted on samples collected 3 months postpartum from 54 women participating in the ProPACT trial. Differential expression of miRNA was assessed for the probiotic vs placebo and AD vs non-AD groups. The results were further analysed using functional prediction techniques.Human breast milk samples contain a relatively stable core group of highly expressed miRNAs, including miR-148a-3p, miR-22-3p, miR-30d-5p, let-7b-5p and miR-200a-3p. Functional analysis of these miRNAs revealed enrichment in a broad range of biological processes and molecular functions. Although several miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed on comparison of the probiotic vs placebo and AD vs non-AD groups, none had an acceptable false discovery rate and their biological significance in the development of AD is not immediately apparent from their predicted functional consequences.Whilst breast milk miRNAs have the potential to be active in a diverse range of tissues and biological process, individual miRNAs in breast milk 3 months postpartum are unlikely to play a major role in the prevention of atopic dermatitis in infancy by probiotics ingestion

  13. Modulatory effects of taurine on jejunal contractility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Q.Y.; Chen, D.P.; Ye, D.M.; Diao, Y.P.; Lin, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is widely distributed in animal tissues and has diverse pharmacological effects. However, the role of taurine in modulating smooth muscle contractility is still controversial. We propose that taurine (5-80 mM) can exert bidirectional modulation on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments. Different low and high contractile states were induced in isolated jejunal segments of rats to observe the effects of taurine and the associated mechanisms. Taurine induced stimulatory effects on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments at 3 different low contractile states, and inhibitory effects at 3 different high contractile states. Bidirectional modulation was not observed in the presence of verapamil or tetrodotoxin, suggesting that taurine-induced bidirectional modulation is Ca2+ dependent and requires the presence of the enteric nervous system. The stimulatory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments was blocked by atropine but not by diphenhydramine or by cimetidine, suggesting that muscarinic-linked activation was involved in the stimulatory effects when isolated jejunal segments were in a low contractile state. The inhibitory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments were blocked by propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine but not by phentolamine, suggesting that adrenergic β receptors and a nitric oxide relaxing mechanism were involved when isolated jejunal segments were in high contractile states. No bidirectional effects of taurine on myosin phosphorylation were observed. The contractile states of jejunal segments determine taurine-induced stimulatory or inhibitory effects, which are associated with muscarinic receptors and adrenergic β receptors, and a nitric oxide associated relaxing mechanism. PMID:25387674

  14. Modulatory effects of taurine on jejunal contractility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q.Y. Yao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid is widely distributed in animal tissues and has diverse pharmacological effects. However, the role of taurine in modulating smooth muscle contractility is still controversial. We propose that taurine (5-80 mM can exert bidirectional modulation on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments. Different low and high contractile states were induced in isolated jejunal segments of rats to observe the effects of taurine and the associated mechanisms. Taurine induced stimulatory effects on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments at 3 different low contractile states, and inhibitory effects at 3 different high contractile states. Bidirectional modulation was not observed in the presence of verapamil or tetrodotoxin, suggesting that taurine-induced bidirectional modulation is Ca2+ dependent and requires the presence of the enteric nervous system. The stimulatory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments was blocked by atropine but not by diphenhydramine or by cimetidine, suggesting that muscarinic-linked activation was involved in the stimulatory effects when isolated jejunal segments were in a low contractile state. The inhibitory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments were blocked by propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine but not by phentolamine, suggesting that adrenergic β receptors and a nitric oxide relaxing mechanism were involved when isolated jejunal segments were in high contractile states. No bidirectional effects of taurine on myosin phosphorylation were observed. The contractile states of jejunal segments determine taurine-induced stimulatory or inhibitory effects, which are associated with muscarinic receptors and adrenergic β receptors, and a nitric oxide associated relaxing mechanism.

  15. Modulatory effects of taurine on jejunal contractility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Q.Y.; Chen, D.P.; Ye, D.M.; Diao, Y.P.; Lin, Y. [Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning (China)

    2014-10-14

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is widely distributed in animal tissues and has diverse pharmacological effects. However, the role of taurine in modulating smooth muscle contractility is still controversial. We propose that taurine (5-80 mM) can exert bidirectional modulation on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments. Different low and high contractile states were induced in isolated jejunal segments of rats to observe the effects of taurine and the associated mechanisms. Taurine induced stimulatory effects on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments at 3 different low contractile states, and inhibitory effects at 3 different high contractile states. Bidirectional modulation was not observed in the presence of verapamil or tetrodotoxin, suggesting that taurine-induced bidirectional modulation is Ca{sup 2+} dependent and requires the presence of the enteric nervous system. The stimulatory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments was blocked by atropine but not by diphenhydramine or by cimetidine, suggesting that muscarinic-linked activation was involved in the stimulatory effects when isolated jejunal segments were in a low contractile state. The inhibitory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments were blocked by propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine but not by phentolamine, suggesting that adrenergic β receptors and a nitric oxide relaxing mechanism were involved when isolated jejunal segments were in high contractile states. No bidirectional effects of taurine on myosin phosphorylation were observed. The contractile states of jejunal segments determine taurine-induced stimulatory or inhibitory effects, which are associated with muscarinic receptors and adrenergic β receptors, and a nitric oxide associated relaxing mechanism.

  16. Physiological role of taurine--from organism to organelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, I H; Kristensen, D M; Holm, J B; Mortensen, O H

    2015-01-01

    Taurine is often referred to as a semi-essential amino acid as newborn mammals have a limited ability to synthesize taurine and have to rely on dietary supply. Taurine is not thought to be incorporated into proteins as no aminoacyl tRNA synthetase has yet been identified and is not oxidized in mammalian cells. However, taurine contributes significantly to the cellular pool of organic osmolytes and has accordingly been acknowledged for its role in cell volume restoration following osmotic perturbation. This review describes taurine homeostasis in cells and organelles with emphasis on taurine biophysics/membrane dynamics, regulation of transport proteins involved in active taurine uptake and passive taurine release as well as physiological processes, for example, development, lung function, mitochondrial function, antioxidative defence and apoptosis which seem to be affected by a shift in the expression of the taurine transporters and/or the cellular taurine content. © 2014 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effect of maternal seaweed extract supplementation on suckling piglet growth, humoral immunity, selected microflora, and immune response after an ex vivo lipopolysaccharide challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, S G; Sweeney, T; Bahar, B; O'Doherty, J V

    2012-02-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of maternal dietary supplementation (n = 10 sows/treatment) with seaweed extract (SWE: 0 vs. 10.0 g/d) from d 107 of gestation until weaning (d 26) on neonatal piglet growth, humoral immunity, intestinal morphology, selected intestinal microflora, and VFA concentrations. Furthermore, this study examined the effect of dietary treatment on the immune response after an ex vivo Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) tissue challenge at weaning in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The main factors consisted of sow dietary treatment (SWE or control) and immunological challenge (yes or no). The SWE supplement (10.0 g/d) contained laminarin (1.0 g), fucoidan (0.8 g), and ash (8.2 g) and was extracted from a Laminaria spp. The SWE-supplemented sows had greater colostrum IgA (P Piglets suckling SWE-supplemented sows had greater serum IgG (P piglets suckling SWE-supplemented sows had a decreased colonic E. coli population at weaning (P Piglets suckling SWE-supplemented sows had greater TNF-α mRNA expression after ex vivo LPS challenge compared with non-SWE-supplemented sows (P Piglet BW at birth and weaning, and small intestinal morphology were unaffected by sow dietary treatment under current experimental conditions. In summary, these results demonstrate an important immunomodulatory role of SWE supplementation characterized by enhanced colostral IgA and IgG concentrations, greater piglet circulatory IgG concentrations on d 14 of lactation, and enhanced TNF-α mRNA expression in the ileum after an ex vivo LPS challenge. These results indicate that SWE supplementation enhanced piglet immune function and colonic microflora at weaning.

  18. Influence of nutrient restriction and melatonin supplementation of pregnant ewes on maternal and fetal pancreatic digestive enzymes and insulin-containing clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keomanivong, F E; Lemley, C O; Camacho, L E; Yunusova, R; Borowicz, P P; Caton, J S; Meyer, A M; Vonnahme, K A; Swanson, K C

    2016-03-01

    Primiparous ewes (n=32) were assigned to dietary treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement to determine effects of nutrient restriction and melatonin supplementation on maternal and fetal pancreatic weight, digestive enzyme activity, concentration of insulin-containing clusters and plasma insulin concentrations. Treatments consisted of nutrient intake with 60% (RES) or 100% (ADQ) of requirements and melatonin supplementation at 0 (CON) or 5 mg/day (MEL). Treatments began on day 50 of gestation and continued until day 130. On day 130, blood was collected under general anesthesia from the uterine artery, uterine vein, umbilical artery and umbilical vein for plasma insulin analysis. Ewes were then euthanized and the pancreas removed from the ewe and fetus, trimmed of mesentery and fat, weighed and snap-frozen until enzyme analysis. In addition, samples of pancreatic tissue were fixed in 10% formalin solution for histological examination including quantitative characterization of size and distribution of insulin-containing cell clusters. Nutrient restriction decreased (P⩽0.001) maternal pancreatic mass (g) and α-amylase activity (U/g, kU/pancreas, U/kg BW). Ewes supplemented with melatonin had increased pancreatic mass (P=0.03) and α-amylase content (kU/pancreas and U/kg BW). Melatonin supplementation decreased (P=0.002) maternal pancreatic insulin-positive tissue area (relative to section of tissue), and size of the largest insulin-containing cell cluster (P=0.04). Nutrient restriction decreased pancreatic insulin-positive tissue area (P=0.03) and percent of large (32 001 to 512 000 µm2) and giant (⩾512 001 µm2) insulin-containing cell clusters (P=0.04) in the fetus. Insulin concentrations in plasma from the uterine vein, umbilical artery and umbilical vein were greater (P⩽0.01) in animals receiving 100% requirements. When comparing ewes to fetuses, ewes had a greater percentage of medium insulin-containing cell clusters (2001 to 32 000 µm2) while fetuses

  19. A case of taurine-containing drink induced anaphylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-Eun; Lee, Suh-Young; Jo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Young; Yang, Min-Suk; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Sae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Taurine is one of most abundant free amino acids in mammalian tissue. It has been used for various health functional foods as a main ingredient in food industry. A 33-year-old female patient repeatedly experienced generalized itching, urticaria, dyspnea and dizziness after drinking taurine-containing drinks. The patient showed positive response to oral challenge tests with taurine-containing drinks. The patient also showed positive response with synthetic taurine but not with natural taurine....

  20. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufang Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation with folic acid (FA was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW. This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma’anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma’anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy. Small-for-gestational-age (SGA births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04. This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn’s gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To

  1. Sulfoacetate generated by Rhodopseudomonas palustris from taurine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denger, Karin; Weinitschke, Sonja; Hollemeyer, Klaus; Cook, Alasdair M

    2004-10-01

    Genes thought to encode (a) the regulator of taurine catabolism under carbon-limiting or nitrogen-limiting conditions and (b) taurine dehydrogenase were found in the genome of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The organism utilized taurine quantitatively as a sole source of nitrogen (but not of carbon) for aerobic and photoheterotrophic growth. No sulfate was released, and the C-sulfonate bond was recovered stoichiometrically as sulfoacetate, which was identified by mass spectrometry. An inducible sulfoacetaldehyde dehydrogenase was detected. R. palustris thus contains a pathway to generate a natural product that was previously believed to be formed solely from sulfoquinovose.

  2. Supplementation with vitamins C and E during pregnancy for the prevention of preeclampsia and other adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes: a systematic review and metaanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Agudelo, Agustín; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Hassan, Sonia S

    2011-06-01

    To determine whether supplementation with vitamins C and E during pregnancy reduces the risk of preeclampsia and other adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Systematic review and metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials. Nine trials involving a total of 19,810 women were included. Overall, there were no significant differences between the vitamin and placebo groups in the risk of preeclampsia (9.6% vs 9.6%; relative risk, 1.00, 95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.09). Similar results were obtained when subgroup analyses were restricted to women at high risk or low/moderate risk for preeclampsia. Women supplemented with vitamins C and E were at increased risk of developing gestational hypertension and premature rupture of membranes, and decreased risk of abruptio placentae. There were no significant differences between the vitamin and placebo groups in the risk of other adverse maternal or fetal/perinatal outcomes. Supplementation with vitamins C and E during pregnancy does not prevent preeclampsia. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  3. A case of taurine-containing drink induced anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Eun; Lee, Suh-Young; Jo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Young; Yang, Min-Suk; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Sae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Taurine is one of most abundant free amino acids in mammalian tissue. It has been used for various health functional foods as a main ingredient in food industry. A 33-year-old female patient repeatedly experienced generalized itching, urticaria, dyspnea and dizziness after drinking taurine-containing drinks. The patient showed positive response to oral challenge tests with taurine-containing drinks. The patient also showed positive response with synthetic taurine but not with natural taurine. Skin prick test and basophil activation test with the synthetic taurine were negative. To our knowledge, there has been no report of taurine-induced hypersensitivity reactions. We herein report the first case of taurine-containing drink induced anaphylaxis, especially by synthetic taurine.

  4. Impact of multiple micronutrient vs. iron - folic acid supplements on maternal anemia and micronutrient status in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplements could increase hemoglobin and improve micronutrient status of pregnant women more than iron ± folic acid supplements alone. Objective. To compare the effects of MMN vs. iron ± folic acid supplements on hemoglobin and micronutrient status of pregn...

  5. Vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy and early lactation increases maternal, breast milk, and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Christopher; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thomas, Tinku; Samuel, Tinu; Rajendran, Ramya; Muthayya, Sumithra; Finkelstein, Julia L; Lukose, Ammu; Fawzi, Wafaie; Allen, Lindsay H; Bosch, Ronald J; Kurpad, Anura V

    2014-05-01

    Pregnant women in resource-poor areas are at risk of multiple micronutrient deficiencies, and indicators of low vitamin B-12 status have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including anemia, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation. To evaluate whether daily oral vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy increases maternal and infant measures of vitamin B-12 status, we performed a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Pregnant women vitamin B-12 (50 μg) or placebo through 6 wk postpartum. All women were administered iron and folic acid supplements throughout pregnancy. One hundred eighty-three women were randomly assigned to receive vitamin B-12 and 183 to receive placebo. Compared with placebo recipients, vitamin B-12-supplemented women had significantly higher plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations at both the second (median vitamin B-12 concentration: 216 vs. 111 pmol/L, P vitamin B-12 concentration was 136 pmol/L in vitamin B-12-supplemented women vs. 87 pmol/L in the placebo group (P vitamin B-12-supplemented women, the incidence of delivering an infant with intrauterine growth retardation was 33 of 131 (25%) vs. 43 of 125 (34%) in those administered placebo (P = 0.11). In a subset of infants tested at 6 wk of age, median plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was 199 pmol/L in those born to supplemented women vs. 139 pmol/L in the placebo group (P = 0.01). Infant plasma methylmalonic acid and homocysteine concentrations were significantly lower in the vitamin B-12 group as well. Oral supplementation of urban Indian women with vitamin B-12 throughout pregnancy and early lactation significantly increases vitamin B-12 status of mothers and infants. It is important to determine whether there are correlations between these findings and neurologic and metabolic functions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00641862.

  6. Maternal high-fat diet-induced programing of gut taste receptor and inflammatory gene expression in rat offspring is ameliorated by CLA supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Clare M; Segovia, Stephanie A; Zhang, Xiaoyuan D; Gray, Clint; Vickers, Mark H

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of a high-fat (HF) diet during pregnancy and lactation influences later life predisposition to obesity and cardiometabolic disease in offspring. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain poorly defined, but one potential target that has received scant attention and is likely pivotal to disease progression is that of the gut. The present study examined the effects of maternal supplementation with the anti-inflammatory lipid, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), on offspring metabolic profile and gut expression of taste receptors and inflammatory markers. We speculate that preventing high-fat diet-induced metainflammation improved maternal metabolic parameters conferring beneficial effects on adult offspring. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to a purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal from fat), CD with CLA (CLA; 10% kcal from fat, 1% CLA), HF (45% kcal from fat) or HF with CLA (HFCLA; 45% kcal from fat, 1% CLA) throughout gestation and lactation. Plasma/tissues were taken at day 24 and RT-PCR was carried out on gut sections. Offspring from HF mothers were significantly heavier at weaning with impaired insulin sensitivity compared to controls. This was associated with increased plasma IL-1β and TNFα concentrations. Gut Tas1R1, IL-1β, TNFα, and NLRP3 expression was increased and Tas1R3 expression was decreased in male offspring from HF mothers and was normalized by maternal CLA supplementation. Tas1R1 expression was increased while PYY and IL-10 decreased in female offspring of HF mothers. These results suggest that maternal consumption of a HF diet during critical developmental windows influences offspring predisposition to obesity and metabolic dysregulation. This may be associated with dysregulation of taste receptor, incretin, and inflammatory gene expression in the gut.

  7. Phenotype of the taurine transporter knockout mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warskulat, Ulrich; Heller-Stilb, Birgit; Oermann, Evelyn; Zilles, Karl; Haas, Helmut; Lang, Florian; Häussinger, Dieter

    2007-01-01

    This chapter reports present knowledge on the properties of mice with disrupted gene coding for the taurine transporter (taut-/- mice). Study of those mice unraveled some of the roles of taurine and its membrane transport for the development and maintenance of normal organ functions and morphology. When compared with wild-type controls, taut-/- mice have decreased taurine levels in skeletal and heart muscle by about 98%, in brain, kidney, plasma, and retina by 80 to 90%, and in liver by about 70%. taut-/- mice exhibit a lower body mass as well as a strongly reduced exercise capacity compared with taut+/- and wild-type mice. Furthermore, taut-/- mice show a variety of pathological features, for example, subtle derangement of renal osmoregulation, changes in neuroreceptor expression, and loss of long-term potentiation in the striatum, and they develop clinically relevant age-dependent disorders, for example, visual, auditory, and olfactory dysfunctions, unspecific hepatitis, and liver fibrosis. Taurine-deficient animal models such as acutely dietary-manipulated foxes and cats, pharmacologically induced taurine-deficient rats, and taurine transporter knockout mouse are powerful tools allowing identification of the mechanisms and complexities of diseases mediated by impaired taurine transport and taurine depletion (Chapman et al., 1993; Heller-Stilb et al., 2002; Huxtable, 1992; Lake, 1993; Moise et al., 1991; Novotny et al., 1991; Pion et al., 1987; Timbrell et al., 1995; Warskulat et al., 2004, 2006b). Taurine, which is the most abundant amino acid in many tissues, is normally found in intracellular concentrations of 10 to 70 mmol/kg in mammalian heart, brain, skeletal muscle, liver, and retina (Chapman et al., 1993; Green et al., 1991; Huxable, 1992; Timbrell et al., 1995). These high taurine levels are maintained by an ubiquitous expression of Na(+)-dependent taurine transporter (TAUT) in the plasma membrane (Burg, 1995; Kwon and Handler, 1995; Lang et al., 1998

  8. Effects of supplemental β-carotene with whey on IgA transfer from maternal milk and mucosal IgA induction in neonatal mice and calves

    OpenAIRE

    Nishiyama, Y.; Yasumatsuya, K.; Kasai, K; Sakase, M.; Nishino, O.; Akaike, M; Nagase, T; Sugimoto, M; Ikeda, S.; Kume, S.

    2011-01-01

    Data from 17 pregnant mice and 33 Japanese Black calves were collected to clarify the effect of supplemental β-carotene with whey on IgA transfer from maternal milk and mucosal IgA induction in neonatal mice and calves. Dietary treatments in milk replacers were 1) 26% CP as in skim milk (control), 2) 26% CP as whey and 3) 26% CP as whey and 30 mg/kg β-carotene. Diets were offered from 6.5 days postcoitus to 14 days postpartum in pregnant mice and from 3 to 63 days postpartum in calves. Supple...

  9. Branched-chain amino acids inhibit the TGF-beta-induced down-regulation of taurine biosynthetic enzyme cysteine dioxygenase in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Asami; Ishizaki, Sonoko; Takehana, Kenji; Fujitani, Shoji; Sonaka, Ichiro; Satsu, Hideo; Shimizu, Makoto

    2014-05-01

    Taurine deficiency has been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis and complications of advanced hepatic diseases. The molecular basis for a low level of taurine associated with hepatic failure is largely unknown. Using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced cirrhotic rat model, we found that the activity and expression of cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), a rate-limiting enzyme in taurine synthesis, were significantly decreased in the liver of these rats. To investigate the underlying mechanisms for the suppression, we examined the effects of pathological cytokines on CDO expression in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Among the several cytokines, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), one of the key mediators of fibrogenesis, suppressed Cdo1 gene transcription through the MEK/ERK pathway. Finally, we further examined potential effects of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on CDO expression, as it has been reported that oral BCAA supplementation increased plasma taurine level in the patients with liver cirrhosis. BCAA, especially leucine, promoted Cdo1 gene transcription, and attenuated TGF-β-mediated suppression of Cdo1 gene expression. These results indicate that the low plasma level of taurine in advanced hepatic disease is due to decreased hepatic CDO expression, which can be partly attributed to suppressive effect of TGF-β on Cdo1 gene transcription. Furthermore, our observation that BCAA promotes Cdo1 expression suggests that BCAA may be therapeutically useful to improve hepatic taurine metabolism and further suppress dysfunctions associated with low level of taurine in hepatic diseases.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of Taurine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Bayarmaa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Have been obtained 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (taurine from ethanolamine, sulfuric acid and sodium sulfite during the synthesis in laboratory condition. The process involves two steps of reactions, the first was esterification of ethanolamine with sulfuric acid to produce the intermediate product of 2-aminoethyl ester which than was extended to the second step by sulfonation with sodium sulfite to produce 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid. Resulting product was analyzed using 1H-NMR, IR, FAB-MS analysis and examined purity characterizations of the synthesized products. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v14i0.200 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 14 (40, 2013, p57-60

  11. Maternal Methyl Donor Supplementation during Gestation Counteracts the Bisphenol A-Induced Impairment of Intestinal Morphology, Disaccharidase Activity, and Nutrient Transporters Gene Expression in Newborn and Weaning Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to explore whether exposure to bisphenol A (BPA during pregnancy could change intestinal digestion and absorption function in offspring using pigs as a model, and whether methyl donor (MET could counteract the BPA-induced impacts. Fifty Landrace × Yorkshire sows were divided into four dietary groups throughout gestation: control diet (CON; control diet supplemented with BPA (50 mg/kg; control diet supplemented with MET (3 g/kg betaine, 400 mg/kg choline, 150 μg/kg vitamin B12, and 15 mg/kg folic acid; and control diet with BPA and MET supplementation (BPA + MET. Intestine samples were collected from pigs’ offspring at birth and weaning. Maternal BPA exposure during pregnancy significantly reduced the ratio of jejunum villus height to crypt depth, decreased the jejunum sucrase activity, down-regulated the mRNA expression of jejunum peptide transporter 1 (Pept1 and DNA methyl transferase 3a (DNMT3a, and decreased the DNA methylation level of jejunum Pept1 in offspring (p < 0.05. Maternal MET supplementation significantly raised the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in jejunum and ileum, improved the jejunum lactase activity, up-regulated the mRNA expression of jejunum Pept1, lactase (LCT, DNMT1, DNMT3a, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, and increased the DNA methylation level of jejunum Pept1 in offspring (p < 0.05. However, the ratio of jejunum villus height to crypt depth was higher in BPA + MET treatment compared with CON and BPA treatment (p < 0.05. Meanwhile, there was no difference in the jejunum sucrase activity, the mRNA expression of jejunum Pept1 and DNMT3a, and the DNA methylation level of jejunum Pept1 between CON and BPA + MET treatment. These results indicated that maternal exposure to BPA during gestation might suppress offspring’s intestinal digestion and absorption function, whereas supplementation of MET could counteract these damages, which might be associated with DNA methylation.

  12. Maternal deaths in a tertiary health care centre of Odisha: An in-depth study supplemented by verbal autopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit Paul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal mortality is a reflection of the care given to women by its society. It is tragic that deaths occur during the natural process of child birth and most of them are preventable. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to find out the causes and contributing factors of maternal deaths. Materials and Methods: All maternal deaths occurring in a year in the medical college and hospital were traced and interviews were taken from the relatives as well as the health care providers who were present at the time of death of the woman. Results: Out of the total maternal deaths, 72% belonged to 20-30 yrs age group, also 46.5% were illiterate, and majority deaths (60.5% were from low socio-economics status. Direct causes were responsible for 76.7% of maternal deaths. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were most common (32.6% cause of direct deaths, while malaria (9.3% and anemia (7% were most common indirect causes. Most of the women had to use their own resources to travel to health care facilities. Delays at different levels, often in combination, contributed to the maternal deaths. Conclusions: The study will serve as an eye-opener to the bottlenecks present in the community as well as in the health facility so as to take appropriate measures to prevent maternal deaths.

  13. Physiological roles of taurine in heart and muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Taurine (aminoethane sulfonic acid) is an ubiquitous compound, found in very high concentrations in heart and muscle. Although taurine is classified as an amino acid, it does not participate in peptide bond formation. Nonetheless, the amino group of taurine is involved in a number of important conjugation reactions as well as in the scavenging of hypochlorous acid. Because taurine is a fairly inert compound, it is an ideal modulator of basic processes, such as osmotic pressure, cation homeostasis, enzyme activity, receptor regulation, cell development and cell signalling. The present review discusses several physiological functions of taurine. First, the observation that taurine depletion leads to the development of a cardiomyopathy indicates a role for taurine in the maintenance of normal contractile function. Evidence is provided that this function of taurine is mediated by changes in the activity of key Ca2+ transporters and the modulation Ca2+ sensitivity of the myofibrils. Second, in some species, taurine is an established osmoregulator, however, in mammalian heart the osmoregulatory function of taurine has recently been questioned. Third, taurine functions as an indirect regulator of oxidative stress. Although this action of taurine has been widely discussed, its mechanism of action is unclear. A potential mechanism for the antioxidant activity of taurine is discussed. Fourth, taurine stabilizes membranes through direct interactions with phospholipids. However, its inhibition of the enzyme, phospholipid N-methyltransferase, alters the phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine content of membranes, which in turn affects the function of key proteins within the membrane. Finally, taurine serves as a modulator of protein kinases and phosphatases within the cardiomyocyte. The mechanism of this action has not been studied. Taurine is a chemically simple compound, but it has profound effects on cells. This has led to the suggestion that taurine is an

  14. Physiological roles of taurine in heart and muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Stephen W; Jong, Chian Ju; Ramila, K C; Azuma, Junichi

    2010-08-24

    Taurine (aminoethane sulfonic acid) is an ubiquitous compound, found in very high concentrations in heart and muscle. Although taurine is classified as an amino acid, it does not participate in peptide bond formation. Nonetheless, the amino group of taurine is involved in a number of important conjugation reactions as well as in the scavenging of hypochlorous acid. Because taurine is a fairly inert compound, it is an ideal modulator of basic processes, such as osmotic pressure, cation homeostasis, enzyme activity, receptor regulation, cell development and cell signalling. The present review discusses several physiological functions of taurine. First, the observation that taurine depletion leads to the development of a cardiomyopathy indicates a role for taurine in the maintenance of normal contractile function. Evidence is provided that this function of taurine is mediated by changes in the activity of key Ca2+ transporters and the modulation Ca2+ sensitivity of the myofibrils. Second, in some species, taurine is an established osmoregulator, however, in mammalian heart the osmoregulatory function of taurine has recently been questioned. Third, taurine functions as an indirect regulator of oxidative stress. Although this action of taurine has been widely discussed, its mechanism of action is unclear. A potential mechanism for the antioxidant activity of taurine is discussed. Fourth, taurine stabilizes membranes through direct interactions with phospholipids. However, its inhibition of the enzyme, phospholipid N-methyltransferase, alters the phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine content of membranes, which in turn affects the function of key proteins within the membrane. Finally, taurine serves as a modulator of protein kinases and phosphatases within the cardiomyocyte. The mechanism of this action has not been studied. Taurine is a chemically simple compound, but it has profound effects on cells. This has led to the suggestion that taurine is an

  15. Auditory- and visual-evoked potentials in Mexican infants are not affected by maternal supplementation with 400 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid in the second half of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Aryeh D; Wang, Meng; Rivera, Juan A; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2012-08-01

    The evidence relating prenatal supplementation with DHA to offspring neurological development is limited. We investigated the effect of prenatal DHA supplementation on infant brainstem auditory-evoked responses and visual- evoked potentials in a double-blind, randomized controlled trial in Cuernavaca, Mexico. Pregnant women were supplemented daily with 400 mg DHA or placebo from gestation wk 18-22 through delivery. DHA and placebo groups did not differ in maternal characteristics at randomization or infant characteristics at birth. Brainstem auditory-evoked responses were measured at 1 and 3 mo in 749 and 664 infants, respectively, and visual-evoked potentials were measured at 3 and 6 mo in 679 and 817 infants, respectively. Left-right brainstem auditory-evoked potentials were moderately correlated (range, 0.26-0.43; all P evoked potentials were strongly correlated (range, 0.79-0.94; all P 0.10). We conclude that DHA supplementation during pregnancy did not influence brainstem auditory-evoked responses at 1 and 3 mo or visual-evoked potentials at 3 and 6 mo.

  16. A cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, maternal vitamin a or beta-carotene supplementation trial in bangladesh: design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulze Kerry

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present the design, methods and population characteristics of a large community trial that assessed the efficacy of a weekly supplement containing vitamin A or beta-carotene, at recommended dietary levels, in reducing maternal mortality from early gestation through 12 weeks postpartum. We identify challenges faced and report solutions in implementing an intervention trial under low-resource, rural conditions, including the importance of population choice in promoting generalizability, maintaining rigorous data quality control to reduce inter- and intra- worker variation, and optimizing efficiencies in information and resources flow from and to the field. Methods This trial was a double-masked, cluster-randomized, dual intervention, placebo-controlled trial in a contiguous rural area of ~435 sq km with a population of ~650,000 in Gaibandha and Rangpur Districts of Northwestern Bangladesh. Approximately 120,000 married women of reproductive age underwent 5-weekly home surveillance, of whom ~60,000 were detected as pregnant, enrolled into the trial and gave birth to ~44,000 live-born infants. Upon enrollment, at ~ 9 weeks' gestation, pregnant women received a weekly oral supplement containing vitamin A (7000 ug retinol equivalents (RE, beta-carotene (42 mg, or ~7000 ug RE or a placebo through 12 weeks postpartum, according to prior randomized allocation of their cluster of residence. Systems described include enlistment and 5-weekly home surveillance for pregnancy based on menstrual history and urine testing, weekly supervised supplementation, periodic risk factor interviews, maternal and infant vital outcome monitoring, birth defect surveillance and clinical/biochemical substudies. Results The primary outcome was pregnancy-related mortality assessed for 3 months following parturition. Secondary outcomes included fetal loss due to miscarriage or stillbirth, infant mortality under three months of age, maternal obstetric and

  17. The C677T polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR), maternal use of folic acid supplements, and risk of isolated clubfoot: A case-parent-triad analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Linda; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Cardy, Amanda H; Inglis, Julie; Madrigal, Londale; Barker, Simon; Chesney, David; Clark, Caroline; Maffulli, Nicola

    2006-11-01

    Worldwide, 1-4 per 1,000 births are affected by clubfoot. Clubfoot etiology is unclear, but both genetic and environmental factors are thought to be involved. Low folate status in pregnant women has been implicated in several congenital malformations, and folate metabolism may be affected by polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR). Using a case-parent-triad design, the authors investigated whether the MTHFR C677T polymorphism, and maternal periconceptional folic acid supplement use, influenced risk of isolated clubfoot. Three hundred seventy-five United Kingdom case-parent triads were recruited in 1998-1999. Among the children, there was a significant trend of decreasing clubfoot risk with increasing number of T alleles: relative risk for CT vs. CC = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.57, 0.97; relative risk for TT vs. CC = 0.57, 95% confidence interval: 0.35, 0.91; p trend = 0.006. This association was not modified by maternal folic acid use. Maternal MTHFR genotype did not influence clubfoot risk for the offspring overall, although a possible interaction with folic acid use was found. This is the first known report of a specific genetic polymorphism associated with clubfoot. The direction of the association is intriguing and suggests that DNA synthesis may be relevant in clubfoot development. However, clubfoot mechanisms are poorly understood, and the folate metabolism pathway is complex. Further research is needed to elucidate these relations.

  18. Effects of graded taurine levels on juvenile cobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurine, which has multiple important physiological roles in teleost fish and mammals, is an amino acid not found in alternative protein sources not derived from animals. Although taurine is found in fish-meal-based feeds, its high water solubility leads to lower taurine levels in reduction-process-...

  19. Physiological role of taurine - from organism to organelle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Ian Henry; Kristensen, David Møbjerg Boslev; Holm, Jacob Bak

    2015-01-01

    in mammalian cells. However, taurine contributes significantly to the cellular pool of organic osmolytes and has accordingly been acknowledged for its role in cell volume restoration following osmotic perturbation. This review describes taurine homeostasis in cells and organelles with emphasis on taurine...

  20. Supplementation of the maternal diet during pregnancy with chocolate and fructose interacts with the high-fat diet of the young to facilitate the onset of metabolic disorders in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Yun; Dai, Yun-Bin; Wang, Hao-Nan; Wang, Ming-Wei

    2013-09-01

    Obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are the most common metabolic disorders in society today. Previously, we found that supplementing the maternal diet during pregnancy with chocolate and fructose has negative effects on the well-being of the offspring that were ameliorated if the offspring were fed a normal diet during postnatal life. In the present study, we investigated whether feeding offspring a high-fat diet would augment the maternal programming effects and whether extra protein supply can correct the low birth weight resulting from the chocolate-supplemented maternal diet. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed either standard chow (normal nutrition; NN), chocolate- and fructose-supplemented standard chow with casein sodium (overnutrition; ON) or the supplemented standard chow without casein sodium (malnutrition; MN) throughout pregnancy. Male offspring were weaned on either standard or high-fat chow. Dams in the MN group exhibited moderate weight gain, consumed 50% less protein (P chocolate and fructose supplementation of the maternal diet, which, in conjunction with a high-fat diet in the offspring, may facilitate the onset of metabolic disorders, with impaired liver gene expression possibly a key contributor. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Taurine depletion caused by knocking out the taurine transporter gene leads to cardiomyopathy with cardiac atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takashi; Kimura, Yasushi; Uozumi, Yoriko; Takai, Mika; Muraoka, Satoko; Matsuda, Takahisa; Ueki, Kei; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Ikawa, Masahito; Okabe, Masaru; Schaffer, Stephen W; Fujio, Yasushi; Azuma, Junichi

    2008-05-01

    The sulfur-containing beta-amino acid, taurine, is the most abundant free amino acid in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Although its physiological function has not been established, it is thought to play an important role in ion movement, calcium handling, osmoregulation and cytoprotection. To begin examining the physiological function of taurine, we generated taurine transporter- (TauT-) knockout mice (TauTKO), which exhibited a deficiency in myocardial and skeletal muscle taurine content compared with their wild-type littermates. The TauTKO heart underwent ventricular remodeling, characterized by reductions in ventricular wall thickness and cardiac atrophy accompanied with the smaller cardiomyocytes. Associated with the structural changes in the heart was a reduction in cardiac output and increased expression of heart cardiac failure (fetal) marker genes, such as ANP, BNP and beta-MHC. Moreover, ultrastructural damage to the myofilaments and mitochondria was observed. Further, the skeletal muscle of the TauTKO mice also exhibited decreased cell volume, structural defects and a reduction of exercise endurance capacity. Importantly, the expression of Hsp70, ATA2 and S100A4, which are upregulated by osmotic stress, was elevated in both heart and skeletal muscle of the TauTKO mice. Taurine depletion causes cardiomyocyte atrophy, mitochondrial and myofiber damage and cardiac dysfunction, effects likely related to the actions of taurine. Our data suggest that multiple actions of taurine, including osmoregulation, regulation of mitochondrial protein expression and inhibition of apoptosis, collectively ensure proper maintenance of cardiac and skeletal muscular structure and function.

  2. The taurine transporter substrate guanidinoethyl sulfonate mimics the action of taurine on long-term synaptic potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Luz M; Muñoz, María-Dolores; González, José C; Bustamante, Julián; Del Río, Rafael Martín; Solís, José M

    2016-11-01

    Taurine is especially abundant in rodent brain where it appears to be involved in osmoregulation and synaptic plasticity mechanisms. The demonstration of a physiological role for taurine has been hampered by the difficulty in modifying taurine levels in most tissues, including the brain. We used an experimental strategy to reduce taurine levels, involving treatment with guanidinoethyl sulfonate (GES), a structural analogue of taurine that, among other properties, acts as a competitive inhibitor of taurine transport. GES delivered in the drinking water of rats for 1 month effectively reduced taurine levels in brain structures (hippocampus, cerebellum and cortex) and outside the brain (heart, muscle, kidney, liver and plasma) by between 50 and 80 %, depending on the tissue. This partial taurine depletion did not affect either basal synaptic transmission or the late phase of long-term potentiation (late-LTP) in hippocampal slices. In vivo microdialysis studies in the hippocampus revealed that GES treatment reduced extracellular taurine levels and the magnitude of taurine released in response to the application of either N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or a hypoosmotic solution, without affecting release mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrated in hippocampal slices that a brief GES application can mimic taurine action on the conversion of a decremental LTP into a perdurable late-LTP, concluding that GES might replace taurine function in some mechanisms such as those implicated in synaptic plasticity.

  3. Direct and maternal n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation improved triglyceridemia and glycemia through the regulation of hepatic and muscle sphingolipid synthesis in offspring hamsters fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasbi-Chadli, Fatima; Ferchaud-Roucher, Véronique; Krempf, Michel; Ouguerram, Khadija

    2016-03-01

    We recently reported that direct and maternal supplementation with n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) alleviates the metabolic disturbances in adult hamster pups fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). In this study, we hypothesized that these results involved a perinatal modulating effect of sphingolipids by n-3 LC-PUFA. We studied the effect of direct and maternal n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation on sphingolipid contents in liver and muscle, hepatic triglycerides (TG) secretion and glucose tolerance. Offspring male hamsters born from supplemented (Cω) or unsupplemented (C) mothers were subjected after weaning to a HFD during 16 weeks, without (Cω-HF or C-HF) or with direct supplementation with n-3 LC-PUFA (C-HFω). Direct supplementation decreased sphingosine, sphinganine and ceramides in liver and decreased sphingosine, sphinganine, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and ceramides in muscle in C-HFω compared to C-HF (p decreased C20 ceramide and lactosylceramide in liver and sphinganine, S1P and lactosylceramide in muscle (p decrease glucosylceramide in liver (p muscle (p increased glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic TG secretion and hepatic gene expression levels of diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). Maternal supplementation decreased basal glycemia and hepatic TG secretion. We observed a positive correlation between hepatic TG secretion and hepatic ceramide (p = 0.0059), and between basal glycemia and hepatic ceramide (p = 0.04) or muscle lactosylceramide contents (p = 0.001). We observed an improvement of lipids and glucose metabolism in hamster with n-3 LC-PUFA direct supplementation and a decrease in glycemia and hepatic TG secretion with maternal supplementation. These results are probably related to a decrease in both lipogenesis and sphingolipid contents in liver and muscle.

  4. Taurine's effects on the neuroendocrine functions of pancreatic β cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttitta, Christina M; Guariglia, Sara R; Idrissi, Abdeslem El; L'amoreaux, William J

    2013-01-01

    Taurine plays significant physiological roles, including those involved in neurotransmission. Taurine is a potent γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist and alters cellular events via GABA(A) receptors. Alternately, taurine is transported into cells via the high affinity taurine transporter (TauT), where it may also play a regulatory role. We have previously demonstrated that treatment of Hit-T15 cells with 1 mM taurine for 24 h significantly decreases insulin and GABA levels. We have also demonstrated that chronic in vivo administration of taurine results in an up-regulation of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the key enzyme in GABA synthesis. Here, we wished to test if administration of 1 mM taurine for 24 h may increase release of another β cell neurotransmitter somatostatin (SST) and also directly impact up-regulation of GAD synthesis. Treatment with taurine did not significantly alter levels of SST (p > 0.05) or GAD67 (p > 0.05). This suggests that taurine does not directly affect SST release, nor does it directly affect GAD synthesis. Taken together with our observation that taurine does promote GABA release via large dense-core vesicles, the data suggest that taurine may alter membrane potential, which in turn would affect calcium flux. We show here that 1 mM taurine does not alter intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations from 20 to 80 s post treatment (p > 0.05), but does increase Ca(2+) flux between 80 and 200 s post-treatment (p taurine may induce a biphasic response in β cells. The initial response of taurine via GABA(A) receptors hyperpolarizes β cell and sequesters Ca(2+). Subsequently, taurine may affect Ca(2+) flux in long term via interaction with K(ATP) channels.

  5. Does a physiological concentration of taurine increase acute muscle power output, time to fatigue, and recovery in isolated mouse soleus (slow) muscle with or without the presence of caffeine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Jason; Higgins, Matthew F; Cox, Val M; Duncan, Michael J; James, Rob S

    2014-01-01

    High concentrations of caffeine and taurine are key constituents of many ergogenic supplements ingested acutely to provide legal enhancements in athlete performance. Despite this, there is little evidence supporting the claims for the performance-enhancing effects of acute taurine supplementation. In-vitro models have demonstrated that a caffeine-induced muscle contracture can be further potentiated when combined with a high concentration of taurine. However, the high concentrations of caffeine used in previous research would be toxic for human consumption. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether a physiological dose of caffeine and taurine would directly potentiate skeletal muscle performance. Isolated mouse soleus muscle was used to examine the effects of physiological taurine (TAU), caffeine (CAF), and taurine-caffeine combined (TC) on (i) acute muscle power output; (ii) time to fatigue; and (iii) recovery from fatigue, compared with the untreated controls (CON). Treatment with TAU failed to elicit any significant difference in the measured parameters. Treatment with TC resulted in a significant increase in acute muscle power output and faster time to fatigue. The ergogenic benefit posed by TC was not different from the effects of caffeine alone, suggesting no acute ergogenic benefit of taurine.

  6. A role of taurine in mitochondrial function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Svend Høime; Andersen, Mogens Larsen; Cornett, Claus

    2010-01-01

    The mitochondrial pH gradient across the inner-membrane is stabilised by buffering of the matrix. A low-molecular mass buffer compound has to be localised in the matrix to maintain its alkaline pH value. Taurine is found ubiquitously in animal cells with concentrations in the millimolar range...... and its pKa value is determined to 9.0 (25 degrees C) and 8.6 (37 degrees C), respectively. Localisation of such a low-molecular buffer in the mitochondrial matrix, transforms the matrix into a biochemical reaction chamber for the important matrix-localised enzyme systems. Three acyl-CoA dehydrogenase...... enzymes, which are pivotal for beta-oxidation of fatty acids, are demonstrated to have optimal activity in a taurine buffer. By application of the model presented, taurine depletion caused by hyperglycemia could provide a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and diabetes....

  7. Effect of iodine supplementation in Indian pregnant women on maternal and newborn thyroid function and cognitive development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaikrishna, N.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Iodine is a key nutrient in neurodevelopment, and the fetus is entirely dependent on the iodine intake of the mother to fulfill this important requirement for proper brain function. While this is clearly known, it is uncertain if maternal iodine

  8. Maternal and child nutrition in rural Bangladesh: special reference to the effect of dietary fat supplementation on vitamin A status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of maternal and child malnutrition in Bangladesh is one of the highest in the world. It is estimated that 50% of women of childbearing age suffer chronic energy deficiency (BMI<18.5), nearly half of infants are born with a low birth weight (<2.5 kg), and about

  9. Effect of iodine supplementation in Indian pregnant women on maternal and newborn thyroid function and cognitive development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaikrishna, N.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Iodine is a key nutrient in neurodevelopment, and the fetus is entirely dependent on the iodine intake of the mother to fulfill this important requirement for proper brain function. While this is clearly known, it is uncertain if maternal iodine

  10. Maternal supplementation with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during perinatal period alleviates the metabolic syndrome disturbances in adult hamster pups fed a high-fat diet after weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasbi-Chadli, Fatima; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Simard, Gilles; Ulmann, Lionel; Mimouni, Virginie; Leray, Véronique; Meynier, Anne; Ferchaud-Roucher, Véronique; Champ, Martine; Nguyen, Patrick; Ouguerram, Khadija

    2014-07-01

    Perinatal nutrition is thought to affect the long-term risk of the adult to develop metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that maternal supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy and lactation would protect offspring fed a high-fat diet from developing metabolic disturbances. Thus, two groups of female hamsters were fed a low-fat control diet, either alone (LC) or enriched with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) (LO), through the gestational and lactation periods. After weaning, male pups were randomized to separate groups that received either a control low-fat diet (LC) or a high-fat diet (HC) for 16 weeks. Four groups of pups were defined (LC-LC, LC-HC, LO-LC and LO-HC), based on the combinations of maternal and weaned diets. Maternal n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation was associated with reduced levels of basal plasma glucose, hepatic triglycerides secretion and postprandial lipemia in the LO-HC group compared to the LC-HC group. Respiratory parameters were not affected by maternal supplementation. In contrast, n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation significantly enhanced the activities of citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase compared to the offspring of unsupplemented mothers. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 and tumor necrosis factor α expression levels were not affected by n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation. These results provide evidence for a beneficial effect of n-3 LC-PUFA maternal supplementation in hamsters on the subsequent risk of metabolic syndrome. Underlying mechanisms may include improved lipid metabolism and activation of the mitochondrial oxidative pathway.

  11. Roles of taurine-mediated tonic GABAA receptor activation in the radial migration of neurons in the fetal mouse cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori eFurukawa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA depolarizes embryonic cerebrocortical neurons and continuous activation of the GABAA receptor (GABAAR contributes to their tonic depolarization. Although multiple reports have demonstrated a role of GABAAR activation in neocortical development, including in migration, most of these studies have used pharmacological blockers. Herein, we performed in utero electroporation in GABA synthesis-lacking homozygous GAD67-GFP knock-in mice (GAD67GFP/GFP to label neurons born in the ventricular zone. Three days after electroporation, there were no differences in the distribution of labeled cells between the genotypes. The dose-response properties of cells labeled to detect GABA were equivalent among genotypes. However, continuous blockade of GABAAR with the GABAAR antagonist SR95531 accelerated radial migration. This effect of GABAAR blockade in GAD67GFP/GFP mice suggested a role for alternative endogenous GABAAR agonists. Thus, we tested the role of taurine, which is derived from maternal blood but is abundant in the fetal brain. The taurine-evoked currents in labeled cells were mediated by GABAAR. Taurine uptake was blocked by a taurine transporter inhibitor, 2-(guanidinoethanesulfonic acid (GES, and taurine release was blocked by a volume-sensitive anion channel blocker, 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichlor-2-cyclopentylindan-1-on-5-yl oxobutyric acid (DCPIB, as examined through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. GES increased the extracellular taurine concentration and induced an inward shift of the holding current, which was reversed by SR95531. In a taurine-deficient mouse model, the GABAAR-mediated tonic currents were greatly reduced, and radial migration was accelerated. As the tonic currents were equivalent among the genotypes of GAD67-GFP knock-in mice, taurine, rather than GABA, might play a major role as an endogenous agonist of embryonic tonic GABAAR conductance, regulating the radial migration of neurons in the

  12. Effects of lycopene supplementation in both maternal and offspring diets on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, B; Chen, C; Wang, W; Ma, J; Xie, Q; Gao, Y; Chen, F; Zhang, X; Bi, Y

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of different supplementation ways of lycopene during pre-hatch (from the diet of hens) and post-hatch (from the diet of progeny) on production performance, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters in chicks. In total, 360 hens were fed diets supplemented with 0 (control group) or 40 mg lycopene/kg diet. From 28 to 34 days after the start of supplementation (30 weeks old), 650 qualified eggs were collected to artificial incubation. In this trial, 2 × 2 factorial designs were used. Male chicks hatched from hens fed with 0 or 40 mg lycopene/kg diet were fed a diet containing either 0 or 40 mg lycopene/kg diet. The results showed that, relative to control, in ovo-deposited lycopene significantly increased chick birth body weight, improved liver total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH: GSSG), and significantly declined liver malondialdehyde (MDA) level and increased liver lycopene content during 0-14 days after hatching. On days 14 after hatching, dietary lycopene in diet began to take over gradually. Both supplementation ways of lycopene increased immune organ index, serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, villus length and villus/crypt in duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Data in this study suggested lycopene supplementation could improve antioxidant capacity and immune function, and regulate lipid metabolism in chicks.

  13. The effect of taurine on chronic heart failure: actions of taurine against catecholamine and angiotensin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takashi; Schaffer, Stephen; Azuma, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Taurine, a ubiquitous endogenous sulfur-containing amino acid, possesses numerous pharmacological and physiological actions, including antioxidant activity, modulation of calcium homeostasis and antiapoptotic effects. There is mounting evidence supporting the utility of taurine as a pharmacological agent against heart disease, including chronic heart failure (CHF). In the past decade, angiotensin II blockade and β-adrenergic inhibition have served as the mainstay in the treatment of CHF. Both groups of pharmaceutical agents decrease mortality and improve the quality of life, a testament to the critical role of the sympathetic nervous system and the renin--angiotensin system in the development of CHF. Taurine has also attracted attention because it has beneficial actions in CHF, in part by its demonstrated inhibition of the harmful actions of the neurohumoral factors. In this review, we summarize the beneficial actions of taurine in CHF, focusing on its antagonism of the catecholamines and angiotensin II.

  14. Review: Taurine: A “very essential” amino acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Taurine is an organic osmolyte involved in cell volume regulation, and provides a substrate for the formation of bile salts. It plays a role in the modulation of intracellular free calcium concentration, and although it is one of the few amino acids not incorporated into proteins, taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids in the brain, retina, muscle tissue, and organs throughout the body. Taurine serves a wide variety of functions in the central nervous system, from development to cytoprotection, and taurine deficiency is associated with cardiomyopathy, renal dysfunction, developmental abnormalities, and severe damage to retinal neurons. All ocular tissues contain taurine, and quantitative analysis of ocular tissue extracts of the rat eye revealed that taurine was the most abundant amino acid in the retina, vitreous, lens, cornea, iris, and ciliary body. In the retina, taurine is critical for photoreceptor development and acts as a cytoprotectant against stress-related neuronal damage and other pathological conditions. Despite its many functional properties, however, the cellular and biochemical mechanisms mediating the actions of taurine are not fully known. Nevertheless, considering its broad distribution, its many cytoprotective attributes, and its functional significance in cell development, nutrition, and survival, taurine is undoubtedly one of the most essential substances in the body. Interestingly, taurine satisfies many of the criteria considered essential for inclusion in the inventory of neurotransmitters, but evidence of a taurine-specific receptor has yet to be identified in the vertebrate nervous system. In this report, we present a broad overview of the functional properties of taurine, some of the consequences of taurine deficiency, and the results of studies in animal models suggesting that taurine may play a therapeutic role in the management of epilepsy and diabetes. PMID:23170060

  15. Role of taurine on acid secretion in the rat stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Taurine has chemical structure similar to an inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Previous studies on GABA in the stomach suggest GABAergic neuron is involved in acid secretion, but the effects of taurine are poor understood. Methods The effects of taurine on acid secretion, signal transduction, and localization of taurinergic neurons were determined in the rat stomach using everted whole stomach, RIA kit and immunohistochemical methods. Results We used antibodies against taurine-synthesizing enzyme, cysteine sulfuric acid decarboxylase (CSAD), and taurine. CSAD- and taurine-positive cells were found in the muscle and mucosal layers. Distributions of CSAD- and taurine-positive cells in both mucosal and muscle layers were heterogeneous in the stomach. Taurine at 10-9~10-4 M induced acid secretion, and the maximum secretion was at 10-5 M, 1.6-fold higher than the spontaneous secretion. Taurine-induced acid secretion was completely inhibited by bicuculline and atropine but not by cimetidine, proglumide, or strychnine. Atropine and tetrodotoxin (TTX) completely inhibited the acid secretion induced by low concentrations of taurine and partially inhibited induced by high concentrations. Verapamil, a calcium blocker agent, inhibited acid output elicited by taurine. We assumed all Ca2+ channels involved in the response to these secretagogues were equally affected by verapamil. Intracellular cAMP (adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphat) in the stomach significantly increased with taurine treatment in a dose-dependent manner. High correlation (r=0.859, p taurine concentrations with cAMP was observed. Conclusions Our results demonstrated for the first time in taurine-induced acid secretion due to increase intracellular calcium may act through the A type of GABA receptors, which are mainly located on cholinergic neurons though cAMP pathway and partially on nonneuronal cells in the rat stomach. PMID:21294907

  16. Maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy: a 12 year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, Suzanne; Dunstan, Janet A; Foster, Jonathan K; Simmer, Karen; Prescott, Susan L

    2015-03-20

    A number of trials have been undertaken to assess whether the intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) during pregnancy can influence the neurological development of the offspring, yet no consensus from these trials has been reached. We aimed to investigate the long-term effects (12 years) of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on neurodevelopment, including cognition, language and fine motor skills. In a follow up of a previously published randomised controlled trial of 98 pregnant women, their children were assessed at 12 years of age using a battery of neurodevelopmental assessments. Fifty participants were assessed at 12 years, with 25 participant's mothers receiving fish oil supplementation, and 25 receiving control capsules. There were no significant differences for any of the assessment measures completed. Our data indicate that fish oil supplementation during pregnancy does not influence the cognition, language or fine motor skills of children in late primary school (12 years of age).

  17. Long-term effects of maternal citrulline supplementation on renal transcriptome prevention of nitric oxide depletion-related programmed hypertension: the impact of gene-nutrient interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, You-Lin; Lee, Chien-Te; Huang, Li-Tung

    2014-12-15

    Maternal malnutrition can elicit gene expression leading to fetal programming. L-citrulline (CIT) can be converted to L-arginine to generate nitric oxide (NO). We examined whether maternal CIT supplementation can prevent N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME, NO synthase inhibitor)-induced programmed hypertension and examined their effects on the renal transcriptome in male offspring using next generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received L-NAME administration at 60mg/kg/day subcutaneously via osmotic minipump during pregnancy alone or with additional 0.25% L-citrulline solution in drinking water during the whole period of pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were assigned to three groups: control, L-NAME, and L-NAME + CIT. L-NAME exposure induced hypertension in the 12-week-old offspring, which CIT therapy prevented. Identified differentially expressed genes in L-NAME and CIT-treated offspring kidneys, including Guca2b, Hmox1, Hba2, Hba-a2, Dusp1, and Serpine1 are related to regulation of blood pressure (BP) and oxidative stress. In conclusion, our data suggests that the beneficial effects of CIT supplementation are attributed to alterations in expression levels of genes related to BP control and oxidative stress. Our results suggest that early nutritional intervention by CIT has long-term impact on the renal transcriptome to prevent NO depletion-related programmed hypertension. However, our RNA-Seq results might be a secondary phenomenon. The implications of epigenetic regulation at an early stage of programming deserve further clarification.

  18. The Effect of a Maternal Double Megadose of Vitamin A Supplement on Serum Levels of Retinol in Children Aged under Six Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Carmina Silva; Kruze, Ilma; Fernandes, Taciana; Andreto, Luciana Marques; Figueiroa, José Natal; Diniz, Alcides da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To measure concentrations of serum retinol in children after the use of maternal vitamin A double megadose supplements. Design. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting. The study was conducted at two maternity hospitals in the city of Recife, in the northeast region of Brazil between August 2007 and June 2009. Subjects and Methods. 276 children/mothers were recruited after birth and the women received a 200,000 IU capsule of vitamin A. After ten days they were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. One group received a second 200.000 IU capsule, while the other received a placebo. The concentrations of retinol in the serum of the children from each group were measured at 2, 4, and 6 months. Results. 173 children completed the study. There was no difference between the two treatment groups (P = 0.514). The mean base retinol level was lower than that at four and six months (P retinol levels of the children, although concentrations of retinol in the children rose in the first six months of life. This trial is registered with NCT00742937.

  19. 孕鼠补充牛磺酸促进生长受限胎鼠神经元与神经干细胞增殖的最佳时机%Optimal timing of antenatal taurine supplementation for improvement of neuron and neural stem cell proliferation in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽芳; 李芳; 刘敬; 王华伟

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo determine the optimal timing of antenatal taurine supplementation to improve neuron and neural stem cell proliferation in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction.Methods Twenty-five pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into five groups (five rats in each group): group A was the control group, group B to E were the fetal growth restriction (FGR) model groups with low-protein diet during the experiment, group C, D, and E were supplemented with taurine [300 mg/(kg·d)] at day 9, 11 and 15, respectively. The birth weight of newborn rats was measured after natural delivery. The rats with body weight two standard deviations lower than the average weight in group A were diagnosed as FGR. There were five litters of newborn rats in each group, and two were randomly selected from each litter, resulting in ten newborn rats in each group. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7) positive cell expression in newborn rat brain tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. Single factor analysis of variance, LSD tests were used for statistical analysis.ResultsThe average birth weight of newborn rats in group A, B, C, D and E were (6.61±0.45), (4.65±0.23), (5.37±0.17), (5.74±0.21), and (5.00±0.24) g, respectively. Average birth weight was lower in group B than in group A (t=2.447), higher in group D and E than in group B (t=2.306 and 2.306), higher in group D than in group C and E (t=2.306 and 2.306), and the differences were statistically significant (allP0.05). The IOD in group D was higher than that in group E, and the difference was statistically significant (t=4.182,P<0.05).ConclusionsAntenatal taurine supplementation can promote neuron and neural stem cell proliferation in rats with FGR. The effect is most obvious on the 11th day of pregnancy, and may lead to the promotion of brain development.%目的:探讨孕鼠补充牛磺酸促进胎儿生长受限(fetal growth restriction,FGR)胎鼠神经元

  20. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: Effect on visual acuity and n-3 fatty acid content of infant erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, L.; Jørgensen, M.H.; Mikkelsen, T.B.

    2004-01-01

    of fish oil (FO) supplements in lactating mothers. In this double-blinded randomized trial, Danish mothers with habitual fish intake below the 50th percentile of the Danish National Birth Cohort were randomized to microencapsulated FO [1.3 g/d long-chain n-3 FA (n-3 LCPUFA)] or olive oil (00...

  1. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: Effect on visual acuity and n-3 fatty acid content of infant erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, L.; Jørgensen, M.H.; Mikkelsen, T.B.;

    2004-01-01

    of fish oil (FO) supplements in lactating mothers. In this double-blinded randomized trial, Danish mothers with habitual fish intake below the 50th percentile of the Danish National Birth Cohort were randomized to microencapsulated FO [1.3 g/d long-chain n-3 FA (n-3 LCPUFA)] or olive oil (00...

  2. Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program in the Affordable Care Act: Supplemental Instruction Request-February 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    The latest Evidence-Based Home Visiting Supplemental Information Request (SIR) has recently been released by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) with collaboration from the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) and the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) as outlined in the first Funding Opportunity…

  3. Effects of taurine supplementation and swimming, associated or not, on obesity and glucose homeostasis in mice = Efeito da suplementação com taurina e da natação, associadas ou não, sobre a obesidade e homeostase glicêmica em camundongos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Cheng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . Studies show that physical exercise (PE is associated with a reduced fat accumulation and increased insulin sensitivity, and taurine (TAU improves glucose homeostasis in lean rodents. The aim in this work was evaluate the effects of supplementing TAU and practice of PE, associated or not, on obesity and glucose homeostasis on obese MSG-mice. Neonate male Swiss mice received injections of monosodium glutamate (MSG group or saline (CON group. From the 30th to the 90th day of life, one group of animals received TAU in drinking water (MSG TAU group, another was subjected to PE (MSG PE group and a third group underwent both procedures (MSG PE TAU group. Mice treated with MSG become obese, hypertriglyceridemic, glucose intolerant and insulin resistant. The supplementation with TAU and the PE, isolated or associated, reduced the triglycerides (38%, glucose intolerance (around 30% and KITT (79% in MSG-obese animals, but did not influence the accumulation of fat. Interestingly, the combination of both strategies significantly reduced the insulin resistance, compared to animals subjected to isolated strategies. In conclusion, the supplementation with TAU and PE, isolated or associated, did not influence the accumulation of fat in MSG-obese mice, however, reduce the triglycerides and insulin resistance. O exercício físico (EF está associado à redução do acúmulo de gordura e aumento na sensibilidade à insulina e a taurina (TAU melhora a homeostase glicêmica em roedores magros. Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da suplementação com TAU e do EF, associados ou não, sobre a obesidade e a homeostase glicêmica em camundongos obesos-MSG. Camundongos Swiss machos neonatos receberam injeções de glutamato monossódico (grupo MSG ou salina (grupo CON. Do 30º ao 90º dia de vida, um grupo de animais MSG recebeu TAU na água de beber (MSG TAU; outro foi submetido ao EF (MSG EX e um terceiro grupo foi submetido aos dois procedimentos (MSG EX TAU

  4. Expression of hepatic miRNAs targeting porcine glucocorticoid receptor (GR 3′UTR in the neonatal piglets under a maternal gestational betaine supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Cai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid receptor (GR has been previously demonstrated an important transcriptional factor of hepatic metabolic genes in the neonates under a maternal gestational betaine supplementation (“Gestational dietary betaine supplementation suppresses hepatic expression of lipogenic genes in neonatal piglets through epigenetic and glucocorticoid receptor-dependent mechanisms” Cai et al., 2015 [1]. Here we provide accompanying data about the expression of hepatic miRNAs targeting porcine GR 3′UTR in the neonatal piglets. Liver samples were obtained and RNA was isolated. RNA was polyadenylated by poly (A polymerase and then dissolved and reverse transcribed using poly (T adapter. The diluted cDNA were used in each real-time PCR assay. The sequences of all the porcine miRNAs were acquired from miRBase (http://www.mirbase.org/. miRNAs targeting GR were predicted using the PITA algorithm. Among all the predicted miRNAs, 4 miRNAs targeting GR were quantitated by real-time PCR and miRNA-124a, which has been identified to target GR 3′UTR [2,3], was more highly expressed in betaine-exposed neonatal livers.

  5. The influence of maternal smoking habits before pregnancy and antioxidative supplementation during pregnancy on oxidative stress status in a non-complicated pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardalić, Daniela; Stefanović, Aleksandra; Kotur-Stevuljević, Jelena; Vujović, Ana; Spasić, Slavica; Spasojević-Kaliomanvska, Vesna; Jelić-Ivanović, Zorana; Mandić-Marković, Vesna; Miković, Zeljko; Cerović, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    As a physiological condition closely linked with increased susceptibility to oxidative stress, pregnancy can be further compromised by cigarette smoking. Inadequate nutrition and reduced intake of antioxidants can also disrupt the prooxidant/antioxidant relationship and contribute to oxidative stress. Increased oxidative stress during pregnancy may be involved in several complications of pregnancy, such as preterm labor, fetal growth restriction, preeclampsia and miscarriage. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of maternal smoking habits before pregnancy on the parameters of oxidative stress and the antioxidative defense system, lipid profile parameters and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity during the third trimester of uncomplicated pregnancies. Healthy pregnant women (n = 86) were divided into non-smoking and smoking groups, and into groups taking vitamin supplements and not taking them. Oxidative damage was measured through the levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) and plasma antioxidant status was evaluated by measuring total antioxidant capacity (TAC). TBARS concetration was significantly higher (p pregnancy is associated with increased oxidative stress. Vitamin supplementation has no effect on the oxidative stress status of healthy pregnant women.

  6. Role of taurine in the pathogenesis of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeru

    2015-07-01

    Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is present in mammalian tissues in millimolar concentrations. Taurine is involved in a diverse array of biological and physiological functions, including bile salt conjugation, osmoregulation, membrane stabilization, calcium modulation, anti-oxidation, and immunomodulation. The prevalence of obesity and being overweight continues to rise worldwide at an alarming rate. Obesity is associated with a higher risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and other clinical conditions. Ingestion of taurine has been shown to alleviate metabolic diseases such as hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hypertension, and obesity in animal models. A global epidemiological survey showed that 24-h urinary taurine excretion, as a marker of dietary taurine intake, was inversely associated with BMI, blood pressure, and plasma cholesterol in humans. In addition, taurine chloramine, an endogenous product derived from activated neutrophils, has been reported to suppress obesity-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in adipocytes. Synthetic activity and concentration of taurine in adipose tissues and plasma have been shown to decrease in humans and animals during the development of obesity, suggesting a relationship between taurine deficiency and obesity. In this review, I summarize the effects of taurine on the progression of obesity in animal models and humans. Furthermore, I discuss possible mechanisms underlying the antiobesity effects of taurine. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Role of taurine on acid secretion in the rat stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jau-Der

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taurine has chemical structure similar to an inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA. Previous studies on GABA in the stomach suggest GABAergic neuron is involved in acid secretion, but the effects of taurine are poor understood. Methods The effects of taurine on acid secretion, signal transduction, and localization of taurinergic neurons were determined in the rat stomach using everted whole stomach, RIA kit and immunohistochemical methods. Results We used antibodies against taurine-synthesizing enzyme, cysteine sulfuric acid decarboxylase (CSAD, and taurine. CSAD- and taurine-positive cells were found in the muscle and mucosal layers. Distributions of CSAD- and taurine-positive cells in both mucosal and muscle layers were heterogeneous in the stomach. Taurine at 10-9~10-4 M induced acid secretion, and the maximum secretion was at 10-5 M, 1.6-fold higher than the spontaneous secretion. Taurine-induced acid secretion was completely inhibited by bicuculline and atropine but not by cimetidine, proglumide, or strychnine. Atropine and tetrodotoxin (TTX completely inhibited the acid secretion induced by low concentrations of taurine and partially inhibited induced by high concentrations. Verapamil, a calcium blocker agent, inhibited acid output elicited by taurine. We assumed all Ca2+ channels involved in the response to these secretagogues were equally affected by verapamil. Intracellular cAMP (adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphat in the stomach significantly increased with taurine treatment in a dose-dependent manner. High correlation (r=0.859, p Conclusions Our results demonstrated for the first time in taurine-induced acid secretion due to increase intracellular calcium may act through the A type of GABA receptors, which are mainly located on cholinergic neurons though cAMP pathway and partially on nonneuronal cells in the rat stomach.

  8. Role of family support and women's knowledge on pregnancy-related risks in adherence to maternal iron-folic acid supplementation in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiradnyani, Luh Ade Ari; Khusun, Helda; Achadi, Endang L; Ocviyanti, Dwiana; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2016-10-01

    To examine whether women's knowledge of pregnancy-related risks and family support received during pregnancy are associated with adherence to maternal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation. Secondary data analysis of the 2002-03, 2007 and 2012 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey. Analysis of the association between factors associated with adherence (consuming ≥90 IFA tablets), including the women's knowledge and family support, was performed using multivariate logistic regression. National household survey. Women (n 19 133) who had given birth within 2 years prior to the interview date. Knowledge of pregnancy-related risks was associated with increased adherence to IFA supplementation (adjusted OR=1·8; 95 % CI 1·6, 2·0), as was full family (particularly husband's) support (adjusted OR=1·9; 95 % CI 1·6, 2·3). Adequate antenatal care (ANC) visits (i.e. four or more) was associated with increased adherence (adjusted OR=2·2; 95 % CI 2·0, 2·4). However, ANC providers missed opportunities to distribute tablets and information, as among women with adequate ANC visits, 15 % reported never having received/bought any IFA tablets and 30 % had no knowledge of pregnancy-related risks. A significant interaction was observed between family support and the women's educational level in predicting adherence. Family support significantly increased the adherence among women with knowledge of pregnancy-related risks and involving family members, particularly the husband and importantly for less-educated women, improved adherence to IFA supplementation. ANC visit opportunities must be optimized to provide women with sufficient numbers of IFA tablets along with health information (especially on pregnancy-related risks) and partner support counselling.

  9. A randomized trial evaluating the effect of 2 regimens of maternal vitamin a supplementation on breast milk retinol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Danielle Soares; de Araújo, Katherine Feitosa; Azevêdo, Gabrielle Mahara Martins; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of 2 different megadoses of retinyl palmitate on the level of retinol in the breast milk of healthy women. In total, 199 women were randomly allocated to 3 groups and supplemented in the postpartum period with a single retinyl palmitate dose of 200 000 IU (S1), a double dose of 200 000 IU 24 hours apart (S2), or no supplementation (C). Retinol content of colostrum and mature milk at 4 weeks was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). For colostrum, no significant difference was found between the groups (P = .965). The retinol content in mature milk differed between group C and groups S1 and S2 (P retinol content of milk at 4 weeks postpartum in comparison to a single dose; however, future research is needed to determine the optimal timing of the second dose of vitamin A.

  10. Maternal knowledge and use of a micronutrient supplement was improved with a programmatically feasible intervention in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvecchio, Anabelle; Pelto, Gretel H; Escalante, Erika; Monterrubio, Erick; Habicht, J P; Nava, Fernanda; Villanueva, Maria-Angeles; Safdie, Margarita; Rivera, J A

    2007-02-01

    In Mexico, the potential impact on child malnutrition from a nutritional supplement (papilla) delivered through a conditional transfer program (Oportunidades) was attenuated by problems of household utilization. A behavioral change through communication intervention was developed to improve supplement utilization. Our study assessed the efficacy of this intervention through the results of a randomized trial. In 2 states (Veracruz and Chiapas) 2 clusters of communities were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. Data were obtained from 176-198 mothers in intervention and control communities using a survey questionnaire at preintervention baseline and at a 5-mo follow-up. Concordance between reported and observed behaviors was examined through an observational substudy. The 4 behavioral recommendations were: 1) prepare papilla as a pap; 2) administer the preparation every day; 3) administer it between breakfast and dinner; and 4) administer it only to target children. The intervention resulted in a significant increase (POportunidades Program.

  11. Maternal Fish Oil Supplementation in Pregnancy: A 12 Year Follow-Up of a Randomised Controlled Trial

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    Suzanne Meldrum

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A number of trials have been undertaken to assess whether the intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA during pregnancy can influence the neurological development of the offspring, yet no consensus from these trials has been reached. We aimed to investigate the long-term effects (12 years of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on neurodevelopment, including cognition, language and fine motor skills. In a follow up of a previously published randomised controlled trial of 98 pregnant women, their children were assessed at 12 years of age using a battery of neurodevelopmental assessments. Fifty participants were assessed at 12 years, with 25 participant’s mothers receiving fish oil supplementation, and 25 receiving control capsules. There were no significant differences for any of the assessment measures completed. Our data indicate that fish oil supplementation during pregnancy does not influence the cognition, language or fine motor skills of children in late primary school (12 years of age.

  12. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to increasing maternal folate status by supplemental folate intake and reduced risk of neural tube defects pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to increasing maternal folate status by supplemental folate intake and reduced risk of neural tube defects. The Panel considers that the food constituent, supplemental folate, which is the subject of the claim, is sufficiently...... characterised. Increasing maternal folate status by supplemental folate intake is a beneficial physiological effect in the context of reducing the risk of neural tube defects. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that the association between low maternal folate intakes and an increased risk...... of neural tube defects is well established, and that a recent systematic review showed an effect of maternal folic acid intakes on the risk of neural tube defects. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between increasing maternal folate status by supplemental folate...

  13. The multifaceted origin of taurine cattle reflected by the mitochondrial genome.

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    Alessandro Achilli

    Full Text Available A Neolithic domestication of taurine cattle in the Fertile Crescent from local aurochsen (Bos primigenius is generally accepted, but a genetic contribution from European aurochsen has been proposed. Here we performed a survey of a large number of taurine cattle mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control regions from numerous European breeds confirming the overall clustering within haplogroups (T1, T2 and T3 of Near Eastern ancestry, but also identifying eight mtDNAs (1.3% that did not fit in haplogroup T. Sequencing of the entire mitochondrial genome showed that four mtDNAs formed a novel branch (haplogroup R which, after the deep bifurcation that gave rise to the taurine and zebuine lineages, constitutes the earliest known split in the mtDNA phylogeny of B. primigenius. The remaining four mtDNAs were members of the recently discovered haplogroup Q. Phylogeographic data indicate that R mtDNAs were derived from female European aurochsen, possibly in the Italian Peninsula, and sporadically included in domestic herds. In contrast, the available data suggest that Q mtDNAs and T subclades were involved in the same Neolithic event of domestication in the Near East. Thus, the existence of novel (and rare taurine haplogroups highlights a multifaceted genetic legacy from distinct B. primigenius populations. Taking into account that the maternally transmitted mtDNA tends to underestimate the extent of gene flow from European aurochsen, the detection of the R mtDNAs in autochthonous breeds, some of which are endangered, identifies an unexpected reservoir of genetic variation that should be carefully preserved.

  14. Effect of taurine on rat Achilles tendon healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Ovunc; Lineaweaver, William C; Cavusoglu, Turker; Binboga, Erdal; Uyanikgil, Yigit; Zhang, Feng; Pekedis, Mahmut; Yagci, Tugay

    2015-01-01

    Taurine has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant characteristics. We have introduced taurine into a tendon-healing model to evaluate its effects on tendon healing and adhesion formation. Two groups of 16 rats underwent diversion and repair of the Achilles tendon. One group received a taurine injection (200 mg/ml) at the repair site, while the other group received 1 ml of saline. Specimens were harvested at 6 weeks and underwent biomechanical and histological evaluation. No tendon ruptured. Average maximum load was significantly greater in the taurine-applied group compared with the control group (p taurine-applied group compared with the control group (p  0.05). After histological assessment, we found that fibroblast proliferation, edema, and inflammation statistically decreased in the treatment group (p taurine may have an effect on adhesion formation.

  15. Taurine in milk and yoghurt marketed in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Pamela; Pizzoferrato, Laura

    2013-02-01

    Taurine, a free amino acid, was studied as natural compound of different typologies of milk: pasteurized, ultra-high temperature (UHT), microfiltered whole and semi-skimmed cow's milk; pasteurized and UHT goat's whole milk and raw buffalo's whole milk. Moreover, taurine contents in yoghurt from cow and goat's milk were evaluated. The data obtained in this research showed that no significant variations of taurine occurred in cow's milk subjected to different technological processes and between whole and semi-skimmed milk. The amount of taurine was less (p taurine occurred between goat and buffalo's samples. The amounts of taurine in yoghurt reflected, substantially, the content of this molecule in the milk of the relevant animal species. These results are noteworthy because data available in the literature on this molecule in commercial dairy products are old or few.

  16. 33S NMR cryogenic probe for taurine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobo, Fumio; Takahashi, Masato; Maeda, Hideaki

    2009-03-01

    With the goal of a S33 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe applicable to in vivo NMR on taurine-biological samples, we have developed the S33 NMR cryogenic probe, which is applicable to taurine solutions. The NMR sensitivity gain relative to a conventional broadband probe is as large as 3.5. This work suggests that improvements in the preamplifier could allow NMR measurements on 100 μM taurine solutions, which is the level of sensitivity necessary for biological samples.

  17. The potential protective role of taurine against experimental allergic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sun-Young; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2017-09-01

    Taurine has been widely evaluated as a potential therapeutic agent in chronic inflammatory disorders and various infections. However, the potential role of taurine in regulating allergic inflammatory responses is currently unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro effects of taurine on the levels of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and other pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of caspase-1 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB as well as the phosphorylations of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-triggered human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells. Furthermore, we assessed the therapeutic effects of taurine on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis (AR) animal models. Here, the obtained results showed that taurine dose-dependently inhibited the production and mRNA expression of TSLP and pro-inflammatory cytokines in HMC-1 cells exposed to PMACI. Taurine attenuated the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 in activated HMC-1 cells. Moreover, taurine brought a significant inhibition of the activities of NF-κB and caspase-1. In an OVA-induced AR animal model, the increased levels of nose rubbing, histamine, immunoglobulin E, TSLP, and interleukin IL-1β were dramatically reduced by the administration of taurine. In summary, taurine could serve as potential novel remedy of allergic inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Increasing taurine intake and taurine synthesis improves skeletal muscle function in the mdx mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Jessica R; Pinniger, Gavin J; Graves, Jamie A; Grounds, Miranda D; Arthur, Peter G

    2016-06-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle wasting disease associated with increased inflammation, oxidative stress and myofibre necrosis. Cysteine precursor antioxidants such as N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC) reduce dystropathology in the mdx mouse model for DMD, and we propose this is via increased synthesis of the amino acid taurine. We compared the capacity of OTC and taurine treatment to increase taurine content of mdx muscle, as well as effects on in vivo and ex vivo muscle function, inflammation and oxidative stress. Both treatments increased taurine in muscles, and improved many aspects of muscle function and reduced inflammation. Taurine treatment also reduced protein thiol oxidation and was overall more effective, as OTC treatment reduced body and muscle weight, suggesting some adverse effects of this drug. These data suggest that increasing dietary taurine is a better candidate for a therapeutic intervention for DMD. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle wasting disease for which there is no widely available cure. Whilst the mechanism of loss of muscle function in DMD and the mdx mouse model are not fully understood, disruptions in intracellular calcium homeostasis, inflammation and oxidative stress are implicated. We have shown that protein thiol oxidation is increased in mdx muscle, and that the indirect thiol antioxidant l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC), which increases cysteine availability, decreases pathology and increases in vivo strength. We propose that the protective effects of OTC are a consequence of conversion of cysteine to taurine, which has itself been shown to be beneficial to mdx pathology. This study compares the efficacy of taurine with OTC in decreasing dystropathology in mdx mice by measuring in vivo and ex vivo contractile function and measurements of inflammation and protein thiol oxidation. Increasing the taurine content of mdx muscle improved both in vivo and ex

  19. Maternal choline supplementation in a mouse model of Down syndrome: Effects on attention and nucleus basalis/substantia innominata neuron morphology in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Brian E; Kelley, Christy M; Velazquez, Ramon; Ash, Jessica A; Strawderman, Myla S; Alldred, Melissa J; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mufson, Elliott J; Strupp, Barbara J

    2017-01-06

    The Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) exhibits cognitive impairment and degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs). Our prior studies demonstrated that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) improves attention and spatial cognition in Ts65Dn offspring, normalizes hippocampal neurogenesis, and lessens BFCN degeneration in the medial septal nucleus (MSN). Here we determined whether (i) BFCN degeneration contributes to attentional dysfunction, and (ii) whether the attentional benefits of perinatal MCS are due to changes in BFCN morphology. Ts65Dn dams were fed either a choline-supplemented or standard diet during pregnancy and lactation. Ts65Dn and disomic (2N) control offspring were tested as adults (12-17months of age) on a series of operant attention tasks, followed by morphometric assessment of BFCNs. Ts65Dn mice demonstrated impaired learning and attention relative to 2N mice, and MCS significantly improved these functions in both genotypes. We also found, for the first time, that the number of BFCNs in the nucleus basalis of Meynert/substantia innominata (NBM/SI) was significantly increased in Ts65Dn mice relative to controls. In contrast, the number of BFCNs in the MSN was significantly decreased. Another novel finding was that the volume of BFCNs in both basal forebrain regions was significantly larger in Ts65Dn mice. MCS did not normalize any of these morphological abnormalities in the NBM/SI or MSN. Finally, correlational analysis revealed that attentional performance was inversely associated with BFCN volume, and positively associated with BFCN density. These results support the lifelong attentional benefits of MCS for Ts65Dn and 2N offspring and have profound implications for translation to human DS and pathology attenuation in AD.

  20. Taurine exerts hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, improves insulin-mediated glucose transport signaling pathway in heart and ameliorates cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Joydeep; Vasan, Vandana; Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in

    2012-01-15

    Hyperlipidemia, inflammation and altered antioxidant profiles are the usual complications in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of taurine in diabetes associated cardiac complications using a rat model. Rats were made diabetic by alloxan (ALX) (single i.p. dose of 120 mg/kg body weight) and left untreated or treated with taurine (1% w/v, orally, in water) for three weeks either from the day of ALX exposure or after the onset of diabetes. Animals were euthanized after three weeks. ALX-induced diabetes decreased body weight, increased glucose level, decreased insulin content, enhanced the levels of cardiac damage markers and altered lipid profile in the plasma. Moreover, it increased oxidative stress (decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH/GSSG ratio, increased xanthine oxidase enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and ROS generation) and enhanced the proinflammatory cytokines levels, activity of myeloperoxidase and nuclear translocation of NFκB in the cardiac tissue of the experimental animals. Taurine treatment could, however, result to a decrease in the elevated blood glucose and proinflammatory cytokine levels, diabetes-evoked oxidative stress, lipid profiles and NFκB translocation. In addition, taurine increased GLUT 4 translocation to the cardiac membrane by enhanced phosphorylation of IR and IRS1 at tyrosine and Akt at serine residue in the heart. Results also suggest that taurine could protect cardiac tissue from ALX induced apoptosis via the regulation of Bcl2 family and caspase 9/3 proteins. Taken together, taurine supplementation in regular diet could play a beneficial role in regulating diabetes and its associated complications in the heart. Highlights: ► Taurine controls blood glucose via protection of pancreatic β cells in diabetic rat. ► Taurine controls blood glucose via increasing the insulin level in diabetic rat. ► Taurine improves cardiac AKT/GLUT4 signaling

  1. The Role of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program in the Relationship between Food Insecurity and Probability of Maternal Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, Ashley L; Hofferth, Sandra L; Grutzmacher, Stephanie K

    Food insecurity is a substantial stressor for many households. Though an association between food insecurity and depression has been well established, most studies have been cross-sectional. Although many receive benefits from the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), its role in reducing distress associated with food insecurity is unclear. Using data from 1,225 women who participated in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study investigated 1) whether change in food security status predicts change in depression severity over a two-year period, 2) whether participating in SNAP predicts depression, and 3) whether the relationship between food insecurity and depression varies based on receipt of SNAP. Food insecurity was linked to probability of depression over time. Additionally, for those who became food insecure over the two-year period, losing SNAP benefits was associated with increased probability of depression, while gaining benefits was associated with reduced probability of depression. This suggests that the SNAP program offsets emotional hardship for those who have recently become food insecure. Further research is needed to evaluate the most efficient and efficacious means to reduce food insecurity and improve emotional wellbeing among vulnerable families.

  2. Effect of Taurine on The Respiratory System of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammer E.M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effect of taurine on isolated trachea and pulmonary artery of rats and the possible mechanism(s of action. The possible antioxidant effect of taurine was also studied by measuring its protective effect against cyclophosphamide induced lung injuiry. Taurine produced a concentration dependent relaxation in the isolated tracheal strips and pulmonary arterial rings precontracted by serotonin (2x10-4 mM. The relaxing effect of taurine was not influenced by pretreatment with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME , cysteinyl leukotreines receptor 1 blocker (montelukast , H1 receptor blocker (chlorpheniramine , β-adrenoceptor blocker (propranolol, potassium channel blocker (amiodarone , cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin or muscarinic receptor blocker (atropine. Preincubation with adenosine receptor blocker (aminophylline significantly potentiated the relaxing effect of taurine in the tracheal strips and pulmonary arterial rings. Cyclophosphamide (CYP, 150 mg/kg administerated i.p. in a single dose was used to produce lung injuiry in rats. CYP caused marked increase in lung lipid peroxides (MDA and decrease in lung reduced glutathione (GSH. Administration of taurine (1% in drinking water starting 7 days before CYP and continuing throughout the duration of the experiment (24 hours improved significantly the lung GSH and MDA. It can be concluded that taurine relaxes precontracted rat tracheal strips and pulmonary arterial rings probably by direct effect on the smooth muscles. Also, the observed antioxidant activity of taurine which may contribute to its relaxant effect suggesting the usefulness of turine in pulmonary hypertension.

  3. The Hepatoprotection Provided by Taurine and Glycine against Antineoplastic Drugs Induced Liver Injury in an Ex Vivo Model of Normothermic Recirculating Isolated Perfused Rat Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Heidari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Taurine (2-aminoethane sulfonic acid is a non-protein amino acid found in high concentration in different tissues. Glycine (Amino acetic acid is the simplest amino acid incorporated in the structure of proteins. Several investigations indicate the hepatoprotective properties of these amino acids. On the other hand, antineoplastic agents-induced serum transaminase elevation and liver injury is a clinical complication. The current investigation was designed to screen the possible hepatoprotective properties of taurine and glycine against antineoplastic drugs-induced hepatic injury in an ex vivo model of isolated perfused rat liver. Rat liver was perfused with different concentration (10 μM, 100 μM and 1000 μM of antineoplastic drugs (Mitoxantrone, Cyclophosphamide, Cisplatin, 5 Fluorouracil, Doxorubicin and Dacarbazine via portal vein. Taurine and glycine were administered to drug-treated livers and liver perfusate samples were collected for biochemical measurements (ALT, LDH, AST, and K+. Markers of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species formation, lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant capacity and glutathione were also assessed in liver tissue. Antineoplastic drugs caused significant pathological changes in perfusate biochemistry. Furthermore, markers of oxidative stress were significantly elevated in drug treated livers. It was found that taurine (5 and 10 mM and glycine (5 and 10 mM administration significantly mitigated the biomarkers of liver injury and attenuated drug induced oxidative stress. Our data indicate that taurine and glycine supplementation might help as potential therapeutic options to encounter anticancer drugs-induced liver injury.

  4. Investigation of the Protective Effects of Taurine against Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Retinal Changes via Electroretinogram and Retinal Histology with New Zealand White Rabbits

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    Samuel Tung-Hsing Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective role of orally administered taurine against diabetic retinal changes via electroretinogram (ERG and retinal histology on rabbits. Rabbits were randomly assigned into groups: Group I (vehicle administration only; Group II (diabetes: induced by 100 mg/kg alloxan injection; Group III (diabetes and fed with 200 mg/kg taurine; and Group IV (diabetes and fed with 400 mg/kg taurine. The body weight and blood glucose levels of the rabbits were monitored weekly. The ERG was measured on weeks 5 and 15. Retinal histology was analyzed in the end of the experiment. Results revealed that a taurine supplement significantly ameliorates the alloxan-induced hyperglycemia and protects the retina from electrophysiological changes. Group II showed a significant (P0.05 between all groups and when compared with those of Group I. Our study provides solid evidences that taurine possesses an antidiabetic activity, reduced loss of body weight, and less electrophysiological changes of the diabetic retina.

  5. Maternal diet supplemented with methyl-donors protects against atherosclerosis in F1 ApoE(-/- mice.

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    Colin Delaney

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory condition of the arterial wall mediated by cells of both innate and adaptive immunity. T lymphocytes play an important role in orchestrating the pathogenic immune response involved in the acceleration of atherosclerosis. Previously, we have shown that a prenatal methyl-donor supplementation diet (MS, when fed to dams during pregnancy and lactation, decreased the T cell-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine response in F1 mice. In the current study, we report feeding Apolipoprotein E (ApoE(-/- deficient dams with the MS diet during pregnancy reduces atherosclerotic plaques in F1 mice that were fed high fat diet (HFD after weaning. F1 mice from dams on the MS diet exhibited increased global T cell DNA methylation. T-cell chemokines and their receptors (in particular CCR2, CCR5, and CXCR3 play important roles in the inflammatory cell recruitment to vascular lesions. MS diet significantly reduced Ccr2 mRNA and protein expression in CD3+ T cells but not in CD11b+ monocytes in MS F1 mice relative to controls. F1 litter size, HFD consumption, body weight, and body fat were similar between control and MS diet groups. Moreover, serum thiol metabolite levels were similar between the two groups. However, MS diet is associated with significantly higher serum HDL and lower LDL+VLDL levels in comparison to F1 mice from dams on the control diet. Inflammatory cytokines (IL-17, TNF-α, IL-6 were also lower in MS F1 mice serum and conditioned media from T-cell culture. Altogether, these data suggest that the MS diet ameliorates development of atherosclerosis by inhibiting the T-cell Ccr2 expression, reducing inflammatory cytokines production and increasing serum HDL:LDL ratio.

  6. TAURINE REGULATION OF VOLTAGE-GATED CHANNELS IN RETINAL NEURONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Matthew JM; Bulley, Simon; Purpura, Lauren; Ripps, Harris; Shen, Wen

    2017-01-01

    Taurine activates not only Cl−-permeable ionotropic receptors, but also receptors that mediate metabotropic responses. The metabotropic property of taurine was revealed in electrophysiological recordings obtained after fully blocking Cl−-permeable receptors with an inhibitory “cocktail” consisting of picrotoxin, SR95531, and strychnine. We found that taurine’s metabotropic effects regulate voltage-gated channels in retinal neurons. After applying the inhibitory cocktail, taurine enhanced delayed outward rectifier K+ channels preferentially in Off-bipolar cells, and the effect was completely blocked by the specific PKC inhibitor, GF109203X. Additionally, taurine also acted through a metabotropic pathway to suppress both L- and N-type Ca2+ channels in retinal neurons, which were insensitive to the potent GABAB receptor inhibitor, CGP55845. This study reinforces our previous finding that taurine in physiological concentrations produces a multiplicity of metabotropic effects that precisely govern the integration of signals being transmitted from the retina to the brain. PMID:23392926

  7. Taurine chloramine produced from taurine under inflammation provides anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chaekyun; Cha, Young-Nam

    2014-01-01

    Taurine is one of the most abundant non-essential amino acid in mammals and has many physiological functions in the nervous, cardiovascular, renal, endocrine, and immune systems. Upon inflammation, taurine undergoes halogenation in phagocytes and is converted to taurine chloramine (TauCl) and taurine bromamine. In the activated neutrophils, TauCl is produced by reaction with hypochlorite (HOCl) generated by the halide-dependent myeloperoxidase system. TauCl is released from activated neutrophils following their apoptosis and inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators such as, superoxide anion, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukins, and prostaglandins in inflammatory cells at inflammatory tissues. Furthermore, TauCl increases the expressions of antioxidant proteins, such as heme oxygenase 1, peroxiredoxin, thioredoxin, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in macrophages. Thus, a central role of TauCl produced by activated neutrophils is to trigger the resolution of inflammation and protect macrophages and surrounding tissues from being damaged by cytotoxic reactive oxygen metabolites overproduced during inflammation. This is achieved by attenuating further production of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen metabolites and also by increasing the levels of antioxidant proteins that are able to scavenge and diminish the production of cytotoxic oxygen metabolites. These findings suggest that TauCl released from activated neutrophils may be involved in the recovery processes of cells affected by inflammatory oxidative stresses and thus TauCl could be used as a potential physiological agent to control pathogenic symptoms of chronic inflammatory diseases.

  8. Taurine activates GABAergic networks in the neocortex of immature mice

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    Bogdan Aurel Sava

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although it has been suggested that taurine is the main endogenous neurotransmitter acting on glycine receptors, the implications of glycine receptor-mediated taurine actions on immature neocortical networks have not been addressed yet. To investigate the influence of taurine on the excitability of neuronal networks in the immature neocortex, we performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from visually identified pyramidal neurons and interneurons in coronal slices from C57Bl/6 and GAD67-GFP transgenic mice (postnatal days 2-4. In 46 % of the pyramidal neurons bath-application of taurine at concentrations ≥ 300 mM significantly enhanced the frequency of postsynaptic currents (PSCs by 744.3 ± 93.8 % (n = 120 cells. This taurine-induced increase of PSC frequency was abolished by 0.2 mM tetrodotoxine, 1 mM strychnine or 3 mM gabazine, but was unaffected by the glutamatergic antagonists 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX and (± R(--3-(2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP, suggesting that taurine specifically activates GABAergic network activity projecting to pyramidal neurons. Cell-attached recordings revealed that taurine enhanced the frequency of action potentials in pyramidal neurons, indicating an excitatory action of the GABAergic PSCs. In order to identify the presynaptic targets of taurine we demonstrate that bath application of taurine induced in GAD67-GFP labeled interneurons an inward current that is mainly mediated by glycine receptors and can generate action potentials in these cells. We conclude from these results that taurine can enhance network excitability in the immature neocortex by selectively activating GABAergic interneurons via interactions with glycine receptors.

  9. Maternal Diet Supplementation with n-6/n-3 Essential Fatty Acids in a 1.2 : 1.0 Ratio Attenuates Metabolic Dysfunction in MSG-Induced Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Josiane Morais; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Palma-Rigo, Kesia; Alves, Vander Silva; Fabricio, Gabriel Sergio; Pavanello, Audrei; Franco, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva; Ribeiro, Tatiane Aparecida; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio; Banafé, Elton Guntendeorfer; Martin, Clayton Antunes; Mathias, Paulo Cezar de Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) prevent cardiometabolic diseases. We aimed to study whether a diet supplemented with a mixture of n-6/n-3 PUFAs, during perinatal life, attenuates outcomes of long-term metabolic dysfunction in prediabetic and obese mice. Seventy-day-old virgin female mice were mated. From the conception day, dams were fed a diet supplemented with sunflower oil and flaxseed powder (containing an n-6/n-3 PUFAs ratio of 1.2 : 1.0) throughout pregnancy and lactation, while control dams received a commercial diet. Newborn mice were treated with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG, 4 mg g−1 body weight per day) for the first 5 days of age. A batch of weaned pups was sacrificed to quantify the brain and pancreas total lipids; another batch were fed a commercial diet until 90 days of age, where glucose homeostasis and glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS) as well as retroperitoneal fat and Lee index were assessed. MSG-treated mice developed obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, pancreatic islet dysfunction, and higher fat stores. Maternal flaxseed diet-supplementation decreased n-6/n-3 PUFAs ratio in the brain and pancreas and blocked glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, GIIS impairment, and obesity development. The n-6/n-3 essential PUFAs in a ratio of 1.2 : 1.0 supplemented in maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation prevent metabolic dysfunction in MSG-obesity model. PMID:28050167

  10. Maternal rumen-protected methionine supplementation and its effect on blood and liver biomarkers of energy metabolism, inflammation, and oxidative stress in neonatal Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacometo, C B; Zhou, Z; Luchini, D; Trevisi, E; Corrêa, M N; Loor, J J

    2016-08-01

    In nonruminants, nutrition during pregnancy can program offspring development, metabolism, and health in later life. Rumen-protected Met (RPM) supplementation during the prepartum period improves liver function and immune response in dairy cows. Our aim was to investigate the effects of RPM during late pregnancy on blood biomarkers (23 targets) and the liver transcriptome (24 genes) in neonatal calves from cows fed RPM at 0.08% of diet dry matter/d (MET) for the last 21 d before calving or controls (CON). Blood (n=12 calves per diet) was collected at birth before receiving colostrum (baseline), 24 h after receiving colostrum, 14, 28, and 50 d (post-weaning) of age. Liver was sampled (n=8 calves per diet) via biopsy on d 4, 14, 28, and 50 of age. Growth and health were not affected by maternal diet. The MET calves had greater overall plasma insulin concentration and lower glucose and ratios of glucose-to-insulin and fatty acids-to-insulin, indicating greater systemic insulin sensitivity. Lower concentration of reactive oxygen metabolites at 14 d of age along with a tendency for lower overall concentration of ceruloplasmin in MET calves indicated a lesser degree of stress. Greater expression on d 4 of fructose-bisphosphatase 1 (FBP1), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PCK1), and the facilitated bidirectional glucose transporter SLC2A2 in MET calves indicated alterations in gluconeogenesis and glucose uptake and release. The data agree with the greater expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Greater expression on d 4 of the insulin receptor (INSR) and insulin-responsive serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT2) in MET calves indicated alterations in insulin signaling. In that context, the similar expression of sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1) in CON and MET during the preweaning period followed by the marked upregulation regardless of diet after weaning (d 50) support the idea of changes in hepatic insulin sensitivity during

  11. THE MODULATORY ROLE OF TAURINE IN RETINAL GANGLION CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zheng; Bulley, Simon; Guzzone, Joseph; Ripps, Harris; Shen, Wen

    2017-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethylsuphonic acid) is present in nearly all animal tissues, and is the most abundant free amino acid in muscle, heart, CNS and retina. Although it is known to be a major cytoprotectant and essential for normal retinal development, its role in retinal neurotransmission and modulation is not well understood. We investigated the response of taurine in retinal ganglion cells, and its effect on synaptic transmission between ganglion cells and their pre-synaptic neurons. We find that taurine-elicited currents in ganglion cells could be fully blocked by both strychnine and SR95531, glycine and GABAA receptor antagonists, respectively. This suggests that taurine-activated receptors might share the antagonists with GABA and glycine receptors. The effect of taurine at micromolar concentrations can effectively suppress spontaneous vesicle release from the pre-synaptic neurons, but had limited effects on light-evoked synaptic signals in ganglion cells. We also describe a metabotropic effect of taurine in the suppression of light-evoked response in ganglion cells. Clearly, taurine acts in multiple ways to modulate synaptic signals in retinal output neurons, ganglion cells. PMID:23392924

  12. Biophysical insight into the anti-amyloidogenic behavior of taurine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Sumit Kumar; Alam, Parvez; Khan, Javed Masood; Siddiqui, Mohd Khursheed; Kalaiarasan, Ponnusamy; Subbarao, Naidu; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we investigated the inhibitory ability of taurine on the aggregation of Human serum albumin (HSA) and also examined how it controls the kinetic parameters of the aggregation process. We demonstrated the structural alterations in the HSA after binding to the taurine at 65 °C by exploiting various biophysical techniques. UV-vis spectroscopy was used to check the turbidometric changes in the protein. Thioflavin T fluorescence kinetics was subjected to explore kinetic parameters comparing the amyloid formation in the presence of varying concentration of taurine. Further, Congo red binding and ANS binding assays were performed to determine the inhibitory effect of taurine on HSA fibrillation process and surface hydrophobicity modifications occurring before and after the addition of taurine with protein, respectively. Far UV CD and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) confirmed that taurine stabilized the protein α-helical structure and formed complex with HSA which is further supported by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Moreover, microscopic imaging techniques were also done to analyze the morphology of aggregation formed. Taurine is also capable of altering the cytotoxicity of the proteinaceous aggregates. Molecular docking study also deciphered the possible residues involved in protein and drug interaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Interactions between taurine and ethanol in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, M F

    2002-01-01

    This purpose of this review will be to summarize the interactions between the endogenous amino acid taurine and ethyl alcohol (ethanol) in the central nervous system (CNS). Taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids in the CNS and plays an integral role in physiological processes such as osmoregulation, neuroprotection and neuromodulation. Both taurine and ethanol exert positive allosteric modulatory effects on neuronal ligand-gated chloride channels (i.e., GABA(A) and glycine receptors) as well as inhibitory effects on other ligand- and voltage-gated cation channels (i.e., NMDA and Ca(2+) channels). Behavioral evidence suggests that taurine can alter the locomotor stimulatory, sedating, and motivational effects of ethanol in a strongly dose-dependent manner. Microdialysis studies have revealed that ethanol elevates extracellular levels of taurine in numerous brain regions, although the functional consequences of this phenomenon are currently unknown. Finally, taurine and several related molecules including the homotaurine derivative acamprosate (calcium acetylhomotaurinate) can reduce ethanol self-administration and relapse to drinking in both animals and humans. Taken together, these data suggest that the endogenous taurine system may be an important modulator of effects of ethanol on the nervous system, and may represent a novel therapeutic avenue for the development of medications to treat alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

  14. Long-lasting enhancement of corticostriatal neurotransmission by taurine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepkova, A N; Doreulee, N; Yanovsky, Y; Mukhopadhyay, D; Haas, H L; Sergeeva, O A

    2002-10-01

    Taurine occurs at high concentrations in the forebrain and its distribution varies with (patho)physiological conditions; however, its role in neural function is poorly understood. We have now characterized its effects on corticostriatal synaptic transmission. Bath application of taurine (10 mm) to slices obtained from mice and rats exerted a biphasic action on corticostriatal field potentials. The fast and reversible inhibition by taurine was accompanied by a depolarization and conductance increase in medium spiny neurons and was sensitive to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A and glycine receptor (GlyR) antagonists. A long-lasting enhancement (LLETAU) of field potentials was recorded after taurine withdrawal. The LLETAU was not prevented by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)- or by GABAA receptor-antagonists, but was sensitive to the GlyR-antagonist strychnine and blocked by the competitive taurine uptake inhibitor guanidinoethylsulphonate (GES, 1 mm). GES at 10 mm evoked an enhancement of field potentials similar to LLETAU. LLETAU depended on protein kinase C activation as it was blocked by chelerythrine, but was unaffected by trifluoperazine, and thus independent of calmodulin. LLETAU was significantly smaller in juvenile than in mature rodents. Activation of GlyRs and the specific taurine transporter by taurine evoke a long-lasting enhancement of corticostriatal transmission.

  15. Atrophic cardiac remodeling induced by taurine deficiency in Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariele Castilho Pansani

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Micronutrient deficiency is observed in heart failure patients. Taurine, for example, represents 50% of total free amino acids in the heart, and in vivo studies have linked taurine deficiency with cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Thirty-four male Wistar rats (body weight = 100 g were weighed and randomly assigned to one of two groups: Control (C or taurine-deficient (T (-. Beta-alanine at a concentration of 3% was added to the animals' water to induce taurine deficiency in the T (- group. On day 30, the rats were individually submitted to echocardiography; morphometrical and histopathological evaluation and metalloproteinase activity, oxidative stress and inflammation evaluation were performed. Tissue samples were collected to determine the taurine concentration in the heart. RESULTS: Taurine deficiency led to decreases in: ventricular wall thickness, left ventricle dry weight, myocyte sectional area, left ventricle posterior wall thickness and ventricular geometry. With regard to heart function, the velocity of the A wave, the ratio between the E and A wave, the ejection fraction, fractional shortening and cardiac output values were decreased in T (- rats, suggesting abnormal diastolic and systolic function. Increased fibrosis, inflammation and increased activation of metalloproteinases were not observed. Oxidative stress was increased in deficient animals. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that taurine deficiency promotes structural and functional cardiac alterations with unique characteristics.

  16. Effects of taurine intake on serum lipids in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadako Matsui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Taurine is an abundant amino acid in human cells, promoting ocular and biliary health, which is also used to treat congestive heart failure, hypertension, and hepatitis. Recently, taurine-enriched energy drinks have become popular with young adults, but the effects of taurine on serum lipids in young adults are unknown. Objective: We studied the influence of oral administration of taurine on serum lipid levels in healthy young women. Methods: Ten healthy young women with a mean body mass index of 20.0kg/m2, apolipoprotein E (apoE phenotype 3/3 and normal menstrual cycles participated. Each subject was instructed to orally ingest 1g of taurine powder after each meal (3g/day in addition to their usual diets during one menstrual cycle. Before and at the end of taurine intake, physical measurements and blood collection were performed in the morning after a 12-h fast, and 3-day weighted dietary records were obtained. Concentrations of serum lipids, apolipoproteins, and fatty acids in the serum phospholipid fraction were measured. Results: The subjects showed good compliance with taurine intake and none reported adverse effects during the experimental period. After taurine intake, concentrations of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, free cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (apoB increased (p<0.05, while phospholipids tended to increase (p=0.051. Fatty acids in the serum phospholipid fraction also significantly increased (p<0.05. However, triglyceride, remnant-like particle cholesterol, remnant-like particle triglyceride, apoE, the apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA- 1/apoB ratio and the LDL-C/apoB ratio were unchanged. Furthermore, body weight was significantly increased (p<0.01, but did not correlate with changes either in serum lipids or nutrient intakes. Conclusion: These results suggest that high taurine intake affects lipoprotein metabolism and increases serum lipids in slightly lean young women.

  17. Effect of Taurine on the antimicrobial efficiency of Gentamicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islambulchilar Mina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gentamicin is mainly used in severe infections caused by gram-negatives. However toxicity including nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity is one of the most important complications of its treatment. The production of free radicals seems to be involved in gentamicin toxicity mechanism. Taurine, a major intracellular free β-amino acid, is known to be an endogenous antioxidant. So potentially the co-therapy of taurine and gentamicin would reduce the adverse effects of the antibiotic. Objectives: In this study, we wished to know the effect of taurine on the antibiotic capacity of gentamicin. methods: strains of P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus and S. epidermidis were used as test organisms. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of gentamicin in the presence and absence of taurine at quantities from 40 to 2 mg/L were determined using macro-dilution method. Results: MICs were determined in the various concentrations of taurine for bacterial indicators. The MIC values of gentamicin for P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and E. coli remained unchanged in the values of 2.5, 5 and 20 μg/ml respectively in the absence and presences of different concentrations of taurine. The bactericidal activity of gentamicin against S. epidermidis was increased by addition of taurine in the concentrations higher than 6 mg/L. Conclusion: According to our study the antibacterial activity of gentamicin against the indicator microorganisms were not interfere with taurine at selected concentrations. Further in vivo studies are needed to establish if a combination of gentamicin and taurine would have the same effect.

  18. Prenatal Iron Supplementation Reduces Maternal Anemia, Iron Deficiency, and Iron Deficiency Anemia in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Rural China, but Iron Deficiency Remains Widespread in Mothers and Neonates123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gengli; Xu, Guobin; Zhou, Min; Jiang, Yaping; Richards, Blair; Clark, Katy M; Kaciroti, Niko; Georgieff, Michael K; Zhang, Zhixiang; Tardif, Twila; Li, Ming; Lozoff, Betsy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous trials of prenatal iron supplementation had limited measures of maternal or neonatal iron status. Objective: The purpose was to assess effects of prenatal iron-folate supplementation on maternal and neonatal iron status. Methods: Enrollment occurred June 2009 through December 2011 in Hebei, China. Women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies at ≤20 wk gestation, aged ≥18 y, and with hemoglobin ≥100 g/L were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive daily iron (300 mg ferrous sulfate) or placebo + 0.40 mg folate from enrollment to birth. Iron status was assessed in maternal venous blood (at enrollment and at or near term) and cord blood. Primary outcomes were as follows: 1) maternal iron deficiency (ID) defined in 2 ways as serum ferritin (SF) anemia [ID + anemia (IDA); hemoglobin neonatal ID (cord blood ferritin 118 μmol/mol). Results: A total of 2371 women were randomly assigned, with outcomes for 1632 women or neonates (809 placebo/folate, 823 iron/folate; 1579 mother-newborn pairs, 37 mothers, 16 neonates). Most infants (97%) were born at term. At or near term, maternal hemoglobin was significantly higher (+5.56 g/L) for iron vs. placebo groups. Anemia risk was reduced (RR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.66), as were risks of ID (RR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.79 by SF; RR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.71 by BI) and IDA (RR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.62 by SF; RR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.65 by BI). Most women still had ID (66.8% by SF, 54.7% by BI). Adverse effects, all minor, were similar by group. There were no differences in cord blood iron measures; >45% of neonates in each group had ID. However, dose-response analyses showed higher cord SF with more maternal iron capsules reported being consumed (β per 10 capsules = 2.60, P anemia, ID, and IDA in pregnant women in rural China, but most women and >45% of neonates had ID, regardless of supplementation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02221752. PMID:26063068

  19. Dilated cardiomyopathy in an American cocker spaniel with taurine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaghan, B J; Kittleson, M D

    1997-12-01

    An American Cocker Spaniel with low plasma taurine concentration (taurine. Improvement in all echocardiographic indices were noted over a 22 week follow-up, most notably an increase in left ventricular shortening fraction to 20%, a decrease of E-point septal separation from 14 mm to 7 mm and marked left ventricular remodelling. This degree of improvement in myocardial function may represent a direct link between dilated cardiomyopathy in the American Cocker Spaniel and plasma taurine deficiency. Alternatively, this response may reflect a breed-related cardiomyopathy with a natural history and therapeutic response not commonly seen in the more common large breed cardiomyopathy presentations.

  20. Risk assessment for the amino acids taurine, L-glutamine and L-arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Andrew; Hathcock, John N

    2008-04-01

    Taurine, glutamine and arginine are examples of amino acids which have become increasingly popular as ingredients in dietary supplements and functional foods and beverages. Animal and human clinical research suggests that oral supplementation of these amino acids provides additional health and/or performance benefits beyond those observed from normal intake of dietary protein. The increased consumer awareness and use of these amino acids as ingredients in dietary supplements and functional foods warrant a comprehensive review of their safety through quantitative risk assessment, and identification of a potential safe upper level of intake. The absence of a systematic pattern of adverse effects in humans in response to orally administered taurine (Tau), l-glutamine (Gln) and l-arginine (Arg) precluded the selection of a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) or lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL). Therefore, by definition, the usual approach to risk assessment for identification of a tolerable upper level of intake (UL) could not be used. Instead, the newer method described as the Observed Safe Level (OSL) or Highest Observed Intake (HOI) was utilized. The OSL risk assessments indicate that based on the available published human clinical trial data, the evidence for the absence of adverse effects is strong for Tau at supplemental intakes up to 3 g/d, Gln at intakes up to 14 g/d and Arg at intakes up to 20 g/d, and these levels are identified as the respective OSLs for normal healthy adults. Although much higher levels of each of these amino acids have been tested without adverse effects and may be safe, the data for intakes above these levels are not sufficient for a confident conclusion of long-term safety, and therefore these values are not selected as the OSLs.

  1. Taurine deficiency, synthesis and transport in the mdx mouse model for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Jessica R; Grounds, Miranda D; Arthur, Peter G

    2015-09-01

    The amino acid taurine is essential for the function of skeletal muscle and administration is proposed as a treatment for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Taurine homeostasis is dependent on multiple processes including absorption of taurine from food, endogenous synthesis from cysteine and reabsorption in the kidney. This study investigates the cause of reported taurine deficiency in the dystrophic mdx mouse model of DMD. Levels of metabolites (taurine, cysteine, cysteine sulfinate and hypotaurine) and proteins (taurine transporter [TauT], cysteine deoxygenase and cysteine sulfinate dehydrogenase) were quantified in juvenile control C57 and dystrophic mdx mice aged 18 days, 4 and 6 weeks. In C57 mice, taurine content was much higher in both liver and plasma at 18 days, and both cysteine and cysteine deoxygenase were increased. As taurine levels decreased in maturing C57 mice, there was increased transport (reabsorption) of taurine in the kidney and muscle. In mdx mice, taurine and cysteine levels were much lower in liver and plasma at 18 days, and in muscle cysteine was low at 18 days, whereas taurine was lower at 4: these changes were associated with perturbations in taurine transport in liver, kidney and muscle and altered metabolism in liver and kidney. These data suggest that the maintenance of adequate body taurine relies on sufficient dietary intake of taurine and cysteine availability and metabolism, as well as retention of taurine by the kidney. This research indicates dystrophin deficiency not only perturbs taurine metabolism in the muscle but also affects taurine metabolism in the liver and kidney, and supports targeting cysteine and taurine deficiency as a potential therapy for DMD. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Complex Kinetics in the Reaction of Taurine with Aqueous Bromine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complex Kinetics in the Reaction of Taurine with Aqueous Bromine and Acidic Bromate : A Possible Cytoprotective Role against Hypobromous Acid. ... toxicity of bromine and hypobromous acid in the slightly basic physiological environments.

  3. Taurine prevents ultraviolet B induced apoptosis in retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayang, Wu; Dongbo, Pang

    2017-06-07

    Compatible osmolytes accumulation is an active resistance response in retina under ultraviolet radiation and hypertonicity conditions. The purpose of this research is to investigate the protective role of taurine on retina under ultraviolet B radiation. Osmolytes transporters was measured by quantitative realtime PCR. Osmolytes uptake was estimated by radioimmunoassay. Cell viability was caculated by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry analysis. Hypertonicity accelerated osmolytes uptake into retinal ganglion cells including taurine, betaine and myoinositol. Ultraviolet B radiation increased osmolytes transporter expression and osmolytes uptake. In addition, osmolyte taurine remarkably prevented ultraviolet B radiation induced cell apoptosis in retinal ganglion cells. The effect of compatible osmolyte taurine on cell survival rate may play an important role in cell resistance and adaption to UVB exposure.

  4. Effects of maternal nutrition and arginine supplementation on postnatal liver and jejunal oxygen consumption and hypothalamic neuropeptide content in ovine offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal nutrient restriction during gestation exerts long-term effects on offspring health and performance. Energy utilized by fetal visceral tissues can be altered in response to changes in maternal feed intake. Prolonged nutritional changes during early pregnancy can impact hypothalamic neuropept...

  5. Separation methods for taurine analysis in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Shifen; Ding, Xiaojing; Liu, Yongjian

    2002-12-05

    Taurine plays an important role in a variety of physiological functions, pharmacological actions and pathological conditions. Many methods for taurine analysis, therefore, have been reported to monitor its levels in biological samples. This review discusses the following techniques: sample preparation; separation and determination methods including high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, ion chromatography, capillary electrophoresis and hyphenation procedures. It covers articles published between 1990 and 2001.

  6. Taurine Provides Neuroprotection against Retinal Ganglion Cell Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Froger; Lucia Cadetti; Henri Lorach; Joao Martins; Alexis-Pierre Bemelmans; Elisabeth Dubus; Julie Degardin; Dorothée Pain; Valérie Forster; Laurent Chicaud; Ivana Ivkovic; Manuel Simonutti; Stéphane Fouquet; Firas Jammoul; Thierry Léveillard

    2012-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration occurs in numerous retinal diseases leading to blindness, either as a primary process like in glaucoma, or secondary to photoreceptor loss. However, no commercial drug is yet directly targeting RGCs for their neuroprotection. In the 70s, taurine, a small sulfonic acid provided by nutrition, was found to be essential for the survival of photoreceptors, but this dependence was not related to any retinal disease. More recently, taurine deprivation was inc...

  7. Protective effects of taurine against closed head injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming; Zhao, Yumei; Gu, Yi; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2015-01-01

    Taurine, an abundant amino acid in the nervous system, is reported to reduce ischemic brain injury in a dose-dependent manner. This study was designed to investigate whether taurine protected the brain against closed head injury (CHI) in rats. Taurine was administered intravenously 30 min after CHI. It was found that taurine lessened body-weight loss and improved neurological functions at 7 days after CHI. Moreover, it lowered brain edema and blood-brain barrier permeability, enhanced activity of superoxide dismutase and the level of glutathione, and reduced levels of malondialdehyde and lactic acid in traumatic tissue 24 h after CHI. In addition, it attenuated neuronal cell death in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subfields 7 days after CHI. All of these effects were dose dependent. These data demonstrated the dose-dependent protection of taurine against experimental CHI and suggest that taurine treatment might be beneficial in reducing trauma-induced oxidative damage to the brain, thus showing the potential for clinical implications.

  8. Effects of taurine on gut microbiota and metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haining; Guo, Zhengzhao; Shen, Shengrong; Shan, Weiguang

    2016-07-01

    As being a necessary amino acid, taurine plays an important role in the regulation of neuroendocrine functions and nutrition. In this study, effects of taurine on mice gut microbes and metabolism were investigated. BALB/C mice were randomly divided into three experimental groups: The first group was administered saline (CK), the second was administered 165 mg/kg natural taurine (NE) and the third one administered 165 mg/kg synthetic taurine (CS). Gut microbiota composition in mice feces was analyzed by metagenomics technology, and the content of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in mice feces was detected by gas chromatography (GC), while the concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected by a LPS ELISA kit and a SOD assay kit, respectively. The results showed that the effect of taurine on gut microbiota could reduce the abundance of Proteobacteria, especially Helicobacter. Moreover, we found that the SCFA content was increased in feces of the NE group while LPS content was decreased in serum of the NE group; the SOD activity in serum and livers of the NE and CS groups were not changed significantly compare to that of the CK group. In conclusion, taurine could regulate the gut micro-ecology, which might be of benefit to health by inhibiting the growth of harmful bacteria, accelerating the production of SCFA and reducing LPS concentration.

  9. Supplementation of a maternal low-protein diet in rat pregnancy with folic acid ameliorates programming effects upon feeding behaviour in the absence of disturbances to the methionine-homocysteine cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeham, Sarah F; Haase, Andrea; Langley-Evans, Simon C

    2010-04-01

    Maternal protein restriction in rat pregnancy is associated with altered feeding behaviour in later life. When allowed to self-select their diet, rats subject to prenatal undernutrition show an increased preference for fatty foods. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of folic acid in the maternal diet to programming of appetite, since disturbances of the folate and methionine-homocysteine cycles have been suggested to impact upon epigenetic regulation of gene expression and hence programme long-term physiology and metabolism. Pregnant rats were fed diets containing either 9 or 18 % casein by weight, with folate provided at either 1 or 5 mg/kg diet. Adult male animals exposed to low protein (LP) in fetal life exhibited increased preference for high-fat food. Providing the higher level of folate in the maternal diet prevented this effect of LP, but offspring of rats fed 18 % casein diet with additional folate behaved in a similar manner to LP-exposed animals. Among day 20 gestation fetuses, it was apparent that both protein restriction and maternal folate supplementation could have adverse effects upon placental growth. Examination of methionine-homocysteine and folate cycle intermediates, tissue glutathione concentrations and expression of mRNA for methionine synthase, DNA methyltransferase 1 and methyltetrahydrofolate reductase revealed no gross disturbances of folate and one-carbon metabolism in either maternal or fetal tissue. The present findings indicated that any role for DNA methylation in programming of physiology is not related to major perturbations of folate metabolism, and is likely to be gene-specific rather than genome-wide.

  10. Altered maternal thyroid function: Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on fetal and neonatal myocardial free fatty acid oxidation,in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Ratan

    1998-01-01

    Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on myocardial free fatty acid oxidation,in vitro, in offsprings born of hypothyroid and hyperthyroid mothers was studied in rats. L-carnitine supplementation stimulated myocardial fatty acid oxidation during gestational period in offspring born of control and hyperthyroid mothers. In contrast L-carnitine supplementation induced stimulation in myocardial fatty acid oxidation was very less in fetuses born of hypothyroid mothers. However, in neonates born of...

  11. Taurine inhibits ischemia/reperfusion-induced compartment syndrome in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-xian WANG; Yan LI; Li-ke ZHANG; Jing ZHAO; Yong-zheng PANG; Chao-shu TANG; Jing ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate effects of taurine on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced compartment syndrome in rabbit hind limbs.Methods: Rabbits underwent femoral artery occ lusion after ligation of branches from terminal aorta to femoral artery.After a 7-h ischemia, reperfusion was established with the use of heparinized by iv infusion 10 min before shunt placement.During reperfusion, anterior compartment pressure (ACP) was monitored continuously in the left lower extremity.Gastrocnemius muscle triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) level, taurine content and myeloperoxidase activity were assayed.Oxidative stress was induced in the in vitro gastrocnemius muscle slices by free radical generating systems (FRGS),and the malondialdehyde content was measured in presence or absence of taurine.Results: After 7 h of ischemia, none of the parameters that we measured were different from those before ischemia, except that TTC reduction decreased by 80%.In the control group, after 2 h of reperfusion, ACP increased 4.5-fold, and gastrocnemius muscle taurine content was reduced by 33%.In taurine-treated animals, at 2 h reperfusion, the mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were increased, by 6% and 10%.ACP decreased by 39%, muscle edema decreased by 16%, TTC reduction increased by 150%, and lactate dehydrogenase decreased by 36% compared to control group.Plasma and muscle taurine content increased by 70% and 88%, respectively.In the taurine-treated group, at 2 h reperfusion, plasma malondialdehyde and conjugated diene content were decreased by 38% and 23%,respectively, and muscle malondialdehyde and conjugated diene content decreased by 22% and 30%, respectively compared to the control group.At 2 h reperfusion,myeloperoxidase activity was increased 3.5-fold in control animals.In the in vitro study, taurine decreased malondialdehyde content in muscle slices incubated with hypochlorous acid in a dose-dependent manner, but there was no change when incubated with hydrogen peroxide and

  12. Natural taurine promotes apoptosis of human hepatic stellate cells in proteomics analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xin; Liang, Jian; LIN, ZHI-XIU; Wu, Fa-Sheng; Zhang, Ya-ping; Zhang, Zhi-Wei

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To study the differential expression of proteins between natural taurine treated hepatic stellate cells and controls, and investigate the underlying regulatory mechanism of natural taurine in inhibiting hepatic fibrosis.

  13. [Plasma taurine levels in patients with esophagus cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamônica-Garcia, Vânia Cristina; Marin, Flávia Andréa; Lerco, Mauro Masson; Moreto, Fernando; Henry, Maria Aparecida Coelho Arruda; Burini, Roberto Carlos

    2008-01-01

    The esophagus cancer-host has a two way close relationship as seen in its sulphur-amino acid metabolism. Taurine one of these compounds has ubiquous role in host defense and other physiological mechanisms related to survival. To study the plasma levels of taurine and its precursors in patients with esophagus cancer. In a sectional design both groups, patients (n = 16, 43-73 yrs old) and healthy controls (n = 20, 27-65 yrs old) were assessed for anthropometry, body-weight lost, hematology (Hb, Ht, total leukocytes and lymphocyte counts), general biochemistry (albumin, glucose, lipids and aminotransferases) and chromatographic analysis for taurine, cysteine, and homocysteine. The survival time was registered there since from the clinical-histopathological diagnosis. All participants had a written ethical consent for the research. The cancer patients were predominantly, white males of low social economic class, with spinocellular carcinoma stage IV located at upper 3rd half of them presented hypoalbuminemia and 16% referred significant body-weight loss. The patients showed statistically lower values of Hb, Ht, total and HDL cholesterol and cysteine and significantly higher values of taurine, homocysteine and aminotransferases than healthy controls. A positive relationship was found between taurine and either TLC (r = 0.50) and survival (r = 0.81). Lower plasma cysteine along with higher levels of taurine and homocysteine and the positive direct association of taurine with indications of survival suggest an effective role of this compound and therefore a prospective special nutritional care in its precursors (cysteine, methionine and B vitamins) of these patients.

  14. Effect of taurine on mRNA expression of thioredoxin interacting protein in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondo, Yusuke; Satsu, Hideo; Ishimoto, Yoko; Iwamoto, Taku; Shimizu, Makoto

    2012-09-28

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a sulfur-containing β-amino acid, plays an important role in several essential biological processes; although, the underlying mechanisms for these regulatory functions remain to be elucidated, especially at the genetic level. We investigated the effects of taurine on the gene expression profile in Caco-2 cells using DNA microarray. Taurine increased the mRNA expression of thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP), which is involved in various metabolisms and diseases. β-Alanine or γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which are structurally or functionally related to taurine, did not increase TXNIP mRNA expression. These suggest the expression of TXNIP mRNA is induced specifically by taurine. β-Alanine is also known to be a substrate of taurine transporter (TAUT) and competitively inhibits taurine uptake. Inhibition of taurine uptake by β-alanine eliminated the up-regulation of TXNIP, which suggests TAUT is involved in inducing TXNIP mRNA expression. The up-regulation of TXNIP mRNA expression by taurine was also observed at the protein level. Furthermore, taurine significantly increased TXNIP promoter activity. Our present study demonstrated the taurine-specific phenomenon of TXNIP up-regulation, which sheds light on the physiological function of taurine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Taurine attenuates radiation-induced lung fibrosis in C57/Bl6 fibrosis prone mice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Robb, W B

    2010-03-01

    The amino acid taurine has an established role in attenuating lung fibrosis secondary to bleomycin-induced injury. This study evaluates taurine\\'s effect on TGF-beta1 expression and the development of lung fibrosis after single-dose thoracic radiotherapy.

  16. Is Taurine a Biomarker in Autistic Spectrum Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunkyue; Cohen, Ira; Gonzalez, Maripaz; Castellano, Mario R; Flory, Michael; Jenkins, Edmund C; Brown, W Ted; Schuller-Levis, Georgia

    2017-01-01

    Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid which is not incorporated into protein. However, taurine has various critical physiological functions including development of the eye and brain, reproduction, osmoregulation, and immune functions including anti-inflammatory as well as anti-oxidant activity. The causes of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are not clear but a high heritability implicates an important role for genetic factors. Reports also implicate oxidative stress and inflammation in the etiology of ASD. Thus, taurine, a well-known antioxidant and regulator of inflammation, was investigated here using the sera from both girls and boys with ASD as well as their siblings and parents. Previous reports regarding taurine serum concentrations in ASD from various laboratories have been controversial. To address the potential role of taurine in ASD, we collected sera from 66 children with ASD (males: 45; females: 21, age 1.5-11.5 years, average age 5.2 ± 1.6) as well as their unaffected siblings (brothers: 24; sisters: 32, age 1.5-17 years, average age 7.0 ± 2.0) as controls of the children with ASD along with parents (fathers: 49; mothers: 54, age 28-45 years). The sera from normal adult controls (males: 47; females: 51, age 28-48 years) were used as controls for the parents. Taurine concentrations in all sera samples were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a phenylisothiocyanate labeling technique. Taurine concentrations from female and male children with ASD were 123.8 ± 15.2 and 145.8 ± 8.1 μM, respectively, and those from their unaffected brothers and sisters were 142.6 ± 10.4 and 150.8 ± 8.4 μM, respectively. There was no significant difference in taurine concentration between autistic children and their unaffected siblings. Taurine concentrations in children with ASD were also not significantly different from their parents (mothers: 139.6 ± 7.7 μM, fathers: 147.4 ± 7.5 μM). No significant

  17. Maternal gestational betaine supplementation-mediated suppression of hepatic cyclin D2 and presenilin1 gene in newborn piglets is associated with epigenetic regulation of the STAT3-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Demin; Yuan, Mengjie; Jia, Yimin; Liu, Haoyu; Hu, Yun; Zhao, Ruqian

    2015-12-01

    Betaine, which donates methyl groups through methionine metabolism for DNA and protein methylation, is critical for epigenetic gene regulation, especially during fetal development. Here we fed gestational sows with control or betaine supplemented diets (3 g/kg) throughout the pregnancy to explore the effects of maternal betaine on hepatic cell proliferation in neonatal piglets. Neonatal piglets born to betaine-supplemented sows demonstrated a reduction of cell number and DNA content in the liver, which was associated with significantly down-regulated hepatic expression of cell cycle regulatory genes, cyclin D2 (CCND2) and presenilin1 (PSEN1). Moreover, STAT3 binding to the promoter of CCND2 and PSEN1 was also lower in betaine-exposed piglets, accompanied by strong reduction of STAT3 mRNA and protein expression, along with its phosphorylation at Tyr705 and Ser727 residues. Also, prenatal betaine exposure significantly attenuated upstream kinases of STAT3 signaling pathway (phospho-ERK1/2, phospho-SRC and phospho-JAK2) in the livers of neonates. Furthermore, the repressed STAT3 expression in the liver of betaine-exposed piglets was associated with DNA hypermethylation and more enriched repression histone mark H3K27me3 on its promoter, together with significantly up-regulated expression of H3K27me3 and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) proteins, as well as miR-124a, which targets STAT3. Taken together, our results suggest that maternal dietary betaine supplementation during gestation inhibits hepatic cell proliferation in neonatal piglets, at least partly, through epigenetic regulation of hepatic CCND2 and PSEN1 genes via a STAT3-dependent pathway. These neonatal changes in cell cycle and proliferation regulation may lead to lower liver weight and hepatic DNA content at weaning.

  18. Taurine deficiency and MELAS are closely related syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Stephen W; Jong, Chian Ju; Warner, Danielle; Ito, Takashi; Azuma, Junichi

    2013-01-01

    MELAS (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes) is a mitochondrial disease caused by one or more mutations of tRNA(Leu(UUR)). These mutations reduce both the aminoacylation of tRNA(Leu(UUR)) and a posttranslational modification in the wobble position of tRNA(Leu(UUR)). Both changes result in reduced transcription of mitochondria-encoded proteins; however, reduced aminoacylation affects the decoding of both UUG and UUA while the wobble defect specifically diminishes UUG decoding. Because 12 out of the 13 mitochondria-encoded proteins are more dependent on UUA decoding than UUG decoding, the aminoacylation defect should have a more profound effect on protein synthesis than the wobble defect, which more specifically alters the expression of one mitochondria-encoded protein, ND6. Taurine serves as a substrate in the formation of 5-taurinomethyluridine-tRNA(Leu(UUR)); therefore, taurine deficiency should mimic 5-taurinomethyluridine-tRNA(Leu(UUR)) deficiency. Hence, the wobble hypothesis predicts that the symptoms of MELAS mimic those of taurine deficiency, provided that the dominant defect in MELAS is wobble modification deficiency. On the other hand, if the aminoacylation defect dominates, significant differences should exist between taurine deficiency and MELAS. The present review tests this hypothesis by comparing the symptoms of MELAS and taurine deficiency.

  19. Effect of Taurine on Febrile Episodes in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Islambulchilar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral taurine on the incidence of febrile episodes during chemotherapy in young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Forty young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, at the beginning of maintenance course of their chemotherapy, were eligible for this study. The study population was randomized in a double blind manner to receive either taurine or placebo (2 gram per day orally. Life quality and side effects including febrile episodes were assessed using questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s Chi square test. Results: Of total forty participants, 43.8% were female and 56.3 % were male. The mean age was 19.16±1.95 years (ranges: 16-23 years. The results indicated that the levels of white blood cells are significantly (P<0.05 increased in taurine treated group. There was no elevation in blasts count. A total of 70 febrile episodes were observed during study, febrile episodes were significantly (P<0.05 lower in taurine patients in comparison to the control ones. Conclusion: The overall incidence of febrile episodes and infectious complications in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients receiving taurine was lower than placebo group. Taurine’s ability to increase leukocyte count may result in lower febrile episodes.

  20. Changes in plasma taurine levels after different endurance events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R J; Francaux, M; Cuisinier, C; Sturbois, X; De Witte, P

    1999-01-01

    The sulphonated amino acid taurine increased significantly in the plasma of trained athletes after three endurance exercises of different duration and intensity, a 90 min run on a treadmill at 75% of an individual's VO2 peak, a Marathon, 42.2 km and a 100 km run, by 19%, 77% and 36%, respectively. Such results indicated that the speed at which the exercise is performed, referred to as the intensity, rather than the duration of the exercise, correlated with the elevated taurine levels possibly indicating its release from muscle fibres. The plasma amino acid pool decreased significantly in relationship with the duration of the exercise, caused by their utilisation for glucogenesis. The possible sources of the increased plasma taurine are discussed.

  1. Maternal Obesity, Inflammation, and Developmental Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Segovia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity, especially in women of child-bearing age, is a global health concern. In addition to increasing the immediate risk of gestational complications, there is accumulating evidence that maternal obesity also has long-term consequences for the offspring. The concept of developmental programming describes the process in which an environmental stimulus, including altered nutrition, during critical periods of development can program alterations in organogenesis, tissue development, and metabolism, predisposing offspring to obesity and metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in later life. Although the mechanisms underpinning programming of metabolic disorders remain poorly defined, it has become increasingly clear that low-grade inflammation is associated with obesity and its comorbidities. This review will discuss maternal metainflammation as a mediator of programming in insulin sensitive tissues in offspring. Use of nutritional anti-inflammatories in pregnancy including omega 3 fatty acids, resveratrol, curcumin, and taurine may provide beneficial intervention strategies to ameliorate maternal obesity-induced programming.

  2. Taurine increases testicular function in aged rats by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiancheng; Zong, Xiaomeng; Wu, Gaofeng; Lin, Shumei; Feng, Ying; Hu, Jianmin

    2015-08-01

    In males, the decline of androgen synthesis, spermatogenesis and sexual function are the main phenotypes of aging, which may be attributed to testicular dysfunction. Taurine can act as an antioxidant, a testosterone secretion stimulator, a sperm membrane stabilizer and motility factor, and an anti-apoptotic agent. Recent observational studies suggested that taurine may play an important role in spermatogenesis, but to date whether taurine has anti-aging effects on testes remains unknown. We found that in aged rats testicular SDH and G6PDH activities, marker enzymes of testes, serum testosterone, testicular 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD mRNA expression levels were significantly increased by taurine treatment. Taurine administration also markedly raised the sperm count, viability and motility, decreased the sperm abnormality. Our data suggested that taurine can postpone testicular function deterioration in aged rats. Importantly, we observed obvious elevation of testicular antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH, GSH-Px) activities, and remarkable reduction of ROS and MDA by taurine administration, indicating taurine can decrease testicular oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in aged rats. Finally, we found taurine effectively reduced testicular DNA fragmentation, increased testicular Bcl-2 protein expression, and decreased cytochrome c, Bax, Fas, FasL and caspase-3 expression, suggesting taurine can prohibit aged testicular apoptosis by mitochondrial dependent and independent signal pathway. In summary, our results indicated that taurine can suppress testicular function deterioration by increasing antioxidant ability and inhibiting apoptosis.

  3. Taurine Alleviates the Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Hyun Koh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, the protective effects of taurine on diabetic nephropathy along with its underlying mechanism were investigated. Experimental animals were divided into three groups: LETO rats as normal group (n=10, OLETF rats as diabetic control group (n=10, and OLETF rats treated with taurine group (n=10. We treated taurine (200 mg/kg/day for 20 weeks and treated high glucose (HG, 30 mM with or without taurine (30 mM in mouse cultured podocyte. After taurine treatment, blood glucose level was decreased and insulin secretion was increased. Taurine significantly reduced albuminuria and ACR. Also it decreased glomerular volume, GBM thickness and increased open slit pore density through decreased VEGF and increased nephrin mRNA expressions in renal cortex. The antioxidant effects of taurine were confirmed by the reduction of urine MDA in taurine treated diabetic group. Also reactive oxygen species (ROS levels were decreased in HG condition with taurine treated podocytes compared to without taurine. These results indicate that taurine lowers glucose level via increased insulin secretion and ameliorates the progression of diabetic nephropathy through antifibrotic and antioxidant effects in type 2 diabetes rat model.

  4. Taurine inhibits osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells via the ERK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiao-bo; Zhou, Xin-min; Li, Jian-ming; Yang, Jin-fu; Tan, Zhi-ping; Hu, Zhuo-wei; Liu, Wei; Lu, Ying; Yuan, Ling-qing

    2008-05-01

    Vascular calcification develops within atherosclerotic lesions and results from a process similar to osteogenesis. Taurine is a free beta-amino acid and plays an important physiological role in mammals. We have recently demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) express a functional taurine transporter. To evaluate the possible role of taurine in vascular calcification, we assessed its effects on osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs in vitro. The results showed that taurine inhibited the beta-glycerophosphate-induced osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs as evidenced by both the decreasing alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity and expression of the core binding factor alpha1 (Cbfalpha1). Taurine also activated the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathway. Inhibition of ERK pathway reversed the effect of taurine on ALP activity and Cbfalpha1 expression. These results suggested that taurine inhibited osteoblastic differentiation of vascular cells via the ERK pathway.

  5. Cardiac and skeletal muscle abnormality in taurine transporter-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takashi; Oishi, Shohei; Takai, Mika; Kimura, Yasushi; Uozumi, Yoriko; Fujio, Yasushi; Schaffer, Stephen W; Azuma, Junichi

    2010-08-24

    Taurine, a sulfur-containing beta-amino acid, is highly contained in heart and skeletal muscle. Taurine has a variety of biological actions, such as ion movement, calcium handling and cytoprotection in the cardiac and skeletal muscles. Meanwhile, taurine deficiency leads various pathologies, including dilated cardiomyopathy, in cat and fox. However, the essential role of taurine depletion on pathogenesis has not been fully clarified. To address the physiological role of taurine in mammalian tissues, taurine transporter-(TauT-) knockout models were recently generated. TauTKO mice exhibited loss of body weight, abnormal cardiac function and the reduced exercise capacity with tissue taurine depletion. In this chapter, we summarize pathological profile and histological feature of heart and skeletal muscle in TauTKO mice.

  6. Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation during  Pregnancy and Childhood Allergic Disease  Outcomes: A Question of Timing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McStay, Catrina L; Prescott, Susan L; Bower, Carol; Palmer, Debra J

    2017-02-09

    Since the early 1990s, maternal folic acid supplementation has been recommended prior  to and during the first trimester of pregnancy, to reduce the risk of infant neural tube defects. In  addition, many countries have also implemented the folic acid fortification of staple foods, in order  to promote sufficient intakes amongst women of a childbearing age, based on concerns surrounding  variable dietary and supplementation practices. As many women continue to take folic acid  supplements beyond the recommended first trimester, there has been an overall increase in folate  intakes, particularly in countries with mandatory fortification. This has raised questions on the  consequences for the developing fetus, given that folic acid, a methyl donor, has the potential to  epigenetically modify gene expression. In animal studies, folic acid has been shown to promote an  allergic phenotype in the offspring, through changes in DNA methylation. Human population  studies  have  also  described  associations  between  folate  status  in  pregnancy  and  the  risk  of  subsequent childhood allergic disease. In this review, we address the question of whether ongoing  maternal folic acid supplementation after neural tube closure, could be contributing to the rise in  early life allergic diseases.

  7. Taurine: A Potential Ergogenic Aid for Preventing Muscle Damage and Protein Catabolism and Decreasing Oxidative Stress Produced by Endurance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia G. De Carvalho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of taurine and chocolate milk supplementation on oxidative stress and protein metabolism markers, and aerobic parameters in triathletes.Methods: A double-blind, crossover study was conducted with 10 male triathletes, aged 30.9 ± 1.3 year, height 1.79 ± 0.01 m and body weight 77.45 ± 2.4 kg. Three grams of taurine and 400 ml of chocolate milk (TAUchoc, or a placebo (chocolate milk (CHOC was ingested post exercise for 8 weeks. Oxidative stress marker levels, and 24 h urinary nitrogen, creatinine, and urea excretion were measured before and after 8 weeks of training and supplementation with TAUchoc or CHOC. A maximal incremental running test on a treadmill was performed in order to evaluate aerobic parameters: Vmax, heart rate (HR and rate of perceived exertion (RPE.Results: TAUchoc treatment during the 8 weeks resulted in increased taurine plasma levels (PRE 201.32 ± 29.03 μmol/L and POST 234.36 ± 35.51 μmol/L, p = 0.01, decreased malondialdehyde levels (19.4%, p = 0.03 and urinary nitrogen excretion (−33%, p = 0.03, and promoted positive nitrogen balance (p = 0.01. There were no changes in reduced glutathione (TAUchoc PRE 0.72 ± 0.08 mmol/L and POST 0.83 ± 0.08 mmol/L; CHOC PRE 0.69 ± 0.08 mmol/L and POST 0.81 ± 0.06 mmol/L, vitamin E plasma levels (TAUchoc PRE 33.99 ± 2.52 μmol/L and 35.95 ± 2.80 μmol/L and CHOC PRE 31.48 ± 2.12 μmol/L and POST 33.77 ± 3.64 μmol/L, or aerobic parameters, which were obtained in the last phase of the maximal incremental running test (Vmax TAUchoc PRE 13 ± 1.4 km/h and POST 13.22 ± 1.34 km/h; CHOC PRE 13.11 ± 2.34 km/h and POST 13.11 ± 2.72 km/h, the heart rate values were TAUchoc PRE 181.89 ± 24.18 bpm and POST 168.89 ± 46.56 bpm; CHOC PRE 181.56 ± 2.14 bpm and POST 179.78 ± 3.4 bpm, and the RPE were TAUchoc PRE 8.33 ± 2.4 AU and POST 9.1 ± 2.1 AU; CHOC PRE 8.11 ± 4.94 AU and POST 8.78 ± 2.78 AU.Conclusion: Taurine supplementation

  8. Reduction of phosphorus concentration in mineral supplement on fertility rate, maternal ability and costs of beef cows reared in pastures of Urochloa decumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rogério Magnoli; Ponsano, Elisa Helena Giglio; de Souza, Vinícius Carneiro; Malafaia, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    Manufacturing and marketing of mineral mixtures with less than 40 g kg(-1) phosphorus (P) is prohibited under Brazilian regulations, although scientific evidence rejects this recommendation. Considering the hypothesis that P levels in commercial mineral supplements can be reduced without affecting animal performance and health, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of reducing the concentration of P in the mineral supplement (from 40 to 18 g kg(-1)) of a herd of beef cows grazing tropical pastures of signal grass (Urochloa decumbens). The experiment was carried out in the savanna region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, during the years 2011 to 2013. Variables analyzed included pregnancy rate, calving interval, weight of calves at weaning, and cost of mineral supplementation. There were no changes in the reproductive parameters of the herd and the weight at weaning of the calves. However, the cost of mineral supplementation was significantly lower when the herd was supplemented with the mineral mix containing only 18 g kg(-1) P. Phosphorus concentration of the forage was analyzed monthly during 1 year and averaged 1.9 ± 0.45 g kg(-1) DM. Thus, it appears possible to reduce P content and cost of mineral supplementation without any adverse effects on the health and productivity of beef cattle herds in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. However, the final decision should be made based on the clinical-nutritional examination and by constant technical assistance to the farm.

  9. Maternal Fish Oil Supplementation during Lactation May Adversely Affect Long-Term Blood Pressure, Energy Intake, and Physical Activity of 7-Year-Old Boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asserhøj, M.; Nehammer, S.; Matthiessen, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    . Danish mothers (n = 122) were randomized to FO [1.5 g/d (n-3) LCPUFA] or olive oil (OO) supplementations during the first 4 mo of lactation. The trial also included a high-fish intake reference group (n = 53). Ninety-eight children were followed-up with blood pressure and anthropometry measurements at 7......Early nutrition may program obesity and cardiovascular risk later in life, and one of the potential agents is (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA). In this study, our objective was to examine whether fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affects blood pressure and body composition of children...

  10. Assessment of the Protective Role of Prenatal Zinc versus Insulin Supplementation on Fetal Cardiac Damage Induced by Maternal Diabetes in Rat Using Caspase-3 and KI67 Immunohistochemical Stains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Shams

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal diabetes mellitus (DM affects early organogenesis. Metabolic disorders of DM are associated with a depleted zinc status. This study evaluated the effect of maternal DM on cardiac development of rat fetuses and protective roles of prenatal zinc versus insulin supplementation. Pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups ((I control, (II STZ-induced DM, (III STZ-induced DM treated with Zn, and (IV STZ induced DM treated with insulin, all sacrificed on GD 20. Fetal heart weight of diabetic rats showed significant decrease compared to controls (P<0.05. H&E stained section of controls had normal appearance of the myocardium, compared to diabetics that showed myocardial disarray with characteristic degenerative changes. Sections of zinc treated group showed restored architecture of normal myofibrils with minimal degenerative changes, while those of insulin treated group show partial restoration of the normal architecture of cardiomyocytes with focal improvement of cardiac tissue. Caspase-3 immunostained slides showed positive cytoplasmic immunoreactivity in diabetic group. But KI67 immunostained slides revealed negative nuclear immunoreaction in diabetics. We observed that gestational diabetes was associated with increased risk of fetal myocardial damage that might be caused by increased apoptotic level. Treating diabetic pregnant subjects with zinc and insulin was associated with improvement in myocardial integrity.

  11. Effects of prenatal and/or postnatal (maternal and/or child) folic acid supplementation on the mental performance of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skórka, Agata; Gieruszczak-Białek, Dorota; Pieścik, Małgorzata; Szajewska, Hania

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that a deficiency in folic acid during early, critical central nervous system development may result in persistent cognitive and behavioral effects. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate evidence regarding whether folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and early life influences mental performance outcomes in children. The following electronic databases were searched through December 2009 for studies relevant to mental performance and folic acid: MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library; additional references were obtained from reviewed articles. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Of 8 RCTs identified, only 2 met the inclusion criteria. Both studies involved periconceptional, multivitamin-containing, folic acid supplementation. Evidence from these 2 RCTs suggests that such supplementation does not affect the postnatal mental development of infants at a mean age of 11 mo, the developmental quotient (DQ) at 2 y of age, or the intelligence quotient (IQ) and Goodenough man drawing test quotient (DrQ) at 6 y of age. We conclude that the use of multivitamin-containing folic acid supplementation during pregnancy is associated with no benefit to the mental performance of children. These findings should be interpreted with caution due to the very limited number of studies included in this systemic review.

  12. Effect of dietary fat supplementation during late pregnancy and first six months of lactation on maternal and infant vitamin A status in rural Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, D.S.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Yunus, M.; Wahed, M.A.; Fuchs, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fat intake is extremely low in most communities with vitamin A deficiency. However, its role in vitamin A status of pregnant and lactating women is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of supplementing women with fat from mid-/late pregnancy until six months post

  13. Influence of dietary taurine and housing density on oviduct function in laying hens%日粮中添加牛磺酸对不同饲养方式蛋鸡输卵管功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin DAI; Yuan-shu ZHANG; Zi-li MA; Liu-hai ZHENG; Shuang-jie LI; Xin-hong DOU; Jian-sen GONG

    2015-01-01

    目 的:本研究旨在调查饲喂牛磺酸和降低饲养密度对蛋鸡输卵管功能的影响.创新点:着眼于动物健康的动物福利,探讨在现代社会高密度饲养的笼养鸡伴随的许多健康问题.方 法:在本研究中,绿壳蛋鸡被随机分为散养组、低密度组和高密度组,每组又被分为对照组和饲喂牛磺酸实验组.每个组别的蛋鸡日常饮食是一样的,除了实验组中添加0.1%的牛磺酸.15天后,无菌采集输卵管组织,并分析了组织病理学学上的变化、炎症介质水平、氧化和抗氧化水平等指标的变化.结 论:这些数据表明牛磺酸可以保护输卵管组织,降低炎症介质水平、氧化水平以及增强抗氧化水平等.另外,散养和低密度饲养同样能降低氧化应激和输卵管炎症因子水平等.%Experiments were conducted to study the effects of dietary taurine and housing density on oviduct function in laying hens. Green-shel laying hens were randomly assigned to a free range group and two caged groups, one with low-density and the other with high-density housing. Each group was further divided into control (C) and taurine treatment (T) groups. Al hens were fed the same basic diet except that the T groups' diet was supplemented with 0.1% taurine. The experiment lasted 15 d. Survival rates, laying rates, daily feed consumption, and daily weight gain were recorded. Histological changes, inflammatory mediator levels, and oxidation and anti-oxidation levels were determined. The results show that dietary taurine supplementation and reduced housing density significantly attenuated patho-physiological changes in the oviduct. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) DNA binding activity increased significantly in the high-density housing group compared with the two other housing groups and was reduced by taurine supplementation. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA expression in the high-density and low-density C and T groups increased significantly. In the free

  14. Unconjugated Bile Salts Shuttle Through Hepatocyte Peroxisomes for Taurine Conjugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rembacz, Krzysztof P.; Woudenberg, Jannes; Hoekstra, Mark; Jonkers, Elles Z.; van den Heuvel, Fiona A. J.; Buist-Homan, Manon; Woudenberg-Vrenken, Titia E.; Rohacova, Jana; Luisa Marin, M.; Miranda, Miguel A.; Moshage, Han; Stellaard, Frans; Faber, Klaas Nico

    2010-01-01

    Bile acid-CoA.amino acid N-acyltransferase (BAAT) conjugates bile salts to glycine or taurine, which is the final step in bile salt biosynthesis In addition, BAAT is required for reconjugation of bile salts in the enterohepatic circulation Recently, we showed that BAAT is a peroxisomal protein,

  15. Activation of Rat Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase by Taurine May be ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. K.J. Umar

    intestinal ALP activity is higher (12x10-3nmol-1min-1mg protein) in the presence of taurine and LPS when compared with the ... are essential for the toxic activity of lipid A. Removal of ... gram-negative bacteria and lipopolysaccaride (LPS) and.

  16. Occurrence of a taurine derivative in an antarctic glass sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Marianna; Núñez-Pons, Laura; Ciavatta, M Letizia; Castelluccio, Francesco; Avila, Conxita; Gavagnin, Margherita

    2014-04-01

    The n-butanol extract of an Antarctic hexactinellid sponge, Anoxycalyx (Scolymastra) joubini, was found to contain a taurine-conjugated anthranilic acid, never reported so far either as a natural product or by synthesis. The compound was inactive against human cancer cells in an in vitro growth inhibitory test, and also showed no antibacterial activity.

  17. A Novel Role of SIRT1/ FGF-21 in Taurine Protection Against Cafeteria Diet-Induced Steatohepatitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza H. Abd Elwahab

    2017-09-01

    , reflected by increased hepatic MDA and decreased GSH levels, along with stimulated caspase-3 and decline in BcL-2 hepatic levels. These pathological disturbances were significantly ameliorated by taurine supplementation and evidenced histopathologically. The cross talk between hepatic FGF-21 and SIRT1 and their association to the induced perturbations are novel findings in this study. Taurine's efficacy in restoration of hepatic structure and function is partially via the increase in SIRT1 and associated reduction of FGF-21. Conclusion: The findings of the current study prove the protective role of taurine in NAFLD via a novel role in the amelioration of FGF-21/ SIRT1 axis, which could be considered a new therapeutic target.

  18. Effects of taurine on cardiovascular and autonomic nervous functions in cold exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Ito, Koichi; Tsubone, Hirokazu

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to cold temperature might affect on cardiovascular and autonomic nervous function. Although there are a lot of studies on physiological and pathophysiological responses of taurine, it was poorly understood the effects of taurine on cardiovascular and autonomic nervous function during cold circumstances. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to clarify the possible role of taurine on cardiovascular and autonomic nervous function in rats exposed to cold temperature. For this purpose, heart rate, blood pressure and locomotive activity were recorded from conscious and unrestrained rats using a telemetry system. Moreover, the autonomic nervous function was investigated by power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. After the recovery period of implantation of transmitter, 1% taurine was supplied during experimental period ad libitum. After the 7 days control period, both taurine administrated and control groups of rats were exposed a cold temperature. There were no differences in heart rate, blood pressure and locomotive activity between taurine and control groups before cold exposure. However, parasympathetic nervous function was somewhat predominant in taurine group. Heart rate and blood pressure in both groups increased greatly by cold exposure. Heart rate in taurine group was much higher than that in control group. LF and HF powers were decreased by cold exposure in both groups. Although no differences were observed in LF, decrease of HF in taurine group was greater than that in control group. These results suggested that taurine might provide some reservoir for cardiovascular and autonomic nervous function to cold stress in rats.

  19. Maternal immunisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, Marcel; Lambach, Philipp; Ortiz, Justin R.; Reis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    There has been increased interest in the potential of maternal immunisation to protect maternal, fetal, and infant health. Maternal tetanus vaccination is part of routine antenatal care and immunisation campaigns in many countries, and it has played an important part in the reduction of maternal and

  20. Maternal reproductive health: Expression patterns of antioxidant enzyme selenoproteins of post-implantation embryos conceived by ethanol-treated murine mothers supplemented with α-tocopherol

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    Gliceria B Ramos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate if the protective effect of α-tocopherol against the impact of ethanol on brain morphogenesis involved the activity of the selenoproteins phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx; GPx4 and selenoprotein P (SelPP that have roles against oxidative stress. Methods: Forty female mice were randomly assigned into natural control (CON, positive control (ETOH, low-, medium-, and high-α tocopherolsupplemented-ethanol groups (LTOC, MTOC, HTOC, respectively. CON received drinking water without ethanol while ETOH, LTOC, MTOC and HTOC groups received 20% ethanol in drinking water. The supplemented groups were given respective dosages of α-tocopherol, 0.410, 0.819, and 1.640 mg/g body weight, at day 14 before mating onwards to the day 9 of gestation. At 10.5 ED of gestation (1 100 h, the pregnant females were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and the embryos were harvested. Total RNA were extracted, cDNA synthesis and qRT- PCR analyses were carried out. Results: The level of expression of PHGPx in the positive control was significantly lower than that of the natural control. Among the three α- tocopherol-supplemented groups, only the medium dose- group was significantly higher than the positive control. The level of expression of SelPP in the positive control was significantly lower than those of the natural control, the low- and medium- dose α-tocopherol supplemented groups. In the high dose-α-tocopherol supplemented group, the level of expression was not significantly different from the positive control but significantly lower than the natural control. Conclusions: The activity of the selenoproteins PHGPx and SelPP are involved in the internetwork of antioxidative enzymes with vitamin E when given up to a medium dose only and is one of the possible pathways of shielding embryonic development against the impact of ethanol on brain morphogenesis. This study strengthens the impact of dietaryα-tocopherol and

  1. Maternal reproductive health: Expression patterns of antioxidant enzyme selenoproteins of post-implantation embryos conceived by ethanol-treated murine mothers supplemented with α-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gliceria B Ramos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate if the protective effect of α-tocopherol against the impact of ethanol on brain morphogenesis involved the activity of the selenoproteins phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx; GPx4 and selenoprotein P (SelPP that have roles against oxidative stress. Methods: Forty female mice were randomly assigned into natural control (CON, positive control (ETOH, low-, medium-, and high-α-tocopherolsupplemented- ethanol groups (LTOC, MTOC, HTOC, respectively. CON received drinking water without ethanol while ETOH, LTOC, MTOC and HTOC groups received 20% ethanol in drinking water. The supplemented groups were given respective dosages of α-tocopherol, 0.410, 0.819, and 1.640 mg/g body weight, at day 14 before mating onwards to the day 9 of gestation. At 10.5 ED of gestation (1 100 h, the pregnant females were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and the embryos were harvested. Total RNA were extracted, cDNA synthesis and qRT- PCR analyses were carried out. Results: The level of expression of PHGPx in the positive control was significantly lower than that of the natural control. Among the three α- tocopherol-supplemented groups, only the medium dose- group was significantly higher than the positive control. The level of expression of SelPP in the positive control was significantly lower than those of the natural control, the low- and medium- dose α-tocopherol supplemented groups. In the high dose-α-tocopherol supplemented group, the level of expression was not significantly different from the positive control but significantly lower than the natural control. Conclusions: The activity of the selenoproteins PHGPx and SelPP are involved in the internetwork of antioxidative enzymes with vitamin E when given up to a medium dose only and is one of the possible pathways of shielding embryonic development against the impact of ethanol on brain morphogenesis. This study strengthens the impact of dietaryα-tocopherol and

  2. Protective role of taurine against arsenic-induced mitochondria-dependent hepatic apoptosis via the inhibition of PKCdelta-JNK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Joydeep; Ghosh, Jyotirmoy; Manna, Prasenjit; Sil, Parames C

    2010-09-07

    Oxidative stress-mediated hepatotoxic effect of arsenic (As) is mainly due to the depletion of glutathione (GSH) in liver. Taurine, on the other hand, enhances intracellular production of GSH. Little is known about the mechanism of the beneficial role of taurine in As-induced hepatic pathophysiology. Therefore, in the present study we investigated its beneficial role in As-induced hepatic cell death via mitochondria-mediated pathway. Rats were exposed to NaAsO(2) (2 mg/kg body weight for 6 months) and the hepatic tissue was used for oxidative stress measurements. In addition, the pathophysiologic effect of NaAsO(2) (10 microM) on hepatocytes was evaluated by determining cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS generation. As caused mitochondrial injury by increased oxidative stress and reciprocal regulation of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL/Bad, Bax, Bim in association with increased level of Apaf-1, activation of caspase 9/3, cleavage of PARP protein and ultimately led to apoptotic cell death. In addition, As markedly increased JNK and p38 phosphorylation with minimal disturbance of ERK. Pre-exposure of hepatocytes to a JNK inhibitor SP600125 prevented As-induced caspase-3 activation, ROS production and loss in cell viability. Pre-exposure of hepatocytes to a p38 inhibitor SB2035, on the other hand, had practically no effect on these events. Besides, As activated PKCdelta and pre-treatment of hepatocytes with its inhibitor, rottlerin, suppressed the activation of JNK indicating that PKCdelta is involved in As-induced JNK activation and mitochondrial dependent apoptosis. Oral administration of taurine (50 mg/kg body weight for 2 weeks) both pre and post to NaAsO(2) exposure or incubation of the hepatocytes with taurine (25 mM) were found to be effective in counteracting As-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Results indicate that taurine treatment improved As-induced hepatic damages by inhibiting PKCdelta-JNK signalling pathways. Therefore taurine

  3. Protective Role of Taurine against Arsenic-Induced Mitochondria-Dependent Hepatic Apoptosis via the Inhibition of PKCδ-JNK Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Joydeep; Ghosh, Jyotirmoy; Manna, Prasenjit; Sil, Parames C.

    2010-01-01

    -JNK signalling pathways. Therefore taurine supplementation could provide a new approach for the reduction of hepatic complication due to arsenic poisoning. PMID:20830294

  4. Protective role of taurine against arsenic-induced mitochondria-dependent hepatic apoptosis via the inhibition of PKCdelta-JNK pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joydeep Das

    by inhibiting PKCdelta-JNK signalling pathways. Therefore taurine supplementation could provide a new approach for the reduction of hepatic complication due to arsenic poisoning.

  5. Effect of taurine in rat milk on the growth of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J M; Rho, J Y; Suzuki, M; Nishihara, M; Takahashi, M

    2000-07-01

    The physiological significance of taurine in milk in the growth of rat pups was investigated. Our results confirmed that taurine was at an exceptionally high concentration in rat milk during the lactational period, especially for the first few days after birth. Pups taking no milk from natural dams but from foster mothers at an advanced lactational period showed a slower growth rate. Intraperitoneal administration of taurine to the foster mothers in the first five days restored this growth retardation. On the other hand, intraperitoneal administration of beta-alanine, a transport antagonist of taurine, to the natural dams through the lactational period induced a slower growth rate of pups. This beta-alanine treatment to dams increased beta-alanine concentration, but did not decrease taurine concentrations in milk, and serum taurine concentration in the pups receiving this milk was elevated. Direct administration of beta-alanine to pups also increased the serum taurine concentrations dose-dependently. Beta-alanine administration to pups significantly decreased [3H]taurine incorporation into all the organs examined, and in contrast. [3H]taurine concentrations in serum and urine were elevated. Thus, beta-alanine inhibited taurine incorporation into cells and accelerated taurine excretion into either urine or milk. Serum IGF-I levels in pups receiving beta-alanine either directly or via their mothers was significantly lower than those in control pups. Cumulatively, taurine ingestion from milk at an early lactational period seems critical for normal growth of rat neonates due to its role in maintaining normal serum IGF-I levels.

  6. Taurine: the appeal of a safe amino acid for skeletal muscle disorders

    OpenAIRE

    De Luca, Annamaria; Pierno, Sabata; Camerino, Diana Conte

    2015-01-01

    Taurine is a natural amino acid present as free form in many mammalian tissues and in particular in skeletal muscle. Taurine exerts many physiological functions, including membrane stabilization, osmoregulation and cytoprotective effects, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions as well as modulation of intracellular calcium concentration and ion channel function. In addition taurine may control muscle metabolism and gene expression, through yet unclear mechanisms. This review summarizes the...

  7. Use of measles supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) as a delivery platform for other maternal and child health interventions: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johri, Mira; Sharma, Jitendar K; Jit, Mark; Verguet, Stéphane

    2013-02-18

    Measles supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) offer children in countries with weaker immunization delivery systems like India a second opportunity for measles vaccination. They could also provide a platform to deliver additional interventions, but the feasibility and acceptability of including add-ons is uncertain. We surveyed Indian programme officers involved in the current (2010-2012) measles SIAs concerning opportunities and challenges of using SIAs as a delivery platform for other maternal and child health interventions. Respondents felt that an expanded SIA strategy including add-ons could be of great value in improving access and efficiency. They viewed management challenges, logistics, and safety as the most important potential barriers. They proposed that additional interventions be selected using several criteria, of which importance of the health problem, safety, and contribution to health equity figured most prominently. For children, they recommended inclusion of basic interventions to address nutritional deficiencies, diarrhoea and parasites over vaccines. For mothers, micronutrient interventions were highest ranked.

  8. Partial Agonism of Taurine at Gamma-Containing Native and Recombinant GABAA Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletke, Olaf; Gisselmann, Guenter; May, Andrea; Hatt, Hanns; A. Sergeeva, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Taurine is a semi-essential sulfonic acid found at high concentrations in plasma and mammalian tissues which regulates osmolarity, ion channel activity and glucose homeostasis. The structural requirements of GABAA-receptors (GABAAR) gated by taurine are not yet known. We determined taurine potency and efficacy relative to GABA at different types of recombinant GABAAR occurring in central histaminergic neurons of the mouse hypothalamic tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN) which controls arousal. At binary α1/2β1/3 receptors taurine was as efficient as GABA, whereas incorporation of the γ1/2 subunit reduced taurine efficacy to 60–90% of GABA. The mutation γ2F77I, which abolishes zolpidem potentiation, significantly reduced taurine efficacy at recombinant and native receptors compared to the wild type controls. As taurine was a full- or super- agonist at recombinant αxβ1δ-GABAAR, we generated a chimeric γ2 subunit carrying the δ subunit motif around F77 (MTVFLH). At α1/2β1γ2(MTVFLH) receptors taurine became a super-agonist, similar to δ-containing ternary receptors, but remained a partial agonist at β3-containing receptors. In conclusion, using site-directed mutagenesis we found structural determinants of taurine’s partial agonism at γ-containing GABAA receptors. Our study sheds new light on the β1 subunit conferring the widest range of taurine-efficacies modifying GABAAR function under (patho)physiological conditions. PMID:23637894

  9. Taurine Induces Proliferation of Neural Stem Cells and Synapse Development in the Developing Mouse Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaraj, Mattu Chetana; Marcy, Guillaume; Low, Guoliang; Ryu, Jae Ryun; Zhao, Xianfeng; Rosales, Francisco J.; Goh, Eyleen L. K.

    2012-01-01

    Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid present in high concentrations in mammalian tissues. It has been implicated in several processes involving brain development and neurotransmission. However, the role of taurine in hippocampal neurogenesis during brain development is still unknown. Here we show that taurine regulates neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the developing brain as well as in cultured early postnatal (P5) hippocampal progenitor cells and hippocampal slices derived from P5 mice brains. Taurine increased cell proliferation without having a significant effect on neural differentiation both in cultured P5 NPCs as well as cultured hippocampal slices and in vivo. Expression level analysis of synaptic proteins revealed that taurine increases the expression of Synapsin 1 and PSD 95. We also found that taurine stimulates the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 indicating a possible role of the ERK pathway in mediating the changes that we observed, especially in proliferation. Taken together, our results demonstrate a role for taurine in neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation in developing brain and suggest the involvement of the ERK1/2 pathways in mediating these actions. Our study also shows that taurine influences the levels of proteins associated with synapse development. This is the first evidence showing the effect of taurine on early postnatal neuronal development using a combination of in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo systems. PMID:22916184

  10. Taurine decreased uric acid levels in hyperuricemic rats and alleviated kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying; Sun, Fang; Gao, Yongchao; Yang, Jiancheng; Wu, Gaofeng; Lin, Shumei; Hu, Jianmin

    2017-07-29

    Hyperuricemia can lead to direct kidney damage. Taurine participates in several renal physiological processes and has been shown as a renoprotective agent. It has been reported that taurine could reduce uric acid levels in diabetic rats, but to date there was no research on the effects of taurine on hyperuricemic rats with kidney injury. In present study, hyperuricemic rat models were induced by intragastric administration of adenine and ethambutol hydrochloride for 10 days, and taurine (1% or 2%) were added in the drinking water 7 days in advance for consecutively 17 days. The results showed that taurine alleviated renal morphological and pathological changes as well as kidney dysfunction in hyperuricemic rats. Taurine could efficiently decrease the elevated xanthine oxidase activities in hyperuricemic rats, indicating its effect on the regulation of uric acid formation. The reabsorption and secretion of uric acid are dependent on a number of urate transporters. Expressions of three urate transporters were significantly down-regulated in hyperuricemic rats, while taurine prevented the decrease of mRNA and protein expression levels of these urate transporters. The results indicate that taurine might play a role in the regulation of renal uric acid excretion. Therefore, taurine could be a promising agent for the treatment of hyperuricemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Taurine plays an important role in the protection of spermatogonia from oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Masato; Celino, Fritzie T; Shimizu-Yamaguchi, Sonoko; Miura, Chiemi; Miura, Takeshi

    2012-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that taurine has various physiological functions in the body. We demonstrated that taurine is abundant in the serum, liver, muscle and testis of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica). In the eel testis, taurine is found mainly in spermatogonia and is weakly expressed also in the Sertoli cells. We have further found in the eel testis that taurine is actively accumulated via the sodium/chloride-dependent taurine transporter (TauT; SLC6A6), which is expressed in germ cells. In our current study, the effects of taurine on the anti-oxidant response were examined. Taurine was found to promote the total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the testis. Moreover, our results indicate that taurine does not affect the mRNA levels of copper-zinc (Cu/Zn) SOD or manganese SOD, but promotes the translation of Cu/Zn SOD. Overall, our present data suggest that taurine may modulate Cu/Zn SOD at the translational level and thereby may play an important role in the protection of germ cells from oxidative stress.

  12. Tissue depletion of taurine accelerates skeletal muscle senescence and leads to early death in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ito

    Full Text Available Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid is found in milimolar concentrations in mammalian tissues. One of its main functions is osmoregulation; however, it also exhibits cytoprotective activity by diminishing injury caused by stress and disease. Taurine depletion is associated with several defects, many of which are found in the aging animal, suggesting that taurine might exert anti-aging actions. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the hypothesis that taurine depletion accelerates aging by reducing longevity and accelerating aging-associated tissue damage. Tissue taurine depletion in taurine transporter knockout (TauTKO mouse was found to shorten lifespan and accelerate skeletal muscle histological and functional defects, including an increase in central nuclei containing myotubes, a reduction in mitochondrial complex 1 activity and an induction in an aging biomarker, Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor A (p16INK4a. Tissue taurine depletion also enhances unfolded protein response (UPR, which may be associated with an improvement in protein folding by taurine. Our data reveal that tissue taurine depletion affects longevity and cellular senescence; an effect possibly linked to a disturbance in protein folding.

  13. [Comparison of the effects of taurine and magnesium on electrical characteristics of artificial and natural membranes. V. Study on the human amnion of the antagonism between magnesium, taurine and polluting metals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, M; Guiet-Bara, A; Durlach, J

    1985-01-01

    The effects of metal pollutants (Pb, Cd, Hg, As) were studied on strips of human amnion isolated from the placental zone put in between two Ussing chambers with Hanks' solution at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4. The total conductance Gt through the human isolated amnion was decreased on the fetal side by Pb and As; on the maternal side by Cd, Hg and As. When Gt was decreased by metal pollutants, Mg or taurine (TA) were added in the external medium to induce an antagonism between Mg or TA and metal pollutants. The addition of Mg increased significantly the Gt reduced by Pb, Cd and Hg, but had no effect on the Gt reduced by As. The addition of taurine increased significantly the Gt reduced by Cd and Hg, but had no effect on the Gt reduced by Pb and As. Dixon's kinetics (Gt as a function of the Mg or TA concentration when the metal pollutant concentration increased) indicate that there is a competitive inhibition between Mg-Pb and Mg-Cd (the inhibition constant Ki is lower with Pb (= 2.5) than with Cd (= 11.4) and suggests a greater antagonism between Mg-Pb than between Mg-Cd). Moreover, there appears to be a noncompetitive inhibition between Mg-Hg, TA-Cd and TA-Hg. These results indicate that Mg and TA, on the fetal side, exert an action on the same sites and that, on the maternal side, their action takes place on the same sites and also on different ones. Also, TA can be considered as a partial magnesium agonist, at least in the human amnion.

  14. Maternal Betaine Supplementation throughout Gestation and Lactation Modifies Hepatic Cholesterol Metabolic Genes in Weaning Piglets via AMPK/LXR-Mediated Pathway and Histone Modification

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    Demin Cai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Betaine serves as an animal and human nutrient which has been heavily investigated in glucose and lipid metabolic regulation, yet the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. In this study, feeding sows with betaine-supplemented diets during pregnancy and lactation increased cholesterol content and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI gene expression, but decreasing bile acids content and cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase (CYP7a1 expression in the liver of weaning piglets. This was associated with the significantly elevated serum betaine and methionine levels and hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAM and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH content. Concurrently, the hepatic nuclear transcription factor liver X receptor LXR was downregulated along with activated signal protein AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. Moreover, a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed lower LXR binding on CYP7a1 gene promoter and more enriched activation histone marker H3K4me3 on LDLR and SR-BI promoters. These results suggest that gestational and lactational betaine supplementation modulates hepatic gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism via an AMPK/LXR pathway and histone modification in the weaning offspring.

  15. Maternal Betaine Supplementation throughout Gestation and Lactation Modifies Hepatic Cholesterol Metabolic Genes in Weaning Piglets via AMPK/LXR-Mediated Pathway and Histone Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Demin; Yuan, Mengjie; Liu, Haoyu; Pan, Shifeng; Ma, Wenqiang; Hong, Jian; Zhao, Ruqian

    2016-01-01

    Betaine serves as an animal and human nutrient which has been heavily investigated in glucose and lipid metabolic regulation, yet the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. In this study, feeding sows with betaine-supplemented diets during pregnancy and lactation increased cholesterol content and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) gene expression, but decreasing bile acids content and cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase (CYP7a1) expression in the liver of weaning piglets. This was associated with the significantly elevated serum betaine and methionine levels and hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) content. Concurrently, the hepatic nuclear transcription factor liver X receptor LXR was downregulated along with activated signal protein AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Moreover, a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed lower LXR binding on CYP7a1 gene promoter and more enriched activation histone marker H3K4me3 on LDLR and SR-BI promoters. These results suggest that gestational and lactational betaine supplementation modulates hepatic gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism via an AMPK/LXR pathway and histone modification in the weaning offspring. PMID:27763549

  16. Conformational Study of Taurine in the Gas Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortijo, Vanessa; Sanz, M. Eugenia; López, Juan C.; Alonso, José L.

    2009-08-01

    The conformational preferences of the amino sulfonic acid taurine (NH2-CH2-CH2-SO3H) have been investigated in the gas phase by laser ablation molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (LA-MB-FTMW) in the 6-14 GHz frequency range. One conformer has been observed, and its rotational, centrifugal distortion, and hyperfine quadrupole coupling constants have been determined from the analysis of its rotational spectrum. Comparison of the experimental constants with those calculated theoretically identifies the detected conformer unambiguously. The observed conformer of taurine is stabilized by an intramolecular hydrogen bond O-H···N between the hydrogen of the sulfonic acid group and the nitrogen atom of the amino group.

  17. Taurine and ellagic acid: two differently-acting natural antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, R; Ricordy, R; Bartolini, F; Ramadori, L; Perticone, P; De Salvia, R

    1995-01-01

    Naturally occurring antimutagenic compounds are extensively analyzed for their capacity to protect cells from induced damage. We selected two agents, taurine and ellagic acid, treated in the literature as antioxidants, but whose activity is insufficiently known. This paper reports on the ability of these agents to act against damage induced by mitomycin-C and hydrogen peroxide in Chinese hamster ovary cells cultivated in vitro. Cytogenetic and cytofluorimetric analyses were performed. Ellagic acid proved to have more than one mechanism of action, probably as a scavenger of oxygen species produced by H2O2 treatment, and as a protector of the DNA double helix from alkylating agent injury. In our experimental conditions, taurine seems able to scavenge oxygen species.

  18. Selenoproteins and maternal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, A C; Zoidis, E; Surai, P F; Zervas, G

    2008-12-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element of fundamental importance to health due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties attributed to its presence within at least 25 selenoproteins (Sel). Sel include but not limited to glutathione peroxidases (GPx1-GPx6), thioredoxin reductases (TrxR1-TrxR3), iodothyronine deiodinases (ID1-ID3), selenophosphate synthetase 2 (SPS2), 15-kDa Sel (Sel15), SelH, SelI, SelK, SelM, SelN, SelO, SelP, SelR, SelS, SelT, SelV, SelW, as well as the 15-kDa Sel (Fep15), SelJ and SelU found in fish. In this review, we describe some of the recent progress in our understanding of the mechanisms of Sel synthesis. The impact of maternal Se intake on offspring is also discussed. The key regulatory point of Sel synthesis is Se itself, which acts predominantly at post-transcriptional levels, although recent findings indicate transcriptional and redox regulation. Maternal nutrition affects the performance and health of the progeny. Both maternal and offspring Se supplementations are essential for the antioxidant protection of the offspring. Prenatal Se supplementation provides an effective antioxidant system that is already in place at the time of birth while, postnatal Se supplementation becomes the main determinant of progeny Se status after the first few days of progeny life.

  19. High taurine levels in the Solemya velum symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, N M; McDowell Capuzzo, J E

    1992-05-01

    1. To compare biochemical differences between bivalves with and without endosymbiotic chemoautotrophic bacteria, specimens of Solemya velum, a bivalve species known to contain bacterial endosymbionts, and the symbiont-free soft-shelled clam Mya arenaria, were collected from the same subtidal reducing sediments during October and November 1988. 2. Total and free amino acid compositions were determined for both species. Protein-bound amino acids were calculated as the difference between total and free amino acids. In addition, stable isotope ratios of the total and free amino acids of each species were measured to determine potential sources for these molecules. 3. Both species had similar total hydrolyzable- and protein-bound amino acid compositions; approximately 50% of the protein-bound amino acids were essential amino acids. In S. velum, the small size of the digestive system suggests that these amino acids are probably synthesized by the endosymbiotic bacteria and translocated to the animal tissue. The delta 13C and delta 15N ratios of the amino acids are very similar to the isotope ratios previously found in both the endosymbionts and whole tissues of S. velum. The relative and absolute amounts of free amino acids are very different in the two species. In S. velum, the absolute concentrations of taurine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, were greater than the total free amino acid concentrations found in other bivalves. 4. The delta 34S ratios of the free amino acids of S. velum, which were predominantly composed of taurine, were extremely negative (-17.2/1000) suggesting that taurine is synthesized using sulfur originally derived from external reduced sulfur sources, such as pore water sulfides. The possible roles for taurine in this animal-bacteria symbiosis are discussed.

  20. Differential effect of maternal diet supplementation with α-Linolenic adcid or n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on glial cell phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine fatty acid profile in neonate rat brains

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    Cruz-Hernandez Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA are of crucial importance for the development of neural tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a dietary supplementation in n-3 fatty acids in female rats during gestation and lactation on fatty acid pattern in brain glial cells phosphatidylethanolamine (PE and phosphatidylserine (PS in the neonates. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were fed during the whole gestation and lactation period with a diet containing either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 0.55% and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 0.75% of total fatty acids or α-linolenic acid (ALA, 2.90%. At two weeks of age, gastric content and brain glial cell PE and PS of rat neonates were analyzed for their fatty acid and dimethylacetal (DMA profile. Data were analyzed by bivariate and multivariate statistics. Results In the neonates from the group fed with n-3 LC-PUFA, the DHA level in gastric content (+65%, P Conclusion The present study confirms that early supplementation of maternal diet with n-3 fatty acids supplied as LC-PUFA is more efficient in increasing n-3 in brain glial cell PE and PS in the neonate than ALA. Negative correlation between n-6 DPA, a conventional marker of DHA deficiency, and DMA in PE suggests n-6 DPA that potentially be considered as a marker of tissue ethanolamine plasmalogen status. The combination of multivariate and bivariate statistics allowed to underline that the accretion pattern of n-3 LC-PUFA in PE and PS differ.

  1. The beneficial effects of taurine to counteract sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scicchitano, Bianca M; Sica, Gigliola

    2016-11-22

    Aging is a multifactorial process characterized by several features including low-grade inflammation, increased oxidative stress and reduced regenerative capacity, which ultimately lead to alteration in morpho-functional properties of skeletal muscle, thus promoting sarcopenia. This condition is characterized by a gradual loss of muscle mass due to an unbalance between protein synthesis and degradation, finally conveying in functional decline and disability. The development of specific therapeutic approaches able to block or reverse this condition may represent an invaluable tool for the promotion of a healthy aging among elderly. It is well established that changes in the quantity and the quality of dietary proteins, as well as the intake of specific amino acids, are able to counteract some of the physiopathological processes related to the progression of the loss of muscle mass and may have beneficial effects in improving the anabolic response of muscle in the elderly. Taurine is a non-essential amino acid expressed in high concentration in several mammalian tissues and particularly in skeletal muscle where it is involved in the modulation of intracellular calcium concentration and ion channel regulation and where it also acts as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory factor. The aim of this review is to summarize the pleiotropic effects of taurine on specific muscle targets and to discuss its role in regulating signaling pathways involved in the maintenance of muscle homeostasis. We also highlight the potential use of taurine as a therapeutic molecule for the amelioration of skeletal muscle function and performance severely compromised during aging.

  2. Agonist action of taurine on glycine receptors in rat supraoptic magnocellular neurones: possible role in osmoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussy, N; Deleuze, C; Pantaloni, A; Desarménien, M G; Moos, F

    1997-08-01

    1. To evaluate the implication of taurine in the physiology of supraoptic neurones, we (i) investigated the agonist properties of taurine on glycine and GABAA receptors of supraoptic magnocellular neurones acutely dissociated from adult rats, using whole-cell voltage clamp, (ii) studied the effects of taurine and strychnine in vivo by extracellular recordings of supraoptic vasopressin neurones in anaesthetized rats, and (iii) measured the osmolarity-dependent release of endogenous taurine from isolated supraoptic nuclei by HPLC. 2. GABA, glycine and taurine evoked rapidly activating currents that all reversed close to the equilibrium potential for Cl-, indicating activation of Cl(-)-selective channels. Glycine-activated currents were reversibly blocked by strychnine (IC50 of 35 nM with 100 microM glycine), but were unaffected by the GABAA antagonist gabazine (1-3 microM). GABA-activated currents were reversibly antagonized by 3 microM gabazine, but not by strychnine (up to 1 microM). 3. Responses to 1 mM taurine were blocked by strychnine but not by gabazine and showed no additivity with glycine-induced currents, indicating selective activation of glycine receptors. Responses to 10 mM taurine were partially antagonized by gabazine, the residual current being blocked by strychnine. Thus, taurine is also a weak agonist of GABAA receptors. 4. In the presence of gabazine, taurine activated glycine receptors with an EC50 of 406 microM. Taurine activated at most 70% of maximal glycine currents, suggesting that it is a partial agonist of glycine receptors. 5. In vivo, locally applied strychnine (300 nM) increased and taurine (1 mM) decreased the basal electrical activity of vasopressin neurones in normally hydrated rats. The effect of strychnine was markedly more pronounced in water-loaded rats. 6. Taurine, which is concentrated in supraoptic glial cells, could be released from isolated supraoptic nuclei upon hyposmotic stimulation. Decreases in osmolarity of 15 and 30

  3. Mechanism for modulation of gating of connexin26-containing channels by taurine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieken, Fabien; Tao, Liang; Sorgen, Paul L.; Harris, Andrew L.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms of action of endogenous modulatory ligands of connexin channels are largely unknown. Previous work showed that protonated aminosulfonates (AS), notably taurine, directly and reversibly inhibit homomeric and heteromeric channels that contain Cx26, a widely distributed connexin, but not homomeric Cx32 channels. The present study investigated the molecular mechanisms of connexin channel modulation by taurine, using hemichannels and junctional channels composed of Cx26 (homomeric) and Cx26/Cx32 (heteromeric). The addition of a 28–amino acid “tag” to the carboxyl-terminal domain (CT) of Cx26 (Cx26T) eliminated taurine sensitivity of homomeric and heteromeric hemichannels in cells and liposomes. Cleavage of all but four residues of the tag (Cx26Tc) resulted in taurine-induced pore narrowing in homomeric hemichannels, and restored taurine inhibition of heteromeric hemichannels (Cx26Tc/Cx32). Taurine actions on junctional channels were fully consistent with those on hemichannels. Taurine-induced inhibition of Cx26/Cx32T and nontagged Cx26 junctional channels was blocked by extracellular HEPES, a blocker of the taurine transporter, confirming that the taurine-sensitive site of Cx26 is cytoplasmic. Nuclear magnetic resonance of peptides corresponding to Cx26 cytoplasmic domains showed that taurine binds to the cytoplasmic loop (CL) and not the CT, and that the CT and CL directly interact. ELISA showed that taurine disrupts a pH-dependent interaction between the CT and the CT-proximal half of the CL. These studies reveal that AS disrupt a pH-driven cytoplasmic interdomain interaction in Cx26-containing channels, causing closure, and that the Cx26CT has a modulatory role in Cx26 function. PMID:21844220

  4. Serum taurine and risk of coronary heart disease: a prospective, nested case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Oktawia P.; Koenig, Karen L.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Pearte, Camille; Costa, Max; Chen, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a molecule obtained from diet, is involved in bile acid conjugation, blood pressure regulation, anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation. We performed the first prospective study of taurine and CHD risk. Methods We conducted a case-control study nested in the New York University Women’s Health Study to evaluate the association between circulating taurine levels and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Taurine was measured in two yearly pre-diagnostic serum samples of 223 CHD cases and 223 matched controls and averaged for a more reliable measurement of long-term taurine levels. Results Mean serum taurine was positively related to age and dietary intake of poultry, niacin, vitamin B1, fiber, and iron, and negatively related to dietary intake of saturated fat (all p values ≤ 0.05). There was no statistically significant association between the risk of CHD and serum taurine levels. The adjusted ORs for CHD in increasing taurine tertiles were 1.0 (reference), 0.85 (95% CI, 0.51–1.40), and 0.66 (0.39–1.13; p for trend = 0.14). There was a significant inverse association between serum taurine and CHD risk among women with high total serum cholesterol (>250 mg/dl) (adjusted OR = 0.39 (0.19–0.83) for the third vs. first tertile; p for trend = 0.02) but not among those with low total serum cholesterol (p for interaction = 0.01). The data suggest a possible inverse association of serum taurine with diabetes and hypertension risk. Conclusions The findings suggest that high levels of taurine may be protective against CHD among individuals with high serum cholesterol levels. PMID:22322924

  5. The effect of taurine on the relationship between NO, ADMA and homocysteine in endotoxin-mediated inflammation in HUVEC cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaoglu, Ozge Tugce; Turkozkan, Nurten; Ark, Mustafa; Polat, Belgin; Agilli, Mehmet; Yaman, Halil

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of taurine on the relationship between nitric oxide (NO), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and homocysteine (Hcy) in endotoxin-induced human umblical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) cultures. For this reason, four groups were formed (n=12). Control group consists of HUVEC cultures without any treatment. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS+taurine groups were treated with 10 μg/mL endotoxin, 5 μg/mL taurine and endotoxin+taurine (same doses), respectively. Nitrite/nitrate (NOx), ADMA and Hcy levels were measured. There was a significant increase of NOx, ADMA and Hcy in endotoxemia (p<0.05). Taurine treatment elevated NOx levels significantly (p<0.01) in taurine and LPS + taurine group compared to control group, while it reduced NOx levels compared to LPS group. In contrast, taurine decreased ADMA levels to the control level both in taurine and taurine+LPS group compared to LPS. Hcy levels increased significantly compared to taurine group (p<0.05) and did not change compared to LPS group. Taurine was effective on ADMA-NO relationship whereas no beneficial effect was observed in Hcy levels (p<0.05).

  6. [Measurement of C14 beta-radioactivity of stable natural origin taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) in bovine bile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaetano, G; Bisegna, F; Bisio, V; Parenti, M

    1994-01-01

    Taurine from natural sources has gained great importance as essential nutrient in milk for formula-fed infants. There is a strong request for a method capable of determining the natural origin of taurine. The measure of beta-radioactivity of 14C of taurine by means of liquid scintillation counting proved the most reliable. A simple method is reported.

  7. Casein kinase 2 regulates the active uptake of the organic osmolyte taurine in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jack H; Clement, Christian A; Friis, Martin B;

    2008-01-01

    T to ER but has no detectable effect on TauT protein expression. On the other hand, CK2 inhibition increases the affinity of TauT towards Na(+ )and reduces the Na(+)/taurine stoichiometry for active taurine uptake. It is suggested that CK2 controls the cellular taurine uptake in unperturbated NIH3T3 cells...

  8. Dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids from weaning limits brain biochemistry and behavioural changes elicited by prenatal exposure to maternal inflammation in the mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Leung, Y O; Zhou, I; Ho, L C; Kong, W; Basil, P; Wei, R; Lam, S; Zhang, X; Law, A C K; Chua, S E; Sham, P C; Wu, E X; McAlonan, G M

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to maternal immune activation (MIA) increases the risk of schizophrenia and autism in the offspring. The MIA rodent model provides a valuable tool to directly test the postnatal consequences of exposure to an early inflammatory insult; and examine novel preventative strategies. Here we tested the hypotheses that behavioural differences in the MIA mouse model are accompanied by in vivo and ex vivo alterations in brain biochemistry; and that these can be prevented by a post-weaning diet enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). The viral analogue PolyI:C (POL) or saline (SAL) was administered to pregnant mice on gestation day 9. Half the resulting male offspring (POL=21; SAL=17) were weaned onto a conventional lab diet (n-6 PUFA); half were weaned onto n-3 PUFA-enriched diet. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy measures were acquired prior to behavioural tests; glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and tyrosine hydroxylase protein levels were measured ex vivo. The main findings were: (i) Adult MIA-exposed mice fed a standard diet had greater N-acetylaspartate/creatine (Cr) and lower myo-inositol/Cr levels in the cingulate cortex in vivo. (ii) The extent of these metabolite differences was correlated with impairment in prepulse inhibition. (iii) MIA-exposed mice on the control diet also had higher levels of anxiety and altered levels of GAD67 ex vivo. (iv) An n-3 PUFA diet prevented all the in vivo and ex vivo effects of MIA observed. Thus, n-3 PUFA dietary enrichment from early life may offer a relatively safe and non-toxic approach to limit the otherwise persistent behavioural and biochemical consequences of prenatal exposure to inflammation. This result may have translational importance. PMID:26393487

  9. The effects of maternal supplementation of polyunsaturated Fatty acids on visual, neurobehavioural, and developmental outcomes of the child: a systematic review of the randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Andrea; Sienna, Julianna; Mamak, Eva; Djokanovic, Nada; Westall, Carol; Koren, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) use in pregnancy has been promoted as beneficial for visual and neurobehavioural development in the fetus. However, no systematic review of the randomized trials has been conducted. The objective of this review was to evaluate potential advantages of this regiment by reviewing all randomized trials in pregnancy. Methods. Systematic review of randomized controlled studies comparing cognitive and visual achievements among infants whose mothers were treated and untreated with PUFA during gestation. Results. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, three focusing on visual and six on neurobehavioural development. Due to differing outcome measurements in the infants, the studies could not be combined into a formal meta-analysis. Synthesizing the existing data, for both visual and neurobehavioural development, most studies could not show sustained benefits to infant cognition or visual development. Conclusion. At the present time a recommendation to change practice and supplement all expecting mothers with PUFA to improve offspring vision or neurobehavioural function is not supported by existing evidence.

  10. The Effects of Maternal Supplementation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Visual, Neurobehavioural, and Developmental Outcomes of the Child: A Systematic Review of the Randomized Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA use in pregnancy has been promoted as beneficial for visual and neurobehavioural development in the fetus. However, no systematic review of the randomized trials has been conducted. The objective of this review was to evaluate potential advantages of this regiment by reviewing all randomized trials in pregnancy. Methods. Systematic review of randomized controlled studies comparing cognitive and visual achievements among infants whose mothers were treated and untreated with PUFA during gestation. Results. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, three focusing on visual and six on neurobehavioural development. Due to differing outcome measurements in the infants, the studies could not be combined into a formal meta-analysis. Synthesizing the existing data, for both visual and neurobehavioural development, most studies could not show sustained benefits to infant cognition or visual development. Conclusion. At the present time a recommendation to change practice and supplement all expecting mothers with PUFA to improve offspring vision or neurobehavioural function is not supported by existing evidence.

  11. Specific role of taurine in the 8-brominated-2'-deoxyguanosine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahi, Takashi; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Kato, Yoji; Osawa, Toshihiko

    2015-11-15

    At the sites of inflammation, hypohalous acids, such as hypochlorous acid and hypobromous acid (HOBr), are produced by myeloperoxidase. These hypohalous acids rapidly react with the primary amino groups to produce haloamines, which are relatively stable and can diffuse long distances and cross the plasma membrane. In this study, we examined the effects of taurine, the most abundant free amino acid in the leukocyte cytosol, on the hypohalous acid-dependent formation of 8-chloro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-CldG) and 8-bromo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-BrdG). The reaction of taurine with HOBr yielded taurine bromamine, which is the most stable among other bromamines of amino acids. Taurine also enhanced the bromination of only dG among the four 2'-deoxynucleosides, whereas it inhibited the 8-CldG formation. The specificity of taurine for the enhanced formation of halogenated dG is completely different from that of nicotine, an enhancer of chlorination. The amount of dibrominated taurine (taurine dibromamine) closely correlated with the formation of 8-BrdG, suggesting that taurine dibromamine might be a plausible mediator for the dG bromination in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Taurine activates delayed rectifier KV channels via a metabotropic pathway in retinal neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulley, Simon; Liu, Yufei; Ripps, Harris; Shen, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids in the retina, throughout the CNS, and in heart and muscle cells. In keeping with its broad tissue distribution, taurine serves as a modulator of numerous basic processes, such as enzyme activity, cell development, myocardial function and cytoprotection. Despite this multitude of functional roles, the precise mechanism underlying taurine's actions has not yet been identified. In this study we report findings that indicate a novel role for taurine in the regulation of voltage-gated delayed rectifier potassium (KV) channels in retinal neurons by means of a metabotropic receptor pathway. The metabotropic taurine response was insensitive to the Cl− channel blockers, picrotoxin and strychnine, but it was inhibited by a specific serotonin 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, MDL11939. Moreover, we found that taurine enhanced KV channels via intracellular protein kinase C-mediated pathways. When 5-HT2A receptors were expressed in human embryonic kidney cells, taurine and AL34662, a non-specific 5-HT2 receptor activator, produced a similar regulation of KIR channels. In sum, this study provides new evidence that taurine activates a serotonin system, apparently via 5-HT2A receptors and related intracellular pathways. PMID:23045337

  13. Serum Taurine and Stroke Risk in Women: A Prospective, Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fen; Koenig, Karen L; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Jonas, Saran; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Wójcik, Oktawia P; Costa, Max; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a conditionally essential sulfur-containing amino acid, is mainly obtained from diet in humans. Experimental studies have shown that taurine's main biological actions include bile salt conjugation, blood pressure regulation, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation. We conducted a prospective case-control study nested in the New York University Women's Health Study, a cohort study involving 14,274 women enrolled since 1985. Taurine was measured in pre-diagnostic serum samples of 241 stroke cases and 479 matched controls. There was no statistically significant association between serum taurine and stroke risk in the overall study population. The adjusted ORs for stroke were 1.0 (reference), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.59-1.28), and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.69-1.54) in increasing tertiles of taurine (64.3-126.6, 126.7-152.9, and 153.0-308.5 nmol/mL, respectively). A significant inverse association between serum taurine and stroke risk was observed among never smokers, with an adjusted OR of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.37-1.18) and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.26-0.94) for the second and third tertile, respectively (p for trend = 0.01), but not among past or current smokers (p for interaction taurine and stroke risk, although a protective effect was observed in never smokers, which requires further investigation. Taurine, Stroke, Epidemiology, Prospective, Case-control study, NYUWHS.

  14. Inhibitory Effect of Taurine on Biofilm Formation During Alkane Degradation in Acinetobacter oleivorans DR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hyo Jung; Park, Woojun

    2017-06-15

    Taurine, 2-aminoethanesulfonate, is known to function as an antioxidant or membrane stabilizer in eukaryotic cells, but its role in bacteria has been poorly characterized. Biofilm formation of Acinetobacter oleivorans DR1 was significantly reduced by taurine only during alkane degradation, suggesting that taurine affects alkane-induced cell surface. Structurally similar compounds harboring an amine group such as hypotaurine or ethylenediamine have a similar effect, which was not observed with sulfonate-containing chemicals such as ethanesulfonic acid, hexanesulfonic acid. Our biochemical assays and physiological tests demonstrate that taurine reduced cell surface hydrophobicity, which resulted in interruption of the interactions between cells and oily substrate surfaces, such that cells utilized alkanes less effectively. Interestingly, taurine-mediated reduction of quorum sensing (QS) signal production and QS-control sapA gene expression indicated that membrane permeability of quorum signals was also interfered by taurine. Composition and biomass of extracellular polymeric saccharides were changed in taurine-amended conditions. Taken together, our data provide evidence that amine-containing taurine can inhibit biofilm formation of DR1 cells during alkane degradation by (i) changing cell surface charge and (ii) reducing membrane hydrophobicity and QS sensing.

  15. Taurine-induced modulation of voltage-sensitive Na+ channels in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shan-Shan; Yu, Kuai; Gu, Yan; Ruan, Di-Yun

    2005-08-15

    The physiological role of taurine, an abundant free amino acid in the neural system, is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate its effect on TTX-sensitive (TTX-S) and TTX-resistant (TTX-R) Na+ currents in enzymatically dissociated neurons from rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) with conventional whole-cell recording manner under voltage-clamp conditions. A TTX-S Na+ current was recorded preferentially from large DRG neurons and a TTX-R Na+ current preferentially from small ones. For TTX-S Na+ channel, taurine of the concentration > or = 10 mM shifted the activation curve in the depolarizing direction and the inactivation curve in the hyperpolarizing direction. There was no change in the activation curve for TTX-R Na+ channel and the inactivation curve was shifted in the hyperpolarizing direction slightly in the presence of taurine > or = 20 mM. When the recovery kinetics was examined, the presence of taurine resulted in a slower recovery from inactivation of TTX-S currents and no change of TTX-R ones. All the effects of taurine were weakly concentration-dependent and partly recovered quite slowly after washout. Our data indicate that taurine alters the properties of Na+ currents in intact DRG neurons. These may contribute to the understanding of taurine as a natural neuroprotectant and the potential of taurine as a useful medicine for the treatment of sensory neuropathies.

  16. Downregulation of taurine uptake in multidrug resistant Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, K A; Litman, Thomas; Eriksen, J;

    2002-01-01

    In daunorubicin resistant Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (DNR), the initial taurine uptake was reduced by 56% as compared to the parental, drug sensitive Ehrlich cells. Kinetic experiments indicated that taurine uptake in Ehrlich cells occurs via both high- and low-affinity transporters. The maximal...

  17. Peroxynitrite induced decrease in Na+, K+-ATPase activity is restored by taurine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Necla Kocak-Toker; Murat Giris; Feti Tülübas; Müjdat Uysal; Gülcin Aykac-Toker

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Peroxynitrite (ONOO-) is a powerful oxidant shown to damage membranes. In the present study, the effect of taurine on changes of liver plasma membrane Na+, K+-ATPase induced by ONOO- was investigated. METHODS: Liver plasma membrane was exposed toONOO-with or without taurine. Na+, K+-ATPase activity and lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were measured.RESULTS: Different concentrations of ONOO- (100, 200,500, and 1 000 μmol/L) were found to decrease liver plasma membrane Na+, K+-ATPase activity significantly. The depletion of enzyme activity was not concentration dependent. Effects of different concentrations of taurine on liver plasma membrane Na+, K+-ATPase activity were also measured. Taurine did not cause any increase in enzyme activity. When plasma membranes were treated with 200 μmol/L ONOO- with different concentrations of taurine, a restoring effect of taurine on enzyme activity was observed. TBARS levels were also measured and taurine was found to decrease the elevated values. CONCLUSION: Taurine is observed to act as an antioxidant of ONOO-to decrease lipid peroxidation and thus affect liver plasma membrane Na+, K+-ATPase by restoring its activity.

  18. Regulation of taurine homeostasis by protein kinase CK2 in mouse fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Daniel Bloch; Guerra, Barbara; Jacobsen, Jack Hummeland

    2011-01-01

    is a critical step in cell proliferation, differentiation and induction of apoptosis. In the present study, we use mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts and Ehrlich Lettré ascites tumour cells with different CK2 expression levels. Taurine uptake via the Na(+) dependent transporter TauT and taurine release are increased...

  19. Protective effects of taurine in traumatic brain injury via mitochondria and cerebral blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Fan, Weijia; Cai, Ying; Wu, Qiaoli; Mo, Lidong; Huang, Zhenwu; Huang, Huiling

    2016-09-01

    In mammalian tissues, taurine is an important natural component and the most abundant free amino acid in the heart, retina, skeletal muscle, brain, and leukocytes. This study is to examine the taurine's protective effects on neuronal ultrastructure, the function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex, and on cerebral blood flow (CBF). The model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) was made for SD rats by a fluid percussion device, with taurine (200 mg/kg) administered by tail intravenous injection once daily for 7 days after TBI. It was found that CBF was improved for both left and right brain at 30 min and 7 days post-injury by taurine. Reaction time was prolonged relative to the TBI-only group. Neuronal damage was prevented by 7 days taurine. Mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes I and II showed greater activity with the taurine group. The improvement by taurine of CBF may alleviate edema and elevation in intracranial pressure. Importantly taurine improved the hypercoagulable state.

  20. Evidências do impacto da suplementação de vitamina A no grupo materno-infantil Evidence of the impact of vitamin A supplementation on maternal and child health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julicristie Machado de Oliveira

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é reunir os resultados de revisões sistemáticas e metanálises sobre o efeito da suplementação de vitamina A no crescimento, morbi-mortalidade infantil, materna e fetal. Foi realizada uma busca criteriosa nas bases de dados bibliográficos PubMed, Embase, LILACS, PAHO, Biblioteca Cochrane, Banco de Teses da CAPES, Biblioteca Digital de Teses da USP e acervo da Biblioteca Central da UNIFESP, localizando-se 14 trabalhos publicados entre 1993 e 2006. Há evidências de que a suplementação de vitamina A em crianças esteja associada à redução de 23% a 30% no risco de morte e atenuação da gravidade do quadro de sarampo e diarréia. Não há evidências de que a intervenção em crianças reduza a incidência de pneumonia não associada ao sarampo e mortalidade por essa causa. Em crianças e gestantes com HIV/AIDS, a suplementação apresenta impacto positivo na morbi-mortalidade infantil e no peso ao nascer. Não há evidências de que a suplementação em gestantes e lactantes esteja associada à redução da morbi-mortalidade infantil, mas há indicação de que essa intervenção seja protetora em relação à morbidade materna.The aim of this article was to collect the results of systematic reviews and meta-analyses that evaluated the effect of vitamin A supplementation on child growth and maternal, fetal, and child morbidity and mortality. A detailed search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane Library, LILACS, PAHO, CAPES, USP Digital Thesis Library, and UNIFESP Collection Database. A total of 14 studies published from 1993 to 2006 were included in the review. There is evidence that vitamin A supplementation in children is associated with a reduction of 23% to 30% in mortality risk and attenuation in the severity of measles and diarrhea. There is no evidence of the intervention's impact on pneumonia incidence or mortality in children without measles. Vitamin A also appears to be protective in children and

  1. Effect of taurine and caffeine on plasma c-reactive protein and calcium in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoyele, B V; Oyewole, A L; Biliaminu, S A; Alashi, Y

    2015-09-01

    Caffeine is a component of several beverages such as coffee and tea. It has been shown to possess psychoactive properties because it increases alertness, energy and ability to concentrate at moderate doses. Taurine on the other hand, is an amino acid which has the capacity to promote neural development, osmoregulation and neuroprotection. There is paucity of information on the effect of the combined administration of taurine and caffeine on C-reactive protein (CRP)--a marker of inflammation and plasma calcium level in rats. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of combined taurine and caffeine on the plasma level of CRP, Ca2+ as well as the effect of nifedipine on calcium level. Fifty four rats weighing 120-140 g were used for these studies. The animals were divided into nine groups consisting of six animals each. Group 1 was treated with 10 m/kg of normal saline, Groups 2 and 3 were given 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of taurine respectively, groups 4 and 5 received 7.5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg of caffeine respectively while group 6 was administered taurine (200 mg/kg) and caffeine (15 mg/kg), groups 7 and 8 were treated with taurine (200 mg/kg) plus nifedipine (10 mg/kg) and taurine (200 mg/kg)plus furosemide (20 mg/kg) respectively while group 9 was given taurine plu caffeine plus nifdipine plus furosemide. Treatment was done once daily for 21 days and blood was finally collected via cardiac puncture for the assay of CRP and calcium while the animals were under anaesthesia. The results showed that CRP was significantly decreased in five of the treated groups compared with the control with the exception of the group treated with taurine alone (Group 2), and that treated with combined taurine and caffeine (Group 6). The Ca2+ level of groups treated with caffeine (11.70 ± 0.29 mg/dL) and taurine with caffeine (11.64 ± 0.15 mg/dL) were significantly (p taurine and nifedipine (Group 7) led to significant (p taurine can boost plasma calcium level and

  2. Potential role of taurine in the prevention of diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imae, Masato; Asano, Toshiki; Murakami, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is characterized by the cluster of a number of metabolic abnormalities in the presence of underlying insulin resistance. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has steadily increased in all populations worldwide. Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is involved in a variety of physiological functions. Clinical and experimental studies show that taurine intake may be beneficial in the prevention of metabolic syndrome including diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. This article reviews the effect of taurine on all of the components of metabolic syndrome. In addition, the possible mechanisms by which taurine prevents diabetes and metabolic syndrome are also discussed. Further study is needed to determine the role of taurine in the development of metabolic syndrome in humans, because there is presently limited clinical data available.

  3. Cell swelling activates separate taurine and chloride channels in Ehrlich mouse ascites tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Ian Henry; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    1994-01-01

    The taurine efflux from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells is stimulated by hypotonic cell swelling. The swelling-activated taurine efflux is unaffected by substitution of gluconate for extracellular Cl– but inhibited by addition of MK196 (anion channel blocker) and 4,4 -diisothiocyanostilbene-2......,2 -disulfonic acid (DIDS; anion channel and anion exchange blocker) and by depolarization of the cell membrane. This is taken to indicate that taurine does not leave the osmotically swollen Ehrlich cells in exchange for extracellular Cl–, i.e., via the anion exchanger but via a MK196- and DIDS-sensitive channel...... that is potential dependent. An additional stimulation of the swelling-activated taurine efflux is seen after addition of arachidonic acid and oleic acid. Cell swelling also activates a Mini Cl– channel. The Cl– efflux via this Cl– channel, in contrast to the swelling-activated taurine efflux, is unaffected by DIDS...

  4. Developmental stability of taurine's activation on glycine receptors in cultured neurons of rat auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zheng-Quan; Lu, Yun-Gang; Chen, Lin

    2008-01-03

    Taurine is an endogenous amino acid that can activate glycine and/or gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors in the central nervous system. During natural development, taurine's receptor target undergoes a shift from glycine receptors to GABA(A) receptors in cortical neurons. Here, we demonstrate that taurine's receptor target in cortical neurons remains stable during in vitro development. With whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we found that taurine always activated glycine receptors, rather than GABA(A) receptors, in neurons of rat auditory cortex cultured for 5-22 days. Our results suggest that the functional sensitivity of glycine and GABA(A) receptors to taurine is critically regulated by their developmental environments.

  5. Effects of taurine on tolerance to and dependence on morphine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, E; Tamayo, L

    1984-02-01

    The effects of taurine on the analgesic response to morphine, on the intensity of tolerance and on physical dependence were examined. Taurine induced a hyperalgesic state and attenuated morphine analgesia in mice. The hyperalgesia was maximal at a dose level of 1.5 mg/kg i.p., while the effects of higher doses (6.0 and 10.0 mg/kg) were masked by a depression of the animals' gross behavior. Taurine induced a dose related antagonism of morphine tolerance. The amino acid administered 30 min before naloxone, produced a partial reduction in the abstinence signs in the chronically treated mice. Taurine also attenuated the abstinence behavior when administered during the course of dependence. The results are consistent with taurine antagonism to the known effects of morphine on intracellular calcium disposition in nervous tissue.

  6. Ultrasound-assisted extraction and purification of taurine from the red algae Porphyra yezoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fen; Guo, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Dan-Ni; Wu, Yue; Wu, Tao; Chen, Zhi-Gang

    2015-05-01

    The present study reports on the development of a method using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) during the purification of taurine from Porphyra yezoensis. The Box-Behnken design, which is a widely used form of response surface methodology, was used to investigate the effects of parameters on the UAE process. Three independent variables of taurine purification using UAE were studied including: extraction time, temperature, and ultrasonic power. The results showed that the highest taurine yield of 13.0mg/g was obtained with an extraction time of 38.3 min, the use of 300.0 W ultrasonic power, and an extraction temperature of 40.5°C. A comparative study of taurine extraction was also conducted using either ultrasonication or mechanical agitation. The results indicated that the ultrasonic process required 9 times less time at 40°C to obtain taurine with a similar yield as compared to the conventional extraction method. Therefore, UAE can used as an alternative to the conventional extraction method used during the recovery of taurine from P. yezoensis. The UAE method has several advantages, including that it uses lower extraction temperatures and has a shorter extraction time. The taurine present in the extract supernatant was efficiently separated and purified using a combination of 732 cation exchange chromatography and crystallization. The yield of purified taurine using this process was 1.1%. The structure of the purified taurine was confirmed by FTIR, MS, and NMR. Our findings suggest that P. yezoensis can be used as a taurine-rich food or food material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Taurine Reduced Epidural Fibrosis in Rat Models after Laminectomy via Downregulating EGR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Tang, Jian; Chen, Hongtao; Ge, Dawei; Sui, Tao; Que, Jun; Cao, Xiaojian; Ge, Yingbin

    2016-01-01

    Epidural fibrosis, a common complication after laminectomy, has been demonstrated to be closely associated with poor surgical outcomes. Previous studies showed that taurine had remarkable anti-fibrotic effects on lung and liver fibrosis. We performed this study to investigate the effects of taurine in rat models of epidural fibrosis after laminectomy and to explore the potential molecular mechanism. Laminectomy was performed on each rat to establish epidural fibrosis model. After taurine treatment, Masson's trichrome and immunohistochemistry staining were used to examine epidural fibrosis. Cell viability was determined using the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Annexin V/Propidium Iodide double staining was performed to detect fibroblasts apoptosis. Microarray was adopted to identify significantly changed mRNAs. mRNA expression was measured by qRT-PCR. Lentivirus infection was performed to establish stable knockdown and overexpression cell lines. The expression of fibrosis-related proteins was determined via Western blot. Taurine treatment markedly reduced laminectomy-induced epidural fibrosis in rat models. However, this effect of taurine was independent on TGF-β/Smad pathway, evidenced by no change in the expression of TGF-β and its receptors. Besides, taurine had almost no effect on cell apoptosis. Interestingly, taurine treatment significantly decreased expression of EGR1 (Early growth response protein 1), an enhancer of fibrosis, both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, overexpression of EGR1 increased activation of fibroblasts, while EGR1 knockdown achieved an opposite effect, indicating that EGR1 plays a key role in the inhibitory effect of taurine on TGF-β-induced fibrosis. Reduced epidural fibrosis in vivo and decreased activation of fibroblasts in vitro after taurine treatment was mediated by EGR1. Taurine promises to be a potential prevention for epidural fibrosis after laminectomy. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Diverse effects of taurine on vascular response and inflammation in GSH depletion model in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsarlak-Sozer, G; Sevin, G; Ozgur, H H; Yetik-Anacak, G; Kerry, Z

    2016-04-01

    A reduction in GSH and an increase in free radicals are observed in inflammatory diseases, indicating oxidative stress. Taurine protects cells from the cytotoxic effects of inflammation. There have been limited studies to date evaluating the effect of taurine in oxidative stress-induced vascular dysfunction and its role in vascular inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of taurine on the regulation of vascular tonus and vascular inflammatory markers in rabbit aortae and carotid arteries in oxidative stress-induced by GSH depletion. Rabbits were treated subcutaneously with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), GSH-depleting compound and/or taurine. Cumulative concentration-response curves for acetylcholine (ACh), phenylephrine and 5-hydroxytriptamine (5-HT) were constructed with or without Nω-nitro-L-arginine (LNA) in the carotid artery and aorta rings. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for TNF-α and IL-1β. BSO increased ACh-induced NO-dependent relaxations, phenylephrine-induced contractions in the carotid artery and 5-HT induced-contractions in both the carotid artery and the aorta. BSO decreased EDHF dependent relaxations only in the aorta. ACh-induced NO-dependent relaxations and augmented contractions were normalized by taurine. BSO increased TNF-α expressions in both carotid arteries and aortas, which were reversed by taurine. The BSO-induced increase in IL-1β was reversed by taurine only in aortae. Treatment with BSO resulted in vascular reactivity changes and increased immunostaining of TNF-α in mainly carotid arteries in this model of oxidative stress. The effect of taurine on BSO-induced vascular reactivity changes varied depending on the vessel. The inhibition of the increase in TNF-α expression by taurine in both carotid arteries and aortae supports the proposal that taurine has a beneficial effect in the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis.

  9. Vasopressin-induced taurine efflux from rat pituicytes: a potential negative feedback for hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Lia; Peteri-Brunbäck, Brigitta; Poujeol, Philippe; Hussy, Nicolas; Mienville, Jean-Marc

    2004-02-01

    Previous work on the whole neurohypophysis has shown that hypotonic conditions increase release of taurine from neurohypophysial astrocytes (pituicytes). The present work confirms that taurine is present in cultured pituicytes, and that its specific release increases in response to a hypotonic shock. We next show that vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) also specifically release taurine from pituicytes. With an EC(50) of approximately 2 nm, VP is much more potent than OT, and the effects of both hormones are blocked by SR 49059, a V(1a) receptor antagonist. This pharmacological profile matches the one for VP- and OT-evoked calcium signals in pituicytes, consistent with the fact that VP-induced taurine efflux is blocked by BAPTA-AM. However, BAPTA-AM also blocks the taurine efflux induced by a 270 mosmol l(-1) challenge, which per se does not evoke any calcium signal, suggesting a permissive role for calcium in this case. Nevertheless, the fact that structurally unrelated calcium-mobilizing agents and ionomycin are able to induce taurine efflux suggests that calcium may also play a signalling role in this event. It is widely accepted that in hypotonic conditions taurine exits cells through anionic channels. Antagonism by the chloride channel inhibitors 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid (NPPB) suggests the same pathway for VP-induced taurine efflux, which is also blocked in hypertonic conditions (330 mosmol l(-1)). Moreover, it is likely that the osmosensitivity of the taurine channel is up-regulated by calcium. These results, together with our in situ experiments showing stimulation of taurine release by endogenous VP, strengthen the concept of a glial control of neurohormone output.

  10. Taurine Ameliorates Renal Oxidative Damage and Thyroid Dysfunction in Rats Chronically Exposed to Fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedara, Isaac A; Ojuade, Temini Jesu D; Olabiyi, Bolanle F; Idris, Umar F; Onibiyo, Esther M; Ajeigbe, Olufunke F; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-02-01

    Excessive exposure to fluoride poses several detrimental effects to human health particularly the kidney which is a major organ involved in its elimination from the body. The influence of taurine on fluoride-induced renal toxicity was investigated in a co-exposure paradigm for 45 days using five groups of eight rats each. Group I rats received normal drinking water alone, group II rats were exposed to sodium fluoride (NaF) in drinking water at 15 mg/L alone, group III received taurine alone at a dose of 200 mg/kg group IV rats were co-administered with NaF and taurine (100 mg/kg), while group V rats were co-administered with NaF and taurine (200 mg/kg). Administration of taurine significantly reversed the fluoride-mediated decrease in absolute weight and organo-somatic index of the kidney in the exposed rats. Taurine significantly prevented fluoride-induced elevation in plasma urea and creatinine levels in the exposed rats. Moreover, taurine restored fluoride-mediated decrease in the circulatory concentrations of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and the ratio of triiodothyronine to thyroxine. Taurine ameliorated fluoride-mediated decrease in renal antioxidant status by significantly enhancing the antioxidant enzyme activities as well as glutathione level in the exposed rats. Additionally, taurine inhibited fluoride-induced renal oxidative damage by markedly decreasing the hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde levels as well as improved the kidney architecture in the treated rats. Collectively, taurine protected against fluoride-induced renal toxicity via enhancement of thyroid gland function, renal antioxidant status, and histology in rats.

  11. Differential cognitive effects of energy drink ingredients: caffeine, taurine, and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Grace E; Mahoney, Caroline R; Brunyé, Tad T; Gardony, Aaron L; Taylor, Holly A; Kanarek, Robin B

    2012-10-01

    Energy drinks containing caffeine, taurine, and glucose may improve mood and cognitive performance. However, there are no studies assessing the individual and interactive effects of these ingredients. We evaluated the effects of caffeine, taurine, and glucose alone and in combination on cognitive performance and mood in 24-hour caffeine-abstained habitual caffeine consumers. Using a randomized, double-blind, mixed design, 48 habitual caffeine consumers (18 male, 30 female) who were 24-hour caffeine deprived received one of four treatments (200 mg caffeine/0 mg taurine, 0 mg caffeine/2000 mg taurine, 200 mg caffeine/2000 mg taurine, 0 mg caffeine/0 mg taurine), on each of four separate days, separated by a 3-day wash-out period. Between-participants treatment was a glucose drink (50 g glucose, placebo). Salivary cortisol, mood and heart rate were measured. An attention task was administered 30-minutes post-treatment, followed by a working memory and reaction time task 60-minutes post-treatment. Caffeine enhanced executive control and working memory, and reduced simple and choice reaction time. Taurine increased choice reaction time but reduced reaction time in the working memory tasks. Glucose alone slowed choice reaction time. Glucose in combination with caffeine, enhanced object working memory and in combination with taurine, enhanced orienting attention. Limited glucose effects may reflect low task difficulty relative to subjects' cognitive ability. Caffeine reduced feelings of fatigue and increased tension and vigor. Taurine reversed the effects of caffeine on vigor and caffeine-withdrawal symptoms. No effects were found for salivary cortisol or heart rate. Caffeine, not taurine or glucose, is likely responsible for reported changes in cognitive performance following consumption of energy drinks, especially in caffeine-withdrawn habitual caffeine consumers.

  12. Ethanol- and/or Taurine-Induced Oxidative Stress in Chick Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Berning

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Because taurine alleviates ethanol- (EtOH- induced lipid peroxidation and liver damage in rats, we asked whether exogenous taurine could alleviate EtOH-induced oxidative stress in chick embryos. Exogenous EtOH (1.5 mmol/Kg egg or 3 mmol/Kg egg, taurine (4 μmol/Kg egg, or EtOH and taurine (1.5 mmol EtOH and 4 μmol taurine/Kg egg or 3 mmol EtOH and 4 μmol taurine/Kg egg were injected into fertile chicken eggs during the first three days of embryonic development (E0–2. At 11 days of development (midembryogenesis, serum taurine levels and brain caspase-3 activities, homocysteine (HoCys levels, reduced glutathione (GSH levels, membrane fatty acid composition, and lipid hydroperoxide (LPO levels were measured. Early embryonic EtOH exposure caused increased brain apoptosis rates (caspase-3 activities; increased brain HoCys levels; increased oxidative-stress, as measured by decreased brain GSH levels; decreased brain long-chain polyunsaturated levels; and increased brain LPO levels. Although taurine is reported to be an antioxidant, exogenous taurine was embryopathic and caused increased apoptosis rates (caspase-3 activities; increased brain HoCys levels; increased oxidative-stress (decreased brain GSH levels; decreased brain long-chain polyunsaturated levels; and increased brain LPO levels. Combined EtOH and taurine treatments also caused increased apoptosis rates and oxidative stress.

  13. Effect of β-alanine treatment on mitochondrial taurine level and 5-taurinomethyluridine content

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The β-amino acid, taurine, is a nutritional requirement in some species. In these species, the depletion of intracellular stores of taurine leads to the development of severe organ dysfunction. The basis underlying these defects is poorly understood, although there is some suggestion that oxidative stress may contribute to the abnormalities. Recent studies indicate that taurine is required for normal mitochondrial protein synthesis and normal electron transport chain activity; it is known that defects in these events can lead to severe mitochondrial oxidative stress. The present study examines the effect of taurine deficiency on the first step of mitochondrial protein synthesis regulation by taurine, namely, the formation of taurinomethyluridine containing tRNA. Methods Isolated rat cardiomyocytes were rendered taurine deficient by incubation with medium containing the taurine transport inhibitor, β-alanine. The time course of cellular and mitochondrial taurine depletion was measured. The primer extension method was employed to evaluate the effect of β-alanine treatment on taurinomethyluridine content of tRNALeu. The protein levels of ND6 were also determined by Western blot analysis. Results β-alanine caused a time-dependent decrease in cellular taurine content, which were reduced in half after 48 hrs of incubation. The amount of taurine in the mitochondria was considerably less than that in the cytosol and was unaffected by β-alanine treatment. Approximately 70% of the tRNALeu in the untreated cell lacked taurinomethyluridine and these levels were unchanged following β-alanine treatment. Protein content of ND6, however, was significantly reduced after 48 hours incubation with β-alanine. Conclusions The taurine levels of the cytosol and the mitochondria are not directly coupled. The β-alanine-mediated reduction in taurine levels is too small to affect taurinomethyluridine levels. Nonetheless, it interferes with mitochondrial protein synthesis

  14. EPR studies of gamma-irradiated taurine single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulut, A. E-mail: abulut@samsun.omu.edu.tr; Karabulut, B.; Tapramaz, R.; Koeksal, F

    2000-04-01

    An EPR study of gamma-irradiated taurine [C{sub 2}H{sub 7}NO{sub 3}S] single crystal was carried out at room temperature. The EPR spectra were recorded in the three at mutually perpendicular planes. There are two magnetically distinct sites in monoclinic lattice. The principle values of g and hyperfine constants for both sites were calculated. The results have indicated the presence of {sup 32}SO{sup -}{sub 2} and {sup 33}SO{sup -}{sub 2} radicals. The hyperfine values of {sup 33}SO{sup -}{sub 2} radical were used to obtain O-S-O bond angle for both sites.

  15. Taurine reduction in anaerobic respiration of Bilophila wadsworthia RZATAU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laue, H; Denger, K; Cook, A M

    1997-05-01

    Organosulfonates are important natural and man-made compounds, but until recently (T. J. Lie, T. Pitta, E. R. Leadbetter, W. Godchaux III, and J. R. Leadbetter. Arch. Microbiol. 166:204-210, 1996), they were not believed to be dissimilated under anoxic conditions. We also chose to test whether alkane- and arenesulfonates could serve as electron sinks in respiratory metabolism. We generated 60 anoxic enrichment cultures in mineral salts medium which included several potential electron donors and a single organic sulfonate as an electron sink, and we used material from anaerobic digestors in communal sewage works as inocula. None of the four aromatic sulfonates, the three unsubstituted alkanesulfonates, or the N-sulfonate tested gave positive enrichment cultures requiring both the electron donor and electron sink for growth. Nine cultures utilizing the natural products taurine, cysteate, or isethionate were considered positive for growth, and all formed sulfide. Two clearly different pure cultures were examined. Putative Desulfovibrio sp. strain RZACYSA, with lactate as the electron donor, utilized sulfate, aminomethanesulfonate, taurine, isethionate, and cysteate, converting the latter to ammonia, acetate, and sulfide. Strain RZATAU was identified by 16S rDNA analysis as Bilophila wadsworthia. In the presence of, e.g., formate as the electron donor, it utilized, e.g., cysteate and isethionate and converted taurine quantitatively to cell material and products identified as ammonia, acetate, and sulfide. Sulfite and thiosulfate, but not sulfate, were utilized as electron sinks, as was nitrate, when lactate was provided as the electron donor and carbon source. A growth requirement for 1,4-naphthoquinone indicates a menaquinone electron carrier, and the presence of cytochrome c supports the presence of an electron transport chain. Pyruvate-dependent disappearance of taurine from cell extracts, as well as formation of alanine and release of ammonia and acetate, was

  16. Thiosulfate as a metabolic product: the bacterial fermentation of taurine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denger, K; Laue, H; Cook, A M

    1997-10-01

    Thiosulfate (S2O32-) is a natural product that is widely utilized in natural ecosystems as an electron sink or as an electron donor. However, the major biological source(s) of this thiosulfate is unknown. We present the first report that taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonate), the major mammalian solute, is subject to fermentation. This bacterial fermentation was found to be catalyzed by a new isolate, strain GKNTAU, a strictly anaerobic, gram-positive, motile rod that formed subterminal spores. Thiosulfate was a quantitative fermentation product. The other fermentation products were ammonia and acetate, and all could be formed by cell-free extracts.

  17. Dietary Supplements

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    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some supplements ...

  18. Reduced plasma taurine level in Parkinson's disease: association with motor severity and levodopa treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Yuan, Yongsheng; Tong, Qing; Jiang, Siming; Xu, Qinrong; Ding, Jian; Zhang, Lian; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Kezhong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the level of taurine in plasma, and its association with the severity of motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS) and chronic levodopa treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD). Plasma taurine level was measured in treated PD (tPD), untreated PD (ntPD) and control groups. Motor symptoms and NMS were assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, the short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, the Hamilton Depression Scale, the Scale for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease for Autonomic Symptoms and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Longtime exposure to levodopa was indicated by its approximate cumulative dosage. The plasma taurine levels of PD patients were decreased when compared with controls and negatively associated with motor severity but not NMS. Moreover, tPD patients exhibited lower levels of plasma taurine than ntPD patients. Interestingly, plasma taurine levels negatively correlated with cumulative levodopa dosage in tPD. After controlling for potential confounders, the association between taurine and levodopa remained significant. Our study supports that taurine may play important roles in the pathophysiology of PD and the disturbances caused by chronic levodopa administration.

  19. Role of Mitochondria and Endoplasmic Reticulum in Taurine-Deficiency-Mediated Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Chian Ju; Ito, Takashi; Prentice, Howard; Wu, Jang-Yen; Schaffer, Stephen W

    2017-07-25

    Taurine is a ubiquitous sulfur-containing amino acid found in high concentration in most tissues. Because of its involvement in fundamental physiological functions, such as regulating respiratory chain activity, modulating cation transport, controlling inflammation, altering protein phosphorylation and prolonging lifespan, taurine is an important nutrient whose deficiency leads to severe pathology and cell death. However, the mechanism by which taurine deficiency causes cell death is inadequately understood. Therefore, the present study examined the hypothesis that overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by complex I of the respiratory chain triggers mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in hearts of taurine transporter knockout (TauTKO) mice. In support of the hypothesis, a 60% decrease in mitochondrial taurine content of 3-month-old TauTKO hearts was observed, which was associated with diminished complex I activity and the onset of mitochondrial oxidative stress. Oxidative damage to stressed mitochondria led to activation of a caspase cascade, with stimulation of caspases 9 and 3 prevented by treatment of 3-month-old TauTKO mice with the mitochondria specific antioxidant, MitoTempo. In 12 month-old, but not 3-month-old, TauTKO hearts, caspase 12 activation contributes to cell death, revealing a pathological role for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in taurine deficient, aging mice. Thus, taurine is a cytoprotective nutrient that ensures normal mitochondrial and ER function, which is important for the reduction of risk for apoptosis and premature death.

  20. Taurine acts as a glycine receptor agonist in slices of rat inferior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Han; Wang, Wei; Tang, Zheng-Quan; Xu, Tian-Le; Chen, Lin

    2006-10-01

    Taurine is an important endogenous amino acid for neural development and for many physiological functions, but little is known about its functional role in the central auditory system. We investigated in young rats (P10-P14) the effects of taurine on the neuronal responses and synaptic transmissions in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) with a brain slice preparation and with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Perfusion of taurine at 1mM reliably evoked a current across the membrane and decreased the input resistance in neurons of the ICC. Taurine also depressed the spontaneous and current-evoked firing of ICC neurons. All these effects were reversible after washout and could be blocked by 3 microM strychnine, an antagonist of glycine receptors, but not by 10 microM bicuculline, an antagonist of GABA(A) receptors. When the inhibitory receptors were not pharmacologically blocked, taurine reversibly reduced the postsynaptic currents/potentials evoked by electrically stimulating the commissure of the inferior colliculus or the ipsilateral lateral lemniscus. The results demonstrate that taurine reduces the neuronal excitability and depresses the synaptic transmission in the ICC by activating glycine-gated chloride channels. Our findings suggest that taurine acts as a ligand of glycine receptors in the ICC and can be involved in the information processing of the central auditory system similarly like the neurotransmitter glycine.

  1. Taurine-EVA copolymer-paraffin rods dosimeters for EPR high-dose radiation dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghraby Ahmed M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Taurine/EPR rods (3 × 10 mm have been prepared by a simple technique in the laboratory where taurine powder was mixed with a molten mixture of paraffin wax and an ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA copolymer. The binding mixture EVA/Paraffin does not present interference or noise in the EPR signal before or after irradiation. The rods show good mechanical properties for safe and multi-use handling. An EPR investigation of radiation induced radicals in taurine rods revealed that there are two types of radicals produced after exposure to gamma radiation (60Co. EPR spectra were recorded and analyzed - also the microwave power saturation and modulation amplitude were studied and optimized. Response of taurine to different radiation doses (1.5-100 kGy was studied and found to follow a linear relationship up to 100 kGy. Radiation induced radicals in taurine persists and showed a noticeable stability over 94 days following irradiation. Uncertainities associated with the evaluation of radiation doses using taurine dosimeters were discussed and tabulated. It was found that taurine possesses good dosimetric properties using EPR spectroscopy in high doses in addition to its simple spectrum.

  2. Role of Mitochondria and Endoplasmic Reticulum in Taurine-Deficiency-Mediated Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chian Ju Jong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Taurine is a ubiquitous sulfur-containing amino acid found in high concentration in most tissues. Because of its involvement in fundamental physiological functions, such as regulating respiratory chain activity, modulating cation transport, controlling inflammation, altering protein phosphorylation and prolonging lifespan, taurine is an important nutrient whose deficiency leads to severe pathology and cell death. However, the mechanism by which taurine deficiency causes cell death is inadequately understood. Therefore, the present study examined the hypothesis that overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS by complex I of the respiratory chain triggers mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in hearts of taurine transporter knockout (TauTKO mice. In support of the hypothesis, a 60% decrease in mitochondrial taurine content of 3-month-old TauTKO hearts was observed, which was associated with diminished complex I activity and the onset of mitochondrial oxidative stress. Oxidative damage to stressed mitochondria led to activation of a caspase cascade, with stimulation of caspases 9 and 3 prevented by treatment of 3-month-old TauTKO mice with the mitochondria specific antioxidant, MitoTempo. In 12 month-old, but not 3-month-old, TauTKO hearts, caspase 12 activation contributes to cell death, revealing a pathological role for endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress in taurine deficient, aging mice. Thus, taurine is a cytoprotective nutrient that ensures normal mitochondrial and ER function, which is important for the reduction of risk for apoptosis and premature death.

  3. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis and taurine either alone or in combination on streptozotocin induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zahraa Z El Ashry, Fatma; Mahmoud, Mona F; El Maraghy, Nabila N; Ahmed, Ahmed F

    2012-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the antidiabetic effects of Cordyceps sinensis, taurine and their combination in comparison with glibenclamide both in vivo and in vitro using streptozotocin rat model. The diabetic rats were orally given glibenclamide, C. sinensis, taurine or Cordyceps and taurine combination for 21 days. Their effects were studied both in vivo and in vitro. Oral administration of Cordyceps, taurine and their combination decreased serum glucose, fructosamine, total cholesterol, triglycerides levels, insulin resistance index and pancreatic malondialdehyde content. Cordyceps significantly increased serum insulin, HDL-cholesterol, total antioxidant capacity levels, β cell function percent, and pancreatic reduced glutathione (GSH) content. However, taurine was unable to elevate pancreatic GSH level to a significant level. These natural products and their combinations were more effective than glibenclamide in reducing insulin resistance index and they had stronger antioxidant properties. Cordyceps and taurine significantly enhanced glucose uptake by diaphragms of normal and diabetic rats in absence and presence of insulin. In conclusion, Cordyceps and taurine either alone or in combination have less potent hypoglycemic effects than glibenclamide; however, they have more ability to reduce insulin resistance and stronger antioxidant properties.

  4. Copper-taurine (CT): a potential organic compound to facilitate infected wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiliang; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Shouyu; Diao, Yunpeng; Zhao, Zexu; Lv, Decheng

    2009-12-01

    Taurine plays various important roles in a large number of physiological and pathological conditions in human body, such as the cytoprotective functions, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis effects. Copper demonstrates a critical effect in the processes of wound healing, including induction of endothelial growth factor, angiogenesis, antimicrobial potency and expression and stabilization of extracellular matrix. Both copper and taurine are effective in accelerating wound healing, but it was rarely reported about the formation of copper complexes of taurine and the effect of the compound in wound healing. Generally speaking, to human body, organic compound could provide a better bioavailability than the inorganic ones. We thus hypothesize that taurine combined with copper would be a new therapeutic candidate for infected wound healing. We name the new compound copper-taurine (CT). Copper-taurine (CT) added into the wound dressings would not only reduce the risk of wound infection, but, more importantly, would stimulate wound repair directly. The sustained release of copper and taurine from the wound dressings into the wound site would together facilitate the wound healing more potently.

  5. Effect of taurine and potential interactions with caffeine on cardiovascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Stephen W; Shimada, Kayoko; Jong, Chian Ju; Ito, Takashi; Azuma, Junichi; Takahashi, Kyoko

    2014-05-01

    The major impetus behind the rise in energy drink popularity among adults is their ability to heighten mental alertness, improve physical performance and supply energy. However, accompanying the exponential growth in energy drink usage have been recent case reports and analyses from the National Poison Data System, raising questions regarding the safety of energy drinks. Most of the safety concerns have centered on the effect of energy drinks on cardiovascular and central nervous system function. Although the effects of caffeine excess have been widely studied, little information is available on potential interactions between the other active ingredients of energy drinks and caffeine. One of the active ingredients often mentioned as a candidate for interactions with caffeine is the beta-amino acid, taurine. Although taurine is considered a conditionally essential nutrient for humans and is thought to play a key role in several human diseases, clinical studies evaluating the effects of taurine are limited. However, based on this review regarding possible interactions between caffeine and taurine, we conclude that taurine should neutralize several untoward effects of caffeine excess. In agreement with this conclusion, the European Union's Scientific Committee on Food published a report in March 2003 summarizing its investigation into potential interactions of the ingredients in energy drinks. At the cardiovascular level, they concluded that "if there are any interactions between caffeine and taurine, taurine might reduce the cardiovascular effects of caffeine." Although these interactions remain to be further examined in humans, the physiological functions of taurine appear to be inconsistent with the adverse cardiovascular symptoms associated with excessive consumption of caffeine-taurine containing beverages.

  6. A terahertz study of taurine: Dispersion correction and mode couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zelin; Xu, Xiangdong; Gu, Yu; Li, Xinrong; Wang, Fu; Lian, Yuxiang; Fan, Kai; Cheng, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhegeng; Sun, Minghui; Jiang, Yadong; Yang, Chun; Xu, Jimmy

    2017-03-01

    The low-frequency characteristics of polycrystalline taurine were studied experimentally by terahertz (THz) absorption spectroscopy and theoretically by ab initio density-functional simulations. Full optimizations with semi-empirical dispersion correction were performed in spectral computations and vibrational mode assignments. For comparison, partial optimizations with pure density functional theory were conducted in parallel. Results indicate that adding long-range dispersion correction to the standard DFT better reproduces the measured THz spectra than the popular partial optimizations. The main origins of the observed absorption features were also identified. Moreover, a coupled-oscillators model was proposed to explain the experimental observation of the unusual spectral blue-shift with the increase of temperature. Such coupled-oscillators model not only provides insights into the temperature dynamics of non-bonded interactions but also offers an opportunity to better understand the physical mechanisms behind the unusual THz spectral behaviors in taurine. Particularly, the simulation approach and novel coupled-oscillators model presented in this work are applicable to analyze the THz spectra of other molecular systems.

  7. Taurine-EVA copolymer-paraffin rods dosimeters for EPR high-dose radiation dosimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Maghraby Ahmed M.; Mansour A; Abdel-Fattah A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Taurine/EPR rods (3 × 10 mm) have been prepared by a simple technique in the laboratory where taurine powder was mixed with a molten mixture of paraffin wax and an ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer. The binding mixture EVA/Paraffin does not present interference or noise in the EPR signal before or after irradiation. The rods show good mechanical properties for safe and multi-use handling. An EPR investigation of radiation induced radicals in taurine rods revealed that there are two types...

  8. Activation of Glycine and Extrasynaptic GABAA Receptors by Taurine on the Substantia Gelatinosa Neurons of the Trigeminal Subnucleus Caudalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Janardhan Prasad; Park, Soo Joung; Han, Seong Kyu

    2013-01-01

    The substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) has been known for the processing and transmission of orofacial nociceptive information. Taurine, one of the most plentiful free amino-acids in humans, has proved to be involved in pain modulation. In this study, using whole-cell patch clamp technique, we investigated the direct membrane effects of taurine and the action mechanism behind taurine-mediated responses on the SG neurons of the Vc. Taurine showed non-desensitizing and repeatable membrane depolarizations and inward currents which remained in the presence of amino-acid receptors blocking cocktail (AARBC) with tetrodotoxin, indicating that taurine acts directly on the postsynaptic SG neurons. Further, application of taurine at different doses (10 μM to 3 mM) showed a concentration dependent depolarizations and inward currents with the EC50 of 84.3 μM and 723 μM, respectively. Taurine-mediated responses were partially blocked by picrotoxin (50 μM) and almost completely blocked by strychnine (2 μM), suggesting that taurine-mediated responses are via glycine receptor (GlyR) activation. In addition, taurine (1 mM) activated extrasynaptic GABAA receptor (GABAAR)-mediated currents. Taken together, our results indicate that taurine can be a target molecule for orofacial pain modulation through the activation of GlyRs and/or extrasynaptic GABAARs on the SG neurons. PMID:24379976

  9. Activation of Glycine and Extrasynaptic GABAA Receptors by Taurine on the Substantia Gelatinosa Neurons of the Trigeminal Subnucleus Caudalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thanh Hoang Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The substantia gelatinosa (SG of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc has been known for the processing and transmission of orofacial nociceptive information. Taurine, one of the most plentiful free amino-acids in humans, has proved to be involved in pain modulation. In this study, using whole-cell patch clamp technique, we investigated the direct membrane effects of taurine and the action mechanism behind taurine-mediated responses on the SG neurons of the Vc. Taurine showed non-desensitizing and repeatable membrane depolarizations and inward currents which remained in the presence of amino-acid receptors blocking cocktail (AARBC with tetrodotoxin, indicating that taurine acts directly on the postsynaptic SG neurons. Further, application of taurine at different doses (10 μM to 3 mM showed a concentration dependent depolarizations and inward currents with the EC50 of 84.3 μM and 723 μM, respectively. Taurine-mediated responses were partially blocked by picrotoxin (50 μM and almost completely blocked by strychnine (2 μM, suggesting that taurine-mediated responses are via glycine receptor (GlyR activation. In addition, taurine (1 mM activated extrasynaptic GABAA receptor (GABAAR-mediated currents. Taken together, our results indicate that taurine can be a target molecule for orofacial pain modulation through the activation of GlyRs and/or extrasynaptic GABAARs on the SG neurons.

  10. Reciprocal regulation between taurine and glutamate response via Ca2+- dependent pathways in retinal third-order neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Although taurine and glutamate are the most abundant amino acids conducting neural signals in the central nervous system, the communication between these two neurotransmitters is largely unknown. This study explores the interaction of taurine and glutamate in the retinal third-order neurons. Using specific antibodies, both taurine and taurine transporters were localized in photoreceptors and Off-bipolar cells, glutamatergic neurons in retinas. It is possible that Off-bipolar cells release juxtaposed glutamate and taurine to activate the third-order neurons in retina. The interaction of taurine and glutamate was studied in acutely dissociated third-order neurons in whole-cell patch-clamp recording and Ca2+ imaging. We find that taurine effectively reduces glutamate-induced Ca2+ influx via ionotropic glutamate receptors and voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in the neurons, and the effect of taurine was selectively inhibited by strychnine and picrotoxin, but not GABA receptor antagonists, although GABA receptors are present in the neurons. A CaMKII inhibitor partially reversed the effect of taurine, suggesting that a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent pathway is involved in taurine regulation. On the other hand, a rapid influx of Ca2+ through ionotropic glutamate receptors could inhibit the amplitude and kinetics of taurine-elicited currents in the third-order neurons, which could be controlled with intracellular application of BAPTA a fast Ca2+ chelator. This study indicates that taurine is a potential neuromodulator in glutamate transmission. The reciprocal inhibition between taurine and glutamate in the postsynaptic neurons contributes to computation of visual signals in the retinal neurons. PMID:20804625

  11. Taurine and glucose metabolism: a review Taurina y metabolismo de la glucosa: una revisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. de la Puerta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Taurine has probed to be involved in a wide range of biological processes and to provide several different important health benefits. Its effects have been revealed to be exerted mainly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, among other mechanisms. Objectives and methods: The present review is aimed to provide a solid body of evidence regarding the beneficial effects of taurine in the context of diabetes and its complications, with an special focus on the cardiovascular health impairments so frequently associated to this disease, so that data from this updated systematic review of the literature, may constitute a base to back up future clinical and epidemiological studies, on the possibilities of taurine supplementation as a useful tool for both prevention and treatment of diabetes complications. Conclusions: We consider results from the different experimental, in vitro studies as well as some clinical ones reviewed, to provide sufficient evidence as to constitute a solid base to back up future clinical and epidemiological studies on the usefulness of taurine supplementation both in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and its complications.Introducción: El aminoácido taurina ha demostrado estar involucrado en una amplia gama de procesos biológicos, así como proporcionar distintos e importantes beneficios para la salud. Los principales efectos de la taurina que han sido puestos de manifiesto a través de distinto estudios, residen principalmente en su acción antioxidante y en su capacidad antiinflamatoria, entre otros que también señalaremos. Objetivos y métodos: La presente revisión tiene como objetivo proporcionar una sólida evidencia en relación a estos y otros efectos de la taurina en el contexto de la diabetes y sus complicaciones, con especial énfasis en las alteraciones de la salud cardiovascular, tan frecuentemente asociadas a esta enfermedad, de manera que los datos de esta revisión sistem

  12. A possible physiological role of taurine in the adult female rat liver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pierre, Y; Chatagner, F

    1981-01-01

    ...) in the liver of the lactating rat: 1.84 twenty-one days after the birth of pups. These observations suggest a physiological role for the higher concentration of taurine in the liver of the adult female rat...

  13. Sulfur - Containing Amino Acids Homocysteine And Taurine In Seizures: Current State Of The Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrncic, Dragan; Rasic-Markovic, Aleksandra; Macut, Duro; Mladenovic, Dusan; Susic, Veselinka; Djuric, Dragan; Stanojlovic, Olivera

    2017-06-08

    Homocysteine and taurine are non-proteinogenic sulfur-containing amino acids with numerous important physiological roles. Homocysteine and taurine are considered to be neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, the first showing clear hyperexcitability role, while the second is known by its inhibitory and neuroprotective properties. In this article we addressed the role of homocysteine and its related metabolite homocysteine thiolactone in the development of seizures, focusing on its experimental models in vivo, potential mechanisms of proepileptogenic activity via interactions with glutamatergic neurotransmission, sodium pump activity, oxidative stress, cholinergic system and NO-mediated neuronal signaling, as well as the pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches to modulate its proconvulsive activity. Additionally, herein we will focus on taurine neuroprotective effects linked with its anticonvulsive properties and mediated by taurine interactions with GABA-ergic and glutamatergic system and oxidative stress. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Taurine Protects Lens Epithelial Cells Against Ultraviolet B-Induced Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayang, Wu; Dongbo, Pang

    2017-10-01

    The massive uptake of compatible osmolytes is a self-protective response shared by lens exposed to hypertonic stress and ultraviolet stress. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of taurine against ultraviolet B-induced cytotoxicity in the lens epithelial cells. Real-time PCR was used to measure osmolytes transport. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure osmolytes uptake. Cell counting kit-8 assays were used to measure cellular viability. Flow cytometry analysis was used to measure apoptosis level. Compared with normotonic stress, hypertonic stress-induced osmolytes uptake into the lens epithelial cells such as betaine, myoinositol and taurine. UVB exposure increased osmolytes transporter mRNA expression together with osmolytes uptake. Moreover, taurine suppressed UVB-induced cell apoptosis in the lens epithelial cells significantly. The effect of compatible osmolyte taurine on cell survival rate may play an important role in cell resistance and adaption to UVB exposure.

  15. Anaerobic taurine oxidation: a novel reaction by a nitrate-reducing Alcaligenes sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denger, K; Laue, H; Cook, A M

    1997-06-01

    Enrichment cultures were prepared under strictly anoxic conditions in medium representing fresh water and containing an organosulfonate as electron donor and carbon source, and nitrate as electron acceptor. The inoculum was from the anaerobic digestor of two communal sewage works. The natural organosulfonates 2-aminoethanesulfonate (taurine), DL-2-amino-3-sulfopropionate (cysteate) and 2-hydroxyethanesulfonate (isethionate) all gave positive enrichments, whereas unsubstituted alkanesulfonates, such as methanesulfonate and arenesulfonates, gave no enrichment. Two representative enrichments were used to obtain pure cultures, and strains NKNTAU (utilizing taurine) and NKNIS (utilizing isethionate) were isolated. Strain NKNTAU was examined in detail. Out of 18 tested organosulfonates, it utilized only one, taurine, and was identified as a novel Alcaligenes sp., a facultatively anaerobic bacterium. Carbon from taurine was converted to cell material and carbon dioxide. The amino group was released as ammonium ion and the sulfonate moiety was recovered as sulfate. Nitrate was reduced to nitrogen gas.

  16. SINERGIS TAURIN LINTAH LAUT (Discodoris sp. DAN TEMULAWAK (Curcuma xanthorriza Roxb. DALAM SERBUK MINUMAN FUNGSIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marwita Sari Putri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSumber daya perairan seperti lintah laut (Discodoris sp. dapat dibuat menjadi minuman fungsional.Lintah laut telah dilaporkan memiliki sifat antioksidan dan mengandung taurin. Penelitian ini dilakukandalam 2 tahap: 1 persiapan bahan baku (Discodoris sp, 2 formulasi produk minuman fungsional.Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah: 1 untuk menentukan konsentrasi komposisi bahan baku denganmempertimbangkan efek sinergis dari taurin pada minuman fungsional, 2 untuk mengetahui pengaruhpreparasi pada serbuk minuman fungsional terhadap jumlah taurin. Tiga formula terbaik yang diterimasecara organoleptik yaitu formula T1 (Discodoris sp. 20%, jahe 40%, 20% curcuma, lemon 20%, T2 formula(Discodoris sp. 25%, jahe 40%, 15% curcuma, lemon 20% dan T3 formula (Discodoris sp. 30%, jahe 40%,10% curcuma, lemon 20%.Kata kunci: efek sinergis, lintah laut, minuman fungsional, taurin

  17. Maternal Guilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rotkirch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent emphasis on humans as cooperative breeders invites new research on human family dynamics. In this paper we look at maternal guilt as a consequence of conditional maternal investment. Solicited texts written by Finnish mothers with under school-aged children in 2007 (n = 63 described maternal emotions perceived as difficult and forbidden. Content analysis of guilt-inducing situations showed that guilt arose from diverging interest and negotiations between the mother and child (i.e., classic parent-offspring conflict. Also cultural expectations of extensive and perpetual high-quality maternal investment or the “motherhood myth” induced guilt in mothers. We argue that guilt plays an important role in maternal-investment regulation. Maternal guilt is predicted to vary with social and cultural context but also to show universal characteristics due to parent-offspring conflict and allomaternal manipulation. Results are preliminary and intended to stimulate research into the mechanisms, gender differences and cultural variations of guilt and other social emotions in human parenting.

  18. Knockout of the murine cysteine dioxygenase gene results in severe impairment in ability to synthesize taurine and an increased catabolism of cysteine to hydrogen sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Iori; Roman, Heather B.; Valli, Alessandro; Fieselmann, Krista; Lam, Jimmy; Peters, Rachel; Hirschberger, Lawrence L.

    2011-01-01

    Cysteine homeostasis is dependent on the regulation of cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) in response to changes in sulfur amino acid intake. CDO oxidizes cysteine to cysteinesulfinate, which is further metabolized to either taurine or to pyruvate plus sulfate. To gain insight into the physiological function of CDO and the consequence of a loss of CDO activity, mice carrying a null CDO allele (CDO+/− mice) were crossed to generate CDO−/−, CDO+/−, and CDO+/+ mice. CDO−/− mice exhibited postnatal mortality, growth deficit, and connective tissue pathology. CDO−/− mice had extremely low taurine levels and somewhat elevated cysteine levels, consistent with the lack of flux through CDO-dependent catabolic pathways. However, plasma sulfate levels were slightly higher in CDO−/− mice than in CDO+/− or CDO+/+ mice, and tissue levels of acid-labile sulfide were elevated, indicating an increase in cysteine catabolism by cysteine desulfhydration pathways. Null mice had lower hepatic cytochrome c oxidase levels, suggesting impaired electron transport capacity. Supplementation of mice with taurine improved survival of male pups but otherwise had little effect on the phenotype of the CDO−/− mice. H2S has been identified as an important gaseous signaling molecule as well as a toxicant, and pathology may be due to dysregulation of H2S production. Control of cysteine levels by regulation of CDO may be necessary to maintain low H2S/sulfane sulfur levels and facilitate the use of H2S as a signaling molecule. PMID:21693692

  19. Characterization of taurine as anti-obesity agent in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Min; Do, Chang-Hee; Lee, Dong Hee

    2010-08-24

    Taurine plays an important role in reducing physiological stress. Recent studies indicated that taurine may serve as an anti-obesity agent at the cellular level. This study characterizes taurine's potential anti-obesity function in C. elegans, which have become a popular in vivo model for understanding the regulatory basis of lipid biosynthesis and deposition. Two strains of C. elegans were raised on a normal or high-fat diet: N2 (normal) and RB1600, a mutant in tub-1 that serves as a tubby homologue and functions parallel to the 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase gene (kat-1) in regulating lipid accumulation. Taurine's effect on lipid deposition was characterized according to assays of Sudan black B staining, triglyceride content measurement, food consumption, and mobility comparison. When N2 was treated with taurine after the culture in the high-fat media, the worms showed lower lipid accumulation in the assays of the Sudan black B staining and the triglyceride quantification. The anti-obesity effect was less evident in the experiment for RB1600. When the amount of taurine was increased for the high-fat-diet-treated N2 strain, fat deposition decreased and mobility increased in a dose-dependent manner. In the food consumption assays, taurine did not cause a significant change in food intake. Taken together, these results strongly imply that taurine plays an important role in reducing fat deposition by modulating cellular pathways for lipid accumulation and stimulating mobility, but not the pathways for lipid biosynthesis and food intake.

  20. Taurine induces anti-anxiety by activating strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng Gao; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2007-01-01

    Taurine has a variety of actions in the body such as cardiotonic, host-defensive, radioprotective and glucose-regulatory effects. However, its action in the central nervous system remains to be characterized. In the present study, we tested to see whether taurine exerts anti-anxiety effects and to explore its mechanism of anti-anxiety activity in vivo. The staircase test and elevated plus maze test were performed to test the anti-anxiety action of taurine. Convulsions induced by strychnine, picrotoxin, yohimbine and isoniazid were tested to explore the mechanism of anti-anxiety activity of taurine. The Rotarod test was performed to test muscle relaxant activity and the passive avoidance test was carried out to test memory activity in response to taurine. Taurine (200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced rearing numbers in the staircase test while it increased the time spent in the open arms as well as the number of entries to the open arms in the elevated plus maze test, suggesting that it has a significant anti-anxiety activity. Taurine's action could be due to its binding to and activating of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor in vivo as it inhibited convulsion caused by strychnine; however, it has little effect on picrotoxin-induced convulsion, suggesting its anti-anxiety activity may not be linked to GABA receptor. It did not alter memory function and muscle activity. Taken together, these results suggest that taurine could be beneficial for the control of anxiety in the clinical situations. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Natural taurine promotes apoptosis of human hepatic stellate cells in proteomics analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To study the differential expression of proteins between natural taurine treated hepatic stellate cells and controls, and investigate the underlying regulatory mechanism of natural taurine in inhibiting hepatic fibrosis.METHODS: A proteomic strategy combining two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and ultraperform ance liquid chromatographyelectrospray ionizationtandem mass spectrometry (UPLCESIMS/MS) was used to study the differential expression of proteins and Western blotting was used to validate the re...

  2. New N-acyl taurine from the sea urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuefeng; Xu, Tunhai; Wen, Kewei; Yang, Xian-Wen; Xu, Shi-Hai; Liu, Yonghong

    2010-01-01

    A new N-acyl taurine (1), together with a new natural product, l-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-1,2,4-triazole (4), and two known compounds (2 and 3), were isolated from the sea urchin, Glyptocidaris crenularis. The new N-acyl taurine was elucidated as 2-(5R,15S-dihydroxyeicosanoylamino) ethanesulfonic acid on the basis of spectroscopic (NMR, MS) analyses and the modified Mosher ester method. Compound 2 showed significant toxicity against brine shrimp larvae.

  3. Protective role of taurine against genotoxic damage in mice treated with methotrexate and tamoxfine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Sally S; Hafiz, Nagla A; Abd El-Rahim, Abeer H

    2011-01-01

    The genotoxic actions of anti-neoplastic drugs can lead to the development of secondary cancers in patients in extended remission. One of the most attractive approaches to disease prevention involves the use of natural antioxidants to protect tissue against toxic injury. We investigated the modulatory effects of exogenously administered taurine, on the genotoxicity of two well known anti-neoplastic drugs methotrexate (MTX) and tamoxifen (TAM) in Swiss albino mice. The animals were randomly divided into six groups consisting of ten mice each. Two groups were received single intraperitoneal injection of MTX (10 mg/kgb.wt.) and TAM (50 mg/kgb.wt.) to induce genotoxicity. Two other groups were treated orally with taurine (100 mg/kgb.wt.) for nine days prior to MTX and TAM administration. A vehicle treated control group and taurine control groups were also included. The protective effects of taurine were monitored by apoptosis assays and level of reduced glutathione (GSH), a key antioxidant, in liver, chromosomal aberrations in somatic and germ cells as well as sperm count, motility and morphology. The results indicated that taurine pre-treatment showed significant increment in the levels of GSH content, reduction in DNA fragmentation and ladder formation in hepatic tissue, suggesting the antioxidant activity of taurine may reduce the toxic effects of MTX and TAM. Treatment with taurine showed also significant reduction in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in both somatic and germ cells. Moreover, it increases sperm count and motility, and decreases the incidence of sperm abnormalities. In conclusion, it appears that taurine protects against anti-neoplastic drugs-induced genotoxicity in somatic and germ tissues and may be of therapeutic potential in alleviating the risk of secondary tumors in chemotherapy.

  4. Taurine antagonized oxidative stress injury induced by homocysteine in rat vascular smooth muscle cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin CHANG; Jian-xin XU; Jing ZHAO; Yong-zheng PANG; Chao-shu TANG; Yong-fen QI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To observe protective effects of taurine on reactive oxygen species generation induced by homocysteine in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). METHODS: Rat VSMC was incubated with various concentrations of homocysteine and taurine. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity which released into culture medium was elevated as an indicator for VSMC injury. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) - hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion (O2- )were measured with luminol or lucigenin chemiluminescences method, and the mitochondria Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and catalase (CAT) were also measured in treated VSMC. RESULTS: LDH leakage from cultured VSMC treated with homocystenie, was increased (P<0.01 vs control), and it was markedly inhibited when co-incubated with taurine (P<0.01). Homocysteine induced H2O2 generation from VSMC in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.01 vs control). However, taurine (5, 10, and 20 mmol/L) significantly antagonized 0.5 mmol/L homocysteine-induced H2O2 generation in VSMC in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.01 vs homocysteine alone group), although taurine itself did not alter the H2O2 generation in VSMC (P>0.05 vs control).In this study, the superoxide anion in VSMC was not detectable by chemiluminent method. In addition, treatment of VSMC with taurine increased mitochondria Mn-SOD and CAT activity in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05), but homocysteine decreased mitochondria Mn-SOD and CAT activity (P<0.01 vs control). In addition,co-administration of taurine markedly ameliorated homocysteine-induced inhibition of Mn-SOD and CAT activity in VSMC (P<0.01 vs homocysteine alone group). CONCLUSION: Taurine antagonized the effects of homocysteine on ROS generation and anti-oxidant enzyme activities in rat VSMC in vitro.

  5. Taurine inhibits interleukin-6 expression and release induced by ultraviolet B exposure to human retinal pigment epithelium cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayang, Wu; Jinsong, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The massive uptake of compatible osmolytes is a self-protective response shared by retina exposed to hypertonic stress and ultraviolet stress. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of taurine against ultraviolet damage in human retinal pigment epithelium cells. Real-time PCR, radioimmunoassay, ELISA and immunoassay were used to measure osmolyte uptake and IL-6 expression. Compared with normotonic stress, hypertonic stress led to an induction of osmolyte uptake including betaine, myoinositol and taurine. UVB exposure upregulated osmolyte transporter mRNA expression and increased osmolyte uptake respectively. Especially, taurine suppressed UVB-induced IL-6 mRNA expression significantly. The accumulation of IL-6 in UVB-exposed human retinal pigment epithelial cells supernatant was much slower when the cells were preincubated with taurine. Moreover, taurine suppressed IL-6 concentration in aqueous humour. The effect of compatible osmolyte taurine on IL-6 expression and release may play an important role in cell resistance and adaption to UVB exposure.

  6. PLA2 - a major regulator of volume-sensitive taurine release in NIH3T3 fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, I. H.

    2006-01-01

    Release of the organic osmolyte taurine efflux from NIH3T3 cells is increased by osmotic cell swelling in hypotonic medium and decreased by osmotic cell shrinkage in hypertonic medium. Release of arachidonic acid is increased under hypotonic conditions if oxidation of the fatty acid via the 5...... and taurine in NIH3T3 cells under isotonic conditions. The potentiating effect of melittin on arachidonic release and taurine efflux is substantially increased in osmotically swollen cells and almost abolished in osmotic shrunken cells. H2O2 potentiates the melittin-induced taurine efflux under isotonic...... conditions but has only a minor effect on the melittin-induced taurine efflux under hypertonic conditions. Bromoenol lactone and manoalide, known inhibitors of Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) and secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), respectively, reduce arachidonic acid and taurine release from NIH3...

  7. Effect of maternal high dosages of folic acid supplements on neurocognitive development in children at 4-5 y of age: the prospective birth cohort Infancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera-Gran, Desirée; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva M; Garcia de la Hera, Manuela; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Tardón, Adonina; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Balluerka, Nekane; Murcia, Mario; González-Safont, Llúcia; Romaguera, Dora; Julvez, Jordi; Vioque, Jesús

    2017-09-01

    Background: The benefits of the use of folic acid supplements (FASs) during the periconception period to prevent neural tube defects and to ensure normal brain development in offspring are well known. There is concern, however, about the long-term effects of the maternal use of high dosages of FASs that exceed the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) (≥1000 μg/d) on child neurocognitive outcomes.Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the association between the use of high dosages of FASs during pregnancy and child neuropsychological development at ages 4-5 y.Design: The multicenter prospective mother-child cohort study, the Infancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project, was conducted in 4 regions of Spain: Asturias, Sabadell, Gipuzkoa, and Valencia. Pregnant women were recruited between 2003 and 2008. Data on 1682 mother-child pairs were included in the final analyses. The pregnant women completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire that was validated to estimate typical dietary folate intake and the use of FASs at 10-13 and 28-32 wk of gestation. Neuropsychological development scores at 4-5 y of age were estimated with the use of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities. Multiple linear regression and meta-analysis were used to obtain combined-effect estimates.Results: During the periconception period, one-third of the women (n = 502) took FAS dosages ≥1000 μg/d. The use of FAS dosages ≥1000 μg/d in this period was negatively associated with several neuropsychological outcomes scores in children: global verbal (β = -2.49; 95% CI: -4.71, -0.27), verbal memory (β = -3.59; 95% CI: -6.95, -0.23), cognitive function of posterior cortex (β = -2.31; 95% CI: -4.45, -0.18), and cognitive function of left posterior cortex (β = -3.26; 95% CI: -5.51, -1.01).Conclusions: The use of FAS dosages exceeding the UL (≥1000 μg/d) during the periconception period was associated with lower levels of cognitive development in children aged 4-5 y. The use

  8. Comparison of taurine, GABA, Glu, and Asp as scavengers of malondialdehyde in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Wang, Wei; Yu, Pingfeng; Xi, Zhijiang; Xu, Lijian; Li, Xiaolong; He, Nongyue

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if amino acid neurotransmitters such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), taurine, glutamate (Glu), and aspartate (Asp) can scavenge activated carbonyl toxicants. In vitro, direct reaction between malondialdehyde (MDA) and amino acids was researched using different analytical methods. The results indicated that scavenging activated carbonyl function of taurine and GABA is very strong and that of Glu and Asp is very weak in pathophysiological situations. The results provided perspective into the reaction mechanism of taurine and GABA as targets of activated carbonyl such as MDA in protecting nerve terminals. In vivo, we studied the effect of taurine and GABA as antioxidants by detecting MDA concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. It was shown that MDA concentration was decreased significantly, and the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were increased significantly in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of acute epileptic state rats, after the administration of taurine and GABA. The results indicated that the peripherally administered taurine and GABA can scavenge free radicals and protect the tissue against activated carbonyl in vivo and in vitro.

  9. Impact of taurine depletion on glucose control and insulin secretion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Natsumi; Ito, Hiromi; Schaffer, Stephen W

    2015-09-01

    Taurine, an endogenous sulfur-containing amino acid, is found in millimolar concentrations in mammalian tissue, and its tissue content is altered by diet, disease and aging. The effectiveness of taurine administration against obesity and its related diseases, including type 2 diabetes, has been well documented. However, the impact of taurine depletion on glucose metabolism and fat deposition has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of taurine depletion (in the taurine transporter (TauT) knockout mouse model) on blood glucose control and high fat diet-induced obesity. TauT-knockout (TauTKO) mice exhibited lower body weight and abdominal fat mass when maintained on normal chow than wild-type (WT) mice. Blood glucose disposal after an intraperitoneal glucose injection was faster in TauTKO mice than in WT mice despite lower serum insulin levels. Islet beta-cells (insulin positive area) were also decreased in TauTKO mice compared to WT mice. Meanwhile, overnutrition by high fat (60% fat)-diet could lead to obesity in TauTKO mice despite lower body weight under normal chow diet condition, indicating nutrition in normal diet is not enough for TauTKO mice to maintain body weight comparable to WT mice. In conclusion, taurine depletion causes enhanced glucose disposal despite lowering insulin levels and lower body weight, implying deterioration in tissue energy metabolism. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Physiological concentrations of zinc reduce taurine-activated GlyR responses to drugs of abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirson, Dean; Cornelison, Garrett L.; Philpo, Ashley E.; Todorovic, Jelena; Mihic, S. John

    2013-01-01

    Taurine is an endogenous ligand acting on glycine receptors in many brain regions, including the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens (nAcc). These areas also contain low concentrations of zinc, which is known to potentiate glycine receptor responses. Despite an increasing awareness of the role of the glycine receptor in the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse, the possible interactions of these compounds with zinc has not been thoroughly addressed. Two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiological experiments were performed on α1, α2 α1β and a2β glycine receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The effects of zinc alone, and zinc in combination with other positive modulators on the glycine receptor, were investigated when activated by the full agonist glycine versus the partial agonist taurine. Low concentrations of zinc enhanced responses of maximally-effective concentrations of taurine but not glycine. Likewise, chelation of zinc from buffers decreased responses of taurine- but not glycine-mediated currents. Potentiating concentrations of zinc decreased ethanol, isoflurane, and toluene enhancement of maximal taurine currents with no effects on maximal glycine currents. Our findings suggest that the concurrence of high concentrations of taurine and low concentrations of zinc attenuate the effects of additional modulators on the glycine receptor, and that these conditions are more representative of in vivo functioning than effects seen when these modulators are applied in isolation. PMID:23973295

  11. The effect of taurine and enriched environment on behaviour, memory and hippocampus of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmeier, Francine Luciano; Zavalhia, Lisiane Silveira; Tortorelli, Lucas Silva; Huf, Fernanda; Géa, Luiza Paul; Meurer, Rosalva Thereza; Machado, Aryadne Cardoso; Gomez, Rosane; Fernandes, Marilda da Cruz

    2016-09-06

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been studied recently as a major cause of cognitive deficits, memory and neurodegenerative damage. Taurine and enriched environment have stood out for presenting neuroprotective and stimulating effects that deserve further study. In this paper, we examined the effects of taurine and enriched environment in the context of diabetes, evaluating effects on behaviour, memory, death and cellular activity. Eighty-eight Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups (E=enriched environment; C=standard housing). Some animals (24/group) underwent induction of diabetes, and within each group, some animals (half of diabetics (D) and half of non-diabetics (ND)/group) were treated for 30days with taurine (T). Untreated animals received saline (S). In total, there were eight subgroups: DTC, DSC, NDTC, NDSC, DTE, DSE, NDTE and NDSE. During the experiment, short-term memory was evaluated. After 30th day of experiment, the animals were euthanized and was made removal of brains used to immunohistochemistry procedures for GFAP and cleaved caspase-3. As a result, we observed that animals treated with taurine showed better performance in behavioural and memory tasks, and the enriched environment had positive effects, especially in non-diabetic animals. Furthermore, taurine and enriched environment seemed to be able to interfere with neuronal apoptosis and loss of glial cells, and in some instances, these two factors seemed to have synergistic effects. From these data, taurine and enriched environment may have important neurostimulant and neuroprotective effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physiological concentrations of zinc reduce taurine-activated GlyR responses to drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirson, Dean; Cornelison, Garrett L; Philpo, Ashley E; Todorovic, Jelena; Mihic, S John

    2013-12-01

    Taurine is an endogenous ligand acting on glycine receptors in many brain regions, including the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens (nAcc). These areas also contain low concentrations of zinc, which is known to potentiate glycine receptor responses. Despite an increasing awareness of the role of the glycine receptor in the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse, the possible interactions of these compounds with zinc has not been thoroughly addressed. Two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiological experiments were performed on α1, α2 α1β and α2β glycine receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The effects of zinc alone, and zinc in combination with other positive modulators on the glycine receptor, were investigated when activated by the full agonist glycine versus the partial agonist taurine. Low concentrations of zinc enhanced responses of maximally-effective concentrations of taurine but not glycine. Likewise, chelation of zinc from buffers decreased responses of taurine- but not glycine-mediated currents. Potentiating concentrations of zinc decreased ethanol, isoflurane, and toluene enhancement of maximal taurine currents with no effects on maximal glycine currents. Our findings suggest that the concurrence of high concentrations of taurine and low concentrations of zinc attenuate the effects of additional modulators on the glycine receptor, and that these conditions are more representative of in vivo functioning than effects seen when these modulators are applied in isolation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Taurine transport in human placental trophoblast is important for regulation of cell differentiation and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desforges, M; Parsons, L; Westwood, M; Sibley, C P; Greenwood, S L

    2013-03-21

    The outer epithelial cell layer of human placenta, the syncytiotrophoblast, is a specialised terminally differentiated multinucleate tissue. It is generated and renewed from underlying cytotrophoblast cells that undergo proliferation, differentiation and fusion with syncytiotrophoblast. Acquisition of fresh cellular components is thought to be balanced by apoptosis and shedding of aged nuclei. This process of trophoblast cell turnover maintains a functional syncytiotrophoblast, capable of sufficient nutrient transfer from mother to foetus. Foetal growth restriction (FGR) is a pregnancy complication associated with aberrant trophoblast turnover and reduced activity of certain amino acid transporters, including the taurine transporter (TauT). Taurine is the most abundant amino acid in human placenta implying an important physiological role within this tissue. Unlike other amino acids, taurine is not incorporated into proteins and in non-placental cell types represents an important osmolyte involved in cell volume regulation, and is also cytoprotective. Here, we investigated the role of taurine in trophoblast turnover using RNA interference to deplete primary human trophoblast cells of TauT and reduce intracellular taurine content. Trophoblast differentiation was compromised in TauT-deficient cells, and susceptibility of these cells to an inflammatory cytokine that is elevated in FGR was increased, evidenced by elevated levels of apoptosis. These data suggest an important role for taurine in trophoblast turnover and cytoprotection.

  14. Investigating the in vitro effect of taurine on the infant lymphocytes by sister chromatid exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Mehmet Ali; Soysal, Yasemin; Kismet, Erol; Akay, Cemal; Dundaroz, Rusen; Ilhan, Mustafan; Imirzalioglu, Necat

    2006-06-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethane sulphonic acid) is normally present in most mammalian tissues and the most abundant free amino acid in lymphocytes. It participates in various important physiological activities including modulation of the functioning of the central nervous system, cell proliferation, viability and prevention of oxidant-induced injury in many tissues. Its levels in human milk are very high which may be the most important difference from cow's milk. In contrast, an inverse association between breast-feeding and carcinogenesis in childhood or later in life has been suggested by several studies. The study group consisted of eight healthy infants. Peripheral blood was collected and lymphocytes were cultured with either Taurine or Mitomycin C (MMC). Sister chromatid exchange in lymphocytes of the infants were calculated. Statistical differences were found between untreated and MMC-treated lymphocytes, untreated and MMC plus taurine-treated lymphocytes, and between MMC and MMC plus taurine-treated lymphocytes (P = 0.012). The results indicated that taurine plays a protective role in MMC-induced sister chromatid exchange in human lymphocytes. The authors suggest that the high levels of taurine found in human milk may induce protecting effects from breast-feeding against DNA damage and malignancy.

  15. The role of NADPH oxidase in taurine attenuation of Streptococcus uberis-induced mastitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jinfeng; Zhang, Jinqiu; Ma, Zili; Zheng, Liuhai

    2013-08-01

    In order to evaluate the role of taurine on the oxidative stress mediated by NADPH oxidase in Streptococcus uberis-induced (S. uberis) mastitis, rats were administered daily (per os) 100mg/kg of taurine (group TS) or an equal volume of physiological saline (group CS) from gestation day 14 until parturition. Seventy-two hours after parturition, approximately 100cfu of S. uberis was infused into each of 2 mammary glands. Pretreatment with taurine significantly decreased mRNA and protein expression of p47phox and p22phox in mammary tissues. The total anti-oxidation capability (T-AOC) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities decreased, while malondialdehyde (MDA) levels increased both in mammary tissues and serum of rats with intramammary S. uberis infusion. Gavage administration of taurine moderated this change. Concentrations of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 in mammary glands decreased as a result of taurine administration. Significant differences (Ptaurine has the ability of regulating redox conditions which leads to the suppression of oxidative stress and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. This phenomenon may be ascribed to taurines's ability to inhibit the expression of NADPH oxidase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Taurine reduces the secretion of apolipoprotein B100 and lipids in HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagao Koji

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher concentrations of serum lipids and apolipoprotein B100 (apoB are major individual risk factors of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Therefore ameliorative effects of food components against the diseases are being paid attention in the affluent countries. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of taurine on apoB secretion and lipid metabolism in human liver model HepG2 cells. Results The results demonstrated that an addition of taurine to the culture media reduces triacylglycerol (TG-mass in the cells and the medium. Similarly, cellular cholesterol-mass was decreased. Taurine inhibited the incorporation of [14C] oleate into cellular and medium TG, suggesting the inhibition of TG synthesis. In addition, taurine reduced the synthesis of cellular cholesterol ester and its secretion, suggesting the inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase activity. Furthermore, taurine reduced the secretion of apoB, which is a major protein component of very low-density lipoprotein. Conclusion This is a first report to demonstrate that taurine inhibits the secretion of apoB from HepG2 cells.

  17. Pegylated interferon-alpha plus taurine in treatment of rat liver fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ilker Tasci; Cihan Yurdaydin; Hakan Bozkaya; Ozden Uzunalimoglu; Ahmet Turan Isik; Harun M Said; Mehmet Refik Mas; Sevil Atalay Vural; Salih Deveci; Bilgin Comert; Gunay Alcigir; Nuket Mas; Cemal Akay; Mithat Bozdayi

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the antifibrotic effects of peginterferonalpha 2b and taurine on oxidative stress markers and hepatocellular apoptosis.METHODS: Sixty rats with CCl4-induced liver fibrosis were divided into 4 groups (n=15). Group 1 was left for spontaneous recovery (SR). Groups 2-4 received peginterferon-alpha 2b, taurine, and their combination,respectively, for four weeks. Histological fibrosis scores,histomorphometric analysis, tissue hydroxyproline, tissue MDA, GPx and SOD activities were determined. Activated stellate cells and hepatocellular apoptosis were also evaluated.RESULTS: The degree of fibrosis decreased in all treatment groups compared to spontaneous recovery group. Taurine alone and in combination with peginterferon-alpha 2b reduced oxidative stress markers,but peginterferon-alpha 2b alone did not. Apoptotic hepatocytes and activated stellate cells were higher in groups 2-4 than in group 1. Combined taurine and peginterferon-alpha 2b further reduced fibrosis and increased activated stellate cell apoptosis, but could not improve oxidative stress more than taurine alone.CONCLUSION: Peginterferon-alpha 2b exerts antifibrotic effects on rat liver fibrosis. It seems ineffective against oxidative stress in vivo. Peginterferon-alpha 2b in combination with taurine seems to be an antifibrotic strategy.

  18. Protection of the ischemic myocardium by propionylcarnitine taurine amide. Comparison with other carnitine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regitz, V; Paulson, D J; Noonan, J; Fleck, E; Shug, A L

    1987-01-01

    The cardioprotective effect of the two synthetic carnitine derivatives, propionylcarnitine taurine amide (PCTA) and butyrylcarnitine taurine amide (BCTA), were studied in isolated perfused rat hearts. The protective effects of PCTA and BCTA were compared with those of chemically similar compounds, which have already been investigated in part and reported on; i.e. propionylcarnitine, carnitine, taurine and the combination of propionylcarnitine and taurine. The addition of either PCTA or BCTA significantly improved the recovery of cardiac function of ischemic reperfused hearts. PCTA (0.5 mM) treated hearts regained 75%, 91% and 89% of their preischemic values for cardiac output, left ventricular pressure and dp/dt after 90 min ischemia and 15 min reperfusion. These parameters of cardiac function remained impaired in control hearts which recovered only 38% of the initial preischemic cardiac output, 73% of initial intraventricular developed pressure and 64% of initial positive dp/dt. The cardioprotective effects of PCTA, BCTA and propionylcarnitine were in the same range. However, PCTA and BCTA acted in 20-fold lower molar concentrations compared to propionylcarnitine. Carnitine (11 mM), taurine (11 mM) as well as the combination of propionylcarnitine and taurine at low concentrations had no cardioprotective effect in these experiments. Myocardial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and creatine phosphate (CP) concentrations were significantly higher in the PCTA or BCTA treated hearts than in controls, and lactate levels were reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Quantification of taurine in energy drinks using ¹H NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Monika; Felbinger, Christine; Christoph, Norbert; Wachter, Helmut; Wiest, Johannes; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2014-05-01

    The consumption of so called energy drinks is increasing, especially among adolescents. These beverages commonly contain considerable amounts of the amino sulfonic acid taurine, which is related to a magnitude of various physiological effects. The customary method to control the legal limit of taurine in energy drinks is LC-UV/vis with postcolumn derivatization using ninhydrin. In this paper we describe the quantification of taurine in energy drinks by (1)H NMR as an alternative to existing methods of quantification. Variation of pH values revealed the separation of a distinct taurine signal in (1)H NMR spectra, which was applied for integration and quantification. Quantification was performed using external calibration (R(2)>0.9999; linearity verified by Mandel's fitting test with a 95% confidence level) and PULCON. Taurine concentrations in 20 different energy drinks were analyzed by both using (1)H NMR and LC-UV/vis. The deviation between (1)H NMR and LC-UV/vis results was always below the expanded measurement uncertainty of 12.2% for the LC-UV/vis method (95% confidence level) and at worst 10.4%. Due to the high accordance to LC-UV/vis data and adequate recovery rates (ranging between 97.1% and 108.2%), (1)H NMR measurement presents a suitable method to quantify taurine in energy drinks.

  20. Energy drink ingredients. Contribution of caffeine and taurine to performance outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Amy; Martin, Frances Heritage; Carr, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    While the performance-enhancing effects of energy drinks are commonly attributed to caffeine, recent research has shown greater facilitation of performance post-consumption than typically expected from caffeine content alone. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to investigate the independent and combined effect of taurine and caffeine on behavioural performance, specifically reaction time. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, within-subjects design, female undergraduates (N=19) completed a visual oddball task and a stimulus degradation task 45min post-ingestion of capsules containing: (i) 80mg caffeine, (ii) 1000mg taurine, (iii) caffeine and taurine combined, and (iv) matched placebo. Participants completed each treatment condition, with sessions separated by a minimum 2-day washout period. Whereas no significant treatment effects were recorded for reaction time in the visual oddball task, facilitative caffeine effects were evident in the stimulus degradation task, with significantly faster reaction time in active relative to placebo caffeine conditions. Furthermore, there was a trend towards faster mean reaction time in the caffeine condition relative to the taurine condition and combined caffeine and taurine condition. Thus, treatment effects were task-dependent, in that independent caffeine administration exerted a positive effect on performance, and co-administration with taurine tended to attenuate the facilitative effects of caffeine in the stimulus degradation task only. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chitosan film enriched with an antioxidant agent, taurine, in fenestration defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmeriç, N; Ozcan, G; Haytaç, C M; Alaaddinoğlu, E E; Sargon, M F; Senel, S

    2000-09-05

    A natural polysaccharide, chitosan (poly-N-acetyl glucosaminoglycan), which is a nontoxic and bioabsorbable polymer, has been shown to have hemostatic and antibacterial effects. An amino acid, taurine, is considered to be beneficial for regulating the inflammation process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the synergistic effects of taurine and chitosan in the experimental defects at the vestibular bone of maxillary canine teeth in six dogs. Chitosan films were prepared as delivery system with or without taurine and placed in the randomly chosen defects. Biopsies were performed on the postoperative seventh day and routine histological procedures were performed for light and electron microscopic evaluations. For each group, 30 different microscopic areas were examined and the numbers of macrophages and neutrophils in these areas were counted. The mean numbers of both macrophages and neutrophils were found statistically different between the chitosan film incorporated with taurine and free chitosan groups (p 0.05). In addition to the increase in cell counts in both groups, the cytological alterations were more obvious in the chitosan film group incorporated with taurine. Accordingly, taurine appears to enhance the acceleration effect of chitosan on wound healing at early periods. This effect could be considered beneficial in tissue repair in destructive diseases like periodontitis.

  2. Exogenous taurine attenuates mitochondrial oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress in rat cardiomyocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yujie Yang; Yue Zhang; Xiaoyu Liu; Ji Zuo; Keqiang Wang; Wen Liu; Junbo Ge

    2013-01-01

    Taurine,a conditionally essential amino acid,plays a critical role in cardiovascular function.Here we examined the effect of taurine on mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum in rat cardiomyocytes during glucose deprivation (GD).Data showed that cell viability,intracellular taurine contents,and taurine transporter expression were decreased during GD.In contrast,an increase in reactive oxygen species and intracellular Ca2+ contents was observed.GD also caused disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential,apoptotic cell death,and dissociation of unfolded protein response (UPR)-relative proteins in cardiomyocytes.Signal transduction analysis showed that Bcl-2 family protein balance was disturbed,caspase-12 was activated and UPR-relative protein levels were up-regulated.Moreover,pre-treatment with 80 mM exogenous taurine attenuated GD effect in cardiomyocytes.Our results suggest that taurine have beneficial effects on inhibiting mitochondria-dependent cell apoptosis and UPR-associated cell apoptosis and might have clinical impfications on acute myocardial infarction in future.

  3. Measuring the Orientation of Taurine in the Active Site of the Non-Heme Fe (II)/α-Ketoglutarate Dependent Taurine Hydroxylase (TauD) using Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation (ESEEM) Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Thomas M.; Grzyska, Piotr K.; Hausinger, Robert P.; McCracken, John

    2013-01-01

    The position and orientation of taurine near the non-heme Fe(II) center of the α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) dependent taurine hydroxylase (TauD) was measured using Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy. TauD solutions containing Fe(II), α-KG, and natural abundance taurine or specifically deuterated taurine were prepared anaerobically and treated with nitric oxide (NO) to make an S=3/2 {FeNO}7 complex that is suitable for robust analysis with EPR spectroscopy. Using ratios of E...

  4. Dietary taurine can improve the hypoxia-tolerance but not the growth performance in juvenile grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huijun; Tian, Lixia; Huang, Junwa; Liang, Guiying; Liu, Yongjian

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary taurine, as a feed additive, on the hypoxia-tolerance and growth performance of the juvenile grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus, one of the most important and intensively cultured freshwater fish, with the largest production in China. Graded levels of taurine (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 g kg(-1) dry diet) were fed to grass carp juveniles (mean weight: 5.26 ± 0.03 g) for 8 weeks. The survival time during acute hypoxia increased as dietary levels of taurine increased, with the highest dose of taurine resulting in the best acute hypoxia-tolerance. The erythrocyte osmotic fragility in grass carp was significantly improved when dietary taurine level was at least 1.5 g kg(-1) diet and can be improved much more when dietary taurine level was up to 2.5 g kg(-1) diet. A significant correlation between hemolysis rate of the erythrocyte osmotic fragility test and the survival time of acute hypoxia (r = -0.873, P = 0.023 taurine may contribute to its role of enhancing acute hypoxia-tolerance in grass carp. Dietary taurine cannot improve growth performance of grass carp, but it can increase the value of mesenteric fat index, indicating that dietary taurine influences the lipid metabolism. This study provides valuable information to improve hypoxia-tolerance of grass carp.

  5. Downregulation of the taurine transporter TauT during hypo-osmotic stress in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Daniel Bloch; Friis, Martin Barfred; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2012-01-01

    The present work was initiated to investigate regulation of the taurine transporter TauT by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts during acute and long-term (4 h) exposure to low-sodium/hypo-osmotic stress. Taurine...... by ROS under hypo-osmotic, low-sodium conditions, whereas the TauT mRNA level is unaffected. Acute exposure to ROS reduces taurine uptake as a result of modulated TauT transport kinetics. Thus, swelling-induced ROS production could account for the reduced taurine uptake under low-sodium...

  6. Current Concepts of Maternal Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowensohn, Richard I.; Stadler, Diane D.; Naze, Christie

    2016-01-01

    Background A nutrient-rich maternal diet before and during pregnancy is associated with improved fetal health, more appropriate birth weight, and increased rates of maternal and infant survival. Physicians need a better understanding of the role of diet in shaping fetal outcomes. Given this background, we reviewed and summarized articles on maternal nutrition found in MEDLINE since 1981, written in English, and limited to human subjects. For the Offspring Maternal diets high in sugar and fat lead to an increased incidence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease later in life. Folic acid should be supplemented prior to conception and continued through at least the first 28 days of fetal life to prevent neural tube defects, and vitamin C should be given to women who smoke to lower the incidence of asthma and wheezing in the children. Iodine deficiency is increasing, and iodine should be included in prenatal supplements. If the maternal hemoglobin is 7 g/dL or more, there is no evidence that iron supplementation is needed. Fish intake during pregnancy is protective against atopic outcomes, whereas high-meat diets contribute to elevated adult blood pressure and hypersecretion of cortisol. For the Mother Calcium supplementation lowers the risk of preeclampsia and hypertensive disease in pregnancy. Conclusions Given the limits of our current knowledge, a diet rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and selected fish is desirable for the best outcomes. Diets high in sugar and fat lead to higher rates of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Folic acid, iodine, and calcium in all pregnant women and vitamin C in smokers are the only supplements so far shown to be of value for routine use. The physician treating a pregnant woman should be ready to advise a healthy diet for the benefit of the fetus. Target Audience Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians Learning Objectives After participating in this activity, the

  7. Taurine supplemented plant protein based diets with alternative lipid sources for juvenile sea bream, sparus aurata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two lipid sources were evaluated as fish oil replacements in fishmeal free, plant protein based diets for juvenile gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. A twelve week feeding study was undertaken to examine the performance of fish fed the diets with different sources of essential fatty acids (canola o...

  8. Taurine Concentrations Decrease in Critically Ill Patients With Shock Given Enteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; van Stijn, Mireille F M; Visser, Marlieke; Lemmens, Stéphanie M P; Houdijk, Alexander P J; van Leeuwen, Paul A M; Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M

    2016-02-01

    Nutrition studies in the intensive care unit (ICU) have shown that adequate enteral nutrition (EN) support has clinical benefits. However, the course of amino acid concentrations in plasma has never been investigated in patients admitted with shock receiving EN. We hypothesized that plasma concentrations, when deficit, increase during EN and that persistent deficiency is associated with poor outcome. In 33 septic or cardiogenic shock patients receiving EN, plasma amino acid concentrations were measured during 5 days. Changes in amino acid concentrations, correlations with clinical outcome variables, and regression analyses were studied. On ICU admission, several plasma concentrations were deficient. Plasma concentrations of almost all amino acids increased. In contrast, taurine decreased by >50%, from 47.6 µmol/L on admission to 20.0 µmol/L at day 1, and remained low at day 5. Taurine (admission) correlated with time on mechanical ventilation (R = -0.42, P = .015). Taurine decrease within 24 hours correlated with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II predicted mortality (R = 0.43, P = .017) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (R = 0.36, P = .05). Regression analyses confirmed correlations. Several amino acids were deficient in plasma on ICU admission but increased during EN. Taurine concentrations declined and were associated with longer periods of mechanical ventilation and ICU support. Fast taurine decline correlated with severity of organ failure. These findings support the role of taurine during ischemia, reperfusion, and inflammation. Taurine may be an essential candidate to enrich nutrition support for critically ill patients, although more research is required. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  9. Neuroprotective influence of taurine on fluoride-induced biochemical and behavioral deficits in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedara, Isaac A; Abolaji, Amos O; Idris, Umar F; Olabiyi, Bolanle F; Onibiyo, Esther M; Ojuade, TeminiJesu D; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-01-05

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated that excessive exposure to fluoride induced neurodevelopmental toxicity both in humans and animals. Taurine is a free intracellular β-amino acid with antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. The present study investigated the neuroprotective mechanism of taurine by evaluating the biochemical and behavioral characteristics in rats exposed to sodium fluoride (NaF) singly in drinking water at 15 mg/L alone or orally co-administered by gavage with taurine at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 45 consecutive days. Locomotor behavior was assessed using video-tracking software during a 10-min trial in a novel environment while the brain structures namely the hypothalamus, cerebrum and cerebellum of the rats were processed for biochemical determinations. Results showed that taurine administration prevented NaF-induced locomotor and motor deficits namely decrease in total distance travelled, total body rotation, maximum speed, absolute turn angle along with weak forelimb grip, increased incidence of fecal pellets and time of grooming, immobility and negative geotaxis. The taurine mediated enhancement of the exploratory profiles of NaF-exposed rats was supported by track and occupancy plot analyses. Moreover, taurine prevented NaF-induced increase in hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation levels but increased acetylcholinesterase and the antioxidant enzymes activities in the hypothalamus, cerebrum and cerebellum of the rats. Collectively, taurine protected against NaF-induced neurotoxicity via mechanisms involving the restoration of acetylcholinesterase activity and antioxidant status with concomitant inhibition of lipid peroxidation in the brain of rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Taurine ameliorated thyroid function in rats co-administered with chlorpyrifos and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akande, Motunrayo Ganiyat; Shittu, Muftau; Uchendu, Chidiebere; Yaqub, Lukuman Surakat

    2016-12-01

    Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organophosphate insecticide for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. Lead is a toxic heavy metal and it is used for domestic and industrial purposes. Taurine is a semi essential amino acid with bioprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of taurine on thyroid function in Wistar rats co-administered with chlorpyrifos and lead. The rats were divided into 5 groups of 10 rats each. The first two groups were administered with distilled water and soya oil (1 ml/kg) respectively. The other groups received taurine (50 mg/kg), chlorpyrifos + lead [chlorpyrifos (4.25 mg/kg, 1/20 median lethal dose] and lead (233.25 mg/kg, 1/20 median lethal dose) and taurine + chlorpyrifos + lead respectively. The treatments were administered once daily by oral gavage for 16 weeks. The rats were euthanized after the completion of the study and the thyroid function and thyroid histoarchitecture were evaluated. The results revealed that co-administration of chlorpyrifos and lead to the rats induced perturbations in thyroid function and this was manifested by reductions in the concentrations of triiodothyronine and thyroxine, increased thyroid stimulating hormone concentration and degeneration of the follicular epithelia of the thyroid gland. Taurine alleviated the perturbations in thyroid function and improved thyroid gland histoarchitecture. The beneficial effects of taurine may be attributed to its ability to protect the body from toxicity and oxidative stress. Taurine may be useful for prophylaxis against disruptions in thyroid function in animals that are exposed to environmental chlorpyrifos and lead.

  11. Properties and glial origin of osmotic-dependent release of taurine from the rat supraoptic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleuze, C; Duvoid, A; Hussy, N

    1998-03-01

    1. Taurine, prominently concentrated in glial cells in the supraoptic nucleus (SON), is probably involved in the inhibition of SON vasopressin neurones by peripheral hypotonic stimulus, via activation of neuronal glycine receptors. We report here the properties and origin of the osmolarity-dependent release of preloaded [3H]taurine from isolated whole SO nuclei. 2. Hyposmotic medium induced a rapid, reversible and dose-dependent increase in taurine release. Release showed a high sensitivity to osmotic change, with a significant enhancement with less than a 5% decrease in osmolarity. Hyperosmotic stimulus decreased basal release. 3. Evoked release was independent of extracellular Ca2+ and Na+, and was blocked by the Cl- channel blockers DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid) and DPC (N-phenylanthranilic acid), suggesting a diffusion process through volume-sensitive Cl- channels. 4. Evoked release was transient for large osmotic reductions (> or = 15%), probably reflecting regulatory volume decrease (RVD). However, it was sustained for smaller changes, suggesting that taurine release induced by physiological variations in osmolarity is not linked to RVD. 5. Basal and evoked release were strongly inhibited by an incubation of the tissue with the glia-specific toxin fluorocitrate, but were unaffected by a neurotoxic-treatment with NMDA, demonstrating the glial origin of the release of taurine in the SON. 6. The high osmosensitivity of taurine release suggests an important role in the osmoregulation of the SON function. These results strengthen the notion of an implication of taurine and glial cells in the regulation of the whole-body fluid balance through the modulation of vasopressin release.

  12. Revisiting AFLP fingerprinting for an unbiased assessment of genetic structure and differentiation of taurine and zebu cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomiya, Yuri Tani; Bomba, Lorenzo; Lucente, Giordana; Colli, Licia; Negrini, Riccardo; Lenstra, Johannes Arjen; Erhardt, Georg; Garcia, José Fernando; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo

    2014-04-17

    Descendants from the extinct aurochs (Bos primigenius), taurine (Bos taurus) and zebu cattle (Bos indicus) were domesticated 10,000 years ago in Southwestern and Southern Asia, respectively, and colonized the world undergoing complex events of admixture and selection. Molecular data, in particular genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, can complement historic and archaeological records to elucidate these past events. However, SNP ascertainment in cattle has been optimized for taurine breeds, imposing limitations to the study of diversity in zebu cattle. As amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers are discovered and genotyped as the samples are assayed, this type of marker is free of ascertainment bias. In order to obtain unbiased assessments of genetic differentiation and structure in taurine and zebu cattle, we analyzed a dataset of 135 AFLP markers in 1,593 samples from 13 zebu and 58 taurine breeds, representing nine continental areas. We found a geographical pattern of expected heterozygosity in European taurine breeds decreasing with the distance from the domestication centre, arguing against a large-scale introgression from European or African aurochs. Zebu cattle were found to be at least as diverse as taurine cattle. Western African zebu cattle were found to have diverged more from Indian zebu than South American zebu. Model-based clustering and ancestry informative markers analyses suggested that this is due to taurine introgression. Although a large part of South American zebu cattle also descend from taurine cows, we did not detect significant levels of taurine ancestry in these breeds, probably because of systematic backcrossing with zebu bulls. Furthermore, limited zebu introgression was found in Podolian taurine breeds in Italy. The assessment of cattle diversity reported here contributes an unbiased global view to genetic differentiation and structure of taurine and zebu cattle populations, which is essential for an

  13. Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury, manganese, iron, and copper in southern Taiwan: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hui Huang

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: There was a positive correlation of Hg, Fe, Cu, and Mn in paired maternal/fetal samples in this series. Our findings have raised the possibility of reducing maternal Hg and Cu by way of prenatal vitamin supplementation.

  14. Vitamin supplementation in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Ensuring that a woman is well-nourished, both before and during pregnancy, is crucial for the health of the woman and that of the unborn child.(1) Maternal deficiency in key nutrients has been linked to pre-eclampsia, restricted fetal growth, neural tube defects, skeletal deformity and low birth weight.(1,2) Many nutritional supplements containing vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients are heavily marketed to women for all stages of pregnancy. However, much of the evidence for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy comes from studies carried out in low-income countries,(3) where women are more likely to be undernourished or malnourished than within the UK population. The challenges lie in knowing which supplements are beneficial and in improving uptake among those at most need. Here we summarise current UK guidance for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy and review the evidence behind it. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Maternal Behavior and Infant Weight Gain in the First Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worobey, John; Lopez, Maria Islas; Hoffman, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relative contributions of maternal characteristics and behaviors in predicting infant weight gain over the first year of postpartum life. Design: Longitudinal study of maternal feeding style throughout infancy. Setting: A Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children center. Participants:…

  16. Neuroprotection of taurine against reactive oxygen species is associated with inhibiting NADPH oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhou; Gao, Li-Yan; Lin, Yu-Hui; Chang, Lei; Wu, Hai-Yin; Luo, Chun-Xia; Zhu, Dong-Ya

    2016-04-15

    It is well established that taurine shows potent protection against glutamate-induced injury to neurons in stroke. The neuroprotection may result from multiple mechanisms. Increasing evidences suggest that NADPH oxidases (Nox), the primary source of superoxide induced by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation, are involved in the process of oxidative stress. We found that 100μM NMDA induced oxidative stress by increasing the reactive oxygen species level, which contributed to the cell death, in vitro. Neuron cultures pretreated with 25mM taurine showed lower percentage of death cells and declined reactive oxygen species level. Moreover, taurine attenuated Nox2/Nox4 protein expression and enzyme activity and declined intracellular calcium intensity during NMDA-induced neuron injury. Additionally, taurine also showed neuroprotection against H2O2-induced injury, accompanying with Nox inhibition. So, we suppose that protection of taurine against reactive oxygen species during NMDA-induced neuron injury is associated with Nox inhibition, probably in a calcium-dependent manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Taurine on Hemodiafiltration in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohira, Shunji; Komatsu, Mizuki; Okazaki, Masayuki; Naganuma, Toshiaki; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Nitta, Kosaku; Tsuchiya, Ken

    2016-02-01

    Taurine, an important factor in the living body, is essential for cardiovascular function and development and function of skeletal muscle, retina and central nervous system. In the present study, its effect on cardiovascular function was specifically taken into consideration. In hemodiafiltration (HDF) patients, the effect of taurine on patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), in whom dry weight was difficult to control, was evaluated. All patients who were subjected to regular HDF for 4 h three times per week at Joban hospital were included in this study. Patients with chronic heart failure, in whom dry weight was difficult to control (N = 4), were included in the evaluation of clinical status. X-ray and echocardiography were determined before and after taurine treatment. Almost all patients were taking nitric acid, warfarin, anti-platelet agents and vasopressors. Because vital signs were unstable in chronic heart failure, all cases withheld antihypertensive drugs during HDF. For unstable vital signs during HDF, pulmonary congestion was chronically recognized. After taurine was started, vital signs stabilized and lowering of dry weight was possible. In addition, X-ray and cardiac diastolic failure on echocardiography improved. Taurine was effective for CHF patients on HDF in whom dry weight was difficult to control in spite of various medications. © 2015 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.